WorldWideScience

Sample records for future averted health

  1. Selection of a discount rate for use in NRC regulatory analyses and application of discount rates to future averted health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paananen, O.H.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of this report is to provide background information and recommendations on the use of discount rates in the regulatory analysis process. The report focuses on two issues selecting the appropriate discount rate or rates to use when conducting a regulatory analysis, and applying the selected discount rate to future health-related benefits estimated to result from alternative regulatory actions

  2. Averting HIV infections in New York City: a modeling approach estimating the future impact of additional behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason; Myers, Julie E; Nucifora, Kimberly A; Mensah, Nana; Kowalski, Alexis; Sweeney, Monica; Toohey, Christopher; Khademi, Amin; Shepard, Colin; Cutler, Blayne; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2013-01-01

    New York City (NYC) remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted). An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average). The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average). Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs.

  3. Averting HIV Infections in New York City: A Modeling Approach Estimating the Future Impact of Additional Behavioral and Biomedical HIV Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason; Myers, Julie E.; Nucifora, Kimberly A.; Mensah, Nana; Kowalski, Alexis; Sweeney, Monica; Toohey, Christopher; Khademi, Amin; Shepard, Colin; Cutler, Blayne; Braithwaite, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background New York City (NYC) remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. Methods A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. Results Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted). An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average). The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average). Conclusions Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs. PMID:24058465

  4. The health burden and economic costs averted by ambient PM2.5 pollution reductions in Nagpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchie, Tunde O; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Adewuyi, Gregory O; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Rao, Padma S; Etchie, Ayotunde T; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Arora, Narendra K; Smith, Kirk R

    2017-05-01

    National estimates of the health and economic burdens of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in India reveal substantial impacts. This information, often lacking at the local level, can justify and drive mitigation interventions. Here, we assess the health and economic gains resulting from attainment of WHO guidelines for PM 2.5 concentrations - including interim target 2 (IT-2), interim target 3 (IT-3), and the WHO air quality guideline (AQG) - in Nagpur district to inform policy decision making for mitigation. We conducted a detailed assessment of concentrations of PM 2.5 in 9 areas, covering urban, peri-urban and rural environments, from February 2013 to June 2014. We used a combination of hazard and survival analyses based on the life table method to calculate attributed annual number of premature deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for five health outcomes linked to PM 2.5 exposure: acute lower respiratory infection for children <5years, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke and lung cancer in adults ≥25years. We used GBD 2013 data on deaths and DALYs for these diseases. We calculated averted deaths, DALYs and economic loss resulting from planned reductions in average PM 2.5 concentration from current level to IT-2, IT-3 and AQG by the years 2023, 2033 and 2043, respectively. The economic cost for premature mortality was estimated as the product of attributed deaths and value of statistical life for India, while morbidity was assumed to be 10% of the mortality cost. The annual average PM 2.5 concentration in Nagpur district is 34±17μgm -3 and results in 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6, 4.2) thousand premature deaths and 91 (95% CI: 68, 116) thousand DALYs in 2013 with economic loss of USD 2.2 (95% CI: 1.7, 2.8) billion in that year. It is estimated that interventions that achieve IT-2, IT-3 and AQG by 2023, 2033 and 2043, would avert, respectively, 15, 30 and 36%, of the attributed

  5. Future Earth Health Knowledge-Action Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Paul; Raivio, Kari; Kasuga, Fumiko; Tewksbury, Joshua; Haines, Andy; Daszak, Peter

    Future Earth is an international research platform providing the knowledge and support to accelerate our transformations to a sustainable world. Future Earth 2025 Vision identified eight key focal challenges, and challenge #6 is to "Improve human health by elucidating, and finding responses to, the complex interactions amongst environmental change, pollution, pathogens, disease vectors, ecosystem services, and people's livelihoods, nutrition and well-being." Several studies, including the Rockefeller Foundation/Lancet Planetary Health Commission Report of 2015, the World Health Organization/Convention on Biological Diversity report and those by oneHEALTH (former ecoHEALTH), have been conducted over the last 30 years. Knowledge-Action Networks (KANs) are the frameworks to apply Future Earth principles of research to related activities that respond to societal challenges. Future Earth Health Knowledge-Action Network will connect health researchers with other natural and social scientists, health and environmental policy professionals and leaders in government, the private sector and civil society to provide research-based solutions based on better, integrated understanding of the complex interactions between a changing global environment and human health. It will build regional capacity to enhance resilience, protect the environment and avert serious threats to health and will also contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goals. In addition to the initial partners, Future Earth Health Knowledge-Action Network will further nourish collaboration with other on-going, leading research programmes outside Future Earth, by encouraging them in active participation.

  6. Crisis averted: How consumers experienced a police and clinical early response (PACER) unit responding to a mental health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Eloisa; Lee, Stuart; Gallagher, Angela; Peterson, Violeta; James, Jo; Warren, Narelle; Henderson, Kathryn; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Cornelius, Luke; Deveny, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    When mental health crisis situations in the community are poorly handled, it can result in physical and emotional injuries. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the experiences and opinions of consumers about the way police and mental health services worked together, specifically via the Alfred Police and Clinical Early Response (A-PACER) model, to assist people experiencing a mental health crisis. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 mental health consumers who had direct contact with the A-PACER team between June 2013 and March 2015. The study highlighted that people who encountered the A-PACER team generally valued and saw the benefit of a joint police-mental health clinician team response to a mental health crisis situation in the community. In understanding what worked well in how the A-PACER team operated, consumers perspectives can be summarized into five themes: communication and de-escalation, persistence of the A-PACER team, providing a quick response and working well under pressure, handover of information, and A-PACER helped consumers achieve a preferred outcome. All consumers acknowledged the complementary roles of the police officer and mental health clinician, and described the A-PACER team's supportive approach as critical in gaining their trust, engagement and in de-escalating the crises. Further education and training for police officers on how to respond to people with a mental illness, increased provision of follow-up support to promote rehabilitation and prevent future crises, and measures to reduce public scrutiny for the consumer when police responded, were proposed opportunities for improvement. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Averting a pandemic health crisis in Europe by 2020: what physicians need to know regarding cholesterol management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Alberico L; Pedersen, Terje R; de Backer, Guy

    2007-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a major cause of premature death, disability, and escalating healthcare costs throughout Europe. According to a recent report by the Stockholm Network (an independent European 'think tank'), major political, economic, social, and medical changes are urgently needed with respect to cholesterol management to help prevent CVD. To identify key cholesterol management issues that practitioners should consider to help prevent an impending European health crisis, our collective experience of policies and practices relating to CVD and cholesterol management in our respective countries was consolidated and used to develop this commentary. Physicians and healthcare workers are uniquely positioned to make immediate and meaningful improvements in preventing and treating CVD if they recognize and address a handful of key clinical issues pertaining to cholesterol management. These issues include utilizing newer combination therapies and realizing the limitations of statins, improving compliance with cholesterol-lowering therapies, promoting a healthy lifestyle and diet, making treatment decisions based on patients' total CVD risk, fostering communication between primary and secondary providers, and soliciting governmental funding to implement disease management programmes. By promptly and effectively addressing these cholesterol management issues, physicians and other healthcare professionals have an unprecedented opportunity to help reduce CVD in Europe to lessen the personal, social, and economic impact of this devastating disease.

  8. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting.

  9. The monetary value of the averted dose for public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Eged, K.; Kanyar, B.; Kis, Z.; Nenvei, A.

    2002-01-01

    In general, the concept of optimisation in radiation protection and safety appears as cost-minimisation in new procedures, methods in practices, and/or protective actions following unacceptable contamination. In the practical implementation of the concept, the cost of protective actions should be balanced with the benefits of exposure reduction. The monetary value of the averted dose can be assessed by the product of the cost of unit avoided collective dose (alpha-value) and the averted collective dose (ICRP 1991, 1993). According to the ICRP and others, the monetary value of the averted dose - in addition to the avoided health detriment - needs to take into account economical and social circumstances, ethical factors etc. (ICRP 1993, 2000; IBSS 1995; Oughton 2000). Most of the alpha-value assessments have been performed for workers (Hardeman et al. 1998; Lefaure 1998). Due to the different dose limitations and action levels for public exposures the monetary value of the averted dose may vary whether the averted dose refers to workers or to the public. Until now, only a few investigations have been performed to the public exposures. Eeckhoudt et al. (1999) proposed a method based on compensation dependency and on comparisons between the workers and the general public. The present paper includes the results obtained by the WTP method for the public. The questionnaire and analysis were developed by the CEPN (Centre d'Etude sur L'Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, France) for specialists in the nuclear field (Leblanc et al. 1994). In 2000, questionnaire modifications were first introduced to adjust the Hungarian factors (Eged et al. 2001, 2002). The questionnaire was further modified in 2001 to take into account the Hungarian public factors

  10. Avertable Deaths Associated With Household Income in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Resa M.; Johnson, Robert E.; Phillips, Robert L.; Oliver, M. Norman; Bazemore, Andrew; Vichare, Anushree

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated how many deaths would be averted if the entire population of Virginia experienced the mortality rates of the 5 most affluent counties or cities. Methods. Using census data and vital statistics for the years 1990 through 2006, we applied the mortality rates of the 5 counties/cities with the highest median household income to the populations of all counties and cities in the state. Results. If the mortality rates of the reference population had applied to the entire state, 24.3% of deaths in Virginia from 1990 through 2006 (range = 21.8%–28.1%) would not have occurred. An annual mean of 12 954 deaths would have been averted (range = 10 548–14 569), totaling 220 211 deaths from 1990 through 2006. In some of the most disadvantaged areas of the state, nearly half of deaths would have been averted. Conclusions. Favorable conditions that exist in areas with high household incomes exert a major influence on mortality rates. The corollary—that health suffers when society is exposed to economic stresses—is especially timely amid the current recession. Further research must clarify the extent to which individual-level factors (e.g., earnings, education, race, health insurance) and community characteristics can improve health outcomes. PMID:20167893

  11. Future health: coping with change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, A; Nayan, Noor Fadhilah Mat

    2002-01-01

    WHO's Declaration of the "Health for All" (HFA) goal was pronounced in 1978 in Alma Ata, and it was planned that HFA would be achieved through primary health care programmes and approaches by 2000. However, it is now 2002 and despite the technological advancements in medicine, science, and ICT, Health for All is far from reality. Instead, more and more conflicts are emerging with lethal consequences, such as, bioterrorism, biological agent abuse, global-terrorism, and environmental destruction is occurring at a greater scale that we have witnessed before. We may have the latest technology and knowledge today, but ironically, we are using them to inflict more suffering and pain in the world. In the Asia-Pacific, the past 30 years has seen dramatic advancement and lifestyle changes. We are now paying a high price for such progress in terms of risk factors to the health of the population, such as, ageing diseases, obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and related conditions. The social, political, economic and environmental factors appeared to have deterred and negated WHO's HFA goal to attain basic human rights and health care for all. The HFA will not be achieved in the future if we do not learn from history and start taking measures now.

  12. Where is the future in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hilary

    2010-06-01

    Today's societies have far-reaching impacts on future conditions for health. Against this backdrop, this article explores how the future is represented in contemporary public health, examining both its conceptual base and influential approaches through which evidence is generated for policy. Mission statements and official reviews provide insight into how the future is represented in public health's conceptual and ethical foundations. For its research practices, the article takes examples from epidemiological, intervention, and economic research, selecting risk-factor epidemiology, randomized controlled trials, and economic evaluation as exemplars. Concepts and ethics suggest that public health research and policy will be concerned with protecting both today's and tomorrow's populations from conditions that threaten their health. But rather than facilitating sustained engagement with future conditions and future health, exemplary approaches to gathering evidence focus on today's population. Thus, risk-factor epidemiology pinpoints risks in temporal proximity to the individual; controlled trials track short-term effects of interventions on the participants' health; and economic evaluations weigh policies according to their value to the current population. While their orientation to the present and near future aligns well with the compressed timescales for policy delivery on which democratic governments tend to work, it makes it difficult for the public health community to direct attention to conditions for future health. This article points to the need for research perspectives and practices that, consistent with public health's conceptual and ethical foundations, represent the interests of both tomorrow's and today's populations.

  13. Federal health web sites: current & future roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Carol

    2002-09-01

    An examination of the current and possible future roles of federal health Web sites, this paper provides an overview of site categories, functions, target audiences, marketing approaches, knowledge management, and evaluation strategies. It concludes with a look at future opportunities and challenges for the federal government in providing health information online.

  14. Futurism, Aging, and Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdman, Geral Dene M.

    1979-01-01

    This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)

  15. The Future of Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Steven; Madigan, Elizabeth; Leff, Bruce; Rosati, Robert J.; McCann, Barbara A.; Hornbake, Rodney; MacMillan, Richard; Jones, Kate; Bowles, Kathryn; Dowding, Dawn; Lee, Teresa; Moorhead, Tracey; Rodriguez, Sally; Breese, Erica

    2016-01-01

    The Future of Home Health project sought to support transformation of home health and home-based care to meet the needs of patients in the evolving U.S. health care system. Interviews with key thought leaders and stakeholders resulted in key themes about the future of home health care. By synthesizing this qualitative research, a literature review, case studies, and the themes from a 2014 Institute of Medicine and National Research Council workshop on “The Future of Home Health Care,” the authors articulate a vision for home-based care and recommend a bold framework for the Medicare-certified home health agency of the future. The authors also identify challenges and recommendations for achievement of this framework. PMID:27746670

  16. Future directions in population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, T

    1999-01-01

    The long-term health of the population will be influenced by a number of major forces in the next century. In this brief review, particular emphasis is placed on environmental and economic forces. Major global environmental changes include climate change and global warming, resource depletion, ecotoxicity and reduced biodiversity. We do not yet know the impact on longevity of lifetime exposure to a mix of persistent toxic chemicals in our environment, since it has only been widespread in the past 40-50 years. The health impacts of global warming are only just beginning to be understood and could be profound. But perhaps the most profound threat to population health is economic growth, to the extent that it undermines environmental and social sustainability. We need a new form of capitalism, one that simultaneously increases environmental, social, economic and human capital, if population health is to be maintained in the 21st century.

  17. Future Health Applications of Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M.; Bowen, Deborah; Brody, Lawrence C.; Condit, Celeste M.; Croyle, Robert T.; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J.; Koehly, Laura M.; Korf, Bruce R.; Marteau, Theresa M.; McLeroy, Kenneth; Patrick, Kevin; Valente, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the quickening momentum of genomic discovery, the communication, behavioral, and social sciences research needed for translating this discovery into public health applications has lagged behind. The National Human Genome Research Institute held a 2-day workshop in October 2008 convening an interdisciplinary group of scientists to recommend forward-looking priorities for translational research. This research agenda would be designed to redress the top three risk factors (tobacco use, poor diet, and physical inactivity) that contribute to the four major chronic diseases (heart disease, type 2 diabetes, lung disease, and many cancers) and account for half of all deaths worldwide. Three priority research areas were identified: (1) improving the public’s genetic literacy in order to enhance consumer skills; (2) gauging whether genomic information improves risk communication and adoption of healthier behaviors more than current approaches; and (3) exploring whether genomic discovery in concert with emerging technologies can elucidate new behavioral intervention targets. Important crosscutting themes also were identified, including the need to: (1) anticipate directions of genomic discovery; (2) take an agnostic scientific perspective in framing research questions asking whether genomic discovery adds value to other health promotion efforts; and (3) consider multiple levels of influence and systems that contribute to important public health problems. The priorities and themes offer a framework for a variety of stakeholders, including those who develop priorities for research funding, interdisciplinary teams engaged in genomics research, and policymakers grappling with how to use the products born of genomics research to address public health challenges. PMID:20409503

  18. A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account.

  19. The Equity Impact Vaccines May Have On Averting Deaths And Medical Impoverishment In Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Y; Riumallo-Herl, Carlos; Perales, Nicole A; Clark, Samantha; Clark, Andrew; Constenla, Dagna; Garske, Tini; Jackson, Michael L; Jean, Kévin; Jit, Mark; Jones, Edward O; Li, Xi; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Bullock, Olivia; Johnson, Hope; Brenzel, Logan; Verguet, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    With social policies increasingly directed toward enhancing equity through health programs, it is important that methods for estimating the health and economic benefits of these programs by subpopulation be developed, to assess both equity concerns and the programs' total impact. We estimated the differential health impact (measured as the number of deaths averted) and household economic impact (measured as the number of cases of medical impoverishment averted) of ten antigens and their corresponding vaccines across income quintiles for forty-one low- and middle-income countries. Our analysis indicated that benefits across these vaccines would accrue predominantly in the lowest income quintiles. Policy makers should be informed about the large health and economic distributional impact that vaccines could have, and they should view vaccination policies as potentially important channels for improving health equity. Our results provide insight into the distribution of vaccine-preventable diseases and the health benefits associated with their prevention.

  20. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  1. Adolescence: a foundation for future health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Susan M; Afifi, Rima A; Bearinger, Linda H; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Dick, Bruce; Ezeh, Alex C; Patton, George C

    2012-04-28

    Adolescence is a life phase in which the opportunities for health are great and future patterns of adult health are established. Health in adolescence is the result of interactions between prenatal and early childhood development and the specific biological and social-role changes that accompany puberty, shaped by social determinants and risk and protective factors that affect the uptake of health-related behaviours. The shape of adolescence is rapidly changing-the age of onset of puberty is decreasing and the age at which mature social roles are achieved is rising. New understandings of the diverse and dynamic effects on adolescent health include insights into the effects of puberty and brain development, together with social media. A focus on adolescence is central to the success of many public health agendas, including the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce child and maternal mortality and HIV/AIDS, and the more recent emphases on mental health, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. Greater attention to adolescence is needed within each of these public health domains if global health targets are to be met. Strategies that place the adolescent years centre stage-rather than focusing only on specific health agendas-provide important opportunities to improve health, both in adolescence and later in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Creating a Future for Occupational Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Trevor K; Baker, Marissa G; Camp, Janice E; Kaufman, Joel D; Seixas, Noah S

    2017-01-01

    Economic, social, technical, and political drivers are fundamentally changing the nature of work and work environments, with profound implications for the field of occupational health. Nevertheless, researchers and practitioners entering the field are largely being trained to assess and control exposures using approaches developed under old models of work and risks. A speaker series and symposium were organized to broadly explore current challenges and future directions for the occupational health field. Broad themes identified throughout these discussions are characterized and discussed to highlight important future directions of occupational health. Despite the relatively diverse group of presenters and topics addressed, some important cross-cutting themes emerged. Changes in work organization and the resulting insecurity and precarious employment arrangements change the nature of risk to a large fraction of the workforce. Workforce demographics are changing, and economic disparities among working groups are growing. Globalization exacerbates the 'race to the bottom' for cheap labor, poor regulatory oversight, and limited labor rights. Largely, as a result of these phenomena, the historical distinction between work and non-work exposures has become largely artificial and less useful in understanding risks and developing effective public health intervention models. Additional changes related to climate change, governmental and regulatory limitations, and inadequate surveillance systems challenge and frustrate occupational health progress, while new biomedical and information technologies expand the opportunities for understanding and intervening to improve worker health. The ideas and evidences discussed during this project suggest that occupational health training, professional practice, and research evolve towards a more holistic, public health-oriented model of worker health. This will require engagement with a wide network of stakeholders. Research and

  3. One Health: its origins and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Ronald M

    2013-01-01

    One Health is an emerging concept that aims to bring together human, animal, and environmental health. Achieving harmonized approaches for disease detection and prevention is difficult because traditional boundaries of medical and veterinary practice must be crossed. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this was not the case-then researchers like Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch and physicians like William Osler and Rudolph Virchow crossed the boundaries between animal and human health. More recently, Calvin Schwabe revived the concept of One Medicine. This was critical for the advancement of the field of epidemiology, especially as applied to zoonotic diseases. The future of One Health is at a crossroad with the need to more clearly define its boundaries and demonstrate its benefits. Interestingly, the greatest acceptance of One Health is seen in the developing world where it is having significant impacts on control of infectious diseases.

  4. My Health, My Choice, My Future Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  5. Future and potential spending on health 2015-40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Joseph L.; Campbell, Madeline; Chapin, Abigail; Eldrenkamp, Erika; Fan, Victoria Y.; Haakenstad, Annie; Kates, Jennifer; Li, Zhiyin; Matyasz, Taylor; Micah, Angela; Reynolds, Alex; Sadat, Nafis; Schneider, Matthew T.; Sorensen, Reed; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alam, Khurshid; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, A.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Awasthi, Ashish; Barac, Aleksandra; Berheto, Tezera Moshago; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Birungi, Charles; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferran; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dharmaratne, Rakhi Dandona Samath D.; Dubey, Manisha; Faro, Andé; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fischer, Florian; Anderson Fitchett, Joseph R.; Foigt, Nataliya; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Gupta, Rahul; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hay, Simon I.; Hendrie, Delia; Horino, Masako; Jürisson, Mikk; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; John, Denny; Jonas, Jost B.; Karimi, Seyed M.; Khang, Young Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kinge, Jonas M.; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kumar, G.A.; Leung, Ricky; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mohammed, Shafiu; Molla, Gedefaw; Nangia, Vinay; Olgiati, Stefano; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Patel, Tejas; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Pereira, David M.; Perelman, Julian; Polinder, Suzanne; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Savic, Miloje; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Ao, Te Braden J.; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie; Thomson, Alan J.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vargas, Veronica; Vasankari, Tommi; Violante, Francesco S.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Xu, Gelin; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Sayed Zaki, El Maysaa; Murray, Christopher J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future

  6. Knowledge is power: averting safety-compromising events in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    Surgical procedures can be unpredictable, and safety-compromising events can jeopardize patient safety. Perioperative nurses should be watchful for factors that can contribute to safety-compromising events, as well as the errors that can follow, and know how to avert them if possible. Knowledge is power and increased awareness of patient safety issues and the resources that are available to both health care practitioners and consumers can help perioperative nurses ward off patient safety problems before they occur.

  7. New dimensions for future health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nord, Romano

    2007-01-01

    The questions most insistently asked nowadays are: what "space" will health treatment have, and what should we understand by "care" or "assistance", in a future scenario characterized by a renewed dimension of the concept of health? As things stand, over 40% of the social/health expenditure borne by governments is absorbed by hospital structures. The main factors cutting into this expenditure and determining the very nature of the hospital today are directly connected to phenomena such as the growing use of techno-medicines, biotechnologies and e-health, the unstoppable increase in health service consumerism, and the effects induced by longer life expectancy. The progressive and necessary disappearance of the boundaries between the various medical/surgical specializations aimed at making treatment less fragmented, the growth of new "medical practices" connected to the introduction of gene therapies, selective chemotherapies, immunotherapy, stem cells, the most recent radiotherapy techniques, and the ever-growing weight of chronic pathologies and rehabilitation activities are all factors that make it essential to rethink not only the idea of "Hospital", but also the idea of the whole infrastructural system within which said "Hospital" is situated.

  8. [Health centers: history and future prospects.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Marie-Pierre; Acker, Dominique

    2009-03-29

    Health houses and health centers are often hailed as specifically modern forms of medical practice in mobile healthcare provision. Yet the concept of health center emerged in the seventeenth century. The founding principles of these institutions were to promote access to good-quality universal healthcare and to practice a form of healthcare that treated patients in their globality (i.e. within their social and environmental context) based on public healthcare measures. Though they constitute a response to a specific healthcare project, healthcare centers face a number of specific difficulties that pose a challenge to their durability and development. Payment per consultation is ill-adapted to the remuneration of their services, and methods of remuneration that may be applicable to independent medical practitioners do not apply in the context of health centers, which may struggle to survive without the support of territorial collectivities (i.e. regional and local authorities) or associations. Health houses face similar difficulties in terms of their structural expenses. Expectations are high for trying out new methods of remuneration. The perspective and experience of healthcare centers will likely prove to be essential in this context. Their future needs to be envisaged alongside health houses and medical hubs. The growth of precarity and the increasing difficulties affecting access to healthcare provision need to be taken into account. The choice of the specific type of structure will depend on local realities, on the political will of regional authorities and on the specific projects of healthcare professionals. Yet whatever solution is envisaged, it will not be possible without public funding.

  9. A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Studies Reporting Cost-per-DALY Averted.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Neumann

    Full Text Available Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution.We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed. To identify candidate studies, we searched PubMed for articles with titles or abstracts containing the phrases "disability-adjusted" or "DALY". Two reviewers with training in health economics independently reviewed each article selected in our abstract review, gathering information using a standardized data collection form. We summarized descriptive characteristics on study methodology: e.g., intervention type, country of study, study funder, study perspective, along with methodological and reporting practices over two time periods: 2000-2009 and 2010-2015. We analyzed the types of costs included in analyses, the study quality on a scale from 1 (low to 7 (high, and examined the correlation between diseases researched and the burden of disease in different world regions.We identified 479 cost-per-DALY averted studies published from 2000 through 2015. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa comprised the largest portion of published studies. The disease areas most commonly studied were communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders (67%, followed by non-communicable diseases (28%. A high proportion of studies evaluated primary prevention strategies (59%. Pharmaceutical interventions were commonly assessed (32% followed by immunizations (28%. Adherence to good practices for conducting and reporting cost-effectiveness analysis varied considerably. Studies mainly included

  10. A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Studies Reporting Cost-per-DALY Averted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter J; Thorat, Teja; Zhong, Yue; Anderson, Jordan; Farquhar, Megan; Salem, Mark; Sandberg, Eileen; Saret, Cayla J; Wilkinson, Colby; Cohen, Joshua T

    2016-01-01

    Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed. To identify candidate studies, we searched PubMed for articles with titles or abstracts containing the phrases "disability-adjusted" or "DALY". Two reviewers with training in health economics independently reviewed each article selected in our abstract review, gathering information using a standardized data collection form. We summarized descriptive characteristics on study methodology: e.g., intervention type, country of study, study funder, study perspective, along with methodological and reporting practices over two time periods: 2000-2009 and 2010-2015. We analyzed the types of costs included in analyses, the study quality on a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high), and examined the correlation between diseases researched and the burden of disease in different world regions. We identified 479 cost-per-DALY averted studies published from 2000 through 2015. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa comprised the largest portion of published studies. The disease areas most commonly studied were communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders (67%), followed by non-communicable diseases (28%). A high proportion of studies evaluated primary prevention strategies (59%). Pharmaceutical interventions were commonly assessed (32%) followed by immunizations (28%). Adherence to good practices for conducting and reporting cost-effectiveness analysis varied considerably. Studies mainly included formal

  11. Globalization, health, and the future Canadian metropolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrecker, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This chapter represents a preliminary effort to understand the health implications of transnsational economic integration (globalization) for population health in Canadian metropolitan areas, and to inform the development of policy responses and strategies of resistance. Special emphasis is placed on health equity as it is affected by social determinants of health. I first provide a stylized description of the rationale for concentrating on major metropolitan areas, rather than on...

  12. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  13. Mental Health Services in South Africa: Scaling up and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental Health Services in South Africa: Scaling up and future directions. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... Abstract. “No health without mental health” has become a rallying call for the World Health Organization and numerous service providers, training institutions, health researchers, and advocacy groups around the world.

  14. INTEGRATING HEALTH INTO BUILDINGS OF THE FUTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Leila; Younger, Margalit; Chandler, George; Gooch, James; Schramm, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The health and wellbeing of building occupants should be a key priority in the design, building, and operation of new and existing buildings. Buildings can be designed, renovated, and constructed to promote healthy environments and behaviors and mitigate adverse health outcomes. This paper highlights health in terms of the relationship between occupants and buildings, as well as the relationship of buildings to the community. In the context of larger systems, smart buildings and green infrastructure strategies serve to support public health goals. At the level of the individual building, interventions that promote health can also enhance indoor environmental quality and provide opportunities for physical activity. Navigating the various programs that use metrics to measure a building's health impacts reveals that there are multiple co-benefits of a "healthy building," including those related to the economy, environment, society, transportation, planning, and energy efficiency.

  15. Trends in future health financing and coverage: future health spending and universal health coverage in 188 countries, 2016-40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-17

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) requires health financing systems that provide prepaid pooled resources for key health services without placing undue financial stress on households. Understanding current and future trajectories of health financing is vital for progress towards UHC. We used historical health financing data for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015 to estimate future scenarios of health spending and pooled health spending through to 2040. We extracted historical data on gross domestic product (GDP) and health spending for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015, and projected annual GDP, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending from 2015 through to 2040 as a reference scenario. These estimates were generated using an ensemble of models that varied key demographic and socioeconomic determinants. We generated better and worse alternative future scenarios based on the global distribution of historic health spending growth rates. Last, we used stochastic frontier analysis to investigate the association between pooled health resources and UHC index, a measure of a country's UHC service coverage. Finally, we estimated future UHC performance and the number of people covered under the three future scenarios. In the reference scenario, global health spending was projected to increase from US$10 trillion (95% uncertainty interval 10 trillion to 10 trillion) in 2015 to $20 trillion (18 trillion to 22 trillion) in 2040. Per capita health spending was projected to increase fastest in upper-middle-income countries, at 4·2% (3·4-5·1) per year, followed by lower-middle-income countries (4·0%, 3·6-4·5) and low-income countries (2·2%, 1·7-2·8). Despite global growth, per capita health spending was projected to range from only $40 (24-65) to $413 (263-668) in 2040 in low-income countries, and from $140 (90-200) to $1699 (711-3423) in lower-middle-income countries. Globally, the share of health spending

  16. Future health care technology and the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    The past decades have been a time of rapid technological change in health care, but technological change will probably accelerate during the next decade or so. This will bring problems, but it will also present certain opportunities. In particular, the health care system is faced with the need to

  17. Future developments in health care performance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crema M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Crema, Chiara Verbano Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Vicenza, Italy Abstract: This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. Keywords: health care, lean management, clinical risk management, quality, health care processes

  18. The Future Is Coming: Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in this issue on headaches (especially migraines), the dangers of hepatitis, and much more. In addition to ... Act's $19.5 billion investment in health information technology can best save money, improve patient care, and ...

  19. Community health nursing vision for 2020: shaping the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Ruth; Ganann, Rebecca; Brooks, Sandy; McGugan, Jennifer; Dalla Bona, Kim; Betker, Claire; Dilworth, Katie; Parton, Laurie; Reid-Haughian, Cheryl; Slepkov, Marlene; Watson, Cori

    2011-12-01

    As health care is shifting from hospital to community, community health nurses (CHNs) are directly affected. This descriptive qualitative study sought to understand priority issues currently facing CHNs, explore development of a national vision for community health nursing, and develop recommendations to shape the future of the profession moving toward the year 2020. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted across Canada. Five key themes were identified: community health nursing in crisis now, a flawed health care system, responding to the public, vision for the future, and CHNs as solution makers. Key recommendations include developing a common definition and vision of community health nursing, collaborating on an aggressive plan to shift to a primary health care system, developing a comprehensive social marketing strategy, refocusing basic baccalaureate education, enhancing the capacity of community health researchers and knowledge in community health nursing, and establishing a community health nursing center of excellence.

  20. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges | Peeran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human ...

  1. Public health protection in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigren, S.

    2000-01-01

    The role of nuclear energy in the future will depend on how nuclear safety is developing and also on how it is perceived. Worries about insufficient safety in Eastern and Central European Countries have led to a substantial assistance programme where the EU and its member states still are the largest contributors. For those countries that have applied for EU membership, nuclear safety will be one of the crucial issues and all kind of assistance and co-operation efforts are made to facilitate the process. At the same time, public awareness of both prospects and problems with nuclear is developing quickly, also outside of the EU. And so are methods and processes to involve local institutions and the public in decision making. What this will mean for the future role of nuclear energy in summary is impossible to say. It will depend on how convincing politicians, industry and experts will be in the eyes of the public, and how that works out in the democratic process

  2. Futurism and the health care supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B; Boissoneau, R

    1993-09-01

    In countless ways, the United States is looked at as a model by much of the world. In the new corporate environment, decision making must be fast and accurate, dictating in turn that accurate information must flow faster. Information systems can absorb the side effects of change and interactive process developed to assess, define, and agree to a new set of work relationships. The strategic use of information and information systems is a mindset to which all members of the organization need to acculturate themselves. It should be set in each of the work teams, the organization, and its managers as a way of thinking, not merely a job or a task at hand. Experimenting with alternative designs and various management techniques in the 1990s may lead to a prosperity in the next century. Futurism may help us get there.

  3. FCJ-144 Healthymagination: Anticipating Health of our Future Selves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Levina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 General Electric launched an initiative called Healthymagination. Healthymagination is an apt signifier of the emerging Health 2.0 movement - a growing effort to marry Web 2.0 technology, participatory discourse, and network subjectivity to health care and management. Through tracking, reporting and sharing of our health data we are transformed into a utopian world where we obtain a mastery of one’s future self. The investment in the health of our future selves creates actionable conditions for the present selves – a participation in the moral economy of the network, where subjects are bound by a morality that necessitates sharing of one’s data with others.  The vision of a future healthy self therefore is bound with the health of the network.  Through the regime of anticipation networked utopias of Health 2.0 produce risk subjectivities, which then are engaged within an affective investment in the neoliberal market economy.

  4. Vaccines and future global health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, G J V

    2011-10-12

    Increased international support for both research into new vaccines and their deployment in developing countries has been evident over the past decade. In particular, the GAVI Alliance has had a major impact in increasing uptake of the six common infant vaccines as well as those against hepatitis B and yellow fever. It further aims to introduce pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines in the near future and several others, including those against human papillomavirus, meningococcal disease, rubella and typhoid not long after that. In addition, there is advanced research into vaccines against malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. By 2030, we may have about 20 vaccines that need to be used in the developing world. Finding the requisite funds to achieve this will pose a major problem. A second and urgent question is how to complete the job of global polio eradication. The new strategic plan calls for completion by 2013, but both pre-eradication and post-eradication challenges remain. Vaccines will eventually become available beyond the field of infectious diseases. Much interesting work is being done in both autoimmunity and cancer. Cutting across disease groupings, there are issues in methods of delivery and new adjuvant formulations.

  5. Antibiotic innovation for future public health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuretzbacher, U

    2017-10-01

    The public health threat of antibiotic resistance has gained attention at the highest political levels globally, and recommendations on how to respond are being considered for implementation. Among the recommended responses being explored for their feasibility is the introduction of economic incentives to promote research and development of new antibiotics. There is broad agreement that public investment should stimulate innovation and be linked to policies promoting sustainable and equitable access to antibiotics. Though commonly used, the term 'innovation' is not based on a common understanding. This article aims to initiate discussion on the meaning of 'innovation' in this context. Literature and expert opinion. As the definition of a novel class (novel scaffold, novel pharmacophore), a novel target (novel binding site) and a novel mode of action-the three traditional criteria for 'innovation' in this context-may be confounded by the complexities of antibacterial drug discovery, a biological and outcome-oriented definition of innovation is presented to initiate discussion. Such an expanded definition of innovation in this specific context is based on the overarching requirement that a drug not be affected by cross-resistance to existing drugs in the organisms and indications for which it is intended to be used, and that it have low potential for high-frequency, high-level single-step resistance if intended as a single drug therapy. Policy makers, public health authorities and funders could use such a comprehensive definition of innovation to prioritize where publicly funded incentives should be applied. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping the future of public health: action on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona

    2006-01-01

    We are challenged to develop a public health approach that responds to the globalized world. The present global health crisis is not primarily one of disease, but of governance: its key characteristic is a weakening of public policy and interstate mechanisms as a consequence of global restructuring. The response needs to focus on the political determinants of health, in particular on mechanisms that help ensure the global public goods that are required for a more equitable and secure development. A first step in this direction would be to take up the proposal from the recent 6th Global Conference on Health Promotion to explore the possibility of a new type of global health treaty which would help to establish the new parameters of global health governance. National public health associations should take the lead to establish health as a global public good and organize "National Global Health Summits" to discuss the possible mechanisms for the necessary political process. This means putting global health governance issues onto the agenda of other sectors such as foreign policy, as health is critical not only for poverty reduction but for human security as a whole.

  7. Epigenomic programing: a future way to health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Shenderov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is now generally accepted that the ‘central genome dogma’ (i.e. a causal chain going from DNA to RNA to proteins and downstream to biological functions should be replaced by the ‘fluid genome dogma’, that is, complex feed-forward and feed-back cycles that interconnect organism and environment by epigenomic programing – and reprograming – throughout life and at all levels, sometimes also down the generations. The epigenomic programing is the net sum of interactions derived from own metabolism and microbiota as well as external factors such as diet, pharmaceuticals, environmental compounds, and so on. It is a growing body of results indicating that many chronic metabolic and degenerative disorders and diseases – often called ‘civilization diseases’ – are initiated and/or influenced upon by non-optimal epigenomic programing, often taking place early in life. In this context, the first 1,000 days of life – from conception into early infancy – is often called the most important period of life. The following sections present some major mechanisms for epigenomic programing as well as some factors assumed to be of importance. The need for more information about own genome and metagenome, as well as a substantial lack of adequate information regarding dietary and environmental databases are also commented upon. However, the mere fact that we can influence epigenomic health programing opens up the way for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. The authors underline the importance of creating a ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomic Platform’ in order to facilitate interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics as well as in disease epidemiology, prevention and treatment.

  8. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "The Future of Nursing" explores how nurses' roles, responsibilities, and education should change significantly to meet the increased demand for care that will be created by health care reform and to advance improvements in America's increasingly complex health system. At more than 3 million in number, nurses make up the single…

  9. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Veerman (Lennert); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health

  10. special article child health: past, present and future challenges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    June 2009. Number 43, Volume 2. GHANA MEDICAL JOURNAL. 82. SPECIAL ARTICLE. CHILD HEALTH: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE CHALLENGES i. YAW ASIRIFI. Aviation Road Clinic, Aviation Road, Accra, Ghana. Former Professor and Head, Department of Child Health, University of Ghana Medical School,.

  11. The future of health/fitness/sports performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, Carl; Cortis, Cristina; Fusco, Andrea; Bok, Daniel; Boullosa, Daniel A.; Capranica, Laura; de Koning, Jos J.; Haugen, Thomas; Olivera-Silva, Iranse; Periara, Julien; Porcari, John P.; Pyne, David Bruce; Sandbakk, Oyvind

    2017-01-01

    Exercise relative to health/fitness and sports performance has displayed an evolutionary role over time. Large scale, overriding, factors are present which are likely to help us understand the likely future evolutionary path of health/fitness and sports performance. These factors include: 1) the

  12. Social networks--the future for health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Frances; Cave, Jonathan; Boardman, Felicity; Ren, Justin; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Ball, Robin; Clarke, Aileen; Cohen, Alan

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid growth of online social networking for health, health care systems are experiencing an inescapable increase in complexity. This is not necessarily a drawback; self-organising, adaptive networks could become central to future health care delivery. This paper considers whether social networks composed of patients and their social circles can compete with, or complement, professional networks in assembling health-related information of value for improving health and health care. Using the framework of analysis of a two-sided network--patients and providers--with multiple platforms for interaction, we argue that the structure and dynamics of such a network has implications for future health care. Patients are using social networking to access and contribute health information. Among those living with chronic illness and disability and engaging with social networks, there is considerable expertise in assessing, combining and exploiting information. Social networking is providing a new landscape for patients to assemble health information, relatively free from the constraints of traditional health care. However, health information from social networks currently complements traditional sources rather than substituting for them. Networking among health care provider organisations is enabling greater exploitation of health information for health care planning. The platforms of interaction are also changing. Patient-doctor encounters are now more permeable to influence from social networks and professional networks. Diffuse and temporary platforms of interaction enable discourse between patients and professionals, and include platforms controlled by patients. We argue that social networking has the potential to change patterns of health inequalities and access to health care, alter the stability of health care provision and lead to a reformulation of the role of health professionals. Further research is needed to understand how network structure combined with

  13. Using scenario planning in public health: anticipating alternative futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, Jennifer A; Howze, Elizabeth H; Greaney, Mary L

    2004-01-01

    Scenario planning is a method for anticipating possible alternative futures. Used widely in business applications, it allows planners to anticipate problems, reevaluate assumptions, and reflect on consequences of those alternative futures. In this article, scenario planning is applied to public health, specifically to illustrate the four steps in scenario planning for public health using a health department's desire to address chronic disease prevention and control. An unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are considered to be key risk factors. The scenarios are presented in table format and are for illustration purposes only. Many other plausible scenarios could be constructed. Scenario planning allows stake-holders to define a desired, shared vision of the future, but more important, they can better prepare public health professionals to be successful in a constantly changing environment.

  14. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance. PMID:24278752

  15. Corporate social responsibility and the future health care manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K

    2010-01-01

    The decisions and actions of health care managers are oftentimes heavily scrutinized by the public. Given the current economic climate, managers may feel intense pressure to produce higher results with fewer resources. This could inadvertently test their moral fortitude and their social consciousness. A study was conducted to determine what corporate social responsibility orientation and viewpoint future health care managers may hold. The results of the study indicate that future health care managers may hold patient care in high regard as opposed to profit maximization. However, the results of the study also show that future managers within the industry may continue to need rules, laws, regulations, and legal sanctions to guide their actions and behavior.

  16. HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebai, Zohair A.; Milaat, Waleed A.; Al-Zulaibani, Abdulmohsen A.

    2001-01-01

    Health services in Saudi Arabia have developed enormously over the last two decades, as evidenced by the availability of health facilities throughout all parts of the vast Kingdom. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) provides over 60% of these services while the rest are shared among other government agencies and the private sector. A series of development plans in Saudi Arabia have established the infra-structure for the expansion of curative services all over the country. Rapid development in medical education and the training of future Saudi health manpower have also taken place. Future challenges facing the Saudi health system are to be addressed in order to achieve the ambitious goals set by the most recent health development plan. These include the optimum utilization of current health resources with competent health managerial skills, the search for alternative means of financing these services, the maintenance of a balance between curative and preventive services, the expansion of training Saudi health manpower to meet the increasing demand, and the implementation of a comprehensive primary health care program. PMID:23008647

  17. Future of Christian health services – an economic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Flessa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Christian Health Services have a proud history of healing and compassion especially in developing countries, their future is affected by secular changes in the financing and provision of health care services. However, the nature of life as it is evolving in modern society promises a need for the capacity to deal with increasing dynamics, complexity and uncertainty. In these circumstances the potential capacity of Christians in their institutions and churches to provide Unconditional Reliability suggests a new opportunity. The components of Unconditional Reliability and how they affect the portfolio of Christian Health Services is explained. Effective Christian Health Services will require appropriate analysis of their portfolios.

  18. Future of Health: Findings from a survey of stakeholders on the future of health and healthcare in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jennie; d'Angelo, Camilla; Gangitano, Lorenzo; Freeman, Jon

    2018-04-01

    This article presents findings from a survey conducted by RAND Europe at the request of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) to gather and synthesise stakeholder views on the future of health and healthcare in England in 20 to 30 years' time. The aim of the research was to generate an evidenced-based picture of the future health and healthcare needs, and how it might differ from today, in order to inform strategic discussions about the future priorities of the NIHR and the health and social care research communities more broadly. The survey provided a rich and varied dataset based on responses from 300 stakeholders in total. A wide range of fields were represented, including public health, social care, primary care, cancer, genomics, mental health, geriatrics, child health, patient advocacy and health policy. The respondent group also included a number of professional and private stakeholder categories, such as clinicians, policy experts, academics and patient and public representatives. The study findings validate a number of prominent health research priorities currently visible in England, such as antimicrobial resistance, the burden of dementia and age-related multi-morbidity, digital health and genomics. Interest in these areas and other themes, such as mental health, health inequalities and transforming health service models, cut across multiple disciplinary boundaries. However, it is clear that there are a variety of views among stakeholders on the relative importance of these areas of focus, and the best approach to manage their emergence in the coming decades. The full dataset of survey responses, for which permission to share was given, is a useful resource for those seeking to engage with a particular issue in more depth. The dataset can be found on NIHR's website at: http://nihr.ac.uk/news-and-events/documents/quotes.xls.

  19. Averting group failures in collective-risk social dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Free-riding on a joint venture bears the risk of losing personal endowment as the group may fail to reach the collective target due to insufficient contributions. A collective-risk social dilemma emerges, which we here study in the realm of the spatial public goods game with group-performance-dependent risk levels. Instead of using an overall fixed value, we update the risk level in each group based on the difference between the actual contributions and the declared target. A single parameter interpolates between a step-like risk function and virtual irrelevance of the group's performance in averting the failure, thus bridging the two extremes constituting maximal and minimal feedback. We show that stronger feedback between group performance and risk level is in general more favorable for the successful evolution of public cooperation, yet only if the collective target to be reached is moderate. Paradoxically, if the goals are overambitious, intermediate feedback strengths yield optimal conditions for cooperation. This can be explained by the propagation of players that employ identical strategies but experience different individual success while trying to cope with the collective-risk social dilemma.

  20. Worksite health promotion research: challenges, current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Bauer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Worksite health promotion (WHP addresses diverse individual and work-related health determinants. Thus, multiple, non-standardized interventions as well as company outcomes other than health have to be considered in WHP research.

    Methods: The article builds primarily on published research reviews in WHP and related fields. It discusses key practical and research challenges of the workplace setting. The evidence available on the effectiveness of WHP is summarised and conclusions are drawn for future WHP practice and research.

    Results: WHP research on health-oriented, behavioural interventions shows that the level of evidence ranges from suggestive to acceptable for key prevention areas such as physical activity, nutrition, fitness, smoking, alcohol and stress. Such interventions are effective if key conditions are met. Future research is needed on long-term effects, on multi-component programs and on programs, which address environmental determinants of health behaviour as well. Research on work-related determinants of health shows the economic and public health relevance of WHP interventions. Reviews of work-oriented, organisational interventions show that they produce a range of individual and organisational outcomes. However, due to the complexity of the organisational context, the generalisability and predictability of such outcomes remain limited.

    Conclusions: WHP research shows success factors of WHP and provides evidence of its effectiveness. In future, the evidence base should be expanded by developing adaptive, company-driven intervention approaches which allow for continuous optimisation of companies from a health perspective. Also, approaches for active dissemination of such a systemic-salutogenic occupational health management approach should be developed to increase the public health impact of WHP.

  1. Potential unintended pregnancies averted and cost savings associated with a revised Medicaid sterilization policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Sonya; Zite, Nikki; Potter, Joseph E; Trussell, James; Smith, Kenneth

    2013-12-01

    Medicaid sterilization policy, which includes a mandatory 30-day waiting period between consent and the sterilization procedure, poses significant logistical barriers for many women who desire publicly funded sterilization. Our goal was to estimate the number of unintended pregnancies and the associated costs resulting from unfulfilled sterilization requests due to Medicaid policy barriers. We constructed a cost-effectiveness model from the health care payer perspective to determine the incremental cost over a 1-year time horizon of the current Medicaid sterilization policy compared to a hypothetical, revised policy in which women who desire a postpartum sterilization would face significantly reduced barriers. Probability estimates for potential outcomes in the model were based on published sources; costs of Medicaid-funded sterilizations and Medicaid-covered births were based on data from the Medicaid Statistical Information System and The Guttmacher Institute, respectively. With the implementation of a revised Medicaid sterilization policy, we estimated that the number of fulfilled sterilization requests would increase by 45%, from 53.3% of all women having their sterilization requests fulfilled to 77.5%. Annually, this increase could potentially lead to over 29,000 unintended pregnancies averted and $215 million saved. A revised Medicaid sterilization policy could potentially honor women's reproductive decisions, reduce the number of unintended pregnancies and save a significant amount of public funds. Compared to the current federal Medicaid sterilization policy, a hypothetical, revised policy that reduces logistical barriers for women who desire publicly funded, postpartum sterilization could potentially avert over 29,000 unintended pregnancies annually and therefore lead to cost savings of $215 million each year. © 2013.

  2. The Future of Occupational Health Nursing in a Changing Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Linda; Peterman, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    Repealing the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has significant implications for the future of occupational health nursing practice. As changes are proposed and implemented, occupational health nurses must continue to prioritize preventive care, chronic disease management, healthy communities, environmental health, and sustainability. In particular, immigrant workers are a vulnerable population needing attention by occupational health nurses.

  3. Materialism, Stress and Health Behaviors among Future Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouskeli, Vasiliki; Loumakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated materialism among future educators and its relationship with stress and a number of health behaviors. Participants were 228 students (Mean = 20.64 years of age, S.D = 2.571) of the Department of Education Sciences in Early Childhood of the University of Thrace, Greece. The instrument consisted of a short form of the…

  4. Better attitudes and mental health for our future

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two issues of the South African Journal of Psychiatry applaud a future in which South Africa pursues both better mental health and better attitudes towards psychiatric difficulties and illnesses. The first, a Special. Issue of the SAJP, features the Treatment Guidelines of the South African Society of Psychiatrists,[1] which is ...

  5. Psychology's Future in Medical Schools and Academic Health Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the history of psychology's development and growth in medical centers, its current status, and some goals for the future of psychology in medical schools and academic health care centers. Explores issues related to the education and training of psychologists. (SLD)

  6. The APRU Global Health Program: Past and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Samet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU is an international consortium of 45 universities in the Pacific Rim, representing 16 economies, 130 000 faculty members and more than two million students. The APRU Global Health Program aims to expand existing collaborative research efforts among universities to address regional and global health issues. Since its launch in 2007–08, the program has covered a significant range of topics including emerging public health threats, ageing and chronic diseases, infectious diseases and health security issues, among others. The Program’s activities in research, training, and service around the globe illustrate the diverse dimensions of global health. In this paper, the major activities to date are outlined and future planned activities are discussed.

  7. Telemonitoring should have a central role in future health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrow-Jenkins A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ashley Yarrow-Jenkins, Thomas I LemonSchool of Medicine, Cardiff University, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, WalesFirstly we would like to thank Upatising et al for undertaking an interesting and relevant study.1 Health professionals are well aware of the impending crisis that the aging demographics will have on future worldwide health care provision. With increasing hospital stays, "bed blocking," and longer duration of chronic illness as a result of increasing life expectancy the crisis is indeed underway. With shifting society, the attitudes and expectations of health care are changing significantly. With increased pressures on waiting list times, drug provision/administration, and service provision, patients become more critical and budgets become tighter. Outside of health care the technological advancement is astonishing. Smartphones, robotics, tablets, the internet has truly revolutionized health care provision and training in countless ways.View original paper by Upatising and colleagues.

  8. Future-proofing global health: Governance of priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Belinda; Cohen, I Glenn; Davies, Sara E; Gostin, Lawrence O; Hill, Peter S; Mankad, Aditi; Phelan, Alexandra L

    2018-05-01

    The year 2015 was a significant anniversary for global health: 15 years since the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals and the creation of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, followed two years later by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. 2015 was also the 10-year anniversary of the adoption of the International Health Regulations (May 2005) and the formal entering into force of the Framework Convention on the Tobacco Control (February 2005). The anniversary of these frameworks and institutions illustrates the growth and contribution of 'global' health diplomacy. Each initiative has also revealed on-going issues with compliance, sustainable funding and equitable attention in global health governance. In this paper, we present four thematic challenges that will continue to challenge prioritisation within global health governance into the future unless addressed: framing and prioritising within global health governance; identifying stakeholders of the global health community; understanding the relationship between health and behaviour; and the role of governance and regulation in supporting global health.

  9. Regulating India's health services: to what end? What future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David H; Muraleedharan, V R

    2008-05-01

    India has a comprehensive legal and regulatory framework and large public health delivery system which are disconnected from the realities of health care delivery and financing for most Indians. In reviewing the current bureaucratic approach to regulation, we find an extensive set of rules and procedures, though we argue it has failed in three critical ways, namely to (1) protect the interests of vulnerable groups; (2) demonstrate how health financing meets the public interests; (3) generate the trust of providers and the public. The paper reviews the state of alternative approaches to regulation of health services in India, using consumer and market based approaches, as well as multi-actor and collaborative approaches. We argue that poor regulation is a symptom of poor governance and that simply creating and enforcing the rules will continue to have limited effects. Rather than advocate for better implementation and expansion of the current bureaucratic approach, where Ministries of Health focus on their roles as inspectorate and provider, we propose that India's future health system is more likely to achieve its goals through greater attention to consumer and other market oriented approaches, and through collaborative mechanisms that enhance accountability. Civil society organizations, the media, and provider organizations can play more active parts in disclosing and using information on the use of health resources and the performance of public and private providers. The overview of the health sector would be more effective, if Indian Ministries of Health were to actively facilitate participation of these key stakeholders and the use of information.

