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Sample records for fusion synaptic cleft

  1. Hydrodynamic flow in a synaptic cleft during exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneider, M N; Gimatdinov, R S; Skorinkin, A I; Kovyazina, I V; Nikolsky, E E

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that exocytosis in a chemical synapse may be accompanied by "microjet" formation due to the overpressure that exists in the vesicles. This mechanism may take place either at complete fusion of a vesicle with the presynaptic membrane or in the so-called kiss-and-run mode of neurotransmitter release. A simple hydrodynamic model of the viscous incompressible flow arising in the synaptic cleft is suggested. The occurrence of hydrodynamic flow (microjet) leads to more efficient transport of neurotransmitter than in the case of classical diffusive transport.

  2. Monte carlo simulation of vesicular release, spatiotemporal distribution of glutamate in synaptic cleft and generation of postsynaptic currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavinovíc, M I

    1999-02-01

    The release of vesicular glutamate, spatiotemporal changes in glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft and the subsequent generation of fast excitatory postsynaptic currents at a hippocampal synapse were modeled using the Monte Carlo method. It is assumed that glutamate is released from a spherical vesicle through a cylindrical fusion pore into the synaptic cleft and that S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy -5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are uniformly distributed postsynaptically. The time course of change in vesicular concentration can be described by a single exponential, but a slow tail is also observed though only following the release of most of the glutamate. The time constant of decay increases with vesicular size and a lower diffusion constant, and is independent of the initial concentration, becoming markedly shorter for wider fusion pores. The cleft concentration at the fusion pore mouth is not negligible compared to vesicular concentration, especially for wider fusion pores. Lateral equilibration of glutamate is rapid, and within approximately 50 micros all AMPA receptors on average see the same concentration of glutamate. Nevertheless the single-channel current and the number of channels estimated from mean-variance plots are unreliable and different when estimated from rise- and decay-current segments. Greater saturation of AMPA receptor channels provides higher but not more accurate estimates. Two factors contribute to the variability of postsynaptic currents and render the mean-variance nonstationary analysis unreliable, even when all receptors see on average the same glutamate concentration. Firstly, the variability of the instantaneous cleft concentration of glutamate, unlike the mean concentration, first rapidly decreases before slowly increasing; the variability is greater for fewer molecules in the cleft and is spatially nonuniform. Secondly, the efficacy with which glutamate produces a response changes with time. Understanding

  3. Palatoglossal fusion with cleft palate and hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Solanki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new-born male presented within 12 h of birth with respiratory distress. On examination and workup, he had palatoglossal fusion, cleft palate and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. A 2.5 Fr endotracheal tube was inserted into the pharynx through nostril as a nasopharyngeal stent, following which his respiratory distress improved. Once child was optimised, then feeding was started by nasogastric tube and feeds were tolerated well. Elective tracheostomy and gastrostomy were done, followed by release of adhesions between the tongue and palate at a later stage. Review of literature suggests that palatoglossal fusion is uncommon and presents as an emergency. Mostly, these oral synechiae are associated with digital and/or cardiac anomaly. Other disorders associated with intra-oral synechiae include congenital alveolar synechiae, van der Woude syndrome, popliteal pterygium syndrome and oromandibular limb hypogenesis syndrome. The authors report a hitherto undescribed association of palatoglossal fusion with cleft palate and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis.

  4. Additive effects on the energy barrier for synaptic vesicle fusion cause supralinear effects on the vesicle fusion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schotten, Sebastiaan; Meijer, Marieke; Walter, Alexander Matthias

    2015-01-01

    supralinear effects on the fusion rate. To test this prediction experimentally, we developed a method to assess the number of releasable vesicles, rate constants for vesicle priming, unpriming, and fusion, and the activation energy for fusion by fitting a vesicle state model to synaptic responses induced......-linear effects of genetic/pharmacological perturbations on synaptic transmission and a novel interpretation of the cooperative nature of Ca2+-dependent release....

  5. Synaptic Cell Adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Missler, Markus; Südhof, Thomas C.; Biederer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Chemical synapses are asymmetric intercellular junctions that mediate synaptic transmission. Synaptic junctions are organized by trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules bridging the synaptic cleft. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules not only connect pre- and postsynaptic compartments, but also mediate trans-synaptic recognition and signaling processes that are essential for the establishment, specification, and plasticity of synapses. A growing number of synaptic cell adhesion molecules that inc...

  6. The destructive effect of botulinum neurotoxins on the SNARE protein: SNAP-25 and synaptic membrane fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic exocytosis requires the assembly of syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 on the plasma membrane and synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP2 on the vesicular membrane to bridge the two opposite membranes. It is believed that the three SNARE proteins assemble in steps along the dynamic assembly pathway. The C-terminus of SNAP-25 is known to be the target of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A and BoNT/E that block neurotransmitters release in vivo. In this study, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy to investigate the conformation of the SNAP-25 C-terminus in binary and ternary SNARE complexes. The fluorescence lipid mixing assay shows that the C-terminal of SNAP-25 is essential for membrane fusion, and that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants cleaved by BoNT/A and BoNT/E display different inhibition effects on membrane fusion: SNAP-25E (Δ26 abolishes the fusion activity of the SNARE complex, while SNAP-25A (Δ9 loses most of its function, although it can still form a SDS-resistant SNARE complex as the wild-type SNAP-25. CW-EPR spectra validate the unstable structures of the SNARE complex formed by SNAP-25 mutants. We propose that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants will disrupt the assembly of the SNARE core complex, and then inhibit the synaptic membrane fusion accordingly.

  7. L-Type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels Regulate Synaptic-Activity-Triggered Recycling Endosome Fusion in Neuronal Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Hiester

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The repertoire and abundance of proteins displayed on the surface of neuronal dendrites are tuned by regulated fusion of recycling endosomes (REs with the dendritic plasma membrane. While this process is critical for neuronal function and plasticity, how synaptic activity drives RE fusion remains unexplored. We demonstrate a multistep fusion mechanism that requires Ca2+ from distinct sources. NMDA receptor Ca2+ initiates RE fusion with the plasma membrane, while L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (L-VGCCs regulate whether fused REs collapse into the membrane or reform without transferring their cargo to the cell surface. Accordingly, NMDA receptor activation triggered AMPA-type glutamate receptor trafficking to the dendritic surface in an L-VGCC-dependent manner. Conversely, potentiating L-VGCCs enhanced AMPA receptor surface expression only when NMDA receptors were also active. Thus L-VGCCs play a role in tuning activity-triggered surface expression of key synaptic proteins by gating the mode of RE fusion.

  8. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health conditions > Cleft lip and cleft palate Cleft lip and cleft palate E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... repair cleft lip and palate. What are cleft lip and cleft palate? Cleft lip is a birth defect in which ...

  9. LRRK2 phosphorylates pre-synaptic N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion (NSF) protein enhancing its ATPase activity and SNARE complex disassembling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluzzi, Elisa; Gonnelli, Adriano; Cirnaru, Maria-Daniela; Marte, Antonella; Plotegher, Nicoletta; Russo, Isabella; Civiero, Laura; Cogo, Susanna; Carrion, Maria Perèz; Franchin, Cinzia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Onofri, Franco; Piccoli, Giovanni; Greggio, Elisa

    2016-01-13

    Lrrk2, a gene linked to Parkinson's disease, encodes a large scaffolding protein with kinase and GTPase activities implicated in vesicle and cytoskeletal-related processes. At the presynaptic site, LRRK2 associates with synaptic vesicles through interaction with a panel of presynaptic proteins. Here, we show that LRRK2 kinase activity influences the dynamics of synaptic vesicle fusion. We therefore investigated whether LRRK2 phosphorylates component(s) of the exo/endocytosis machinery. We have previously observed that LRRK2 interacts with NSF, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase that couples ATP hydrolysis to the disassembling of SNARE proteins allowing them to enter another fusion cycle during synaptic exocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that NSF is a substrate of LRRK2 kinase activity. LRRK2 phosphorylates full-length NSF at threonine 645 in the ATP binding pocket of D2 domain. Functionally, NSF phosphorylated by LRRK2 displays enhanced ATPase activity and increased rate of SNARE complex disassembling. Substitution of threonine 645 with alanine abrogates LRRK2-mediated increased ATPase activity. Given that the most common Parkinson's disease LRRK2 G2019S mutation displays increased kinase activity, our results suggest that mutant LRRK2 may impair synaptic vesicle dynamics via aberrant phosphorylation of NSF.

  10. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refers to a cleft in the lip only accounting for 20 percent of all clefts. What causes ... malformation of the upper airway can affect the function of the Eustachian tube and increase the possibility ...

  11. The Fetal Cleft palate: V. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Palatal Clefting in the Congenital Caprine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal ingestion of Nicotiana glauca from gestation days 32 through 41 results in a high incidence of cleft palate in Spanish goats. This caprine cleft palate model was used to evaluate the temporal sequence of palatal shelf fusion throughout the period of cleft induction with the poisonous plant...

  12. G protein betagamma-subunits activated by serotonin mediate presynaptic inhibition by regulating vesicle fusion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photowala, Huzefa; Blackmer, Trillium; Schwartz, Eric; Hamm, Heidi E; Alford, Simon

    2006-03-14

    Neurotransmitters are thought to be released as quanta, where synaptic vesicles deliver packets of neurotransmitter to the synaptic cleft by fusion with the plasma membrane. However, synaptic vesicles may undergo incomplete fusion. We provide evidence that G protein-coupled receptors inhibit release by causing such incomplete fusion. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor signaling potently inhibits excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) between lamprey reticulospinal axons and their postsynaptic targets by a direct action on the vesicle fusion machinery. We show that 5-HT receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition, at this synapse, involves a reduction in EPSC quantal size. Quantal size was measured directly by comparing unitary quantal amplitudes of paired EPSCs before and during 5-HT application and indirectly by determining the effect of 5-HT on the relationship between mean-evoked EPSC amplitude and variance. Results from FM dye-labeling experiments indicate that 5-HT prevents full fusion of vesicles. 5-HT reduces FM1-43 staining of vesicles with a similar efficacy to its effect on the EPSC. However, destaining of FM1-43-labeled vesicles is abolished by lower concentrations of 5-HT that leave a substantial EPSC. The use of a water-soluble membrane impermeant quenching agent in the extracellular space reduced FM1-43 fluorescence during stimulation in 5-HT. Thus vesicles contact the extracellular space during inhibition of synaptic transmission by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT, via free Gbetagamma, prevents the collapse of synaptic vesicles into the presynaptic membrane.

  13. Facts about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... can make referrals to cleft/craniofacial treatment teams. Cleft Lip & Palate Foundation of Smiles Cleft Lip & Palate Foundation of ...

  14. Modification of a hydrophobic layer by a point mutation in syntaxin 1A regulates the rate of synaptic vesicle fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Lagow

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Both constitutive secretion and Ca(2+-regulated exocytosis require the assembly of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE complexes. At present, little is known about how the SNARE complexes mediating these two distinct pathways differ in structure. Using the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse as a model, we show that a mutation modifying a hydrophobic layer in syntaxin 1A regulates the rate of vesicle fusion. Syntaxin 1A molecules share a highly conserved threonine in the C-terminal +7 layer near the transmembrane domain. Mutation of this threonine to isoleucine results in a structural change that more closely resembles those found in syntaxins ascribed to the constitutive secretory pathway. Flies carrying the I254 mutant protein have increased levels of SNARE complexes and dramatically enhanced rate of both constitutive and evoked vesicle fusion. In contrast, overexpression of the T254 wild-type protein in neurons reduces vesicle fusion only in the I254 mutant background. These results are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations of the SNARE core complex, suggesting that T254 serves as an internal brake to dampen SNARE zippering and impede vesicle fusion, whereas I254 favors fusion by enhancing intermolecular interaction within the SNARE core complex.

  15. Submucous Clefts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Local Cleft/Craniofacial Specialists Booklets & Factsheets College Scholarships School-Age Support Resources Connections Conference View More… ... for speech problems, middle ear disease, and swallowing difficulties. However, there are some individuals with a submucous ...

  16. `Full fusion' is not ineluctable during vesicular exocytosis of neurotransmitters by endocrine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Alexander; Svir, Irina; Amatore, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Vesicular exocytosis is an essential and ubiquitous process in neurons and endocrine cells by which neurotransmitters are released in synaptic clefts or extracellular fluids. It involves the fusion of a vesicle loaded with chemical messengers with the cell membrane through a nanometric fusion pore. In endocrine cells, unless it closes after some flickering (`Kiss-and-Run' events), this initial pore is supposed to expand exponentially, leading to a full integration of the vesicle membrane into the cell membrane-a stage called `full fusion'. We report here a compact analytical formulation that allows precise measurements of the fusion pore expansion extent and rate to be extracted from individual amperometric spike time courses. These data definitively establish that, during release of catecholamines, fusion pores enlarge at most to approximately one-fifth of the radius of their parent vesicle, hence ruling out the ineluctability of `full fusion'.

  17. Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects that occur when a baby's lip or mouth do not form properly. They happen early during ... A baby can have a cleft lip, a cleft palate, or both. A cleft lip happens if the ...

  18. Agrin and synaptic laminin are required to maintain adult neuromuscular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Samuel

    Full Text Available As synapses form and mature the synaptic partners produce organizing molecules that regulate each other's differentiation and ensure precise apposition of pre- and post-synaptic specializations. At the skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ, these molecules include agrin, a nerve-derived organizer of postsynaptic differentiation, and synaptic laminins, muscle-derived organizers of presynaptic differentiation. Both become concentrated in the synaptic cleft as the NMJ develops and are retained in adulthood. Here, we used mutant mice to ask whether these organizers are also required for synaptic maintenance. Deletion of agrin from a subset of adult motor neurons resulted in the loss of acetylcholine receptors and other components of the postsynaptic apparatus and synaptic cleft. Nerve terminals also atrophied and eventually withdrew from muscle fibers. On the other hand, mice lacking the presynaptic organizer laminin-α4 retained most of the synaptic cleft components but exhibited synaptic alterations reminiscent of those observed in aged animals. Although we detected no marked decrease in laminin or agrin levels at aged NMJs, we observed alterations in the distribution and organization of these synaptic cleft components suggesting that such changes could contribute to age-related synaptic disassembly. Together, these results demonstrate that pre- and post-synaptic organizers actively function to maintain the structure and function of adult NMJs.

  19. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  20. Bilateral optic disc pit with maculopathy in a patient with cleft lip and cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Seth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic disc pit (ODP is small, gray-white, oval depression found at the optic nerve head. It is a congenital defect that occurs due to imperfect closure of superior edge of the embryonic fissure. Cleft lip and palate are also congenital midline abnormalities occurring due to defect in the fusion of frontonasal prominence, maxillary prominence and mandibular prominence. There is only one case report describing the occurrence of ODP in a young patient with cleft lip and palate who also had basal encephalocele. We describe a 52-year-old patient with congenital cleft lip and palate with bilateral ODP with maculopathy but without any other midline abnormality.

  1. Epiphysical clefts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent Harrison, R.; Keats, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    Defects or clefts may be seen in the growing epiphysis and are usually observed just before puberty. The basal epiphysis of the proximal phalanx of the great toe is the most common site but similar defects have been observed in a numer of other epiphyseso At least some of these defects develop within a single normal appearing epiphysis and are not associated with signs or symptoms suggestive of fracture. The mechanism of formation of these defects is not clear. The defects probably close spontaneously some-time around late puberty. (orig.) [de

  2. Two Classes of Secreted Synaptic Organizers in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2018-02-10

    Research in the last two decades has identified many synaptic organizers in the central nervous system that directly regulate the assembly of pre- and/or postsynaptic molecules, such as synaptic vesicles, active zone proteins, and neurotransmitter receptors. They are classified into secreted factors and cell adhesion molecules, such as neurexins and neuroligins. Certain secreted factors are termed extracellular scaffolding proteins (ESPs) because they are components of the synaptic extracellular matrix and serve as a scaffold at the synaptic cleft. These include Lgi1, Cbln1, neuronal pentraxins, Hevin, thrombospondins, and glypicans. Diffusible secreted factors, such as Wnts, fibroblast growth factors, and semaphorins, tend to act from a distance. In contrast, ESPs remain at the synaptic cleft and often help synaptic adhesion and/or accumulation of postsynaptic receptors. Many fundamental questions remain about when, how, and why various synaptic organizers establish and modify the vast numbers of connections during development and throughout life.

  3. Nasal Glial Heterotopia with Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Sudhir; Mehta, Milind A; Kulkarni, Abhishek Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  4. Nasal glial heterotopia with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chandna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  5. Cleft palate caused by congenital teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyssière, Alexis; Streit, Libor; Traoré, Hamady; Bénateau, Hervé

    2017-02-01

    A cleft palate results from incomplete fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the median nasal septum and the median palatine process. This case report describes a rare case of congenital teratoma originating from the nasal septum that may have interfered with the fusion of the palatal shelves during embryonic development, resulting in a cleft palate. An infant girl was born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3020 g with a complete cleft palate associated with a large central nasopharyngeal tumour. Computed tomography (CT) of the head showed a well defined mass of mixed density. The tumour was attached to the nasal septum in direct contact with the cleft palate. A biopsy confirmed the teratoma. Tumour resection was performed at 5 months, soft palate reconstruction at 7 months and hard palate closure at 14 months. There was no sign of local recurrence 1 year later. Most teratomas are benign and the prognosis is usually good. However, recurrence is not rare if germ cell carcinomatous foci are present within the teratoma. For these reasons, we advocate the use of a two-stage procedure in which closure of the cleft palate is postponed until histological examination confirms complete excision of the teratoma.

  6. Cleft Palate Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... craniofacial journeys. Read the press release here. American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association 1504 East Franklin Street, Suite 102 ... order bottles Order ACPA publications © Copyright 2017 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. Website by Mixer Creative Follow us ...

  7. Clefting of the Alveolus: Emphasizing the Distinction from Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Nicholas; Sidman, James; Block, William

    2016-05-01

    Oral clefting is one of the most common significant fetal abnormalities. Cleft lip and cleft palate have drastically different clinical ramifications and management from one another. A cleft of the alveolus (with or without cleft lip) can confuse the diagnostic picture and lead to a false assumption of cleft palate. The cleft alveolus should be viewed on the spectrum of cleft lip rather than be associated with cleft palate. This is made evident by understanding the embryological development of the midface and relevant terminology. Cleft alveolus carries significantly different clinical implications and treatment options than that of cleft palate. Accurately distinguishing cleft alveolus from cleft palate is crucial for appropriate discussions regarding the patient's care. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. The Predominance of Electric Transport in Synaptic Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Noori

    2008-01-01

    The quantitative description of the motion of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft appears to be one of the most difficult problems in the modeling of synapses. Here we show in contradiction to the common view, that this process is merely governed by electric transport than diffusion forces.

  9. Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Richard B., Ed.

    Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

  10. Electric Dipole Theory of Chemical Synaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling Y.

    1968-01-01

    In this paper we propose that chemicals such as acetylcholine are electric dipoles which when oriented and arranged in a large array could produce an electric field strong enough to drive positive ions over the junction barrier of the post-synaptic membrane and thus initiate excitation or produce depolarization. This theory is able to explain a great number of facts such as cleft size, synaptic delay, nonregeneration, subthreshold integration, facilitation with repetition, and the calcium and magnesium effects. It also shows why and how acetylcholine could act as excitatory or inhibitory transmitters under different circumstances. Our conclusion is that the nature of synaptic transmission is essentially electrical, be it mediated by electrical or chemical transmitters. PMID:4296121

  11. Unilateral Cleft Hand with Cleft Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Ahmed, Sheikh Mushtaq; Nazir, Abid

    2009-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the hand form an important class of congenital malformations. They have a huge functional importance because of the part played by the hand in the daily activities of a person. The deformities also have significant cosmetic significance and may also be associated with other anomalies. Amongst the congenital anomalies, central deficiency or cleft hand is relatively rare. The association of cleft foot with cleft hand is an even more rare occurance. We present a case report of a 6 year old child, born of a non-consanginous marriage, having congenital central deficiency of ipsilateral hand and foot. PMID:21475543

  12. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  13. Laryngo-tracheo-oesophageal clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leboulanger Nicolas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft (LC is a congenital malformation characterized by an abnormal, posterior, sagittal communication between the larynx and the pharynx, possibly extending downward between the trachea and the esophagus. The estimated annual incidence of LC is 1/10,000 to 1/20,000 live births, accounting for 0.2% to 1.5% of congenital malformations of the larynx. These incidence rates may however be underestimated due to difficulty in diagnosing minor forms and a high mortality rate in severe forms. A slightly higher incidence has been reported in boys than in girls. No specific geographic distribution has been found. Depending on the severity of the malformation, patients may present with stridor, hoarse cry, swallowing difficulties, aspirations, cough, dyspnea and cyanosis through to early respiratory distress. Five types of laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft have been described based on the downward extension of the cleft, which typically correlates with the severity of symptoms: Type 0 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft to Type 4 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft. LC is often associated with other congenital abnormalities/anomalies (16% to 68%, mainly involving the gastro-intestinal tract, which include laryngomalacia, tracheo-bronchial dyskinesia, tracheo-bronchomalacia (mostly in types 3 and 4, and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD. The syndromes most frequently associated with an LC are Opitz/BBB syndrome, Pallister Hall syndrome, VACTERL/VATER association, and CHARGE syndrome. Laryngeal clefts result from failure of fusion of the posterior cricoid lamina and abnormal development of the tracheo-esophageal septum. The causes of the embryological developmental anomalies leading to LC are not known but are thought to be multifactorial. LC appears to be mostly sporadic although some familial cases with suspected autosomal dominant transmission have been reported. The age of diagnosis depends mainly on the severity of

  14. Laryngo-tracheo-oesophageal clefts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft (LC) is a congenital malformation characterized by an abnormal, posterior, sagittal communication between the larynx and the pharynx, possibly extending downward between the trachea and the esophagus. The estimated annual incidence of LC is 1/10,000 to 1/20,000 live births, accounting for 0.2% to 1.5% of congenital malformations of the larynx. These incidence rates may however be underestimated due to difficulty in diagnosing minor forms and a high mortality rate in severe forms. A slightly higher incidence has been reported in boys than in girls. No specific geographic distribution has been found. Depending on the severity of the malformation, patients may present with stridor, hoarse cry, swallowing difficulties, aspirations, cough, dyspnea and cyanosis through to early respiratory distress. Five types of laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft have been described based on the downward extension of the cleft, which typically correlates with the severity of symptoms: Type 0 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft to Type 4 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft. LC is often associated with other congenital abnormalities/anomalies (16% to 68%), mainly involving the gastro-intestinal tract, which include laryngomalacia, tracheo-bronchial dyskinesia, tracheo-bronchomalacia (mostly in types 3 and 4), and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The syndromes most frequently associated with an LC are Opitz/BBB syndrome, Pallister Hall syndrome, VACTERL/VATER association, and CHARGE syndrome. Laryngeal clefts result from failure of fusion of the posterior cricoid lamina and abnormal development of the tracheo-esophageal septum. The causes of the embryological developmental anomalies leading to LC are not known but are thought to be multifactorial. LC appears to be mostly sporadic although some familial cases with suspected autosomal dominant transmission have been reported. The age of diagnosis depends mainly on the severity of the clinical symptoms and

  15. Mechanisms of glycine release, which build up synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine levels: the role of synaptic and non-synaptic glycine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Matyus, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Glycine is an amino acid neurotransmitter that is involved in both inhibitory and excitatory neurochemical transmission in the central nervous system. The role of glycine in excitatory neurotransmission is related to its coagonist action at glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The glycine levels in the synaptic cleft rise many times higher during synaptic activation assuring that glycine spills over into the extrasynaptic space. Another possible origin of extrasynaptic glycine is the efflux of glycine occurring from astrocytes associated with glutamatergic synapses. The release of glycine from neuronal or glial origins exhibits several differences compared to that of biogenic amines or other amino acid neurotransmitters. These differences appear in an external Ca(2+)- and temperature-dependent manner, conferring unique characteristics on glycine as a neurotransmitter. Glycine transporter type-1 at synapses may exhibit neural and glial forms and plays a role in controlling synaptic glycine levels and the spill over rate of glycine from the synaptic cleft into the extrasynaptic biophase. Non-synaptic glycine transporter type-1 regulates extrasynaptic glycine concentrations, either increasing or decreasing them depending on the reverse or normal mode operation of the carrier molecule. While we can, at best, only estimate synaptic glycine levels at rest and during synaptic activation, glycine concentrations are readily measurable via brain microdialysis technique applied in the extrasynaptic space. The non-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor may obtain glycine for activation following its spill over from highly active synapses or from its release mediated by the reverse operation of non-synaptic glycine transporter-1. The sensitivity of non-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors to glutamate and glycine is many times higher than that of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors making the former type of receptor the primary target for drug action. Synaptic

  16. Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cleft Lip or Cleft Palate Print en español Labio leporino y paladar hendido Tilt your head back a bit and look in the mirror. Do you see the way your nose connects to your upper lip? Now open your mouth. Do you see the ...

  17. Cleft lip and palate repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002979.htm Cleft lip and palate repair To use the sharing features on this ... Cheiloplasty; Cleft rhinoplasty; Palatoplasty; Tip rhinoplasty Patient Instructions Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge Images Cleft lip repair - series References ...

  18. Spontaneous Vesicle Recycling in the Synaptic Bouton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eTruckenbrodt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The trigger for synaptic vesicle exocytosis is Ca2+, which enters the synaptic bouton following action potential stimulation. However, spontaneous release of neurotransmitter also occurs in the absence of stimulation in virtually all synaptic boutons. It has long been thought that this represents exocytosis driven by fluctuations in local Ca2+ levels. The vesicles responding to these fluctuations are thought to be the same ones that release upon stimulation, albeit potentially triggered by different Ca2+ sensors. This view has been challenged by several recent works, which have suggested that spontaneous release is driven by a separate pool of synaptic vesicles. Numerous articles appeared during the last few years in support of each of these hypotheses, and it has been challenging to bring them into accord. We speculate here on the origins of this controversy, and propose a solution that is related to developmental effects. Constitutive membrane traffic, needed for the biogenesis of vesicles and synapses, is responsible for high levels of spontaneous membrane fusion in young neurons, probably independent of Ca2+. The vesicles releasing spontaneously in such neurons are not related to other synaptic vesicle pools and may represent constitutively releasing vesicles (CRVs rather than bona fide synaptic vesicles. In mature neurons, constitutive traffic is much dampened, and the few remaining spontaneous release events probably represent bona fide spontaneously releasing synaptic vesicles (SRSVs responding to Ca2+ fluctuations, along with a handful of CRVs that participate in synaptic vesicle turnover.

  19. Patterns of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate in Northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Khan

    2012-04-01

    Results: A total of 159 patients of cleft lip and cleft palate deformities were included in the study, having a mean age of 3.5+6.59 years and containing 59.1% males and 40.9% females with a ratio of 1.4:1. A cleft lip with palate, cleft palate and cleft lip were found in 51.6%, 31.4% and 17% of cases, respectively. Left-sided clefts were most common in the cleft lip with palate and the isolated cleft lip deformity. A cleft lip with palate was a male dominant variety (62.8% of cases, while in the cleft palate variety, the dominant gender was female. In 61.6% of cases, the parent had a consanguineous relationship. In 21.4% of cases, family history was positive for the cleft lip/palate. Other congenital anomalies were associated in 10.7% of cases. Conclusion: Cleft deformities of the lip and palate affect the male population more than females with cleft lips, in association with a cleft palate being the most common anomaly. Females are mainly affected by an isolated cleft palate. The high prevalence of these deformities in consanguineous marriages emphasizes educating people. The lower number of patients from distant distracts of Northern Pakistan calls for the attention of the health department. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 63-70

  20. Skull thickness in patients with clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, T; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP).......The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP)....

  1. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, Gabby (Texas-MED)

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, formingtrans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft orcis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics.

  2. Cleft Lip and Palate Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery. Cleft Lip / Palate and Craniofacial Surgery This type of surgery is ... the carefully orchestrated, multiple-stage correctional program for cleft lip and palate patients. The goal is to help restore the ...

  3. Hypertelorism and orofacial clefting revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinberg, Seth M.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Since the 1960s, multiple studies have reported a tendency toward hypertelorism in individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs). However, the association between specific cleft types and increased interorbital distance has been inconsistent. Using threedimensional (3D) surface...

  4. Branchial Cleft Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity. PMID:27904209

  5. Branchial cleft cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Nahata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity.

  6. Branchial Cleft Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity.

  7. Tetra-amelia and splenogonadal fusion in Roberts syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravel, T.J.L. de; Seftel, M.D.; Wright, C.A. [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1997-01-20

    Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome comprises limb deficiencies of variable severity, facial clefts, and other anomalies. Tetra-amelia may also be associated with facial clefts and similar anomalies. We report on a female infant with severe tetra-amelia, micrognathia, cleft palate, splenogonadal fusion, and premature centromere separation. We propose that this represents the severe expression of the Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from surgery, coping with speech problems, or improving self-esteem. Some teens join support groups or online forums where they can talk to other people who were born with cleft lip or palate. Reviewed by: Rupal Christine Gupta, MD Date reviewed: ...

  9. Branchial cleft anomalies: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Eul Hye; Park, Chan Sup [College of Medicine, Inha University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the CT findings of a variety of branchial cleft anomalies in the head and neck area. We reviewed the CT findings of 16 patients with neck lesion pathologically proved as branchial cleft anomalies. There were two first and 12 second branchial cleft cysts, one first and one second branchial cleft sinuses. Two cases of first branchial cleft cysts were manifested as thin-walled, cystic masses at auricular area. One first branchial cleft sinus was an external opening type and manifested as an ill-defined, enhancing solid lesion at posterior auricular area. All 12 cases of second branchial cleft cysts demonstrated a typical location, displacing the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly, the carotid artery and internal jugular vein complex medially and the submandibular gland anteriorly. Eight cases of second branchial cleft cysts were seen as fluid-filled, round or ovoid-shaped cysts, and 3 cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped cysts. In one case, suppurative adenopathy with loss of soft tissue planes around the cyst was observed. One case of second branchial cleft sinus was manifested as a tubular-shaped, enhancing lesion at submental area and containing external opening site draining into the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We conclude that CT provides important diagnostic and therapeutic information in patients with a neck mass believed to be a branchial cleft anomaly, as it can differentiate various forms of the branchial anomalies by their characteristic location and shape.

  10. Branchial cleft anomalies: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Eul Hye; Park, Chan Sup

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the CT findings of a variety of branchial cleft anomalies in the head and neck area. We reviewed the CT findings of 16 patients with neck lesion pathologically proved as branchial cleft anomalies. There were two first and 12 second branchial cleft cysts, one first and one second branchial cleft sinuses. Two cases of first branchial cleft cysts were manifested as thin-walled, cystic masses at auricular area. One first branchial cleft sinus was an external opening type and manifested as an ill-defined, enhancing solid lesion at posterior auricular area. All 12 cases of second branchial cleft cysts demonstrated a typical location, displacing the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly, the carotid artery and internal jugular vein complex medially and the submandibular gland anteriorly. Eight cases of second branchial cleft cysts were seen as fluid-filled, round or ovoid-shaped cysts, and 3 cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped cysts. In one case, suppurative adenopathy with loss of soft tissue planes around the cyst was observed. One case of second branchial cleft sinus was manifested as a tubular-shaped, enhancing lesion at submental area and containing external opening site draining into the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We conclude that CT provides important diagnostic and therapeutic information in patients with a neck mass believed to be a branchial cleft anomaly, as it can differentiate various forms of the branchial anomalies by their characteristic location and shape

  11. Psychological issues in cleft lip and cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Avinash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocational and social issues affect rehabilitation and development of patients with cleft lip and cleft palate. However, psychological problems like lowered self esteem and difficulties in social interaction have also been noted in them. Not many pediatric reconstructive surgery teams have a psychiatrist on their panel. It is likely that psychological problems are higher in incidence than literature actually suggests. Hence it is very essential that such cases are identified by the surgical team to maximize positive outcome of surgery and rehabilitation. This study discusses psychological issues revolving around cleft lip and cleft palate along with lacunae in many psychological research studies.

  12. Schizencephaly/congenital cerebral clefts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, H.; Naidich, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Schizencephaly (from the Greek meaning ''split brain''), is a term developed in the 1940s to explain symmetric clefts in the brain seen at autopsy in children with histories of severe neurologic defects. Use of the term has been expanded to include a variety of cerebral clefts. A review of the experience at Children's Memorial Hospital as well as case materials made available to the authors are presented, including CT, MR imaging, and US findings. Theories of etiology and pathogenesis of these congenital clefts, associated anomalies, and the spectrum of appearance of these clefts are discussed

  13. Branchial Cleft Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Neil; Mustard, Robert A.

    1966-01-01

    The embryology, anatomy and pathology of branchial cleft anomalies are discussed and 87 cases reviewed. The most frequent anomaly was branchial cleft cyst, of which there were 77 cases. Treatment in all cases consisted of complete excision. There were five cases of external branchial sinus and five cases of complete branchial fistula. Sinograms were helpful in demonstrating these lesions. Excision presented little difficulty. No proved case of branchiogenic carcinoma has been found in the Toronto General Hospital. Five cases are described in which the original diagnosis was branchiogenic carcinoma—in four of these a primary tumour has already been found. The authors believe that the diagnosis of branchiogenic carcinoma should never be accepted until repeated examinations over a period of at least five years have failed to reveal a primary tumour. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5901161

  14. Branchial Cleft Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which wa...

  15. Clefting in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, F.; Schur, W.

    NASA's effort to develop a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, focuses on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. It has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired stable state instead. Hoop stress considerations in the pumpkin design leads to choosing the lowest possible bulge radius, while robust deployment is favored by a large bulge radius. Some qualitative understanding of design aspects on undesired equilibria in pumpkin balloons has been obtained via small-scale balloon testing. Poorly deploying balloons have clefts, but most gores away from the cleft deploy uniformly. In this paper, we present models for pumpkin balloons with clefts. Long term success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and means for quantitative assessment of measures that prevent their occurrence. This paper attempts to determine numerical thresholds of design parameters that distinguish between properly deploying designs and improperly deploying designs by analytically investigating designs in the vicinity of criticality. Design elements which may trigger the onset undesired equilibria and remedial measures that ensure deployment are discussed.

  16. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  17. Banach Synaptic Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, David J.; Pulmannov, Sylvia

    2018-04-01

    Using a representation theorem of Erik Alfsen, Frederic Schultz, and Erling Størmer for special JB-algebras, we prove that a synaptic algebra is norm complete (i.e., Banach) if and only if it is isomorphic to the self-adjoint part of a Rickart C∗-algebra. Also, we give conditions on a Banach synaptic algebra that are equivalent to the condition that it is isomorphic to the self-adjoint part of an AW∗-algebra. Moreover, we study some relationships between synaptic algebras and so-called generalized Hermitian algebras.

  18. Asyndromic Bilateral Transverse Facial Cleft

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-23

    of this atypical cleft is unknown although the frequency ... on Tuesday, April 23, 2013, IP: 41.132.185.55] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal ... Facial cleft remains a source of social anxiety and in the past has lead ...

  19. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...

  20. CLEFT PALATE. FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUTHERFORD, DAVID; WESTLAKE, HAROLD

    DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AN ESSENTIAL CORE OF INFORMATION, THIS BOOK TREATS NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT, STRUCTURE, AND FUNCTION OF THE LIPS AND PALATE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE SPEECH. PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, HEARING, AND SPEECH IN CLEFT LIP OR CLEFT PALATE INDIVIDUALS ARE DISCUSSED. NASAL RESONANCE…

  1. Reconstruction of Drug-induced Cleft Palate Using Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalraj, Julie Christy; Gangothri, Manasa; Babu, Hari

    2017-01-01

    reconstruction of the cleft palate in the group of rat pups which received BMSCs along with PLGA scaffold. Bone growth in the cleft defect was faster; complete fusion of the defect was achieved. The dosage of drug used for inducing cleft palate was standardized in rodents for a definitive congenital cleft palate model. The cleft palate induced was reconstructed using BMSCs and PLGA scaffold. This was compared with a control group and the other group with plain PLGA used for reconstruction of the palate. This study will invite future research in the effect of the drug on human beings, especially on pregnant mothers.

  2. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Different Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Gan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmission in complex animals depends on a choir of functionally distinct synapses releasing neurotransmitters in a highly coordinated manner. During synaptic signaling, vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents. The rate of vesicle fusion is high and can exceed the rate at which synaptic vesicles can be re-supplied by distant sources. Thus, local compensatory endocytosis is needed to replenish the synaptic vesicle pools. Over the last four decades, various experimental methods and model systems have been used to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic vesicle cycle. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is thought to be the predominant mechanism for synaptic vesicle recycling. However, recent studies suggest significant contribution from other modes of endocytosis, including fast compensatory endocytosis, activity-dependent bulk endocytosis, ultrafast endocytosis, as well as kiss-and-run. Currently, it is not clear whether a universal model of vesicle recycling exist for all types of synapses. It is possible that each synapse type employs a particular mode of endocytosis. Alternatively, multiple modes of endocytosis operate at the same synapse, and the synapse toggles between different modes depending on its activity level. Here we compile review and research articles based on well-characterized model systems: frog neuromuscular junctions, C. elegans neuromuscular junctions, Drosophila neuromuscular junctions, lamprey reticulospinal giant axons, goldfish retinal ribbon synapses, the calyx of Held, and rodent hippocampal synapses. We will compare these systems in terms of their known modes and kinetics of synaptic vesicle endocytosis, as well as the underlying molecular machineries. We will also provide the future development of this field.

  3. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T; Radford, Robert J; Zastrow, Melissa L; Zhang, Daniel Y; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-05-19

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling.

  4. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151

  5. First branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fallouji, M. A.; Butler, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with a cystic swelling since birth behind the ramus of the right mandible and diagnosed clinically as a dermoid cyst. Surgical exploration, however, showed that it was closely related to the external auditory canal, with an extension running medially behind the parotid gland and ending in the bony middle ear. The facial nerve was closely related to the deep part of the cyst. Such an anatomical position indicates that this was a first branchial cleft anomaly. Surgical excision of the cyst was performed. PMID:6622327

  6. Raindrops of synaptic noise on dual excitability landscape: an approach to astrocyte network modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verisokin, Andrey Yu.; Postnov, Dmitry E.; Verveyko, Darya V.; Brazhe, Alexey R.

    2018-04-01

    The most abundant non-neuronal cells in the brain, astrocytes, populate all parts of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytic calcium activity ranging from subcellular sparkles to intercellular waves is believed to be the key to a plethora of regulatory pathways in the central nervous system from synaptic plasticity to blood flow regulation. Modeling of the calcium wave initiation and transmission and their spatiotemporal dynamics is therefore an important step stone in understanding the crucial cogs of cognition. Astrocytes are active sensors of ongoing neuronal and synaptic activity, and neurotransmitters diffusing from the synaptic cleft make a strong impact on the astrocytic activity. Here we propose a model describing the patterns of calcium wave formation at a single cell level and discuss the interplay between astrocyte shape the calcium waves dynamics driven by local stochastic surges of glutamate simulating synaptic activity.