  10. A perspective on the future public health practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Phil; Carlisle, Sandra; Hannah, Margaret; Lyon, Andrew; Reilly, David

    2012-09-01

    In the centuries following the Enlightenment, scientific and technological developments gave 'modern people' an unprecedented ability to understand, predict and control the natural world. This has brought health and social benefits unimaginable to our ancestors and sets us apart from all previous generations. Yet there is a wide-ranging body of evidence that suggests that modernity is now in decline, largely because its methods and mindset are increasingly recognized as unsustainable. Problems are manifest in the emergence of new public health epidemics such as obesity and addictive behaviours, the loss of well-being and increase in anxiety and depression in affluent society, and the persistence of ever-widening health and social inequalities at national and global levels. Still larger problems now confront us, such as climate change, peak oil and the loss of biodiversity, all of which are linked to the 'modern' way of life. We are potentially faced with the collapse of certain aspects of modern society: we are certainly faced with the prospect of inevitable change. While the broad public health community has an important role to play in developing workable solutions to such daunting problems, we argue that some profound changes will be needed in order for us to cope successfully. No blueprints for dealing with change exist, which means that we will need to learn our way into the future. In this paper we take a perspective on the role and nature of the future practitioner in public health and health promotion. We argue that future practitioners will need to develop new ways of thinking, being and doing; new perspectives and new forms of understanding the world. We believe our discipline - and people generally - to be capable of such development, as insights from multiple sources tell us that human nature is malleable, not fixed. We use this analysis to trace, as examples, the imagined lives of five women living in different eras over the course of history in a

  11. A see through future: augmented reality and health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a method whereby virtual objects are superimposed on the real world. AR technology is becoming increasingly accessible and affordable and it has many potential health applications. This paper discusses current research on AR health applications such as medical education and medical practice. Some of the potential future uses for this technology (e.g., health information systems, consumer health applications) will also be presented. Additionally, there will be a discussion outlining some of usability and human factors challenges associated with AR in healthcare. It is expected that AR will become increasingly prevalent in healthcare; however, further investigation is required to demonstrate that they provide benefits over traditional methods. Moreover, AR applications must be thoroughly tested to ensure they do not introduce new errors into practice and have patient safety implications.

  12. Future-Focused Therapeutic Strategies for Integrative Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torem, Moshe S

    2017-01-01

    For many years, the therapy field was dominated by a focus on the past. In this context, many clinicians were trained to use hypnosis as a tool to explore the past, and there is a rich literature documenting the use of hypnosis as a tool to induce age regression and the uncovering of traumatic memories. This article presents a therapeutic paradigm that focuses on the future. Hypnosis is used to induce creativity, flexibility, and openness to the future. In the context of health care, hypnosis is used to explore the best possible treatment outcome, which may be pharmacological, surgical, or a combination of both as well as other nonsurgical interventions. This article elaborates on the effective use of a therapeutic hypnosis strategy and technique focused on the future.

  13. OT - Education for the health services of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Sørensen, Annette; Hove, Anne

    by University College Oeresund. To express the level of education to be achieved in terms of competences and learning outcome, the study was inspired by the tuning process of educational structures in Europe, which is part of the Bologna process to integrate higher education area in Europe. The study is based...... which can give guidelines and recommendations for future educational planning. And give some answers to which elements of the education are important to meet these demands? Kvale, Steinar(1997): Interview. En introduktion til det kvalitative forskningsinterview, Hans Reitzels Forlag. By Annette Sørensen......OT - Education for the health services of the future This presentation offers knowledge about which qualifications the health services and OT practice in general demand from Occupational Therapists. The study was developed in a wider context of the constant reflection within higher education...

  14. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1 scale issue; (2 transportability issue; (3 data availability; and (4 uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  15. Remote sensing of ecosystem health: opportunities, challenges, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-11-07

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  16. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges. PMID:25386759

  17. Preparing future faculty and professionals for public health careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally A; Hrapczynski, Katie M; Clark, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    Recent years have brought rapid growth in schools of public health and an increasing demand for public health practitioners. These trends highlight the need for innovative approaches to prepare doctoral graduates for academic and high-level practice positions. The University of Maryland's School of Public Health developed a "Preparing Future Faculty and Professionals" program to enrich the graduate education and professional development of its doctoral students. We describe the program's key elements, including foundational seminars to enhance students' knowledge and skills related to teaching, research, and service; activities designed to foster career exploration and increase competitiveness in the job market; and independent, faculty-mentored teaching and research experiences. We present a model for replicating the program and share student outcomes of participation.

  18. Matrix analysis and risk management to avert depression and suicide among workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi Takeaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide is among the most tragic outcomes of all mental disorders, and the prevalence of suicide has risen dramatically during the last decade, particularly among workers. This paper reviews and proposes strategies to avert suicide and depression with regard to the mind body medicine equation hypothesis, metrics analysis of mental health problems from a public health and clinical medicine view. In occupational fields, the mind body medicine hypothesis has to deal with working environment, working condition, and workers' health. These three factors chosen in this paper were based on the concept of risk control, called San-kanri, which has traditionally been used in Japanese companies, and the causation concepts of host, agent, and environment. Working environment and working condition were given special focus with regard to tackling suicide problems. Matrix analysis was conducted by dividing the problem of working conditions into nine cells: three prevention levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary were proposed for each of the three factors of the mind body medicine hypothesis (working environment, working condition, and workers' health. After using these main strategies (mind body medicine analysis and matrix analysis to tackle suicide problems, the paper talks about the versatility of case-method teaching, "Hiyari-Hat activity," routine inspections by professionals, risk assessment analysis, and mandatory health check-up focusing on sleep and depression. In the risk assessment analysis, an exact assessment model was suggested using a formula based on multiplication of the following three factors: (1 severity, (2 frequency, and (3 possibility. Mental health problems, including suicide, are rather tricky to deal with because they involve evaluation of individual cases. The mind body medicine hypothesis and matrix analysis would be appropriate tactics for suicide prevention because they would help the evaluation of this issue as a

  19. Formulas for estimating the costs averted by sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koski Kathryn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs can mitigate the health and economic burden of STIs. A tool to estimate the economic benefits of STI programs could prove useful to STI program personnel. Methods We developed formulas that can be applied to estimate the direct medical costs and indirect costs (lost productivity averted by STI programs in the United States. Costs and probabilities for these formulas were based primarily on published studies. Results We present a series of formulas that can be used to estimate the economic benefits of STI prevention (in 2006 US dollars, using data routinely collected by STI programs. For example, the averted sequelae costs associated with treating women for chlamydia is given as (Cw(0.16(0.925(0.70($1,995, where Cw is the number of infected women treated for chlamydia, 0.16 is the absolute reduction in the probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID as a result of treatment, 0.925 is an adjustment factor to prevent double-counting of PID averted in women with both chlamydia and gonorrhea, 0.70 is an adjustment factor to account for the possibility of re-infection, and $1,995 is the average cost per case of PID, based on published sources. Conclusion The formulas developed in this study can be a useful tool for STI program personnel to generate evidence-based estimates of the economic impact of their program and can facilitate the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of their activities.

  20. Divorce and health: current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A

    2015-04-01

    Social relationships play a vital role in health and well-being, and it follows that loss experiences can be highly stressful for some people. This article reviews what is known about the association between marital separation, divorce, and health outcomes. Key findings in the area of divorce and health are discussed, and the review outlines a series of specific questions for future research. In particular, the article integrates research in social epidemiology with research in social psychophysiology. The former approach provides a broad-based estimate of the association between marital status and health outcomes, whereas the latter approach studies mechanisms of action and individual differences associated with increased risk for poor outcomes. The experience of separation or divorce confers risk for poor health outcomes, including a 23% higher mortality rate. However, most people cope well and are resilient after their marriage or long-term relationship ends. Despite the fact that resilience is the most common response, a small percentage of people (approximately 10%-15%) struggle quite substantially, and it seems that the overall elevated adverse health risks are driven by the poor functioning of this group. Several candidate mechanisms and novel (ambulatory) assessment techniques that may elucidate the poor outcomes among people who adapt poorly to separation are discussed. To increase knowledge on the association between divorce and health, three primary areas require more research: a) genetic and third variable explanations for divorce-related health outcomes, (b) better studies of objective social behavior after separation, and (c) increased attention to interventions targeting high-risk adults.

  1. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, N E; Nam, K M; Reilly, J M; Paltsev, S; Prinn, R G; Webster, M D; Wu, S

    2009-01-01

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

  2. Deliberative democracy in health care: current challenges and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast body of literature on deliberative, participative, or engaged democracy. In the area of health care there is a rapidly expanding literature on deliberative democracy as embodied in various notions of public engagement, shared decision-making (SDM), patient-centered care, and patient/care provider autonomy over the past few decades. It is useful to review such literature to get a sense of the challenges and prospects of introducing deliberative democracy in health care. This paper reviews the key literature on deliberative democracy and SDM in health care settings with a focus on identifying the main challenges of promoting this approach in health care, and recognizing its progress so far for mapping out its future prospects in the context of advanced countries. Several databases were searched to identify the literature pertinent to the subject of this study. A total of 56 key studies in English were identified and reviewed carefully for indications and evidence of challenges and/or promising avenues of promoting deliberative democracy in health care. Time pressure, lack of financial motivation, entrenched professional interests, informational imbalance, practical feasibility, cost, diversity of decisions, and contextual factors are noted as the main challenges. As for the prospects, greater clarity on conception of public engagement and policy objectives, real commitment of the authorities to public input, documenting evidence of the effectiveness of public involvement, development of patient decision supports, training of health professionals in SDM, and use of multiple and flexible methods of engagement leadership suited to specific contexts are the main findings in the reviewed literature. Seeking deliberative democracy in health care is both challenging and rewarding. The challenges have been more or less identified. However, its prospects are potentially significant. Such prospects are more likely to materialize if deliberative democracy is

  3. When Future Change Matters: Modeling Future Price and Diffusion in Health Technology Assessments of Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sabine E; Dixon, Simon; Stevens, John W

    Health technology assessments (HTAs) that take account of future price changes have been examined in the literature, but the important issue of price reductions that are generated by the reimbursement decision has been ignored. To explore the impact of future price reductions caused by increasing uptake on HTAs and decision making for medical devices. We demonstrate the use of a two-stage modeling approach to derive estimates of technology price as a consequence of changes in technology uptake over future periods on the basis of existing theory and supported by empirical studies. We explore the impact on cost-effectiveness and expected value of information analysis in an illustrative example on the basis of a technology in development for preterm birth screening. The application of our approach to the case study technology generates smaller incremental cost-effectiveness ratios compared with the commonly used single cohort approach. The extent of this reduction in the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio depends on the magnitude of the modeled price reduction, the speed of diffusion, and the length of the assumed technology life horizon. Results of value of information analysis are affected through changes in the expected net benefit calculation, the addition of uncertain parameters, and the diffusion-adjusted estimate of the affected patient population. Because modeling future changes in price and uptake has the potential to affect HTA outcomes, modeling techniques that can address such changes should be considered for medical devices that may otherwise be rejected. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Market-oriented health care reforms: trends and future options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, W P

    1996-09-01

    In many (predominantly) publicly financed health care systems market-oriented health care reforms are being implemented or have been proposed. The purpose of these reforms is to make resource allocation in health care more efficient, more innovative and more responsive to consumers preferences while maintaining equity. At the same time, the advances in technology result in a divergence of consumers' preferences with respect to health care and urge society to (re)think about the meaning of the solidarity principle in health care. In this paper we indicate some international trends in health care reforms and explore some potential future options. From an international perspective we can observe a trend towards universal mandatory health insurance, contracts between third-party purchasers and the providers of care, competition among providers of care and a strengthening of primary care. These trends can be expected to continue. A more controversial issue is whether there should also be competition among the third-party purchasers and whether in the long run there will occur a convergence towards some "ideal" model. Although regulated competition in health care can be expected to yield more value for money, it might yield both more efficiency and higher total costs. It has been argued that equity can be maintained in a competitive health care system if we interpret equity as "equal access to cost-effective care within a reasonable period of time". Because the effectiveness of care has to be considered in relation to the medical indication and the condition of the patient, the responsibility for cost-effective care rests primarily with the providers of care. Guidelines and protocols should be developed by the profession and sustained by financial incentives embedded in contracts. It has been argued that the third-party purchasers could start to concentrate on the contracts with the primary care physicians. Contracts with other providers could then be a natural

  5. Veterinary public health in India: current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, S; Singh, B B

    2015-12-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.

  6. Averting obesity and type 2 diabetes in India through sugar-sweetened beverage taxation: an economic-epidemiologic modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Agrawal, Sutapa; Stuckler, David; Popkin, Barry; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed in high-income countries to reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to estimate the potential health effects of such a fiscal strategy in the middle-income country of India, where there is heterogeneity in SSB consumption, patterns of substitution between SSBs and other beverages after tax increases, and vast differences in chronic disease risk within the population. Using consumption and price variations data from a nationally representative survey of 100,855 Indian households, we first calculated how changes in SSB price alter per capita consumption of SSBs and substitution with other beverages. We then incorporated SSB sales trends, body mass index (BMI), and diabetes incidence data stratified by age, sex, income, and urban/rural residence into a validated microsimulation of caloric consumption, glycemic load, overweight/obesity prevalence, and type 2 diabetes incidence among Indian subpopulations facing a 20% SSB excise tax. The 20% SSB tax was anticipated to reduce overweight and obesity prevalence by 3.0% (95% CI 1.6%-5.9%) and type 2 diabetes incidence by 1.6% (95% CI 1.2%-1.9%) among various Indian subpopulations over the period 2014-2023, if SSB consumption continued to increase linearly in accordance with secular trends. However, acceleration in SSB consumption trends consistent with industry marketing models would be expected to increase the impact efficacy of taxation, averting 4.2% of prevalent overweight/obesity (95% CI 2.5-10.0%) and 2.5% (95% CI 1.0-2.8%) of incident type 2 diabetes from 2014-2023. Given current consumption and BMI distributions, our results suggest the largest relative effect would be expected among young rural men, refuting our a priori hypothesis that urban populations would be isolated beneficiaries of SSB taxation. Key limitations of this estimation approach include the assumption that consumer expenditure behavior from prior years, captured in price elasticities

  7. Averting obesity and type 2 diabetes in India through sugar-sweetened beverage taxation: an economic-epidemiologic modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Basu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs has been proposed in high-income countries to reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to estimate the potential health effects of such a fiscal strategy in the middle-income country of India, where there is heterogeneity in SSB consumption, patterns of substitution between SSBs and other beverages after tax increases, and vast differences in chronic disease risk within the population.Using consumption and price variations data from a nationally representative survey of 100,855 Indian households, we first calculated how changes in SSB price alter per capita consumption of SSBs and substitution with other beverages. We then incorporated SSB sales trends, body mass index (BMI, and diabetes incidence data stratified by age, sex, income, and urban/rural residence into a validated microsimulation of caloric consumption, glycemic load, overweight/obesity prevalence, and type 2 diabetes incidence among Indian subpopulations facing a 20% SSB excise tax. The 20% SSB tax was anticipated to reduce overweight and obesity prevalence by 3.0% (95% CI 1.6%-5.9% and type 2 diabetes incidence by 1.6% (95% CI 1.2%-1.9% among various Indian subpopulations over the period 2014-2023, if SSB consumption continued to increase linearly in accordance with secular trends. However, acceleration in SSB consumption trends consistent with industry marketing models would be expected to increase the impact efficacy of taxation, averting 4.2% of prevalent overweight/obesity (95% CI 2.5-10.0% and 2.5% (95% CI 1.0-2.8% of incident type 2 diabetes from 2014-2023. Given current consumption and BMI distributions, our results suggest the largest relative effect would be expected among young rural men, refuting our a priori hypothesis that urban populations would be isolated beneficiaries of SSB taxation. Key limitations of this estimation approach include the assumption that consumer expenditure behavior from prior years, captured in price

  8. Canadian Library Human Resources Short‐Term Supply and Demand Crisis Is Averted, But a Significant Long‐Term Crisis Must Be Addressed. A review of: 8Rs Research Team. The Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries February 2005. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 21 February 2007 .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McKenna

    2007-03-01

    insurance (95%, pension plan (92%, and medical benefits (88%. Librarians (80% and paraprofessionals (70% are satisfied with their benefits. Although a low percentage of librarians agreed that they have little job stress (24%and only 39% found their workload to be manageable, 62% of librarians agree that their work allows work, family and personal life balance. The statistics are slightly more positive for paraprofessionals. There is a gap between the desire to be treated with respect (98% for all workers and the perception that respect is conveyed (77% of librarians and 75% of paraprofessionals. A similar gap exists between desire to be involved in decision making and actual involvement. The two most important factors for job satisfaction for all library workers are respectful treatment and a job that allows them to learn new skills and grow. Numerical Librarian Demand‐Supply Match (Section J Libraries hired more librarians than they lost in 2002, for a net three per cent increase. Many library administrators believe that there will be a five‐year increased demand for librarians (77% and paraprofessionals(81%.T he short‐term supply (next 5 years of new librarians to replace departures due to retirements is predicted to have the capacity to fill 98 per cent of the current librarian positions; the capacity to replace library technicians is 99 per cent. The long‐term supply (next 10 years of new librarians to replace departures due to retirements is predicted to have the capacity to fill 89 percent of the current librarian positions; the capacity to fill technician positions is identical. These predictions are based on no growth in the number of positions in the future. Match Between Organizational Job Function Demand and Individual Staff Supply of Skills, Abilities, Talents, Interests (Section K Libraries report that increased use of information technologies (87% and reengineering (61% have contributed the greatest change in the roles of librarians. Libraries report

  9. Urban design and health: progress to date and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Melanie; Boulange, Claire; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-04-01

    Over the last 15 years, a growing body of Australian and international evidence has demonstrated that urban design attributes are associated with a range of health outcomes. For example, the location of employment, shops and services, provision of public and active transport infrastructure and access to open space and recreational opportunities are associated with chronic disease risk factors such as physical activity levels, access to healthy food, social connectedness, and air quality. Despite the growing knowledge base, this evidence is not being consistently translated into urban planning policy and practice in Australia. Low-density neighbourhoods with poor access to public transport, shops and services continue to be developed at a rapid rate in the sprawling outer suburbs of Australian cities. This paper provides an overview of the evidence of the association between the built environment and chronic diseases, highlighting progress and future challenges for health promotion. It argues that health promotion practitioners and researchers need to more closely engage with urban planning practitioners, policymakers and researchers to encourage the creation of healthy urban environments through integrated transport, land use and infrastructure planning. There is also a need for innovative research to evaluate the effectiveness of policy options. This would help evidence to be more effectively translated into policy and practice, making Australia a leader in planning healthy communities.

  10. Deliberative democracy in health care: current challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaei J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jalil Safaei Department of Economics, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC, CanadaBackground: There is a vast body of literature on deliberative, participative, or engaged democracy. In the area of health care there is a rapidly expanding literature on deliberative democracy as embodied in various notions of public engagement, shared decision-making (SDM, patient-centered care, and patient/care provider autonomy over the past few decades. It is useful to review such literature to get a sense of the challenges and prospects of introducing deliberative democracy in health care.Objective: This paper reviews the key literature on deliberative democracy and SDM in health care settings with a focus on identifying the main challenges of promoting this approach in health care, and recognizing its progress so far for mapping out its future prospects in the context of advanced countries.Method: Several databases were searched to identify the literature pertinent to the subject of this study. A total of 56 key studies in English were identified and reviewed carefully for indications and evidence of challenges and/or promising avenues of promoting deliberative democracy in health care.Results: Time pressure, lack of financial motivation, entrenched professional interests, informational imbalance, practical feasibility, cost, diversity of decisions, and contextual factors are noted as the main challenges. As for the prospects, greater clarity on conception of public engagement and policy objectives, real commitment of the authorities to public input, documenting evidence of the effectiveness of public involvement, development of patient decision supports, training of health professionals in SDM, and use of multiple and flexible methods of engagement leadership suited to specific contexts are the main findings in the reviewed literature.Conclusion: Seeking deliberative democracy in health care is both challenging and rewarding. The

  11. The black aged: a strategy for future mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J H

    1978-12-01

    The younger generation of today will become the elderly of tomorrow. The qualitative differences in life experiences of blacks versus whites lead to differences in the manifestations of emotional problems. Thus the need for a special psychiatric strategy for aged blacks in the future. The problems of blacks, regardless of age, are inextricably linked with beliefs regarding illness, health and institutionalized racism. The many psychiatric ghettoes stemming from the depopulation of mental hospitals reflect poor planning and an obvious disregard for the realities of the whole life situations of elderly blacks. There should be an end to living in squalor and being the victims of muggings, rape and all forms of exploitation. Psychiatry should step forward with some careful and significant plans.

  12. A future task for health-promotion research: Integration of health promotion and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Thualagant, Nicole; Holm, Jesper; Kjærgård, Bente; Andersen, Heidi Myglegård; From, Ditte-Marie; Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm

    2018-02-01

    Based on previous studies and reflections collected from participants in a workshop at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Research Network conference, we reveal current tendencies and discuss future challenges for health-promotion research regarding integration of sustainable development principles. Despite obvious interfaces and interactions between the two, our contention is that strategies for health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development and that policies aimed at solving health or sustainability problems may therefore cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental and health problems. As illustrated in previous research and as deliberated in the above-mentioned workshop, a number of barriers are identified. These are believed to be related to historical segregation, the conceptual understandings of health promotion and sustainable development, as well as the politics and implementation of policy goals in both areas. Three focal points are proposed as important challenges to address in future research: (a) the duality of health promotion and sustainability and how it can be handled in order to enhance mutually supportive processes between them; (b) the social dimension of sustainability and how it can be strengthened in the development of strategies for health promotion and sustainable development; and (c) exploring and identifying policy approaches and strategies for integrating health promotion and sustainable development.

  13. A future task for Health Promotion research: Integration of Health Promotion and sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Thualagant, Nicole; Holm, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Based on previous studies and reflections collected from participants in a workshop at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Research Network conference, we reveal current tendencies and discuss future challenges for health promotion research regarding integration of sustainable development principles....... Despite obvious interfaces and interactions between the two, our contention is that strategies for health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development and that policies aimed at solving health or sustainability problems may therefore cause new, undesired...... and unforeseen environmental and health problems. As illustrated in previous research and as deliberated in the above-mentioned workshop, a number of barriers are identified: these are believed to be related to historical segregation, the conceptual understandings of health promotion and sustainable development...

  14. Mental health literacy as theory: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Douglas A; Hammer, Joseph H

    2018-02-13

    Mental health literacy (MHL) is one increasingly researched factor thought to influence mental health behaviors. Researchers have argued for expanding the definition of MHL to include additional constructs, but no consensus has yet been reached on what constructs should be included as part of MHL. The purpose of this paper is to (i) elucidate how the expansion of the MHL construct has impeded the growth of MHL research and (ii) through the lens of construct and theory development, highlight how these challenges might be remedied. An inclusive search of the literature was undertaken to identify MHL studies. The principles of construct and theory development guided a critical analysis of MHL. The review of the literature found that MHL violates many principles of what constitutes an acceptable construct definition. To address these concerns, we proposed conceptualizing MHL as a theory and recommended principles of theory development that should be taken into consideration. A theory of MHL can guide future researchers to clearly delineate important constructs and their interrelationships. For practitioners, a theory of MHL can help inform how to improve MHL at both the individual and community level.

  15. Positive futures? The impact of HIV infection on achieving health, wealth and future planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Richard; Molloy, Tim

    2008-05-01

    Although HIV is now cast as a chronic condition with favourable clinical outcomes under new treatments, it is unclear how living with HIV affects expectations and planning for the future. This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate UK gay men's expectations of their own future when living with HIV, and to identify the heath and social interventions required to enhance roles, participation and personal fulfilment. A preliminary focus group identified relevant domains of enquiry for a subsequent online cross-sectional survey. A total of 347 gay men living in the UK with HIV participated in the survey, and 56.6% were currently on treatment. However, high 7-day prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms was identified (42.6% in pain, 80.2% worrying); 57.8% perceived reduced career options due to their infection and 71.8% reduced life expectancy. Being on treatment was not significantly associated with perceived life expectancy. Coded open-ended survey data identified eight principle themes related to goal planning and attainment. The integrated open and closed data items offer an understanding of barriers and challenges that focus on poor mental health due to clinical inattention, discrimination and stigma, poor career and job opportunities due to benefit and workplace inflexibility and lack of understanding, a lack of personal goals and associated skills deficit related to confidence and self esteem. Gay men living with HIV require an integrated holistic approach to wellbeing that incorporates clinical, social and individual intervention in order to lead productive lives with maximum benefit from treatment gains.

  16. Tuberculosis deaths averted by implementation of the DOTS strategy in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorov, M; Belilovsky, E; Aitmagambetova, I; Ismailov, S; White, M E; Chorba, T

    2010-12-01

    Kazakhstan began implementing the DOTS strategy for tuberculosis (TB) in 1998. Data were analyzed 1) to determine if changes in TB mortality rate (MR) and case fatality rate (CFR) in Kazakhstan for 1998-2003 differed from those of Uzbekistan and four adjacent Russian Federation (RF) oblasts that had not yet implemented DOTS, and 2) to estimate the number of deaths averted in Kazakhstan as a result of DOTS. Observed MRs were calculated, and predicted MRs for Kazakhstan were approximated by linear regression based on average slope of MRs from 1998 through 2003 in adjacent non-DOTS-implementing territories. Deaths averted were calculated by comparing predicted MRs to actual MRs by converting rate differences to numbers of deaths. TB MRs in Kazakhstan decreased markedly, but remained stable or increased in the neighboring territories. CFRs decreased markedly in Kazakhstan and marginally in Uzbekistan, and increased in the neighboring RF oblasts. From 1998 to 2004, DOTS appears to have helped avert approximately 17,800 deaths in Kazakhstan. DOTS has contributed markedly to a decrease in TB mortality in Kazakhstan. In settings where mortality data are relatively complete, deaths averted can be another indicator of DOTS effectiveness.

  17. Green tea polyphenols avert chronic inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis of female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Green tea proposes anti-inflammatory properties which may attenuate chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis of vessels. This study evaluated whether green tea polyphenols (GTP) can avert fibrosis or vascular disruption along with mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. Treatments: Fo...

  18. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  19. Health behind bars: can exploring the history of prison health systems impact future policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Kathryn M; McCarthy, Louella R; Meyering, Isobelle Barrett; Hampton, Stephen; Mackinnon, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    The value of history is, indeed, not scientific but moral … it prepares us to live more humanely in the present, and to meet rather than to foretell, the future - Carl Becker. Becker's quote reminds us of the importance of revealing and understanding historical practices in order to influence actions in the future. There are compelling reasons for uncovering this history, in particular to better inform government policy makers and health advocates, and to address the impacts of growing community expectations to 'make the punishment fit the crime'. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Future trends in ophthalmology health human resources in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Lorne

    2016-06-01

    Projections of future Canadian ratios of ophthalmologists to population have fluctuated because of changes in numbers of residency spots and retirement rates. Although this ratio plateaued in recent years, the ratio of ophthalmologists to the population over 65 years of age is projected to steadily deteriorate. All graduating residents are going to be needed to meet the upcoming workload, yet current graduates are finding increasing difficulty obtaining full-time positions with operating room privileges. This problem is affecting all specialties who require hospital facilities, and exploration of this problem by the Royal College, Canadian Medical Association (CMA), Resident Doctors of Canada, and council of the Provincial Deputy Ministers of Health is presented. Proposed solutions to the current job shortages include residents starting in positions outside of major metropolitan areas, clinicians in practice giving up some operating room time to make way for new graduates, government increasing infrastructure commensurate with the increased number of medical school positions, and optimizing use of current resources by running operating rooms for longer hours and on the weekends. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate and health implications of future aerosol emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Damon Matthews, H.

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols have a net cooling effect on climate and also cause adverse health effects by degrading air quality. In this global-scale sensitivity study, we used a combination of the aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ and the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model to assess the climate and health effects of aerosols emissions from three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5) and two new (LOW and HIGH) aerosol emission scenarios derived from RCP4.5, but that span a wider spectrum of possible future aerosol emissions. All simulations had CO2 emissions and greenhouse gas forcings from RCP4.5. Aerosol forcing declined similarly in the standard RCP aerosol emission scenarios: the aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF) decreased from -1.3 W m-2 in 2005 to between -0.1 W m-2 and -0.4 W m-2 in 2100. The differences in ERF were substantially larger between LOW (-0.02 W m-2 in 2100) and HIGH (-0.8 W m-2) scenarios. The global mean temperature difference between the simulations with standard RCP aerosol emissions was less than 0.18 °C, whereas the difference between LOW and HIGH reached 0.86 °C in 2061. In LOW, the rate of warming peaked at 0.48 °C per decade in the 2030s, whereas in HIGH it was the lowest of all simulations and never exceeded 0.23 °C per decade. Using present-day population density and baseline mortality rates for all scenarios, PM2.5-induced premature mortality was 2 371 800 deaths per year in 2010 and 525 700 in 2100 with RCP4.5 aerosol emissions; in HIGH, the premature mortality reached its maximum value of 2 780 800 deaths per year in 2030, whereas in LOW the premature mortality at 2030 was below 299 900 deaths per year. Our results show potential trade-offs in aerosol mitigation with respect to climate change and public health as ambitious reduction of aerosol emissions considerably increased warming while decreasing mortality.

  2. Chiropractic and public health: current state and future vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claire; Baird, Rand; Dougherty, Paul E; Globe, Gary; Green, Bart N; Haneline, Michael; Hawk, Cheryl; Injeyan, H Stephen; Killinger, Lisa; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah; Lisi, Anthony J; Mior, Silvano A; Smith, Monica

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of primary chiropractic issues as they relate to public health. This collaborative summary documents the chiropractic profession's current involvement in public health, reflects on past barriers that may have prevented full participation within the public health movement, and summarizes the relationship of current chiropractic and public health topics. Topics discussed include how the chiropractic profession participates in preventive health services, health promotion, immunization, geriatrics, health care in a military environment, and interdisciplinary care.

  3. The future of global health education: training for equity in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lisa V; Wagner, Claire M; Nutt, Cameron T; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2016-11-21

    Among academic institutions in the United States, interest in global health has grown substantially: by the number of students seeking global health opportunities at all stages of training, and by the increase in institutional partnerships and newly established centers, institutes, and initiatives to house global health programs at undergraduate, public health and medical schools. Witnessing this remarkable growth should compel health educators to question whether the training and guidance that we provide to students today is appropriate, and whether it will be applicable in the next decade and beyond. Given that "global health" did not exist as an academic discipline in the United States 20 years ago, what can we expect it will look like 20 years from now and how can we prepare for that future? Most clinicians and trainees today recognize the importance of true partnership and capacity building in both directions for successful international collaborations. The challenge is in the execution of these practices. There are projects around the world where this is occurring and equitable partnerships have been established. Based on our experience and observations of the current landscape of academic global health, we share a perspective on principles of engagement, highlighting instances where partnerships have thrived, and examples of where we, as a global community, have fallen short. As the world moves beyond the charity model of global health (and its colonial roots), it is evident that the issue underlying ethical global health practice is partnership and the pursuit of health equity. Thus, achieving equity in global health education and practice ought to be central to our mission as educators and advisors when preparing trainees for careers in this field. Seeking to eliminate health inequities wherever they are ingrained will reveal the injustices around the globe and in our own cities and towns.

  4. Health Promotion Education in India: Present Landscape and Future Vistas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay; Chauhan, Kavita; Dobe, Madhumita

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health’. This stream of public health is emerging as a critical domain within the realm of disease prevention. Over the last two decades, the curative model of health care has begun a subtle shift towards a participatory model of health promotion emphasizing upon practice of healthy lifestyles and creating healthy communities. Health promotion encompasses five key strategies with health communication and education as its cornerstones. Present study is an attempt to explore the current situation of health promotion education in India with an aim to provide a background for capacity building in health promotion. A systematic predefined method was adopted to collect and compile information on existing academic programs pertaining to health promotion and health education/communication. Results of the study reveal that currently health promotion education in India is fragmented and not uniform across institutes. It is yet to be recognized as a critical domain of public health education. Mostly teaching of health promotion is limited to health education and communication. There is a need for designing programmes for short-term and long-term capacity building, with focus on innovative methods and approaches. Public health institutes and associations could play a proactive role in designing and imparting academic programs on health promotion. Enhancing alliances with various institutes involved in health promotion activities and networking among public health and medical institutes as well as health services delivery systems would be more productive. PMID:22980352

  5. The future of global health education: training for equity in global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa V. Adams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among academic institutions in the United States, interest in global health has grown substantially: by the number of students seeking global health opportunities at all stages of training, and by the increase in institutional partnerships and newly established centers, institutes, and initiatives to house global health programs at undergraduate, public health and medical schools. Witnessing this remarkable growth should compel health educators to question whether the training and guidance that we provide to students today is appropriate, and whether it will be applicable in the next decade and beyond. Given that “global health” did not exist as an academic discipline in the United States 20 years ago, what can we expect it will look like 20 years from now and how can we prepare for that future? Discussion Most clinicians and trainees today recognize the importance of true partnership and capacity building in both directions for successful international collaborations. The challenge is in the execution of these practices. There are projects around the world where this is occurring and equitable partnerships have been established. Based on our experience and observations of the current landscape of academic global health, we share a perspective on principles of engagement, highlighting instances where partnerships have thrived, and examples of where we, as a global community, have fallen short. Conclusions As the world moves beyond the charity model of global health (and its colonial roots, it is evident that the issue underlying ethical global health practice is partnership and the pursuit of health equity. Thus, achieving equity in global health education and practice ought to be central to our mission as educators and advisors when preparing trainees for careers in this field. Seeking to eliminate health inequities wherever they are ingrained will reveal the injustices around the globe and in our own cities and

  6. Health, medicine and society: key theories, future agendas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabe, Jonathan; Williams, Simon J; Calnan, Michael

    2000-01-01

    ... and Society provides a 'state-of-the-art' assessment of health-related issues at the millennium and a cogent set of arguments for the centrality of health to contemporary social theory. Written in a clear, accessible style it will be ideal reading for students and researchers in medical sociology, health studies, public health, medicin...

  7. Health promotion education in India: present landscape and future vistas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pati, S.; Sharma, K.; Zodpey, S.; Chauhan, K.; Dobe, M.

    2012-01-01

    'Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health'. This stream of public health is emerging as a critical domain within the realm of disease prevention. Over the last two decades, the curative model of health care has begun a subtle shift

  8. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  9. Future directions for Public Health Education reforms in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Zodpey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate ‘standard’ and ‘quality’ of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching-learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour.

  10. A hive of activity: the future of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, S; Jones, J

    1995-07-01

    In consultation with primary and secondary care, public health has a crucial role in improving the health of the population through health promotion, advice on appropriateness and effectiveness of services and communicable disease control. The speciality of public health medicine can only achieve this goal if it is allowed a degree of stability after the numerous organisational changes of the last two decades. The 'beehive model' of public health may offer an organisational structure that is adaptable to further health service change, reflects the rise in multidisciplinary working, guarantees freedom of speech and is sustainable within existing manpower numbers.

  11. Lesbian health research: a review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S J

    2001-09-01

    Prior to 1990 lesbians were "invisible" in health care research. Researchers who asked questions specifically about lesbian health concerns were rare, and the burgeoning research on women's health seldom included variables that measured sexual orientation or behavior. In the last decade, however, lesbian health has emerged as a major area of study. A 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on Lesbian Health has outlined the challenges and gaps in this area of research and has called for focus and funding on specific areas of need. In this article I review research on lesbian health, discuss methodological issues specific to this area of research, and summarize the recommendations of the IOM report.

  12. Future Recommendations for School Dental Health Program in India

    OpenAIRE

    SHAMIM, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Dental Surgeons working in public sector have an important role to play in school dental health pro-gram to reinstitute the oral and dental health of growing population of India. Even though the oral health policy was drafted in India in 1995, it was not implemented till this date (1). It is im-portant to enhance the knowledge about good oral health in teachers and parents by caring out workshops and seminars on oral and dental health by dental Surgeons working in public health sector. Dental...

  13. ICT and the future of health care: aspects of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Jungwirth, David

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applications enter the daily lives of consumers. Availability of various multimedia interfaces offers the opportunity to develop and adjust ICT solutions to all aspects of society including health care. To address the challenges of the ongoing adaptive progress of ICT, decision makers profit from estimates of expectable merits and risks of future technological developments. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevailing opinions and expectations among Austrian stakeholders regarding ICT-assisted health promotion. In total, 73 experts (74% males) engaged in the Austrian health care sector participated in a biphasic online Delphi survey. Panellists were assigned to three groups representing medical professionals, patient advocates, and administrative personnel. In a scenario-based questionnaire, experts evaluated potential advantages and barriers as well as degree of innovation, desirability, and estimated date of implementation of six future ICT scenarios. Scenario-specific and consolidated overall opinions were ranked. Inter-group differences were assessed using ANOVA. Panellists expected the future ICT-supported health promotion strategies to especially improve the factors living standard (56%), quality of health care (53%), and patient's knowledge (44%). Nevertheless, monetary aspects (57%), acceptance by patient advocates (45%), and data security and privacy (27%) were considered as the three most substantial hampering factors for ICT applications. Although overall mean desirability of the scenarios was quite high (80%) amongst panellists, it was considerably lower in medical professionals compared to patient advocates and administrative personnel (p=0.006). This observation suggests a more precautious attitude of this specific interest group regarding technological innovations. The present Delphi survey identified issues relevant for successful implementation of ICT-based health care

  14. Mental Health Services in South Africa: Scaling up and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “No health without mental health” has become a rallying call for the World Health Organization and numerous service providers, training institutions, health researchers, and advocacy groups around the world. It is timely to consider the implications of this call for South Africa. We review key evidence regarding the burden ...

  15. 400 Navels: The Future of School Health in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Godfrey E.; Young, William M.

    This book tells the story of how one school system in a medically underserved community near Chicago conceived and implemented primary care health facilities in two of its schools to serve all the children of the school district. The key to the preventive health care plan is the use of specially trained school nurse practitioners and health aides…

  16. The wonderful world of Disney. A look at the future of health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B

    1998-01-01

    What does the future hold for health care delivery? What will prove to be the most effective model for health services delivery in the next century? These are the questions that are foremost in the minds of health policy analysts across the country. While any discussion about the future of American health care typically centers around alternative payment methodologies or emerging physician-hospital integration models, one company believes it has a unique solution and is eager to share its vision for the future. That company is none other than Disney, and Celebration Health--with its grand opening on Nov. 23, 1997--is its latest venture.

  17. Impact of the national rotavirus vaccination programme on acute gastroenteritis in England and associated costs averted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sara L; Walker, Jemma L; Fenty, Justin; Atkins, Katherine E; Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Stowe, Julia; Ladhani, Shamez; Andrews, Nick J

    2017-01-23

    Introduction of infant oral rotavirus vaccination in the UK in July 2013 has resulted in decreased hospitalisations and Emergency Department (ED) visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE), for both adults and children. We investigated reductions in AGE incidence seen in primary care in the two years after vaccine introduction, and estimated the healthcare costs averted across healthcare settings in the first year of the vaccination programme. We used primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and age-stratified time-series analyses to derive adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR a ) for AGE in the first two years of the post-vaccination era (July 2013-April 2015) compared to the pre-vaccination era (July 2008-June 2013). We estimated cases averted among children aged vaccination programme by comparing observed numbers of AGE cases in 2013-2014 to numbers predicted from the time-series models. We then estimated the healthcare costs averted for general practice consultations, ED visits and hospitalisations. In general practice, AGE rates in infants (the target group for vaccination) decreased by 15% overall after vaccine introduction (IRR a =0.85; 95%CI=0.76-0.95), and by 41% in the months of historically high rotavirus circulation (IRR a =0.59; 95%CI=0.53-0.66). Rates also decreased in other young children and to a lesser degree in older individuals, indicating herd immunity. Across all three settings (general practice, EDs, and hospitalisations) an estimated 87,376 (95% prediction interval: 62,588-113,561) AGE visits by children aged vaccine introduction mirror decreases seen in other UK healthcare settings. Overall, these decreases are associated with substantial averted healthcare costs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Macro Trends and the Future of Public Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-03-20

    Public health practice in the twenty-first century is in a state of significant flux. Several macro trends are impacting the current practice of governmental public health and will likely have effects for many years to come. These macro trends are described as forces of change, which are changes that affect the context in which the community and its public health system operate. This article focuses on seven such forces of change: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, and globalized travel. Following the description of each of these, this article then turns to possible approaches to measuring, tracking, and understanding the impact of these forces of change on public health practice, including the use of evidence-based public health, practice-based research, and policy surveillance.

  19. Obstetrician-assessed maternal health at pregnancy predicts offspring future health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie A Lawlor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the association between obstetrician assessment of maternal physical health at the time of pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular disease risk.We examined this association in a birth cohort of 11,106 individuals, with 245,000 person years of follow-up. We were concerned that any associations might be explained by residual confounding, particularly by family socioeconomic position. In order to explore this we used multivariable regression models in which we adjusted for a range of indicators of socioeconomic position and we explored the specificity of the association. Specificity of association was explored by examining associations with other health related outcomes. Maternal physical health was associated with cardiovascular disease: adjusted (socioeconomic position, complications of pregnancy, birthweight and childhood growth at mean age 5 hazard ratio comparing those described as having poor or very poor health at the time of pregnancy to those with good or very good health was 1.55 (95%CI: 1.05, 2.28 for coronary heart disease, 1.91 (95%CI: 0.99, 3.67 for stroke and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.13, 2.18 for either coronary heart disease or stroke. However, this association was not specific. There were strong associations for other outcomes that are known to be related to socioeconomic position (3.61 (95%CI: 1.04, 12.55 for lung cancer and 1.28 (95%CI:1.03, 1.58 for unintentional injury, but not for breast cancer (1.10 (95%CI:0.48, 2.53.These findings demonstrate that a simple assessment of physical health (based on the appearance of eyes, skin, hair and teeth of mothers at the time of pregnancy is a strong indicator of the future health risk of their offspring for common conditions that are associated with poor socioeconomic position and unhealthy behaviours. They do not support a specific biological link between maternal health across her life course and future risk of cardiovascular disease in her offspring.

  20. Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D W; Yach, D; Guindon, G E

    2000-01-01

    Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks and possible benefits; to identify key areas of research; and to suggest policy-relevant advice and interventions on trade and health issues. The next wave of international trade law will need to take more account of global public health issues. However, to become more engaged in global trade debates, the public health community must gain an understanding of the health effects of global trade agreements. It must also ensure that its own facts are correct, so that public health is not blindly used for political ends, such as justifying unwarranted economic protectionism. "Healthy trade" policies, based on firm empirical evidence and designed to improve health status, are an important step towards reaching a more sustainable form of trade liberalization.

  1. National health expenditures: the past, present, future and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The costs of health care in the US have been increasing for many years and the US now spends more on health care than other developed country. The cost of health care is higher in the US in nearly every category. However, the dramatic rise in health care costs over the past 35 years occurs during the time when pharmaceutical costs and administrative costs have also dramatically risen. It seems likely that these costs may account for much of the increase in health care. However, neither is dealt with by the Affordable Care Act (ACA. Until a system of oversight is enacted on medical costs, it seems likely that US health care costs will continue to rise.

  2. Future orientation and health quality of life in primary care: vitality as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Molnar, Danielle; Chang, Edward C; Sirois, Fuschia M

    2015-07-01

    Temporal perspective, including views about future goals, may influence motivational processes related to health. An adaptive sense of future orientation is linked to better health, but little research has examined potential underlying factors, such as vitality. In a sample of 101 primary care patients, we examined whether belief in the changeability of the future was related to mental and physical energization and, in turn, to health-related quality of life. Participants were working, uninsured primary care patients, who completed self-report measures of future orientation, vitality, and health-related quality of life. Mediation models, covarying age, sex, and race/ethnicity indicated that vitality significantly mediated the association between future orientation and the outcomes of general health, mental health, social functioning, bodily pain, and role limitations due to emotional and physical reasons. Vitality exerted an indirect-only effect on the relation between future orientation and physical functioning. Our findings suggest that adaptive beliefs about the future may promote, or allow access to, physical and mental energy and, in turn, may result in better mental and physical health functioning. Individual-level and public health interventions designed to promote future orientation and vitality may beneficially influence quality of life and well-being.

  3. Electronic health in ghana: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided.

  4. Future Perfect? The Future of the Social Sciences in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Bayer, Ronald; Metsch, Lisa R

    2017-01-01

    This is a critical and perhaps unprecedented time for the social sciences in public health. While there are many opportunities for the social sciences to continue making transformative contributions to improve population health, there are significant challenges in doing so, particularly in a rapidly changing political landscape. Such challenges are both external (e.g., congressional calls for reducing social science funding) and internal (e.g., scholars criticizing the social sciences for being stagnant and siloed). This paper highlights four key tensions that the field is grappling with and that have direct implications for how to train the next generation of social scientists in public health. We also discuss how departmental and institutional decisions made in response to these tensions will determine how the social sciences in public health are ultimately recognized, sustained, and advanced.

  5. Future of health technology assessment studies in gene and cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of new knowledge and technological change is a key driver of the achievements in policy decisions in health care environments at macro and micro level to achieve better health outcomes. The newly emerging stem cell therapies and genomics technologies stay at the interface of Research and ...

  6. When it rains, it pours: future climate extremes and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Grabow, Maggie L; Limaye, Vijay S

    2014-01-01

    The accelerating accumulation of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere is changing global environmental conditions in unprecedented and potentially irreversible ways. Climate change poses a host of challenges to the health of populations through complex direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct effects include an increased frequency of heat waves, rising sea levels that threaten low-lying communities, anticipated extremes in the global hydrologic cycle (droughts, floods, and intense storms), and adverse effects on agricultural production and fisheries due to environmental stressors and changes in land use. Indirectly, climate change is anticipated to threaten health by worsening urban air pollution and increasing rates of infectious (particularly waterborne and vector-borne) disease transmission. To provide a state-of-the-science review on the health consequences of a changing climate. Environmental public health researchers have concluded that, on balance, adverse health outcomes will dominate under these changed climatic conditions. The number of pathways through which climate change can affect the health of populations makes this environmental health threat one of the largest and most formidable of the new century. Geographic location plays an influential role the potential for adverse health effects caused by climate change, and certain regions and populations are more vulnerable than others to expected health effects. Two kinds of strategies are available for responding to climate change: mitigation policies (which aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions) and adaptation measures (relating to preparedness for anticipated impacts). To better understand and address the complex nature of health risks posed by climate change, interdisciplinary collaboration is critical. Efforts to move beyond our current reliance on fossil fuels to cleaner, more sustainable energy sources may offer some of the greatest health opportunities in more than a century and cobenefits

  7. Risk of future offense among probationers with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyakina, Elizabeth; Mann, Christopher; Ellison, Michael; Sivernell, Ron; Fulda, Kimberly G; Sarai, Simrat Kaur; Cardarelli, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The criminal justice system is the primary service delivery system for many adults with drug and alcohol dependence, mental health, and other health service needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between risk of future offense, mental health status and co-occurring disorders in a large substance abuse diversion probationer population. A purposive sample of 2,077 probationers completed an assessment to screen for mental health disorders, substance use disorders, risk of future crime and violence, and several demographic characteristics. Probationers who screened positive for co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders were significantly more likely to be at higher risk of future crime and violence compared to probationers who screened positive for only substance use, only a mental health disorder, or no substance use or mental health disorder. Implications for substance use and mental health service delivery are discussed, and recommendations are made for further research.

  8. Pediatric Global Health Education: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Gladding, Sophia P; Suchdev, Parminder S; Howard, Cynthia R

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of diseases erroneously thought by many to be contained by borders or eliminated by vaccines have highlighted the need for proper training of all residents in global health. Beyond infectious diseases, all pediatricians should know how to care for other conditions in global child health, ranging from malnutrition to the nuances of care for immigrant and refugee children. The call for broader education for pediatric residents in global health has been increasing over the last decade, with all major pediatric organizations underscoring its importance in statement and action. Herein, the current status of global child health education in pediatric residency training in the United States is summarized, highlighting where it has been, where it is now, and where it should go next.

  9. FRUGAL INNOVATIONS: THE FUTURE OF AFFORDABLE HEALTH CARE

    OpenAIRE

    GEETHA MANI, KALAIVANI ANNADURAI RAJA DANASEKARAN

    2014-01-01

    Frugal innovations are cost-conscious innovations developed to meet the needs in resource-poor settings, withoutcompromising quality. While there have been various innovations in the field of health care in the past decades, there is avast difference in the distribution and utilization of these innovations between developed and developing countries. Frugalinnovations can play a potential role in bridging the gap between countries and ensure affordable health care for all.

  10. The mental health system in Brazil: Policies and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzouk Denise

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to assess the mental health system in Brazil in relation to the human resources and the services available to the population. Methods The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO AIMS was recently applied in Brazil. This paper will analyse data on the following sections of the WHO-AIMS: a mental health services; and b human resources. In addition, two more national datasets will be used to complete the information provided by the WHO questionnaire: a the Executive Bureau of the Department of Health (Datasus; and b the National Register of Health Institutions (CNS. Results There are 6003 psychiatrists, 18,763 psychologists, 1985 social workers, 3119 nurses and 3589 occupational therapists working for the Unified Health System (SUS. At primary care level, there are 104,789 doctors, 184, 437 nurses and nurse technicians and 210,887 health agents. The number of psychiatrists is roughly 5 per 100,000 inhabitants in the Southeast region, and the Northeast region has less than 1 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants. The number of psychiatric nurses is insufficient in all geographical areas, and psychologists outnumber other mental health professionals in all regions of the country. The rate of beds in psychiatric hospitals in the country is 27.17 beds per 100,000 inhabitants. The rate of patients in psychiatric hospitals is 119 per 100,000 inhabitants. The average length of stay in mental hospitals is 65.29 days. In June 2006, there were 848 Community Psychosocial Centers (CAPS registered in Brazil, a ratio of 0.9 CAPS per 200,000 inhabitants, unequally distributed in the different geographical areas: the Northeast and the North regions having lower figures than the South and Southeast regions. Conclusion The country has opted for innovative services and programs, such as the expansion of Psychosocial Community Centers and the Return Home program to deinstitutionalize

  11. The ghost of public health journalism: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Glinda S; Brown, Rebecca C

    2010-03-01

    The news industry is undergoing shrinking newspaper circulations, cuts in science and health coverage, and expansion of Internet news sources. We examine the impact of these changes using a case study set in Libby, Montana. In 1999, a Seattle newspaper story focused attention on asbestos exposure and related diseases in this small town. In 2009, that newspaper became an online-only newspaper, just as coverage of a related criminal trial began. Later that year the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a public health emergency. Online newspaper archives and a collaboration between the University of Montana's journalism and law schools contributed to coverage of these developments. Continued efforts to promote interest in and skills needed for high-quality public health and environmental reporting are needed.

  12. [The role of ergonomics in occupational health - past and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    The aim of working condition and ergonomics is to control the task method and condition for the best productive activity with the highest efficiency and sustainability. The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick Winslow Taylor and its criticism by Gito Teruoka, the 1st director of The Institute for Science of Labour, are introduced for a better understanding of work condition and ergonomics in this article. Occupational physician have a duty to control working method and condition to reduce the health hazards induced by job duty. Not only the technical knowledge of medicine, but also a fundamental knowledge of manufacturing is needed for the occupational physician. The development of tools for early detection of health hazards and workload evaluation, the introduction of work management systems with cooperation between occupational physicians and technical experts of manufacturing are needed for effective control of the workplace. The strengthening of the Industrial Safety and Health Law should help to drive these improvements.