  7. Psychological issues in cleft lip and cleft palate

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Avinash; Devare Shibani; Ghanshani Jyoti

    2009-01-01

    Vocational and social issues affect rehabilitation and development of patients with cleft lip and cleft palate. However, psychological problems like lowered self esteem and difficulties in social interaction have also been noted in them. Not many pediatric reconstructive surgery teams have a psychiatrist on their panel. It is likely that psychological problems are higher in incidence than literature actually suggests. Hence it is very essential that such cases are identified by the surgical t...

  8. Oral Clefts and Academic Performance in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nicola G; Pedersen, Dorthe A; Pedersen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:   Early life exposure to anesthesia and surgery is suspected to associate with cognitive impairment later in life. We compared academic achievement among adolescents with cleft lip only (CL), cleft palate only (CP), and cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) with a noncleft control group to ......:   Oral cleft type rather than number and timing of anesthesia and operations associate to poorer academic performance. Although a potential neurotoxic effect due to anesthetic agents is not reflected in the data, it cannot be completely excluded.......OBJECTIVE:   Early life exposure to anesthesia and surgery is suspected to associate with cognitive impairment later in life. We compared academic achievement among adolescents with cleft lip only (CL), cleft palate only (CP), and cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) with a noncleft control group...

  9. Cleft deformities (lip and palate)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    hospital between February 2008 and February 2009, seventeen neonates presented with ..... are low necessitating very large sample sizes often limited by resources. ... Bianco-Davila F: Incidence of cleft lip and palate in northeast of Mexico.

  10. Disruption of epithelial cell migration as a potential mechanism of cleft palate induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleft palate occurs in about one in seven hundred births per year, making it the most prevalent craniofacial birth defect in the world. During embryonic development, tissue fusion is a critical step in the formation of the palate, cornea, urethra, and neural tube. Epithelial cell...

  11. Defective glycinergic synaptic transmission in zebrafish motility mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Hirata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs.

  12. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  13. Secondary bone grafting for alveolar cleft in children with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, G.; Deacon, S.A.; Chen, J.; Hu, H.; Zou, S.; Ye, Q.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondary alveolar bone grafting has been widely used to reconstruct alveolar cleft. However, there is still some controversy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different secondary bone grafting methods. SEARCH STRATEGY: The final electronic and handsearches were

  14. The "Double" Tessier 7 Cleft: An Unusual Presentation of a Transverse Facial Cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Janani A; Chao, Jerry W; Rogers, Gary F; Boyajian, Michael J

    2018-07-01

    Congenital macrostomia, or Tessier number 7 cleft, is a rare craniofacial anomaly. We present a unique patient with bilateral macrostomia that consisted of a "double" transverse cleft on the left side and a single transverse cleft on the right side. A staged reconstructive approach was used to repair the "double" left-sided clefts. This staged technique produced a satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcome.

  15. Bright Promise for Your Child with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Eugene T.; Berlin, Asa J.

    Intended for parents of children with cleft lip and cleft palate, the booklet provides an overview of the condition. Addressed are the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): prenatal development and birth defects (facial development); possible causes of cleft lip/cleft palate (common misconceptions, genetic factors, environmental…

  16. Cleft Lip – A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shkoukani, Mahdi A.; Chen, Michael; Vong, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial clefts comprise a range of congenital deformities and are the most common head and neck congenital malformation. Clefting has significant psychological and socio- economic effects on patient quality of life and require a multidisciplinary team approach for management. The complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in the incidence and cause of clefting. In this review, the embryology, classification, epidemiology, and etiology of cleft lip ar...

  17. Unusual case of cleft hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahasrabudhe Parag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a six-year-old male child with cleft hand deformity involving the dominant right hand. It was a rare case of atypical cleft hand with no missing tissue but cleft extending to metacarpal level and associated hypoplasia of thumb and index finger. As per Manske′s classification of cleft hand our patient belongs to the Class III variety. There was associated malposition of the index finger with absence of first web space and syndactly of thumb and index finger at the metacarpal level. A modified Snow-Littler procedure was planned. The surgical plan involved closure of cleft, release of thumb and index finger syndactly and reconstruction of the first web space. The functional outcome was good considering hypoplasia of the index finger and thumb. Depending upon the function of the thumb tendon transfers can be planned to augment thumb function at a later date along with correction of rotational deformities of the index and middle finger.

  18. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Surgery: Malpractice Litigation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, Grant A; Brietzke, Scott E

    2017-01-01

      This study examined malpractice claims related to cleft lip and cleft palate surgery to identify common allegations and injuries and reviewed financial outcomes.   The WestlawNext legal database was analyzed for all malpractice lawsuits and settlements related to the surgical repair of cleft lip and palate.   Inclusion criteria included patients undergoing surgical repair of a primary cleft lip or palate or revision for complications of previous surgery. Data evaluated included patient demographics, type of operation performed, plaintiff allegation, nature of injury, and litigation outcomes.   A total of 36 cases were identified, with 12 unique cases from 1981 to 2006 meeting the inclusion criteria. Six cases (50%) were decided by a jury and six by settlement. Five cases involved complications related to the specific surgery, and the other seven were associated with any surgery and perioperative care of children and adults. Cleft palate repair (50%) was the most frequently litigated surgery. Postoperative negligent supervision was the most common allegation (42%) and resulted in a payout in each case (mean = $3,126,032). Death (42%) and brain injury (25%) were the most frequent injuries reported. Financial awards were made in nine cases (after adjusting for inflation, mean = $2,470,552, range = $0 to $7,704,585). The awards were significantly larger for brain injury than other outcomes ($4,675,395 versus $1,368,131 after adjusting for inflation, P = .0101).   Malpractice litigation regarding cleft lip and palate surgery is uncommon. However, significant financial awards involving perioperative brain injury have been reported.

  19. Engineering human cell spheroids to model embryonic tissue fusion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions drive embryonic fusion events during development and upon perturbation can result in birth defects. Cleft palate and neural tube defects can result from genetic defects or environmental exposures during development, yet very little is known abo...

  20. Data for human cell spheroid model of embryonic tissue fusion in vitro.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions drive embryonic fusion events during development and upon perturbation can result in birth defects. Cleft palate and neural tube...

  1. Live Imaging of Mouse Secondary Palate Fusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kim, S.; Procházka, Jan; Bush, J.O.

    jaro, č. 125 (2017), č. článku e56041. ISSN 1940-087X Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Developmental Biology * Issue 125 * live imaging * secondary palate * tissue fusion * cleft * craniofacial Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 1.232, year: 2016

  2. Maternal exposure to ozone and PM{sub 2.5} and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying, E-mail: yzhou2@cdc.gov [Environmental Health Tracking Branch, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gilboa, Suzanne M. [Birth Defects Branch, Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Herdt, Michele L. [New York State Department of Health, Center for Environmental Health, Albany, NY (United States); State University of New York at Albany, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Rensselaer, NY (United States); Lupo, Philip J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Flanders, W. Dana [Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liu, Yang [Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shin, Mikyong [Environmental Health Tracking Branch, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Canfield, Mark A. [Birth Defects Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Texas Department of State Health Services, Austin, TX (United States); Kirby, Russell S. [Department of Community and Family Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Background: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. Methods: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states — Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5–10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age. Results: Each 10 µg/m{sup 3} increase in PM{sub 2.5} concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11–1.86). There was no significant association between PM{sub 2.5} concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM{sub 2.5} significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts. - Highlights: • This is a large study with about 4

  3. Maternal exposure to ozone and PM2.5 and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ying; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Herdt, Michele L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Flanders, W. Dana; Liu, Yang; Shin, Mikyong; Canfield, Mark A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. Methods: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states — Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5–10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM 2.5 and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age. Results: Each 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11–1.86). There was no significant association between PM 2.5 concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM 2.5 significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts. - Highlights: • This is a large study with about 4.7 million births and 7000

  4. [Double second branchial cleft anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fernández, Noelia; Mallea-Cañizares, Ismael; Fernández-Julián, Enrique; De La Fuente-Arjona, Luís; Marco-Algarra, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Second branchial cleft anomalies are the most common of this type of neck masses. They can be classified in four types (Bailey/Proctor classification) according to their location. Type II is the most common, and related to vital neck structures such as the carotid artery and jugular vein. Cysts are the most frequent among them. Management consists of surgical excision of the cyst and tract by cervicotomy to avoid recurrence. We present an extremely rare case of a 32-year-old male who presented a sudden appearance of a right lateral neck mass that was identified by an image study as a double branchial cleft cyst. A review of simultaneous branchial cleft cyst in the literature is also made. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. [Surgical correction of cleft palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, F T; Pavia Noble, A; Soriano Padilla, F; Soto Miranda, A; Medellín Rodríguez, A

    1990-04-01

    This study presents a statistical review of corrective surgery for cleft palate, based on cases treated at the maxillo-facial surgery units of the Pediatrics Hospital of the Centro Médico Nacional and at Centro Médico La Raza of the National Institute of Social Security of Mexico, over a five-year period. Interdisciplinary management as performed at the Cleft-Palate Clinic, in an integrated approach involving specialists in maxillo-facial surgery, maxillar orthopedics, genetics, social work and mental hygiene, pursuing to reestablish the stomatological and psychological functions of children afflicted by cleft palate, is amply described. The frequency and classification of the various techniques practiced in that service are described, as well as surgical statistics for 188 patients, which include a total of 256 palate surgeries performed from March 1984 to March 1989, applying three different techniques and proposing a combination of them in a single surgical time, in order to avoid complementary surgery.

  6. Surgical treatment of cleft lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Domingues Miachon

    Full Text Available We performed a systematic review of the literature on the surgical treatment of cleft lip, emphasizing the prevalence, complications associated with the treatment and the points of disagreement between authors. We conducted a literature cross-sectional search that analyzed publications in books, articles and on the databases SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, PubMed, of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. We conclude that: 1 the severity of the cleft will indicate the technique presenting more advantages; 2 the different approaches indicate that there is no consensus on the optimal technique; and 3 the surgeon experience contributes to choosing the best option.

  7. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair

    OpenAIRE

    Adenwalla, H. S.; Narayanan, P. V.

    2009-01-01

    The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform clos...

  8. Surgical repair of a congenital sternal cleft in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Ilona; Bavegems, Valerie C A; Vandekerckhove, Peter M F P; Melis, Sanne M; Cornillie, Pieter; de Rooster, Hilde

    2014-07-01

    To describe the clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment of an incomplete cleft of the 5th-8th sternebra and a cranioventral abdominal wall hernia in a 2 month old Ragdoll kitten and to evaluate the short- and long-term outcome. Clinical report. Ragdoll cat (n = 1), 2 months old. Sternal cleft was confirmed by thoracic radiographs. Computed tomography (CT) was used to plan an optimal surgical approach. A ventral median incision was made, starting at the 3rd sternebra and extended into the abdomen. Ostectomy of the proximal part of the 5th left sternebra was performed. Lateral periosteal flaps were created, unfolded, and absorbable monofilament sutures preplaced to facilitate closure and the repair was reinforced by 2 peristernal sutures. A bone graft was applied, and the free margin of the omentum was sutured to the cranial aspect of the wound. No major complications occurred. At 3 weeks, CT scan confirmed approximation of the hemisternebrae and at 10 months, complete fusion of the hemisternebrae had not occurred, but a strong connection of the sternal bars was present. Sternal cleft is a rare congenital abnormality that can be corrected surgically with favorable outcome. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome (EEC syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Monika; Dwivedi, Rahul; Upadhyay, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia- clefting syndrome (also k/a. split hand- split foot malformation /split hand-split foot ectodermal dysplasia- cleft syndrome/ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip/cleft palate syndrome) a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, is an autosomal dominant disorder inherited as a genetic trait and characterized by a triad of (i) ectrodactyly, (ii) ectodermal dysplasia and, (iii) & facial clefts.

  10. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome (EEC syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Koul, Monika; Dwivedi, Rahul; Upadhyay, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia- clefting syndrome (also k/a. split hand- split foot malformation /split hand-split foot ectodermal dysplasia- cleft syndrome/ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip/cleft palate syndrome) a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, is an autosomal dominant disorder inherited as a genetic trait and characterized by a triad of (i) ectrodactyly, (ii) ectodermal dysplasia and, (iii) & facial clefts.

  11. Incidence of Cleft Lip and Palate in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreise, Marieke; Galiwango, George; Hodges, Andrew

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to estimate the need for resources for cleft repairs in Uganda by determining the overall incidence of oral-facial clefts and the ratio of isolated cleft lip to isolated cleft palate to cleft lip and palate. Design: A 1-year prospective study was implemented

  12. PRRT2: from Paroxysmal Disorders to Regulation of Synaptic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio; Zara, Federico; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2016-10-01

    In the past few years, proline-rich transmembrane protein (PRRT)2 has been identified as the causative gene for several paroxysmal neurological disorders. Recently, an important role of PRRT2 in synapse development and function has emerged. Knock down of the protein strongly impairs the formation of synaptic contacts and neurotransmitter release. At the nerve terminal, PRRT2 endows synaptic vesicle exocytosis with Ca 2+ sensitivity by interacting with proteins of the fusion complex and with the Ca 2+ sensors synaptotagmins (Syts). In the postsynaptic compartment, PRRT2 interacts with glutamate receptors. The study of PRRT2 and of its mutations may help in refining our knowledge of the process of synaptic transmission and elucidating the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to derangement of network function in paroxysmal disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Linkage study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate using candidate genes and mapped polymorphic markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.D.; Nelson, L.D.; Conner, B.J. [Univ. of Texas, Houston (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) involves fusion or growth failure of facial primordia during development. Complex segregation analysis of clefting populations suggest that an autosomal dominant gene may play a role in this common craniofacial disorder. We have ascertained 16 multigenerational families with CL(P) and tested linkage to 29 candidate genes and 139 mapped short tandem repeat markers. The candidate genes were selected based on their expression in craniofacial development or were identified through murine models. These include: TGF{alpha}, TGF{beta}1, TGF{beta}2, TGF{beta}3, EGF, EGFR, GRAS, cMyc, FGFR, Jun, JunB, PDFG{alpha}, PDGF{beta}, IGF2R, GCR Hox7, Hox8, Hox2B, twirler, 5 collagen and 3 extracellular matrix genes. Linkage was tested assuming an autosomal dominant model with sex-specific decreased penetrance. Linkage to all of the candidate loci was excluded in 11 families. RARA was tested and was not informative. However, haplotype analysis of markers flanking RARA on 17q allowed exclusion of this candidate locus. We have previously excluded linkage to 61 STR markers in 11 families. Seventy-eight mapped short tandem repeat markers have recently been tested in 16 families and 30 have been excluded. The remaining are being analyzed and an exclusion map is being developed based on the entire study results.

  14. MAGUKs: multifaceted synaptic organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sehoon; Levy, Jon M; Nicoll, Roger A; Roche, Katherine W

    2017-04-01

    The PSD-95 family of proteins, known as MAGUKs, have long been recognized to be central building blocks of the PSD. They are categorized as scaffolding proteins, which link surface-expressed receptors to the intracellular signaling molecules. Although the four members of the PSD-95 family (PSD-95, PSD-93, SAP102, and SAP97) have many shared roles in regulating synaptic function, recent studies have begun to delineate specific binding partners and roles in plasticity. In the current review, we will highlight the conserved and unique roles of these proteins. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Orthognathic surgery in cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John H; Nish, Iain; Daskalogiannakis, John

    2012-03-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify the skeletal changes in the cleft patient that necessitate surgery. 2. Describe the orthodontic principles that precede surgical treatment. 3. Demonstrate the surgical principles involved in cleft orthognathic surgery and how to avoid common pitfalls particular to cleft orthognathic surgery. 4. Anticipate when dentoalveolar distraction can help in the treatment of problems not easily treated with conventional orthognathic techniques. This CME article covers the basic multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of patients requiring a combined orthodontic orthognathic approach to their skeletally based malocclusion. The dentoskeletal abnormalities are described for these patients, as are the fundamental orthodontic principles in the presurgical treatment of these patients. The basic surgical principles are discussed in general, and the reader is provided with advice on avoiding common pitfalls. Specific attention is given to the more recent advances in dentoalveolar distraction in cases of large defects that would have been difficult to treat using conventional orthognathic surgery. Videos are provided to illustrate the general principles in treating the cleft orthognathic patient and to illustrate the treatment of large defects using dentoalveolar distraction.

  16. Simulating clefts in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The geometry of a large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, such as a sphere, leads to very high film stresses. These stresses can be significantly reduced by using a tendon re-enforced lobed pumpkin-like shape. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin shape, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design, the constant bulge radius (CBR) design, CBA/CBR hybrids, and NASA’s recent constant stress (CS) design. Utilizing a hybrid CBA/CBR pumpkin design, Flight 555-NT in June 2006 formed an S-cleft and was unable to fully deploy. In order to better understand the S-cleft phenomenon, a series of inflation tests involving four 27-m diameter 200-gore pumpkin balloons were conducted in 2007. One of the test vehicles was a 1/3-scale mockup of the Flight 555-NT balloon. Using an inflation procedure intended to mimic ascent, the 1/3-scale mockup developed an S-cleft feature strikingly similar to the one observed in Flight 555-NT. Our analysis of the 1/3-scale mockup found it to be unstable. We compute asymmetric equilibrium configurations of this balloon, including shapes with an S-cleft feature.

  17. Clinical Study of Second Branchial Cleft Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2018-03-30

    The objective of this study was to review the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment outcomes of second branchial cleft anomalies, and to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of branchial cleft cysts. A retrospective chart review was performed at Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. Among 25 patients with second branchial cleft anomalies, in 23 patients (92.0%), these anomalies presented as cysts, and in the remaining 2 patients (8.0%), these anomalies presented as fistulas. Fine-needle aspiration cytology had a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%, a positive-predictive value of 100%, and accuracy of 100% for diagnosing second branchial cleft cyst. All patients of second branchial cleft anomalies were treated surgically under general anesthesia. No recurrence of second branchial cleft anomalies was observed. Branchial cleft cysts were the most common type of second branchial cleft anomalies. Preoperative FNAC is a useful and accurate method for preoperative evaluation of branchial cleft cysts. Surgical excision of second branchial cleft anomalies is the treatment of choice without any complications and with no recurrence.

  18. The second branchial cleft fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalozzo, John; Rastatter, Jeffrey C; Dreyfuss, Heath F; Jaffar, Reema; Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-07-01

    To review the surgical anatomy and histopathology of second branchial cleft fistulae. Retrospective study of patients treated for second branchial cleft fistulae at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. The senior author noted anatomic and histologic features of second branchial cleft fistulae, not previously described. Tertiary care children's hospital. Retrospective examination of 28 patients was conducted who were operated upon for second branchial cleft fistula. Data collected included age at surgery, initial presentation, imaging characteristics prior to surgery, laterality of the fistula tract, pathology results and follow-up data. Twenty-eight patients met the criteria for inclusion. Three patients (11%) had bilateral fistulae. 11 (39%) were male and 17 (61%) were female. 23 (74.2%) tracts were lined with ciliated columnar epithelium, 3 (9.7%) had cuboidal epithelium, and 5 (16.7%) had squamous epithelium. Nineteen (61.3%) tracts contained salivary tissue. Of the unilateral fistula tracts, 25 (100%) were on the right side. Of the 3 patients with bilateral lesions, 2 (66%) had associated branchio-oto-renal syndrome (BORS). Second branchial cleft fistulae are rare. They are usually right-sided. If bilateral fistulae are present, one should consider an underlying genetic disorder. The histology of the fistulae mostly demonstrates ciliated columnar epithelium with the majority of specimens showing salivary tissue. There is a clear association with the internal jugular vein (IJV). Dissection should continue until superior to the hyoid bone, ensuring near complete surgical dissection and less risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  20. Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Spotlight Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and ... submenu What We Do Cleft & Craniofacial Educational Materials Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and ...