  13. Sensitizing Future Health Professionals to Determinants of Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemond, Tiara N; Blake, Christine E; Buff, Scotty M; Blake, Elizabeth W; Dunn, Brianne L; Browne, Teri; Bell, Bethany A; Iachini, Aidyn L

    2016-07-01

    Long-term solutions to the childhood obesity epidemic will require concerted interdisciplinary efforts that are sensitive to both individual and social determinants of health. The Junior Doctors of Health© (JDOH) program involves interprofessional education (IPE) with university students from health science fields (e.g., medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health) who deliver an interactive program in teams to at-risk school-aged youth. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the JDOH IPE program on university students' beliefs about childhood obesity. Fifty-three of the 71 health sciences students enrolled in the JDOH IPE program between 2011 and 2013 participated in this study. Pre- and post-surveys assessed students' beliefs about the importance, causes of, and responsibility for reducing childhood obesity with both closed- and open-ended questions. In 2013, quantitative data were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests and qualitative data were analyzed through open coding to identify emergent themes. Results indicate that after participation in the JDOH IPE program, students' identification of social and environmental causes of childhood obesity increased significantly. Further, students' ranking of the importance of obesity was initially higher than those of different issues typically portrayed as social or environmental (e.g., youth violence) but it was similarly ranked after participation in JDOH. This suggests a greater sensitivity to social and environmental challenges faced by youth. Findings suggest that IPE experiences that bring clinical and community-oriented health professions together to engage with disadvantaged youth foster sensitivity to the complexities of childhood obesity in low-income settings. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring the Burden of Surgical Disease Averted by Emergency and Essential Surgical Care in a District Hospital in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Matthew A R; Guest, Glenn D; Mamadi, Perista; Seta, Westin; Yaubihi, Noel; Karawiga, Grace; Naidi, Billy; Watters, David A K

    2017-03-01

    Timely access to emergency and essential surgical care (EESC) and anaesthesia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) prevents premature death, minimises lifelong disability and reduces their economic impact on families and communities. Papua New Guinea is one of the poorest countries in the Pacific region, and provides much of its surgical care at a district hospital level. We aimed to evaluate the surgical capacity of a district hospital in PNG and estimate the effectiveness of surgical interventions provided. We performed a prospective study to calculate the number of DALYs averted for 465 patients treated with surgical care over a 3-month period (Sep-Nov 2013) in Alotau Hospital, Milne Bay Province, PNG (pop 210,000). Data were also collected on infrastructure, workforce, interventions provided and equipment available using the World Health Organization's Integrated Management of Emergency and Essential Surgical Care Toolkit, a survey to assess EESC and surgical capacity. We also performed a retrospective one-year audit of surgical, obstetric and anaesthetic care to provide context with regards to annual disease burden treated and surgical activity. EESC was provided by 11 Surgeons/Anaesthetists/Obstetricians (SAO) providers, equating to 5.7 per 100,000 population (including 4 nurse anaesthetists). They performed 783/100,000 procedures annually. Over the 3-month prospective study period, 4954 DALYs were averted by 465 surgical interventions, 52 % of which were elective. This equates to 18,330 DALYs averted annually or, approximately 18 % of the published but estimated disease burden in the Province in the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study. The overall peri-operative mortality rate was 1.29 %, with 0.41 % for elective procedures and 2.25 % for emergencies. Much of the burden of surgical disease in Papua New Guinea presenting to Alotau General Hospital serving Milne Bay Province can be effectively treated by a small team providing emergency and

  15. Knowledge for Healthcare: the future of health librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Sue Lacey; Stewart, David; Goswami, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Many people are still not receiving the right care. It is imperative for health care librarians to come together around a common vision to achieve Knowledge for Healthcare so that the right knowledge and evidence is used at the right time in the right place. The authors describe five workstreams within a modernisation programme: Service Transformation, Workforce Planning and Development, Quality and Impact, Resource Discovery and Optimising Investment. Communications, engagement and partnership working are central to success. The development framework sets out principles on which to base decisions, and design criteria for transforming services. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  16. FUTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  17. E-health status in the information society and its future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tandiseh Bana

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the introduction of e-health in the information society and its associated aspects as well as the development of e-health and future prospects. Continue to assess the impact of each of these aspects will be addressed in the development of the health sector, aspiration and vision development. Paper Type: letter to editor.

  18. Evidence to inform the future for maternal and newborn health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Blencowe, Hannah; Kinney, Mary V; Bianchi, Fiorella; Graham, Wendy J

    2016-10-01

    Despite the impressive progress gains for maternal and child health during the Millennium Development Goals era, over 5.6 million women and babies died in 2015 due to complications during pregnancy, birth and in the first month of life. In order to achieve the new mortality targets set out in the Sustainable Development Goals, there needs to be intentional efforts to maintain and accelerate action to end preventable maternal and newborn deaths and stillbirths. This paper outlines what progress is required to meet these new 2030 targets based on patterns of progress in the recent past; where the burden is the greatest; when to focus attention along the continuum of care; and what causes of death require concerted efforts. Priority actions include intentional and intensified political attention and investment in maternal-newborn health with particular focus on improving quality and experience of care around the time of birth with implementation at scale of integrated maternal-newborn health interventions across the continuum of care with commensurate investment targeted at the most vulnerable populations. Looking forward, improved data for decision making and accountability will be required. The health and survival of babies and their mothers are inextricably linked, and calls for coordinated efforts and innovation before and during pregnancy, in childbirth, and postnatally, in order to end preventable maternal, neonatal deaths and stillbirths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. CHIPS: a health care system for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1986-01-01

    The Comprehensive Health/Integrated Provider System (CHIPS) is a vertically integrated care delivery model that enables hospitals to maintain or increase market share by sponsoring the widest possible range of health-related services. These include long-term care, dental care, fitness promotion, sleep disturbance therapy--virtually any service that can be incorporated in a system of providers. The CHIPS model can be modified to focus on a specific segment of the population rather than attempting to serve as many people as possible. This focus could be based on geographic considerations or on some demographic or health characteristic of the targeted population segment. Three basic strategies are available for choosing CHIPS locations. Providers can be consolidated in a single campus, or a loose network of services can be scattered throughout the area. Midway between these two strategies is the satellite approach, whereby CHIPS providers offer their services shopping center-style in one or more locations; this approach could be used either in addition to or instead of the campus strategy. A CHIPS may establish financial links with its patients through such insurance models as prepaid group practices or health maintenance organizations based on independent practice associations. Such links can provide significant price advantages on insured items sold to patients without exposing the hospital to antitrust liability. Other advantages of a CHIPS are that it can build patient loyalty (its chief purpose) and strengthen ties with the medical staff.

  20. Inequalities in health--future threats to equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunning-Schepers, L. J.; Stronks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In discussions about equity there is a tendency to focus on the inequalities in health status that appear to be the result of the material and immaterial consequences of a lower income, professional or social status in society. If we look at publications such as the Black Report in the UK or

  1. Responder safety and health: preparing for future disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissman, Dori B; Howard, John

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews lessons learned about managing the safety and health of workers who were involved in disaster response, recovery, and cleanup after the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. The first two sections review ongoing responder health burdens and the tragic toll of this disaster from a worker safety and health perspective. The remaining sections address changes in federal infrastructure, response planning, and resources for protection of response and recovery personnel. Proper preparation includes pre-event and "just-in-time" disaster-worker training on likely hazards, organizational assets for hazard monitoring, and hands-on instruction in the use of assigned protective equipment. Good planning includes predeployment medical review to ensure "fitness for duty" and considers the following: (1) personal risk factors, (2) hazards likely to be associated with particular field locations, and (3) risks involved with assigned tasks (eg, workload and pace, work/rest cycles, available resources, and team/supervisory dynamics). Planning also should address worker health surveillance, medical monitoring, and availability of medical care (including mental health services). Disaster safety managers should anticipate likely hazards within planning scenarios and prepare asset inventories to facilitate making timely safety decisions. Disaster safety management begins immediately and provides ongoing real-time guidance to incident leadership at all levels of government. Robust standards must be met to reliably protect workers/responders. An integrated and measurable multiagency safety management function must be built into the incident command system before an incident occurs. This function delineates roles and responsibilities for rapid exposure assessments, ensuring cross-agency consistency in data interpretation, and timely, effective communication of information and control strategies. The ability to perform this safety management function should be tested and

  2. Evaluation of severe accident safety system value based on averting financial risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, S.W.; Benjamin, A.S.; Bennett, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program is being performed to benchmark the risks from nuclear power plants and to assess the benefits and impacts of a set of severe accident safety features. This paper describes the program in general and presents some preliminary results. These results include estimates of the financial risks associated with the operation of six reference plants and the value of severe accident prevention and mitigation safety systems in averting these risks. The results represent initial calculations and will be iterated before being used to support NRC decisions

  3. Evaluation of severe accident safety system value based on averting financial risks. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, S.W.; Bennett, P.R.; Benjamin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program is being performed to benchmark the risks from nuclear power plants and to assess the benefits and impacts of a set of severe accident safety features. This paper describes the program in general and presents some preliminary results. These results include estimates of the financial risks associated with the operation of six reference plants and the value of severe accident prevention and mitigation safety systems in averting these risks. The results represent initial calculations and will be iterated before being used to support NRC decisions.

  4. Electronic Health Records: Then, Now, and in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives Describe the state of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) in 1992 and their evolution by 2015 and where EHRs are expected to be in 25 years. Further to discuss the expectations for EHRs in 1992 and explore which of them were realized and what events accelerated or disrupted/derailed how EHRs evolved. Methods Literature search based on “Electronic Health Record”, “Medical Record”, and “Medical Chart” using Medline, Google, Wikipedia Medical, and Cochrane Libraries resulted in an initial review of 2,356 abstracts and other information in papers and books. Additional papers and books were identified through the review of references cited in the initial review. Results By 1992, hardware had become more affordable, powerful, and compact and the use of personal computers, local area networks, and the Internet provided faster and easier access to medical information. EHRs were initially developed and used at academic medical facilities but since most have been replaced by large vendor EHRs. While EHR use has increased and clinicians are being prepared to practice in an EHR-mediated world, technical issues have been overshadowed by procedural, professional, social, political, and especially ethical issues as well as the need for compliance with standards and information security. There have been enormous advancements that have taken place, but many of the early expectations for EHRs have not been realized and current EHRs still do not meet the needs of today’s rapidly changing healthcare environment. Conclusion The current use of EHRs initiated by new technology would have been hard to foresee. Current and new EHR technology will help to provide international standards for interoperable applications that use health, social, economic, behavioral, and environmental data to communicate, interpret, and act intelligently upon complex healthcare information to foster precision medicine and a learning health system. PMID:27199197

  5. Investment decision making in the health care industry: the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H W

    1979-01-01

    The economic and political environment in which providers of health care will operate during the 1980s will continue to be increasingly restrictive. Any private-sector organization's long-run survival depends directly on the quality of its investment decisions, broadly defined. This decision making will require three major innovations if private sector health care providers are to survive: 1) traditional biases about the economics of not-for-profit entities must be abandoned; 2) standard data, procedures, and personnel from the accounting discipline must be supplemented with information, methodologies, and people from the discipline of corporate finance; and 3) economic and fiscal risk must be measured and incorporated into both investment decisions and interactions with external regulators. Practitioners can begin to implement these innovations immediately. Although substantial literature exists developing all these concepts generally and applying them to for-profit settings, the literature purporting to treat investment decision making for private-sector health care providers is, on average, replete with conceptual error, simplistic thinking, erroneous applications, and out-of-date methodologies. The literature is, in a word, horrid. Authors, both practitioner and academic, should stop writing terrible books and booklike periodicals for easy royalty dollars, and, instead, pursue sound applied research and disseminate their results in classrooms and in refereed journals.

  6. Discounting future health benefits: the poverty of consistency arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In economic evaluation of health care, main stream practice is to discount benefits at the same rate as costs. But main papers in which this practice is advocated have missed a distinction between two quite different evaluation problems: (1) How much does the time of program occurrence matter for value and (2) how much do delays in health benefits from programs implemented at a given time matter? The papers have furthermore focused on logical and arithmetic arguments rather than on real value considerations. These 'consistency arguments' are at best trivial, at worst logically flawed. At the end of the day, there is a sensible argument for equal discounting of costs and benefits rooted in microeconomic theory of rational, utility maximising consumers' saving behaviour. But even this argument is problematic, first because the model is not clearly supported by empirical observations of individuals' time preferences for health, second because it relates only to evaluation in terms of overall individual utility. It does not provide grounds for claiming that decision makers with a wider societal perspective, which may include concerns for fair distribution, need to discount Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Future Educators’ Gender Norms, Sexuality, and Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leodoro J. Labrague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored gender-related norms, sexuality, and reproductive health among education students in a government university in Samar, Philippines. A descriptive-analytical design of study was adopted for this investigation and data were collected over a period of five months. Five hundred fifty (550 education students who were enrolled in the different year level completed the modified John Clelands’ Illustrative Questionnaire for Young People. Results indicated that 14.73% of the students reported having had early sexual experience where in 69.14 % had it unplanned. Among sexually active students, only 17.28% used contraception, with condoms and withdrawal as the most popular choices. Respondents were also found to have some misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS and STI’s. Result also showed that dating was still acceptable, however, the idea of abortion and sexual coercion were considered wrong. No significant differences in the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and STI’s and gender norms were found across year level. Findings suggest a greater need for education, support and advocacy relative to sexuality so as to create a more positive school environment conducive for holistic growth and development of all students. Thus, school administrators should improve/enhance existing policies and programs relative to reproductive health among college students of the University such as health promotion activities, sexuality education, counseling and alike.

  8. Health Physics Innovations Developed During Cassini for Future Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Rodney E.; Rutherford, Theresa M.; Marmaro, George M.

    1999-01-01

    The long history of space flight includes missions that used Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power devices, starting with the Transit 4A Spacecraft (1961), continuing through the Apollo, Pioneer, Viking, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Mars Pathfinder, and most recently, Cassini (1997). All Major Radiological Source (MRS) missions were processed at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC/CCAS) Launch Site in full compliance with program and regulatory requirements. The cumulative experience gained supporting these past missions has led to significant innovations which will be useful for benchmarking future MRS mission ground processing. Innovations developed during ground support for the Cassini mission include official declaration of sealed-source classifications, utilization of a mobile analytical laboratory, employment of a computerized dosimetry record management system, and cross-utilization of personnel from related disciplines.

  9. Inequalities in health--future threats to equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning-Schepers, L J; Stronks, K

    1999-01-01

    In discussions about equity there is a tendency to focus on the inequalities in health status that appear to be the result of the material and immaterial consequences of a lower income, professional or social status in society. If we look at publications such as the Black Report in the UK or Ongelijke gezondheid in The Netherlands, we have to accept that despite our universal access to healthcare and the existence in many Western countries of social security measures that preclude 'real' poverty, considerable differences in health continue to exist between socioeconomic groups. This is corroborated for many other European countries in the research carried out by a concerted action led by Mackenbach. These inequalities in health have been referred to in many countries as inequities, meaning that society finds them unjust and expects them to be 'avoidable' or amenable to policy interventions. However, the research on the causal networks underlying the occurrence and the avoidability of inequalities in health remains sparse and intervention studies seem to focus on policy measures that can be evaluated, but which will most likely have a limited impact on the inequalities measured at the population level. Thus the research community leaves policymakers with very little evidence on which to build policy initiatives that are nevertheless requested by many governments. The third element, which needs to be addressed in this context, is the ominous inequality in access to healthcare. Since the debate on equity in health has rightly been initiated in the context of a broader, more intersectoral approach to health policy, very little attention has been paid, so far, to the issue of universal access to quality healthcare services. This is because in the second half of this century most Western (European) countries have created a healthcare system with universal access, financed either through taxation or through social insurance schemes. It is these financing systems that will

  10. Future of keeping pet reptiles and amphibians: animal welfare and public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, C; Jessop, M; Arena, P; Pliny, A; Nicholas, E; Lambiris, A

    2017-10-28

    In a review summary on page 450, Pasmans and others discuss the future of keeping reptiles and amphibians as pets. Here, Clifford Warwick and others discuss the animal welfare and public health implications of exotic pet business. British Veterinary Association.

  11. A long life in good health: subjective expectations regarding length and future health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappange, David R; Brouwer, Werner B F; van Exel, Job

    2016-06-01

    Subjective life expectancy is considered relevant in predicting mortality and future demand for health services as well as for explaining peoples' decisions in several life domains, such as the perceived impact of health behaviour changes on future health outcomes. Such expectations and in particular subjective expectations regarding future health-related quality of life remain understudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate individuals' subjective quality adjusted life years (QALYs) expectation from age 65 onwards in a representative sample of the Dutch generic public. A web-based questionnaire was administered to a sample of the adult population from the Netherlands. Information on subjective expectations regarding length and future health-related quality of life were combined into one single measure of subjective expected QALYs from age 65 onwards. This subjective QALY expectation was related to background, health and lifestyle variables. The implications of using different methods to construct our main outcome measure were addressed. Mean subjective expected QALYs from age 65 onwards was 11 QALYs (range -9 to 40 QALYs). Individuals with unhealthier lifestyles, chronic diseases, severe disorders or lower age of death of next of kin reported lower QALY expectations. Indicators were varyingly associated with either subjective life expectancy or future health-related quality of life, or both. Extending the concept of subjective life expectancy by correcting for expected quality of life appears to generate important additional information contributing to our understanding of people's perceptions regarding ageing and lifestyle choices.

  12. Sustainable workplaces of the future – European Research Challenges for occupational safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous

    2012-01-01

    Via a consultation process, the PEROSH members identified what occupational safety and health topics the European institutes specialised in, and what they see as the major trends and future challenges in the world of work and their impact on OSH. A second part of the consultation analysed future

  13. MORAL EDUCATION OF FUTURE HEALTH WORKER AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    T A Kornaukhova; V N Mesinov

    2015-01-01

    In this article the problems of determination of specifics and the place of moral education of the future health worker in the context of professional education, and also the search for an effective model of professional education are considered. The central idea of this article is the statement of the need for the axiological model of a future health worker’s professional education in the context of which it is possible to integrate the revealed models.

  14. MORAL EDUCATION OF FUTURE HEALTH WORKER AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Kornaukhova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the problems of determination of specifics and the place of moral education of the future health worker in the context of professional education, and also the search for an effective model of professional education are considered. The central idea of this article is the statement of the need for the axiological model of a future health worker’s professional education in the context of which it is possible to integrate the revealed models.

  15. The present and future of nanotechnology in human health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S K; Parveen, S; Panda, J J

    2007-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices derived from engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. The burgeoning new field of nanotechnology, opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creates myriad new opportunities for advancing medical science and disease treatment in human health care. Applications of nanotechnology to medicine and physiology imply materials and devices designed to interact with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular) scales with a high degree of specificity. This can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. In this review the chief scientific and technical aspects of nanotechnology are introduced, and some of its potential clinical applications are discussed.

  16. Future Orientation: A Construct with Implications for Adolescent Health and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Blum, Robert W; Cheng, Tina L.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-disciplinary research has supported a relationship between adolescent future orientation (the ability to set future goals and plans) and positive adolescent health and development outcomes. Many preventive strategies—for example contracepting, exercising—are based on taking actions in the present to avoid unwanted or negative future consequences. However, research has been hampered by unclear and often divergent conceptualizations of the future orientation construct. The present paper aims to integrate previous conceptual and operational definitions into a conceptual framework that can inform programs and services for youth and efforts to evaluate future orientation as a target for intervention. Recommendations focus on furthering the study of the construct through measurement synthesis as well as studies of the normative development of future orientation. Also suggested is the need to pair environmental intervention strategies with individual level efforts to improve future orientation in order to maximize benefits. PMID:24523304

  17. Work satisfaction and future career intentions of experienced nurses transitioning to primary health care employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Christine; Peters, Kath; Brown, Angela; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2018-02-12

    To explore registered nurses' reflections on transitioning from acute to primary health care employment, and future career intentions. Reforms in primary health care have resulted in increasing demands for a skilled primary health care nursing workforce. To meet shortfalls, acute care nurses are being recruited to primary health care employment, yet little is known about levels of satisfaction and future career intentions. A sequential mixed methods study consisting of a survey and semi-structured interviews with nurses who transition to primary health care. Most reported positive experiences, valuing work/life balance, role diversity and patient/family interactions. Limited orientation and support, loss of acute skills and inequitable remuneration were reported negatively. Many respondents indicated an intention to stay in primary health care (87.3%) and nursing (92.6%) for the foreseeable future, whilst others indicated they may leave primary health care as soon as convenient (29.6%). Our findings provide guidance to managers in seeking strategies to recruit and retain nurses in primary health care employment. To maximize recruitment and retention, managers must consider factors influencing job satisfaction amongst transitioning nurses, and the impact that nurses' past experiences may have on future career intentions in primary health care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Diffusion of health education programs with reference to health behavior theories in Japanese workplaces: present status and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroko; Muto, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of health education programs and the health behavior theories used to establish more effective programs for Japanese companies. The study surveyed 1,372 companies with 500 or more employees. In a cross-sectional study, the characteristics of the health education programs were surveyed using a questionnaire, which included items regarding target lifestyle-related diseases and lifestyle areas, and the health behavior theories used to develop the present status and future plans. One hundred ninety companies responded giving a response rate of 13.8%. At the time of the survey, the most common diseases targeted for primary prevention were obesity (27.1%), hypertension (22.7%), hyperlipidemia (22.1%), and diabetes (22.1%). Approximately 60% of the respondents were implementing health education programs that targeted certain lifestyles, and the most frequently reported target lifestyles were diet (41.0%) and exercise (38.2%). At the time of the survey, 40% of respondents had implemented programs that included health behavior theory, and 55.6% were going to implement such program plans in the future, a significantly higher percentage than at the time of the survey. In Japanese workplaces, it has been suggested that programs that include health behavior theories have not been implemented frequently enough, but such programs are expected to become more common in the future. The findings of this survey may be useful for planning health education programs using health behavior theories to establish more effective programs for Japanese companies.

  19. Death, taxes, public opinion, and the Midas touch of Mary Tyler Moore: accounting for promises by politicians to help avert and control diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie

    2003-06-01

    Anthropologists have begun to publish ethnographic accounts of policy-making, but few have studied medical or health matters, despite broad acceptance in anthropology that "biopower" permeates contemporary societies. This article presents some findings from an ethnographic study of how diabetes gained recognition as a pressing public health problem in Canada. It underlines the importance of statistics for constituting power within and across nation states. Statistics imbricate people and things distributed across vast distances, but they still need to be generated and invoked by individuals to engender effects--as illustrated in this article by the contributions of researchers, aboriginal leaders, and an American actress, Mary Tyler Moore--in this case, the development of Canadian government policies justified in the name of averting and controlling diabetes. To make sense of these findings, subtle differences between two concepts coined by Michel Foucault, "biopower" and "governmentality," seem significant.

  20. Men's Sheds function and philosophy: towards a framework for future research and men's health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Doma, Kenji; Misan, Gary; Vaz, Sharmila

    2015-08-01

    The Men's Shed movement supports a range of men's health promotion initiatives. This paper examines whether a Men's Shed typology could inform future research and enable more efficient and targeted health promotion activities through Men's Sheds. The International Men's Shed Survey consisted of a cross-sectional exploration of sheds, their members, and health and social activities. Survey data about shed 'function' and 'philosophy' were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A framework of Men's Sheds based on function and philosophy demonstrated that most sheds serve a primary utility function, a secondary social function, but most importantly a primary social opportunity philosophy. Sheds with a primary health philosophy participated in fewer health promotion activities when compared with sheds without a primary health philosophy. In addition to the uniform health promotion resources distributed by the Men's Shed associations, specific health promotion activities, such as prostate education, are being initiated from an individual shed level. This framework can potentially be used to enable future research and health promotion activities to be more efficiently and effectively targeted. SO WHAT? Men experience poorer health and well being outcomes than women. This framework offers a novel approach to providing targeted health promotion activities to men in an environment where it is okay to talk about men's health.

  1. How Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury was averted during Knee Collapse in a NBA Point Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilaty, Nathan D; Bates, Nathaniel A; Krych, Aaron J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur with rapid decelerations and pivoting. A recent injury to a high-level National Basketball Association (NBA) player demonstrated neuromuscular control and injury-sparing mechanisms that resulted in only minor ligament injury to the medial collateral ligament. We analyzed biomechanical mechanisms via publically available orthogonal 2-D video to demonstrate how this potential ACL injury was averted. Analysis of the knee injury mechanism demonstrated that the NBA player experienced low ground reaction force, high sagittal plane flexion, and maintenance of frontal plane stability with neuromuscular control. The outcome of these factors inhibited dynamic valgus collapse of the knee throughout the fall, avoiding ACL injury - a potentially career-altering injury. Many athletes, professional and recreational, will be subjected to similar mechanisms of injury and will have improved outcomes if they can successfully utilize preventive strategies of neuromuscular control to limit injury mechanisms.

  2. Forming a health culture of future teachers in Polish educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. IERMAKOVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the experience of the structure and system of training of future teachers in Polish schools. Material: content analysis of domestic and foreign authors. Used data from the survey of students of Polish universities. Also were used survey results through polish service ANKIETKA. For comparison, a questionnaire survey 35 students of the Faculty of Physical Education (future teachers of physical training and 30 students - the future teachers of elementary school of Ukrainian university. Results: the study of Polish teachers consider health culture of a person as the ability to assess individual and community health needs using in everyday life hygiene and health regulations. There have been some differences among Ukrainian and Polish students in their health and health culture. Among the respondents, Polish students - the future teachers of physical culture, is dominated motives such as the improvement of the physical condition, strengthen self-esteem, as well as improved health. Polish students from other disciplines believe that the most important motive for the adoption of physical activity is a concern for the physical well-being and mental health. The majority of Ukrainian students (future teachers of physical culture believe an important part of building health culture of their direct participation in various sports clubs, as well as the ability to organize physical culture, sports and educational work with students outside the classroom. Ukrainian students (other specialty noted the need to improve health, enhance knowledge in specific subjects humanities and promoting healthy lifestyles. Conclusions: It is recommended to use the experience of preparing students of Polish schools in modern Ukrainian higher education.

  3. Research inventory of child health: A report on roadmaps for the future of child health research in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ottova, Veronika; Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Staines, Anthony; Hjern, Anders; Leonardi, Matilde; Blair, Mitch; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Bourek, Ales; Köhler, Lennart; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Tomé, Gina; Ramiro, Lucia; Santos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    RICHE was the response to a call under HEALTH-2009-3.3-5, with the title of 'European child health research platform'. The call text asked us to “address the diversity and fragmentation in child health research in Europe in an inclusive multidisciplinary way, identifying existing research programmes in Member States, recent advances and identification of gaps to explore road maps for the future of child health research in Europe”. Project structure A consortium, with a final total of 23 pa...

  4. Data, Staff, and Money: Leadership Reflections on the Future of Public Health Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P; Shah, Gulzar H; Williams, Karmen S; Gupta, Akrati; Castrucci, Brian C

    Health informatics can play a critical role in supporting local health departments' (LHDs') delivery of certain essential public health services and improving evidence base for decision support. However, LHDs' informatics capacities are below an optimum level. Efforts to build such capacities face ongoing challenges. Moreover, little is known about LHD leaders' desires for the future of public health informatics. Conduct a qualitative analysis of LHDs' future informatics plans, perceived barriers to accomplishing those plans, and potential impact of future advances in public health informatics on the work of the public health enterprise. This research presents findings from 49 in-depth key informant interviews with public health leaders and informatics professionals from LHDs, representing insights from across the United States. Interviewees were selected on the basis of the size of the population their LHD serves, as well as level of informatics capacity. Interviews were transcribed, verified, and double coded. Major barriers to doing more with informatics included staff capacity and training, financial constraints, dependency on state health agency, and small LHD size/lack of regionalization. When asked about the role of leadership in expanding informatics, interviewees said that leaders could make it a priority through (1) learning more about informatics and (2) creating appropriate budgets for integrated information systems. Local health department leaders said that they desired data that were timely and geographically specific. In addition, LHD leaders said that they desired greater access to clinical data, especially around chronic disease indicators. Local health department leadership desires to have timely or even real-time data. Local health departments have a great potential to benefit from informatics, particularly electronic health records in advancing their administrative practices and service delivery, but financial and human capital represents the

  5. Future human health research directions for the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Shawn G.; Curren, Meredith S.; Adlard, Bryan; Provost, Jonathan; Leech, Tara; Tikhonov, Constantine; Feeley, Mark; Tomlinson, Scott; Shearer, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic. PMID:24282784

  6. Operators’ Improvisation in Complex Technological Systems: The Last Resort to Averting an Assured Disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkati, N.

    2016-01-01

    normal function” of tightly coupled technological systems is to operate on the boundary to loss of control. That is, people are involved in a dynamic and continuous interaction with failure and hazard (Rasmussen, 1989). Thus, “touching the boundary to loss of control is necessary (e.g., for dynamic “speed-accuracy” trade-offs)” (Rasmussen, Pejtersen, & Goodstein, 1994). This is a rapidly changing environment, and in order to survive it, the system should be able to respond in a safe and effective manner. Occasionally, it may require an improvised response from the operator(s), but it should certainly be coordinated and in concert with others’ activities and stay within the boundaries of acceptable work performance (Rasmussen, 1989). Otherwise, it would be just noise in the control of the system and could lead to errors. It must also be able to flexibly reconfigure and synchronize all of its system elements to address the threatening issues. The brining the four nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daini plant to the cold shut down, after the Tōhoku earthquake, tsunami and station black out of March 11, 2011, was nothing short of a miracle. The heroic act of a dedicated group of human operators, who went out of their way and by encountering multiple sources of hazard and harm, taking personal risk, and by relying on their ingenuity, teamwork, and dedication despite all odds, brought all four reactors to cold shutdown and consequently averted the second assured nuclear disaster in Fukushima prefecture with serious implications for travelling fallouts to Tokyo and its subsequent evacuation. The Superintendent of the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station, Mr. Naohiro Masuda, and his operators resorted to improvisation to save the day after experiencing station black out; and their improvised acts are too numerous to mention. Nevertheless, the most memorable noteworthy ones include, “flexibly applying EOPs” and “Temporary cable of 9 km length was laid by about 200

  7. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  8. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However...

  9. Role of government in public health: Current scenario in India and future scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new agenda for Public Health in India includes the epidemiological transition, demographical transition, environmental changes and social determinants of health. Based on the principles outlined at Alma-Ata in 1978, there is an urgent call for revitalizing primary health care in order to meet these challenges. The role of the government in influencing population health is not limited within the health sector but also by various sectors outside the health systems. This article is a literature review of the existing government machinery for public health needs in India, its success, limitations and future scope. Health system strengthening, human resource development and capacity building and regulation in public health are important areas within the health sector. Contribution to health of a population also derives from social determinants of health like living conditions, nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation, education, early child development and social security measures. Population stabilization, gender mainstreaming and empowerment, reducing the impact of climate change and disasters on health, improving community participation and governance issues are other important areas for action. Making public health a shared value across the various sectors is a politically challenging strategy, but such collective action is crucial.

  10. Employers’ Perspectives on Future Roles and Skills Requirements for Australian Health Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Hamill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study, which comprises one stage of a larger project (ALIA/HLA Workforce and Education Research Project, aimed to discover employers’ views on how (or whether health librarians assist in achieving the mission-critical goals of their organizations; how health librarians contribute to the organization now and into the future; and what are the current and future skills requirements of health librarians.Methods – Each member of the project group approached between one and five individuals known to them to generate a convenience sample of 22 employers of health librarians. There were 15 semi-structured interviews conducted between October and November 2010 with employers in the hospital, academic, government, private, consumer health and not-for-profit sectors. The interview schedule was sent to each interviewee prior to the interview so that they had time to consider their responses. The researchers wrote up the interview notes using the interview schedule and submitted them to the principal researcher, who combined the data into one document. Content analysis of the data was used to identify major themes.Results – Employers expressed a clear sense of respect for the roles and responsibilities of library staff in their organizations. Areas of practice such as education and training, scientific research and clinical support were highlighted as critical for the future. Current areas of practice such as using technology and systems to manage information, providing information services to meet user needs and management of health information resources in a range of formats were identified as remaining highly relevant for the future. There was potential for health librarians to play a more active and strategic role in their organizations, and to repackage their traditional skill sets for anticipated future roles. Interpersonal skills and the role of health librarians as the interface between clinicians and information technology

  11. Future heat stress arising from climate change on Iran's population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, Reza; Ghadami, Mohammad; Naderi, Sohrab; Naderi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Climate change-induced extreme heat events are becoming a major issue in different parts of the world, especially in developing countries. The assessment of regional and temporal past and future change in heat waves is a crucial task for public health strategies and managements. The historical and future heat index (HI) time series are investigated for temporal change across Iran to study the impact of global warming on public health. The heat index is calculated, and the nonparametric trend assessment is carried out for historical time series (1981-2010). The future change in heat index is also projected for 2020-2049 and 2070-2099 periods. A rise in the historical heat index and extreme caution conditions for summer and spring seasons for major parts of Iran are notable for historical (1981-2010) series in this study. Using different climate change scenarios shows that heat index will exceed the critical threshold for human adaptability in the future in the country. The impact of climate change on heat index risk in Iran is significant in the future. To cope with this crucial situation, developing early warning systems and health care strategies to deal with population growth and remarkable socio-economic features in future is essential.

  12. Short horizons and obesity futures: disjunctures between public health interventions and everyday temporalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warin, Megan; Zivkovic, Tanya; Moore, Vivienne; Ward, Paul R; Jones, Michelle

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the spatio-temporal disjuncture between 'the future' in public health obesity initiatives and the embodied reality of eating. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork in a disadvantaged community in South Australia (August 2012-July 2014), we argue that the future oriented discourses of managing risk employed in obesity prevention programs have limited relevance to the immediacy of poverty, contingencies and survival that mark people's day to day lives. Extending Bourdieu's position that temporality is a central feature of practice, we develop the concept of short horizons to offer a theoretical framework to articulate the tensions between public health imperatives of healthy eating, and local 'tastes of necessity'. Research undertaken at the time of Australia's largest obesity prevention program (OPAL) demonstrates that pre-emptive and risk-based approaches to health can fail to resonate when the future is not within easy reach. Considering the lack of evidence for success of obesity prevention programs, over-reliance on appeals to 'the future' may be a major challenge to the design, operationalisation and success of interventions. Attention to local rather than future horizons reveals a range of innovative strategies around everyday food and eating practices, and these capabilities need to be understood and supported in the delivery of obesity interventions. We argue, therefore, that public health initiatives should be located in the dynamics of a living present, tailored to the particular, localised spatio-temporal perspectives and material circumstances in which people live. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The future of health insurance for children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newacheck, Paul W; Houtrow, Amy J; Romm, Diane L; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Bloom, Sheila R; Van Cleave, Jeanne M; Perrin, James M

    2009-05-01

    Because of their elevated need for services, health insurance is particularly important for children with special health care needs. In this article we assess how well the current system is meeting the insurance needs of children with special health care needs and how emerging trends in health insurance may affect their well-being. We begin with a review of the evidence on the impact of health insurance on the health care experiences of children with special health care needs based on the peer-reviewed literature. We then assess how well the current system meets the needs of these children by using data from 2 editions of the National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. Finally, we present an analysis of recent developments and emerging trends in the health insurance marketplace that may affect this population. Although a high proportion of children with special health care needs have insurance at any point in time, nearly 40% are either uninsured at least part of the year or have coverage that is inadequate. Recent expansions in public coverage, although offset in part by a contraction in employer-based coverage, have led to modest but significant reductions in the number of uninsured children with special health care needs. Emerging insurance products, including consumer-directed health plans, may expose children with special health care needs and their families to greater financial risks. Health insurance coverage has the potential to secure access to needed care and improve the quality of life for these children while protecting their families from financially burdensome health care expenses. Continued vigilance and advocacy for children and youth with special health care needs are needed to ensure that these children have access to adequate coverage and that they fare well under health care reform.

  14. Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing in China: Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuying; Li, Xin-Min; Xu, Dongmei; Wang, Wenqiang

    2017-10-01

    The mental health service model and policy have undergone dramatic changes and are moving toward the establishment of integrated service network-based community mental health services in China. But there are still some issues, such as shortage of resources, a relatively low rate of psychiatric treatment, lack of the knowledge about mental health in the general population, and stigma associated with mental disorders. This paper summarizes the history of psychiatric and mental health nursing in China and analyzes the characteristics of the current situation. There are healthcare challenges for psychiatric and mental health nurses with the mental health services reform by government, and in this paper we discuss future trends and provide suggestions for development of the psychiatric nursing profession, and mental health services reform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative analysis of health preservation features among future specialists in the sphere of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshkov D.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of empirical data of foreign and domestic medical and social research on the problem related to the features of health preservation among medical students. It was revealed that all the researchers recognized the importance of health preservation for future doctors in the context of perspective patients counseling on healthy lifestyle. It was determined that the academic sphere of a medical school, on the one hand, promotes formation of health preserving practices among students and, on the other hand, resists these practices implementation due to the specificity of training process of future doctors. It was noted that students' perception of health preservation varied at different stages of training process in a medical school.

  16. The Future of Public Health Informatics: Alternative Scenarios and Recommended Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Margo; Thorpe, Lorna; Sepulveda, Martin; Bezold, Clem; Ross, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In October 2013, the Public Health Informatics Institute (PHII) and Institute for Alternative Futures (IAF) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to evaluate forces shaping public health informatics (PHI) in the United States, with the aim of identifying upcoming challenges and opportunities. The PHI workshop was funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as part of its larger strategic planning process for public health and primary care. Workshop Context: During the two-day workshop, nine experts from the public and private sectors analyzed and discussed the implications of four scenarios regarding the United States economy, health care system, information technology (IT) sector, and their potential impacts on public health in the next 10 years, by 2023. Workshop participants considered the potential role of the public health sector in addressing population health challenges in each scenario, and then identified specific informatics goals and strategies needed for the sector to succeed in this role. Recommendations and Conclusion: Participants developed recommendations for the public health informatics field and for public health overall in the coming decade. These included the need to rely more heavily on intersectoral collaborations across public and private sectors, to improve data infrastructure and workforce capacity at all levels of the public health enterprise, to expand the evidence base regarding effectiveness of informatics-based public health initiatives, and to communicate strategically with elected officials and other key stakeholders regarding the potential for informatics-based solutions to have an impact on population health. PMID:25848630

  17. The effect of future outdoor air pollution on human health and the contribution of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Lamarque, J.; Shindell, D.; Collins, W.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Faluvegi, G. S.; Folberth, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Bergmann, D. J.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Doherty, R. M.; Eyring, V.; Josse, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, D.; Righi, M.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S. A.; Szopa, S.; Zeng, G.

    2013-12-01

    At present, exposure to outdoor air pollution from ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) causes over 2 million deaths per year, due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. Future ambient concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 will be affected by both air pollutant emissions and climate change. Here we estimate the potential impact of future outdoor air pollution on premature human mortality, and isolate the contribution of future climate change due to its effect on air quality. We use modeled present-day (2000) and future global ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from simulations with an ensemble of chemistry-climate models from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). Future air pollution was modeled for global greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in the four IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, for 2030, 2050 and 2100. All model outputs are regridded to a common 0.5°x0.5° horizontal resolution. Future premature mortality is estimated for each RCP scenario and year based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000. Using a health impact function, changes in concentrations for each RCP scenario are combined with future population and cause-specific baseline mortality rates as projected by a single independent scenario in which the global incidence of cardiopulmonary diseases is expected to increase. The effect of climate change is isolated by considering the difference between air pollutant concentrations from simulations with 2000 emissions and a future year climate and simulations with 2000 emissions and climate. Uncertainties in the results reflect the uncertainty in the concentration-response function and that associated with variability among models. Few previous studies have quantified the effects of future climate change on global human health via changes in air quality, and this is the first such study to use an ensemble of global models.

  18. The Impact of Future World Events on Iranians' Social Health: A Qualitative Futurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damari, Behzad; Hajian, Maryam; Minaee, Farima; Riazi-Isfahani, Sahand

    2016-06-01

    Social health is a dimension of health affected and interacts with other dimensions. Considering the rate of world changes, foresighting the influence of future events and possible trends on social health could bring about advantageous information for social policy makers. This is a qualitative study of futurology with cross impact analysis approach. After studying possible trends and events in future, they were categorized in four domains including population, resources, climate changes, and globalization and 12 groups of events; and they were used to design a questionnaire. It was given to experts and their opinions were collected through depth interviews between May 2013 and Sep 2013. Analysis of experts' opinions reveals that future trends in four main potential domains may have some positive and more negative impacts on Iranians' social health. The global "resource challenge" is the most important incoming event, considering to the four domains of global events and its final and potential effects will be the increase of inequalities leading to social threat. Since inequalities are considered the most important risk factor of health in the societies, the solution for dispel the impact of world trends on Iranians' social health is managing the crisis of inequalities which is started with fore sighting and adopting preventive strategies in all four domains.

  19. The Impact of Future World Events on Iranians’ Social Health: A Qualitative Futurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAMARI, Behzad; HAJIAN, Maryam; MINAEE, Farima; RIAZI-ISFAHANI, Sahand

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social health is a dimension of health affected and interacts with other dimensions. Considering the rate of world changes, foresighting the influence of future events and possible trends on social health could bring about advantageous information for social policy makers. Methods: This is a qualitative study of futurology with cross impact analysis approach. After studying possible trends and events in future, they were categorized in four domains including population, resources, climate changes, and globalization and 12 groups of events; and they were used to design a questionnaire. It was given to experts and their opinions were collected through depth interviews between May 2013 and Sep 2013. Results: Analysis of experts’ opinions reveals that future trends in four main potential domains may have some positive and more negative impacts on Iranians’ social health. Conclusion: The global “resource challenge” is the most important incoming event, considering to the four domains of global events and its final and potential effects will be the increase of inequalities leading to social threat. Since inequalities are considered the most important risk factor of health in the societies, the solution for dispel the impact of world trends on Iranians’ social health is managing the crisis of inequalities which is started with fore sighting and adopting preventive strategies in all four domains. PMID:27648424

  20. The future of global health cooperation: designing a new World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, K; Stenson, B; Sterky, G

    1996-06-01

    This article discusses some needed changes to the functioning and management of the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO is unable to meet new challenges and needs reform. The Executive Board of WHO initiated an internal review in 1992 that led to a management-related focus, while informal groups within the agency tackled funding constraints. Some governments and nongovernmental groups have proposed reorganization of international health assistance. The authors urge that the public health sector and researchers join the reform effort. WHO was established in 1948 and was the sole global health agency. The demand for greater international health cooperation has increased over time. WHO is an association of sovereign states. WHO demonstrated success in eliminating smallpox, promotion of health policy, collection and dissemination of epidemiologic information, and establishment of standards in health care and medical ethics. WHO staff comprises about 5000 persons. The annual budget is too small at about US$900 million. In 1995 only 56% of receipts were collected. WHO's constitution mandates complete health for all, but there has been a widening gap between rich and poor and those with access to health services and those without. Absolute and relative poverty are the main determinants of premature mortality and ill health. The major challenge for health policy is this disparity; the focus of international collaboration should be on this issue. The machine metaphor of organizational structure no longer works in today's world. The authors propose that WHO limit functions in health development and create a full mandate for dealing with determinants of health. WHO should be participatory, open to constituents, autonomous, and flexible. Member states must be more powerful in policy formulation. Program implementation should occur in independent programs in a decentralized system.

  1. Current process and future path for health economic assessment of pharmaceuticals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products.

  2. Shifting the Culture Around Public Health Advocacy: Training Future Public Health Professionals to Be Effective Agents of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenner, Sarah R; Lang, Cathy M; Prelip, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    There is a critical need to build the capacity of our current and future public health workforce and the communities we serve to engage in public health advocacy. Advocacy should be an integral piece of our intervention strategies and public health discourse. Incorporating public health advocacy into public health training, practice, and research serves as a long-term investment for the public's health. Advocacy can achieve systemic change by addressing the social determinants of health. We developed an advocacy training program that embeds students in community-based organizations (CBOs) for 9 months, providing students with experiential education through the application of advocacy skills and CBOs with opportunities to expand and broaden their advocacy efforts. We have three priority populations: graduate students, CBOs serving Los Angeles County, and the broader Los Angeles County community, focusing on vulnerable populations. Our multifaceted approach addresses the necessity of public health advocacy among the health professions. Through changing how we train students and how communities and universities collaborate, we can strengthen the public health workforce and build healthier communities.

  3. The private health sector in South Africa current trends and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-04

    Aug 4, 1990 ... current trends and future developments. '-10 . = \\. J. BROOMBERG, C. DE BEER, M. R. PRICE. Summary. The private health sector is experiencing a crisis of spiralling costs, with average annual cost increases of between 13% and 32% over the decade 1978 - 1988. This trend is partly explained by the high ...

  4. Education and training in health physics--a look to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, K L; Poston, J W

    1988-08-01

    The next 15 to 20 y promise to be a challenging period in health physics education. The U.S. Department of Energy, in a review of current and projected labor market conditions for professional health physicists and health physics technicians, reports current shortages of professional health physicists in the civilian nuclear industry and predicts a high potential for shortages during the next 15 y. The academic health physics community is also faced with the following issues that compound the difficulty in meeting the high employment demands for qualified health physicists in the near future. (1). A decreasing number of programs--In the past few years, several programs have folded or have undergone reorganization, thus reducing the availability of quality programs to train health physicists and health physics technicians. (2). Decreasing federal funding--Government funding of health physics programs is limited, necessitating programs to obtain support from the private sector or from within the colleges and universities themselves. (3). Accreditation of programs--Should programs be accredited to standardize quality and program content? (4). Recruiting quality students--What can programs do to attract high-quality students into the health physics profession? In this paper, each of these issues is examined and possible solutions proposed. Our discussion is primarily meant to be provocative--in this way we hope to stimulate much-needed discourse as a first step in addressing and solving these problems which face the academic health physics community.

  5. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  6. Monitoring Health, Activity and Fitness in Physical Education: Its Current and Future State of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Chen, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Various government policies, strategies and responses in England over the years have highlighted schools and physical education to be instrumental in addressing health and the focus on health has been strengthened within subsequent revisions of the National Curriculum. Whilst this might seem encouraging, concerns have been expressed that such…

  7. Professional values, technology and future health care: The view of health care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Nieboer; A.M. van Hout; Joost van Hoof; Sil Aarts; Eveline Wouters

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions and values of care professionals are critical in successfully implementing technology in health care. The aim of this study was threefold: (1) to explore the main values of health care professionals, (2) to investigate the perceived influence of the technologies regarding these values,

  8. Automation of Knowledge Work in Medicine and Health care: Future and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzan Majidfar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increment of computing speed, machine learning and human interface, have extended capabilities of artificial intelligence applications to an important stage. It is predicted that use of artificial intelligence (AI to automate knowledge-based occupations (occupations such as medicine, engineering and law may have an global enormous economic impact in the near future.Applications based on artificial intelligence are able to improve health and quality of life for millions in the coming years. Although clinical applications of computer science are slow moving to real-world labs, but there are promising signs that the pace of innovation will improve. In the near future AI based applications by automating knowledge-based work in the field of diagnosis and treatment, nursing and health care, robotic surgery and development of new drugs, will have a transformative effect on the health sector. Therefore many artificial intelligence systems should work closely with health providers and patients to gain their trust. The progress of how smart machines naturally will interact with healthcare professionals, patients and patients' families is very important, yet challenging.In this article, we review the future of  automation of knowledge enabled by AI work in medicine and healthcare in  seven categories including big medical data mining, computer Aided Diagnosis, online consultations, evidence based medicine, health assistance, precision medicine and drug creation. Also challenges of this issue including cultural, organizational, legal and social barriers are described.

  9. Current and Future Impacts of Wildfires on PM2.5 and Public Health in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Strickland, M.; Fu, J. S.; Geng, G.; Chang, H. H.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, the Western United States has seen heightened wildfire activity, characterized by a higher frequency of large wildfires a longer fire season, larger fire size, and a greater total area burned. With projected temperature increases, soil moisture reduction, and more frequent air stagnation, the burden of wildfires on air quality and public health will likely increase. With state-of-the-art climate and air quality models; ground and satellite measurements; and detailed health information, we will investigate the impacts of historical and future wildfires on air quality and public health in Colorado under various climate change scenarios and population growth patterns. As the first step of this project, we developed a Bayesian fusion model with satellite aerosol, cloud and fire data as well as CMAQ simulation results to estimate PM2.5 and ozone concentrations during the fire season of 2011 - 2014 at 1 km spatial resolution. These exposure estimates will be used together with emergency department (ED) visits and acute hospitalizations data in Colorado to develop region-specific concentration-response (C-R) functions. These C-R functions in combination with projected future PM2.5 and O3 will be used in the EPA BenMAP framework to estimate the impacts of future wildfires on public health. This research addresses an important link between climate and aerosol research and could significantly increase our understanding of the implications of climate change for PM and public health in the Rocky Mountains Region.

  10. Inclusion of equity in economic analyses of public health policies: systematic review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Anita; Moodie, Marjory; Peeters, Anna; Carter, Rob

    2017-09-12

    To assess current approaches to inclusion of equity in economic analysis of public health interventions and to recommend best approaches and future directions. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have used socioeconomic position (SEP) in cost-effectiveness analyses. Studies were identified using MedLine, EconLit and HEED and were evaluated based on their SEP specific inputs and methods of quantification of the health and financial inequalities. Twenty-nine relevant studies were identified. The majority of studies comparing two or more interventions left interpretation of the size of the health and financial inequality differences to the reader. Newer approaches include: i) use of health inequality measures to quantify health inequalities; ii) inclusion of financial impacts, such as out-of-pocket expenditures; and iii) use of equity weights. The challenge with these approaches is presenting results that policy makers can easily interpret. Using CEA techniques to generate new information about the health equity implications of alternative policy options has not been widely used, but should be considered to inform future decision making. Implications for public health: Inclusion of equity in economic analysis would facilitate a more nuanced comparison of interventions in relation to efficiency, equity and financial impact. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. ICT and the future of healthcare: Aspects of pervasive health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Jungwirth, David

    2018-01-01

    Along with the digital revolution, information and communication technology applications are currently transforming the delivery of health and social care services. This paper investigates prevailing opinions toward future technology-based healthcare solutions among Austrian healthcare professionals. During a biphasic online Delphi survey, panelists rated expected outcomes of two future scenarios describing pervasive health monitoring applications. Experts perceived that the scenarios were highly innovative, but only moderately desirable, and that their implementation could especially improve patients' knowledge, quality of healthcare, and living standard. Contrarily, monetary aspects, technical prerequisites, and data security were identified as key obstacles. We further compared the impact of professional affiliation. Clearly, opinions toward pervasive healthcare differed between the interest groups, medical professionals, patient advocates, and administrative personnel. These data suggest closer collaborations between stakeholder groups to harmonize differences in expectations regarding pervasive health monitoring.

  12. Study on a model for future occupational health: proposal for an occupational health service model in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Toshiaki

    2006-10-01

    The Study Model for Future Occupational Health (funded by a research grant from the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor) is a joint research project involving various organizations and agencies undertaken from 2002 to 2004. Society has undergone a dramatic transformation due to technological developments and internationalization. At the same time a low birth rate and an aging population have resulted in an increase in both the percentage of workers experiencing strong anxiety and stress in relation to their jobs and the working environment and the number of suicides. As a natural consequence, occupational health services are now expected to provide EAP, consulting and other functions that were formerly considered outside the realm of occupational health. In consideration of this background, the present study propose the following issues to provide a model for future occupational health services that meet the conditions presently confronted by each worker. 1. How to provide occupational health services and occupational physicians' services: 1) a basic time of 20 minutes of occupational health services per year should be allotted to each worker and to all workers; 2) the obligatory regulations should be revised to expand the obligation from businesses each with 50 or more employees under the present laws to businesses each with 30 or more employees. 2. Providers of occupational health services and occupational physicians' services: (1) reinforcement of outside occupational health agencies; (2) fostering occupational health consultant firms; (3) development of an institute of occupational safety and health; (4) support of activities by authorized occupational physicians in the field; (5) expanding of joint selection of occupational physicians including subsidy increase and the extension of a period of subsidy to five hears; (6) licensing of new entry into occupational health undertaking. 3. Introduction of new report system: (1) establishment of the obligation to

  13. Perspective for Future Research Direction About Health Impact of Ambient Air Pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has become one of the major risks to human health because of the progressive increase in the use of vehicles powered by fossil fuels. Although lots of works on the health impact of ambient air pollution have been done in China, the following recommendations for future research were identified in this chapter: (1) the synergistic effect of indoor air pollution with climate change; (2) develop new technologies to improve accurate assessment of air pollution exposure; (3) well-designed cohort study of sensitive populations including children, older people, and people with chronic health problems; (4) multi-omics technologies in the underlying mechanisms study; and (5) benefits evaluation of improvement of air quality. In conclusion, China is becoming a suitable study site, providing an ideal opportunity to evaluate the effects of environmental pollution, including air pollution, on human health, which might serve as an example for developing countries where health impacts of air pollution are as serious as in China.

  14. Population and public health ethics in Canada: a snapshot of current national initiatives and future issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehbeck, Sarah M; Melnychuk, Ryan; McDougall, Christopher W; Greenwood, Heather; Edwards, Nancy C

    2011-01-01

    To date, some work has been undertaken to define a code and stewardship framework for public health ethics. However, gaps in our understanding and application of ethics to the field of population and public health (PPH) remain. This paper presents the approach to building capacity for PPH ethics by three national-level organizations: the Canadian Institutes of Health Research-Institute of Population and Public Health, the National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy, and the Public Health Agency of Canada. By first looking at each of the organizations' respective activities and then across organizations, we synthesize our common approaches, highlight future directions and pose questions aimed at stimulating dialogue about the role of, and challenges confronting, the emerging field of PPH ethics in Canada.

  15. Report of the Independent Expert Group on the Future of European Public Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Directorate General has set up an independent expert group. Its task was to take stock of the impacts, challenges and limitations of EU-funded public health research under the current and previous research framework programmes, and to identify priorities for future research. The experts, who worked in two...... agendas and national policy agendas? How to improve the uptake of evidence generated from public health research in the development of public health policy? This report summarises the recommendations from Subgroup 2.......The next EU research and innovation framework programme 'Horizon 2020' will address a number of important societal challenges including health, demographic changes and well-being. To prepare the work in these areas, the Health Directorate of the European Commission's Research & Innovation...

  16. Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on: lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; Mills, Anne; Conteh, Lesong; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Banteyerga, Hailom; Dash, Umakant; Gilson, Lucy; Harmer, Andrew; Ibraimova, Ainura; Islam, Ziaul; Kidanu, Aklilu; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Limwattananon, Supon; Muraleedharan, V R; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Palafox, Benjamin; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; McKee, Martin

    2013-06-15

    In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours. A series of comparative case studies (2009-11) looked at how and why each region accomplished these changes. Attributes of success included good governance and political commitment, effective bureaucracies that preserve institutional memory and can learn from experience, and the ability to innovate and adapt to resource limitations. Furthermore, the capacity to respond to population needs and build resilience into health systems in the face of political unrest, economic crises, and natural disasters was important. Transport infrastructure, female empowerment, and education also played a part. Health systems are complex and no simple recipe exists for success. Yet in the countries and regions studied, progress has been assisted by institutional stability, with continuity of reforms despite political and economic turmoil, learning lessons from experience, seizing windows of opportunity, and ensuring sensitivity to context. These experiences show that improvements in health can still be achieved in countries with relatively few resources, though strategic investment is necessary to address new challenges such as complex chronic diseases and growing population expectations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The challenge of health & environment: profiling risks & strategic priorities for now & the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jai P

    2012-08-01

    A substantial burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing countries is attributable to environmental risk factors. WHO estimates that the environmental factors are responsible for an estimated 24 per cent of the global burden of disease in terms of healthy life years lost and 23 per cent of all deaths; children being the worst sufferers. Given that the environment is linked with most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), without proper attention to the environmental risk factors and their management, it will be difficult to achieve many MDGs by 2015. The impact of environmental degradation on health may continue well into the future and the situation in fact, is likely to get worse. In order to address this challenge, two facts are worth noting. First, that much of the environmental disease burden is attributable to a few critical risk factors which include unsafe water and sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke from cooking fuel, outdoor air pollution, exposure to chemicals such as arsenic, and climate change. Second, that environment and health aspects must become, as a matter of urgency, a national priority, both in terms of policy and resources allocation. To meet the challenge of health and environment now and in the future, the following strategic approaches must be considered which include conducting environmental and health impact assessments; strengthening national environmental health policy and infrastructure; fostering inter-sectoral co-ordination and partnerships; mobilizing public participation; and enhancing the leadership role of health in advocacy, stewardship and capacity building.

  19. Oral Health Care in the Future: Expansion of the Scope of Dental Practice to Improve Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamster, Ira B; Myers-Wright, Noreen

    2017-09-01

    The health care environment in the U.S. is changing. The population is aging, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing, edentulism is decreasing, and periodontal infection/inflammation has been identified as a risk factor for NCDs. These trends offer an opportunity for oral health care providers to broaden the scope of traditional dental practice, specifically becoming more involved in the management of the general health of patients. This new practice paradigm will promote a closer integration with the larger health care system. This change is based on the realization that a healthy mouth is essential for a healthy life, including proper mastication, communication, esthetics, and comfort. Two types of primary care are proposed: screenings for medical conditions that are directly affected by oral disease (and may modify the provision of dental care), and a broader emphasis on prevention that focuses on lifestyle behaviors. Included in the former category are screenings for NCDs (e.g., the risk of cardiovascular disease and identification of patients with undiagnosed dysglycemia or poorly managed diabetes mellitus), as well as identification of infectious diseases, such as HIV or hepatitis C. Reducing the risk of disease can be accomplished by an emphasis on smoking cessation and dietary intake and the prevention of obesity. These activities will promote interprofessional health care education and practice. While change is always challenging, this new practice paradigm could improve both oral health and health outcomes of patients seen in the dental office. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  20. ICT-based health information services for elderly people: past experiences, current trends, and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschollek, Michael; Mix, Stefan; Wolf, Klaus-H; Effertz, Beate; Haux, Reinhold; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2007-12-01

    Although health information is readily available on the Internet and has changed the way people deal with their health in many ways, the retrieval of relevant information remains problematic, especially for elderly people. With a focus on elderly people, this paper summarizes current trends in consumer health informatics, discusses past and present initiatives providing health-information services, and proposes a future strategy for the design of sustainable services. A systematic literature review and a review of past German and EU projects concerned with health information services for elderly people are given. Many publications focus on health information services for specific diseases and on their quality and semantic accessibility, yet few deal with presenting and customizing health information for elderly and disabled people. Past experiences from Germany suggest that very often the specific needs of this target group are not met, and therefore accessibility remains largely hypothetical. We propose a strategy with five key points for the design of sustainable health-information services for elderly people. More research is needed to customize web-based health information services to the needs of the user group that needs them most urgently - elderly and disabled people.

  1. Achievements and future path of Tehran municipality in urban health domain: An Iranian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damari, Behzad; Riazi-Isfahani, Sahand

    2016-01-01

    According to national laws and world experiences; provision, maintenance, and improving citizens' health are considered to be the essential functions of municipalities as a "social institute". In order to equitably promote health conditions at urban level, particularly in marginal areas, since 2004 targeted efforts have been implemented in the municipality of Tehran metropolis. This study was intended to identify and analyze these targeted measures and tries to analyze health interventions in a conceptual framework and propose a future path. This is a qualitative study with content analysis approach. Reviewing documents and structured interviews with national health policy making and planning experts and executive managers of 22-region municipalities of Tehran metropolis were used to collect data. The data were analyzed on the basis of conceptual framework prepared for urban health in 4 domains including municipal interventions, goal achievements, drivers and obstacles of success, and the way forward. From the viewpoint of interviewees, these new health actions of Tehran municipality are more based on public participation and the municipality was able to prioritize health issue in the programs and policies of Tehran city council. Tehran municipality has accomplished three types of interventions to improve health, which in orders of magnitude are: facilitative, promotional, and mandatory interventions. Development and institutionalization of public participation is the greatest achievement in health-oriented actions; and expansion of environmental and physical health-oriented facilities and promoting a healthy lifestyle are next in ranks. Since management alterations seriously challenges institutionalization of actions and innovations especially in the developing countries, it is suggested that mayors of metropolitan cities like Tehran document and review municipal health measures as soon as possible and while eliminating overlapping of interventions with other

  2. Livestock Production in the UK in the 21(st) Century: A Perfect Storm Averted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, Christopher M; Buller, Henry; Maggs, Heather; Campbell, Madeleine L

    2013-06-26

    There is a school of thought that future demand for meat and other farm animal products is unsustainable for several reasons, including greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants; standards of farm animal health and welfare, especially when farm animals are kept intensively; efficiency of conversion by livestock of solar energy into (human) food, particularly by pigs and poultry; water availability and usage for all types of agricultural production, including livestock; and human health and consumption of meat, eggs and milk. Demand for meat is forecast to rise as a result of global population growth and increasing affluence. These issues buttress an impending perfect storm of food shortages, scarce water and insufficient energy, which is likely to coincide with global population reaching about 9 billion people in 2030 (pace Beddington). This paper examines global demand for animal products, the narrative of 'sustainable intensification' and the implications of each for the future of farm animal welfare. In the UK, we suggest that, though non-ruminant farming may become unsustainable, ruminant agriculture will continue to prosper because cows, sheep and goats utilize grass and other herbage that cannot be consumed directly by humans, especially on land that is unsuitable for other purposes. However, the demand for meat and other livestock-based food is often for pork, eggs and chicken from grain-fed pigs and poultry. The consequences of such a perfect storm are beginning to be incorporated in long-term business planning by retailers and others. Nevertheless, marketing sustainable animal produce will require considerable innovation and flair in public and private policies if marketing messages are to be optimized and consumer behaviour modified.

  3. Livestock Production in the UK in the 21st Century: A Perfect Storm Averted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine L. Campbell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a school of thought that future demand for meat and other farm animal products is unsustainable for several reasons, including greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants; standards of farm animal health and welfare, especially when farm animals are kept intensively; efficiency of conversion by livestock of solar energy into (human food, particularly by pigs and poultry; water availability and usage for all types of agricultural production, including livestock; and human health and consumption of meat, eggs and milk. Demand for meat is forecast to rise as a result of global population growth and increasing affluence. These issues buttress an impending perfect storm of food shortages, scarce water and insufficient energy, which is likely to coincide with global population reaching about 9 billion people in 2030 (pace Beddington. This paper examines global demand for animal products, the narrative of ‘sustainable intensification’ and the implications of each for the future of farm animal welfare. In the UK, we suggest that, though non-ruminant farming may become unsustainable, ruminant agriculture will continue to prosper because cows, sheep and goats utilize grass and other herbage that cannot be consumed directly by humans, especially on land that is unsuitable for other purposes. However, the demand for meat and other livestock-based food is often for pork, eggs and chicken from grain-fed pigs and poultry. The consequences of such a perfect storm are beginning to be incorporated in long-term business planning by retailers and others. Nevertheless, marketing sustainable animal produce will require considerable innovation and flair in public and private policies if marketing messages are to be optimized and consumer behaviour modified.

  4. Professional self-assessment of future health basics teachers as professionally important quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Radchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to theoretically substantiate and experimentally test professional self-assessment of future health basics teachers as professionally important quality. Material: 152 students participated in experiment. Results: assessment of images “I am real”, “I am student” and I am future professional” is rather high in most of students. The strength of these three images was assessed also approximately equally. But portion of average marks in indicator of image strength is much higher than in indicator of mark. Activity of three images differs a little and has significant quantity of average and high marks. Analysis of three main images’ wholeness witnesses that students’ self assessment is rather holistic. With it image “I am future professional” is formed on the base of image “I am student”. Dynamic of images’ self assessment witnesses that increasing of assessment and respect to image “I am future professional” depend on year of studying. Besides, assessment of strength and activity of this image also increases. Conclusions: in the process of studying students are oriented on professional formation as well as on formation of professionally important qualities, revelation of potential for self realization in the future. It was found that responsible attitude to professional functioning, future relations with children depend on self-assessment of formation.

  5. Present and Future Trends in Consumer Health Informatics and Patient-Generated Health Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A M; Hsueh, P-Y S; Choi, Y K; Austin, R R

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) and the use of Patient-Generated Health Data (PGHD) are rapidly growing focus areas in healthcare. The objective of this paper is to briefly review the literature that has been published over the past few years and to provide a sense of where the field is going. Methods: We searched PubMed and the ACM Digital Library for articles published between 2014 and 2016 on the topics of CHI and PGHD. The results of the search were screened for relevance and categorized into a set of common themes. We discuss the major topics covered in these articles. Results: We retrieved 65 articles from our PubMed query and 32 articles from our ACM Digital Library query. After a review of titles, we were left with 47 articles to conduct our full article survey of the activities in CHI and PGHD. We have summarized these articles and placed them into major categories of activity. Within the domain of consumer health informatics, articles focused on mobile health and patient-generated health data comprise the majority of the articles published in recent years. Conclusions: Current evidence indicates that technological advancements and the widespread availability of affordable consumer-grade devices are fueling research into using PGHD for better care. As we observe a growing number of (pilot) developments using various mobile health technologies to collect PGHD, major gaps still exist in how to use the data by both patients and providers. Further research is needed to understand the impact of PGHD on clinical outcomes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  6. Potential Impacts of Future Climate Change on Regional Air Quality and Public Health over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change would affect public health through changing air quality. Climate extremes and poor weather conditions are likely to occur at a higher frequency in China under a changing climate, but the air pollution-related health impacts due to future climate change remain unclear. Here the potential impacts of future climate change on regional air quality and public health over China is projected using a coupling of climate, air quality and epidemiological models. We present the first assessment of China's future air quality in a changing climate under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario using the dynamical downscaling technique. In RCP4.5 scenario, we estimate that climate change from 2006-2010 to 2046-2050 is likely to adversely affect air quality covering more than 86% of population and 55% of land area in China, causing an average increase of 3% in O3 and PM2.5 concentrations, which are found to be associated with the warmer climate and the more stable atmosphere. Our estimate of air pollution-related mortality due to climate change in 2050 is 26,000 people per year in China. Of which, the PM2.5-related mortality is 18,700 people per year, and the O3-related mortality is 7,300 people per year. The climate-induced air pollution and health impacts vary spatially. The climate impacts are even more pronounced on the urban areas where is densely populated and polluted. 90% of the health loss is concentrated in 20% of land areas in China. We use a simple statistical analysis method to quantify the contributions of climate extremes and find more intense climate extremes play an important role in climate-induced air pollution-related health impacts. Our results indicate that global climate change will likely alter the level of pollutant management required to meet future air quality targets as well as the efforts to protect public health in China.

  7. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amanda; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Väänänen, Ari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-10-01

    Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  8. Reporting intellectual capital in health care organizations: specifics, lessons learned, and future research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Stefania; Bronzetti, Giovanni; Sicoli, Graziella

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of intellectual capital (IC) in the health sector sphere by studying the case of a major nonprofit research organization in this sector, which has for some time been publishing IC reports. In the last few years, health care organizations have been the object of great attention in the implementation and transfer of managerial models and tools; however, there is still a lack of attention paid to the strategic management of IC as a fundamental resource for supporting and enhancing performance improvement dynamics. The main aim of this article is to examine the IC reporting model used by the Center of Molecular Medicine (CMM), a Swedish health organization which is an outstanding benchmark in reporting its IC. We also consider the specifics of IC reporting for health organizations, the lessons learned by analyzing CMM's IC reporting, and future perspectives for research.

  9. Geochemical legacies and the future health of cities: A tale of two neurotoxins in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillipelli, Gabriel M.; Risch, Martin R.; Laidlaw, Mark A. S.; Nichols, Deborah E.; Crewe, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The past and future of cities are inextricably linked, a linkage that can be seen clearly in the long-term impacts of urban geochemical legacies. As loci of population as well as the means of employment and industry to support these populations, cities have a long history of co-locating contaminating practices and people, sometimes with negative implications for human health. Working at the intersection between environmental processes, communities, and human health is critical to grapple with environmental legacies and to support healthy, sustainable, and growing urban populations. An emerging area of environmental health research is to understand the impacts of chronic exposures and exposure mixtures—these impacts are poorly studied, yet may pose a significant threat to population health.

  10. Developing the Malaysian health system to meet the challenges of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merican, M I; Rohaizat, Y; Haniza, S

    2004-03-01

    The Malaysian health care system is a success story among countries of equivalent socio-economic status. However there are numerous challenges faced by the nation, which create the need for changes and reform. There is rising consumer demands and expectations for high technology and high cost medical care due to improved standards of living, changing disease patterns and demographic changes, inadequate integration of health services, maldistribution of resources and the threats as well as opportunities of globalisation and liberalisation. The changes in health policy, priorities and planning for the country are guided by the country's development policies, objectives and the challenges of Vision 2020, Vision for Health and the goals of the health system in ensuring universal access, improving equity and efficiency and the quality of life of the population. The essential services in the health system of the future are information and education of individuals to empower support for the wellness paradigm. There is also a need to restructure the national health care financing and the health care delivery system. The present roles and responsibilities of MOH also need to be reviewed.

  11. Resource approach in providing health-saving process of future teachers training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytiuk S.A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of realization of resource approach are exposed in organization of pedagogical education. There were defined the ways of providing health-saving teacher training, namely: assessment criteria of adjustment of social order and personal professional development needs, means of implementing the tasks of pedagogical education concept according to the resource approach. The methods of maintainance and strengthening of health of future teachers are specified in the process of professional preparation. It is marked that resource approach unites requirement to the competence of teacher, provides the account of age-dependent features of organism of student and periods of becoming of personality of student and teacher. Resource approach is given by possibility to take into account the specific of labour and level of knowledge, abilities and skills of every student. Resource approach harmonizes the actual aspects of complex of the modern scientific going near education of students and professional preparation of future teachers.

  12. A population ecology perspective on the functioning and future of health information organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R; Menachemi, Nir

    2017-11-01

    Increasingly, health care providers need to exchange information to meet policy expectations and business needs. A variety of health information organizations (HIOs) provide services to facilitate health information exchange (HIE). However, the future of these organizations is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the environmental context, potential futures, and survivability of community HIOs, enterprise HIEs, and electronic health record vendor-mediated exchange using the population ecology theory. Qualitative interviews with 33 key informants representing each type of HIE organization were analyzed using template analysis. Community HIOs, enterprise HIEs, and electronic health record vendors exhibited a high degree of competition for resources, especially in the area of exchange infrastructure services. Competition resulted in closures in some areas. In response to environmental pressures, each organizational type was endeavoring to differentiate its services and unique use case, as well as pursing symbiotic relationships or attempting resource partitioning. HIOs compete for similar resources and are reacting to environmental pressures to better position themselves for continued survival and success. Our ecological research perspective helps move the discourse away from situation of a single exchange organization type toward a view of the broader dynamics and relationships of all organizations involved in facilitating HIE activities. HIOs are attempting to partition the environment and differentiate services. HIE options should not be construed as an "either/or" decision, but one where multiple and complementary participation may be required.

  13. The Emergence of Environmental Health Literacy—From Its Roots to Its Future Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Symma; O’Fallon, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental health literacy (EHL) is coalescing into a new subdiscipline that combines key principles and procedural elements from the fields of risk communication, health literacy, environmental health sciences (EHS), communications research, and safety culture. These disciplines have contributed unique expertise and perspectives to the development of EHL. Since 1992, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has contributed to the evolution of EHL and now seeks to stimulate its scientific advancement and rigor. Objectives: The principal objective of this article is to stimulate a conversation on, and advance research in, EHL. Discussion: In this article, we propose a definition of and conceptual framework for EHL, describe EHL in its social and historical context, identify the complementary fields and domains where EHL is being defined and implemented, and outline a research agenda. Extensive reviews of web and literature searches indicate that the concept of EHL is evolving rapidly, as are the definitions of its scope and inquiry. Although several authors have outlined different frameworks, we believe that a more nuanced model based on Bloom’s taxonomy is better suited to EHL and to future research in this area. Conclusions: We posit that EHL can potentially benefit the conduct and outcomes of community-engaged and health disparities EHS research and can ensure that the translation of research findings will lead to greater understanding of specific risks, reduction of exposures, and improvement of health outcomes for individuals and communities. We provide four recommendations to advance work in EHL. Citation: Finn S, O’Fallon L. 2017. The emergence of environmental health literacy—from its roots to its future potential. Environ Health Perspect 125:495–501; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409337 PMID:26126293

  14. The past, present, and future of soils and human health studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Sauer, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that human health is tied to the soil is not a new one. As far back as circa 1400 BC the Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people. In 400 BC the Greek philosopher Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the properties of the local ground. By the late 1700s and early 1800s, American farmers had recognized that soil properties had some connection to human health. In the modern world, we recognize that soils have a distinct influence on human health. We recognize that soils influence (1) food availability and quality (food security), (2) human contact with various chemicals, and (3) human contact with various pathogens. Soils and human health studies include investigations into nutrient supply through the food chain and routes of exposure to chemicals and pathogens. However, making strong, scientific connections between soils and human health can be difficult. There are multiple variables to consider in the soil environment, meaning traditional scientific studies that seek to isolate and manipulate a single variable often do not provide meaningful data. The complete study of soils and human health also involves many different specialties such as soil scientists, toxicologists, medical professionals, anthropologists, etc. These groups do not traditionally work together on research projects, and do not always effectively communicate with one another. Climate change and how it will affect the soil environment/ecosystem going into the future is another variable affecting the relationship between soils and health. Future successes in soils and human health research will require effectively addressing difficult issues such as these.

  15. ICT and the future of health care: aspects of doctor-patient communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Jungwirth, David

    2014-07-01

    The current digital revolution is particularly relevant for interactions of healthcare providers with patients and the community as a whole. The growing public acceptance and distribution of new communication tools such as smart mobile phones provide the prerequisite for information and communication technology (ICT) -assisted healthcare applications. The present study aimed at identifying specifications and perceptions of different interest groups regarding future demands of ICT-supported doctor-patient communication in Austria. German-speaking Austrian healthcare experts (n = 73; 74 percent males; mean age, 43.9 years; SD 9.4) representing medical professionals, patient advocates, and administrative personnel participated in a 2-round online Delphi process. Participants evaluated scenario-based benefits and obstacles for possible prospect introduction as well as degree of innovation, desirability, and estimated implementation dates of two medical care-related future set ups. Panelists expected the future ICT-supported doctor-patient dialogue to especially improve the three factors doctors-patient relationship, patients' knowledge, and quality of social health care. However, lack of acceptance by doctors, data security, and monetary aspects were considered as the three most relevant barriers for ICT implementation. Furthermore, inter-group comparison regarding desirability of future scenarios showed that medical professionals tended to be more skeptical about health-related technological innovations (p ICT-supported collaboration and communication between doctors and patients.

  16. Automation of Knowledge Work in Medicine and Health care: Future and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Farzan Majidfar

    2017-01-01

    Increment of computing speed, machine learning and human interface, have extended capabilities of artificial intelligence applications to an important stage. It is predicted that use of artificial intelligence (AI) to automate knowledge-based occupations (occupations such as medicine, engineering and law) may have an global enormous economic impact in the near future.Applications based on artificial intelligence are able to improve health and quality of life for millions in the coming years. ...

  17. [The role of food in the workplace for health promotion and education to the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzana, A; Sillano, M; Quirico, E; Cometti, V; Zanardi, M

    2010-01-01

    Health promotion and education to the future and sustainability are a new potential approach in order to try to reduce diet- and lifestyle-related diseases (cancer, metabolic disorders, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases). Inclusion of educational pathways associated to food consumption out of the home, especially in the workplace, may represent a brand new strategy of intervention, an alternative to the disappointing results of more traditional information-educational strategies implemented so far.

  18. Designing Smart Health Care Technology into the Home of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, R.L.; Warren, S.

    1999-04-20

    This editorial paper presents a vision for intelligent health care in the home of the future, focusing on technologies with the highest potential payoff given targeted government funding over the next ten years. A secure, plug-and-play information framework provides the starting point for identifying technologies that must be developed before home-based devices can know their context and assimilate information to support care decisions.

  19. Using long-term averted goats for selective grazing in olive groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanell, E; Manuelian, C L; Rovai, M; Salama, A A K; Caja, G

    2017-10-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a useful tool to modify animal feed preferences, allowing the implementation of selective grazing to control weeds in tree orchards without damaging the trees or affecting fruit production. LiCl is commonly used for inducing CTA. However, studies investigating the long-term persistence of CTA by LiCl in small ruminants are scarce. With this aim, we evaluated the efficiency of two LiCl doses (AV1 and AV2, 175 and 200 mg/kg BW, respectively) and a control (C, 0 mg/kg BW) for averting non-lactating dairy goats (n=15) to olive tree leaves. Aversion induction was reinforced on day 9 in those goats that consumed >10 g of olive leaves. Mid-term aversion effectiveness was assessed by five double-choice feeding tests (days 16, 24, 31, 38 and 53) of 30 min each, where 100 g of olive leaves were offered side-by-side with 390 g of Italian rye-grass (as-fed). Long-term aversion effectiveness was assessed in C, AV1 and AV2 goats by grazing for 30 min in paddocks with a simulated olive tree (days 59, 90, 121, 182 and 420). Moreover, C and AV2 goats were compared under on-field conditions (days 143, 211 and 363) in a commercial olive grove also for 30 min. The CTA proved to be established with a single LiCl dose in all goats and persisted for 4 and 55 days in AV1 and AV2 goats, respectively (Polive tree and commercial olive grove conditions, the CTA goats, especially AV2 group, avoided the contact with the olive trees and minimally used a bipedal stance to feed leaves, than control goats. On average, time proportion spent consuming olive leaves and sprouts was much greater (Polive tree leaves in goats.

  20. Assessing long-term QALYs gain from averting and reversing overweight and obesity in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techakehakij, Win

    2016-10-01

    Interventions to tackle childhood obesity have been devised in response to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. However, efficiency of these interventions remains a concern. Cost-utility analysis, representing health benefits in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), is a type of economic evaluation that has widely been recommended in assessing efficiency of health interventions. However, certain limitations in using QALYs remain specifically difficult in QALYs estimation. This study estimates the long-term QALYs gain from reversing childhood obesity in Thailand. An economic model was developed to estimate long-term QALYs of the youth aged 3-18 for the BMI status in childhood, which were categorized into three groups: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Long-term QALYs were estimated between ages 35 and 100, according to children's age, sex, and BMI status. Differences in QALYs between BMI status groups were calculated to represent the QALYs gain for youth from reversing obesity and overweight. The future outcomes were discounted at 3 % per annum in the base-case analysis; the discount rates of 0, 1.5, 3.5, and 5 % were also applied in the sensitivity analyses. QALYs gained from reversing childhood obesity increase with age, starting from 0.040 and 0.083 QALYs at age 3 to 0.590 and 0.553 QALYs at age 18 in boys and girls, respectively. Reversing overweight and obesity in girls produces more QALYs than in boys between ages 3 and 17. Efficiency is an important issue in allocating public healthcare resources to maximize social benefits. The results of this study facilitate long-term QALYs estimation with respect to BMI status in childhood, which could encourage more routine economic evaluation of child obesity interventions and maximize their health benefits.

  1. Future Organization of Oral Health Services Delivery: From 2012 to 2042.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L Jackson

    2017-09-01

    The United States is currently experiencing a vortex of change in both general health and oral health care delivery, the ultimate outcome of which is still not well understood. The specific focus of this article is to examine the future organization of the oral health services delivery system (OHSDS) in the U.S., with special attention given to the role of large group dental practices (LGDPs) in that future. The article describes the various types of LGDPs and their ability to change the economic characteristics of the OHSDS. Large geographically distributed corporate group dental practices (LGDCGDPs) are the type that may expand their market share to the extent that they could change the economic characteristics of the OHSDS. A wide range of scenarios is used to project the expansion of LGDCGDPs into the future. The scenarios modeled are not intended as predictions but rather to present a range of possible OHSDS market structures that may emerge over the next 30 years. The implications of each scenario for the economic competition within the OHSDS are described. Possible implications of these trends for dental education are also discussed. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  2. Medicine and the future of health: reflecting on the past to forge ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dale; Wicks, Paul; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2016-01-01

    The development of new therapies has a rich history, evolves quickly with societal trends, and will have an exciting future. The last century has seen an exponential increase in complex interactions between medical practitioners, pharmaceutical companies, governments and patients. We believe technology and societal expectations will open up the opportunity for more individuals to participate as information becomes more freely available and inequality less acceptable. Corporations must recognize that usual market forces do not function ideally in a setting where health is regarded as a human right, and as modern consumers, patients will increasingly take control of their own data, wellbeing, and even the means of production for developing their own treatments. Ethics and legislation will increasingly impact the processes that facilitate drug development, distribution and administration. This article collection is a cross-journal collaboration, between the Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice ( JoPPP ) and BMC Medicine that seeks to cover recent advances in drug development, medicines use, policy and access with high clinical and public health relevance in the future. The Medicine and the Future of Health article collection is a joint collection between BMC Medicine and Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice . Therefore, this Editorial by the guest editors has been published in both journals.

  3. Beyond Antitrust: Health Care And Health Insurance Market Trends And The Future Of Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Altman, Stuart H

    2017-09-01

    The United States relies on competition to balance costs and quality in the health care system. But concentration is increasing throughout the hospital, physician, and insurer markets. Midsize community hospitals face declining demand and growing competition from both larger hospitals and smaller freestanding diagnostic and surgical centers, leaving the midsize hospitals vulnerable to closure or merger with other facilities. Competition among insurers has been limited by the development of hospital systems that extend the bargaining power of "must-have" hospitals (those perceived to provide the best care for complex and less common conditions) across local health care markets. Government antitrust enforcement could play an important role in maintaining competition in both the hospital and insurer markets, but in many markets, the impact of that enforcement has been limited to date. Policy makers should consider supplementing antitrust activities with strategies that combine competition and regulation-for example, by regulating selected prices and structuring competition to cover entire insurance markets. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Football Players' Perceptions of Future Risk of Concussion and Concussion-Related Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kroshus, Emily; Kiernan, Patrick T; Mendel, David; Meehan, William P

    2017-02-15

    Concussion is increasingly recognized as a risk of participation in contact and collision sports. There have been few examinations of athletes' perceptions of their susceptibility to concussion or concussion-related health consequences. We examine college football players' perceptions of their risk of sustaining a concussion and concussion-related health consequences in their future, whether these perceptions change over time, and how concussion history is related to perceived future risk of concussion and concussion-related health consequences. A survey was administered to National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes on 10 teams in 2013 and to nine of those teams in 2014. Athletes answered questions assessing their perceptions of concussion and potential concussion-related health consequences. Approximately 40% of athletes believed there was a strong possibility that they would sustain a concussion in the future, while approximately one-in-four thought a concussion would make them miss a few games. About one-in-10 athletes predicted dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or chronic traumatic encephalopathy would develop from concussions. These beliefs were stronger among athletes who had sustained previous concussions. Across the two years studied, athletes' perceptions of the risk of concussion and missing a few games because of concussion decreased significantly. Overall, a substantial proportion of college football players believe they will have long-term health consequences as a result of sustaining sport-related concussions. The true incidence and prevalence of many of these outcomes are unknown. Further research is needed to determine whether athletes have an accurate perception of the risks of these outcomes developing.

  5. Intelligent biomedical clothing for personal health and disease management: state of the art and future vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymberis, Andreas; Olsson, Silas

    2003-01-01

    Telemedicine has been introduced to overcome distance in order to get prompt access to medical knowledge and appropriate health care. More recently, work in telemedicine has aimed at developing solutions to support the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes, and lung and heart diseases, as well as to provide support for home care services. Telemedicine is also entering the fields of health promotion/prevention disease, life style management, and well-being. The evolution and broadening of telemedicine gives birth to a nomenclature that includes "e-health," "telehealth," and "telecare." The latest developments in microsystems and nanotechnologies as well as in information processing and communication technologies allow miniaturization and non-invasive smart monitoring of physiological and physical data. Ongoing cutting-edge multidisciplinary research in textile fibers, biomedical sensors, and wireless and mobile telecommunications integrated with telemedicine, aims at developing intelligent biomedical clothing (IBC) that could pave the way to support personalized management of health and diseases at the point of need and at any time. In this study, we aim to describe the current status of multidisciplinary research and development of IBC, based on bibliographic research and reports from seminars, workshops, conferences, and working groups. A further aim is to inform the developers, the decision makers, and users in the health and healthcare sector regarding future solutions to support personalized health care and disease management. Both the textile sector and healthcare sector are looking with great interest at the innovative products and applications that could result from the integration of microsystems, nanotechnologies, biomedical sensors, textiles, and mobile telecommunications. For health monitoring, disease prevention and management, rehabilitation, and sport medicine, IBC may offer, in the mid-term future, a unique, wearable non

  6. The Public Health Nutrition workforce and its future challenges: the US experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Betsy; George, Alexa

    2008-08-01

    To describe the US public health nutrition workforce and its future social, biological and fiscal challenges. Literature review primarily for the four workforce surveys conducted since 1985 by the Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors. The United States. Nutrition personnel working in governmental health agencies. The 1985 and 1987 subjects were personnel in full-time budgeted positions employed in governmental health agencies providing predominantly population-based services. In 1994 and 1999 subjects were both full-time and part-time, employed in or funded by governmental health agencies, and provided both direct-care and population-based services. The workforce primarily focuses on direct-care services for pregnant and breast-feeding women, infants and children. The US Department of Agriculture funds 81.7 % of full-time equivalent positions, primarily through the WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children). Of those personnel working in WIC, 45 % have at least 10 years of experience compared to over 65 % of the non-WIC workforce. Continuing education needs of the WIC and non-WIC workforces differ. The workforce is increasingly more racially/ethnically diverse and with 18.2 % speaking Spanish as a second language. The future workforce will need to focus on increasing its diversity and cultural competence, and likely will need to address retirement within leadership positions. Little is known about the workforce's capacity to address the needs of the elderly, emergency preparedness and behavioural interventions. Fiscal challenges will require evidence-based practice demonstrating both costs and impact. Little is known about the broader public health nutrition workforce beyond governmental health agencies.

  7. Racism and child health: a review of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Lee M; Coll, Cynthia García

    2009-06-01

    Racism is a mechanism through which racial/ethnic disparities occur in child health. To assess the present state of research into the effects of racism on child health, a review of the literature was undertaken. A MEDLINE review of the literature was conducted between October and November 2007. Studies reporting on empirical research relating to racism or racial discrimination as a predictor or contributor to a child health outcome were included in this review. The definition of "child health" was broad and included behavioral, mental, and physical health. Forty articles describing empirical research on racism and child health were found. Most studies (65%) reported on research performed on behavioral and mental health outcomes. Other areas studied included birth outcomes, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and satisfaction with care. Most research has been conducted on African-American samples (70%), on adolescents and on older children, and without a uniformly standardized approach to measuring racism. Furthermore, many studies used measures that were created for adult populations. There are a limited number of studies evaluating the relationship between racism and child health. Most studies, to date, show relationships between perceived racism and behavioral and mental health. Future studies need to include more ethnically diverse minority groups and needs to consider studying the effects of racism in younger children. Instruments need to be developed that measure perceptions of racism in children and youth that take into account the unique contexts and developmental levels of children, as well as differences in the perception of racism in different ethnocultural groups. Furthermore, studies incorporating racism as a specific psychosocial stressor that can potentially have biophysiologic sequelae need to be conducted to understand the processes and mechanisms through which racism may contribute to child health disparities.

  8. Consumer Health Informatics: Past, Present, and Future of a Rapidly Evolving Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, G

    2016-05-20

    Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a rapidly growing domain within the field of biomedical and health informatics. The objective of this paper is to reflect on the past twenty five years and showcase informatics concepts and applications that led to new models of care and patient empowerment, and to predict future trends and challenges for the next 25 years. We discuss concepts and systems based on a review and analysis of published literature in the consumer health informatics domain in the last 25 years. The field was introduced with the vision that one day patients will be in charge of their own health care using informatics tools and systems. Scientific literature in the field originally focused on ways to assess the quality and validity of available printed health information, only to grow significantly to cover diverse areas such as online communities, social media, and shared decision-making. Concepts such as home telehealth, mHealth, and the quantified-self movement, tools to address transparency of health care organizations, and personal health records and portals provided significant milestones in the field. Consumers are able to actively participate in the decision-making process and to engage in health care processes and decisions. However, challenges such as health literacy and the digital divide have hindered us from maximizing the potential of CHI tools with a significant portion of underserved populations unable to access and utilize them. At the same time, at a global scale consumer tools can increase access to care for underserved populations in developing countries. The field continues to grow and emerging movements such as precision medicine and the sharing economy will introduce new opportunities and challenges.

  9. [Confronting the Health-Related Challenges of Climate Change: Nursing Education for the Future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chih; Lee, Chi-Chen

    2016-08-01

    Climate change is the greatest threat to public health in the 21st century. The increasing health impact of heat waves, the increasing magnitudes and spatial expansions of vector and water-borne diseases epidemics, and the increasing medical burdens of biological allergic illnesses, worsening local air pollution, and other related issues are expected to continue to increase in severity in the near future. All of these issues are global problems that must be faced. Adaptation strategies and action plans related to climate change are needed and emerging. Moreover, integrating the basic concepts, scientific evidences, and new technology into public and professional education systems is already recognized as a priority in the national adaptation program. Nurses stand on the frontlines of medical care and health communication. The integration of climate change and adaptation to climate change into nursing education and training is become increasingly important. This article reviews both the expected health impacts of climate change and the mitigation and adaptation strategies that have been proposed / adopted by medical care facilities around the world. Further, we outline the current, priority needs for action in medical care facilities in Taiwan in order to mitigate and adapt to climate-change-related healthcare issues. Additionally, we present an integrated strategic plan for educating healthcare professionals, including nurse, in the future. We hope that the ideas that are presented in this paper encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and help bridge the gap between technology development and practical application in Taiwan's medical care system.

  10. Building the Future of Environmental Public Health Tracking: Proceedings and Recommendations of an Expert Panel Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary A; Baksh, Sheriza; Lam, Juleen; Resnick, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Since 2002, the national Environmental Health Tracking Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has provided vital support to state environmental public health efforts while simultaneously building a nationwide network of state, local, and academic partners to improve our nation’s capacity to understand and respond to environmental threats to public health. As part of program review and strategic planning, national thought leaders in environmental public health were convened to assess progress, identify gaps and challenges, and provide recommendations for enhancing the utility and impact of the Tracking Program. Several opportunities were identified. Chief among these was the need for continued and expanded CDC leadership to develop a coordinated Tracking Program agenda identifying specific scientific goals, data needs, and initiatives. Recommendations for future growth included expanded data availability and program coverage: i.e., making data available at the community scale and establishing tracking programs in all 50 states. Finally, a set of recommendations emphasizing communication to decision makers and the public was made that will be integral to the future utility and success of the Tracking Program.

  11. Integrated health promotion strategies: a contribution to tackling current and future health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Perkins, Fran; Khandor, Erika; Cordwell, Lauren; Hamann, Stephen; Buasai, Supakorn

    2006-12-01

    This paper was presented as a technical background paper at the WHO sixth Global Conference on Health Promotion in Bangkok Thailand, August 2005. It describes what we know about the effectiveness of four of the Ottawa Charter health promotion strategies from eight reviews that have been conducted since 1999. The six lessons are that (i) the investment in building healthy public policy is a key strategy; (ii) supportive environments need to be created at the individual, social and structural levels; (iii) the effectiveness of strengthening community action is unclear and more research and evidence is required; (iv) personal skills development must be combined with other strategies to be effective; (v) interventions employing multiple strategies and actions at multiple levels are most effective; (vi) certain actions are central to effectiveness, such as intersectoral action and interorganizational partnerships at all levels, community engagement and participation in planning and decision-making, creating healthy settings (particularly focusing on schools, communities, workplaces and municipalities), political commitment, funding and infrastructure and awareness of the socio-environmental context. In addition, four case studies at the international, national, regional and local levels are described as illustrations of combinations of the key points described earlier. The paper concludes that the four Ottawa Charter strategies have been effective in addressing many of the issues faced in the late 20th century and that these strategies have relevance for the 21st century if they are integrated with one another and with the other actions described in this paper.

  12. Pregnancy Characteristics and Women's Future Cardiovascular Health: An Underused Opportunity to Improve Women's Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Fraser, Abigail; Lawlor, Deborah A.; Catov, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that women with a history of common pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction and preterm delivery (often combined as low birth weight), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and gestational diabetes, are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The purpose of this paper was to review the associations of parity and these 4 pregnancy complications with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; to review the role of cardiovascular risk factors before, during, and after pregnancy complications in explaining these associations; and to explore the implications of this emerging science for new research and policy. We systematically searched for relevant cohort and case-control studies in Medline through December 2012 and used citation searches for already published reviews to identify new studies. The findings of this review suggest consistent and often strong associations of pregnancy complications with latent and future cardiovascular disease. Many pregnancy complications appear to be preceded by subclinical vascular and metabolic dysfunction, suggesting that the complications may be useful markers of latent high-risk cardiovascular trajectories. With further replication research, these findings would support the utility of these prevalent pregnancy complications in identifying high-risk women for screening, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women. PMID:24025350

  13. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-07-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Qualitative ergonomics/human factors research in health care: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa Sheth; McGuire, Kerry Margaret; Rivera, A Joy

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics. Interviews, focus groups, and observations were the most prevalent forms of data collection. Triangulation and data archiving were the dominant approaches to ensuring rigor. Few studies employed a formal approach to qualitative inquiry. Significant opportunities remain to enhance the use of qualitative research to advance systems thinking within health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combining Archetypes with Fast Health Interoperability Resources in Future-proof Health Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosca, Diego; Moner, David; Maldonado, Jose Alberto; Robles, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Messaging standards, and specifically HL7 v2, are heavily used for the communication and interoperability of Health Information Systems. HL7 FHIR was created as an evolution of the messaging standards to achieve semantic interoperability. FHIR is somehow similar to other approaches like the dual model methodology as both are based on the precise modeling of clinical information. In this paper, we demonstrate how we can apply the dual model methodology to standards like FHIR. We show the usefulness of this approach for data transformation between FHIR and other specifications such as HL7 CDA, EN ISO 13606, and openEHR. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of defining archetypes over FHIR, and the consequences and outcomes of this approach. Finally, we exemplify this approach by creating a testing data server that supports both FHIR resources and archetypes.

  16. Health Systems’ “Surge Capacity”: State of the Art and Priorities for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Samantha K; Rudge, James W; Coker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Context Over the past decade, a number of high-impact natural hazard events, together with the increased recognition of pandemic risks, have intensified interest in health systems’ ability to prepare for, and cope with, “surges” (sudden large-scale escalations) in treatment needs. In this article, we identify key concepts and components associated with this emerging research theme. We consider the requirements for a standardized conceptual framework for future research capable of informing policy to reduce the morbidity and mortality impacts of such incidents. Here our objective is to appraise the consistency and utility of existing conceptualizations of health systems’ surge capacity and their components, with a view to standardizing concepts and measurements to enable future research to generate a cumulative knowledge base for policy and practice. Methods A systematic review of the literature on concepts of health systems’ surge capacity, with a narrative summary of key concepts relevant to public health. Findings The academic literature on surge capacity demonstrates considerable variation in its conceptualization, terms, definitions, and applications. This, together with an absence of detailed and comparable data, has hampered efforts to develop standardized conceptual models, measurements, and metrics. Some degree of consensus is evident for the components of surge capacity, but more work is needed to integrate them. The overwhelming concentration in the United States complicates the generalizability of existing approaches and findings. Conclusions The concept of surge capacity is a useful addition to the study of health systems’ disaster and/or pandemic planning, mitigation, and response, and it has far-reaching policy implications. Even though research in this area has grown quickly, it has yet to fulfill its potential to generate knowledge to inform policy. Work is needed to generate robust conceptual and analytical frameworks, along with

  17. Health systems' "surge capacity": state of the art and priorities for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Samantha K; Rudge, James W; Coker, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of high-impact natural hazard events, together with the increased recognition of pandemic risks, have intensified interest in health systems' ability to prepare for, and cope with, "surges" (sudden large-scale escalations) in treatment needs. In this article, we identify key concepts and components associated with this emerging research theme. We consider the requirements for a standardized conceptual framework for future research capable of informing policy to reduce the morbidity and mortality impacts of such incidents. Here our objective is to appraise the consistency and utility of existing conceptualizations of health systems' surge capacity and their components, with a view to standardizing concepts and measurements to enable future research to generate a cumulative knowledge base for policy and practice. A systematic review of the literature on concepts of health systems' surge capacity, with a narrative summary of key concepts relevant to public health. The academic literature on surge capacity demonstrates considerable variation in its conceptualization, terms, definitions, and applications. This, together with an absence of detailed and comparable data, has hampered efforts to develop standardized conceptual models, measurements, and metrics. Some degree of consensus is evident for the components of surge capacity, but more work is needed to integrate them. The overwhelming concentration in the United States complicates the generalizability of existing approaches and findings. The concept of surge capacity is a useful addition to the study of health systems' disaster and/or pandemic planning, mitigation, and response, and it has far-reaching policy implications. Even though research in this area has grown quickly, it has yet to fulfill its potential to generate knowledge to inform policy. Work is needed to generate robust conceptual and analytical frameworks, along with innovations in data collection and methodological

  18. Projections of global health outcomes from 2005 to 2060 using the International Futures integrated forecasting model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barry B; Kuhn, Randall; Peterson, Cecilia M; Rothman, Dale S; Solórzano, José R; Mathers, Colin D; Dickson, Janet R

    2011-07-01

    To develop an integrated health forecasting model as part of the International Futures (IFs) modelling system. The IFs model begins with the historical relationships between economic and social development and cause-specific mortality used by the Global Burden of Disease project but builds forecasts from endogenous projections of these drivers by incorporating forward linkages from health outcomes back to inputs like population and economic growth. The hybrid IFs system adds alternative structural formulations for causes not well served by regression models and accounts for changes in proximate health risk factors. Forecasts are made to 2100 but findings are reported to 2060. The base model projects that deaths from communicable diseases (CDs) will decline by 50%, whereas deaths from both non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries will more than double. Considerable cross-national convergence in life expectancy will occur. Climate-induced fluctuations in agricultural yield will cause little excess childhood mortality from CDs, although other climate-health pathways were not explored. An optimistic scenario will produce 39 million fewer deaths in 2060 than a pessimistic one. Our forward linkage model suggests that an optimistic scenario would result in a 20% per cent increase in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, despite one billion additional people. Southern Asia would experience the greatest relative mortality reduction and the largest resulting benefit in per capita GDP. Long-term, integrated health forecasting helps us understand the links between health and other markers of human progress and offers powerful insight into key points of leverage for future improvements.

  19. Racism and Child Health: A Review of the Literature and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Lee M.; Coll, Cynthia García

    2009-01-01

    Objective Racism is a mechanism through which racial/ethnic disparities occur in child health. To assess the present state of research into the effects of racism on child health, a review of the literature was undertaken. Methods A MEDLINE review of the literature was conducted between October and November 2007. Studies reporting on empirical research relating to racism or racial discrimination as a predictor or contributor to a child health outcome were included in this review. The definition of “child health” was broad and included behavioral, mental, and physical health. Results Forty articles describing empirical research on racism and child health were found. Most studies (65%) reported on research performed on behavioral and mental health outcomes. Other areas studied included birth outcomes, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and satisfaction with care. Most research has been conducted on African-American samples (70%), on adolescents and on older children, and without a uniformly standardized approach to measuring racism. Furthermore, many studies used measures that were created for adult populations. Conclusions There are a limited number of studies evaluating the relationship between racism and child health. Most studies, to date, show relationships between perceived racism and behavioral and mental health. Future studies need to include more ethnically diverse minority groups and needs to consider studying the effects of racism in younger children. Instruments need to be developed that measure perceptions of racism in children and youth that take into account the unique contexts and developmental levels of children, as well as differences in the perception of racism in different ethnocultural groups. Furthermore, studies incorporating racism as a specific psychosocial stressor that can potentially have biophysiologic sequelae need to be conducted to understand the processes and mechanisms through which racism may contribute to child health

  20. The mental health benefits of regular physical activity, and its role in preventing future depressive illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Stanton,1 Brenda Happell,1 Peter Reaburn2 1Institute for Health and Social Science Research, Centre for Mental Health Nursing Innovation and School of Nursing and Midwifery, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia; 2School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia Abstract: There is a large body of literature which examines the mental health benefits of physical activity. In general, studies report an inverse, dose dependent relationship between leisure-time physical activity participation, and mental health outcomes. Studies also show a positive association between maximal aerobic capacity and general well-being. More recent studies have confirmed the positive effects of physical activity participation on cognition, including the treatment and prevention of dementia. The current exercise prescription suggested for the treatment of depression is similar to that recommended to the general population for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. There is also strong evidence from large population level studies that long term physical activity participation reduces the risk of future depressive illness. From the available evidence, it would appear that physical activity performed at a frequency, intensity, and duration which is substantially less than that required for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in the general population, may afford significant benefits in reducing the risk of future depressive illness. This may be particularly encouraging for people with prior depressive illness, or at high risk of future depressive illness, since this vulnerable population already faces significant barriers to physical activity participation over and above those encountered by the general population. Keywords: exercise, major depression, depressive disorder, preventive medicine

  1. Health saving technologies in the training of future primary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Karapuzova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To reveal the features of the application of technology in the health-professional training of future primary school teachers and to characterize their practical implementation. Material : The study involved 137 students. Test was used to determine the likelihood of stress on G. Nemchin and J. Taylor. Results : It was found that the vast majority of respondents (67% have a low level of efficiency and high stress. That is, there is the possibility of negative effects of stress. Among the students of middle and low level of success of 76% the cause of this was called exhaustion. Defined as the implementation of technologies will aggregate pedagogically appropriate forms, methods and means of organization and management of the educational process. Proposed criteria indicators of training activities from the standpoint of health preservation. An experience of work on the implementation of health-technology in the practice of psycho-pedagogical faculty. Conclusions : The health-tech feature is the harmonious combination of training, educational and developing pedagogical influences. They are specified in the learning and cognitive, research, organizational and educational work of the students and the teaching practice in schools. They are aimed at both the development and improvement of the physical, spiritual, mental and social health factors of a young man, and on the formation of health-competence of students.

  2. The future of public health nutrition: a critical policy analysis of Eat Well Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Amber

    2011-04-01

    To better understand how public health nutrition has been represented during the past decade in Australia this paper critically analyses Eat Well Australia: An Agenda for Action for Public Health Nutrition 2000-2010 and its accompanying National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition Strategy and Action Plan. The paper uses an interpretive approach, drawing on Bacchi's method of problem representation, to examine the strategies being offered within the policy. It uses this framework to uncover how public health nutrition has been represented and examines if the representation provided considers all aspects of the issue. The paper also considers how contextual factors affected policy development through examination of publicly available documents. The problem is represented as being both an individual one and one due to social, structural and economic circumstances. There is a large focus on collaboration, research and capacity building. The context of the policy's development has affected the solutions contained within. The policy's proposed actions reflect the policy-making environment in which it was conceived. A manifestation of this was unclear division of roles and responsibilities, lack of dedicated resources and inadequate focus on the social determinants of health. As the policy's timeframe is drawing to its end, critical reflection on how the problem of nutrition has been represented over the previous decade provides greater insight and awareness to direct future public health nutrition work. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Ability to Pay for Future National Health Financing Scheme among Malaysian Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizuddin, Azimatun Noor; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    Malaysia is no exception to the challenging health care financing phenomenon of globalization. The objective of the present study was to assess the ability to pay among Malaysian households as preparation for a future national health financing scheme. This was a cross-sectional study involving representative samples of 774 households in Peninsular Malaysia. A majority of households were found to have the ability to pay for their health care. Household expenditure on health care per month was between MYR1 and MYR2000 with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 73.54 (142.66), or in a percentage of per-month income between 0.05% and 50% with mean (SD) 2.74 (5.20). The final analysis indicated that ability to pay was significantly higher among younger and higher-income households. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic statuses are important eligibility factors to be considered in planning the proposed national health care financing scheme to shield the needed group from catastrophic health expenditures. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostics and Health Management of Wind Turbines: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-12-14

    Prognostics and health management is not a new concept. It has been used in relatively mature industries, such as aviation and electronics, to help improve operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In the wind industry, prognostics and health management is relatively new. The level for both wind industry applications and research and development (R&D) has increased in recent years because of its potential for reducing O&M cost of wind power, especially for turbines installed offshore. The majority of wind industry application efforts has been focused on diagnosis based on various sensing and feature extraction techniques. For R&D, activities are being conducted in almost all areas of a typical prognostics and health management framework (i.e., sensing, data collection, feature extraction, diagnosis, prognosis, and maintenance scheduling). This presentation provides an overview of the current status of wind turbine prognostics and health management that focuses on drivetrain condition monitoring through vibration, oil debris, and oil condition analysis techniques. It also discusses turbine component health diagnosis through data mining and modeling based on supervisory control and data acquisition system data. Finally, it provides a brief survey of R&D activities for wind turbine prognostics and health management, along with future opportunities.