  1. Treatment for Adults (with Cleft Lip and Palate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here What treatment is available for adults with cleft lip and palate? Treatments currently available to infants and children with cleft lip and palate are also available to adults with clefts. Although ...

  2. The Association study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... These authors contributed equally to this work. .... individuals without a family history of orofacial clefts or other major congenital defects. ..... Wehby G. L., Cassell C. H. 2010 The impact of orofacial clefts on quality of life and.

  3. Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera, Catalina; Mezarobba, Naiara

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions in the development of the nasal and oral structures lead to cleft palate and cleft lip. There are many different factors that can affect this development such as genetic, mechanical traumas or teratogeny. The oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects worldwide affecting approximately 1 in 700 to 1000 children. The development of oral clefts is multifactorial and affect a significant portion of the population. The study results showed that smoking is the risk factor most...

  4. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H-S Philip

    2013-09-27

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

  5. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Philip Wong, H-S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented. (topical review)

  6. FOXE1 Association with both Isolated Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate; and Isolated Cleft Palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Lina M; Mansilla, Maria Adela; Bullard, Steve A

    2009-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are a common complex birth defect caused by genetic and environmental factors and/or their interactions. A previous genome-wide linkage scan discovered a novel locus for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) at 9q22-q33. To identify the etiologic gene, we......) and rs4460498 (p=6.51E-12) were located inside a 70Kb high LD block containing FOXE1. Association signals for Caucasians and Asians clustered 5' and 3' of FOXE1, respectively. Isolated cleft palate (CP) was also associated indicating that FOXE1 plays a role in two phenotypes thought to be genetically...

  7. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate--What to Know and Who Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Craniofacial defects such as cleft lip and cleft palate are among the most common of all birth defects in the United States, with one in every 600 newborns affected. Cleft lip and/or palate can occur as an isolated condition or may be one component of an inherited disease or syndrome. Dealing with the condition is an extremely difficult and…

  8. Midline cervical cleft: a rare congenital anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaswamy, Gayathri Mandya; Soma, Marlene A; Hartley, Benjamin E J

    2009-11-01

    A midline cervical cleft (MCC) is a rare congenital anomaly due to failure of fusion of the first and second branchial arches during embryogenesis. It may present as a midline defect of the anterior neck skin with a skin projection or sinus, or as a subcutaneous fibrous cord. This report evaluates the clinical features and surgical management of an MCC. We analyzed a series of 4 patients with an MCC successfully treated at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in London. Three male patients and 1 female patient between 4 and 11 months of age were found to have an MCC. Each patient presented with an erythematous, fibrous band of tissue extending between the chin and the suprasternal notch. Treatment comprised surgical excision of the lesion and Z-plasty repair. We present the embryology, common clinical presentation, investigations, differential diagnosis, and histology, along with a literature review, of this uncommon malformation of the anterior neck. An MCC is a differential diagnosis to consider when assessing a child with a midline cervical lesion. Early surgical excision with Z-plasty repair of the soft tissue defect is the treatment of choice to prevent long-term complications.

  9. Fetal genetic risk of isolated cleft lip only versus isolated cleft lip and palate: A subphenotype analysis using two population-based studies of orofacial clefts in scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cleft lip only (CLO) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) are commonly regarded as variants of the same defect and are traditionally combined to form the single group of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) prior to analysis. However, recent data have suggested that at least a subg...

  10. Face facts: Genes, environment, and clefts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.C. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City IA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate provides an ideal, albeit complex, model for the study of human developmental anomalies. Clefting disorders show a mix of well-defined syndromic causes (many with single-gene or environmental etiologies) coupled with their more common presentation in the nonsyndromic form. This summary presents some insight into the genetic causes of, etiology of and animal models for cleft lip and/or palate. 79 refs.

  11. Improving Informed Consent for Cleft Palate Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    Cleft Palate; Jaw Abnormalities; Maxillofacial Abnormalities; Mouth Abnormalities; Congenital Abnormalities; Jaw Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Craniofacial Abnormalities; Musculoskeletal Abnormalities; Stomatognathic Diseases; Stomatognathic System Abnormalities

  12. Evidence-Based Medicine: Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Albert S

    2017-01-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the incidence of cleft palate and risk factors associated with development of an orofacial cleft. 2. Understand differences among several techniques to repair clefts of both the hard and soft palates. 3. Discuss risk factors for development of postoperative fistulas, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and facial growth problems. 4. Establish a treatment plan for individualized care of a cleft palate patient. Orofacial clefts are the most common congenital malformations of the head and neck region, and approximately three-quarters of these patients have some form of cleft palate deformity. Cleft palate repair is generally performed in children between 6 and 12 months of age. The goals of palate repair are to minimize the occurrence of fistulas, establish a normal velopharyngeal mechanism, and optimize facial growth. This Maintenance of Certification review discusses the incidence and epidemiology associated with cleft palate deformity and specifics associated with patient care, including analgesia, surgical repair techniques, and complications associated with repair of the cleft palate.

  13. Influence of lip closure on alveolar cleft width in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmelzle Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of surgery on growth and stability after treatment in patients with cleft lip and palate are topics still under discussion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of early lip closure on the width of the alveolar cleft using dental casts. Methods A total of 44 clefts were investigated using plaster casts, 30 unilateral and 7 bilateral clefts. All infants received a passive molding plate a few days after birth. The age at the time of closure of the lip was 2.1 month in average (range 1-6 months. Plaster casts were obtained at the following stages: shortly after birth, prior to lip closure, prior to soft palate closure. We determined the width of the alveolar cleft before lip closure and prior to soft palate closure measuring the alveolar cleft width from the most lateral point of the premaxilla/anterior segment to the most medial point of the smaller segment. Results After lip closure 15 clefts presented with a width of 0 mm, meaning that the mucosa of the segments was almost touching one another. 19 clefts showed a width of up to 2 mm and 10 clefts were still over 2 mm wide. This means a reduction of 0% in 5 clefts, of 1-50% in 6 clefts, of 51-99% in 19 clefts, and of 100% in 14 clefts. Conclusions Early lip closure reduces alveolar cleft width. In most cases our aim of a remaining cleft width of 2 mm or less can be achieved. These are promising conditions for primary alveolar bone grafting to restore the dental bony arch.

  14. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenwalla, H S; Narayanan, P V

    2009-10-01

    The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform closed alar dissection and extensive primary septoplasty in all these patients. This has improved the overall result and has no long-term deleterious effect on the growth of the nose or of the maxilla. Other refinements have been used for prevention of a high-riding nostril, and correction of the vestibular web.

  15. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenwalla H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform closed alar dissection and extensive primary septoplasty in all these patients. This has improved the overall result and has no long-term deleterious effect on the growth of the nose or of the maxilla. Other refinements have been used for prevention of a high-riding nostril, and correction of the vestibular web.

  16. [Suture simulator - Cleft palate surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, F; Riot, S; Qassemyar, A; Belkhou, A; Wolber, A; Martinot Duquennoy, V; Guerreschi, P

    2017-04-01

    Cleft palate requires surgery in the first years of life, furthermore repairing anatomically the soft and hard palate is complex on a surgical level because of the fine tissues and the local intraoral configuration. It is valuable to train first on simulators before going to the operating room. However, there is no material dedicated to learning how to perform intraoral sutures in cleft palate surgery. We made one, in an artisanal manner, in order to practice before the real surgical gesture. The simulator was designed based on precise anatomical data. A steel pipe, fixed on a rigid base represented the oral cavity. An adapted split spoon represented the palate. All pieces could be removed in order to apply a hydrocellular dressing before training for sutures. Our simulator was tested by 3 senior surgeons in our department in close to real-life conditions in order to evaluate its anatomical accuracy. It is valuable to have a simulator to train on cleft palate sutures within teaching university hospitals that manage this pathology. Our simulator has a very low cost, it is easy to make and is anatomically accurate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation of Synaptosomes, Synaptic Plasma Membranes, and Synaptic Junctional Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Mary L; Jiang, Lei; Michaelis, Elias K

    2017-01-01

    Isolation of synaptic nerve terminals or synaptosomes provides an opportunity to study the process of neurotransmission at many levels and with a variety of approaches. For example, structural features of the synaptic terminals and the organelles within them, such as synaptic vesicles and mitochondria, have been elucidated with electron microscopy. The postsynaptic membranes are joined to the presynaptic "active zone" of transmitter release through cell adhesion molecules and remain attached throughout the isolation of synaptosomes. These "post synaptic densities" or "PSDs" contain the receptors for the transmitters released from the nerve terminals and can easily be seen with electron microscopy. Biochemical and cell biological studies with synaptosomes have revealed which proteins and lipids are most actively involved in synaptic release of neurotransmitters. The functional properties of the nerve terminals, such as responses to depolarization and the uptake or release of signaling molecules, have also been characterized through the use of fluorescent dyes, tagged transmitters, and transporter substrates. In addition, isolated synaptosomes can serve as the starting material for the isolation of relatively pure synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) that are devoid of organelles from the internal environment of the nerve terminal, such as mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. The isolated SPMs can reseal and form vesicular structures in which transport of ions such as sodium and calcium, as well as solutes such as neurotransmitters can be studied. The PSDs also remain associated with the presynaptic membranes during isolation of SPM fractions, making it possible to isolate the synaptic junctional complexes (SJCs) devoid of the rest of the plasma membranes of the nerve terminals and postsynaptic membrane components. Isolated SJCs can be used to identify the proteins that constitute this highly specialized region of neurons. In this chapter, we describe the steps involved

  18. Short mandible - a possible risk factor for cleft palate with/without a cleft lip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives To estimate the influence of a short mandible on the risk of developing a cleft palate with/without a cleft lip (CP). Setting and sample population The retrospective sample consisted of 115 2-month-old Danish infants with CP, and 70 control infants with unilateral...... the risk of having a cleft palate. Results The mean mandibular length in the group with CP was about 4mm shorter than in the control group. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated to be 0.58 (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.68), implying that an individual's risk of cleft palate with/without a cleft lip increases...... about 50% per mm decrease in mandibular length. Conclusions A special facial type including a short mandible is a possible risk factor for cleft palate, and it was found that the risk of cleft palate increases 58% per mm decreases in mandibular length....

  19. Secreted factors as synaptic organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Umemori, Hisashi

    2010-07-01

    A critical step in synaptic development is the differentiation of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. This complex process is regulated by a variety of secreted factors that serve as synaptic organizers. Specifically, fibroblast growth factors, Wnts, neurotrophic factors and various other intercellular signaling molecules are proposed to regulate presynaptic and/or postsynaptic differentiation. Many of these factors appear to function at both the neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system, although the specific function of the molecules differs between the two. Here we review secreted molecules that organize the synaptic compartments and discuss how these molecules shape synaptic development, focusing on mammalian in vivo systems. Their critical role in shaping a functional neural circuit is underscored by their possible link to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders both in animal models and by mutations identified in human patients. © The Authors (2010). Journal Compilation © Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. TCDD disrupts posterior palatogenesis and causes cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomohiro; Hirata, Azumi; Sasabe, Eri; Yoshimura, Tomohide; Ohno, Seiji; Kitamura, Naoya; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Dioxins (e.g. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD) cause cleft palate at a high rate. A post-fusional split may contribute to the pathogenesis, and tissue fragility may be a concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of TCDD on the palatal epithelium, bone and muscle, which contribute to tissue integrity. ICR mice (10-12 weeks old) were used. TCDD was administered on E12.5 at 40 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical staining for AhR, ER-α, laminin, collagen IV, osteopontin, Runx2, MyoD, and desmin were performed. Furthermore, western blot analysis for osteopontin, Runx2, MyoD, and desmin were performed to evaluate protein expression in the palatal tissue. Immunohistologically, there was little difference in the collagen IV and laminin localization in the palatal epithelium between control versus TCDD-treated mice. Runx2 and osteopontin immunoreactivity decreased in the TCDD-treated palatal bone, and MyoD and desmin decreased in the TCDD-treated palatal muscle. AhR and ER-α immunoreactivity were localized to the normal palatal bone, but ER-α was diminished in the TCDD-treated palate. On western blot analysis, Runx2, MyoD, and desmin were all downregulated in the TCDD-treated palate. TCDD may suppress palatal osteogenesis and myogenesis via AhR, and cause cleft palates via a post-fusional split mechanism, in addition to a failure of palatal fusion. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk of Oral Clefts in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Dorthe; Bille, Camilla; Petersen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    and heritability. Twins (207 affected/130,710) and singletons (7766 affected/4,798,526) born from 1936 through 2004 in Denmark were ascertained by linkage among the Danish Facial Cleft Database, the Danish Twin Registry, and the Civil Registration System. We computed oral cleft prevalence and prevalence proportion...

  2. Maternal occupational risk factors for oral clefts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorente, C; Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; De Walle, HEK; Goujard, J; Ayme, S; Knill-Jones, R; Calzolari, E

    Objectives This study investigated the role of maternal exposures at work during pregnancy in the occurrence of oral clefts. Methods The occupational exposures of 851 women (100 mothers of babies with oral clefts and 751 mothers of healthy referents) who worked during the first trimester of

  3. An undescribed first branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockey, Jason Gabriel; John, D Gareth; Herbetko, John

    2003-06-01

    A variant of a type 2 first branchial cleft anomaly, in which accessory ossicles were found, is described. There follows a discussion of the classification of first branchial cleft abnormalities and how this particular case falls outside the standard classification. CT scanning is mentioned as the investigation that is most useful for defining these abnormalities.

  4. Dating brittle tectonic movements with cleft monazite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Gnos, E.; Janots, E.

    2013-01-01

    stress axis, which is characteristic for strike slip deformation. The inferred stress situation is consistent with observed kinematics and the opening of such clefts. Therefore, the investigated monazite-bearing cleft formed at the end of D2 and/or D3, and dextral movements along NNW dipping planes...

  5. Cleft lip and palate surgery in children: Anaesthetic considerations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Care of cleft patients is very challenging. Team cleft care is usually lacking in many developing countries due to shortage of qualified manpower. This study is aimed at highlighting anaesthetic challenges in the management of cleft in children. Patients and Methods: This was a study of cleft lip and palate ...

  6. X-linked genes and risk of orofacial clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Skare, Øivind; Lie, Rolv T

    2012-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are common birth defects of complex etiology, with an excess of males among babies with cleft lip and palate, and an excess of females among those with cleft palate only. Although genes on the X chromosome have been implicated in clefting, there has been no association analysis...

  7. Genome-wide meta-analyses of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts identify novel associations between FOXE1 and all orofacial clefts, and TP63 and cleft lip with or without cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Carlson, Jenna C.; Shaffer, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs) are a heterogeneous group of common craniofacial birth defects with complex etiologies that include genetic and environmental risk factors. OFCs are commonly categorized as cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate alone (CP), which have h...

  8. Changed Synaptic Plasticity in Neural Circuits of Depressive-Like and Escitalopram-Treated Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Yuan, Yong-Gui; Xu, Hua; Wu, Di; Gong, Wei-Gang; Geng, Lei-Yu; Wu, Fang-Fang; Tang, Hao; Xu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although progress has been made in the detection and characterization of neural plasticity in depression, it has not been fully understood in individual synaptic changes in the neural circuits under chronic stress and antidepressant treatment. Methods: Using electron microscopy and Western-blot analyses, the present study quantitatively examined the changes in the Gray’s Type I synaptic ultrastructures and the expression of synapse-associated proteins in the key brain regions of rats’ depressive-related neural circuit after chronic unpredicted mild stress and/or escitalopram administration. Meanwhile, their depressive behaviors were also determined by several tests. Results: The Type I synapses underwent considerable remodeling after chronic unpredicted mild stress, which resulted in the changed width of the synaptic cleft, length of the active zone, postsynaptic density thickness, and/or synaptic curvature in the subregions of medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of the amygdala, accompanied by changed expression of several synapse-associated proteins. Chronic escitalopram administration significantly changed the above alternations in the chronic unpredicted mild stress rats but had little effect on normal controls. Also, there was a positive correlation between the locomotor activity and the maximal synaptic postsynaptic density thickness in the stratum radiatum of the Cornu Ammonis 1 region and a negative correlation between the sucrose preference and the length of the active zone in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus region in chronic unpredicted mild stress rats. Conclusion: These findings strongly indicate that chronic stress and escitalopram can alter synaptic plasticity in the neural circuits, and the remodeled synaptic ultrastructure was correlated with the rats’ depressive behaviors, suggesting a therapeutic target for further exploration. PMID:25899067

  9. Ambulatory cleft lip surgery: A value analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneja, Jugpal S; Mitton, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Socialized health systems face fiscal constraints due to a limited supply of resources and few reliable ways to control patient demand. Some form of prioritization must occur as to what services to offer and which programs to fund. A data-driven approach to decision making that incorporates outcomes, including safety and quality, in the setting of fiscal prudence is required. A value model championed by Michael Porter encompasses these parameters, in which value is defined as outcomes divided by cost. To assess ambulatory cleft lip surgery from a quality and safety perspective, and to assess the costs associated with ambulatory cleft lip surgery in North America. Conclusions will be drawn as to how the overall value of cleft lip surgery may be enhanced. A value analysis of published articles related to ambulatory cleft lip repair over the past 30 years was performed to determine what percentage of patients would be candidates for ambulatory cleft lip repair from a quality and safety perspective. An economic model was constructed based on costs associated with the inpatient stay related to cleft lip repair. On analysis of the published reports in the literature, a minority (28%) of patients are currently discharged in an ambulatory fashion following cleft lip repair. Further analysis suggests that 88.9% of patients would be safe candidates for same-day discharge. From an economic perspective, the mean cost per patient for the overnight admission component of ambulatory cleft surgery to the health care system in the United States was USD$2,390 and $1,800 in Canada. The present analysis reviewed germane publications over a 30-year period, ultimately suggesting that ambulatory cleft lip surgery results in preservation of quality and safety metrics for most patients. The financial model illustrates a potential cost saving through the adoption of such a practice change. For appropriately selected patients, ambulatory cleft surgery enhances overall health care value.

  10. Synaptic consolidation across multiple timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorric Ziegler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The brain is bombarded with a continuous stream of sensory events, but retains only a small subset in memory. The selectivity of memory formation prevents our memory from being overloaded with irrelevant items that would rapidly bring the brain to its storage limit; moreover, selectivity also prevents overwriting previously formed memories with new ones. Memory formation in the hippocampus, as well as in other brain regions, is thought to be linked to changes in the synaptic connections between neurons. In this view, sensory events imprint traces at the level of synapses that reflect potential memory items. The question of memory selectivity can therefore be reformulated as follows: what are the reasons and conditions that some synaptic traces fade away whereas others are consolidated and persist? Experimentally, changes in synaptic strength induced by 'Hebbian' protocols fade away over a few hours (early long-term potentiation or e-LTP, unless these changes are consolidated. The experiments and conceptual theory of synaptic tagging and capture (STC provide a mechanistic explanation for the processes involved in consolidation. This theory suggests that the initial trace of synaptic plasticity sets a tag at the synapse, which then serves as a marker for potential consolidation of the changes in synaptic efficacy. The actual consolidation processes, transforming e-LTP into late LTP (l-LTP, require the capture of plasticity-related proteins (PRP. We translate the above conceptual model into a compact computational model that accounts for a wealth of in vitro data including experiments on cross-tagging, tag-resetting and depotentiation. A central ingredient is that synaptic traces are described with several variables that evolve on different time scales. Consolidation requires the transmission of information from a 'fast' synaptic trace to a 'slow' one through a 'write' process, including the formation of tags and the production of PRP for the

  11. Dimensions of the cleft nasal airway in adults: a comparison with subjects without cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairfield, W M; Warren, D W

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of mouthbreathing among individuals with cleft lip and palate is significantly higher than in the normal population. This has been attributed to nasal deformities that tend to reduce nasal airway size. The purpose of the present study was to determine how a heterogeneous adult group with cleft lip and palate differs in terms of nasal airway cross-sectional area from an adult group without cleft during the inspiratory and expiratory phases of breathing. The pressure-flow technique was used to estimate nasal airway size in 15 adults without cleft (15 years or older) and 37 adults with cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. Mean areas and standard deviations for subjects without cleft were 0.63 cm2 +/- 0.17 during inspiration and 0.56 cm2 +/- 0.14 during expiration. This difference is statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Mean areas and standard deviations for all subjects with cleft were 0.37 cm2 +/- 0.18 during inspiration and 0.40 cm2 +/- 0.20 during expiration. This difference is not statistically significant (p greater than 0.15). Twenty-two of the subjects with cleft had nasal areas considered to be impaired (below 0.40 cm2) as compared with only three of the subjects without cleft. A two factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that area changes during respiration are different for subjects with and without cleft (p less than 0.005), and that cleft nasal areas are smaller than noncleft areas for both phases of breathing (p less than 0.001). Inspiratory-expiratory differences between subjects with and without cleft are probably the result of developmental defects, reparative surgery or both.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook covers the physics and technology upon which future fusion power reactors will be based. It reviews the history of fusion, reaction physics, plasma physics, heating, and confinement. Descriptions of commercial plants and design concepts are included. Topics covered include: fusion reactions and fuel resources; reaction rates; ignition, and confinement; basic plasma directory; Tokamak confinement physics; fusion technology; STARFIRE: A commercial Tokamak fusion power plant. MARS: A tandem-mirror fusion power plant; and other fusion reactor concepts

  13. Synaptic vesicle proteins under conditions of rest and activation: analysis by 2-D difference gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burré, Jacqueline; Beckhaus, Tobias; Corvey, Carsten; Karas, Michael; Zimmermann, Herbert; Volknandt, Walter

    2006-09-01

    Synaptic vesicles are organelles of the nerve terminal that secrete neurotransmitters by fusion with the presynaptic plasma membrane. Vesicle fusion is tightly controlled by depolarization of the plasma membrane and a set of proteins that may undergo post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. In order to identify proteins that undergo modifications as a result of synaptic activation, we induced massive exocytosis and analysed the synaptic vesicle compartment by benzyldimethyl-n-hexadecylammonium chloride (BAC)/SDS-PAGE and difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) followed by MALDI-TOF-MS. We identified eight proteins that revealed significant changes in abundance following nerve terminal depolarization. Of these, six were increased and two were decreased in abundance. Three of these proteins were phosphorylated as detected by Western blot analysis. In addition, we identified an unknown synaptic vesicle protein whose abundance increased on synaptic activation. Our results demonstrate that depolarization of the presynaptic compartment induces changes in the abundance of synaptic vesicle proteins and post-translational protein modification.

  14. Small-molecule Wnt agonists correct cleft palates in Pax9 mutant mice in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shihai; Zhou, Jing; Fanelli, Christopher; Wee, Yinshen; Bonds, John; Schneider, Pascal; Mues, Gabriele; D'Souza, Rena N

    2017-10-15

    Clefts of the palate and/or lip are among the most common human craniofacial malformations and involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. Defects can only be corrected surgically and require complex life-long treatments. Our studies utilized the well-characterized Pax9 -/- mouse model with a consistent cleft palate phenotype to test small-molecule Wnt agonist therapies. We show that the absence of Pax9 alters the expression of Wnt pathway genes including Dkk1 and Dkk2 , proven antagonists of Wnt signaling. The functional interactions between Pax9 and Dkk1 are shown by the genetic rescue of secondary palate clefts in Pax9 -/- Dkk1 f/+ ;Wnt1Cre embryos. The controlled intravenous delivery of small-molecule Wnt agonists (Dkk inhibitors) into pregnant Pax9 +/- mice restored Wnt signaling and led to the growth and fusion of palatal shelves, as marked by an increase in cell proliferation and osteogenesis in utero , while other organ defects were not corrected. This work underscores the importance of Pax9-dependent Wnt signaling in palatogenesis and suggests that this functional upstream molecular relationship can be exploited for the development of therapies for human cleft palates that arise from single-gene disorders. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Uhm, Ki Il [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group.

  16. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Uhm, Ki Il

    2003-01-01

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group

  17. Implementing the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lopes Monlleó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High-quality clinical and genetic descriptions are crucial to improve knowledge of orofacial clefts and support specific healthcare polices. The objective of this study is to discuss the potential and perspectives of the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. Methods. From 2008 to 2010, clinical and familial information on 370 subjects was collected by geneticists in eight different services. Data was centrally processed using an international system for case classification and coding. Results. Cleft lip with cleft palate amounted to 198 (53.5%, cleft palate to 99 (26.8%, and cleft lip to 73 (19.7% cases. Parental consanguinity was present in 5.7% and familial history of cleft was present in 26.3% subjects. Rate of associated major plus minor defects was 48% and syndromic cases amounted to 25% of the samples. Conclusions. Overall results corroborate the literature. Adopted tools are user friendly and could be incorporated into routine patient care. The BDOC exemplifies a network for clinical and genetic research. The data may be useful to develop and improve personalized treatment, family planning, and healthcare policies. This experience should be of interest for geneticists, laboratory-based researchers, and clinicians entrusted with OC worldwide.

  18. Surgical repair of large cyclodialysis clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jacob B; Davis, Garvin H; Bell, Nicholas P; Feldman, Robert M; Blieden, Lauren S

    2017-05-11

    To describe a new surgical technique to effectively close large (>180 degrees) cyclodialysis clefts. Our method involves the use of procedures commonly associated with repair of retinal detachment and complex cataract extraction: phacoemulsification with placement of a capsular tension ring followed by pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade with light cryotherapy. We also used anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive mechanism to determine the extent of the clefts and compared those results with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and gonioscopy. This technique was used to repair large cyclodialysis clefts in 4 eyes. All 4 eyes had resolution of hypotony and improvement of visual acuity. One patient had an intraocular pressure spike requiring further surgical intervention. Anterior segment OCT imaging in all 4 patients showed a more extensive cleft than UBM or gonioscopy. This technique is effective in repairing large cyclodialysis clefts. Anterior segment OCT more accurately predicted the extent of each cleft, while UBM and gonioscopy both underestimated the size of the cleft.

  19. Periconceptional folic acid associated with an increased risk of oral clefts relative to non-folate related malformations in the Northern Netherlands: a population based case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozendaal, Anna M.; Essen, Anthonie J. van; Meerman, Gerard J. te; Bakker, Marian K.; Biezen, Jan J. van der; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.; Vermeij-Keers, Christl; Walle, Hermien E. K. de

    2013-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid has been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects, but findings on its effect in oral clefts are largely inconclusive. This case-control study assesses the effects of periconceptional folic acid on cleft risk, using complementary data from the Dutch Oral Cleft Registry and a population-based birth defects registry (Eurocat) of children and foetuses born in the Northern Netherlands between 1997 and 2009. Cases were live-born infants with non-syndromic clefts (n = 367) and controls were infants or foetuses with chromosomal/syndromal (n = 924) or non-folate related anomalies (n = 2,021). We analyzed type/timing/duration of supplement use related to traditional cleft categories as well as to their timing (early/late embryonic periods) and underlying embryological processes (fusion/differentiation defects). Consistent supplement use during the aetiologically relevant period (weeks 0–12 postconception) was associated with an increased risk of clefts (adjusted odds ratio 1.72, 95 % confidence interval 1.19–2.49), especially of cleft lip/alveolus (3.16, 1.69–5.91). Further analysis systematically showed twofold to threefold increased risks for late differentiation defects—mainly clefts of the lip/alveolus—with no significant associations for early/late fusion defects. Effects were attributable to folic acid and not to other multivitamin components, and inclusion of partial use (not covering the complete aetiologically relevant period) generally weakened associations. In conclusion, this study presents several lines of evidence indicating that periconceptional folic acid in the Northern Netherlands is associated with an increased risk of clefts, in particular of cleft lip/alveolus. This association is strengthened by the specificity, consistency, systematic pattern, and duration of exposure-response relationship of our findings, underlining the need to evaluate public health strategies regarding folic acid and to

  20. Membrane Fusion Involved in Neurotransmission: Glimpse from Electron Microscope and Molecular Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fusion is one of the most fundamental physiological processes in eukaryotes for triggering the fusion of lipid and content, as well as the neurotransmission. However, the architecture features of neurotransmitter release machinery and interdependent mechanism of synaptic membrane fusion have not been extensively studied. This review article expounds the neuronal membrane fusion processes, discusses the fundamental steps in all fusion reactions (membrane aggregation, membrane association, lipid rearrangement and lipid and content mixing and the probable mechanism coupling to the delivery of neurotransmitters. Subsequently, this work summarizes the research on the fusion process in synaptic transmission, using electron microscopy (EM and molecular simulation approaches. Finally, we propose the future outlook for more exciting applications of membrane fusion involved in synaptic transmission, with the aid of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM, cryo-EM (cryo-EM, and molecular simulations.

  1. Membrane Fusion Involved in Neurotransmission: Glimpse from Electron Microscope and Molecular Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiwei; Gou, Lu; Chen, Shuyu; Li, Na; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Membrane fusion is one of the most fundamental physiological processes in eukaryotes for triggering the fusion of lipid and content, as well as the neurotransmission. However, the architecture features of neurotransmitter release machinery and interdependent mechanism of synaptic membrane fusion have not been extensively studied. This review article expounds the neuronal membrane fusion processes, discusses the fundamental steps in all fusion reactions (membrane aggregation, membrane association, lipid rearrangement and lipid and content mixing) and the probable mechanism coupling to the delivery of neurotransmitters. Subsequently, this work summarizes the research on the fusion process in synaptic transmission, using electron microscopy (EM) and molecular simulation approaches. Finally, we propose the future outlook for more exciting applications of membrane fusion involved in synaptic transmission, with the aid of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), cryo-EM (cryo-EM), and molecular simulations. PMID:28638320

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of cleft palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Yasushi; Tasaka, Yasuyuki; Honjo, Iwao; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    1987-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasopharynx and the eustachian tube was performed in five patients with cleft palate and compared with the results of those without this anomaly. Various degrees of deformity of the eustachian tube cartilage were found in cleft palate patients. The levator veli palatini muscles were situated more laterally in cleft palate patients than in normal subjects. Also, changes in the position of these muscles after palatoplasty were clearly depicted by MRI. Besides several autopsy reports, this is the first demonstration of the characteristic anomaly around the eustachian tube by a non-invasive method.

  3. Branchial cleft cyst encircling the hypoglossal nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin L.; Spears, Carol; Kenady, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are a common cause of lateral neck masses and may present with infection, cyst enlargement or fistulas. They may affect any of the nearby neck structures, causing compressive symptoms or vessel thrombosis. We present a case of a branchial cleft cyst in a 10-year-old boy who had been present for 1year. At the time of operation, the cyst was found to completely envelop the hypoglossal nerve. While reports of hypoglossal nerve palsies due to external compression from cysts are known, we believe this to be the first report of direct nerve involvement by a branchial cleft cyst. PMID:24963902

  4. Preoperative Cleft Lip Measurements and Maxillary Growth in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory S; Tompson, Bryan D; Fisher, David M

    2016-11-01

    Maxillary growth in patients with cleft lip and palate is highly variable. The authors' aim was to investigate associations between preoperative cleft lip measurements and maxillary growth determined cephalometrically in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (cUCLP). Retrospective cross-sectional study. Children with cUCLP. Preoperative cleft lip measurements were made at the time of primary cheiloplasty and available for each patient. Maxillary growth was evaluated on lateral cephalometric radiographs taken prior to any orthodontic treatment and alveolar bone grafting (8.5 ± 0.7 years). The presence of associations between preoperative cleft lip measurements and cephalometric measures of maxillary growth was determined using regression analyses. In the 58 patients included in the study, the cleft lateral lip element was deficient in height in 90% and in transverse width in 81% of patients. There was an inverse correlation between cleft lateral lip height and transverse width with a β coefficient of -0.382 (P = .003). Patients with a more deficient cleft lateral lip height displayed a shorter maxillary length (β coefficient = 0.336; P = .010), a less protruded maxilla (β coefficient = .334; P = .008), and a shorter anterior maxillary height (β coefficient = 0.306; P = .020) than those with a less deficient cleft lateral lip height. Patients with cUCLP present with varying degrees of lateral lip hypoplasia. Preoperative measures of lateral lip deficiency are related to later observed deficiencies of maxillary length, protrusion, and height.

  5. Prevalence of cleft lip and cleft palate in rural north-central guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Jorge; Lydick, Elaine A; Torres, Olga R; Owen, Karen K; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the number of new cases of cleft lip and cleft palate in the department (state) of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, in 2012. Cross-sectional survey of midwives from communities identified through a two-stage cluster-sampling process. Midwives were asked how many babies they had delivered in the past year and how many of those newborns had various types of birth defects, as illustrated in pictures. Indigenous Mayan communities in rural north-central Guatemala. Midwives (n = 129) who had delivered babies in the previous year. Reports of babies born with cleft lip and cleft palate. A 1-year prevalence rate of 18.9 per 10,000 for cleft lip and 4.7 per 10,000 for cleft palate was estimated for Alta Verapaz. None of the cases of cleft lip also had cleft palate. The indigenous communities in north-central Guatemala might have a relatively high cleft lip prevalence rate compared with the global average.

  6. Reduced synaptic vesicle protein degradation at lysosomes curbs TBC1D24/sky-induced neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana Clara; Uytterhoeven, Valerie; Kuenen, Sabine; Wang, Yu-Chun; Slabbaert, Jan R; Swerts, Jef; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Aerts, Stein; Verstreken, Patrik

    2014-11-24

    Synaptic demise and accumulation of dysfunctional proteins are thought of as common features in neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms by which synaptic proteins turn over remain elusive. In this paper, we study Drosophila melanogaster lacking active TBC1D24/Skywalker (Sky), a protein that in humans causes severe neurodegeneration, epilepsy, and DOOR (deafness, onychdystrophy, osteodystrophy, and mental retardation) syndrome, and identify endosome-to-lysosome trafficking as a mechanism for degradation of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins. In fly sky mutants, synaptic vesicles traveled excessively to endosomes. Using chimeric fluorescent timers, we show that synaptic vesicle-associated proteins were younger on average, suggesting that older proteins are more efficiently degraded. Using a genetic screen, we find that reducing endosomal-to-lysosomal trafficking, controlled by the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex, rescued the neurotransmission and neurodegeneration defects in sky mutants. Consistently, synaptic vesicle proteins were older in HOPS complex mutants, and these mutants also showed reduced neurotransmission. Our findings define a mechanism in which synaptic transmission is facilitated by efficient protein turnover at lysosomes and identify a potential strategy to suppress defects arising from TBC1D24 mutations in humans. © 2014 Fernandes et al.

  7. Risk of oral clefts in children born to mothers taking Topamax (topiramate)Risk of Oral Clefts (Cleft Lip and/or ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Safety and Availability FDA Drug Safety Communication: Risk of oral clefts in children born to mothers ... data that show that there is an increased risk for the development of cleft lip and/or ...

  8. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asif

    Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits

  9. The Structure of Neurexin 1[alpha] Reveals Features Promoting a Role as Synaptic Organizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fang; Venugopal, Vandavasi; Murray, Beverly; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

    2014-10-02

    {alpha}-Neurexins are essential synaptic adhesion molecules implicated in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The {alpha}-neurexin extracellular domain consists of six LNS domains interspersed by three EGF-like repeats and interacts with many different proteins in the synaptic cleft. To understand how {alpha}-neurexins might function as synaptic organizers, we solved the structure of the neurexin 1{alpha} extracellular domain (n1{alpha}) to 2.65 {angstrom}. The L-shaped molecule can be divided into a flexible repeat I (LNS1-EGF-A-LNS2), a rigid horseshoe-shaped repeat II (LNS3-EGF-B-LNS4) with structural similarity to so-called reelin repeats, and an extended repeat III (LNS5-EGF-B-LNS6) with controlled flexibility. A 2.95 {angstrom} structure of n1{alpha} carrying splice insert SS3 in LNS4 reveals that SS3 protrudes as a loop and does not alter the rigid arrangement of repeat II. The global architecture imposed by conserved structural features enables {alpha}-neurexins to recruit and organize proteins in distinct and variable ways, influenced by splicing, thereby promoting synaptic function.

  10. A computational study of astrocytic glutamate influence on post-synaptic neuronal excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronac Flanagan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of astrocytes to rapidly clear synaptic glutamate and purposefully release the excitatory transmitter is critical in the functioning of synapses and neuronal circuits. Dysfunctions of these homeostatic functions have been implicated in the pathology of brain disorders such as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the reasons for these dysfunctions are not clear from experimental data and computational models have been developed to provide further understanding of the implications of glutamate clearance from the extracellular space, as a result of EAAT2 downregulation: although they only partially account for the glutamate clearance process. In this work, we develop an explicit model of the astrocytic glutamate transporters, providing a more complete description of the glutamate chemical potential across the astrocytic membrane and its contribution to glutamate transporter driving force based on thermodynamic principles and experimental data. Analysis of our model demonstrates that increased astrocytic glutamate content due to glutamine synthetase downregulation also results in increased postsynaptic quantal size due to gliotransmission. Moreover, the proposed model demonstrates that increased astrocytic glutamate could prolong the time course of glutamate in the synaptic cleft and enhances astrocyte-induced slow inward currents, causing a disruption to the clarity of synaptic signalling and the occurrence of intervals of higher frequency postsynaptic firing. Overall, our work distilled the necessity of a low astrocytic glutamate concentration for reliable synaptic transmission of information and the possible implications of enhanced glutamate levels as in epilepsy.

  11. Dental anomalies inside the cleft region in individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Jamile; Araújo, Luana; Guimarães, Laís; Maranhão, Samário; Lopes, Gabriela; Medrado, Alena; Coletta, Ricardo; Reis, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL±P) present high frequency of dental anomalies, which may represent complicating factors for dental treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies inside cleft area in a group of Brazilians with NSCL±P. Retrospective analysis of 178 panoramic radiographs of patients aged from 12 to 45 years old and without history of tooth extraction or orthodontic treatment was performed. Association between cleft type and the prevalence of dental anomalies was assessed by chi-square test with a significance level set at p≤ 0.05. Dental anomalies were found in 88.2% (n=157) of the patients. Tooth agenesis (47.1%), giroversion (20%) and microdontia (15.5%) were the most common anomalies. Individuals with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (CLP, pdental anomalies inside cleft region in NSCL±P patients, and further demonstrated that patients with unilateral complete CLP and bilateral incomplete CLP were frequently more affected by dental anomalies. Moreover, our results demonstrate that dental anomalies should be considered during dental treatment planning of individuals affected by NSCL±P.