  5. Employers, workers, and the future of employment-based health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    EBRI'S BIANNUAL POLICY FORUM: This Issue Brief summarizes presentations at EBRI's 65th biannual policy forum, held in Washington, DC, on Dec. 10, 2009, on the topic, "Employers, Workers, and the Future of Employment-Based Health Benefits." The forum brought together a wide range of economic, benefits, management, and labor experts to share their expertise at a time when major health reform legislation was being debated in Congress. The focus: How might this affect the way that the vast majority of Americans currently get their health insurance coverage? THE EMPLOYMENT-BASED HEALTH INSURANCE SYSTEM: Most people who have health insurance coverage in the United States get it through their job: In 2008, about 61 percent of the nonelderly population had employment-based health benefits, 19 percent were covered by public programs, 6 percent had individual coverage, and 17 percent were uninsured. Not surprisingly, given the deep conflicts that exist over President Obama's health reform plan and the different bills that have passed the House and Senate, benefits experts also do not agree on what "health reform" will mean for either workers or employers. Views ranged from "Will anyone notice?" to predictions of great upheaval for workers and their employers, patients and health care providers, and the entire U.S. health care system. One point of consensus among both labor and management representatives: Imposing a tax on health benefits is likely to cause major cuts in health benefits and might result in structural changes in the employment-based benefits system. A common disappointment voiced at the forum was that the initial effort to reform the delivery and cost of health care in America gradually became focused on just financing and coverage of health insurance. The ever-rising cost of health insurance affects different employers and workers in different ways--with small employers and low-wage workers being the most disadvantaged. With health premiums having risen

  6. Future and potential spending on health 2015-40: development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-20

    The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future spending can be beneficial for policy makers and planners, and can identify financing gaps. In this study, we estimate future gross domestic product (GDP), all-sector government spending, and health spending disaggregated by source, and we compare expected future spending to potential future spending. We extracted GDP, government spending in 184 countries from 1980-2015, and health spend data from 1995-2014. We used a series of ensemble models to estimate future GDP, all-sector government spending, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending through 2040. We used frontier analyses to identify patterns exhibited by the countries that dedicate the most funding to health, and used these frontiers to estimate potential health spending for each low-income or middle-income country. All estimates are inflation and purchasing power adjusted. We estimated that global spending on health will increase from US$9·21 trillion in 2014 to $24·24 trillion (uncertainty interval [UI] 20·47-29·72) in 2040. We expect per capita health spending to increase fastest in upper-middle-income countries, at 5·3% (UI 4·1-6·8) per year. This growth is driven by continued growth in GDP, government spending, and government health spending. Lower-middle income countries are expected to grow at 4·2% (3·8-4·9). High-income countries are expected to grow at 2·1% (UI 1·8-2·4) and low-income countries are expected to grow at 1·8% (1·0-2·8). Despite this growth, health spending per capita in low-income countries is expected to remain low, at $154 (UI 133-181) per capita in 2030 and $195 (157-258) per capita in 2040. Increases in national health spending

  7. An analysis of three levels of scaled-up coverage for 28 interventions to avert stillbirths and maternal, newborn and child mortality in 27 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean with the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Lauren; O'Connell, Thomas; Brumana, Luisa; Durán, Pablo

    2016-07-22

    Action to avert maternal and child mortality was propelled by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000. The Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region has shown promise in achieving the MDGs in many countries, but preventable maternal, neonatal and child mortality persist. Furthermore, preventable stillbirths are occurring in large numbers in the region. While an effective set of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) interventions have been identified, they have not been brought to scale across LAC. Baseline data for select MNCH interventions for 27 LAC countries that are included in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) were verified and updated with survey data. Three LiST projections were built for each country: baseline, MDG-focused, and All Included, each scaling up a progressively larger set of interventions for 2015 - 2030. Impact was assessed for 2015 - 2035, comparing annual and total lives saved, as projected by LiST. Across the 27 countries 235,532 stillbirths, and 752,588 neonatal, 959,393 under-five, and 60,858 maternal deaths would be averted between 2015 and 2035 by implementing the All-Included intervention package, representing 67 %, 616 %, 807 % and 101 % more lives saved, respectively, than with the MDG-focused interventions. 25 % neonatal deaths averted with the All-Included intervention package would be due to asphyxia, 42 % from prematurity and 24 % from sepsis. Our modelling suggests a 337 % increase in the number of lives saved, which would have enormous impacts on population health. Further research could help clarify the impacts of a comprehensive scale-up of the full range of essential MNCH interventions we have modelled.

  8. Earthquakes, Fuel Crisis, Power Outages, and Health Care in Nepal: Implications for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bipin; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Babu Marahatta, Sujan; Kaehler, Nils; Paudel, Kumar; Adhikari, Janak; Raut, Shristi

    2017-10-01

    Earthquakes are a major natural calamity with pervasive effects on human life and nature. Similar effects are mimicked by man-made disasters such as fuel crises and power outages in developing countries. Natural and man-made disasters can cause intangible human suffering and often leave scars of lifelong psychosocial damage. Lessons from these disasters are frequently not implemented. The main objective of this study was to review the effects of the 2015 earthquakes, fuel crisis, and power outages on the health services of Nepal and formulate recommendations for the future. The impacts of earthquakes on health can be divided into immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects. Power outages and fuel crises have health hazards at all stages. It is imperative to understand the temporal effects of earthquakes, because the major needs soon after the earthquake (emergency care) are vastly different from long-term needs such as rehabilitation and psychosocial support. In Nepal, the inadequate and nearly nonexistent specialized health care at the peripheral level claimed many lives during the earthquakes and left many people disproportionately injured. Preemptive strategies such as mobile critical care units at primary health centers, intensive care training for health workers, and alternative plans for emergency care must be prioritized. Similarly, infrastructural damage led to poor sanitation, and alternative plans for temporary settlements (water supply, food, settlements logistics, space for temporary settlements) must be in place where the danger of disease outbreak is imminent. While much of these strategies are implementable and are often set as priorities, long-term effects of earthquakes such as physical and psychosocial supports are often overlooked. The burden of psychosocial stresses, including depression and physical disabilities, needs to be prioritized by facilitating human resources for mental health care and rehabilitation. In addition, inclusion of

  9. Impacts of global environmental change on future health and health care in tropical countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, A J; Patz, J; Kovats, R S

    1998-01-01

    The aggregate human impact on the environment now exceeds the limits of absorption or regeneration of various major biophysical systems, at global and regional levels. The resultant global environmental changes include altered atmospheric composition, widespread land degradation, depletion of fisheries, freshwater shortages, and biodiversity losses. The drive for further social and economic development, plus an unavoidable substantial increase in population size by 2050--especially in less developed countries--will tend to augment these large-scale environmental problems. Disturbances of the Earth's life-support systems (the source of climatic stability, food, freshwater, and robust ecosystems) will affect disproportionately the resource-poor and geographically vulnerable populations in many tropical countries. Ecological disturbances will alter the pattern of various pests and pathogens in plants, livestock and humans. Overall, these large-scale environmental changes are likely to increase the range and seasonality of various (especially vector-borne) infectious diseases, food insecurity, of water stress, and of population displacement with its various adverse health consequences.

  10. What's the future for health promotion in England? The views of practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Judy; Wills, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Specialized health promotion is an internationally recognized occupation and field of activity which has had a chequered history in England. After flourishing briefly in some areas in the early years of the New Labour government it has been in decline in most parts of the country. The last survey of practice conducted in 2005 found that the specialized health promotion workforce was unevenly distributed and much in need of advocacy and development. Since then there has been another major reorganization of primary care trusts (PCTs) and a split between commissioning and provider functions. Practitioners' views on the impact of this on health promotion were gathered in a survey in 2008-2009. Participants comprised 36 people attending a Shaping the Future workshop in the North of England and 40 practitioners studying a masters course in health promotion. The findings reveal that organizational structure has a major impact on the nature of health promotion activity: the split between commissioning and provider functions of PCTs has presented huge challenges to practitioners irrespective of the arm in which they are placed, as one of the strengths of health promotion has always been its ability to straddle both strategic and operational levels and offer a joined-up approach to tackling the causes of ill health. For the specialized health promotion workforce, there has been a loss of identity and critical mass as the discipline is increasingly reduced and fragmented, a trend that looks set to worsen following further reorganization and reductions in public sector spending introduced by the new coalition government.

  11. Motivational power of future time perspective: Meta-analyses in education, work, and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) may predict individual attitudes and behaviors. However, FTP research includes different FTP conceptualizations and outcomes which hinder generalizing its findings. To solve the inconsistencies in FTP research and generalize the magnitude of FTP as a driver of motivation and behavior, we conducted the first systematical synthesis of FTP relationships in three crucial life domains. Our meta-analyses of FTP studies in education (k = 28), work (k = 17), and health (k = 32) involved N = 31,558 participants, and used a conceptual model for grouping FTP constructs. To address different outcome types, we applied the Theory of Planned Behavior when coding the studies. FTP relationships with outcomes were small-to-medium, were generalizable across domains, and were strongest when the FTP construct included a mixture of cognition, behavioral intention, and affect and, in education, when the FTP measure was domain specific rather than general. There were cross-cultural differences in FTP-outcome relationships. The strength of the FTP-outcome types relationship varied for attitudes, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and behaviors. The lowest effect sizes were found for FTP predicting actual behaviors in education, work, and health and between FTP and health attitudes. Theoretical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:29364917

  12. Occupational safety and health in Japan: current situations and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Haruhiko

    2012-01-01

    The Industrial Safety and Health Law enacted in 1972 has contributed much to the progress of occupational safety and health (OSH) activities. Many indicators including death and illness statistics show continued improvement up to date. The establishment of OSH organization within enterprises and 5-yr administrative programs formulated by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) were important factors for satisfactory management. The past programs indicate that the weight of self regulation in comparison to legal control gradually increased since late 1990s. In spite of the past achievement, many hazards such as overwork, mental stress, chemical agents and others still remain to be prevented. The systematic risk assessment of unregulated chemicals by the MHLW proved to be an effective scheme for risk-based management and to deserve continued implementation. The size of human resources for OSH was estimated at 1.5 million. In view of the adverse effect on OSH by economic, social and political environment in the future, the importance of the efficiency of OSH management was indicated. Since the efficiency depends on the competence of OSH personnel and the level of scientific basis, it was concluded that the fundamental policy for the future should give high priority to education and research.

  13. Improved Techniques and Future Advances in Plastic Surgery in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Paul; Taub, Peter J; Silver, Lester

    Plastic surgery has a long-standing history of being deeply interconnected with global health. This paper reviews the current state of global health as it relates to plastic surgery and makes forecasts for the future. This study reviews the most current literature on global plastic surgery, as well as offers insights based on our 2 senior authors' experiences. For our literature search, the MEDLINE database was queried using relevant keywords through both PubMed and OVID user interfaces. Early exposure to global plastic surgery often leads to a lifelong involvement. Formal integration of global surgery into residencies is becoming more common. Models of care for global plastic surgery range from small to large groups, spanning the full spectrum of reconstructive plastic surgery. The best of these groups have longitudinal relationships with their operative sites to allow for continuous care. Logistics and funding are crucial for successful care. Technological advances will make long-distance care more facile in the future. Global plastic surgery is rewarding to both patient and physician. Plastic surgery has been and will continue to be committed to providing high-quality global health care. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [The concept mapping of representations of the future of health services in French in linguistic minority].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Louise

    2013-06-06

    In the context of institutional incompleteness affecting the official minority language communities, we examine how the Francophones in a minority context see the future of health services offered in French. The study is based on a participatory methodology: the concept mapping will serve to identify the conceptual universe of a given problem. From a master statement such as: "When I think about the future of health services in French, I think of ...", participants are invited to make as many statements as come to mind. These statements are then categorized individually and treated collectively through a multivariate analysis. The main themes emerging from the mapping exercise indicate the issues and challenges raised by the participants, namely the geographical context, specific needs, language rights, education and training, human resources, bilingualism and translation, the minority experience, active offer, the role of governmental bodies, community mobilization, collaboration and networking. The participatory approach that concept mapping allows is interesting in more than one way: its flexibility provides a space for both individual and collective reflection; it allows identification and structuring of the crucial dimensions of an issue; and the research outcomes are useful both to researchers and participants in guiding action and achieving goals. Social actors can therefore benefit from a collective dynamic to reflect on the foundations for the development and organization of health services in French.

  15. Future directions in research on sexual minority adolescent mental, behavioral, and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge on sexual, mental, and behavioral health of sexual minority (SM) youth and identifies gaps that would benefit from future research. A translational sciences framework is used to conceptualize the article, discussing findings and gaps along the spectrum from basic research on prevalence and mechanisms, to intervention development and testing, to implementation. Relative to adults, there has been much less research on adolescents and very few studies that had longitudinal follow-up beyond 1 year. Due to historical changes in the social acceptance of the SM community, new cohorts are needed to represent contemporary life experiences and associated health consequences. Important theoretical developments have occurred in conceptualizing mechanisms that drive SM health disparities and mechanistic research is underway, including studies that identify individual and structural risk/protective factors. Research opportunities exist in the utilization of sibling-comparison designs, inclusion of parents, and studying romantic relationships. Methodological innovation is needed in sampling SM populations. There has been less intervention research and approaches should consider natural resiliencies, life-course frameworks, prevention science, multiple levels of influence, and the importance of implementation. Regulatory obstacles are created when ethics boards elect to require parental permission and ethics research is needed. There has been inconsistent inclusion of SM populations in the definition of "health disparity population," which impacts funding and training opportunities. There are incredible opportunities for scholars to make substantial and foundational contributions to help address the health of SM youth, and new funding opportunities to do so.

  16. Transition care: future directions in education, health policy, and outcomes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Niraj; O'Hare, Kitty; Antonelli, Richard C; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    All youth must transition from pediatric to adult-centered medical care. This process is especially difficult for youth with special health care needs. Many youth do not receive the age-appropriate medical care they need and are at risk during this vulnerable time. Previous research has identified barriers that may prevent effective transition, and protocols have been developed to improve the process. Health outcomes related to successful transition have yet to be fully defined. Health care transition can also be influenced by education of providers, but there are gaps in medical education at the undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels. Current changes in federal health policy allow improved health care coverage, provide some new financial incentives, and test new structures for transitional care, including the evolution of accountable care organizations (ACO). Future work must test how these systems changes will affect quality of care. Finally, transition protocols exist in various medical subspecialties; however, national survey results show no improvement in transition readiness, and there are no consistent measures of what constitutes transition success. In order to advance the field of transition, research must be done to integrate transition curricula at the undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels; to provide advance financial incentives and pilot the ACO model in centers providing care to youth during transition; to define outcome measures of importance to transition; and to study the effectiveness of current transition tools on improving these outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and one health in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E

    2013-08-01

    "One Health" is a term that encapsulates and underscores the inherent interrelatedness of the health of people, animals, and the environment. Vector-borne infections are central in one health. Many arthropod vectors readily feed on humans and other animals, serving as an ideal conduit to move pathogens between a wide spectrum of potential hosts. As ecological niches flux, opportunities arise for vectors to interact with novel species, allowing infectious agents to broaden both geographic and host ranges. Habitat change has been linked to the emergence of novel human and veterinary disease agents, and can dramatically facilitate expansion opportunities by allowing existing vector populations to flourish and by supporting the establishment of new pathogen maintenance systems. At the same time, control efforts can be hindered by the development of parasiticide and pesticide resistance, foiling efforts to meet these challenges. Using examples drawn from representative diseases important in one health in the Americas, including rickettsial infections, Lyme borreliosis, Chagas disease, and West Nile virus, this paper reviews key aspects of vector-borne disease maintenance cycles that present challenges for one health in the Americas, including emergence of vector-borne disease agents, the impact of habitat change on vector-borne disease transmission, and the complexities faced in developing effective control programs. Novel strategies will be required to effectively combat these infections in the future if we are to succeed in the goal of fostering an environment which supports healthy animals and healthy people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Personal Health Record Use in the United States: Forecasting Future Adoption Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Hesse, Bradford W; Huerta, Timothy R

    2016-03-30

    Personal health records (PHRs) offer a tremendous opportunity to generate consumer support in pursing the triple aim of reducing costs, increasing access, and improving care quality. Moreover, surveys in the United States indicate that consumers want Web-based access to their medical records. However, concerns that consumers' low health information literacy levels and physicians' resistance to sharing notes will limit PHRs' utility to a relatively small portion of the population have reduced both the product innovation and policy imperatives. The purpose of our study was 3-fold: first, to report on US consumers' current level of PHR activity; second, to describe the roles of imitation and innovation influence factors in determining PHR adoption rates; and third, to forecast future PHR diffusion uptake among US consumers under 3 scenarios. We used secondary data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) of US citizens for the survey years 2008, 2011, and 2013. Applying technology diffusion theory and Bass modeling, we evaluated 3 future PHR adoption scenarios by varying the introduction dates. All models displayed the characteristic diffusion S-curve indicating that the PHR technology is likely to achieve significant market penetration ahead of meaningful use goals. The best-performing model indicates that PHR adoption will exceed 75% by 2020. Therefore, the meaningful use program targets for PHR adoption are below the rates likely to occur without an intervention. The promise of improved care quality and cost savings through better consumer engagement prompted the US Institute of Medicine to call for universal PHR adoption in 1999. The PHR products available as of 2014 are likely to meet and exceed meaningful use stage 3 targets before 2020 without any incentive. Therefore, more ambitious uptake and functionality availability should be incorporated into future goals.

  19. Criteria for the future division of labor between private and social health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, P

    2000-01-01

    This article's point of departure is that the individual has to manage three stochastic assets, namely health, wealth, and wisdom (skills), which tend to be positively correlated. It shows that the unexpected components of insurance payments should be negatively correlated for minimizing total asset volatility. The empirical finding is that in the United States, Japan, and Germany, the lines of social insurance contribute less to diversification than do those of private insurance. The article concludes with suggestions for new, umbrella-type insurance contracts that in the future should help individuals in the efficient management of their assets.

  20. Health-related quality of life in sickle cell disease: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Julie A; Bonner, Melanie

    2012-08-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is defined as the patient's appraisal of how his/her well being and level of functioning, compared to the perceived ideal, are affected by individual health. The study of HRQL in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) has begun to flourish. Given the devastating complications of the disease and other co-morbid factors patients experience that influence HRQL, it is increasingly important to understand HRQL. The focus of this critical review was to examine past and current research in HRQL in SCD where a validated instrument was used. In addition, future directions for HRQL in SCD are explored. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Past, Present, and Future of Soils and Human Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Sauer, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    speculation and anecdotal evidence." So, the scientific study of soils and human health is a recent undertaking, but the idea that healthy soils are required for healthy people is not a particularly new one. In the modern world, we recognize that soils have a distinct influence on human health. We recognize that soils influence 1) food availability and quality (food security), 2) human contact with various chemicals, and 3) human contact with various pathogens. Soils and human health studies include investigations into nutrient supply through the food web and routes of exposure to chemicals and pathogens. However, making strong, scientific connections between soils and human health can be difficult. There are multiple variables to consider in the soil environment, meaning traditional scientific studies that seek to isolate and manipulate a single variable often do not provide meaningful data. The complete study of soils and human health also involves many different specialties such as soil scientists, toxicologists, medical professionals, anthropologists, etc. These groups do not traditionally work together on research projects, and do not always effectively communicate with one another. Climate change and how it will affect the soil environment/ecosystem going into the future is another variable we need to get a better understanding of. Future successes in soils and human health research will require effectively addressing difficult issues such as these.

  2. Health psychology in Ghana: A review of the multidisciplinary origins of a young sub-field and its future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a historical overview of psychology applied to health and health psychology in Ghana. A brief history of health, illness and healthcare in Ghana is introduced. Then, the history of psychology in Ghana is presented, with signposts of the major turns in the field in relation to psychology and other disciplines applied to health and the emergence of health psychology as a sub-field. Selected health psychology studies are reviewed to highlight ideological trends in the field. Finally, future prospects are considered in terms of how the sub-field can transition into an established critical field with unique contributions to make to global health psychology.

  3. Impacts of climate change on public health in India: future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Kathleen F; Luber, George; Kotha, S Rani; Dhaliwal, R S; Kapil, Vikas; Pascual, Mercedes; Brown, Daniel G; Frumkin, Howard; Dhiman, R C; Hess, Jeremy; Wilson, Mark L; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Eisenberg, Joseph; Kaur, Tanvir; Rood, Richard; Batterman, Stuart; Joseph, Aley; Gronlund, Carina J; Agrawal, Arun; Hu, Howard

    2011-06-01

    Climate change and associated increases in climate variability will likely further exacerbate global health disparities. More research is needed, particularly in developing countries, to accurately predict the anticipated impacts and inform effective interventions. Building on the information presented at the 2009 Joint Indo-U.S. Workshop on Climate Change and Health in Goa, India, we reviewed relevant literature and data, addressed gaps in knowledge, and identified priorities and strategies for future research in India. The scope of the problem in India is enormous, based on the potential for climate change and variability to exacerbate endemic malaria, dengue, yellow fever, cholera, and chikungunya, as well as chronic diseases, particularly among the millions of people who already experience poor sanitation, pollution, malnutrition, and a shortage of drinking water. Ongoing efforts to study these risks were discussed but remain scant. A universal theme of the recommendations developed was the importance of improving the surveillance, monitoring, and integration of meteorological, environmental, geospatial, and health data while working in parallel to implement adaptation strategies. It will be critical for India to invest in improvements in information infrastructure that are innovative and that promote interdisciplinary collaborations while embarking on adaptation strategies. This will require unprecedented levels of collaboration across diverse institutions in India and abroad. The data can be used in research on the likely impacts of climate change on health that reflect India's diverse climates and populations. Local human and technical capacities for risk communication and promoting adaptive behavior must also be enhanced.

  4. Optimization of bone health in children before and after renal transplantation: current perspectives and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen eSgambat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The accrual of healthy bone during the critical period of childhood and adolescence sets the stage for lifelong skeletal health. However, in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD, disturbances in mineral metabolism and endocrine homeostasis begin early on, leading to alterations in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume, and impairing growth. Risk factors for CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD include nutritional vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, altered growth hormone and insulin like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1 axis, delayed puberty, malnutrition, and metabolic acidosis. After kidney transplantation, nutritional vitamin D deficiency, persistent hyperparathyroidism, tertiary FGF23 excess, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesaemia, immunosuppressive therapy, and alteration of sex hormones continue to impair bone health and growth. As function of the renal allograft declines over time, CKD-MBD associated changes are reactivated, further impairing bone health. Strategies to optimize bone health post-transplant include healthy diet, weight-bearing exercise, correction of vitamin D deficiency and acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities, steroid avoidance, and consideration of recombinant human growth hormone therapy. Other drug therapies have been used in adult transplant recipients, but there is insufficient evidence for use in the pediatric population at the present time. Future therapies to be explored include anti-FGF23 antibodies, FGF23 receptor blockers, and treatments targeting the colonic microbiota by reduction of generation of bacterial toxins and adsorption of toxic end products that affect bone mineralization.

  5. Perspective on the energy future of the Northeast: health and environmental impacts of alternative energy futures for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Morris, S.C.; Calef, C.E.; Kaplan, E.; Shreeve, D.F.; Reisman, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Attention was focused on five air pollutants: sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulates, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. Emission coefficients were based on data in the BNL Energy Model Data Base. Tables are presented to show emission factors for electricity generation, for industrial energy use, and for Transportation sector. Health effects of air pollution, health impacts of nuclear power plants, and environmental considerations are also discussed. (HLW)

  6. Incidence of medically attended influenza infection and cases averted by vaccination, 2011/12 and 2012/13 influenza seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Kieke, Burney; McClure, David; Gaglani, Manjusha; Murthy, Kempapura; Malosh, Ryan; Monto, Arnold; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Flannery, Brendan; Thompson, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    Background We estimated the burden of outpatient influenza and cases prevented by vaccination during the 2011/12 and 2012/13 influenza seasons using data from the United States Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness (US Flu VE) Network. Methods We defined source populations of persons who could seek care for acute respiratory illness (ARI) at each of the five US Flu VE Network sites. We identified all members of the source population who were tested for influenza during US Flu VE influenza surveillance. Each influenza-positive subject received a sampling weight based on the proportion of source population members who were tested for influenza, stratified by site, age, and other factors. We used the sampling weights to estimate the cumulative incidence of medically attended influenza in the source populations. We estimated cases averted by vaccination using estimates of cumulative incidence, vaccine coverage, and vaccine effectiveness. Results Cumulative incidence of medically attended influenza ranged from 0.8% to 2.8% across sites during 2011/12 and from 2.6% to 6.5% during the 2012/13 season. Stratified by age, incidence ranged from 1.2% among adults 50 years of age and older in 2011/12 to 10.9% among children 6 months to 8 years of age in 2012/13. Cases averted by vaccination ranged from 4 to 41 per 1,000 vaccinees, depending on the study site and year. Conclusions The incidence of medically attended influenza varies greatly by year and even by geographic region within the same year. The number of cases averted by vaccination varies greatly based on overall incidence and on vaccine coverage. PMID:26271827

  7. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: Human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitch eSajjacholapunt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants’ eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-centre horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people’s memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localised more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  8. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjacholapunt, Pitch; Ball, Linden J

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localized more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  9. Quantifying Future PM2.5 and Associated Health Effects Due to Changes in US Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J. R.; Val Martin, M.; Ford, B.; Zelasky, S.; Heald, C. L.; Li, F.; Lawrence, D. M.; Fischer, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from landscape fires has been shown to adversely affect visibility, air quality and and health across the US. Fire activity is strongly related to climate and human activities. Predictions based on climate scenarios and future land cover projections that consider socioeconomic development suggest that fire activity will rise dramatically over the next decades. As PM2.5 is associated with increased mortality and morbidity rates, increases in emissions from landscape fires may alter the health burden on the US population. Here we present an analysis of the changes in future wildfire activity and consequences for PM2.5 and health over the US from 2000 to 2100. We employ the global Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the IPCC RCP projections. Within CESM, we use a process-based global fire parameterization to project future climate-driven and human-caused fire emissions. From these simulations, we determine the current and future impact on PM2.5 concentrations and visibility for different regions of the US, and we also calculate the mortality attributable to PM2.5 and wildfire-specific PM2.5 using existing concentration-response functions. Results show that although total PM2.5 concentrations in the US are projected to be similar in 2100 as in 2000, the dominant source of PM2.5 will change. Under the RCP8.5 climate projection and SSP3 population projection, non-fire emissions (mostly anthropogenic) are projected to decrease, but PM2.5 from CONUS and non-US wildfires is projected to increase from approximately 20% of all PM2.5 in 2000 to 80% of all PM2.5 in 2100. Furthermore, although the US population is expected to decline between 2000 and 2100, the mortality attributable to wildfire smoke is expected to increase from 25,000 deaths per year in 2000 to 75,000 deaths per year in 2100.

  10. Beyond crystal balls: crosscutting solutions in global health to prepare for an unpredictable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Wladimir Jimenez; McCormick, Benjamin Joseph James; Miller, Mark A; Schuck-Paim, Cynthia; Asrar, Ghassem R

    2015-09-24

    Efforts in global heath need to deal not only with current challenges, but also to anticipate new scenarios, which sometimes unfold at lightning speed. Predictive modeling is frequently used to assist planning, but outcomes depend heavily on a subset of critical assumptions, which are mostly hampered by our limited knowledge about the many factors, mechanisms and relationships that determine the dynamics of disease systems, by a lack of data to parameterize and validate models, and by uncertainties about future scenarios. We propose a shift from a focus on the prediction of individual disease patterns to the identification and mitigation of broader fragilities in public health systems. Modeling capabilities should be used to perform "stress tests" on how interrelated fragilities respond when faced with a range of possible or plausible threats of different nature and intensity. This system should be able to reveal crosscutting solutions with the potential to address not only one threat, but multiple areas of vulnerability to future health risks. Actionable knowledge not based on a narrow subset of threats and conditions can better guide policy, build societal resilience and ensure effective prevention in an uncertain world.

  11. Future Issues and Approaches to Health Monitoring and Failure Prevention for Oil-Free Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Recent technology advances in foil air bearings, high temperature solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of small Oil-Free gas turbines. These turbomachines are currently commercialized as small (<100 kW) microturbine generators and larger machines are being developed. Based upon these successes and the high potential payoffs offered by Oil-Free systems, NASA, industry, and other government entities are anticipating Oil-Free gas turbine propulsion systems to proliferate future markets. Since an Oil-Free engine has no oil system, traditional approaches to health monitoring and diagnostics, such as chip detection, oil analysis, and possibly vibration signature analyses (e.g., ball pass frequency) will be unavailable. As such, new approaches will need to be considered. These could include shaft orbit analyses, foil bearing temperature measurements, embedded wear sensors and start-up/coast down speed analysis. In addition, novel, as yet undeveloped techniques may emerge based upon concurrent developments in MEMS technology. This paper introduces Oil-Free technology, reviews the current state of the art and potential for future turbomachinery applications and discusses possible approaches to health monitoring, diagnostics and failure prevention.

  12. HEALTH CARE SPENDING GROWTH AND THE FUTURE OF U.S. TAX RATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicker, Katherine; Skinner, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    The fraction of GDP devoted to health care in the United States is the highest in the world and rising rapidly. Recent economic studies have highlighted the growing value of health improvements, but less attention has been paid to the efficiency costs of tax-financed spending to pay for such improvements. This paper uses a life cycle model of labor supply, saving, and longevity improvement to measure the balanced-budget impact of continued growth in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The model predicts that top marginal tax rates could rise to 70 percent by 2060, depending on the progressivity of future tax changes. The deadweight loss of the tax system is greater when the financing is more progressive. If the share of taxes paid by high-income taxpayers remains the same, the efficiency cost of raising the revenue needed to finance the additional health spending is $1.48 per dollar of revenue collected, and GDP declines (relative to trend) by 11 percent. A proportional payroll tax has a lower efficiency cost (41 cents per dollar of revenue averaged over all tax hikes, a 5 percent drop in GDP) but more than doubles the share of the tax burden borne by lower income taxpayers. Empirical support for the model comes from analysis of OECD country data showing that countries facing higher tax burdens in 1979 experienced slower health care spending growth in subsequent decades. The rising burden imposed by the public financing of health care expenditures may therefore serve as a brake on health care spending growth. PMID:21608156

  13. Chile Confronts its Environmental Health Future After 25 Years of Accelerated Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Paulina; Iglesias, Verónica; Garreaud, René; Cortés, Sandra; Canals, Mauricio; Folch, Walter; Burgos, Soledad; Levy, Karen; Naeher, Luke P; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Chile has recently been reclassified by the World Bank from an upper-middle-income country to a high-income country. There has been great progress in the last 20 to 30 years in relation to air and water pollution in Chile. Yet after 25 years of unrestrained growth, there remain clear challenges posed by air and water pollution, as well as climate change. The aim of this study was to review environmental health in Chile. In late 2013, a 3-day workshop on environmental health was held in Santiago, Chile, bringing together researchers and government policymakers. As a follow-up to that workshop, here we review the progress made in environmental health in the past 20 to 30 years and discuss the challenges of the future. We focus on air and water pollution and climate change, which we believe are among the most important areas of environmental health in Chile. Air pollution in some cities remains among the highest in the continent. Potable water is generally available, but weak state supervision has led to serious outbreaks of infectious disease and ongoing issues with arsenic exposure in some regions. Climate change modeling in Chile is quite sophisticated, and a number of the impacts of climate change can be reasonably predicted in terms of which areas of the country are most likely to be affected by increased temperature and decreased availability of water, as well as expansion of vector territory. Some health effects, including changes in vector-borne diseases and excess heat mortality, can be predicted. However, there has yet to be an integration of such research with government planning. Although great progress has been made, currently there are a number of problems. We suspect that the Chilean experience in environmental health may be of some use for other Latin American countries with rapid economic development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing Smart Health Care Technology into the Home of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S.; Craft, R.L.; Bosma, J.T.

    1999-04-07

    The US health care industry is experiencing a substantial paradigm shift with regard to home care due to the convergence of several technology areas. Increasingly-capable telehealth systems and the internet are not only moving the point of care closer to the patient, but the patient can now assume a more active role in his or her own care. These technologies, coupled with (1) the migration of the health care industry to electronic patient records and (2) the emergence of a growing number of enabling health care technologies (e.g., novel biosensors, wearable devices, and intelligent software agents), demonstrate unprecedented potential for delivering highly automated, intelligent health care in the home. This editorial paper presents a vision for the implementation of intelligent health care technology in the home of the future, focusing on areas of research that have the highest potential payoff given targeted government funding over the next ten years. Here, intelligent health care technology means smart devices and systems that are aware of their context and can therefore assimilate information to support care decisions. A systems perspective is used to describe a framework under which devices can interact with one another in a plug-and-play manner. Within this infrastructure, traditionally passive sensors and devices will have read/write access to appropriate portions of an individual's electronic medical record. Through intelligent software agents, plug-and-play mechanisms, messaging standards, and user authentication tools, these smart home-based medical devices will be aware of their own capabilities, their relationship to the other devices in the home system, and the identity of the individual(s) from whom they acquire data. Information surety technology will be essential to maintain the confidentiality of patient-identifiable medical information and to protect the integrity of geographically dispersed electronic medical records with which each home

  15. Quantifying the health impacts of future changes in temperature in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, Bart; Rauch, Stephen; Green, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between high summer temperatures and increased mortality. However, the quantitative implications of projected future increases in temperature have not been well characterized. Objective: This study quantifies the effects of projected future temperatures on both mortality and morbidity in California, including the potential effects of mitigation. Data and methods: We first estimated the association between temperature and mortality for populations close to weather stations throughout the state. These dose–response estimates for mortality were then combined with local measures of current and projected changes in population, and projected changes in temperature, using a baseline of average temperatures from 1961 to 1990, for the years 2025 and 2050. The latter were based on two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (A2 and B1) developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In addition, we assessed the impacts of future adaptation through use of air conditioners. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the likely range of estimates. Results: These analyses indicate that for the high emissions scenario, the central estimate of annual premature mortality ranges from 2100 to 4300 for the year 2025 and from 6700 to 11,300 for 2050. The highest estimates are from the models that use age-specific dose–response functions, while the low estimates are from the models that adjust for ozone. Estimates using the low emissions scenario are roughly half of these estimates. Mitigation based on our estimates of the effects of 10% and 20% increase in air conditioner use would generate reductions of 16% and 33% in the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. Conclusion: Our estimates suggest significant public health impacts associated with future projected increases in temperature.

  16. Quantifying the health impacts of future changes in temperature in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, Bart; Rauch, Stephen; Green, Shelley

    2011-11-01

    Several epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between high summer temperatures and increased mortality. However, the quantitative implications of projected future increases in temperature have not been well characterized. This study quantifies the effects of projected future temperatures on both mortality and morbidity in California, including the potential effects of mitigation. We first estimated the association between temperature and mortality for populations close to weather stations throughout the state. These dose-response estimates for mortality were then combined with local measures of current and projected changes in population, and projected changes in temperature, using a baseline of average temperatures from 1961 to 1990, for the years 2025 and 2050. The latter were based on two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (A2 and B1) developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In addition, we assessed the impacts of future adaptation through use of air conditioners. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the likely range of estimates. These analyses indicate that for the high emissions scenario, the central estimate of annual premature mortality ranges from 2100 to 4300 for the year 2025 and from 6700 to 11,300 for 2050. The highest estimates are from the models that use age-specific dose-response functions, while the low estimates are from the models that adjust for ozone. Estimates using the low emissions scenario are roughly half of these estimates. Mitigation based on our estimates of the effects of 10% and 20% increase in air conditioner use would generate reductions of 16% and 33% in the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. Our estimates suggest significant public health impacts associated with future projected increases in temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Past speculations of the future: a review of the methods used for forecasting emerging health technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doos, Lucy; Packer, Claire; Ward, Derek; Simpson, Sue; Stevens, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Forecasting can support rational decision-making around the introduction and use of emerging health technologies and prevent investment in technologies that have limited long-term potential. However, forecasting methods need to be credible. We performed a systematic search to identify the methods used in forecasting studies to predict future health technologies within a 3–20-year timeframe. Identification and retrospective assessment of such methods potentially offer a route to more reliable prediction. Design Systematic search of the literature to identify studies reported on methods of forecasting in healthcare. Participants People are not needed in this study. Data sources The authors searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and grey literature sources, and included articles published in English that reported their methods and a list of identified technologies. Main outcome measure Studies reporting methods used to predict future health technologies within a 3–20-year timeframe with an identified list of individual healthcare technologies. Commercially sponsored reviews, long-term futurology studies (with over 20-year timeframes) and speculative editorials were excluded. Results 15 studies met our inclusion criteria. Our results showed that the majority of studies (13/15) consulted experts either alone or in combination with other methods such as literature searching. Only 2 studies used more complex forecasting tools such as scenario building. Conclusions The methodological fundamentals of formal 3–20-year prediction are consistent but vary in details. Further research needs to be conducted to ascertain if the predictions made were accurate and whether accuracy varies by the methods used or by the types of technologies identified. PMID:26966060

  18. The Future of Dental Schools in Research Universities and Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Laurie K

    2017-09-01

    As a profession, dentistry is at a point of discernible challenge as well as incredible opportunity in a landscape of evolving changes to health care, higher education, and evidence-based decision making. Respecting the past yet driving forward, a well-mapped future course is critical. Orchestrating this course in a collaborative manner is essential for the visibility, well-being, and potentially the existence of the dental profession. The research performed in dental institutions needs to be contemporary, aligned with biomedical science in general, and united with other disciplines. Dentistry is at risk of attrition in the quality of its research and discovery mission if participation with bioscience colleagues in the collaborative generation of new knowledge is underoptimized. A fundamental opportunity dentistry has is to contribute via its position in academic health centers. Rigorous research as to the impact of interprofessional education and collaborative care on population health outcomes provides significant potential for the dental profession to participate and/or lead such evidence-centered efforts. It is imperative that academic dental institutions are part of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary organizations that move health care into its new day. Strategizing diversity by bringing together people who have different ways of seeing problems to share perspectives, heuristics, interpretations, technologies, and predictive models across disciplines will lead to impactful progress. Academic dental institutions are a natural part of an emphasis on translational research and acceleration of implementing new scientific discoveries. Dentistry needs to remain an essential and integrated component of higher education in the health professions; doing so necessitates deliberate, respectful, and committed change. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  19. [The national health service in the United Kingdom-past, present and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K

    1996-10-01

    possible to direct patient care, the government produced and made public its plans for the future structure of NHS management in 1993 and a simplified structure is expected to go into effect by 1996. The Labour Party's document on health and health services in Britain was made public in 1994. The plan rejects the use of competition in the NHS and promises to reverse recent developments, reasserting the importance of the original principles of the NHS. It is too early to reach a verdict on the British experiment. Given the direction of change in Labour's thinking and the fact that the current reforms by the Conservatives are becoming more and more firmly embedded, almost anything is possible.

  20. Intellectual disability health content within medical curriculum: an audit of what our future doctors are taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Ruffell, Beth; Tracy, Jane; Torr, Jennifer J; Durvasula, Seeta; Iacono, Teresa; Eagleson, Claire; Lennox, Nicolas

    2016-04-11

    of content. There is a mismatch between the considerable unmet health needs of people with intellectual disability and the inconsistent teaching within medical schools. Future doctors will be better equipped to support the health and wellbeing of people with intellectual disability if curricula are enhanced in this area.

  1. An overview of future EU health systems. An insight into governance, primary care, data collection and citizens' participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Figueras, Josep; Mantoan, Domenico; Dawood, Amr; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Costongs, Caroline; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2018-03-26

    Health systems in the European Union (EU) are being questioned over their effectiveness and sustainability. In pursuing both goals, they have to conciliate coexisting, not always aligned, realities. This paper originated from a workshop entitled 'Health systems for the future' held at the European Parliament. Experts and decision makers were asked to discuss measures that may increase the effectiveness and sustainability of health systems, namely: (i) increasing citizens' participation; (ii) the importance of primary care in providing integrated services; (iii) improving the governance and (iv) fostering better data collection and information channels to support the decision making process. In the parliamentary debate, was discussed the concept that, in the near future, health systems' effectiveness and sustainability will very much depend on effective access to integrated services where primary care is pivotal, a clearer shift from care-oriented systems to health promotion and prevention, a profound commitment to good governance, particularly to stakeholders participation, and a systematic reuse of data meant to build health data-driven learning systems. Many health issues, such as future health systems in the EU, are potentially transformative and hence an intense political issue. It is policy-making leadership that will mostly determine how well EU health systems are prepared to face future challenges.

  2. Zika virus disease knowledge among the future health-care providers of the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Syed Arman; Mustafa, Farhan; Shouqair, Tasneem; Mohamad, Itaf; Tahsin, Nada

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease has become a major public health concern. Although there are no reported cases of ZIKV disease in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), there is a potential risk of transmission due to large expatriate population and high influx of international travelers. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge of ZIKV disease among the students of a medical and health sciences university in the UAE. Their knowledge of ZIKV disease was assessed using a specially designed, pretested, and validated questionnaire. Of the 500 respondents included in the final analysis, 314 (62.8%) respondents presented with poor knowledge of ZIKV disease. The mean knowledge score of the study population was 10.48 ± 2.48 out of a maximum of 17. Gender, college and year of study, nationality and attendance in lecture/conference/workshop on Zika were significantly associated with the level of knowledge. The males possessed significantly ( P = 0.046) better knowledge as compared to the females. Students of medical college had significantly ( P = 0.005) better knowledge as compared to students of other colleges. The level of knowledge improved significantly ( P = 0.026) as the year of study progressed. There is a need for medical and paramedical students to update their knowledge of ZIKV disease as they are the future health-care providers who will be responsible for creating awareness about such outbreaks and their preventive measures.

  3. Looking to the future of new media in health marketing: deriving propositions based on traditional theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; Eroglu, Dogan; Bernhardt, Jay M; Edgerton, Erin; Nall, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Market trend data show that the media marketplace continues to rapidly evolve. Recent research shows that substantial portions of the U.S. media population are "new media" users. Today, more than ever before, media consumers are exposed to multiple media at the same point in time, encouraged to participate in media content generation, and challenged to learn, access, and use the new media that are continually entering the market. These media trends have strong implications for how consumers of health information access, process, and retain health-related knowledge. In this article we review traditional information processing models and theories of interpersonal and mass media access and consumption. We make several theory-based propositions for how traditional information processing and media consumption concepts will function as new media usage continues to increase. These propositions are supported by new media usage data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's entry into the new media market (e.g., podcasting, virtual events, blogging, and webinars). Based on these propositions, we conclude by presenting both opportunities and challenges that public health communicators and marketers will face in the future.

  4. Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenle Ademola A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

  5. John Hancock officials give insights into rise of prepaid health plans: illustrate 'directions for future'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Looking back on a year that has seen Atlanta's HMO enrollment increase 137 percent and their own AmeriPlan up by 300 percent, and with the financial break-even point reached a year ahead of schedule, officials of John Hancock's AmeriPlan Health Services spoke in glowing terms of the role and future of IPA HMOs in a recent Atlanta press conference. By year's end, they predict, "membership will easily exceed 100,000," about eight percent of the metro Atlanta population. These excerpts from speakers at a press conference for corporate employee benefits executives provide an insight into the insurance company's rationale for HMO development and point out how one major company is marketing its services to physicians, industry and consumers.

  6. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, S. [National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  7. Prognostics and Health Management of Wind Turbines -- Current Status and Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2017-04-28

    The global wind industry has seen tremendous growth during the past two decades. However, the industry is challenged by premature component failures, which lead to increased turbine downtime and subsequently, cost of energy for wind power. To mitigate the impacts from these failures, the wind industry has been exploring various areas for improvements ranging from product design, new materials or lubricants, to operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. Condition-based maintenance or prognostics and health management (PHM) has been explored as one enabling technology for improving O&M practices. This chapter provides a brief overview of wind turbine PHM with a focus on operational data mining and condition monitoring of drivetrains. Some future research and development opportunities in wind turbine PHM are also briefly discussed.

  8. The Health Professions Education Pathway: Preparing Students, Residents, and Fellows to Become Future Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Carrie; Wamsley, Maria A; Azzam, Amin; Julian, Katherine; Irby, David M; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2017-01-01

    Training the next generation of health professionals requires leaders, innovators, and scholars in education. Although many medical schools and residencies offer education electives or tracks focused on developing teaching skills, these programs often omit educational innovation, scholarship, and leadership and are narrowly targeted to one level of learner. The University of California San Francisco created the Health Professions Education Pathway for medical students, residents, and fellows as well as learners from other health professional schools. The Pathway applies the theoretical framework of communities of practice in its curricular design to promote learner identity formation as future health professions educators. It employs the strategies of engagement, imagination, and alignment for identity formation. Through course requirements, learners engage and work with members of the educator community of practice to develop the knowledge and skills required to participate in the community. Pathway instructors are faculty members who model a breadth of educator careers to help learners imagine personal trajectories. Last, learners complete mentored education projects, adopting scholarly methods and ethics to align with the broader educator community of practice. From 2009 to 2014, 117 learners participated in the Pathway. Program evaluations, graduate surveys, and web-based searches revealed positive impacts on learner career development. Learners gained knowledge and skills for continued engagement with the educator community of practice, confirmed their career aspirations (imagination), joined an educator-in-training community (engagement/imagination), and disseminated via scholarly meetings and peer-reviewed publications (alignment). Learners identified engagement with the learner community as the most powerful aspect of the Pathway; it provided peer support for imagining and navigating the development of their dual identities in the clinician and educator

  9. Willingness to treat drug dependence and depression: comparisons of future health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ríos-Bedoya CF

    2011-03-01

    treat nicotine and alcohol dependence-affected patients as compared to depression-affected patients. Personal history was not associated with the students' willingness to treat, but men were less willing to treat. Drawing strength from the randomized reinforcer experimental design nested within this survey approach, the study evidence suggests potential nonparticipation bias in standard surveys on this topic.Conclusion: These results indicate that future health professionals may prefer to treat depression as opposed to drug dependence conditions. For SBIRT success, curriculum change with educational interventions may be needed to increase willingness to treat patients with neuropsychiatric conditions such as drug dependence. Future research requires attention to a possible problem of nonparticipation bias in surveys of this type.Keywords: alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, depression, health professionals, stigma 

  10. Global and regional health effects of future food production under climate change: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Garnett, Tara; Godfray, H Charles J; Gollin, Douglas; Rayner, Mike; Ballon, Paola; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-05-07

    One of the most important consequences of climate change could be its effects on agriculture. Although much research has focused on questions of food security, less has been devoted to assessing the wider health impacts of future changes in agricultural production. In this modelling study, we estimate excess mortality attributable to agriculturally mediated changes in dietary and weight-related risk factors by cause of death for 155 world regions in the year 2050. For this modelling study, we linked a detailed agricultural modelling framework, the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT), to a comparative risk assessment of changes in fruit and vegetable consumption, red meat consumption, and bodyweight for deaths from coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and an aggregate of other causes. We calculated the change in the number of deaths attributable to climate-related changes in weight and diets for the combination of four emissions pathways (a high emissions pathway, two medium emissions pathways, and a low emissions pathway) and three socioeconomic pathways (sustainable development, middle of the road, and more fragmented development), which each included six scenarios with variable climatic inputs. The model projects that by 2050, climate change will lead to per-person reductions of 3·2% (SD 0·4%) in global food availability, 4·0% (0·7%) in fruit and vegetable consumption, and 0·7% (0·1%) in red meat consumption. These changes will be associated with 529,000 climate-related deaths worldwide (95% CI 314,000-736,000), representing a 28% (95% CI 26-33) reduction in the number of deaths that would be avoided because of changes in dietary and weight-related risk factors between 2010 and 2050. Twice as many climate-related deaths were associated with reductions in fruit and vegetable consumption than with climate-related increases in the prevalence of underweight, and most climate-related deaths were projected to

  11. Geochemical Legacies and the Future Health of Cities: An Analysis of two Neurotoxins in Urban Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, G. M.; Risch, M.

    2015-12-01

    The past and future of cities are inextricably linked, a linkage that can be seen clearly in the long-term impacts of urban geochemical legacies. As loci of population as well as the means of employment and industry to support these populations, cities have a long history of co-locating contaminating practices and people, sometimes with negative implications for human health. Working at the intersection between geochemical processes, communities, and human health is critical to grapple with environmental legacies and to support healthy, sustainable, and growing urban populations. An emerging area of environmental health research is to understand the impacts of chronic exposures and exposure mixtures—these impacts are very poorly studied, yet have materialized as perhaps the greatest threat to large-scale population health. Acute exposure to lead (Pb), a powerful neurotoxin to which children are particularly susceptible, has largely been eliminated in the U.S. and other countries through policy-based restrictions on leaded gasoline and lead-based paints. But these legacy Pb sources are still around in the form of surface soil Pb contamination, a common problem in cities and one that has only recently emerged as a pernicious and widespread chronic exposure mechanism in cities. Some urban soils are also contaminated with another neurotoxin, mercury (Hg), although very little work has been done to understand human exposures to low levels of this element in soils. The most documented human exposure to Hg is through fish consumption, so eating fish caught in urban areas presents risks for above average dietary Hg exposure. The potential double impact of chronic exposure to these two neurotoxins is pronounced in cities. Many aspects of the dose-response curves for individual elements and mixtures are poorly understood, especially at lower levels, leaving unanswered several interesting and provocative questions about environmental impacts on neurological and

  12. Geochemical legacies and the future health of cities: A tale of two neurotoxins in urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Filippelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The past and future of cities are inextricably linked, a linkage that can be seen clearly in the long-term impacts of urban geochemical legacies. As loci of population as well as the means of employment and industry to support these populations, cities have a long history of co-locating contaminating practices and people, sometimes with negative implications for human health. Working at the intersection between environmental processes, communities, and human health is critical to grapple with environmental legacies and to support healthy, sustainable, and growing urban populations. An emerging area of environmental health research is to understand the impacts of chronic exposures and exposure mixtures—these impacts are poorly studied, yet may pose a significant threat to population health. Acute exposure to lead (Pb, a powerful neurotoxin to which children are particularly susceptible, has largely been eliminated in the U.S. and other countries through policy-based restrictions on leaded gasoline and lead-based paints. But the legacy of these sources remains in the form of surface soil Pb contamination, a common problem in cities and one that has only recently emerged as a widespread chronic exposure mechanism in cities. Some urban soils are also contaminated with another neurotoxin, mercury (Hg. The greatest human exposure to Hg is through fish consumption, so eating fish caught in urban areas presents risks for toxic Hg exposure. The potential double impact of chronic exposure to these two neurotoxins is pronounced in cities. Overall, there is a paradigmatic shift from reaction to and remediation of acute exposures towards a more nuanced understanding of the dynamic cycling of persistent environmental contaminants with resultant widespread and chronic exposure of inner-city dwellers, leading to chronic toxic illness and disability at substantial human and social cost.

  13. The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, J. A.; Aschbrenner, K. A.; Marsch, L. A.; Bartels, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    feeling more uncertain about one’s health condition. However, given the evidence to date, the benefits of online peer-to-peer support appear to outweigh the potential risks. Conclusion Future research must explore these opportunities to support and empower people with serious mental illness through online peer networks while carefully considering potential risks that may arise from online peer-to-peer interactions. Efforts will also need to address methodological challenges in the form of evaluating interventions delivered through social media and collecting objective mental and physical health outcome measures online. A key challenge will be to determine whether skills learned from peers in online networks translate into tangible and meaningful improvements in recovery, employment, or mental and physical wellbeing in the offline world. PMID:26744309

  14. Trust and Credibility in Web-Based Health Information: A Review and Agenda for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbaffi, Laura; Rowley, Jennifer

    2017-06-19

    Internet sources are becoming increasingly important in seeking health information, such that they may have a significant effect on health care decisions and outcomes. Hence, given the wide range of different sources of Web-based health information (WHI) from different organizations and individuals, it is important to understand how information seekers evaluate and select the sources that they use, and more specifically, how they assess their credibility and trustworthiness. The aim of this study was to review empirical studies on trust and credibility in the use of WHI. The article seeks to present a profile of the research conducted on trust and credibility in WHI seeking, to identify the factors that impact judgments of trustworthiness and credibility, and to explore the role of demographic factors affecting trust formation. On this basis, it aimed to identify the gaps in current knowledge and to propose an agenda for future research. A systematic literature review was conducted. Searches were conducted using a variety of combinations of the terms WHI, trust, credibility, and their variants in four multi-disciplinary and four health-oriented databases. Articles selected were published in English from 2000 onwards; this process generated 3827 unique records. After the application of the exclusion criteria, 73 were analyzed fully. Interest in this topic has persisted over the last 15 years, with articles being published in medicine, social science, and computer science and originating mostly from the United States and the United Kingdom. Documents in the final dataset fell into 3 categories: (1) those using trust or credibility as a dependent variable, (2) those using trust or credibility as an independent variable, and (3) studies of the demographic factors that influence the role of trust or credibility in WHI seeking. There is a consensus that website design, clear layout, interactive features, and the authority of the owner have a positive effect on trust or

  15. The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, J A; Aschbrenner, K A; Marsch, L A; Bartels, S J

    2016-04-01

    about one's health condition. However, given the evidence to date, the benefits of online peer-to-peer support appear to outweigh the potential risks. Future research must explore these opportunities to support and empower people with serious mental illness through online peer networks while carefully considering potential risks that may arise from online peer-to-peer interactions. Efforts will also need to address methodological challenges in the form of evaluating interventions delivered through social media and collecting objective mental and physical health outcome measures online. A key challenge will be to determine whether skills learned from peers in online networks translate into tangible and meaningful improvements in recovery, employment, or mental and physical wellbeing in the offline world.