  12. Evidence-based medicine: cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepla, Kyle J; Gosain, Arun K

    2013-12-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe recent changes in treatment of cleft palate. 2. Compare the efficacy of different surgical treatments. 3. Assess their own knowledge of cleft palate repair. 4. Determine where further individual in-depth study and development are warranted. The Maintenance of Certification in Plastic Surgery series is designed to ensure professional development and measure continued competency within a specialty or subspecialty. The present article provides an evaluation of the interval studies regarding the management of cleft palate with a specific focus on craniofacial growth, speech outcomes, and obstructive sleep apnea since the last Maintenance of Certification in Plastic Surgery article on the subject published in 2010. This purpose of this article is to update plastic and craniomaxillofacial surgeons on recent changes in treatment of cleft palate, provide a means for accurate self-assessment, and guide further individual in-depth study and development.

  13. First branchial cleft anomalies: avoiding the misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sikka, Kapil; Sagar, Prem; Kakkar, Aanchal; Thakar, Alok

    2013-07-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies are a very rare entities accounting for less than 1 % of all branchial cleft malformations. They are often misdiagnosed for other cystic lesions occurring in parotid gland and inadequately treated (incision and drainage or incomplete excision) leading to multiple recurrences. We report a series of four patients who were previously operated (incision and drainage) for misdiagnosed first branchial cleft anomalies with subsequent recurrences. All patients underwent superficial parotidectomy with complete tract excision using facial nerve monitoring to prevent iatrogenic injury because of extensive fibrosis. We discuss the literature pertaining to first branchial cleft anomalies, their varied presentations and their relationship to facial nerve in parotid gland and importance of facial nerve monitoring in revision surgery.

  14. Cleft Lip and Palate (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... spite of these and other social, psychological, and educational challenges, kids with clefts just want to be ...

  15. Second branchial cleft cyst of the oropharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Sook; Moon Seung Il; Choi, Yun Sun; Cho, Jae Min; Cho, Sung Bum; Yoon, Sook Ja; Kim, Dai Hong; Yoon, Yong Kyu

    2001-01-01

    We report a very rare type of second branchial cleft cyst located at the oropharynx, and include a review of the literature. CT scans of the neck revealed a homogeneous non-enhancing low-density mass in the right posterolateral mucosal wall of the oropharynx. Only the peripheral capsule of the mass was enhanced. The cyst was resected perorally and proved to be a type-IV second branchial cleft cyst

  16. Second branchial cleft cyst of the oropharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Sook; Moon Seung Il; Choi, Yun Sun; Cho, Jae Min; Cho, Sung Bum; Yoon, Sook Ja; Kim, Dai Hong; Yoon, Yong Kyu [Eulji Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    We report a very rare type of second branchial cleft cyst located at the oropharynx, and include a review of the literature. CT scans of the neck revealed a homogeneous non-enhancing low-density mass in the right posterolateral mucosal wall of the oropharynx. Only the peripheral capsule of the mass was enhanced. The cyst was resected perorally and proved to be a type-IV second branchial cleft cyst.

  17. Prevalence of dental anomalies in children with cleft lip and unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullo, R; Festa, V M; Rullo, R; Addabbo, F; Chiodini, P; Vitale, M; Perillo, L

    2015-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of different types of dental anomalies in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip, unilateral cleft lip-palate, and bilateral cleft lip-palate. A sample of 90 patients (aged 4-20 years) affected by isolated cleft lip, unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate was examined. Cleft patients were classified into one of three groups according to cleft type: (1) Unilateral Cleft Lip-Palate, (2) Bilateral Cleft Lip-Palate, and (3) Cleft Lip. Intraoral exams, panoramic radiographs and dental casts, were used to analyse the prevalence of the various dental anomalies included in this study. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with cleft lip, unilateral cleft lip and palate and bilateral cleft lip and palate. The congenital absence of the cleft-side lateral incisor was observed in 40% of the sample, and a total of 30% patients showed supernumerary teeth at the incisors region. Second premolar agenesis was found in 4.4% of patients, whereas in 18.9% of the sample there was an ectopic dental eruption. Lateral or central incisors rotation was noted in 31.1% of the sample, while shape anomaly, lateral incisor microdontia, and enamel hypoplasia were detected respectively in 25.6%, 5.6% and 18.9% of cleft patients. High prevalence of different dental anomalies in children with cleft lip and unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate has been confirmed. This study, in particular, shows the presence of ectopic and rotated teeth in the cleft area.

  18. Dental Anomalies in a Brazilian Cleft Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Jamile; Mariano, Lorena C; Canguçu, Daiane; Coutinho, Thaynara S L; Hoshi, Ryuichi; Medrado, Alena Peixoto; Martelli-Junior, Hercílio; Coletta, Ricardo D; Reis, Silvia R A

    2016-11-01

      The aim of this study was to radiographically investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies outside the cleft area in a group of Brazilian patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P).   A retrospective analysis of 207 panoramic radiographs of patients with NSCL/P aged 12 to 45 years without history of tooth extraction and orthodontic treatment was performed.   Dental anomalies were found in 75.4% of the patients, and tooth agenesis (29.2%) and supernumerary tooth (2.6%) were the most common anomalies. The risk of agenesis was higher among the individuals with cleft palate (CP) compared with individuals with cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) (agenesis: CP versus CL: odds ratio 6.27, 95% confidence interval 2.21-17.8, P = .0003; CP versus CLP: odds ratio 2.94; 95% confidence interval 1.27-6.81, P = .01). The frequency of dental agenesis was higher in patients with unilateral complete CLP (agenesis: P dental agenesis (P dental anomalies in patients with NSCL/P was higher than that reported in overall population. This study found preferential associations between dental anomalies and specific extensions of NSCL/P, suggesting that dental agenesis and ectopic tooth may be part of oral cleft subphenotypes.

  19. Cleft sidedness and congenitally missing teeth in patients with cleft lip and palate patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Jamilian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cleft sidedness, and the number of congenitally missing teeth in regard to cleft type and gender. Methods The charts, models, radiographs, and intraoral photographs of 201 cleft patients including 131 males with the mean age of 12.3 ± 4 years and 70 females with the mean age of 12.6 ± 3.9 years were used for the study. T test, Chi-square, and binomial tests were used for assessment of the data. Results and conclusions One hundred forty-eight of the subjects suffered from cleft lip and palate followed by 41 subjects who suffered from cleft lip and alveolus. Chi-square test did not show any significant difference between the genders. Binomial test showed that left-sided cleft was more predominant in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients (P < 0.001. This study also showed that the upper lateral incisors were the most commonly missing teeth in the cleft area.

  20. Dental fear in children with a cleft lip and/or cleft Palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, W.E.J.C.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the level of dental fear in children with a cleft lip and/or palate, to compare this level with that of a normative group testing the hypothesis that children with a cleft lip and/or palate have a higher level of dental anxiety than children from the general population, and to

  1. Lower incidence of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... In India, as in other parts of the world, nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL±P) is a highly prevalent birth defect, its incidence in males being twice that in females. A case–control association study has been carried out with respect to homocysteine level and MTHFR C677T, A1298C and ...

  2. Not All Clefts Are Created Equal: Patterns of Hospital-Based Care Use among Children with Cleft Lip and Palate within 4 Years of Initial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligh, Cassandra A; Fox, Justin P; Swanson, Jordan; Yu, Jason W; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-06-01

    This study compares hospital-based care and associated charges among children with cleft lip, cleft palate, or both, and identifies subgroups generating the greatest cumulative hospital charges. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of cleft lip, cleft palate, or cleft lip and palate who underwent initial surgery from 2006 to 2008 in four U.S. states. Primary outcome was hospital-based care-emergency, outpatient, inpatient-within 4 years of surgery. Regression models compared outcomes and classification tree analysis identified patients at risk for being in the highest quartile of cumulative hospital charges. The authors identified 4571 children with cleft lip (18.2 percent), cleft palate (39.2 percent), or cleft lip and palate (42.6 percent). Medical comorbidity was frequent across all groups, with feeding difficulty (cleft lip, 2.4 percent; cleft palate, 13.4 percent; cleft lip and palate, 6.0 percent; p cleft lip, 1.8 percent; cleft palate, 9.4 percent; cleft lip and palate, 3.6 percent; p cleft palate were most likely to return to the hospital (p cleft lip group, yet comparable among those with cleft palate and cleft lip and palate (p cleft palate cohort (cleft lip, $56,966; cleft palate, $106,090; cleft lip and palate, $91,263; p cleft lip versus cleft palate with or without cleft lip), and age at initial surgery were the most important factors associated with the highest quartile of cumulative hospital charges. Cleft lip and palate children experience a high rate of hospital-based care early in life, with degree of medical comorbidity being a significant burden. Understanding this relationship and associated needs may help deliver more efficient, patient-centered care.

  3. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  4. The Primary Care Pediatrician and the Care of Children With Cleft Lip and/or Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Jacob, Lisa S; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2017-05-01

    Orofacial clefts, specifically cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P), are among the most common congenital anomalies. CL/P vary in their location and severity and comprise 3 overarching groups: cleft lip (CL), cleft lip with cleft palate (CLP), and cleft palate alone (CP). CL/P may be associated with one of many syndromes that could further complicate a child's needs. Care of patients with CL/P spans prenatal diagnosis into adulthood. The appropriate timing and order of specific cleft-related care are important factors for optimizing outcomes; however, care should be individualized to meet the specific needs of each patient and family. Children with CL/P should receive their specialty cleft-related care from a multidisciplinary cleft or craniofacial team with sufficient patient and surgical volume to promote successful outcomes. The primary care pediatrician at the child's medical home has an essential role in making a timely diagnosis and referral; providing ongoing health care maintenance, anticipatory guidance, and acute care; and functioning as an advocate for the patient and a liaison between the family and the craniofacial/cleft team. This document provides background on CL/P and multidisciplinary team care, information about typical timing and order of cleft-related care, and recommendations for cleft/craniofacial teams and primary care pediatricians in the care of children with CL/P. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in WNT genes with the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafighdoost, Houshang; Hashemi, Mohammad; Asadi, Hossein; Bahari, Gholamreza

    2018-01-22

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate is a common congenital deformity worldwide with multifaceted etiology. Interaction of genes and environmental factors has been indicated to be related with susceptibility to nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Some WNT genes which are involved in craniofacial embryogenesis may play a key role in the pathogenesis of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. In the present study, we aimed to inspect the relationship between WNT3 (rs3809857 and rs9890413), WNT3A (rs752107 and rs3121310), and WNT10a rs201002930 (c.392 C>T) polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in an Iranian population. The present case-control study was carried out on 120 unrelated nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate patients and 112 healthy subjects. The variants were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The findings suggest that the rs3809857 polymorphism significantly decreased the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in codominant (odds ratio = 0.16, 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.75, P = 0.020, TT vs GG), recessive (odds ratio = 0.16, 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.72, P = 0.009, TT vs GG + GT) inheritance models. The rs9890413 variant marginally decreased the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in codominant (odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.99, P = 0.047, AG vs AA) model. Regarding C392T variant, the findings revealed that this variant significantly decreased the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in codominant (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.58, P = 0.002, CT vs CC) and allele (odds ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval = 0.11-0.62, P = 0.002, T vs C) models. No significant association was observed between the rs752107 and rs3121310 variants

  6. Binocular Rivalry in a Competitive Neural Network with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2010-01-01

    We study binocular rivalry in a competitive neural network with synaptic depression. In particular, we consider two coupled hypercolums within primary visual cortex (V1), representing orientation selective cells responding to either left or right eye inputs. Coupling between hypercolumns is dominated by inhibition, especially for neurons with dissimilar orientation preferences. Within hypercolumns, recurrent connectivity is excitatory for similar orientations and inhibitory for different orientations. All synaptic connections are modifiable by local synaptic depression. When the hypercolumns are driven by orthogonal oriented stimuli, it is possible to induce oscillations that are representative of binocular rivalry. We first analyze the occurrence of oscillations in a space-clamped version of the model using a fast-slow analys is, taking advantage of the fact that depression evolves much slower than population activity. We th en analyze the onset of oscillations in the full spatially extended system by carrying out a piecewise smooth stability analysis of single (winner-take-all) and double (fusion) bumps within the network. Although our stability analysis takes into account only instabilities associated with real eigenvalues, it identifies points of instability that are consistent with what is found numerically. In particular, we show that, in regions of parameter space where double bumps are unstable and no single bumps exist, binocular rivalry can arise as a slow alternation between either population supporting a bump. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. Prevalence of orofacial clefts and risks for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in newborns at a university hospital from West Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Peña-Padilla, Christian; Olvera-Molina, Sandra; Orozco-Martín, Miriam A; García-Cruz, Diana; Ríos-Flores, Izabel M; Gómez-Rodríguez, Brian Gabriel; Rivas-Soto, Gemma; Pérez-Molina, J Jesús

    2018-02-19

    We determined the overall prevalence of typical orofacial clefts and the potential risks for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a university hospital from West México. For the prevalence, 227 liveborn infants with typical orofacial clefts were included from a total of 81,193 births occurred during the period 2009-2016 at the "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" Civil Hospital of Guadalajara (Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico). To evaluate potential risks, a case-control study was conducted among 420 newborns, including only those 105 patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (cases), and 315 infants without birth defects (controls). Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis expressed as adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals . The overall prevalence for typical orofacial clefts was 28 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval: 24.3-31.6), or 1 per 358 live births. The mean values for the prepregnancy weight, antepartum weight, and pre-pregnancy body mass index were statistically higher among the mothers of cases. Infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate had a significantly higher risk for previous history of any type of congenital anomaly (adjusted odds ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-5.1), history of a relative with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (adjusted odds ratio: 19.6; 95% confidence interval: 8.2-47.1), and first-trimester exposures to progestogens (adjusted odds ratio: 6.8; 95% CI 1.8-25.3), hyperthermia (adjusted odds ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-10.6), and common cold (adjusted odds ratio: 3.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-11.9). These risks could have contributed to explain the high prevalence of orofacial clefts in our region of Mexico, emphasizing that except for history of relatives with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, most are susceptible of modification. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  8. Midline nasal dermoid cyst with Tessier's 0 cleft

    OpenAIRE

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh

    2014-01-01

    This is a rare anomaly of midline nasal dermoid cyst (NDC) along with Tessier's 0 cleft. Midline NDCs present most commonly result from aberrant embryological development, and most commonly give rise to bifid nasal deformity resulting in midline cleft of the nose. Craniofacial clefts are among the most disfiguring of all facial anomalies. They exist in a multitude of patterns and with varying degrees of severity. The bifid nose deformity is generally an indicator of Tessier number 0 cleft. We...

  9. Unusual extension of the first branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Mehmet; Korkut, Nazim; Güvenç, M Güven; Acioğlu, Engin; Yilmaz, Süleyman; Cevikbaş, Uğur

    2006-03-01

    First branchial cleft is the only branchial structure that persists as the external ear canal, while all other clefts are resorbed. Incomplete obliteration and the degree of closure cause the varied types of first branchial cleft anomalies. They were classified based on the anatomical and histological features. We present an unusual type of first branchial cleft anomaly involving the external auditory canal, the middle ear and the nasopharynx through the eustachian tube.

  10. Gene p63: In ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia clefting, ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia, Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straten, Cornelia; Butow, Kurt-W

    2013-01-01

    An analysis was made of three different syndromes associated with p63 gene mutations, known as ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome (EEC), ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome (AEC or Hay-Wells) and Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome (RHS). The postoperative complications associated with their cleft reconstructions were also evaluated. Extensive demographic information, in particular of the clinical appearances, associated malformations, and the types and complications of the reconstructive surgical procedures, were recorded of these syndromic cases occurring in a database of 3621 facial cleft deformity patients. The data was analyzed using the Microsoft Excel program. A total of 10 (0.28%) cases of p63 associated syndromes were recorded: EEC (6), RHS (3), and AEC (1). The following clinical cleft appearances were noted - EEC = 6: CLA 1 -right side unilateral (female); CLAP 4 - right side (1) + left side (1) unilateral (male + female); bilateral (2) (males); hPsP 1 (female) (divided in 3 Black, 2 White, 1 Indian); RHS = 3: CLAP 2 (White males); hPsP 1 (White female); AEC = 1: CLAP bilateral (White male). Other features of the syndromes were: skin, hand, foot, tooth, hair and nail involvement, and light sensitivity. Postoperative complications included: (i) stenosis of nasal opening, especially after reconstruction of the bilateral cleft lip and the columella lengthening (2 cases), (ii) premaxilla-prolabium fusion (2 cases), (iii) repeated occurrence of oro-nasal fistula in the hard palate (4 cases), and (iv) dysgnathial development of midfacial structures (3 cases). Three different p63 associated syndromes (EEC, AEC, and RHS) were diagnosed (0.27% of the total facial cleft deformities database). The majority of the cases presented with a bilateral CLAP in males only. A number of females and males had unilateral CLA. The hPsP-cleft was recorded in females only. The associated ectodermal component most probably had a profoundly negative influence

  11. Synaptic control of motoneuronal excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Funk, G D; Bayliss, D A

    2000-01-01

    important in understanding the transformation of neural activity to motor behavior. Here, we review recent studies on the control of motoneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties. We first present a background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization......, and membrane properties, both passive and active. We then describe the general anatomical organization of synaptic input to motoneurons, followed by a description of the major transmitter systems that affect motoneuronal excitability, including ligands, receptor distribution, pre- and postsynaptic actions...... and norepinephrine, and neuropeptides, as well as the glutamate and GABA acting at metabotropic receptors, modulate motoneuronal excitability through pre- and postsynaptic actions. Acting principally via second messenger systems, their actions converge on common effectors, e.g., leak K(+) current, cationic inward...

  12. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through...... individual fusion events using time-lapse and antagonists of CD47 and syncytin-1. All time-lapse recordings have been studied by two independent observers. A total of 1808 fusion events were analyzed. The present study shows that CD47 and syncytin-1 have different roles in osteoclast fusion depending...... broad contact surfaces between the partners' cell membrane while syncytin-1 mediate fusion through phagocytic-cup like structure. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 1-8, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  13. Mothers' experiences when their infants were diagnosed with cleft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally the diagnosis of cleft lip and palate was made at birth or soon thereafter, but modern technology has led to the identification of cleft lip prenatally. The aim of this study was to describe 16 mothers' experiences of pre- and postnatal diagnosis of their infants' cleft lip and palate, and to develop clinical guidelines for ...

  14. Assessment of scar quality after cleft lip closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans, Franceline A.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.; Griot, J. P. W. Don; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess scar quality after cleft lip repair. The linear scars of patients with cleft lip with or without cleft palate were evaluated in a prospective study using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Linear regression was performed to identify which scar characteristics were important

  15. Evaluation of Teeth Development in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... in patients with cleft lip and palate using medical software ... to be used in routine dental treatment and in particular the need to do more study. ... cleft palate/lip surgery were examined. ... segment from the “evaluate” tab of the program. Teeth .... cases of cleft palate or lip. ..... of maxillary canines: A CT study.

  16. Feeding interventions for growth and development in infants with cleft lip, cleft palate or cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, Alyson; Hooper, Lee; Shaw, William C; Reilly, Sheena; Reid, Julie; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2011-02-16

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are common birth defects, affecting about one baby of every 700 born. Feeding these babies is an immediate concern and there is evidence of delay in growth of children with a cleft as compared to those without clefting. In an effort to combat reduced weight for height, a variety of advice and devices are recommended to aid feeding of babies with clefts. This review aims to assess the effects of these feeding interventions in babies with cleft lip and/or palate on growth, development and parental satisfaction. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 27 October 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 27 October 2010), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 27 October 2010), PsycINFO via OVID (1950 to 27 October 2010) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 27 October 2010). Attempts were made to identify both unpublished and ongoing studies. There was no restriction with regard to language of publication. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of feeding interventions for babies born with cleft lip, cleft palate or cleft lip and palate up to the age of 6 months (from term). Studies were assessed for relevance independently and in duplicate. All studies meeting the inclusion criteria were data extracted and assessed for validity independently by each member of the review team. Authors were contacted for clarification or missing information whenever possible. Five RCTs with a total of 292 babies, were included in the review. Comparisons made within the RCTs were squeezable versus rigid feeding bottles (two studies), breastfeeding versus spoon-feeding (one study) and maxillary plate versus no plate (two studies). No statistically significant differences were shown for any of the primary outcomes when comparing bottle types, although squeezable bottles were less likely to require

  17. Occlusal Classification in Relation to Original Cleft Width in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Andrew H; Patel, Kamlesh B; Maschhoff, Clayton W; Huebener, Donald V; Skolnick, Gary B; Naidoo, Sybill D; Woo, Albert S

    2015-09-01

    To determine a correlation between the width of the cleft palate measured at the time of lip adhesion, definitive lip repair, and palatoplasty and the subsequent occlusal classification of patients born with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Retrospective, observational study. Referral, urban, children's hospital Participants : Dental models and records of 270 patients were analyzed. None. Angle occlusion classification. The mean age at which occlusal classification was determined was 11 ± 0.3 years. Of the children studies, 84 were diagnosed with Class I or II occlusion, 67 were diagnosed with Class III occlusion, and 119 were lost to follow up or transferred care. Mean cleft widths were significantly larger in subjects with Class III occlusion for all measures at time of lip adhesion and definitive lip repair (P cleft widths were significantly greater at the alveolus (P = .025) but not at the midportion of the hard palate (P = .35) or posterior hard palate (P = .10). Cleft widths from the lip through to the posterior hard palate are generally greater in children who are diagnosed with Class III occlusion later in life. Notably, the alveolar cleft width is significantly greater at each time point for patients who went on to develop Class III occlusion. There were no significant differences in cleft widths between patients diagnosed later with Class I and Class II occlusions.

  18. A study on the dental anomalities and site of cleft associated with cleft lip and/or palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible correlation between the dental anomalies and site of cleft in cleft lip and palate. In this study, 142 patients who had cleft lip and/or cleft palate were examined. The results are as follows. 1. The incidence of missing tooth was high in the permanent dentition as compared to the incidence in the deciduous dentition. 2. There was not much difference of incidence of supernumerary tooth between deciduous and permanent dentition in the group of patients who had cleft lip and jaw with or without cleft palate. 3. In the group of patients who had cleft lip and jaw with or without cleft palate, the frequency of incidence of cleft sides was higher in unilateral than bilateral cases. And, incidence of left sides was higher than right sides. 4. The type of cleft between central incisor and canine with missing lateral incisor was most frequent in permanent dentition and the type of cleft between central and lateral incisor was most frequent in deciduous dentition. 5. The type of cleft associated with tooth position in deciduous dentition was not almost the same in the succeeding permanent dentition.

  19. A study on the dental anomalities and site of cleft associated with cleft lip and/or palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible correlation between the dental anomalies and site of cleft in cleft lip and palate. In this study, 142 patients who had cleft lip and/or cleft palate were examined. The results are as follows. 1. The incidence of missing tooth was high in the permanent dentition as compared to the incidence in the deciduous dentition. 2. There was not much difference of incidence of supernumerary tooth between deciduous and permanent dentition in the group of patients who had cleft lip and jaw with or without cleft palate. 3. In the group of patients who had cleft lip and jaw with or without cleft palate, the frequency of incidence of cleft sides was higher in unilateral than bilateral cases. And, incidence of left sides was higher than right sides. 4. The type of cleft between central incisor and canine with missing lateral incisor was most frequent in permanent dentition and the type of cleft between central and lateral incisor was most frequent in deciduous dentition. 5. The type of cleft associated with tooth position in deciduous dentition was not almost the same in the succeeding permanent dentition.

  20. Association studies of low-frequency coding variants in nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Elizabeth J; Carlson, Jenna C; Shaffer, John R

    2017-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a group of common human birth defects with complex etiology. Although genome-wide association studies have successfully identified a number of risk loci, these loci only account for about 20% of the heritability of orofacial clefts. ...

  1. Type II first branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahdi, Akmam H; Al-Khurri, Luay E; Atto, Ghada Z; Dhaher, Ameer

    2013-01-01

    First branchial cleft anomaly is a rare disease of the head and neck. It accounts for less than 8% of all branchial abnormalities. It is classified into type I, which is thought to arise from the duplication of the membranous external ear canal and are composed of ectoderm only, and type II that have ectoderm and mesoderm. Because of its rarity, first branchial cleft anomaly is often misdiagnosed and results in inappropriate management. A 9-year-old girl presented to us with fistula in the submandibular region and discharge in the external ear. Under general anesthesia, complete surgical excision of the fistula tract was done through step-ladder approach, and the histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of type II first branchial cleft anomaly.

  2. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  3. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  4. Nasal Airway Dysfunction in Children with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: Results of a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study, with Anatomical and Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Danielle L; Allori, Alexander C; Carlson, Anna R; Pien, Irene J; Watkins, Stephanie E; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Meyer, Robert E; Pimenta, Luiz A; Strauss, Ronald P; Ramsey, Barry L; Raynor, Eileen; Marcus, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    The aesthetic aspects of the cleft lip nasal deformity have been appreciated for over a century, but the functional implications have remained largely underappreciated or misunderstood. This study describes the frequency and severity of nasal obstructive symptoms among children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, addressing the hypotheses that age, cleft type, and severity are associated with the development of nasal obstructive symptoms. Children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate and a comparison group of unaffected children born from 1997 to 2003 were identified through the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program and birth certificates. Nasal airway obstruction was measured using the validated Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale. The survey was completed by parental proxy for 176 children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate and 333 unaffected children. Nasal obstructive symptoms were more frequently reported in cleft lip with cleft palate compared with unaffected children (p cleft lip with or without alveolus and isolated cleft palate were not statistically different from unaffected children. Patients with unilateral cleft lip with cleft palate were found to be more severely affected than bilateral cases. Nasal obstruction was observed in early childhood, although severity worsened in adolescence. This population-based study reports a high prevalence of nasal obstructive symptoms in children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate based on type and severity of the cleft. The authors encourage cleft teams to consider using this or similar screening methods to identify which children may benefit from functional rhinoplasty. Risk, I.

  5. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  6. The cumulative analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture involves synaptic remodeling in the hippocampal CA3 region☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiuling; Liu, Tao; Chen, Shuping; Gao, Yonghui; Wang, Junying; Qiao, Lina; Liu, Junling

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture at bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) once a day for 14 consecutive days in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. In addition, concomitant changes in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression and synaptic ultrastructure of neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region were examined. The thermal pain threshold (paw withdrawal latency) was increased significantly in both groups at 2 weeks after electroacupuncture intervention compared with 2 days of electroacupuncture. In ovariectomized rats with chronic constriction injury, the analgesic effect was significantly reduced. Electroacupuncture for 2 weeks significantly diminished the injury-induced increase in synaptic cleft width and thinning of the postsynaptic density, and it significantly suppressed the down-regulation of intracellular calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in the hippocampal CA3 region. Repeated electroacupuncture intervention had a cumulative analgesic effect on injury-induced neuropathic pain reactions, and it led to synaptic remodeling of hippocampal neurons and upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25657670

  7. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  8. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  9. Parents' age and the risk of oral clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, C.; Skytthe, A.; Vach, W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some malformations are clearly associated with older maternal age, but the effect of older age of the father is less certain. The aim of this study is to determine the degree to which maternal age and paternal age independently influence the risk of having a child with oral clefts....... In a joint analysis, both maternal and paternal ages were associated with the risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, but the contribution of each was dependent on the age of the other parent. In the analysis of cleft palate only, the effect of maternal age disappeared, leaving only paternal age...... as a risk factor. CONCLUSION: Both high maternal age and high paternal age were associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Higher paternal age but not maternal age increased the risk of cleft palate only....

  10. Genetic survey of a group of children with clefting: implications for genetic counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, Y.; Kors, N.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    A cleft lip, cleft palate, or both are associated with a high frequency of other anomalies. This study gives an inventory of associated anomalies in a consecutive group of children (n = 36) with clefts, referred to a local multidisciplinary cleft team in the Netherlands. In 47.2% of cleft patients

  11. Hearing outcomes in patients with cleft lip/palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuladottir, Hildur; Sivertsen, Ase; Assmus, Jorg; Remme, Asa Rommetveit; Dahlen, Marianne; Vindenes, Hallvard

    2015-03-01

    Objective : Children with cleft lip and palate or cleft palate only have a high incidence of conductive hearing loss from otitis media with effusion. Studies demonstrating longitudinal results are lacking. This study was undertaken to investigate long-term longitudinal hearing outcomes of children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate and cleft palate only. Design : Retrospective chart review. Setting : Clinical charts of patients born with cleft lip and palate or cleft palate only in 1985 to 1994 who were referred to the cleft team in Bergen, Norway. Study findings include 15 years of follow-up. Participants : The study population consisted of 317 children of whom 159 had nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate and 158 had nonsyndromic cleft palate. Main Outcome Measures : Pure tone average calculated from pure tone audiometry at ages 4, 6, and 15 years. Results : The median pure tone average significantly improved with increasing age. For the cleft lip and palate group, the median pure tone average at ages 4, 6, and 15 years was 16 dB hearing level (HL), 13 dB HL, and 9 dB HL, respectively (P ≤ .001). In the cleft palate group the median pure tone average at ages 4, 6, and 15 years was 15 dB HL, 12 dB HL, and 9 dB HL, respectively (P ≤ .001). There was no significant difference in the hearing levels between the two groups. Patients who had surgical closure of the palate at age 18 months had a significantly better pure tone average outcome at age 15 compared with patients who had surgery at 12 months. Conclusions : Hearing improves significantly from childhood to adolescence in patients with cleft lip and palate and cleft palate only.

  12. Cleft palate with/without cleft lip in French children: radiographic evaluation of prevalence, location and coexistence of dental anomalies inside and outside cleft region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Francesca; Nguyen, Laure; Foumou, Nathalie; Bocquet, Emmanuelle; Dursun, Elisabeth

    2018-03-01

    Prevalence of dental anomalies in cleft patients is higher than that in general population. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental anomalies and their coexistence in French children with cleft and, then, to investigate the relation between the dental anomalies and the cleft type. Seventy-four non-syndromic cleft patients (6-16 years old) from Lille Regional University and Mondor-Chenevier Hospitals (France) were included. Clefts were classified as right/left unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) and cleft palate (CP). Dental anomalies were investigated on panoramic radiographs and categorized as agenesis, supernumerary teeth, incisor rotations, impacted canines and shape anomalies. Prevalence and gender distribution of dental anomalies, mean number of affected teeth per patient, agenesis occurrence and location, and coexistence of dental anomalies were analysed by cleft type. 96.0% of patients presented at least one dental anomaly (agenesis 83.8%, incisor rotations 25.7%, shape anomalies 21.6%, impacted canines 18.9%, supernumerary teeth 8.1%). BCLP patients had a higher number of affected teeth, and left UCLP patients had a higher one compared to right UCLP patients. Distribution of inside (45.3%) and outside (54.7%) cleft region agenesis was similar. Adjacent (31.8%) and not adjacent (33.3%) combined dental anomalies were often encountered. Dental anomalies were localized inside as well as outside cleft region and were often associated with each other. BCLP patients were more affected. Early radiographic evaluation allows a comprehensive diagnosis of inside and outside cleft region anomalies, required for the multidisciplinary dental treatment.

  13. Lower lip deformity in patients with cleft and non-cleft Class III malocclusion before and after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Seok; Koh, Kyung S; Choi, Jong Woo

    2015-10-01

    Orthognathic surgery does not yield the same cosmetic benefits in patients with Class III jaw deformities associated with clefts as for patients without clefts. Preoperative upper lip tightness caused by cleft lip repair may not fully explain this difference, suggesting that a lower lip deformity is present. The study compared the outcomes of orthognathic surgery in patients with cleft and non-cleft Class III malocclusion, focusing on lip relationship. The surgical records of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion, including 25 with and 25 without clefts, who had undergone orthognathic surgery, were retrospectively analyzed. Lateral cephalometric tracings, preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively, were superimposed to analyze the soft tissue changes at seven reference points. At 6 months after surgery, there were no significant differences in skeletal location, whereas the soft tissues of the lower lip differed significantly between patients with and without cleft (p=0.002), indicating the persistence of a lower lip deformity in cleft patients. Moreover, the soft tissues of the lower lip receded in non-cleft patients and protruded in cleft patients after orthognathic surgery. Lower lip deformity and upper lip tightness may result in an unsatisfactory relationship between the upper and lower lips of patients with cleft-related jaw deformity after orthognathic surgery. Other factors were less important than the pathology of the lower lip. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fetal cleft lip with and without cleft palate: Comparison between MR imaging and US for prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guangbin, E-mail: wgb7932596@hotmail.com [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan, 250021 (China); Shan Ruiqin [Jinan Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Jinan (China); Zhao Lianxin; Zhu Xiangyu; Zhang Xinjuan [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan, 250021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of fetal CL/CP and evaluate its diagnostic value. Methods and materials: Twelve fetuses with CL/CP diagnosed by transabdominal US underwent MR imaging within 2 days of US. Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequence on T2-weighted images was performed on sagittal, coronal, and axial planes anatomic to the fetuses during maternal breath holding. US and MR imaging findings were compared with final diagnoses obtained from post-natal physical examination or fetal autopsy. Results: Final diagnoses confirmed incomplete midline cleft lip (n = 1), unilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 7), bilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 1), midline cleft lip and palate (n = 3). US and MR imaging diagnosed all 12 fetuses with cleft lip and the laterality. 5 (45.5%) of 11 cleft palates were identified with US, 2 of 7 fetuses with unilateral cleft palate, 2 of 3 fetuses with midline cleft palate, and one fetus with bilateral cleft palate. On MR imaging, 10 (91%) of 11 cleft palates were correctly detected. One fetus with unilateral cleft palate was not detected. No false-positives occurred. Conclusion: MR imaging is valuable for diagnosis of fetal CL/CP. It can demonstrate additional findings and provide more information compared with US.

  15. Fetal cleft lip with and without cleft palate: Comparison between MR imaging and US for prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangbin; Shan Ruiqin; Zhao Lianxin; Zhu Xiangyu; Zhang Xinjuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of fetal CL/CP and evaluate its diagnostic value. Methods and materials: Twelve fetuses with CL/CP diagnosed by transabdominal US underwent MR imaging within 2 days of US. Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequence on T2-weighted images was performed on sagittal, coronal, and axial planes anatomic to the fetuses during maternal breath holding. US and MR imaging findings were compared with final diagnoses obtained from post-natal physical examination or fetal autopsy. Results: Final diagnoses confirmed incomplete midline cleft lip (n = 1), unilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 7), bilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 1), midline cleft lip and palate (n = 3). US and MR imaging diagnosed all 12 fetuses with cleft lip and the laterality. 5 (45.5%) of 11 cleft palates were identified with US, 2 of 7 fetuses with unilateral cleft palate, 2 of 3 fetuses with midline cleft palate, and one fetus with bilateral cleft palate. On MR imaging, 10 (91%) of 11 cleft palates were correctly detected. One fetus with unilateral cleft palate was not detected. No false-positives occurred. Conclusion: MR imaging is valuable for diagnosis of fetal CL/CP. It can demonstrate additional findings and provide more information compared with US.

  16. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  17. Isolated cleft palate requires different surgical protocols depending on cleft type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elander, Anna; Persson, Christina; Lilja, Jan; Mark, Hans

    2017-08-01

    A staged protocol for isolated cleft palate (CPO), comprising the early repair of the soft palate at 6 months and delayed repair of the eventual cleft in the hard palate until 4 years, designed to improve maxillary growth, was introduced. CPO is frequently associated with additional congenital conditions. The study evaluates this surgical protocol for clefts in the soft palate (CPS) and for clefts in the hard and soft palate (CPH), with or without additional malformation, regarding primary and secondary surgical interventions needed for cleft closure and for correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency until 10 years of age. Of 94 consecutive children with CPO, divided into four groups with (+) or without (-) additional malformations (CPS + or CPS - and CPH + or CPH-), hard palate repair was required in 53%, performed with small local flaps in 21% and with bilateral mucoperiosteal flaps in 32%. The total incidence of soft palate re-repair was 2% and the fistula repair of the hard palate was 5%. The total incidence of secondary velopharyngeal surgery was 17% until 10 years, varying from 0% for CPS - and 15% for CPH-, to 28% for CPS + and 30% for CPH+. The described staged protocol for repair of CPO is found to be safe in terms of perioperative surgical results, with comparatively low need for secondary interventions. Furthermore, the study indicates that the presence of a cleft in the hard palate and/or additional conditions have a negative impact on the development of the velopharyngeal function.

  18. Early correction of septum JJ deformity in unilateral cleft lip-cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Paolo G; Pinto, Valentina; Negosanti, Luca; Firinu, Antonella; Fabbri, Erich

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of patients affected by unilateral cleft lip-cleft palate is based on a multistage procedure of surgical and nonsurgical treatments in accordance with the different types of deformity. Over time, the surgical approach for the correction of a nasal deformity in a cleft lip-cleft palate has changed notably and the protocol of treatment has evolved continuously. Not touching the cleft lip nose in the primary repair was dogmatic in the past, even though this meant severe functional, aesthetic, and psychological problems for the child. McComb reported a new technique for placement of the alar cartilage during lip repair. The positive results of this new approach proved that the early correction of the alar cartilage anomaly is essential for harmonious facial growth with stable results and without discomfort for the child. The authors applied the same principles used for the treatment of the alar cartilage for correction of the septum deformity, introducing a primary rhinoseptoplasty during the cheiloplasty. The authors compared two groups: group A, which underwent septoplasty during cleft lip repair; and group B, which did not. After the anthropometric evaluation of the two groups, the authors observed better symmetry regarding nasal shape, correct growth of the nose, and a strong reduction of the nasal deformity in the patients who underwent primary JJ septum deformity correction. The authors can assume that, similar to the alar cartilage, the septum can be repositioned during the primary surgery, without causing growth anomaly, improving the morphologic/functional results.