  16. Current and future initiatives for vascular health management in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron JD

    2013-05-01

    , or on drug combinations that target the various segments of the arterial system.3. Several blood pressure-independent mechanisms of large artery stiffness exist. Future considerations for clinical understanding of large artery stiffness should involve new drugs and new evaluation methods – with a focus on vascular health, for the initiation of cardiovascular prevention, for newly designed studies for treatment evaluation, and for new studies of drug combinations.4. Arterial stiffening is a sign of cardiovascular aging and is a major factor affecting the biomechanics of large arteries. Arterial stiffness is an attractive therapeutic target in terms of vascular aging. Healthy lifestyle, physical exercise, and smoking cessation are the most effective ways of preventing and treating early vascular aging. Long-term effects of cardiovascular drugs on arterial stiffness need to be further investigated.5. The emerging clinical data on the cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI technique of arterial health assessment is presented, showing that the CAVI is elevated in aging, coronary artery diseases, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and stress. The CAVI decreased with the administration of statins, angiotensin II receptor blocking agents, and calcium channel blockers. The CAVI is suggested as an important predictor of cardiovascular diseases.Future development of a clinical understanding of large artery stiffness is important and should include consideration of new drugs and new evaluation methods, with a focus on vascular health aimed at cardiovascular prevention.Keywords: arterial stiffness, cardiovascular protection, hypertension, arterial hemodynamic evaluation

  17. Discussing Future Goals and Legal Aspects of Health Care: Essential Steps in Transitioning Youth to Adult-Oriented Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lynn F; Doyle, Maya; Silver, Ellen J

    2017-09-01

    Discussing realistic future goals with the adolescent alone and with family, and reviewing legal aspects of health care transition (HCT), are essential steps in the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented care. Secondary analysis of datasets from 2 studies related to HCT assessed differences in provider practice for youth with and without special health care needs (SHCNs). Across both datasets, between 57% and 68.6% of providers reported some discussion of future goals with adolescent or with family. However, only 28.6% to 31% of providers reported discussing future goals with youth with SHCNs alone. It was rare for providers to report discussing legal aspects of HCT with any youth. Findings identify a gap in discussing future goals and legal aspects of HCT, as part of routine care for adolescents. Additional research to understand barriers and improve likelihood of these steps within HCT is needed.

  18. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  19. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  20. Sexual Health in Undergraduate Medical Education: Existing and Future Needs and Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Baazeem, Abdulaziz; Eardley, Ian; Coleman, Eli

    2016-07-01

    This article explores the evolution and current delivery of undergraduate medical education in human sexuality. To make recommendations regarding future educational needs, principles of curricular development, and how the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) should address the need to enhance and promote human sexuality education around the world. The existing literature was reviewed for sexuality education, curriculum development, learning strategies, educational formats, evaluation of programs, evaluation of students, and faculty development. The prevailing theme of most publications in this vein is that sexuality education in undergraduate medical education is currently not adequate to prepare students for future practice. We identified components of the principles of attitudes, knowledge, and skills that should be contained in a comprehensive curriculum for undergraduate medical education in human sexuality. Management of sexual dysfunction; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health care; sexuality across genders and lifespan; understanding of non-normative sexual practices; sexually transmitted infections and HIV, contraception; abortion; sexual coercion and violence; and legal aspects were identified as topics meriting particular attention. Curricula should be integrated throughout medical school and based on principles of adult learning. Methods of teaching should be multimodal and evaluations of student performance are critical. To realize much of what needs to be done, faculty development is critical. Thus, the ISSM can play a key role in the provision and dissemination of learning opportunities and materials, it can promote educational programs around the world, and it can articulate a universal curriculum with modules that can be adopted. The ISSM can create chapters, review documents, slide decks, small group and roleplay topics, and video-recorded materials and make all this material easily available. An expert consensus conference

  1. The Delineation of Coral Bleaching Thresholds and Future Reef Health, Little Cayman Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrino, C.; Van Hooidonk, R. J.; Manzello, D.; Hendee, J.

    2011-12-01

    The global rise in sea temperature through anthropogenic climate change is affecting coral reef ecosystems through a phenomenon known as coral bleaching; a common reaction to thermally induced physiological stress in reef-building corals that often leads to coral mortality. We describe aspects of the most prevalent episode of coral bleaching ever recorded at Little Cayman, Cayman Islands, during the fall of 2009. Scleractinian coral species exhibiting susceptibility to thermal stress and bleaching in Little Cayman were, in order, Siderastrea siderea, Montastraea annularis, and Montastraea faveolata, while Diplora strigosa and Agaricia spp. were less so, yet still showed considerable bleaching prevalence and severity. In contrast, the least susceptible were Porites porites, Porites astreoides, and Montastraea cavernosa. These observations and other reported observations of coral bleaching, together with 29 years (1982 - 2010) of satellite-derived sea surface temperatures, were used in a Degree Heating Weeks (DHW) and Peirce Skill Score (PSS) analysis to calculate a bleaching threshold above which bleaching was expected to occur. A threshold of 4.2 DHW had the highest skill, with a PSS of 0.70. This threshold and susceptibility ranking are used in combination with SST data from global, coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (GCM) from the fourth IPCC assessment to forecast future reef health on Little Cayman. While these GCMs possess skill in reproducing many aspects of climate, they vary in their ability to correctly capture such parameters as the tropical ocean seasonal cycle and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. These model weaknesses likely reduce the skill of coral bleaching predictions. To overcome this, a multi-model ensemble of GCMs are corrected for their mean, annual cycle and ENSO variability prior to calculating future thermal stress. Preliminary results show that from 2045 on Little Cayman is likely to see more than two

  2. Women's health: marketing challenges for the 21st century. The future of women's health care reflects demographic, social, and economic trends. MHS staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The notion of a separate "women's health" component within the U.S. health care system emerged in the 1980s as many health care organizations recognized the opportunities offered by this market. While originally addressed traditional women's needs such as OB services, the 1990s witnessed as expansion of the scope of women's services as baby-boom women became a driving force for consumerism. For health care marketers, the female market is in many THE market for health care for the future and health care organizations have responded to this opportunity in a variety of ways. Demographic, social, and economic trends will only serve to increase the importance of women as health care consumers. For both providers of care and marketers, the women's market is clearly a force to be reckoned with as health care enters the 21st century.

  3. The world's current and future numbers of people employed as radiation workers and as health physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1977-01-01

    Based on best available 1975 estimates of the medical and the non-medical (nuclear, industrial, etc.) radiation workers in 30 countries, it is shown that there is a close relationship between the number of radiation workers and the national income, amounting to about 4.6 x 10 -7 radiation workers in a country per U.S. $ national income. It can be concluded that there are currently 2 x 10 6 radiation workers in the world, approximately 70% of whom work in the medical field and approximately 30% are non-medical. In the industrialized western countries live 1.13 x 10 6 , in planned-economy, socialist countries 0.58 x 10 6 , in the developing countries 0.27 x 10 6 , and in the very poor 'Fourth World' countries only approximately 53,000. Estimates of the world's health physicist population yield approximately 12,000, the ratio of radiation workers to professional radiation protection experts (current average 170:1) depending on several factors. For resonably accurate predictions of future numbers, one has to consider various scenarios concerning the growth of nuclear power and medical applications of radiation, the relative importance of radiation protection, etc., which are discussed in some detail. Most likely estimates yield 2.7 x 10 6 radiation workers and 1.6 x 10 4 health physicists by 1980; 3.4 x 10 6 (2 x 10 4 ) by 1985; and 4.8 x 10 6 (3 x 10 4 ) by the year 2000. (author)

  4. The Emergence of Undergraduate Majors in Global Health: Systematic Review of Programs and Recommendations for Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Mock, Charles; Toole, David; Rosenwald, Anne; Jehn, Megan; Csordas, Thomas; Ferguson, Laura; Waggett, Caryl; Obidoa, Chinekwu; Wasserheit, Judith N

    2017-01-11

    Global health education has been expanding rapidly and several universities have created an undergraduate major degree (bachelor's degree) in global heath or global health studies. Because there are currently no national guidelines for undergraduate degrees in global health, each of these programs was developed along individual lines. To guide the development of future global health majors, we conducted a systematic review of undergraduate majors in global health. We identified eight programs and invited program directors or representatives to a symposium at the Consortium of Universities for Global Health 2016 conference to review their existing undergraduate major in global health and to discuss lessons learned and recommendations for other colleges and universities seeking to develop undergraduate degrees in global health. We noted significant diversity among the existing programs in terms of required courses, international field experiences, and thesis research projects. In this review, we describe these global health programs, their student characteristics, as well as the key educational competencies, program requirements, and core global health courses. Based on program reviews and discussions, we identify seven recommendations for the development and expansion of an undergraduate major in global health and discuss issues that have arisen in the curricular development of these programs that warrant further exploration. As the field of global health education continues to expand, following these students after graduation will be essential to ensure that the degree programs in global health both meet student needs and launch students on viable career pathways. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Past, present and future of the climate and human health commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Robau, Daysarih Tápanes

    2017-09-01

    The following paper presents the history of the Climate and Human Health Commission at the International Society of Biometeorology after more than one decade since its creation. A brief history of the origins of the human biometeorology is revealed through some of the main research topics and publications of the founders of the society in this field. Secondly, it is presented as a brief review of the activities of the commission in the last 10 years, based on the reports that have periodically been submitted by members of the commission to the Bulletin of the society. A summary of the topics of interest on human biometeorology and the most frequent research topics are also described. Thirdly, the need of adapting human biometeorology contents, methods and techniques to a changing world is articulated according to some of the new environmental threats in the XXI century. Finally, a list of future actions and research lines collected through a form from members of the commission is presented. The paper concludes with the existence of great challenge for human biometeorology in order to transform biometeorological knowledge into specific services to improve the wellbeing of human beings.

  6. Emotion regulation and mental health: recent findings, current challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Matthias; Wupperman, Peggilee

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, deficits in emotion regulation have been studied as a putative maintaining factor and promising treatment target in a broad range of mental disorders. This article aims to provide an integrative review of the latest theoretical and empirical developments in this rapidly growing field of research. Deficits in emotion regulation appear to be relevant to the development, maintenance, and treatment of various forms of psychopathology. Increasing evidence demonstrates that deficits in the ability to adaptively cope with challenging emotions are related to depression, borderline personality disorder, substance-use disorders, eating disorders, somatoform disorders, and a variety of other psychopathological symptoms. Unfortunately, studies differ with regard to the conceptualization and assessment of emotion regulation, thus limiting the ability to compare findings across studies. Future research should systematically work to use comparable methods in order to clarify the following: which individuals have; what kinds of emotion regulation difficulties with; which types of emotions; and what interventions are most effective in alleviating these difficulties. Despite some yet to be resolved challenges, the concept of emotion regulation has a broad and significant heuristic value for research in mental health.

  7. Past, present and future of the climate and human health commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Robau, Daysarih Tápanes

    2017-09-01

    The following paper presents the history of the Climate and Human Health Commission at the International Society of Biometeorology after more than one decade since its creation. A brief history of the origins of the human biometeorology is revealed through some of the main research topics and publications of the founders of the society in this field. Secondly, it is presented as a brief review of the activities of the commission in the last 10 years, based on the reports that have periodically been submitted by members of the commission to the Bulletin of the society. A summary of the topics of interest on human biometeorology and the most frequent research topics are also described. Thirdly, the need of adapting human biometeorology contents, methods and techniques to a changing world is articulated according to some of the new environmental threats in the XXI century. Finally, a list of future actions and research lines collected through a form from members of the commission is presented. The paper concludes with the existence of great challenge for human biometeorology in order to transform biometeorological knowledge into specific services to improve the wellbeing of human beings.

  8. Air pollution in India and related adverse respiratory health effects: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Tiwari, Pawan

    2018-03-01

    The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India. More than one million additional deaths can be attributed to household air pollution. Particulate matter with diameter 2.5 μm or less has been causatively linked with most premature deaths. Acute respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbations of preexisting obstructive airway disease and lung cancer are proven adverse respiratory effects of air pollution. Targeting air quality standards laid by WHO can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. India is currently exposed to high levels of ambient and household air pollutants. Respiratory adverse effects of air pollution are significant contributors to morbidity and premature mortality in India. Substantial efforts are being made at legislative, administrative, and community levels to improve air quality. However, much more needs to be done to change the 'status quo' and attain the target air quality standards. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COPM/A24.

  9. Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephanie K; Trainer, Vera L; Mantua, Nathan J; Parker, Micaela S; Laws, Edward A; Backer, Lorraine C; Fleming, Lora E

    2008-11-07

    Anthropogenically-derived increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have been implicated in recent climate change, and are projected to substantially impact the climate on a global scale in the future. For marine and freshwater systems, increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are expected to increase surface temperatures, lower pH, and cause changes to vertical mixing, upwelling, precipitation, and evaporation patterns. The potential consequences of these changes for harmful algal blooms (HABs) have received relatively little attention and are not well understood. Given the apparent increase in HABs around the world and the potential for greater problems as a result of climate change and ocean acidification, substantial research is needed to evaluate the direct and indirect associations between HABs, climate change, ocean acidification, and human health. This research will require a multidisciplinary approach utilizing expertise in climatology, oceanography, biology, epidemiology, and other disciplines. We review the interactions between selected patterns of large-scale climate variability and climate change, oceanic conditions, and harmful algae.

  10. Future Challenges in Managing Human Health and Performance Risks for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.; Barratt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. To enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration, we must pool global resources to understand and mitigate human health & performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. Consensus on the largest risks to humans during exploration is required to develop an integrated approach to mitigating risks. International collaboration in human space flight research will focus research on characterizing the effects of spaceflight on humans and the development of countermeasures or systems. Sharing existing data internationally will facilitate high quality research and sufficient power to make sound recommendations. Efficient utilization of ISS and unique ground-based analog facilities allows greater progress. Finally, a means to share results of human research in time to influence decisions for follow-on research, system design, new countermeasures and medical practices should be developed. Although formidable barriers to overcome, International working groups are working to define the risks, establish international research opportunities, share data among partners, share flight hardware and unique analog facilities, and establish forums for timely exchange of results. Representatives from the ISS partnership research and medical communities developed a list of the top ten human health & performance risks and their impact on exploration missions. They also drafted a multilateral data sharing plan to establish guidelines and principles for sharing human spaceflight data. Other working groups are also developing methods to promote international research solicitations. Collaborative use of analog facilities and shared development of space flight research and medical hardware continues. Establishing a forum for exchange of results between researchers, aerospace physicians

  11. Globalization, coca-colonization and the chronic disease epidemic: can the Doomsday scenario be averted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmet, P

    2000-03-01

    There are at present approximately 110 million people with diabetes in the world but this number will reach over 220 million by the year 2010, the majority of them with type 2 diabetes. Thus there is an urgent need for strategies to prevent the emerging global epidemic of type 2 diabetes to be implemented. Tackling diabetes must be part of an integrated program that addresses lifestyle related disorders. The prevention and control of type 2 diabetes and the other major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) can be cost- and health-effective through an integrated (i.e. horizontal) approach to noncommunicable diseases disease prevention and control. With the re-emergence of devastating communicable diseases including AIDS, the Ebola virus and tuberculosis, the pressure is on international and regional agencies to see that the noncommunicable disease epidemic is addressed. The international diabetes and public health communities need to adopt a more pragmatic view of the epidemic of type 2 diabetes and other noncommunicable diseases. The current situation is a symptom of globalization with respect to its social, cultural, economic and political significance. Type 2 diabetes will not be prevented by traditional medical approaches; what is required are major and dramatic changes in the socio-economic and cultural status of people in developing countries and the disadvantaged, minority groups in developed nations. The international diabetes and public health communities must lobby and mobilize politicians, other international agencies such as UNDP, UNICEF, and the World Bank as well as other international nongovernmental agencies dealing with the noncommunicable diseases to address the socio-economic, behavioural, nutritional and public health issues that have led to the type 2 diabetes and noncommunicable diseases epidemic. A multidisciplinary Task Force representing all parties which can contribute to a reversal of the underlying socio-economic causes of the problem is an

  12. When worlds collide: medicine, business, the Affordable Care Act and the future of health care in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Andrew C; Keevil, Adrian A C

    2014-01-01

    The dialogue about the future of health care in the US has been impeded by flawed conceptions about medicine and business. The present paper re-examines some of the underlying assumptions about both medicine and business, and uses more nuanced readings of both terms to frame debates about the ACA and the emerging health care environment. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. A Statistical Modeling Framework for Projecting Future Ambient Ozone and its Health Impact due to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Howard H; Hao, Hua; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2014-06-01

    The adverse health effects of ambient ozone are well established. Given the high sensitivity of ambient ozone concentrations to meteorological conditions, the impacts of future climate change on ozone concentrations and its associated health effects are of concern. We describe a statistical modeling framework for projecting future ozone levels and its health impacts under a changing climate. This is motivated by the continual effort to evaluate projection uncertainties to inform public health risk assessment. The proposed approach was applied to the 20-county Atlanta metropolitan area using regional climate model (RCM) simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Future ozone levels and ozone-related excesses in asthma emergency department (ED) visits were examined for the period 2041-2070. The computationally efficient approach allowed us to consider 8 sets of climate model outputs based on different combinations of 4 RCMs and 4 general circulation models. Compared to the historical period of 1999-2004, we found consistent projections across climate models of an average 11.5% higher ozone levels (range: 4.8%, 16.2%), and an average 8.3% (range: -7% to 24%) higher number of ozone exceedance days. Assuming no change in the at-risk population, this corresponds to excess ozone-related ED visits ranging from 267 to 466 visits per year. Health impact projection uncertainty was driven predominantly by uncertainty in the health effect association and climate model variability. Calibrating climate simulations with historical observations reduced differences in projections across climate models.

  14. USING RISK-BASED CORRECTIVE ACTION (RBCA) TO ASSESS (THEORETICAL) CANCER DEATHS AVERTED COMPARED TO THE (REAL) COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M. L.; Hylko, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1978, on the basis of existing health studies at the time, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project legislation was proposed that would authorize remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites and vicinity properties. The cost of the program to the Federal Government was expected to be $180 million. With the completion of this project, approximately 1300 theoretical cancer deaths were prevented in the next 100 years at a cost of $1.45 billion, based on the Fiscal Year 1998 Federal UMTRA budget. The individual site costs ranged from $0.2 million up to $18 billion spent per theoretical cancer death averted over the next 100 years. Resources required to sustain remediation activities such as this are subject to reduction over time, and are originally based on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public. This evaluation used a process incorporating risk-based corrective action (RBCA); a three-tiered, decision-making process tailoring corrective action activities according to site-specific conditions and risks. If RBCA had been applied at the start of the UMTRA Project, and using a criterion of >1 excess cancer death prevented as justification to remediate the site, only 50% of the existing sites would have been remediated, yielding a cost savings of $303.6 million to the Federal Government and affected States, which share 10% of the cost. This cost savings equates to 21% of the overall project budget. In addition, only 22% of the vicinity properties had structural contamination contributing to elevated interior gamma exposure and radon levels. Focusing only on these particular properties could have saved an additional $269.3 million, yielding a total savings of $573 million; 40% of the overall project budget. As operational experience is acquired, including greater understanding of the radiological and nonradiological risks, decisions should be based on the RBCA process, rather than relying on conservative

  15. Relationships between work-related factors and musculoskeletal health with current and future work ability among male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Noor, A; Lundström, R; Nilsson, T; Sluiter, J K; Hagberg, M

    2017-08-01

    The purpose was to increase job-specific knowledge about individual and work-related factors and their relationship with current and future work ability (WA). We studied cross-sectional relationships between mental demands, physical exertion during work, grip strength, musculoskeletal pain in the upper extremities and WA and the relationships between these variables and WA 11 years later. We used a dataset of a prospective cohort study (1997-2008) among employees of an engineering plant (n = 157). The cohort was surveyed by means of tests and written questions on work demands, musculoskeletal health, WA score (WAS; 0-10), and mental and physical WA. Spearman correlation coefficients and logistic regression analysis were used. Among manual workers, we found weak correlations between grip strength and current and future physical WA. We did not find predictors for future poor WA among the manual workers. Among the office workers, we found that musculoskeletal pain was moderately and negatively related to current WAS and physical WA. More handgrip strength related to better future WAS and physical WA. Musculoskeletal pain (OR 1.67 p work ability depending on occupation. However, the present implies that predicting work ability in the far future based on health surveillance data is rather difficult. Testing the musculoskeletal system (grip strength) and asking workers' about their musculoskeletal health seems relevant when monitoring work ability.

  16. Formative Research to Identify Perceptions of E-Cigarettes in College Students: Implications for Future Health Communication Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen; Crook, Brittani; Lazard, Allison; Mackert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This formative study examined perceptions of e-cigarettes in college students with the goal of informing future health communication campaigns. Differences between e-cigarette users and nonusers were also examined. Participants: Thirty undergraduate students were recruited from a large southwestern public university (15 users, 15…

  17. Part A: Countermeasures to be taken after 1990 to ensure safe living conditions for the population affected by the Chernobyl accident in the USSR. A first evaluation of costs and doses averted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Schneider, T.

    1992-01-01

    This part presents a first estimate of the cost and averted collective exposure of the potential relocation of the population from the affected territories of the BSSR, the RSFSR and the UKrSSR, to improve their living conditions following the Chernobyl accident. It is an input to the evaluation of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the USSR. The general objective was to assess 'the concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in these areas to safeguard the health of the population'. Specifically, this work aimed at evaluating protective measures from 1990 onwards

  18. The potential impact of gut microbiota on your health:Current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisinha, Stitaya

    2016-12-01

    -communicable diseases like obesity, metabolic syndromes (e.g., diabetes and cardiovascular diseases), allergy and other inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence from more recent studies also demonstrate the existence of a bidirectional communication route linking gut and microbiota with brain, thus suggesting that these microbes may play a role in neurological disorders as well as in host perception, behavior and emotional response. However, whether the observed alteration of the microbiota profile in these diverse conditions is the cause or the consequence of the disease remains to be established. These observations imply that it may be possible to design new strategies for the management of diseases by manipulating gut microbiota. The common practice now available is the use of probiotics to rehabilitate gut ecosystem. The microbiota-based therapeutics like fecal transplantation for the treatment of recurrent antibiotic-resistant Clostridium difficile infection is now under clinical trial and reported to be highly successful. In the next decade, we will probably see even more exciting approaches, for example, using advanced microbiota engineering technologies to create "intelligent" or "smart" bacteria for use in diagnosis, prevention, prediction and treatment of inflammatory diseases and possibly of some gastrointestinal cancers. The microbiota-based therapeutics together with personalized medicine may be the most accurate and optimal strategy for the future treatment of some difficult-to-manage diseases. However, many challenges remain to be solved before the translational potential of this new knowledge can be implemented clinically. In this review, I highlight some important recent developments and advances that contribute to our understanding in the role of microbiota in human health and disease and on how to best manipulate the microbiome to promote greater human health.

  19. Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C; Hemphill, Ian; Cobiac, Lynne; Patch, Craig S; Sullivan, David R; Fenech, Michael; Roodenrys, Steven; Keogh, Jennifer B; Clifton, Peter M; Williams, Peter G; Fazio, Virginia A; Inge, Karen E

    2006-08-21

    defined cuisines. Research on the effects of herbs and spices on mental health should distinguish between cognitive decline associated with ageing and the acute effects of psychological and cognitive function. There is level I and II evidence for the effect of some herbal supplements on psychological and cognitive function. There is very limited scientific evidence for the effects of herbs and spices on type 2 diabetes mellitus, with the best evidence being available for the effect of ginseng on glycaemia, albeit based on four studies. More research is required, particularly examining the effects of chronic consumption patterns. With increasing interest in alternatives to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in the management of chronic inflammation, research is emerging on the use of food extracts. There is level II evidence for the use of ginger in ameliorating arthritic knee pain; however, the improvement is modest and the efficacy of ginger treatment is ranked below that of ibuprofen. More definitive research is required. Recommendations for intakes of food in the Australian guide to healthy eating do not yet include suggested intakes of herbs and spices. Future consideration should be given to including more explicit recommendations about their place in a healthy diet. In addition to delivering antioxidant and other properties, herbs and spices can be used in recipes to partially or wholly replace less desirable ingredients such as salt, sugar and added saturated fat in, for example, marinades and dressings, stir-fry dishes, casseroles, soups, curries and Mediterranean-style cooking. Vegetable dishes and vegetarian options may be more appetising when prepared with herbs and spices. As several metabolic diseases and age-related degenerative disorders are closely associated with oxidative processes in the body, the use of herbs and spices as a source of antioxidants to combat oxidation warrants further attention. Immediate studies should focus on validating the

  20. AVERT2 (a very early rehabilitation trial, a very effective reproductive trigger): retrospective observational analysis of the number of babies born to trial staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Julie; Lindley, Richard I; Lalor, Erin; Ellery, Fiona; Chamberlain, Jan; Van Holsteyn, John; Collier, Janice M; Dewey, Helen M; Parsons, Brooke; Moodie, Marjory; Lennon, Sheila; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Thrift, Amanda G; Churilov, Leonid; Langhorne, Peter

    2015-12-11

    To report the number of participants needed to recruit per baby born to trial staff during AVERT, a large international trial on acute stroke, and to describe trial management consequences. Retrospective observational analysis. 56 acute stroke hospitals in eight countries. 1074 trial physiotherapists, nurses, and other clinicians. Number of babies born during trial recruitment per trial participant recruited. With 198 site recruitment years and 2104 patients recruited during AVERT, 120 babies were born to trial staff. Births led to an estimated 10% loss in time to achieve recruitment. Parental leave was linked to six trial site closures. The number of participants needed to recruit per baby born was 17.5 (95% confidence interval 14.7 to 21.0); additional trial costs associated with each birth were estimated at 5736 Australian dollars on average. The staff absences registered in AVERT owing to parental leave led to delayed trial recruitment and increased costs, and should be considered by trial investigators when planning research and estimating budgets. However, the celebration of new life became a highlight of the annual AVERT collaborators' meetings and helped maintain a cohesive collaborative group. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry no 12606000185561. Participation in a rehabilitation trial does not guarantee successful reproductive activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Net financial benefits of averting HIV infections among people who inject drugs in Urumqi, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China (2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Mingjian J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To quantify the contribution of locally implemented prevention programmes in contributing to reductions in treatment and care costs by averting HIV infections among those who inject drugs this study calculates net financial benefit of providing harm reduction programmes using information from services being implemented in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China ( between 2005 and 2010. Methods Information was collected to assess cost of providing methadone treatment (MMT and needle and syringe programmes (NSP. HIV incidence was estimated among people who inject drugs (PWID. HIV infections averted were calculated. Net benefit was assessed by estimating costs of providing prevention programmes and comparing these to the costs of providing care. Results An estimated 5678 (range 3982–7599 HIV infections were averted between 2005 and 2010 and the net financial benefit of providing harm reduction programmes compared to treatment and care costs for HIV infections averted was USD 4.383 million during the same time period. Conclusion These results demonstrate the net and accumulating benefit of investing in harm reduction programmes for PWID in Urumqi. The return on investment progressively increased during the time period studied and it is clear that these cost savings will continue to accrue with the continued implementation of HIV prevention interventions in the community that include harm reduction programmes targeted at PWID.

  2. [Global Public Health - Results of the Working Group 3 of the Forum Future Public Health, Berlin 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razum, Oliver; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-11-01

    In the age of globalization, few health issues remain "local". For example, neither infectious diseases nor climate change stop at national borders, and hence cannot be controlled only within the nation state. The same applies to smoking and nutritional behaviors that affect health and are influenced by multinational companies and transnational policies. Therefore, public health needs to develop strategies and interventions that are not restricted to the nation state alone. This also applies to public health in Germany that needs a stronger global health perspective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. A Bridge Back to the Future: Public Health Ethics, Bioethics, and Environmental Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Contemporary biomedical ethics and environmental ethics share a common ancestry in Aldo Leopold's and Van Rensselaer Potter's initial broad visions of a connected biosphere. Over the past five decades, the two fields have become strangers. Public health ethics, a new subfield of bioethics, emerged from the belly of contemporary biomedical ethics and has evolved over the past 25 years. It has moved from its traditional concern with the tension between individual autonomy and community health to a wider focus on social justice and solidarity. Public health has a broad focus that includes individual, community, and environmental health. Public health ethics attends to these broad commitments reflected in the increasing concern with the connectedness of health of individuals to the health of populations, to the health of animals, to the health of the environment; it is well situated to reconnect all three "fields" of ethics to promote a healthier planet.

  4. [Education and Training in Public Health - Results of the Working Group 9 of the Forum Future Public Health, Berlin 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragano, Nico; Geffert, Karin; Geisel, Bertram; Hartmann, Thomas; Hoffmann, Falk; Schneider, Sven; Voss, Maike; Gerhardus, Ansgar

    2017-11-01

    The need for a qualified public health workforce can only be met by appropriate provision of a wide spectrum of basic, advanced and continuing education and training programs on public health that meet international standards. At the same time, efforts must be made to offer young academics attractive career opportunities. Training in public health competences must also be provided for allied professionals in health care and for professions with influence on the determinants of health such as urban planning or agricultural science. This report from a working group meeting at the 'Public Health Zukunftsforum 2016' in Berlin presents ideas for the further development of training in public health in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Mitigation measures to avert the impacts of plastics and microplastics in the marine environment (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunola, Oluniyi Solomon; Onada, Olawale Ahmed; Falaye, Augustine Eyiwunmi

    2018-04-01

    The increasing demand for and reliance on plastics as an everyday item, and rapid rise in their production and subsequent indiscriminate disposal, rise in human population and industrial growth, have made the material an important environmental concern and focus of interest of many research. Historically, plastic production has increased tremendously to over 250 million tonnes by 2009 with an annual increased rate of 9%. In 2015, the global consumption of plastic materials was reported to be > 300 million tonnes and is expected to surge exponentially. Because plastic polymers are ubiquitous, highly resistant to degradation, the influx of these persistent, complex materials is a risk to human and environmental health. Because microplastics are principally generated from the weathering or breakdown of larger plastics (macroplastics), it is noteworthy and expedient to discuss in detail, expatiate, and tackle this main source. Macro- and microplastic pollution has been reported on a global scale from the poles to the equator. The major problem of concern is that they strangulate and are ingested by a number of aquatic biota especially the filter feeders, such as molluscs, mussels, oysters, from where it enters the food chain and consequently could lead to physical and toxicological effects on aquatic organisms and human being as final consumers. To this end, in order to minimise the negative impacts posed by plastic pollution (macro- and microplastics), a plethora of strategies have been developed at various levels to reduce and manage the plastic wastes. The objective of this paper is to review some published literature on management measures of plastic wastes to curb occurrence and incidents of large- and microplastics pollution in the marine environments.

  6. Perception of violence against women among future health professionals in an industrial township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Agrawal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing concern that medical education does not prepare the future health professional to effectively deal with violence against women. Against this background, the present study was undertaken. Aims: To elicit perception of violence against women among medical and nursing students, and study the association of these perceptions with certain demographic and social variables. Settings and Design: The study was conducted among students of a Medical College and a Nursing College both located at Pune, India. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used to elicit the perceptions of the study subjects toward violence against women. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 125 medical and 125 nursing students was selected. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were employed. Qualitative data collection was done by focus group discussions with key persons such as dean and faculty of medical and nursing colleges. The syllabi of medical and nursing colleges were also reviewed for any topic related to domestic violence. Statistical analysis: The WHO/CDC Statistical and Epidemiology Software Package was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Various associations were explored by nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney for ordinal data and by Chi-square and ODDS ratio (with 95% confidence intervals, for categorical data. Results: Overall 35.6% (95% CI 29.1%-42.6% of the study participants had witnessed/were aware of violence against women among their family/acquaintances. This awareness was significantly more among female respondents (OR=2.65, 95% CI 1.37-5.16, Chi Sq=9.81, df=1, P=0.001. Other socioeconomic variables such as urban/rural background, education, and income were not associated with perception about family violence. Majority (>80% agreed/strongly agreed that social agencies should do more to help battered women. Course content on violence against women was lacking in both medical and nursing

  7. Prognostics and Health Management of Wind Turbines: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-04

    This presentation was given at the 2016 Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society. It covers the current status and challenges and opportunities of prognostics and health management of wind turbines.

  8. The health co-benefits of climate change policies: doctors have a responsibility to future generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Mitigating climate change presents unrivalled opportunities for improving public health. The policies that need to be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will also bring about substantial reductions in heart disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes, road deaths and injuries, and air pollution. The health benefits arise because climate change policies necessarily impact on two of the most important determinants of health: human nutrition and human movement. Although the health co-benefits of climate change policies are increasingly recognised by health professionals they are not widely appreciated by those responsible for policy. Because the existence of important health co-benefits will dramatically reduce the cost to society of taking strong action to mitigate climate change, failure to appreciate their importance could have serious environmental consequences. Health professionals have an urgent responsibility to ensure that the health benefits of environmental policies are understood by the public and by policymakers.

  9. Use of an Experiential Learning Assignment to Prepare Future Health Professionals to Utilize Social Media for Nutrition Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twynstra, Jasna; Dworatzek, Paula

    2016-03-01

    Social media has become a popular platform for reputable health organizations to disseminate health information to the public. However, future health professionals may receive little training in social media communication. To train future dietetic professionals, we incorporated a social media assignment into a Communications course curriculum to facilitate effective use of social media for the profession. For the assignment, students were instructed to make 2 posts on Facebook. The posts were due 3 weeks apart so that students received feedback on their first post before making their second post. To demonstrate the type of social media communication commonly used by reputable health organizations, the first post raised awareness or provided nutrition education. The second post used Facebook's "comment" feature, to respond to another student's first post, demonstrating the use of social media for community engagement. Both posts included a hyperlink that the user could click to get more information. Students were evaluated on the hook, main points, professionalism, credibility, and effectiveness of inviting the reader to the hyperlinked website and its ease of navigation. Dietetics educators should be encouraged to incorporate social media education into their curriculums for the benefit of future dietitians and their clients.

  10. Self-help: What future role in health care for low and middle-income countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razum Oliver

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the debate on 'Third options' for health care delivery in low- and middle-income countries it is proposed that self-help should play a larger role. Self-help is expected to contribute towards improving population health outcomes and reducing government health care expenditure. We review scope and limitations of self-help groups in Europe and South Asia and assess their potential role in health care within the context of health sector reform. Self-help groups are voluntary unions of peers, formed for mutual assistance in accomplishing a health-related purpose. In Europe, self-help groups developed out of dissatisfaction with a de-personalised health care system. They successfully complement existing social and health services but cannot be instrumentalized to improve health outcomes while reducing health expenditure. In South Asia, with its hierarchical society, instrumental approaches towards self-help prevail in Non-governmental Organizations and government. The utility of this approach is limited as self-help groups are unlikely to be sustainable and effective when steered from outside. Self-help groups are typical for individualistic societies with developed health care systems – they are less suitable for hierarchical societies with unmet demand for regulated health care. We conclude that self-help groups can help to achieve some degree of synergy between health care providers and users but cannot be prescribed to partially replace government health services in low-income countries, thereby reducing health care expenditure and ensuring equity in health care.

  11. Early food for future health: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an eHealth intervention aiming to promote healthy food habits from early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Christine; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Omholt, Mona Linge; Øverby, Nina Cecilie

    2017-09-20

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health challenge. Primary prevention initiatives targeting parents have been called for to encourage a positive feeding environment and healthy eating habits that may lay a good foundation for future health. At the same time, there is a need for interventions which combine accessibility and scalability with cost effectiveness. Today's parents are extensive Internet-users, but only a few randomized controlled trials have investigated the use of Internet to promote healthy eating habits in early childhood. In Early Food for Future Health we have developed and will evaluate an Internet-based tool for parents of children between 6 and 12 months, aiming to increase knowledge about infant nutrition and foster protective feeding behavior. During springtime 2016, parents of children aged between 3 and 5 months were recruited through Norwegian child health centres and announcements on Facebook. After completing the baseline questionnaire, 718 parents were individually randomized to intervention- or control group. The intervention group received monthly emails with links to an age-appropriate web-site when their child was between 6 and 12 months. The control group received ordinary care from the child health centres. The data-collection is ongoing. All participants will be followed up at ages 12 and possibly 24 and 48 months, with questionnaires relating to eating behaviour and feeding practices, food variety and diet quality. Providing guidance and counseling to parents of infants is an important task for health authorities and the public child health services. Early Food for Future health is an intervention focusing on promoting early healthy food-habits which may prevent childhood overweight and obesity. If proven to be effective, Early Food for Future Health can be used by parents and public health nurses for supplementary guidance on feeding practices and diet. This study has the potential to provide greater

  12. Modulation of Mitochondrial Complex I Activity Averts Cognitive Decline in Multiple Animal Models of Familial Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of therapeutic strategies to prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD is of great importance. We show that mild inhibition of mitochondrial complex I with small molecule CP2 reduces levels of amyloid beta and phospho-Tau and averts cognitive decline in three animal models of familial AD. Low-mass molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical studies confirmed that CP2 competes with flavin mononucleotide for binding to the redox center of complex I leading to elevated AMP/ATP ratio and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in neurons and mouse brain without inducing oxidative damage or inflammation. Furthermore, modulation of complex I activity augmented mitochondrial bioenergetics increasing coupling efficiency of respiratory chain and neuronal resistance to stress. Concomitant reduction of glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity and restoration of axonal trafficking resulted in elevated levels of neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins in adult AD mice. Our results suggest that metabolic reprogramming induced by modulation of mitochondrial complex I activity represents promising therapeutic strategy for AD.

  13. Effects of episodic future thinking on discounting: Personalized age-progressed pictures improve risky long-term health decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Jarmolowicz, David P

    2016-03-01

    Many everyday choices are associated with both delayed and probabilistic outcomes. The temporal attention hypothesis suggests that individuals' decision making can be improved by focusing attention on temporally distal events and implies that environmental manipulations that bring temporally distal outcomes into focus may alter an individual's degree of discounting. One such manipulation, episodic future thinking, has shown to lower discount rates; however, several questions remain about the applicability of episodic future thinking to domains other than delay discounting. The present experiments examine the effects of a modified episodic-future-thinking procedure in which participants viewed age-progressed computer-generated images of themselves and answered questions related to their future, on probability discounting in the context of both a delayed health gain and loss. Results indicate that modified episodic future thinking effectively altered individuals' degree of discounting in the predicted directions and demonstrate the applicability of episodic future thinking to decision making of socially significant outcomes. © 2015 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. The role of schools of public health: learning from history, looking to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David

    2009-09-01

    There is a broad consensus on the need for high-quality public health education and research to tackle the world's many public health challenges. Public health education and research are delivered by a variety of institutions operating very different models, which collectively can be called schools of public health. Given the importance of education and research to public health systems, it is surprising how little research has been done to assess the role of schools of public health in contributing to population health. In particular, it is notable there has been very little research on the strengths and weaknesses of the different models of schools of public health that have evolved over the last 100 years. Thus, a historical perspective is crucial. To date most historical work has focused on US schools of public health. Although the evidence is patchy, a global overview of the history of schools of public health identifies three important themes: capacity building, multidisciplinarity and balancing teaching and research. Newer challenges and opportunities include addressing the impact of climate change and developments in e-learning. Schools of public health have the potential to make a central contribution to progress in public health practice in the twenty-first century.

  15. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  16. Start Early to Build a Healthy Future: The Research Linking Early Learning and Health. Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brooke; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Every child deserves a fair chance. A chance to learn, grow, explore possibilities, persevere and achieve his or her potential. The Ounce of Prevention Fund believes that no child's potential should be limited by poor health. Good health in early childhood is an essential component of school readiness. The benefits of health and learning are…

  17. The historical, present, and future role of veterinarians in One Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Samantha E J; Gibbs, E Paul J

    2013-01-01

    The renewed interest in the concept of One Health has occurred as a result of the increased emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases over the past decade. The subsequent impacts of these diseases on human, livestock, and wildlife health, as well as the economic effects, have given international health organizations and national governments a greater appreciation of the importance of collaborative efforts in solving health problems. The One Health concept is not new, but under its umbrella, a new generation of veterinarians, physicians, ecologists, biologists, and social scientists is shaping the concept in novel ways. This has led to increased support for One Health initiatives to control disease by international agencies, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations as well as a growing emphasis on One Health concepts in training the veterinary workforce. Veterinary schools are reorganizing veterinary education to better teach students the precepts of One Health. This chapter explores the evolution and application of the One Health concept from the perspective of the veterinarian. The veterinary profession is positioned to be a strong advocate and leader of One Health. Veterinarians have a long history of involvement with One Health activities, and this involvement has adjusted and shifted with the changing needs of society. A new area of work for veterinarians is ecosystem health, which is becoming more relevant as a result of the impact that the ever-increasing human population is having on the environment that supports them.

  18. Mental health affects future employment as job loss affects mental health: findings from a longitudinal population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Workforce participation is a key feature of public mental health and social inclusion policies across the globe, and often a therapeutic goal in treatment settings. Understanding the reciprocal relationship between participation and mental health has been limited by inadequate research methods. This is the first study to simultaneously examine and contrast the relative effects of unemployment on mental health and mental health on employment status in a single general population sample. Method Data were from working-age respondents (20 to 55 years at baseline) who completed nine waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey (N=7176). Cross-lagged path analyses were used to test the lagged and concurrent associations between unemployment and mental health over time, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Mental health was shown to be both a consequence of and risk factor for unemployment. Thus, the poorer mental health observed amongst people who are not working is attributable to both the impact of unemployment and existing mental health problems. While the strength of these two effects was similar for women, the results for men suggested that the effect of unemployment on subsequent mental health was weaker than the effect of mental health on subsequent risk of unemployment. Conclusion Disentangling the reciprocal links between mental health and workforce participation is central to the development and success of clinical goals and health and social policies that aim to promote either aspect. This study demonstrates that both effects are important and supports concurrent responses to prevent a cycle of disadvantage and entrenched social exclusion. PMID:23705753

  19. Mental health affects future employment as job loss affects mental health: findings from a longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Sarah C; Butterworth, Peter; Leach, Liana S; Kelaher, Margaret; Pirkis, Jane

    2013-05-24

    Workforce participation is a key feature of public mental health and social inclusion policies across the globe, and often a therapeutic goal in treatment settings. Understanding the reciprocal relationship between participation and mental health has been limited by inadequate research methods. This is the first study to simultaneously examine and contrast the relative effects of unemployment on mental health and mental health on employment status in a single general population sample. Data were from working-age respondents (20 to 55 years at baseline) who completed nine waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey (N=7176). Cross-lagged path analyses were used to test the lagged and concurrent associations between unemployment and mental health over time, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Mental health was shown to be both a consequence of and risk factor for unemployment. Thus, the poorer mental health observed amongst people who are not working is attributable to both the impact of unemployment and existing mental health problems. While the strength of these two effects was similar for women, the results for men suggested that the effect of unemployment on subsequent mental health was weaker than the effect of mental health on subsequent risk of unemployment. Disentangling the reciprocal links between mental health and workforce participation is central to the development and success of clinical goals and health and social policies that aim to promote either aspect. This study demonstrates that both effects are important and supports concurrent responses to prevent a cycle of disadvantage and entrenched social exclusion.

  20. Past, present, and future climate at select INDEPTH member Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems in Africa and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hondula

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate and weather affect human health directly and indirectly. There is a renewed interest in various aspects of environmental health as our understanding of ongoing climate change improves. In particular, today, the health effects in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs are not well understood. Many computer models predict some of the biggest changes in places where people are equipped with minimal resources to combat the effects of a changing environment, particularly with regard to human health. Objective: This article documents the observed and projected climate profiles of select sites within the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH network of Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Africa and Asia to support the integration of climate research with health practice and policy. Design: The climatology of four meteorological stations representative of a suite of INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs was assessed using daily data of 10 years. Historical and future trends were analyzed using reanalysis products and global climate model projections. Results: The climate characteristics of the HDSS sites investigated suggest vulnerability to different environmental stressors, and the changes expected over the next century are far greater in magnitude than those observed at many of the INDEPTH member sites. Conclusions: The magnitude of potential future climate changes in the LMICs highlights the need for improvements in collaborative climate–health research in these countries. Climate data resources are available to support such research efforts. The INDEPTH studies presented in this supplement are the first attempt to assess and document associations of climatic factors with mortality at the HDSSs.

  1. Past, present, and future climate at select INDEPTH member Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M; Rocklöv, Joacim; Sankoh, Osman A

    2012-11-23

    Climate and weather affect human health directly and indirectly. There is a renewed interest in various aspects of environmental health as our understanding of ongoing climate change improves. In particular, today, the health effects in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are not well understood. Many computer models predict some of the biggest changes in places where people are equipped with minimal resources to combat the effects of a changing environment, particularly with regard to human health. This article documents the observed and projected climate profiles of select sites within the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) network of Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Africa and Asia to support the integration of climate research with health practice and policy. The climatology of four meteorological stations representative of a suite of INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) was assessed using daily data of 10 years. Historical and future trends were analyzed using reanalysis products and global climate model projections. The climate characteristics of the HDSS sites investigated suggest vulnerability to different environmental stressors, and the changes expected over the next century are far greater in magnitude than those observed at many of the INDEPTH member sites. The magnitude of potential future climate changes in the LMICs highlights the need for improvements in collaborative climate-health research in these countries. Climate data resources are available to support such research efforts. The INDEPTH studies presented in this supplement are the first attempt to assess and document associations of climatic factors with mortality at the HDSSs.

  2. Lay perceptions of current and future health, the causes of illness, and the nature of recovery: explaining health and illness in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Maakip, Ismail; Stanistreet, Debbi; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-09-01

    This study examined beliefs about the causes and determinants of health, illness, and recovery in an opportunistic sample from Malaysia. In all, 371 women and 350 men completed the Health and Illness Scale, a 124-item scale that examined beliefs about current and future health, and beliefs about the causes of illness and recovery. Each of the four subscales of the Health Illness Scale were factor analysed to reveal the underlying structure. Results showed the emergence of a number of distinct factors in the case of each subscale, of which environmental, life-style, psychological, religious, and fate-related factors were fairly stable across subscales. Results also showed a number of differences in beliefs between religious groups, and that religiosity and sex were the strongest predictors of beliefs across the four subscales. The results are discussed in terms of the available cross-cultural literature on lay beliefs about health.

  3. Global mHealth policy arena: status check and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvey, Donna M; Slovensky, Donna J

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we examine an important piece of the mHealth puzzle that has received scant attention-health policy. The question is whether health policy ultimately will serve to unite nations in advancing global mHealth or, as Mars and Scott suggested in 2010, keep nations isolated and ultimately making their policy decisions in "eHealth silos". Such a non-collaborative approach seriously hampers the potential for using mobile health technologies to deliver health care across borders, assuring individuals access to affordable, convenient, and quality healthcare in underserved regions. From a global perspective, mHealth policy review is difficult as some important policies may be subsumed in comprehensive planning and strategy documents. Political, environmental, economic, organizational, and technology disparities across nations represent a significant impediment to developing mHealth products and services that can be deployed globally. To date, there is modest evidence that such challenges are being addressed. Even though payers can encourage adoption of mHealth with financial incentives for use, it appears that payment or reimbursement tends to be a roadblock for almost all nations, whether they are emerging or developed. If payment for mHealth services is not guaranteed, business models will not be sustainable and providers will have fewer opportunities for scalability. Furthermore, because mHealth policies typically are subject to some type of government scrutiny and oversight, many product developers and entrepreneurs may turn elsewhere for their investments. Global resource scarcity also challenges optimal mHealth deployment, and governments seek to ensure improved population health outcomes as return on their mHealth investments. Unfortunately, such justification is difficult as evaluation methods simply have not kept pace with mHealth technology capability. Requisite measurement tools are sorely lacking when it comes to evaluating efficacy of mHealth

  4. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: comparative aspects and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Program of rehabilitative exercise and education to avert vascular events after non-disabling stroke or transient ischemic attack (PREVENT Trial: a multi-centred, randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Kara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite lack of outward signs, most individuals after non-disabling stroke (NDS and transient ischemic attack (TIA have significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and are at high risk of a major stroke, hospitalization for other vascular events, or death. Most have multiple modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, physical inactivity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, tobacco consumption, psychological stress. In addition, accelerated rates of depression, cognitive decline, and poor quality of sleep have been reported following TIA, which correlate with poor functional outcomes and reduced quality of life. Thus, NSD and TIA are important warning signs that should not be overlooked. The challenge is not unlike that facing other 'silent' conditions - to identify a model of care that is effective in changing people's current behaviors in order to avert further morbidity. Methods/Design A single blind, randomized controlled trial will be conducted at two sites to compare the effectiveness of a program of rehabilitative exercise and education versus usual care in modifying vascular risk factors in adults after NDS/TIA. 250 adults within 90 days of being diagnosed with NDS/TIA will be randomly allocated to a 12-week program of exercise and education (PREVENT or to an outpatient clinic assessment and discussion of secondary prevention recommendations with return clinic visits as indicated (USUAL CARE. Primary outcome measures will include blood pressure, waist circumference, 12-hour fasting lipid profile, and 12-hour fasting glucose/hemoglobin A1c. Secondary measures will include exercise capacity, walking endurance, physical activity, cognitive function, depression, goal attainment and health-related quality of life. Outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Direct health care costs incurred over one year by PREVENT versus USUAL CARE participants will also be

  6. The present and future roles of Traditional Health Practitioners within the formal healthcare sector of South Africa, as guided by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The promulgation of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 was seen as the long awaited start-up of the traditional healing profession in South Africa. Act No 22 (2007 was strongly politically driven from the late 1960s onward. Many of these political motivators were based upon outdated cultural ideas, customs and traditions, rooted outside the modern day healthcare needs and demands of the particular population that traditional healing intends to serve. An in-depth needs and skills analysis, to test the viability and sustainability of the South African traditional healers as well as their positions and roles as health practitioners inside the formal healthcare sector, as guided and stipulated by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007, was lacking in this early development and start-up process. This resulted in the traditional healers’ present and future roles as specific healthcare practitioners being both undefined and insufficiently formulated. In addition their existing education, training, skills and abilities to compete in the formal healthcare sector were ignored. Therefore, since the promulgation of the Act in 2007, there was limited professional-development for traditional healers, to improve their immediate professionalism and thus to promote effective role-playing and management in the formal healthcare sector. The South African traditional healing professional model is still in the foundational stage of its professional development; a stage which the other registered/regulated healthcare practitioners of the country surpassed long ago, making them well-equipped for role-playing and management as health professionals in the formal healthcare sector. The whole venture of the statutory recognition of the traditional health practitioners in 2007 as new healthcare professionals with the promulgation of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 seems to increasingly be a failure. There is

  7. Effectiveness and Future Prospects of Telemedicine/Remote Health Care Management Applications in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHID IQBAL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical/Health care system is spraining in Pakistan because of innovative technology, activities and services as per their financial cost (position which is increasing day by day. This research is intended for the assessment of Telemedicine/Remote Health Care Management practices (system, which encompasses usability, acceptance and impact in public/private hospitals. To improve the existing remote health care/telemedicine practices in Pakistan by using EM (Engineering Management based approach. It has been widely and successfully implemented and is considered as a strategic and operational tool. In the 21stcentury due to the Technological advancements the mode of operation of service and business sector have been changed drastically. In the same way the health sectors activities also have been altered, new methods and techniques have also been devised for the treatment of the patients that were never even thought before. In the health sector Telemedicine/Remote Health Care Management is one of the development which was experienced lately. Telemedicine/Remote Health Careistaken exactly,? medicine at a distance?. Therefore, hypothetically, some procedures performed with medication which does not take place ?face-to-face? and ?in person? which can be considered as Telemedicine/Remote Health Care. In the industrialized world telemedicine is being used in full capacity to provide the health care services to remote and un-accessible areas. But Telemedicine/Remote Health Care Management is not very popular and admired in Pakistan; few applications are being functional presently.

  8. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: overview of the first 40 years, with an eye to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E; Silva, Phil A

    2015-05-01

    The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study began more than four decades ago. Unusual at the time, it was founded as a multidisciplinary research enterprise, and was strongly supported by the Dunedin community, both professional and lay, in its early years. Seven research themes have evolved over the past 40 years focusing on mental health and neuro-cognition, cardiovascular risk, respiratory health, oral health, sexual and reproductive health, and psychosocial functioning. A seventh, more applied theme, seeks to maximise the value of the Study findings for New Zealand's indigenous people-Māori (or tangata whenua transl people of the land). The study has published over 1200 papers and reports to date, with almost 2/3 of these being in peer-reviewed journals. Here we provide an overview of the study, its history, leadership structure, scientific approach, operational foci, and some recent examples of work that illustrate the following: (a) the value of multidisciplinary data; (b) how the study is well positioned to address contemporary issues; and (c) how research can simultaneously address multiple audiences-from researchers and theoreticians to policy makers and practitioners. Near-future research plans are described, and we end by reflecting upon the core aspects of the study that portend future useful contributions.

  9. Attitudes toward empirically-supported treatments among pastoral mental health care providers: exploratory findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Matthew T; Naugle, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The current study describes the findings of an online survey of pastoral mental health care providers The survey included brief demographic information, and a validated measure of attitudes toward empirically-supported psychological interventions, the Evidence-based Practices Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, 2004). The responses of 55 pastoral providers' are described and compared to national norms (Aarons et al., 2010). Recommendations for future collaboration between EST developers and pastoral clinicians are provided.

  10. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta P. Petkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region’s coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region’s unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region’s ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  11. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Elisaveta P; Ebi, Kristie L; Culp, Derrin; Redlener, Irwin

    2015-08-11

    The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region's coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region's unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region's ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  12. Labor Health Shortage and Future Prospects for the Medical Workforce in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Zouag, Nada; Driouchi, Ahmed; Achehboune, Amale

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper looks at the current situation of health deficits and shortages in Morocco with a focus on the roles of medical education and prospects for the health workforce for the period 2010-2030. The attained results from both trend description and simulations of patterns show major shortages relative to the needs. The existence of these trends appeals for further cooperation in the areas of health care through emphasis on medical education and research. These outcomes appear to be...

  13. Designing Serious Video Games for Health Behavior Change: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which per...

  14. Does Knowing Hurt? Perceiving Oneself as Overweight Predicts Future Physical Health and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael; Robinson, Eric; Sutin, Angelina R

    2017-07-01

    Identifying oneself as being overweight may be associated with adverse health outcomes, yet prospective tests of this possibility are lacking. Over 7 years, we examined associations between perceptions of being overweight and subsequent health in a sample of 3,582 U.S. adults. Perceiving oneself as being overweight predicted longitudinal declines in subjective health ( d = -0.22, p overweight were accurate or inaccurate. This research highlights the possibility that identifying oneself as overweight may act independently of body mass index to contribute to unhealthy profiles of physiological functioning and impaired health over time. These findings underscore the importance of evaluating whether weight-feedback interventions may have unforeseen adverse consequences.

  15. A bidirectional relationship between executive function and health behavior: evidence, implications, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Allan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physically active lifestyles and other health-enhancing behaviors play an important role in preserving executive function into old age. Conversely, emerging research suggests that executive functions facilitate participation in a broad range of healthy behaviors including physical activity and reduced fatty food, tobacco and alcohol consumption. They do this by supporting the volition, planning, performance monitoring, and inhibition necessary to enact intentions and override urges to engage in health damaging behavior. Here, we focus firstly on evidence suggesting that health-enhancing behaviors can induce improvements in executive function. We then switch our focus to findings linking executive function to the consistent performance of health-promoting behaviors and the avoidance of health risk behaviors. We suggest that executive function, health behavior, and disease processes are interdependent. In particular, we argue that a positive feedback loop may exist whereby health behavior-induced changes in executive function foster subsequent health-enhancing behaviors, which in turn help sustain efficient executive functions and good health. We conclude by outlining the implications of this reciprocal relationship for intervention strategies, the design of research studies, and the study of healthy ageing.

  16. Envisioning the Future for Older Adults: Autonomy, Health, Well-being, and Social Connectedness with Technology Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wendy A; Mitzner, Tracy L

    2017-03-01

    Envisioning the future of older adults of 2050 is a challenging task given the heterogeneity of the older adult population. We consider primarily the domains of home, health, and social participation for individuals over age 65 and the potential role of information, communication, and robotic technology for enhanced independence, maintenance of autonomy, and enriched quality of life. We develop several scenarios to illustrate the diversity of circumstances, health, and living situations for older adults in the future. We discuss possible negative outcomes resulting from the proliferation of technology, including increased social isolation and a widening digital divide. However, we focus primarily on envisioning desired situations wherein older adults have autonomy and independence; are easily able to manage their health and wellness needs; have rich and rewarding opportunities for social connectedness, personal growth, continued life purpose, and overall high quality of life. To attain this future, we must be acting now: designing the technology with involvement by today's older adults who represent the needs and capabilities of tomorrow's older adults; developing the necessary infrastructure to support widespread availability and deployment of these technologies; and supporting the integration of technology into people's lives at younger ages with adaptive functionality to support changing needs and preferences.

  17. The future of health IT innovation and informatics: a report from AMIA's 2010 policy meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Julie J; Cusack, Caitlin M

    2012-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to the short-term impact that widespread adoption of health information technology (health IT) will have on the healthcare system, there is a corresponding need to look at the long-term effects that extant policies may have on health IT system resilience, innovation, and related ethical, social/legal issues. The American Medical Informatics Association's 2010 Health Policy Conference was convened to further the national discourse on the issues surrounding these longer-term considerations. Conference participants self-selected into three broad categories: resilience in healthcare and health IT; ethical, legal, and social challenges; and innovation, adoption, and sustainability. The discussions about problem areas lead to findings focusing on the lack of encouragement for long-term IT innovation that may result from current health IT policies; the potential impact of uneven adoption of health IT based on the exclusions of the current financial incentives; the weaknesses of contingency and risk mitigation planning that threaten system resilience; and evolving standards developed in response to challenges relating to the security, integrity, and availability of electronic health information. This paper discusses these findings and also offers recommendations that address the interwoven topics of innovation, resilience, and adoption. The goal of this paper is to encourage public and private sector organizations that have a role in shaping health information policy to increase attention to developing a national strategy that assures that health IT innovation and resilience are not impeded by shorter-term efforts to implement current approaches emphasizing adoption and meaningful use of electronic health records. PMID:22037887

  18. One Health: past successes and future challenges in three African contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Okello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of zoonotic diseases such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS have contributed to dominant Global Health narratives around health securitisation and pandemic preparedness, calling for greater co-operation between the health, veterinary and environmental sectors in the ever-evolving One Health movement. A decade later, One Health advocates face increasing pressure to translate the approach from theory into action.A qualitative case study methodology was used to examine the emerging relationships between international One Health dialogue and its practical implementation in the African health policy context. A series of Key Informant Interviews (n = 32 with policy makers, government officials and academics in Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda are presented as three separate case studies. Each case examines a significant aspect of One Health operationalisation, framed around the control of both emerging and Neglected Zoonotic Diseases including HPAI, Human African Trypanosomiasis and rabies. The research found that while there is general enthusiasm and a strong affirmative argument for adoption of One Health approaches in Africa, identifying alternative contexts away from a narrow focus on pandemics will help broaden its appeal, particularly for national or regionally significant endemic and neglected diseases not usually addressed under a "global" remit.There is no 'one size fits all' approach to achieving the intersectoral collaboration, significant resource mobilisation and political co-operation required to realise a One Health approach. Individual country requirements cannot be underestimated, dismissed or prescribed in a top down manner. This article contributes to the growing discussion regarding not whether One Health should be operationalised, but how this may be achieved.

  19. Time orientation and eating behavior: Unhealthy eaters consider immediate consequences, while healthy eaters focus on future health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-08-01

    Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate - both general and food-specific - and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p  .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Future Directions for Dissemination and Implementation Science: Aligning Ecological Theory and Public Health to Close the Research to Practice Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marc S; Rusch, Dana; Mehta, Tara G; Lakind, Davielle

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science (DI) has evolved as a major research model for children's mental health in response to a long-standing call to integrate science and practice and bridge the elusive research to practice gap. However, to address the complex and urgent needs of the most vulnerable children and families, future directions for DI require a new alignment of ecological theory and public health to provide effective, sustainable, and accessible mental health services. We present core principles of ecological theory to emphasize how contextual factors impact behavior and allow for the reciprocal impact individuals have on the settings they occupy, and an alignment of these principles with a public health model to ensure that services span the prevention to intervention continuum. We provide exemplars from our ongoing work in urban schools and a new direction for research to address the mental health needs of immigrant Latino families. Through these examples we illustrate how DI can expand its reach by embedding within natural settings to build on local capacity and indigenous resources, incorporating the local knowledge necessary to more substantively address long-standing mental health disparities. This paradigm shift for DI, away from an overemphasis on promoting program adoption, calls for fitting interventions within settings that matter most to children's healthy development and for utilizing and strengthening available community resources. In this way, we can meet the challenge of addressing our nation's mental health burden by supporting the needs and values of families and communities within their own unique social ecologies.

  1. Status and future of the forest health indicators program of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher William Woodall; Michael C. Amacher; William A. Bechtold; John W. Coulston; Sarah Jovan; Charles H. Perry; KaDonna C. Randolph; Beth K. Schulz; Gretchen C. Smith; Susan. Will-Wolf

    2011-01-01

    For two decades, the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, has been charged with implementing a nationwide field-based forest health monitoring effort. Given its extensive nature, the monitoring program has been gradually implemented across forest health indicators and inventoried states. Currently, the Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  2. Trump, Brexit, Right-wing Anti-globalisation, and An Uncertain Future for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor-Bowles, Isabelle; Bowles, Devin C

    2017-01-01

    Global public health is intimately linked with political, economic and social determinants. The current global order has been built on the assumption that the globalisation agenda shared by political elites of the last several decades will continue. Individuals, businesses and countries have all made decisions, many of them linked to health, based on this assumption. The election of Donald Trump to the US presidency and the vote in Britain to exit the European Union exemplify a recent wave of right-wing anti-globalisation, which has risen in much of the West. The right-wing anti-globalisation movement will substantially affect global health through four pathways. Restrictions on trade will dampen economic growth and could diminish food security and the availability of medical supplies. Xenophobia will harm mental health through the lived experience of minorities, and will elevate the risk of economic and military conflict between countries. Increased defence expenditure in a time of limited government budgets will constrict funding available for healthcare and the social determinants of health. Mistrust of international treaties, including for climate change, will undermine the Paris Agreement and hasten greenhouse gas emissions. Without rapid mitigation, climate change could devastate population health globally through a range of mechanisms, including diminished food security and increased violent conflict. These would amplify many of the other health effects of right-wing anti-globalisation. By emphasising the shared humanity of all people, population health offers an antidote to the narrow focus of right-wing anti-globalisation.

  3. The future of health-system pharmacy: opportunities and challenges in practice model change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, William A

    2012-04-01

    Key factors outside of health-system pharmacy that will shape this sector of the profession in the coming years are (1) the national economy, (2) national politics, (3) the debt of the federal government, (4) global megatrends (including terrorism and economic globalization), (5) health care reform, and (6) trends in the development and use of medicines. These factors will translate into payment cutbacks to hospitals, expanded mandates to improve the quality of health care, increased focus on patient-centered care, more team-based care, and a higher degree of integration across the range of health care settings and providers. In this environment, pharmacists in hospitals and other health systems will have rich opportunities to help improve patient care and institutional sustainability by continuing to move from order-fulfillment and product-preparation functions toward team leadership of drug therapy management. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) was created to encourage hospital and health-system practice leaders to examine how they deploy their resources (ie, pharmacist time, technician time, and technology) to ensure that the efforts of the pharmacy department are aligned with the most urgent needs of patients and institutions. Key recommendations of the PPMI and evidence about gaps in the provision of drug therapy management services are presented. It is important for every pharmacist and pharmacy technician in health-system practice to understand the imperatives for changing the profession's practice model and to actively pursue appropriate changes in that model.

  4. eHealth Service Support in Future IPv6 Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Vèque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent vehicular networking activities include novel automotive applications, such as public vehicle to vehicle/infrastructure (V2X, large scale deployments, machine-to-machine (M2M integration scenarios, and more. The platform described in this paper focuses on the integration of eHealth in a V2I setting. This is to allow the use of Internet from a vehicular setting to disseminate health-related information. From an eHealth viewpoint, the use of remote healthcare solutions to record and transmit a patient’s vital signs is a special telemedicine application that helps hospital resident health professionals to optimally prepare the patient’s admittance. From the automotive perspective, this is a typical vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I communication scenario. This proposal provides an IPv6 vehicular platform, which integrates eHealth devices and allows sending captured health-related data to a personal health record (PHR application server in the IPv6 Internet. The collected data is viewed remotely by a doctor and supports his diagnostic decision. In particular, our work introduces the integration of vehicular and eHealth testbeds, describes related work and presents a lightweight auto-configuration method based on a DHCPv6 extension to provide IPv6 connectivity with a few numbers of messages.

  5. Preparing Future Professionals in the Field of Health Promotion: Successful Experiential Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer; Shane, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    The health promotion program at Emporia State University, in an effort to increase hiring potential and likelihood of success once in the workplace, requires majors to participate in experiential learning activities. These activities take place in worksites within the Emporia community and include health fairs, wellness coaching, lunch and learns…

  6. Trump, Brexit, Right-wing Anti-globalisation, and An Uncertain Future for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Global public health is intimately linked with political, economic and social determinants. The current global order has been built on the assumption that the globalisation agenda shared by political elites of the last several decades will continue. Individuals, businesses and countries have all made decisions, many of them linked to health, based on this assumption. The election of Donald Trump to the US presidency and the vote in Britain to exit the European Union exemplify a recent wave of right-wing anti-globalisation, which has risen in much of the West. The right-wing anti-globalisation movement will substantially affect global health through four pathways. Restrictions on trade will dampen economic growth and could diminish food security and the availability of medical supplies. Xenophobia will harm mental health through the lived experience of minorities, and will elevate the risk of economic and military conflict between countries. Increased defence expenditure in a time of limited government budgets will constrict funding available for healthcare and the social determinants of health. Mistrust of international treaties, including for climate change, will undermine the Paris Agreement and hasten greenhouse gas emissions. Without rapid mitigation, climate change could devastate population health globally through a range of mechanisms, including diminished food security and increased violent conflict. These would amplify many of the other health effects of right-wing anti-globalisation. By emphasising the shared humanity of all people, population health offers an antidote to the narrow focus of right-wing anti-globalisation.

  7. Trump, Brexit, Right-wing Anti-globalisation, and An Uncertain Future for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor-Bowles, Isabelle; Bowles, Devin C.

    2017-01-01

    Global public health is intimately linked with political, economic and social determinants. The current global order has been built on the assumption that the globalisation agenda shared by political elites of the last several decades will continue. Individuals, businesses and countries have all made decisions, many of them linked to health, based on this assumption. The election of Donald Trump to the US presidency and the vote in Britain to exit the European Union exemplify a recent wave of right-wing anti-globalisation, which has risen in much of the West. The right-wing anti-globalisation movement will substantially affect global health through four pathways. Restrictions on trade will dampen economic growth and could diminish food security and the availability of medical supplies. Xenophobia will harm mental health through the lived experience of minorities, and will elevate the risk of economic and military conflict between countries. Increased defence expenditure in a time of limited government budgets will constrict funding available for healthcare and the social determinants of health. Mistrust of international treaties, including for climate change, will undermine the Paris Agreement and hasten greenhouse gas emissions. Without rapid mitigation, climate change could devastate population health globally through a range of mechanisms, including diminished food security and increased violent conflict. These would amplify many of the other health effects of right-wing anti-globalisation. By emphasising the shared humanity of all people, population health offers an antidote to the narrow focus of right-wing anti-globalisation. PMID:29546210

  8. The Future of Counseling Psychology: Improving Quality of Life for Persons with Chronic Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwalisz, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The literature review and focus group findings that compose the Major Contribution illustrate how counseling psychologists can integrate expertise from various subdisciplines (vocational psychology, health psychology, multicultural psychology) to effectively address the needs of those living with HIV. Given changes in the nature of health problems…

  9. Health Economics at the Crossroads of Centuries - From the Past to the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael; Ogura, Seiritsu

    2016-01-01

    Health economics, as an interdisciplinary science, has experienced exceptionally bold evolution through the past eight decades. Generations of committed scholars have built up huge body of knowledge and developed a set of methodological tools to assist health-care authorities with resource allocation process. Following its conception at the US National Bureau of Economic Research and Ivy League US Universities, this science has spread across the Globe. It has adapted to a myriad of local conditions and needs of the national health systems with diverse historical legacies, medical services provision, and financing patterns. Challenge of financial sustainability facing modern day health systems remains primarily attributable to population aging, prosperity diseases, large scale migrations, rapid urbanization, and technological innovation in medicine. Despite promising developments in developing countries with emerging BRICS markets on the lead, rising out-of-pocket health spending continues to threaten affordability of medical care. Universal health coverage extension will likely remain serious challenge even for some of the most advanced OECD nations. These complex circumstances create strong drivers for inevitable further development of health economics. We believe that this interdisciplinary health science shall leave long-lasting blue print to be visible for decades to come.

  10. Mobile health in adults with congenital heart disease: Current use and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuuring, M.J.; A. Backx (Ad); Zwart, R.; Veelenturf, A.H.; D. Robbers-Visser (Daniëlle); M. Groenink (Maarten); A. Abu-Hanna (Ameen); N. Bruining (Nico); M.P. Schijven; B.J.M. Mulder (Barbara); B.J. Bouma (Berto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Many adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are affected lifelong by cardiac events, particularly arrhythmias and heart failure. Despite the care provided, the cardiac event rate remains high. Mobile health (mHealth) brings opportunities to enhance daily monitoring and

  11. Mobile health in adults with congenital heart disease: current use and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuuring, M. J.; Backx, A. P.; Zwart, R.; Veelenturf, A. H.; Robbers-Visser, D.; Groenink, M.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Bruining, N.; Schijven, M. P.; Mulder, B. J.; Bouma, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are affected lifelong by cardiac events, particularly arrhythmias and heart failure. Despite the care provided, the cardiac event rate remains high. Mobile health (mHealth) brings opportunities to enhance daily monitoring and hence timely

  12. Providers of Mental Health Services--Now and in the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Tobi A.; Halpain, Maureen

    2002-01-01

    Providers of mental health services will need to address the expected increase in the older adult population. More practitioners as well as more people trained in teaching and research about aging and mental health will be needed. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  13. Health Economics at the Crossroads of Centuries – From the Past to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo (Michael); Ogura, Seiritsu

    2016-01-01

    Health economics, as an interdisciplinary science, has experienced exceptionally bold evolution through the past eight decades. Generations of committed scholars have built up huge body of knowledge and developed a set of methodological tools to assist health-care authorities with resource allocation process. Following its conception at the US National Bureau of Economic Research and Ivy League US Universities, this science has spread across the Globe. It has adapted to a myriad of local conditions and needs of the national health systems with diverse historical legacies, medical services provision, and financing patterns. Challenge of financial sustainability facing modern day health systems remains primarily attributable to population aging, prosperity diseases, large scale migrations, rapid urbanization, and technological innovation in medicine. Despite promising developments in developing countries with emerging BRICS markets on the lead, rising out-of-pocket health spending continues to threaten affordability of medical care. Universal health coverage extension will likely remain serious challenge even for some of the most advanced OECD nations. These complex circumstances create strong drivers for inevitable further development of health economics. We believe that this interdisciplinary health science shall leave long-lasting blue print to be visible for decades to come. PMID:27376055

  14. The national community mental health care project in Vietnam: a review for future guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee Hong; Than, Phong Thai; La, Cuong Duc; Van Than, Quang; Van Dieu, Chu

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the national community mental health care (CMHC) project in Vietnam and recommend improvements to the model based on findings reported at a national workshop of major service providers, and supplemented by information gathered from site visits and discussions with mental health leaders, professionals and stakeholders in the hospital and community mental health services. Since 2000, the CMHC project has been carried out in all 63 provinces with an overall national district coverage of around 64% and a total registry of 145 160 patients. It demonstrates a commitment by the government to integrate mental health into primary health care, in line with the World Health Organization recommendations, and set up a national community mental health network. Free treatment is provided for patients, mostly with schizophrenia (62.83%) and epilepsy (34.78%), at the local community level, and a national monitoring system is well established. However, the limitations include the lack of project funds, human resources and facilities, treatment scope, and linkages with families and community. A revised model of CMHC that builds on the strengths of existing services is proposed. While progress in community mental health care in Vietnam has been significant, many challenges facing the CMHC project need addressing.

  15. Averting Crisis in Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Lee-Jay

    1986-01-01

    Discusses issues related to population growth in Asia, considering various programs and their successes. Indicates that China has had the greatest recent success in reducing population growth (with its one-child family policy). (JN)

  16. Physician leadership: a health-care system's investment in the future of quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Rocco; Haytaian, Marcia

    2012-08-01

    The current state of health care and its reform will require physician leaders to take on greater management responsibilities, which will require a set of organizational and leadership competencies that traditional medical education does not provide. Physician leaders can form a bridge between the clinical and administrative sides of a health-care organization, serving to further the organization's strategy for growth and success. Recognizing that the health-care industry is rapidly changing and physician leaders will play a key role in that transformation, Hartford HealthCare has established a Physician Leadership Development Institute that provides advanced leadership skills and management education to select physicians practicing within the health-care system.

  17. U.S. medical students choice of careers and its future impact on health care manpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matorin, A A; Venegas-Samuels, K; Ruiz, P; Butler, P M; Abdulla, A

    2000-01-01

    During the last 10-15 years, the health care system of this country has faced major challenges, among them, spiraling increases of health care costs, physician manpower maldistribution, excessive production of subspecialists, shortages of primary care physicians (family practice, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics), and lack of access to health care, predominantly among the poor and disadvantaged populations. As a way of shedding light on some of these challenges, the authors conducted a study among junior medical students from the University of Texas Medical School at Houston which focused on some of the factors that might influence medical students' choice of careers. In this article, the authors review the most salient findings for some of the problems that currently plague the health care system of this nation. Certainly, the outcome of this study has important educational and health service delivery implications not only in the United States but abroad as well, particularly among developing nations.

  18. Delay Discounting as an Index of Sustainable Behavior: Devaluation of Future Air Quality and Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Meredith S; Nickerson, Norma P; Odum, Amy L

    2017-09-01

    Poor air quality and resulting annual deaths represent significant public health concerns. Recently, rapid delay discounting (the devaluation of future outcomes) of air quality has been considered a potential barrier for engaging in long term, sustainable behaviors that might help to reduce emissions (e.g., reducing private car use, societal support for clean air initiatives). Delay discounting has been shown to be predictive of real world behavior outside of laboratory settings, and therefore may offer an important framework beyond traditional variables thought to measure sustainable behavior such as importance of an environmental issue, or environmental attitudes/values, although more research is needed in this area. We examined relations between discounting of air quality, respiratory health, and monetary gains and losses. We also examined, relations between discounting and self-reported importance of air quality and respiratory health, and nature relatedness. Results showed rapid delay discounting of all outcomes across the time frames assessed, and significant positive correlations between delay discounting of air quality, respiratory health, and monetary outcomes. Steeper discounting of monetary outcomes relative to air quality and respiratory health outcomes was observed in the context of gains; however, no differences in discounting were observed across losses of monetary, air quality, and respiratory health. Replicating the sign effect, monetary outcomes were discounted more steeply than monetary losses. Importance of air quality, respiratory health and nature relatedness were significantly and positively correlated with one another, but not with degree of delay discounting of any outcome, demonstrating the need for more comprehensive measures that predict pro-environmental behaviors that might benefit individuals and public health over time. These results add to our understanding of decision-making, and demonstrate alarming rates of delay discounting of

  19. Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie K. Moore; Vera L. Trainer; Nathan J. Mantua; Micaela S. Parker; Edward A. Laws; Lorraine C. Backer; Lora E. Fleming

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenically-derived increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have been implicated in recent climate change, and are projected to substantially impact the climate on a global scale in the future. For marine and freshwater systems, increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are expected to increase surface temperatures, lower pH, and cause changes...

  20. Nurses as change agents for a better future in health care: the politics of drift and dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anne M

    2018-02-14

    This paper takes the 70th Anniversary of the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom as an opportunity to reflect upon the strategic direction of nursing policy and the extent to which nurses can realise their potential as change agents in building a better future for health care. It argues that the policy trajectory set for nursing at the outset of the NHS continues to influence its strategic direction, and that the trajectory needs to be reset with the voices of nurses being more engaged in the design, as much as the delivery of health policy. There is a growing evidence base about the benefits for patients and nurses of deploying well-educated nurses at the top of their skill set, to provide needed care for patients in adequately staffed and resourced units, as well as the value that nurses contribute to decision-making in clinical care. Yet much of this evidence is not being implemented. On the contrary, some of it is being ignored. Policy remains fragmented, driven by short-term financial constraints and underinvestment in high quality care. Nurses need to make their voices heard, and use the evidence base to change the dialogue with the public, policy makers and politicians, in order to build a better future for health care.

  1. The future of drugs: recreational drug use and sexual health among gay and other men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Kane; Lea, Toby; Murphy, Dean; Pienaar, Kiran

    2017-02-01

    There are complex historical connections between sexual minoritisation and desires to chemically alter bodily experience. For gay men, drug and alcohol use can be a creative or experimental response to social marginalisation - and not necessarily a problematic one in every instance. Numerous studies have found that infection with HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) is more likely among gay and men who have sex with men (MSM) who use recreational drugs than those who do not, but the causal nature of these relations is uncertain. Sexualised drug use is associated with a range of other problems, including dependence, mental health issues, accident and overdose. A growing body of work in the Alcohol and Other Drugs (AOD) field demonstrates the action of drugs and their purported effects to be a product of their relations with various other actors, contexts and practices. Given these contingencies, it is impossible to predict the future of drugs or their effect on the sexual health of gay and MSM with any degree of certainty. This article outlines some of the conditions most likely to mediate such futures in the medium term. Public funding for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer drug issues should not remain restricted to questions of HIV prevention and sexual health. It should be expanded to equip sexual health and AOD service providers with the cultural and sexual literacy to mitigate stigma and allow them to respond constructively to drug problems among sexual and gender minorities as a matter of priority.

  2. Preeclampsia and Future Cardiovascular Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pensée; Haththotuwa, Randula; Kwok, Chun Shing; Babu, Aswin; Kotronias, Rafail A; Rushton, Claire; Zaman, Azfar; Fryer, Anthony A; Kadam, Umesh; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Mamas, Mamas A

    2017-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder resulting in hypertension and multiorgan dysfunction. There is growing evidence that these effects persist after pregnancy. We aimed to systematically evaluate and quantify the evidence on the relationship between preeclampsia and the future risk of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the future risk of heart failure, coronary heart disease, composite cardiovascular disease, death because of coronary heart or cardiovascular disease, stroke, and stroke death after preeclampsia. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed to identify relevant studies. We used random-effects meta-analysis to determine the risk. Twenty-two studies were identified with >6.4 million women including >258 000 women with preeclampsia. Meta-analysis of studies that adjusted for potential confounders demonstrated that preeclampsia was independently associated with an increased risk of future heart failure (risk ratio [RR], 4.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.09-8.38), coronary heart disease (RR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.43-4.37), cardiovascular disease death (RR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.83-2.66), and stroke (RR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.29-2.55). Sensitivity analyses showed that preeclampsia continued to be associated with an increased risk of future coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke after adjusting for age (RR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.83-8.26), body mass index (RR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.41-7.07), and diabetes mellitus (RR, 4.19; 95% CI, 2.09-8.38). Preeclampsia is associated with a 4-fold increase in future incident heart failure and a 2-fold increased risk in coronary heart disease, stroke, and death because of coronary heart or cardiovascular disease. Our study highlights the importance of lifelong monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors in women with a history of preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Behavioral intervention technologies: evidence review and recommendations for future research in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health was charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs refers to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. This study on the findings of the technical expert panel. Videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been well validated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes. Social media such as online support groups have produced disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received little work in mental health. Research focused on understanding reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. Improvements in the collection, storage, analysis and visualization of big data will be required. New theoretical models and evaluation strategies will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life of Future Physicians at a Medical School in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Anthony A. Domantay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical students are trained to maintain the health of patients, but such training may have undesirable effects on medical students’ personal health. This study therefore aimed to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of medical students and to determine the factors that are associated with the students’ HRQOL. The target population included all students enrolled at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine in Baguio City, Philippines, during school year 2012-2013. The measurements included the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 questionnaire for HRQOL, Beck Depression Inventory, abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, and self-report items for other exposure variables. A total of 527 medical students participated in the study. The mean scores in all of the eight domains of HRQOL ranged from 51.36 to 85.83. The highest mean scores were along the areas of physical functioning (85.83 and bodily pain (69.20, whereas the lowest mean scores were in the areas of vitality (51.72 and role limitations due to emotional problems (51.36. Depression, stress, and burnout were associated with lower scores in most of the domains of HRQOL. Medical students in our school are generally in a satisfactory state of functional health and well-being, but have a lower level of mental health as compared with physical health.

  5. The photovoltaic industry on the path to a sustainable future--environmental and occupational health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Labrèche, France; Zayed, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    As it supplies solar power, a priori considered harmless for the environment and human health compared with fossil fuels, the photovoltaic (PV) industry seems to contribute optimally to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and, overall, to sustainable development. However, considering the forecast for rapid growth, its use of potentially toxic substances and manufacturing processes presenting health and safety problems may jeopardize its benefits. This paper aims to establish a profile of the PV industry in order to determine current and emerging environmental and health concerns. A review of PV system life cycle assessments, in light of the current state of the industry and its developmental prospects, reveals information deficits concerning some sensitive life cycle indicators and environmental impacts, together with incomplete information on toxicological data and studies of workers' exposure to different chemical and physical hazards. Although solar panel installation is generally considered relatively safe, the occupational health concerns related to the growing number of hazardous materials handled in the PV industry warrants an all-inclusive occupational health and safety approach in order to achieve an optimal equilibrium with sustainability. To prevent eco-health problems from offsetting the benefits currently offered by the PV industry, manufacturers should cooperate actively with workers, researchers and government agencies toward improved and more transparent research, the adoption of specific and stricter regulations, the implementation of preventive risk management of occupational health and safety and, lastly, greater responsibilization toward PV systems from their design until their end of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Overview of Soils and Human Health - Research Trends and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soils have significant impact on human health, whether those influences are positive or negative, direct or indirect. Soils are a significant source of nutrients in our food supply and medications such as antibiotics. However, nutrient imbalances and the presence of human pathogens in the soil biological community can cause negative impacts on health. There are also many locations where various elements or chemical compounds are found in soils at toxic levels, due to either natural conditions or anthropogenic activities. The soils of urban environments have received increased attention in the last few years, and they too pose a number of human health questions and challenges. Concepts such as soil security may provide a framework within which soils and human health issues can be investigated using interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches, as it will take the contributions of experts in a number of different scientific, medical, and social science fields to fully address soils and human health issues. While much progress was made in understanding links between soils and human health over the last century, there is still much we do not know and the interactions between soils and human health are extremely complex. Therefore, there is still significant need for research in this important area.

  7. Modelling the affordability and distributional implications of future health care financing options in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Di; Ataguba, John E

    2012-03-01

    South Africa is considering introducing a universal health care system. A key concern for policy-makers and the general public is whether or not this reform is affordable. Modelling the resource and revenue generation requirements of alternative reform options is critical to inform decision-making. This paper considers three reform scenarios: universal coverage funded by increased allocations to health from general tax and additional dedicated taxes; an alternative reform option of extending private health insurance coverage to all formal sector workers and their dependents with the remainder using tax-funded services; and maintaining the status quo. Each scenario was modelled over a 15-year period using a spreadsheet model. Statistical analyses were also undertaken to evaluate the impact of options on the distribution of health care financing burden and benefits from using health services across socio-economic groups. Universal coverage would result in total health care spending levels equivalent to 8.6% of gross domestic product (GDP), which is comparable to current spending levels. It is lower than the status quo option (9.5% of GDP) and far lower than the option of expanding private insurance cover (over 13% of GDP). However, public funding of health services would have to increase substantially. Despite this, universal coverage would result in the most progressive financing system if the additional public funding requirements are generated through a surcharge on taxable income (but not if VAT is increased). The extended private insurance scheme option would be the least progressive and would impose a very high payment burden; total health care payments on average would be 10.7% of household consumption expenditure compared with the universal coverage (6.7%) and status quo (7.5%) options. The least pro-rich distribution of service benefits would be achieved under universal coverage. Universal coverage is affordable and would promote health system equity, but

  8. The opportunity and strategy for quality and health-system improvement now and in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherar, Michael; Maley, Oonagh

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004, Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) has played a leadership role in linking funding to quality of care, and in using evidence and administrative and clinical data to drive performance and quality improvement. This article describes how CCO has used its cancer and renal health system strategies to establish an environment of continuous health system improvement. The article also describes how CCO's Corporate Strategy is driving organizational improvement: evolving CCO's capacity and capability to drive quality and value across healthcare settings, and its ability to advance broader health system transformation in support of cancer and renal patients. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  9. Assessment of the Future Health Burden Attributable to Undernutrition under the Latest Scenario Framework for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shota; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Kanae, Shinjiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Shin, Yonghee; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Akemi; Honda, Yasushi

    2014-05-01

    There are growing concerns that future food security will be negatively affected by various factors, such as changes in socioeconomic and climate conditions. The health burden attributable to childhood undernutrition is among the most severe problems related to food crisis in the world. This study assessed the health burden attributable to childhood underweight through 2050 focusing on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), by considering the latest scenarios for climate change studies (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs)) and conducting sensitivity analysis. We used three SSPs (SSP1, SSP2 and SSP3) as future population and gross domestic products (GDP), three RCPs (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for a greenhouse gas emissions constraint, and 12 Global Circulation Models (12 GCMs) to estimate climate conditions. A regression model for estimating DALYs attributable to childhood underweight (DAtU) was developed using the relationship between DAtU and childhood stunting. A logarithmic relationship was proposed for the regression model. We combined a global computable general equilibrium model, a crop model (M-GAEZ), and two regression models to assess the future health burden. We found that i) world total DAtU decreases from 2005 by 23 ~ 60% in 2030 depending on the socioeconomic scenarios. DAtU decreases further by 2050 for SSP1 and SSP2 scenario, whereas it slightly increases for SSP3. Per capita DAtU also decreases in all regions under either scenario in 2050, but the decreases vary significantly by regions and scenarios. ii) the impact of climate change is relatively small in the framework of this study but, on the other hand, socioeconomic conditions have a great impact on the future health burden. The impact of changes in socioeconomic conditions on the health burden is greater in the regions where current health burden is high. iii) parameter uncertainty of the regression models is the second largest factor on

  10. IMIA Accreditation of Biomedical and Health Informatics Education: Current State and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M. W.; Mantas, J.; Borycki, E.; Hasman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The educational activities initiated by the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) have had global impacts and influenced national societies and local academic programs in the field of Biomedical and Health Informatics (BMHI). After the successful publication and

  11. Private Health Insurance Exchanges: Early Evidence and Implications for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttorff, Christine; Nowak, Sarah; Syme, James; Eibner, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Private health insurance exchanges offer employer health insurance, combining online shopping, increased plan choice, benefit administration, and cost-containment strategies. This article examines how private exchanges function, how they may affect employers and employees, and the possible implications for the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) Marketplaces. The authors found that private exchanges could encourage employees to select less-generous plans. This could expose employees to higher out-of-pocket costs, but premium contributions would drop substantially, so net spending would decrease. On the other hand, employee spending may increase if, in moving to private exchanges, employers decrease their health insurance contributions. Most employers can avoid the ACA's "Cadillac tax" by reducing the generosity of the plans they offer, regardless of whether they move to a private exchange. There is not yet enough evidence to determine whether the private exchanges will become prominent in the insurance market and how they will affect employers and their employees.

  12. Health care provider's role in facing the future burden of breast cancer in Saudi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samia M. Al-Amoudi; Wafa A. Sait; Hassan S. Abduljabbar

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care professionals on the early detection of breast cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah and Abha regions of Saudi Arabia from May to November 2009. A detailed questionnaire was distributed to 500 doctors from different hospitals. The questionnaire contained items on the practice of clinical breast examination and mammogram examination, and the doctor's perception of their roles in education. The results of 337 questionnaires analyzed indicated that most health care professionals do not practice clinical breast examination and mammography, and the perception of their roles in education is not as expected. Health care providers are one of the main barriers in improving early detection of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia. There is a need to increase awareness among health care providers of their role in the fight against breast cancer through focused education and training programs (Author).

  13. Ethical aspects of future health care: globalisation of markets and differentiation of societies - ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2008-01-01

    The shift in health care to an aggregate corporate and distributed model dominated by electronic methods of diagnosis, record-keeping and communication spanning jurisdictional boundaries raises technical, social and paradigmatic issues. The technical issues concern the material natures of the tools, devices, procedures and protocols; the social issues gravitate around abstract matters like individual rights and models of responsibility within a corporate setting and accountability in inter-jurisdictional contexts; the paradigmatic issues centre in the question of how the rights and duties of traditional and direct health care translate into the mediated context of the globally expanded corporate model of eHealth and telemedicine. The present discussion presents a brief overview of the issues and sketches some of their implications for the evolution of contemporary health care.

  14. Time from pre-eclampsia diagnosis to delivery affects future health prospects of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Birgitte; Lykke, Jacob A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Pre-eclampsia often has detrimental health effects for pregnant women and their fetuses, but whether exposure in the womb has long-term health-consequences for children as they grow up remains poorly understood. We assessed overall morbidity of children following exposu...... in the complex clinical management of mild pre-eclampsia.......Background and objectives: Pre-eclampsia often has detrimental health effects for pregnant women and their fetuses, but whether exposure in the womb has long-term health-consequences for children as they grow up remains poorly understood. We assessed overall morbidity of children following exposure...... to either mild or severe pre-eclampsia up to 30 years after birth and related disease risks to duration of exposure, i.e. the time from diagnosis to delivery. Methodology: We did a registry-based retrospective cohort study in Denmark covering the years 1979-2009, using the separate diagnoses of mild...

  15. The Space That Difference Makes: On Marginality, Social Justice and the Future of the Health Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Kevin J; DasGupta, Sayantani

    2016-12-01

    Feminist theorist and educator, bell hooks, asserts that to seek true liberation one must choose marginality. One must choose to occupy the space outside the binary between colonizer-colonized, hegemonic center-periphery, and us-them in order to create a location of possibility. This essay will reveal the practice of social justice as the navigation of the space that difference makes and argue that choosing marginality provides a framework for health humanities work towards social justice in health care. The space of the launderette that is depicted in Hanif Kureishi's 1986 film, My Beautiful Laundrette, provides an example of choosing marginality and illustrates how difference structures both real and imagined spaces, which influences how individuals ultimately perceive one another. We will draw from the work of bell hooks; political geographer, Edward Soja; and Marxist philosopher, Henri Lefebvre, to demonstrate the importance of the health humanities' position at the margin to traditional health care education.

  16. Health technology assessment and its role in the future development of the Indian healthcare sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hass, Bastian; Pooley, Jayne; Feuring, Martin; Suvarna, Viraj; Harrington, Adrian E.

    2012-01-01

    Public expenditure on healthcare in India is low by international comparison, and access to essential treatment pushes many uninsured citizens below the poverty line. In many countries, policymakers utilize health technology assessment (HTA) methodologies to direct investments in healthcare, to obtain the maximum benefit for the population as a whole. With rising incomes and a commitment from the Government of India to increase the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health, this is...

  17. The European Donor Health Care Project: fulfilling needs and challenges for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.M. van den Burg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Donor Health Care project is a EU granted project to develop a learning programme for professionals working in the field of Donor Health Care. The innovation of this curriculum is the focus on all donors, irrespective of whether they donate blood, cells, tissues or organs. This article describes the background of the project and the current possibilities and limitations of European accreditation, distance learning and Master degrees.

  18. Future research needs for evaluating the integration of mental health and substance abuse treatment with primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Timothy S; Crotty, Karen A; Morrissey, Joseph P; Jonas, Daniel E; Thaker, Samruddhi; Ellis, Alan R; Woodell, Carol; Wines, Roberta C; Viswanathan, Meera

    2013-09-01

    Research needs are many in the current health care environment. In this article, we describe a novel method developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Evidence-based Practice Center Program for prioritizing areas for future research. Using a recent- ly published systematic review as a foundation, investigators worked with a diverse group of 10 stakeholders to identify and prioritize research needs. We enumerate 13 high-priority research needs, as determined by stakeholders who represented researchers, funders, health care providers, and patients and families, and discuss considerations for specific study designs. Our findings suggest that future research on integrating mental health and primary care should focus first on a) identifying methods of integrating primary care into specialty mental health settings, b) identifying cross-cutting strategies for integration across multiple mental health diagnostic categories as opposed to a separate strategy for each diagnostic category, and c) examining the use of information technology for integrating mental and general medical health care. Other priorities for consideration include examining the economic and organizational sus- tainability of successful integration models, identifying dissemination methods for various settings, examining the business case for integration as well as methods of payment, assessing the cost-effectiveness of integration, and identifying key components of successful strategies. The importance of sustainability and economic justification for integrated care strategies was a recurring theme in discussions with the stake- holders. The ability to sustain integrated care in everyday practice remains to be proved and will depend in part on the level of incentives and sup- port provided through payment system reform, as well as the ability of practices to provide care efficiently.

  19. Integrated (one-stop shop) youth health care: best available evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetrick, Sarah E; Bailey, Alan P; Smith, Kirsten E; Malla, Ashok; Mathias, Steve; Singh, Swaran P; O'Reilly, Aileen; Verma, Swapna K; Benoit, Laelia; Fleming, Theresa M; Moro, Marie Rose; Rickwood, Debra J; Duffy, Joseph; Eriksen, Trissel; Illback, Robert; Fisher, Caroline A; McGorry, Patrick D

    2017-11-20

    Although mental health problems represent the largest burden of disease in young people, access to mental health care has been poor for this group. Integrated youth health care services have been proposed as an innovative solution. Integrated care joins up physical health, mental health and social care services, ideally in one location, so that a young person receives holistic care in a coordinated way. It can be implemented in a range of ways. A review of the available literature identified a range of studies reporting the results of evaluation research into integrated care services. The best available data indicate that many young people who may not otherwise have sought help are accessing these mental health services, and there are promising outcomes for most in terms of symptomatic and functional recovery. Where evaluated, young people report having benefited from and being highly satisfied with these services. Some young people, such as those with more severe presenting symptoms and those who received fewer treatment sessions, have failed to benefit, indicating a need for further integration with more specialist care. Efforts are underway to articulate the standards and core features to which integrated care services should adhere, as well as to further evaluate outcomes. This will guide the ongoing development of best practice models of service delivery.

  20. The past, present, and future of health development campaigns: reflexivity and the critical-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; de Souza, Rebecca

    2008-07-01

    In contemporary society, health issues have gained increasing urgency in both political and academic spheres. Looking back at the failure of the modernist development initiatives, there is the need to realize that we live in a time of increasing sociopolitical complexity. The present moment is perhaps best understood in terms of a complex tension and linkage between the past and present, global and local, modern and postmodern. The critical-cultural approach to health campaigns is an approach that, through the reflexive interrogation of modernist assumptions underlying health communication campaigns, attempts to foreground the tensions inherent in the practice of health campaigns. This essay discusses the manner in which the critical-cultural approach interrogates modernist assumptions and provides an alternative paradigm for approaching the theory and practice of health campaigns by suggesting the necessity for reflexivity. Specifically, we discuss how the perspective interrogates the role of the media in development, the significance of culture, the locus of health responsibility, the impact of structural conditions, and the politics of knowledge, providing examples of campaigns that illustrate this reflexivity.

  1. eHealth in the future of medications management: personalisation, monitoring and adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Josip; Tan, Woan Shin; Huang, Zhilian; Sloot, Peter; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2017-04-05

    Globally, healthcare systems face major challenges with medicines management and medication adherence. Medication adherence determines medication effectiveness and can be the single most effective intervention for improving health outcomes. In anticipation of growth in eHealth interventions worldwide, we explore the role of eHealth in the patients' medicines management journey in primary care, focusing on personalisation and intelligent monitoring for greater adherence. eHealth offers opportunities to transform every step of the patient's medicines management journey. From booking appointments, consultation with a healthcare professional, decision-making, medication dispensing, carer support, information acquisition and monitoring, to learning about medicines and their management in daily life. It has the potential to support personalisation and monitoring and thus lead to better adherence. For some of these dimensions, such as supporting decision-making and providing reminders and prompts, evidence is stronger, but for many others more rigorous research is urgently needed. Given the potential benefits and barriers to eHealth in medicines management, a fine balance needs to be established between evidence-based integration of technologies and constructive experimentation that could lead to a game-changing breakthrough. A concerted, transdisciplinary approach adapted to different contexts, including low- and middle-income contries is required to realise the benefits of eHealth at scale.

  2. Disease detection, epidemiology and outbreak response: the digital future of public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Inequalities persist when it comes to the attention, resource allocation and political prioritization, and provision of appropriate, adequate, and timely health interventions to populations in need. Set against a complex socio-political backdrop, the pressure on public health science is significant: institutions and scientists are accountable for helping to find the origins of disease, and to prevent and respond effectively more rapidly than ever. In the field of infectious disease epidemiology, new digital methods are contributing to a new 'digital epidemiology' and are seen as a promising way to increase effectivity and speed of response to infectious disease and public health events. New types of health data and access to personal information that are available through diverse channels will continue to have wide implications for epidemiology and public health practice. The purpose of this short paper is to introduce the emerging backdrop of practical and ethical challenges for those involved within the practice of public health as they face increasing collaborations with those from fields that have not traditionally applied their methods to epidemiology.

  3. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  4. Do Savings Mediate Changes in Adolescents' Future Orientation and Health-Related Outcomes? Findings From Randomized Experiment in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimli, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred M

    2015-10-01

    This present study tests the proposition that an economic strengthening intervention for families caring for AIDS-orphaned adolescents would positively affect adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes through increased asset accumulation (in this case, by increasing family savings). Using longitudinal data from the cluster-randomized experiment, we ran generalized estimating equation models with robust standard errors clustering on individual observations. To examine whether family savings mediate the effect of the intervention on adolescents' future orientation and psychosocial outcomes, analyses were conducted in three steps: (1) testing the effect of intervention on mediator; (2) testing the effect of mediator on outcomes, controlling for the intervention; and (3) testing the significance of mediating effect using Sobel-Goodman method. Asymmetric confidence intervals for mediated effect were obtained through bootstrapping-to address the assumption of normal distribution. Results indicate that participation in a matched Child Savings Account (CSA) program improved adolescents' future orientation and psychosocial outcomes by reducing hopelessness, enhancing self-concept, and improving adolescents' confidence about their educational plans. However, the positive intervention effect on adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes was not transmitted through saving. In other words, participation in the matched CSA program improved adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes regardless of its impact on reported savings. Further research is necessary to understand exactly how participation in economic strengthening interventions, for example, those that employ matched CSAs, shape adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes: what, if not savings, transmits the treatment effect and how? Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A report card on the physician work force: Israeli health care market--past experience and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Asaf; Shvarts, Shifra; Glick, Shimon; Reuveni, Haim

    2010-09-01

    The worldwide shortage of physicians is due not only to the lack of physicians, but also to complex social and economic factors that vary from country to country. To describe the results of physician workforce planning in a system with unintended policy, such as Israel, based on past experience and predicted future trends, between 1995 and 2020. A descriptive study of past (1995-2009) and future (through 2020) physician workforce trends in Israel. An actuarial equation was developed to project physician supply until 2020. In Israel a physician shortage is expected in the very near future. This finding is the result of global as well as local changes affecting the supply of physicians: change in immigration pattern, gender effect, population growth, and transparency of data on demand for physicians. These are universal factors affecting manpower planning in most industrial countries all over the world. We describe a health care market with an unintended physician workforce policy. Sharing decision makers' experience in similar health care systems will enable the development of better indices to analyze, by comparison, effective physician manpower planning processes, worldwide.

  6. Reproductive health care among women in Africa: currents trends and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimavalye Lar

    1982-06-01

    This paper concludes that reproductive health and health care in African countries must be improved in view of the prevalence of high rates of maternal and perinatal mortality. There is also need for more accurate figures, and better documentation of morbidity affecting the reproductive health of women. Maternal morbidity and perinatal mortality here are largely attributable to preventable factors, and therefore, maternal-child health services must be expanded. While the incidence of involuntary abortions reflects poor antenatal care, voluntary abortions are part of a growing problem of adolescent pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy. There is a lack of knowledge of and access to contraceptive usage, especially among young, unmarried women, demonstrating an unmet need for family planning services. The problem of sexually transmitted diseases has the possible consequence of increased infertility. In order to be successful, efforts to reduce the grim figures of maternal and perinatal mortality must be directed at the large sections of the population who live in rural areas, following studies to determine their specific problems. The target populations must be included in decisions affecting their health and health care. Governments must initiate services, provided by trained personnel, designed to ensure their proper and fuller utilization. All levels of service providers must become involved in research and training activities aimed at improving the health status of mothers and infants. The focus of higher institutions of learning and research must be on problems unique to the African situation and ethnic groups, realizing that methods imported from elsewhere may not be appropriate to African populations. Knowledge thus derived needs to be widely disseminated. In view of limited resources, the possibility of shared expenses needs to be explored. Lessons from Western experiences at reducing maternal and perinatal mortality must be incorporated in the African efforts to

  7. A scenario analysis of the future residential requirements for people with mental health problems in Eindhoven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbooms, Joyce J P A; Bongers, Inge M B; van Oers, Hans A M

    2011-01-06

    Despite large-scale investments in mental health care in the community since the 1990 s, a trend towards reinstitutionalization has been visible since 2002. Since many mental health care providers regard this as an undesirable trend, the question arises: In the coming 5 years, what types of residence should be organized for people with mental health problems? The purpose of this article is to provide mental health care providers, public housing corporations, and local government with guidelines for planning organizational strategy concerning types of residence for people with mental health problems. A scenario analysis was performed in four steps: 1) an exploration of the external environment; 2) the identification of key uncertainties; 3) the development of scenarios; 4) the translation of scenarios into guidelines for planning organizational strategy. To explore the external environment a document study was performed, and 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted. During a workshop, a panel of experts identified two key uncertainties in the external environment, and formulated four scenarios. The study resulted in four scenarios: 1) Integrated and independent living in the community with professional care; 2) Responsible healthcare supported by society; 3) Differentiated provision within the walls of the institution; 4) Residence in large-scale institutions but unmet need for care. From the range of aspects within the different scenarios, the panel was able to work out concrete guidelines for planning organizational strategy. In the context of residence for people with mental health problems, the focus should be on investment in community care and their re-integration into society. A joint effort is needed to achieve this goal. This study shows that scenario analysis leads to useful guidelines for planning organizational strategy in mental health care.

  8. Social and health epidemiology of immigrants in Germany: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razum, Oliver; Wenner, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Germany has experienced different forms of immigration for many decades. At the end of and after the Second World War, refugees, displaced persons and German resettlers constituted the largest immigrant group. In the 1950s, labor migration started, followed by family reunification. There has been a constant migration of refugees and asylum seekers reaching peaks in the early 1990s as well as today. Epidemiological research has increasingly considered the health, and the access to health care, of immigrants and people with migration background. In this narrative review we discuss the current knowledge on health of immigrants in Germany. The paper is based on a selective literature research with a focus on studies using representative data from the health reporting system. Our review shows that immigrants in Germany do not suffer from different diseases than non-immigrants, but they differ in their risk for certain diseases, in the resources to cope with theses risk and regarding access to treatment. We also identified the need for differentiation within the immigrant population, considering among others social and legal status, country of origin and duration of stay. Though most of the studies acknowledge the need for differentiation, the lack of data currently rules out analyses accounting for the existing diversity and thus a full understanding of health inequalities related to migration to Germany.