  19. Comparative Assessment of the Cleft Profile by Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate, Cleft Surgeons, and Lay People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian; Ma, Lian; Wang, Zhi

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare subjective assessments among patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP), cleft surgeons, and lay people regarding the soft tissue lateral profile of CLP patients. We also investigated the correlations between subjective assessments and photogrammetric measurements. A total of 150 CLP patients who wished to have treatment for their unattractive appearance were randomly selected. A standard lateral profile color photograph was taken. Panels of three cleft surgeons, ten CLP patients, and ten lay people were selected to be assessors. They rated nasal tip projection, nasolabial esthetics, upper and lower lip esthetics, and the profile for each photograph. Three angular measurements (nasal prominence angle, nasolabial angle, and lip angle) were measured for each photograph. Kendall's coefficient of concordance and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Kendall's coefficient of concordance of nasal tip projection, nasolabial esthetics, upper and lower lip esthetics, and the profile were 0.734, 0.683, 0.828, and 0.747, respectively (p lay people (p lay people have similar attitudes to the appearance of CLP patients. Upper and lower lip esthetics is associated with the assessment of the cleft profile that is provided by CLP patients, cleft surgeons, and lay people. In addition, nasal tip projection is another determining factor for lay people. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  20. Patterns of orofacial clefting in the facial morphology of bats: a possible naturally occurring model of cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, David J A; Teeling, Emma C; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Finarelli, John A

    2016-11-01

    A normal feature of the facial anatomy of many species of bat is the presence of bony discontinuities or clefts, which bear a remarkable similarity to orofacial clefts that occur in humans as a congenital pathology. These clefts occur in two forms: a midline cleft between the two premaxillae (analogous to the rare midline craniofacial clefts in humans) and bilateral paramedian clefts between the premaxilla and the maxillae (analogous to the typical cleft lip and palate in humans). Here, we describe the distribution of orofacial clefting across major bat clades, exploring the relationship of the different patterns of clefting to feeding mode, development of the vomeronasal organ, development of the nasolacrimal duct and mode of emission of the echolocation call in different bat groups. We also present the results of detailed radiographic and soft tissue dissections of representative examples of the two types of cleft. The midline cleft has arisen independently multiple times in bat phylogeny, whereas the paramedian cleft has arisen once and is a synapomorphy uniting the Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae. In all cases examined, the bony cleft is filled in by a robust fibrous membrane, continuous with the periosteum of the margins of the cleft. In the paramedian clefts, this membrane splits to enclose the premaxilla but forms a loose fold laterally between the premaxilla and maxilla, allowing the premaxilla and nose-leaf to pivot dorsoventrally in the sagittal plane under the action of facial muscles attached to the nasal cartilages. It is possible that this is a specific adaptation for echolocation and/or aerial insectivory. Given the shared embryological location of orofacial clefts in bats and humans, it is likely that aspects of the developmental control networks that produce cleft lip and palate in humans may also be implicated in the formation of these clefts as a normal feature in some bats. A better understanding of craniofacial development in bats with and

  1. Parental Reactions to Cleft Palate Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpoelvoorde, Leah

    This literature review examines parental reactions following the birth of a cleft lip/palate child, focusing primarily on the mother's reactions. The research studies cited have explored such influences on maternal reactions as her feelings of lack of control over external forces and her feelings of guilt that the deformity was her fault. Delays…

  2. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  3. Thymic cyst: a fourth branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Smriti; MacLean, Jonathan; Sommer, Doron

    2010-01-01

    We report a unique case of a fourth branchial cleft cyst found within the thymus of an adult patient. In the literature to date, there have been no reports of such a finding in the adult population. These anomalies can often cause recurrent acute suppurative thyroiditis or recurrent deep neck abscesses. Delay in recognizing the underlying etiology can lead to significant complications.

  4. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal conditions can in principle be affected by the mother's genotype working through the prenatal environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotypes for 1536 SNPs in 357 cleft candidate genes were available from a previous analysis in which we focused on fetal gene effects [1]. ...

  5. The Chechen it-cleft construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a biclausal construction in Chechen, arguing that it can be analyzed as an it-cleft. The construction consists of a main copula clause with a covert or pronominal subject, and a temporal complement that co-indexes with an adjunct position in a relative clause that does not form a

  6. Cranio-facial clefts in pre-hispanic America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Nunez, A L; Wasiak, D T

    2015-10-01

    Among the representations of congenital malformations in Moche ceramic art, cranio-facial clefts have been portrayed in pottery found in Moche burials. These pottery vessels were used as domestic items during lifetime and funerary offerings upon death. The aim of this study was to examine archeological evidence for representations of cranio-facial cleft malformations in Moche vessels. Pottery depicting malformations of the midface in Moche collections in Lima-Peru were studied. The malformations portrayed on pottery were analyzed using the Tessier classification. Photographs were authorized by the Larco Museo.Three vessels were observed to have median cranio-facial dysraphia in association with midline cleft of the lower lip with cleft of the mandible. ML001489 portrays a median cranio-facial dysraphia with an orbital cleft and a midline cleft of the lower lip extending to the mandible. ML001514 represents a median facial dysraphia in association with an orbital facial cleft and a vertical orbital dystopia. ML001491 illustrates a median facial cleft with a soft tissue cleft. Three cases of midline, orbital and lateral facial clefts have been portrayed in Moche full-figure portrait vessels. They represent the earliest registries of congenital cranio-facial malformations in ancient Peru. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fusion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang [eds.

    2012-09-15

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  8. Levetiracetam reverses synaptic deficits produced by overexpression of SV2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nowack

    Full Text Available Levetiracetam is an FDA-approved drug used to treat epilepsy and other disorders of the nervous system. Although it is known that levetiracetam binds the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, how drug binding affects synaptic functioning remains unknown. Here we report that levetiracetam reverses the effects of excess SV2A in autaptic hippocampal neurons. Expression of an SV2A-EGFP fusion protein produced a ∼1.5-fold increase in synaptic levels of SV2, and resulted in reduced synaptic release probability. The overexpression phenotype parallels that seen in neurons from SV2 knockout mice, which experience severe seizures. Overexpression of SV2A also increased synaptic levels of the calcium-sensor protein synaptotagmin, an SV2-binding protein whose stability and trafficking are regulated by SV2. Treatment with levetiracetam rescued normal neurotransmission and restored normal levels of SV2 and synaptotagmin at the synapse. These results indicate that changes in SV2 expression in either direction impact neurotransmission, and suggest that levetiracetam may modulate SV2 protein interactions.

  9. Synaptic vesicle distribution by conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughamian, Armen J; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2012-03-02

    The equal distribution of synaptic vesicles among synapses along the axon is critical for robust neurotransmission. Wong et al. show that the continuous circulation of synaptic vesicles throughout the axon driven by molecular motors ultimately yields this even distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui

    Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external (or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. In the course of generating spontaneous activity, individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network. Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity, which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

  11. Synaptic plasticity in drug reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Danny G; Egli, Regula E; Schramm, Nicole L; Matthews, Robert T

    2002-11-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health issue worldwide. The persistence of drug craving coupled with the known recruitment of learning and memory centers in the brain has led investigators to hypothesize that the alterations in glutamatergic synaptic efficacy brought on by synaptic plasticity may play key roles in the addiction process. Here we review the present literature, examining the properties of synaptic plasticity within drug reward circuitry, and the effects that drugs of abuse have on these forms of plasticity. Interestingly, multiple forms of synaptic plasticity can be induced at glutamatergic synapses within the dorsal striatum, its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens, and the ventral tegmental area, and at least some of these forms of plasticity are regulated by behaviorally meaningful administration of cocaine and/or amphetamine. Thus, the present data suggest that regulation of synaptic plasticity in reward circuits is a tractable candidate mechanism underlying aspects of addiction.

  12. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  13. Correlations between initial cleft size and dental anomalies in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients after alveolar bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Fatima; Reiser, Erika; Thor, Andreas; Hakelius, Malin; Nowinski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate the correlation between initial cleft size and dental anomalies, and the outcome of alveolar bone grafting. Methods A total of 67 consecutive patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were included from the cleft lip and palate-craniofacial center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. All patients were operated by the same surgeon and treated according to the Uppsala protocol entailing: lip plasty at 3 months, soft palate closure at 6 months, closure of the residual cleft in the hard palate at 2 years of age, and secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) prior to the eruption of the permanent canine. Cleft size was measured on dental casts obtained at the time of primary lip plasty. Dental anomalies were registered on radiographs and dental casts obtained before bone grafting. Alveolar bone height was evaluated with the Modified Bergland Index (mBI) at 1 and 10-year follow-up. Results Anterior cleft width correlated positively with enamel hypoplasia and rotation of the central incisor adjacent to the cleft. There was, however, no correlation between initial cleft width and alveolar bone height at either 1 or 10 years follow-up. Conclusions Wider clefts did not seem to have an impact on the success of secondary alveolar bone grafting but appeared to be associated with a higher degree of some dental anomalies. This finding may have implications for patient counseling and treatment planning.

  14. Current surgical practices in cleft care: cleft palate repair techniques and postoperative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzel, Evan B; Basile, Patrick; Koltz, Peter F; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Girotto, John A

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively report practices commonly used in cleft palate repair in the United States. This study investigates current surgical techniques, postoperative care, and complication rates for cleft palate repair surgery. All 803 surgeon members of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association were sent online and/or paper surveys inquiring about their management of cleft palate patients. Three-hundred six surveys were received, a 38 percent response rate. This represented responses of surgeons from 100 percent of American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association registered cleft teams. Ninety-six percent of respondents perform a one-stage repair. Eighty-five percent of surgeons perform palate surgery when the patient is between 6 and 12 months of age. The most common one-stage repair techniques are the Bardach style (two flaps) with intravelar veloplasty and the Furlow palatoplasty. After surgery, 39 percent of surgeons discharge patients within 24 hours. Another 43 percent discharge patients within 48 hours. During postoperative management, 92 percent of respondents implement feeding restrictions. Eighty-five percent of physicians use arm restraints. Surgeons' self-reported complications rates are minimal: 54 percent report a fistula in less than 5 percent of cases. The reported need for secondary speech surgery varies widely. The majority of respondents repair clefts in one stage. The most frequently used repair techniques are the Furlow palatoplasty and the Bardach style with intravelar veloplasty. After surgery, the majority of surgeons discharge patients in 1 or 2 days, and nearly all surgeons implement feeding restrictions and the use of arm restraints. The varying feeding protocols are reviewed in this article.

  15. Definition of critical periods for Hedgehog pathway antagonist-induced holoprosencephaly, cleft lip, and cleft palate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen W Heyne

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway mediates multiple spatiotemporally-specific aspects of brain and face development. Genetic and chemical disruptions of the pathway are known to result in an array of structural malformations, including holoprosencephaly (HPE, clefts of the lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P, and clefts of the secondary palate only (CPO. Here, we examined patterns of dysmorphology caused by acute, stage-specific Hh signaling inhibition. Timed-pregnant wildtype C57BL/6J mice were administered a single dose of the potent pathway antagonist vismodegib at discrete time points between gestational day (GD 7.0 and 10.0, an interval approximately corresponding to the 15th to 24th days of human gestation. The resultant pattern of facial and brain dysmorphology was dependent upon stage of exposure. Insult between GD7.0 and GD8.25 resulted in HPE, with peak incidence following exposure at GD7.5. Unilateral clefts of the lip extending into the primary palate were also observed, with peak incidence following exposure at GD8.875. Insult between GD9.0 and GD10.0 resulted in CPO and forelimb abnormalities. We have previously demonstrated that Hh antagonist-induced cleft lip results from deficiency of the medial nasal process and show here that CPO is associated with reduced growth of the maxillary-derived palatal shelves. By defining the critical periods for the induction of HPE, CL/P, and CPO with fine temporal resolution, these results provide a mechanism by which Hh pathway disruption can result in "non-syndromic" orofacial clefting, or HPE with or without co-occurring clefts. This study also establishes a novel and tractable mouse model of human craniofacial malformations using a single dose of a commercially available and pathway-specific drug.

  16. A genome-wide association study of cleft lip with and without cleft palate identifies risk variants near MAFB and ABCA4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaty, Terri H; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L

    2010-01-01

    Case-parent trios were used in a genome-wide association study of cleft lip with and without cleft palate. SNPs near two genes not previously associated with cleft lip with and without cleft palate (MAFB, most significant SNP rs13041247, with odds ratio (OR) per minor allele = 0.704, 95% CI 0.635...

  17. Neuromodulation, development and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foehring, R C; Lorenzon, N M

    1999-03-01

    We discuss parallels in the mechanisms underlying use-dependent synaptic plasticity during development and long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in neocortical synapses. Neuromodulators, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine have also been implicated in regulating both developmental plasticity and LTP/LTD. There are many potential levels of interaction between neuromodulators and plasticity. Ion channels are substrates for modulation in many cell types. We discuss examples of modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels and the consequences for neocortical pyramidal cell firing behaviour. At the time when developmental plasticity is most evident in rat cortex, the substrate for modulation is changing as the densities and relative proportions of various ion channels types are altered during ontogeny. We discuss examples of changes in K+ and Ca2+ channels and the consequence for modulation of neuronal activity.

  18. Fusion Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans

  19. Synaptic transmission modulates while non-synaptic processes govern the transition from pre-ictal to seizure activity in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferys, John; Fox, John; Jiruska, Premysl; Kronberg, Greg; Miranda, Dolores; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Bikson, Marom

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that non-synaptic mechanisms can generate electrographic seizures after blockade of synaptic function. We investigated the interaction of intact synaptic activity with non-synaptic mechanisms in the isolated CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices using the 'elevated-K+' model of epilepsy. Elevated K+ ictal bursts share waveform features with other models of electrographic seizures, including non-synaptic models where chemical synaptic transmission is suppressed, such as t...

  20. Archwise distraction appliance: A novel approach for developing facial and dental esthetics in cleft lip and palate patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate (CLP is defined as a congenital deformity caused by failed fusion of medial and lateral palatine processes during 4-12 th weeks of embryogenesis, resulting in an open communication between oral and nasal cavities. In CLP patients, maxillary hypoplasia, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and alveolar clefts are the major issues that have to be taken care of after labiopalatal reconstruction. Rather than several consecutive operations, such as bone-grafting and orthognathic surgery, alveolar distraction can be a better treatment option in many cases. Archwise Distraction Appliance (AWDA is a rigid, tooth-borne, custom-made appliance that is developed to control the distraction vector with double archwire system. Our experiences show that the AWDA is a successful appliance in cases of distraction osteogenesis. Moreover, alveolar distraction has significant advantages over conventional treatment modalities for CLP patients.

  1. Sonographic detection of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Won [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    We report here on an extremely rare case of an intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst. Intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst is rare disease entity and it nonspecific findings on sonography, so the diagnosis of the lesion is very difficult. However, during aspiration, if pus-like materials are aspirated from a thyroid cyst, we should consider the possibility of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst in the differential diagnosis.

  2. Sonographic detection of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Won

    2006-01-01

    We report here on an extremely rare case of an intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst. Intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst is rare disease entity and it nonspecific findings on sonography, so the diagnosis of the lesion is very difficult. However, during aspiration, if pus-like materials are aspirated from a thyroid cyst, we should consider the possibility of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst in the differential diagnosis

  3. Congenital heart defects in children with oral clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahvi H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Oral clefts are among the most common congenital anomalies. Infants with oral clefts often have other associated congenital defects, especially congenital heart defects. The reported incidences and the types of associated malformations and congenital heart defects vary between different studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of associated congenital heart defects in children with oral clefts. Methods: All infants with cleft lip and palate referred to the Children's Medical Center and Bahramy; the teaching Hospitals of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences from 1991 to 2005 were prospectively enrolled in this study group. All patients were examined and noted by an academic cleft team contain; a pediatrician and a pediatric surgeon, and received cardiac consultation and echocardiography by a pediatric cardiologist. non cardiac associated anomalies, still born and patients without echocardiography were excluded from the study.  Data including age, gender, exposure to contagions and high risk elements ,consanguinity and familial history of oral cleft, type of oral cleft, results of cardiac consultation and echocardiography and associated cardiac anomalies were cumulated and analyzed by SSPS version 13.5Results: Among the 284 infants with oral clefts, 162 were male (57% and 122 were female (43%. Seventy-nine patients (27.8% had cleft lip, 84 (29.5% had cleft palate and 121 (42.6% had both cleft lip and palate. Of all the patients, 21.1% had congenital heart defects. the most common type Of these congenital heart defects(28.3%  was atrial septal defect.Conclusions: For patients with cleft lip and palate, we recommend preoperative cardiac consultation, careful examination and routine echocardiography for associated cardiac anomalies, as well as appropriate management and prophylactic antibiotic therapy for those with associated congenital heart anomaly.

  4. Spectrum of Dental Phenotypes in Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B J; Cooper, M E; Vieira, A R; Weinberg, S M; Resick, J M; Nidey, N L; Wehby, G L; Marazita, M L; Moreno Uribe, L M

    2015-07-01

    Children with oral clefts show a wide range of dental anomalies, adding complexity to understanding the phenotypic spectrum of orofacial clefting. The evidence is mixed, however, on whether the prevalence of dental anomalies is elevated in unaffected relatives and is mostly based on small samples. In the largest international cohort to date of children with nonsyndromic clefts, their relatives, and controls, this study characterizes the spectrum of cleft-related dental anomalies and evaluates whether families with clefting have a significantly higher risk for such anomalies compared with the general population. A total of 3,811 individuals were included: 660 cases with clefts, 1,922 unaffected relatives, and 1,229 controls. Dental anomalies were identified from in-person dental exams or intraoral photographs, and case-control differences were tested using χ(2) statistics. Cases had higher rates of dental anomalies in the maxillary arch than did controls for primary (21% vs. 4%, P = 3 × 10(-8)) and permanent dentitions (51% vs. 8%, P = 4 × 10(-62)) but not in the mandible. Dental anomalies were more prevalent in cleft lip with cleft palate than other cleft types. More anomalies were seen in the ipsilateral side of the cleft. Agenesis and tooth displacements were the most common dental anomalies found in case probands for primary and permanent dentitions. Compared with controls, unaffected siblings (10% vs. 2%, P = 0.003) and parents (13% vs. 7%, P = 0.001) showed a trend for increased anomalies of the maxillary permanent dentition. Yet, these differences were nonsignificant after multiple-testing correction, suggesting genetic heterogeneity in some families carrying susceptibility to both overt clefts and dental anomalies. Collectively, the findings suggest that most affected families do not have higher genetic risk for dental anomalies than the general population and that the higher prevalence of anomalies in cases is primarily a physical consequence of the

  5. MR findings of intravertebral vacuum cleft: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Suh, Soo Jhi; Suh, Kyung Jin

    1994-01-01

    Intravertebral vacuum cleft in collapsed vertebra was considered as a typical finding of avascular necrosis. However, several authors reported some cases of intravertebral vacuum cleft in primary or secondary neoplasm, or in spondylitis emphasizing the differential diagnosis. MRI is known to be a useful diagnostic modality for differentiation between benign and malignanct conditions causing vertebral collapse. We report MRI findings of two cases with intravertebral vacuum cleft diagnosed as posttraumatic collapse with avascular necrosis on radiological and clinical bases

  6. MR findings of intravertebral vacuum cleft: Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Suh, Soo Jhi [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Intravertebral vacuum cleft in collapsed vertebra was considered as a typical finding of avascular necrosis. However, several authors reported some cases of intravertebral vacuum cleft in primary or secondary neoplasm, or in spondylitis emphasizing the differential diagnosis. MRI is known to be a useful diagnostic modality for differentiation between benign and malignanct conditions causing vertebral collapse. We report MRI findings of two cases with intravertebral vacuum cleft diagnosed as posttraumatic collapse with avascular necrosis on radiological and clinical bases.

  7. Comparative Study of Folic Acid and α-Naphthoflavone on Reducing TCDD-Induced Cleft Palate in Fetal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xingang; He, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Cuiping; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Lin; Pu, Wei; Fu, Yuexian

    2017-03-01

      Tocompare the effect of folic acid (FA) and α-naphthoflavone on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced cleft palate in fetal mice.   Pregnant mice were randomly divided into seven groups. The mice treated with corn oil were used as a negative control. The mice in the other six groups were given a single dose of 28 μg/kg TCDD on GD 10 by gavage. For FA treatment, TCDD-treated mice were also dosed with 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg FA on GD 10, while for α-naphthoflavone treatment, the mice received a single dose of 50 μg/kg or 5 mg/kg α-naphthoflavone on GD 10.   Fetal mice palates were imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy on GD 13.5, GD