  9. The European Medical Corps: first Public Health Team mission and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussig, Joana M; Severi, Ettore; Baum, Jonathan Hj; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Laiseca, Amparo; Defrance, Laurent; Brailescu, Cristina; Coulombier, Denis; Jansa, Josep

    2017-09-14

    The 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa challenged traditional international mechanisms for public health team mobilisation to control outbreaks. Consequently, in February 2016, the European Union (EU) launched the European Medical Corps (EMC), a mechanism developed in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) to rapidly deploy teams and equipment in response to public health emergencies inside and outside the EU. Public Health Teams (PHTs), a component of the EMC, consist of experts in communicable disease prevention and control from participating countries and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), to support affected countries and WHO in risk assessment and outbreak response. The European Commission's Directorate-General European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations and Directorate-General Health and Food Safety, and ECDC, plan and support deployments. The first EMC-PHT deployment took place in May 2016, with a team sent to Angola for a yellow fever outbreak. The aims were to evaluate transmission risks to local populations and EU citizens in Angola, the risk of regional spread and importation into the EU, and to advise Angolan and EU authorities on control measures. International actors should gain awareness of the EMC, its response capacities and the means for requesting assistance. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  10. Plant microbial diversity is suggested as the key to future biocontrol and health trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Köberl, Martina; Rybakova, Daria; Müller, Henry; Grosch, Rita; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-05-01

    The microbiome of plants plays a crucial role in both plant and ecosystem health. Rapid advances in multi-omics tools are dramatically increasing access to the plant microbiome and consequently to the identification of its links with diseases and to the control of those diseases. Recent insights reveal a close, often symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and plants. Microorganisms can stimulate germination and plant growth, prevent diseases, and promote stress resistance and general fitness. Plants and their associated microorganisms form a holobiont and have to be considered as co-evolved species assemblages consisting of bacterial, archaeal and diverse eukaryotic species. The beneficial interplay of the host and its microbiome is responsible for maintaining the health of the holobiont, while diseases are often correlated with microbial dysbioses. Microbial diversity was identified as a key factor in preventing diseases and can be implemented as a biomarker in plant protection strategies. Targeted and predictive biocontrol approaches are possible by developing microbiome-based solutions. Moreover, combined breeding and biocontrol strategies maintaining diversity and ecosystem health are required. The analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of its role in health and disease and has substantial consequences for biocontrol and health issues. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Big Data and Public Health - Results of the Working Group 1 of the Forum Future Public Health, Berlin 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moebus, Susanne; Kuhn, Joseph; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Big Data is a diffuse term, which can be described as an approach to linking gigantic and often unstructured data sets. Big Data is used in many corporate areas. For Public Health (PH), however, Big Data is not a well-developed topic. In this article, Big Data is explained according to the intention of use, information efficiency, prediction and clustering. Using the example of application in science, patient care, equal opportunities and smart cities, typical challenges and open questions of Big Data for PH are outlined. In addition to the inevitable use of Big Data, networking is necessary, especially with knowledge-carriers and decision-makers from politics and health care practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. A Future beyond HIV/AIDS? Health as a Political Commodity in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bochow

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Referencing scholarly debates on humanitarianism and specifically HIV interventions, this article analyses the commodification of health in Botswana’s political arena throughout the HIV pandemic and beyond, contributing to a re-evaluation of the distribution of public wealth and international support in welfare states in Africa. The starting point of the analysis is a project to build a private hospital – a move to create a centre of excellence exclusive of international HIV/AIDS donations – and the staging of political responsibilities around it. Public investment into private health is an attempt to reform infrastructures built with HIV/AIDS money and to develop a market of high-paying jobs within the country. This process transforms the inalienable and indivisible condition of health and survival into a political commodity.

  13. Transport and public health in China: the road to a healthy future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baoguo; Liang, Song; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Cong, Haozhe; Levy, Morgan; Cheng, Qu; Wang, Tianbing; Remais, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Transportation-related risk factors are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China, where expansion of road networks and surges in personal vehicle ownership are having profound effects on public health. Road traffic injuries and fatalities have increased alongside motorized transport in China, and accident injury risk is aggravated by inadequate emergency response systems and trauma care. National air quality standards and emission control technologies are having a positive effect, yet persistent air pollution is increasingly attributable to a growing and outdated vehicle fleet, and famously congested roads. Urban design favors motorized transport, and physical activity and its associated health benefits are hindered by poor urban infrastructure. Transport emissions of greenhouse gases contribute substantially to regional and global climate change, which compound public health risks from multiple factors. Despite these complex challenges, technological advances and innovations in planning and policy stand to make China a leader in sustainable, healthy transportation. PMID:29047445

  14. Digital mental health and intellectual disabilities: state of the evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rory; Hassiotis, Angela

    2017-11-01

    The use of digital technologies in the management of mental illness, and more generally in the promotion of well-being and mental health, has received much recent attention and is a focus of current health policy. We conducted a narrative review to explore the opportunities and risks of digital technologies in mental healthcare specifically for people with intellectual disability, a sometimes marginalised and socially excluded group. The scope of digital mental health is vast and the promise of cheaper and more effective interventions delivered digitally is attractive. People with intellectual disability experience high rates of mental illness and could benefit from the development of novel therapies, yet seem to have been relatively neglected in the discourse around digital mental health and are often excluded from the development and implementation of new interventions. People with intellectual disability encounter several barriers to fully embracing digital technology, which may be overcome with appropriate support and adaptations. A small, but growing, literature attests to the value of incorporating digital technologies into the lives of people with intellectual disability, not only for promoting health but also for enhancing educational, vocational and leisure opportunities. Clearly further evidence is needed to establish the safety and clinical efficacy of digital mental health interventions for people with and without intellectual disability. A digital inclusion strategy that explicitly addresses the needs of people with intellectual disability would ensure that all can share the benefits of the digital world. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. The Future LGBT Health Professional: Perspectives on Career and Personal Mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Nelson F; Callahan, Edward; Brewster, Cheryl; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Sánchez, John Paul

    2018-04-01

    Mentorship is a critical factor contributing to career success. There is limited research on the quality of mentoring relationships for LGBT health professionals. This study explores facilitators of, obstacles to, and strategies for successful mentorship for LGBT health professional trainees. We applied a convenience sampling strategy to collect quantitative and qualitative data among LGBT health professional trainees. The authors identified trends in data using bivariate analyses and Consensual Qualitative Research methods. Seventy-five LGBT trainees completed surveys and a subset of 23 survey respondents also participated in three focus groups. Among survey participants, 100% identified along the queer spectrum; 10.7% identified along the trans spectrum; 36.0% identified as a racial or ethnic minority; and 61.3% were in MD/DO-granting programs. Eighty-eight percent of trainees reported working with at least one mentor and 48.5% of trainees had at least one mentor of the same sexual orientation. Seventy-two percent of trainees endorsed the importance of having an LGBT-identified mentor for personal development. Qualitative data showed that trainees valued such a mentor for positive role modeling and shared understanding of experiences. Fifty-nine percent of trainees felt it was important to have an LGBT-identified mentor for career development. LGBT peer networking and LGBT-related professional advice were cited as unique benefits in the qualitative findings. LGBT health professional trainees have unique personal and career development needs that may benefit from LGBT mentorship. Academic health centers that facilitate LGBT mentorship could enhance LGBT health trainees' academic productivity and personal development.

  16. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Scovronick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  17. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-07-11

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  18. The Future of Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José

    2013-01-01

    Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011.......Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011....

  19. Future Extreme Heat Scenarios to Enable the Assessment of Climate Impacts on Public Health over the Coterminous U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Crosson, W. L.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Estes, M. G., Jr.

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, extreme heat is the most deadly weather-related hazard. In the face of a warming climate and urbanization, which contributes to local-scale urban heat islands, it is very likely that extreme heat events (EHEs) will become more common and more severe in the U.S. This research seeks to provide historical and future measures of climate-driven extreme heat events to enable assessments of the impacts of heat on public health over the coterminous U.S. We use atmospheric temperature and humidity information from meteorological reanalysis and from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to provide data on past and future heat events. The focus of research is on providing assessments of the magnitude, frequency and geographic distribution of extreme heat in the U.S. to facilitate public health studies. In our approach, long-term climate change is captured with GCM outputs, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of short-term extremes are represented by the reanalysis data. Two future time horizons for 2040 and 2090 are compared to the recent past period of 1981-2000. We characterize regional-scale temperature and humidity conditions using GCM outputs for two climate change scenarios (A2 and A1B) defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). For each future period, 20 years of multi-model GCM outputs are analyzed to develop a ';heat stress climatology' based on statistics of extreme heat indicators. Differences between the two future and the past period are used to define temperature and humidity changes on a monthly time scale and regional spatial scale. These changes are combined with the historical meteorological data, which is hourly and at a spatial scale (12 km) much finer than that of GCMs, to create future climate realizations. From these realizations, we compute the daily heat stress measures and related spatially-specific climatological fields, such as the mean annual number of days above certain thresholds of maximum and minimum air

  20. Future Extreme Heat Scenarios to Enable the Assessment of Climate Impacts on Public Health over the Coterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, extreme heat is the most deadly weather-related hazard. In the face of a warming climate and urbanization, which contributes to local-scale urban heat islands, it is very likely that extreme heat events (EHEs) will become more common and more severe in the U.S. This research seeks to provide historical and future measures of climate-driven extreme heat events to enable assessments of the impacts of heat on public health over the coterminous U.S. We use atmospheric temperature and humidity information from meteorological reanalysis and from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to provide data on past and future heat events. The focus of research is on providing assessments of the magnitude, frequency and geographic distribution of extreme heat in the U.S. to facilitate public health studies. In our approach, long-term climate change is captured with GCM outputs, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of short-term extremes are represented by the reanalysis data. Two future time horizons for 2040 and 2090 are compared to the recent past period of 1981- 2000. We characterize regional-scale temperature and humidity conditions using GCM outputs for two climate change scenarios (A2 and A1B) defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). For each future period, 20 years of multi-model GCM outputs are analyzed to develop a 'heat stress climatology' based on statistics of extreme heat indicators. Differences between the two future and the past period are used to define temperature and humidity changes on a monthly time scale and regional spatial scale. These changes are combined with the historical meteorological data, which is hourly and at a spatial scale (12 km), to create future climate realizations. From these realizations, we compute the daily heat stress measures and related spatially-specific climatological fields, such as the mean annual number of days above certain thresholds of maximum and minimum air temperatures, heat indices

  1. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in the Elderly: A Review and Future Challenges in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Naorungroj, DDS, Ph.D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL is a multidimensional concept that measures perceptions of oral health and the consequences of oral conditions at individual and population levels. Poor oral conditions are associated with a deteriorating quality of life (QoL through functional and psychosocial impacts. As the elder population is growing worldwide and the prevalence of oral diseases among older adults remains high, more at- tention needs to be paid to oral health conditions as well as impacts on QoL. However, there are few population studies regarding OHRQoL in older Thai adults. Apparently, there are several challenges facing the assessment and improvement of the OHRQoL of this aging population. First, effort towards the standardization of instruments and validation of translated instruments is needed. Secondly, a multidisciplinary team, composed of health care providers, dental professionals, and policy makers has to be established. Finally, a holistic oral health care concept must be emphasized in dental educational programs and training. This review presents an overview of OHRQoL and its importance to the elderly and discusses future challenges to this group of the population in Thailand.

  2. Current status and future prospects of epidemiology and public health training and research in the WHO African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachega, Jean B; Uthman, Olalekan A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Lo, Melanie; Anude, Chuka; Kayembe, Patrick; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Gomo, Exnevia; Sow, Papa Salif; Obike, Ude; Kusiaku, Theophile; Mills, Edward J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Ijsselmuiden, Carel

    2012-12-01

    To date little has been published about epidemiology and public health capacity (training, research, funding, human resources) in WHO/AFRO to help guide future planning by various stakeholders. A bibliometric analysis was performed to identify published epidemiological research. Information about epidemiology and public health training, current research and challenges was collected from key informants using a standardized questionnaire. From 1991 to 2010, epidemiology and public health research output in the WHO/AFRO region increased from 172 to 1086 peer-reviewed articles per annum [annual percentage change (APC) = 10.1%, P for trend 90%) reported that this increase is only rarely linked to regional post-graduate training programmes in epidemiology. South Africa leads in publications (1978/8835, 22.4%), followed by Kenya (851/8835, 9.6%), Nigeria (758/8835, 8.6%), Tanzania (549/8835, 6.2%) and Uganda (428/8835, 4.8%) (P epidemiology or public health programmes' [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90-6.11; P = 0.03] and 'number of HIV/AIDS patients' (IRR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.02-1.66; P epidemiological research productivity in WHO/AFRO that is associated with the number of epidemiology programmes and burden of HIV/AIDS cases. More capacity building and training initiatives in epidemiology are required to promote research and address the public health challenges facing the continent.

  3. Responding to health care reform by addressing the institute of medicine report on the future of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbe, Suellyn; Regen, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The current health care environment has heightened the importance of achieving positive patient outcomes and excellent customer satisfaction. To remain competitive, health care organizations must adapt quickly to changing regulatory requirements, quality improvement initiatives, and customer expectations. To ensure nursing practice at the Saint Clare's Health System in Northwest New Jersey is at the forefront of leading change, the nursing staff has embraced the Institute of Medicine report The Future of Nursing: Leading Change. The empowered nursing team has applied Benner's Novice to Expert model and McCauley's Careful Nursing Theory as the foundation for nursing practice. The ability to apply evidence-based nursing research and cultivate professional development at the bedside has resulted in retention of expert nurses at the bedside. Engaging the nursing team has resulted in increased patient satisfaction and improved clinical outcomes. Advanced practice nurses play an important role to mentor the nursing staff and promote an interdisciplinary, collaborative relationship between all health care disciplines and community support programs. Nurses are recognized for their accomplishments and encouraged to obtain specialty certification, advanced degrees, and earn state and national recognition through professional organizations. The professional nurses at the Saint Clare's Health System are prepared to work in whatever environment the new normal creates.

  4. The private health sector in South Africa - current trends and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The private health sector is experiencing a crisis of spiralling costs, with average annual cost increases of between 13% and 32% over the decade 1978 - 1988. This trend is partly explained by the high utilisation rates that result from the combination of the 'fee-for-service' system and the 'third-party' payment structure of the ...

  5. Future health applications of genomics: priorities for communication, behavioral, and social sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Bowen, Deborah; Brody, Lawrence C; Condit, Celeste M; Croyle, Robert T; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J; Koehly, Laura M; Korf, Bruce R; Marteau, Theresa M; McLeroy, Kenneth; Patrick, Kevin; Valente, Thomas W

    2010-05-01

    Despite the quickening momentum of genomic discovery, the communication, behavioral, and social sciences research needed for translating this discovery into public health applications has lagged behind. The National Human Genome Research Institute held a 2-day workshop in October 2008 convening an interdisciplinary group of scientists to recommend forward-looking priorities for translational research. This research agenda would be designed to redress the top three risk factors (tobacco use, poor diet, and physical inactivity) that contribute to the four major chronic diseases (heart disease, type 2 diabetes, lung disease, and many cancers) and account for half of all deaths worldwide. Three priority research areas were identified: (1) improving the public's genetic literacy in order to enhance consumer skills; (2) gauging whether genomic information improves risk communication and adoption of healthier behaviors more than current approaches; and (3) exploring whether genomic discovery in concert with emerging technologies can elucidate new behavioral intervention targets. Important crosscutting themes also were identified, including the need to: (1) anticipate directions of genomic discovery; (2) take an agnostic scientific perspective in framing research questions asking whether genomic discovery adds value to other health promotion efforts; and (3) consider multiple levels of influence and systems that contribute to important public health problems. The priorities and themes offer a framework for a variety of stakeholders, including those who develop priorities for research funding, interdisciplinary teams engaged in genomics research, and policymakers grappling with how to use the products born of genomics research to address public health challenges. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The UNEP/SETAC recommended characterisation factors for human health and aquatic ecotoxicity: results and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bachmann, Till M.

    , called USEtox, to serve as a repository for recommended practice. USEtox is a parsimonious and transparent tool that currently provides human-health characterisation factors (CFs) for some 1000 chemicals and aquatic ecotoxicity CFs for more than 2000 substances. The accuracy of these factors relative...

  7. [Delegation and substitution of specific medical tasks as a future model of health care supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Adina; Rogalski, Hagen; Oppermann, Roman Frank; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Changing health care needs caused by changing demographics lead to an increasing demand for medical and nursing care in Germany. A declining number of general practitioners will soon cause a lack of health care supply in a growing number of regions. Nurses constituting the largest occupational group in the health care system contribute by filling the resulting gap. Internationally, models have been developed to incorporate new responsibilities for nursing professionals. However, nursing education needs to be adapted as well. Presently nurses are not qualified to take on medical tasks. The current nursing curriculum needs to include medical skills and content to reach a qualification status comparable to other European countries. The transition towards a more team-oriented medical care will have to be supervised and evaluated by health services research in both nursing and clinical care. The aim is to also provide a basis for the further development of the relevant socio-legal framework. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Screen Time and Health Indicators Among Children and Youth: Current Evidence, Limitations and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Travis J; Vallance, Jeff K

    2017-06-01

    Despite accumulating evidence linking screen-based sedentary behaviours (i.e. screen time) with poorer health outcomes among children and youth aerobic fitness, quality of life, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour, academic achievement, depression and anxiety. However, few longitudinal or intervention studies have been conducted, with most of these studies focusing on physical health indicators. While most studies have used self-reported assessments of screen time, the availability of more objective assessment methods presents important opportunities (e.g. more accurate and precise assessment of sedentary time and screen time) and challenges (e.g. privacy and participant burden). Novel statistical approaches such as isotemporal substitution modelling and compositional analysis, as well as studies using longitudinal and experimental methodologies, are needed to better understand the health impact of excessive screen time, and to develop strategies to minimise or reverse the negative impacts of these behaviours. The evidence to date suggests a clear need for policy aimed at minimising the hazardous health consequences associated with screen time among children and youth.

  9. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset

  10. Health Promotion and Complementary Medicine: The Extent and Future of Professional Collaboration and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Faith

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the professional interface between health promotion (HP) and complementary and alternative medicine. Design/methodology/approach: A discussion paper, based on qualitative research involving in-depth interviews with 52 participants from either side of the interface. Findings: The current interface is predominantly limited to…

  11. Partnerships and Collaborations in Promoting Health and Wellness in Minority Communities: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.

    2014-01-01

    Oppression in its many forms is so ingrained in the fabric of the legal, social, economic, educational, political, and medical systems in America that it often goes unrecognized and unaddressed. The chapters in this volume explored the evasive problem of health and wellness for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities within a framework of adult…

  12. Arsenic and Environmental Health: State of the Science and Future Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to inorganic and organic arsenic compounds is a major public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer and noncancer effects in nearly every organ in the body, and evidence is mounting ...

  13. A brief history of soils and human health work and needs for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that human health is tied to the soil is not a new one. As far back as circa 1400 B.C. the Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people. In 400 B.C. the Greek philosopher Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered ...

  14. The future of the public's health in the 21st century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public in the 21st Century; Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    The anthrax incidents following the 9/11 terrorist attacks put the spotlight on the nation’s public health agencies, placing it under an unprecedented scrutiny that added new dimensions to the complex issues considered in this report...

  15. The compatibility of future doctors' career intentions with changing health care demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Offenbeek, M.A.G.; Kiewiet, D.J.; Oosterhuis, M.

    Background: In the Netherlands the medical education system is in the process of being transformed to establish a more demand-oriented health care system. This transformation may entail the occupational restructuring of the medical profession. Meanwhile, on the supply side, the career intentions of

  16. Predicting the role of veterinary medicine in future health and food safety challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzić, N.; Šerić-Haračić, S.

    2017-09-01

    Animals have always been a source of food, materials, protection and wellbeing for humans; however, animal diseases, including zoonoses, have both direct and indirect negative effects on human health, economy and the society. Since its establishment, the veterinary profession has provided crucial input in eradicating disease, increasing animal production and reducing losses due to diseases. Currently, foodborne diseases and zoonoses have raised awareness in developed countries, which have excellent systems for disease surveillance and reporting both in humans and animal populations. Due to lack of modern, integrated surveillance and reporting, the burden of zoonoses and foodborne diseases in developing European countries is much harder to assess. Differences in countries’ animal health status (demonstrated through disease surveillance) have been a main pivot point for international trade of animals and animal products. However, rapid and dramatic evolvement of the health trends in the world changed the principles of animal disease surveillance. Approaches requiring lower cost (i.e. risk-based surveillance) are now proposed, not only due to less available public funding, but also because the costs are harder to justify to policy makers if a disease is exotic and/or rare. Therefore, the veterinary profession has faced insufficient interest of governments and funds for further research into many persistent endemic animal diseases and zoonoses. On the other hand, eradication of selected diseases in some areas while elsewhere they still persist, and the continuous emergence of new diseases, cannot guarantee permanent epidemiological stability. As food safety and security become more important, global trends and events have highlighted the biological, health and economic inseparability of the relationships between humans, animals as pets and/or food sources and wildlife within the social and ecological framework of living space that these species share. Veterinarians

  17. Human health impacts in the life cycle of future European electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treyer, Karin; Bauer, Christian; Simons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based quantification of the potential human health impacts (HHI) of base-load power generation technologies for the year 2030. Cumulative Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced are shown in order to provide the basis for comparison with existing literature. Minimising negative impacts on human health is one of the key elements of policy making towards sustainable development: besides their direct impacts on quality of life, HHI also trigger other impacts, e.g. external costs in the health care system. These HHI are measured using the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods “ReCiPe” with its three different perspectives and “IMPACT2002+”. Total HHI as well as the shares of the contributing damage categories vary largely between these perspectives and methods. Impacts due to climate change, human toxicity, and particulate matter formation are the main contributors to total HHI. Independently of the perspective chosen, the overall impacts on human health from nuclear power and renewables are substantially lower than those caused by coal power, while natural gas can have lower HHI than nuclear and some renewables. Fossil fuel combustion as well as coal, uranium and metal mining are the life cycle stages generating the highest HHI. - Highlights: • Life cycle human health impacts (HHI) due to electricity production are analysed. • Results are shown for the three ReCiPe perspectives and IMPACT2002+LCIA method. • Total HHI of nuclear and renewables are much below those of fossil technologies. • Climate change and human toxicity contribute most to total HHI. • Fossil fuel combustion and coal mining are the most polluting life cycle stages

  18. [Interdisciplinary healthcare centres--a way of organising healthcare in the future from a health insurer's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecke, Torsten L; Hoyer, Jens Martin

    2009-01-01

    The German healthcare system modernization act enables healthcare providers to fund interdisciplinary healthcare centres. The Techniker Krankenkasse (TK) is a statutory health sickness fund that has contracted with some of the interdisciplinary healthcare centres named ATRIO-MED to achieve high-quality medical care and healthcare management. A range of patient-centred services is described in the cooperation agreement; in addition to central medical patient records one of the core competencies includes integrated pathways for defined diagnosis. The concept of the interdisciplinary healthcare centre is highly accepted among patients. It will serve as a platform for future TK healthcare policies.

  19. Study design, objectives, hypotheses, main findings, health consequences for the population exposed, rationale of future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trnovec, T.; Kocan, A. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Bencko, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Berg, M. van den [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosics (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    In Slovakia, the Chemko Chemical Company, based in Strazske, in the Michalovce district, produced PCBs between 1959 and 1984, in the amount of more than 21,000 tons of commercial mixtures (Delor 103, 104, 105, 106, Delotherm DK and DH, Hydelor 137). PCBs were used for similar industrial purposes as in the west. Improper disposal from the Chemko plant via release of effluent directly into the Laborec River resulted in long-term contamination of sediment. As a result eastern Slovakia, the Michalovce district in particular, is recognized as one of the areas all over the world most heavily polluted with PCBs. Historical studies show that blood and adipose PCB levels were higher in Czechoslovakia than elsewhere in the 1970's and 1980's. Current data indicate that persons who eat locally raised food - pork, beef, poultry, eggs - in this district have elevated serum concentrations of PCBs. Environmental exposure to organochlorines in the Michalovce district indicate association with higher rates of certain cancers, but an inverse association with risk of breast cancer. An increased prevalence of thyroid disorders in the polluted area was also reported. This ''experimental setting in nature'' has attracted international scientific teams and two projects in the area are ongoing: Evaluating Human Health Risk from Low-dose and Long-term PCB Exposure, 5{sup th} FP Project QLK4-2000-00488, 2001- 2004; PCBRISK (http://www.pcbrisk.sk/) and Early Childhood Development and PCB Exposures in Slovakia, NCI/NIH, R01-CA96525 University of California, Davis, USA. This paper is serving as an introduction to papers of a session reporting on various health outcomes associated with PCB exposure. The objectives of the PCBRISK project were targeted at an evaluation of the human health risks of low-dose and long-term exposure to a group of persistent organochlorine pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites, organochlorine

  20. Urban heat stress: novel survey suggests health and fitness as future avenue for research and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christian; Honold, Jasmin; Lauf, Steffen; Lakes, Tobia

    2017-04-01

    Extreme heat has tremendous adverse effects on human health. Heat stress is expected to further increase due to urbanization, an aging population, and global warming. Previous research has identified correlations between extreme heat and mortality. However, the underlying physical, behavioral, environmental, and social risk factors remain largely unknown and comprehensive quantitative investigation on an individual level is lacking. We conducted a new cross-sectional household questionnaire survey to analyze individual heat impairment (self-assessed and reported symptoms) and a large set of potential risk factors in the city of Berlin, Germany. This unique dataset (n = 474) allows for the investigation of new relationships, especially between health/fitness and urban heat stress. Our analysis found previously undocumented associations, leading us to generate new hypotheses for future research: various health/fitness variables returned the strongest associations with individual heat stress. Our primary hypothesis is that age, the most commonly used risk factor, is outperformed by health/fitness as a dominant risk factor. Related variables seem to more accurately represent humans’ cardiovascular capacity to handle elevated temperature. Among them, active travel was associated with reduced heat stress. We observed statistical associations for heat exposure regarding the individual living space but not for the neighborhood environment. Heat stress research should further investigate individual risk factors of heat stress using quantitative methodologies. It should focus more on health and fitness and systematically explore their role in adaptation strategies. The potential of health and fitness to reduce urban heat stress risk means that encouraging active travel could be an effective adaptation strategy. Through reduced CO2 emissions from urban transport, societies could reap double rewards by addressing two root causes of urban heat stress: population health and

  1. Back to the future? Lessons on the pro-competitive regulation of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirton, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 can be seen as a 'paradigm-oriented' policy transfer of the model of utilities regulation in the UK. This article draws on the literature on infrastructure regulation in order to analyse this transfer. Taking a long view on attempts to introduce competition into health services in England, it points to a number of challenges of liberalisation, corresponding to those arising in infrastructure sectors. Using a framework drawn from utilities, it analyses these under the headings of: (a) market structure; (b) allocation of regulatory authority; and (c) decision-making style. It suggests that the lens of utilities regulation is a useful one for analysing the NHS reforms, and clearly shows the difficulty in establishing workable competition in the sector. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Future Challenges to Protecting Public Health from Drinking-Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eileen A.; Post, Gloria B.; Buckley, Brian T.; Lippincott, Robert L.; Robson, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation. PMID:22224887

  3. Building Evidence for Health: Green Buildings, Current Science, and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño-Laurent, J G; Williams, A; MacNaughton, P; Cao, X; Eitland, E; Spengler, J; Allen, J

    2018-04-01

    Civilizational challenges have questioned the status quo of energy and material consumption by humans. From the built environment perspective, a response to these challenges was the creation of green buildings. Although the revolutionary capacity of the green building movement has elevated the expectations of new commercial construction, its rate of implementation has secluded the majority of the population from its benefits. Beyond reductions in energy usage and increases in market value, the main strength of green buildings may be the procurement of healthier building environments. Further pursuing the right to healthy indoor environments could help the green building movement to attain its full potential as a transformational public health tool. On the basis of 40 years of research on indoor environmental quality, we present a summary of nine environment elements that are foundational to human health. We posit the role of green buildings as a critical research platform within a novel sustainability framework based on social-environmental capital assets.

  4. Round Six Of Partners Investing In Nursing's Future: Implications For The Health Sector, Policy Makers, And Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Paul S; Reinhardt, Renee J; Ladden, Maryjoan D; Salmon, Marla E

    2015-07-01

    In its 2011 report on the future of nursing, the Institute of Medicine issued recommendations to position nursing to meet the challenges of twenty-first-century health care. Following release of the report, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded eleven local and regional partnerships of nurses, foundations, and other stakeholders to begin implementing some of the recommendations in their regions. A qualitative evaluation of these partnerships found that although not all goals were met, most of the partnerships achieved meaningful gains. Partnership participants emphasized the value of engaging foundations and other stakeholders from outside nursing in the implementation process, the necessity of funding for implementation, the need for policy makers to address constraints that local and regional partnerships by themselves cannot address, and the unique leadership and convening role that local and regional foundations can play to help their regions respond to complex challenges for the nursing profession. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Chapman, Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  6. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels Jeffrey I.,Chapman Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  7. Toxicology of metals and metalloids: Promising issues for future studies in environmental health and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The function and behavior of chemical elements in ecosystems and in human health probably comprise one of the most studied issues and a theme of great interest and fascination in science. Hot topics are emerging on an annual basis in this field. Bearing this in mind, some promising themes to explore in the field of metals and metalloids in the environment and in toxicology are highlighted and briefly discussed herein.

  8. [Environment and health in Gela (Sicily): present knowledge and prospects for future studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musmeci, Loredana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Carere, Mario; Cori, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    The study area includes the Municipalities of Gela, Niscemi and Butera located in the South of Sicily, Italy. In 1990 it was declared Area at High Risk of Environmental Crisis. In 2000 part of it was designated as Gela Reclamation Site of National Interest, RSNI. The site includes a private industrial area, public and marine areas, for a total of 51 km(2). Gela populationin 2008 was 77,145 (54,774 in 1961). Sea level:46 m. Total area: 276 km(2). Grid reference: 37 degrees 4' 0" N, 14 degrees 15' 0" E. Niscemi and Butera are located border to Gela. Populations are respectively 26,541 and 5,063. Sea level respectively: 332 m and 402 m. Close to the city of Gela, the industrial area, operating since 1962, includes chemical production plants, a power station and an oil refinery plant, one of the larger in Europe, refining 5 millions tons of crude per year. From the beginning the workforces decreased from 7,000 to the current 3,000 units. Over the years, these industrial activities have been a major source of environmental pollution. Extremely high levels of toxic, persistent and bio-accumulating chemical pollutants have been documented. Many relevant environmental and health data are available. Prior to the studies described in the present publication, their use in order to identify environmental pressures on health has been limited. Nevertheless, since several years different epidemiological studies have provided evidence of the occurrence of health outcomes significantly higher than in neighbouring areas and compared to regional data. In 2007 a Multidisciplinary Working Group has been established, to analyze the existing data on pollution-exposure-effect and to complete current knowledge on the cycle of pollutants, from migration in the environment to health impact. The present publication is a collection of contribution of this group of experts, supported by the following projects: Evaluation of environmental health impact and estimation of economic costs at of

  9. Integrated protection model: ISO 45001 as a future of safety and health standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the increase in awareness of the importance of human resources and their contribution to the value of the organization, there is a growing awareness of the need for their management. The fact that modern society prescribes by the law that organizations must identify dangers and hazards, risk level that may arise, as well as their management and implementation of consistent measures to reduce their impact, shows the importance that is attributed to this issue. For the effective implementation of laws in the field of health and safety at work and other necessary protective measures, there has been a need for a systematic approach to management in this area. Systematic approach to management in the field of health and safety at work ensures the implementation of all measures necessary for the safe operation thus protecting both employees and organization. This systematic approach is reflected in the current standard OHSAS 18001, which aims to establish control over the risks that carry harmful potentials, and thus ensuring the continuity of operation of the organization. The focus of the scientific community which is actively working on improving the existing standards in the field of safety and health of employees is focused on the upcoming standard that will replace OHSAS 18001. The upcoming standard places a greater emphasis on the risk management and the ongoing assessment of risks and opportunities to prevent or reduce side effects. The innovations in this standard are reflected in the strengthening of the role of top management and top management as well as in the context of the 'organization' itself. ISO 45001 provides for active participation of management in all processes of health and safety at work and tends to reduce the usage of process of delegated responsibility to one manager, while, on the other hand, the organization looks at the broader, i.e., the requirements of the wider community are taken into account.

  10. Health Issues in Medical Students: How We Need To Take Care of Our Future Generation Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apichat Sinthubua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical profession is one of the most coveted professions in the society. During the medical course, individuals are subjected to much stress and hardships. Many fail to cope up and quit the course or even land up in substance abuse. A major cause of concern is the health of any medico. On few occasion the disease may be imaginative in nature whereas at other times it may be actually present. There is a need to differentiate between two. At many occasions, there are illnesses which are a cause of worry for both parents and administration. The health of every single budding doctor is important as entrance to medical course is an intellectual superior individual it incurs heavy expenses on the part of the administration and we cannot afford to compromise on such a potential asset to the society. We performed an extensive search of literature such as Pubmed, Scopus and Google for obtaining necessary articles for this short narrative mini review. Search terms included: “medical”, students”, “illnesses”, disease.” The present review is first of its kind which aims to discuss the medical illness and various diseases affecting the medicos during their professional career. The results of the review may help in better planning in terms of taking care of the health of medical students

  11. Applied epidemiology and public health: are we training the future generations appropriately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Ross C; Samet, Jonathan M; Bensyl, Diana M

    2017-02-01

    To extend the reach and relevance of epidemiology for public health practice, the science needs be broadened beyond etiologic research, to link more strongly with emerging technologies and to acknowledge key societal transformations. This new focus for epidemiology and its implications for epidemiologic training can be considered in the context of macro trends affecting society, including a greater focus on upstream causes of disease, shifting demographics, the Affordable Care Act and health care system reform, globalization, changing health communication environment, growing centrality of team and transdisciplinary science, emergence of translational sciences, greater focus on accountability, big data, informatics, high-throughput technologies ("omics"), privacy changes, and the evolving funding environment. This commentary describes existing approaches to and competencies for training in epidemiology, maps macro trends with competencies, highlights an example of competency-based education in the Epidemic Intelligence Service of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and suggests expanded and more dynamic training approaches. A reexamination of current approaches to epidemiologic training is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The growing epidemic of water pipe smoking: health effects and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Fakhreddine, Hisham M; Kanj, Amjad N; Kanj, Nadim A

    2014-09-01

    Water pipe smoking (WPS), an old method of tobacco smoking, is re-gaining widespread popularity all over the world and among various populations. Smoking machine studies have shown that the water pipe (WP) mainstream smoke (MSS) contains a wide array of chemical substances, many of which are highly toxic and carcinogenic for humans. The concentrations of some substances exceed those present in MSS of cigarettes. Despite being of low grade, current evidence indicates that WPS is associated with different adverse health effects, not only on the respiratory system but also on the cardiovascular, hematological, and reproductive systems, including pregnancy outcomes. In addition, association between WPS and malignancies, such as lung, oral and nasopharyngeal cancer, has been suggested in different studies and systematic reviews. Despite its long standing history, WPS research still harbors a lot of deficiencies. The magnitude of toxicants and carcinogen exposures, effects on human health, as well as the addiction and dependence potentials associated with WPS need to be studied in well-designed prospective trials. Unfortunately, many of the tobacco control and clean indoor policies have exempted water pipes. World wide awareness among the public, smokers, and policymakers about the potential health effects of WPS is urgently required. Furthermore, stringent policies and laws that control and ban WPS in public places, similar to those applied on cigarettes smoking need to be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The radioactive risk - the future of radionuclides in the environment and their impacts on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This document contains a brief presentation and the table of contents of a book in which the author proposes a large synthesis of present knowledge on main radioactive pollutants (uranium, transuranic elements, caesium, strontium, iodine, tritium, carbon radioactive isotopes, and so on), their behaviour and their future in the various physical components of the environment and living organisms (including mankind). He presents the fundamentals of nuclear physics and chemistry, as well as their applications in different fields (military, energy, medicine, industry, etc.). He also addresses the important ecological and genetic notions, and recalls the anthropogenic origins of radionuclides in the environment: principles of radio-ecology, main radioactive risks, main drawbacks of the use of nuclear energy (wastes and their management), and nuclear accidents and their impact

  14. Maternal, newborn and child health needs, opportunities and preferred futures in Arusha and Ngorongoro: hearing women's voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucka, Pammla; Bassendowski, Sandra; Dietrich-Leurer, Marie; Spence-Gress, Cara; Athuman, Zenath; Buza, Joram

    2015-12-12

    With the approaching sunset on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Tanzania continues with its final national push towards achievement of MDG #4 and MDG #5. The Mama Kwanza Socio-economic Health Initiative (MKSHI) was introduced in the hope of contributing to improving maternal, newborn, and child health in Arusha and Ngorongoro. The MKSHI project is a holistic, inter-sectoral approach to maternal, newborn, and child health which aligns with the Government of Tanzania's Vision 2025. At the project onset, a baseline assessment was conducted to launch ongoing benchmarking, monitoring, and evaluation of the project's impacts and implications. The aim of this baseline assessment was twofold. First it was to determine the state of maternal, newborn, and child health in the two project sites. Second it was to ensure that a baseline of key indicators was established as well as identification of unique indicators relevant to the populations of interest. The baseline study was a mixed methods approach to identify maternal, newborn, and child risk factors and indicators in the two target sites. This paper focuses on the qualitative methods and findings. The qualitative component included a series of five community dialogue meetings and thirty-seven individual/dyad interviews with women, providers, and stakeholders. Initially, community meetings were held as open dialogues on maternal, newborn, and child health issues, opportunities, and preferred futures. Individual/dyad interviews were held with women, providers, and stakeholders who held unique information or experiences. Both community dialogue and interview data was analysed for themes and guiding or critical comments. Three over-arching findings emerged: What took you so long to come? How do we know what you know? and How will it change for our daughters? Participant voices are vital in ensuring the achievement of local and global efforts and preferred futures for maternal, newborn, and child health services. This

  15. Future scope of health care from art of healing to art of QOL; Health care no mirai kozu - iyashi no waza kara sokoku e -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Y. [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-07-05

    The all-inclusive health care is defined as a creation of good times, its 4 aspects, namely science and technology, socio-economics, ethics and service business are considered and the necessity of creating a feedforward type anticipative health system of future for a society of advanced age of the nation instead of the present feedback type medical treatment system relied upon the art of healing is described. And the current medical treatment which centers on the diagnosis of high technology is criticized by advocating a medical paradigm consisting of 6 steps from the precaution of zero order to that of infinite order aiming at prevention from worsening of the quality of life in which the health, precaution, medical treatment and welfare are unified. Then, it is explained that the medical treatment and welfare field is a growing industry that provides an employment of 3.48 to 4.80 millions with a market scale of 3.8 to 9.1 billions. Lastly, a health care park for the entire society, I.e. a daily sustained self-care field at home as well as at working place not merely limited in medical facilities is conceived and an idea of safeguarding the earth and the health of human beings through edutainment (education + entertainment) is proposed. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Chiropractic intern attitudes, beliefs, and future practice intentions with regard to health promotion, wellness, and preventive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Stephen; Morehouse-Grand, Kenice; Carter, Shane

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of a group of chiropractic interns concerning health promotion, wellness, and preventive services before and after a series of brief educational interventions. Interns completed a survey before (n = 37) and after (n = 22) the interventions. The survey included 12 Likert scale questions about attitudes and intentions toward wellness and health promotion models. The interventions consisted of classroom lectures, clinical training, and online information pertaining to health promotion and wellness. The interns initially favored wellness models, perceived a need for them, and felt partially prepared to administer them, with mean Likert scores 4 or greater on a 1 to 5 scale. Afterward, the average scores were higher and the interns reported some benefit from this short course of training. The initial survey demonstrated that interns had some understanding of wellness, health promotion, and preventive services, and favored utilization of these services. The follow-up survey suggested that a short educational intervention could have a positive impact on these attitudes and future utilization of wellness procedures in their practices.

  17. Increasing prevalence of macrosomia in Flanders, Belgium: an indicator of population health and a burden for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyselaers, W.; Martens, G.

    2012-01-01

    Macrosomia, defined as birth weight > 4 kg, increased in Flanders from 7.3% (4899/67143) in 1991 to 8.63% (6034/69924) in 2010 (p  25 kg/m²), and 12% are obese (BMI > 30 kg/m²). From these data, rate and increase of macrosomia can be considered indirect indicators of general public health. Next to the risks for obstetrical complications, neonates > 4 kg are at risk for development of adult obesity and type 2 diabetes with related diseases, such as hypertension and metabolic syndrome. As adults, they also tend to deliver macrosomic baby’s themselves. As such, macrosomia at birth is a burden for a community’s future health status, health care and related costs. Prenatal health care workers should be aware of the relevance to prevent macrosomia in the first generation by implementing guidelines on nutrition, physical activity and appropriate weight gain into routine preconceptional and prenatal care, screening for gestational diabetes with strict monitoring of blood sugar levels in affected individuals, and promotion of breastfeeding. PMID:24753901

  18. The Future Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Europe: A Claim for Public Health Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethgen, O; Beaudart, C; Buckinx, F; Bruyère, O; Reginster, J Y

    2017-03-01

    Sarcopenia is a major public health issue. To convince health policy makers of the emergency to invest in the sarcopenia field, it is of critical importance to produce reliable figures of the expected burden of sarcopenia in the coming years. Age- and gender-specific population projections were retrieved until 2045 from the Eurostat online database (28 European countries). Age- and gender-specific prevalences of sarcopenia were interpolated from a study that compared prevalence estimates according to the different diagnostic cutoffs of the EWGSOP proposed definition. The reported prevalence estimates were interpolated between 65 and 100 years. Interpolated age- and gender-specific estimates of sarcopenia prevalence were then applied to population projections until 2045. Using the definition providing the lowest prevalence estimates, the number of individuals with sarcopenia would rise in Europe from 10,869,527 in 2016 to 18,735,173 in 2045 (a 72.4% increase). This corresponds to an overall prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly rising from 11.1% in 2016 to 12.9% in 2045. With the definition providing the highest prevalence estimates, the number of individuals with sarcopenia would rise from 19,740,527 in 2016 to 32,338,990 in 2045 (a 63.8% increase), corresponding to overall prevalence rates in the elderly of 20.2% and 22.3% for 2016 and 2045, respectively. We showed that the number of sarcopenic patients will dramatically increase in the next 30 years, making consequences of muscle wasting a major public health issue.

  19. Intellectual disability health content within nursing curriculum: An audit of what our future nurses are taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Eagleson, Claire; Turner, Beth; Salomon, Carmela; Cashin, Andrew; Iacono, Teresa; Goddard, Linda; Lennox, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability experience chronic and complex health issues, but face considerable barriers to healthcare. One such barrier is inadequate education of healthcare professionals. To establish the quantity and nature of intellectual disability content offered within Australian nursing degree curricula. A two-phase national audit of nursing curriculum content was conducted using an interview and online survey. Australian nursing schools offering pre-registration courses. Pre-registration course coordinators from 31 universities completed the Phase 1 interview on course structure. Unit coordinators and teaching staff from 15 universities in which intellectual disability content was identified completed the Phase 2 online survey. Quantity of compulsory and elective intellectual disability content offered (units and teaching time) and the nature of the content (broad categories, specific topics, and inclusive teaching) were audited using an online survey. Over half (52%) of the schools offered no intellectual disability content. For units of study that contained some auditable intellectual disability content, the area was taught on average for 3.6h per unit of study. Units were evenly distributed across the three years of study. Just three participating schools offered 50% of all units audited. Clinical assessment skills, and ethics and legal issues were most frequently taught, while human rights issues and preventative health were poorly represented. Only one nursing school involved a person with intellectual disability in content development or delivery. Despite significant unmet health needs of people with intellectual disability, there is considerable variability in the teaching of key intellectual disability content, with many gaps evident. Equipping nursing students with skills in this area is vital to building workforce capacity. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health technology assessment and its role in the future development of the Indian healthcare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Hass

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public expenditure on healthcare in India is low by international comparison, and access to essential treatment pushes many uninsured citizens below the poverty line. In many countries, policymakers utilize health technology assessment (HTA methodologies to direct investments in healthcare, to obtain the maximum benefit for the population as a whole. With rising incomes and a commitment from the Government of India to increase the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health, this is an opportune moment to consider how HTA might help to allocate healthcare spending in India, in an equitable and efficient manner. Despite the predominance of out-of-pocket payments in the Indian healthcare sector, payers of all types are increasingly demanding value for money from expenditure on healthcare. In this review we demonstrate how HTA can be used to inform several aspects of healthcare provision. Areas in which HTA could be applied in the Indian context include, drug pricing, development of clinical practice guidelines, and prioritizing interventions that represent the greatest value within a limited budget. To illustrate the potential benefits of using the HTA approach, we present an example from a mature HTA market (Canada that demonstrates how a new treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation - although more expensive than the current standard of care - improves clinical outcomes and represents a cost-effective use of public health resources. If aligned with the prevailing cultural and ethical considerations, and with the necessary investment in expert staff and resources, HTA promises to be a valuable tool for development of the Indian healthcare sector.

  1. Health technology assessment and its role in the future development of the Indian healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Bastian; Pooley, Jayne; Feuring, Martin; Suvarna, Viraj; Harrington, Adrian E

    2012-04-01

    Public expenditure on healthcare in India is low by international comparison, and access to essential treatment pushes many uninsured citizens below the poverty line. In many countries, policymakers utilize health technology assessment (HTA) methodologies to direct investments in healthcare, to obtain the maximum benefit for the population as a whole. With rising incomes and a commitment from the Government of India to increase the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health, this is an opportune moment to consider how HTA might help to allocate healthcare spending in India, in an equitable and efficient manner. Despite the predominance of out-of-pocket payments in the Indian healthcare sector, payers of all types are increasingly demanding value for money from expenditure on healthcare. In this review we demonstrate how HTA can be used to inform several aspects of healthcare provision. Areas in which HTA could be applied in the Indian context include, drug pricing, development of clinical practice guidelines, and prioritizing interventions that represent the greatest value within a limited budget. To illustrate the potential benefits of using the HTA approach, we present an example from a mature HTA market (Canada) that demonstrates how a new treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation - although more expensive than the current standard of care - improves clinical outcomes and represents a cost-effective use of public health resources. If aligned with the prevailing cultural and ethical considerations, and with the necessary investment in expert staff and resources, HTA promises to be a valuable tool for development of the Indian healthcare sector.

  2. Design and Development of Intelligent Electrodes for Future Digital Health Monitoring: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, A. M.; Azir, K. N. F. Ku; Kan, P. Eh

    2018-03-01

    Electrodes are sensors used in electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring system to diagnose heart diseases. Over the years, diverse types of electrodes have been designed and developed to improve ECG monitoring system. However, more recently, with the technological advances and capabilities from the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing and data analytics in personalized healthcare, researchers are attempting to design and develop more effective as well as flexible ECG devices by using intelligent electrodes. This paper reviews previous works on electrodes used in electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring devices to identify the key ftures for designing and developing intelligent electrodes in digital health monitoring devices.

  3. A discussion: the future role of homeopathy in the National Health Service (NHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel Yu-Hin

    2011-07-01

    Homeopathy has been provided by the National Health Service in the UK for over 60 years, funded largely by taxpayer's money. However, in recent years, its provision has come under much criticism questioning its true value. Taking a neutral stance, arguments both for and against the provision of homeopathy on the NHS is presented. It includes issues such as the evidence and safety profile of homeopathy, but also takes into account costs and benefits of homeopathy in a wider perspective. Overall, the provision of homeopathy is justified as long as there is a need within the population, occupying a complementary role alongside conventional medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The current and future organisational structure of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo León, F; Ruiz Mercader, J; Sabater Sánchez, R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Crespo Azofra, L

    2003-12-01

    The authors analyse the organisational structure of the OIE (World organisation for animal health), highlighting the roles of the Central Bureau, the Specialist Commissions, Regional Commissions, working groups and ad hoc groups, Regional Representations, Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres. The paper also includes some suggestions as to how the OIE could work more closely with its 'customers', that is, the Member Countries. These suggestions are based on current theories of organisational flexibility, and take into account not only the current organisational structure of the OIE, but also the Strategic Plan and the Working Plan, which were adopted at the 69th General Session of the OIE International Committee in 2001.

  5. Enhancing diversity in the public health research workforce: the research and mentorship program for future HIV vaccine scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Carrie J; Adamson, Blythe Jane S; Andrasik, Michele P; Flood, Danna M; Wakefield, Steven F; Stoff, David M; Cook, Ryan S; Kublin, James G; Fuchs, Jonathan D

    2015-04-01

    We developed and evaluated a novel National Institutes of Health-sponsored Research and Mentorship Program for African American and Hispanic medical students embedded within the international, multisite HIV Vaccine Trials Network, and explored its impact on scientific knowledge, acquired skills, and future career plans. Scholars conducted social, behavioral, clinical, or laboratory-based research projects with HIV Vaccine Trials Network investigators over 8 to 16 weeks (track 1) or 9 to 12 months (track 2). We conducted an in-depth, mixed-methods evaluation of the first 2 cohorts (2011-2013) to identify program strengths, areas for improvement, and influence on professional development. A pre-post program assessment demonstrated increases in self-reported knowledge, professional skills, and interest in future HIV vaccine research. During in-depth interviews, scholars reported that a supportive, centrally administered program; available funding; and highly involved mentors and staff were keys to the program's early success. A multicomponent, mentored research experience that engages medical students from underrepresented communities and is organized within a clinical trials network may expand the pool of diverse public health scientists. Efforts to sustain scholar interest over time and track career trajectories are warranted.

  6. Air temperature-related human health outcomes: current impact and estimations of future risks in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Moriondo, Marco; Profili, Francesco; Francesconi, Paolo; Trombi, Giacomo; Bindi, Marco; Gensini, Gian Franco; Orlandini, Simone

    2012-12-15

    The association between air temperature and human health is described in detail in a large amount of literature. However, scientific publications estimating how climate change will affect the population's health are much less extensive. In this study current evaluations and future predictions of the impact of temperature on human health in different geographical areas have been carried out. Non-accidental mortality and hospitalizations, and daily average air temperatures have been obtained for the 1999-2008 period for the ten main cities in Tuscany (Central Italy). High-resolution city-specific climatologic A1B scenarios centered on 2020 and 2040 have been assessed. Generalized additive and distributed lag models have been used to identify the relationships between temperature and health outcomes stratified by age: general adults (impact (over a lag-period of 30 days) of the effects of cold and especially heat, was mainly significant for mortality in the very elderly, with a higher impact on coastal plain than inland cities: 1 °C decrease/increase in temperature below/above the threshold was associated with a 2.27% (95% CI: 0.17-4.93) and 15.97% (95% CI: 7.43-24.51) change in mortality respectively in the coastal plain cities. A slight unexpected increase in short-term cold-related mortality in the very elderly, with respect to the baseline period, is predicted for the following years in half of the cities considered. Most cities also showed an extensive predicted increase in short-term heat-related mortality and a general increase in the annual temperature-related elderly mortality rate. These findings should encourage efforts to implement adaptation actions conducive to policy-making decisions, especially for planning short- and long-term health intervention strategies and mitigation aimed at preventing and minimizing the consequences of climate change on human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Introduction to proceedings of healthy futures: engaging the oral health community in childhood obesity prevention national conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinanoff, Norman; Holt, Katrina

    2017-06-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has worked to ensure that all children have healthy weights. To promote this goal, the RWJF has supported the Healthy Futures: Engaging the Oral Health Community in Childhood Obesity Prevention National Conference, held on November 3-4, 2016, and the proceeding of this conference. The goals of the conference were to increase understanding of the science focusing on oral health and childhood obesity, increase understanding of how to prevent childhood obesity, and provide opportunities to network and plan activities to prevent childhood obesity. The papers prepared for the conference identified through systematic reviews or scoping reviews the state of the science related to preventing childhood obesity and reducing children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and strategies that oral health professionals and organizations can employ prevent childhood obesity. Causes of childhood obesity are multifactorial and include genetic components, environmental and lifestyle variables, and nutritional factors. Dental caries also is caused by a combination of factors, including cariogenic diet, inadequate fluoride exposure, a susceptible host, and the presence of caries-causing bacteria in the oral cavity. One key risk factors for both obesity and caries is excessive sugar consumption. To reduce the risk of obesity and dental caries in children, health professionals and parents need to be aware of the sugar content of processed foods and beverages as well as of current daily sugar-consumption recommendations. Additionally, oral health professionals must become more engaged in identifying children who are at risk for obesity and dental caries; and provide education, screening and referral to reduce these risks. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  8. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Luba; Fink, Rebecca V; Bozeman, Samuel R; McNeil, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is well aligned with current and projected veterans' health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions. We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans' health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments. We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders. Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios and to plan research investments.

  9. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Katz

    Full Text Available Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA is well aligned with current and projected veterans' health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions.We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans' health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments.We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders.Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios and to plan research

  10. Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers--systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E; Rubin-Smith, Julia E; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age JSTOR, and Sociological Abstracts in February 2012 for all articles on former child soldiers and CAAFAG. Twenty-one quantitative studies from 10 countries were analyzed for author, year of publication, journal, objectives, design, selection population, setting, instruments, prevalence estimates, and associations with war experiences. Opinion pieces, editorials, and qualitative studies were deemed beyond the scope of this study. Quality of evidence was rated according to the systematic assessment of quality in observational research (SAQOR). According to SAQOR criteria, among the available published studies, eight studies were of high quality, four were of moderate quality, and the remaining nine were of low quality. Common limitations were lack of validated mental health measures, unclear methodology including undefined sampling approaches, and failure to report missing data. Only five studies included a comparison group of youth not involved with armed forces/armed groups, and only five studies assessed mental health at more than one point in time. Across studies, a number of risk and protective factors were associated with postconflict psychosocial adjustment and social reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the available literature warrant future study. Recommendations to bolster the evidence base on psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers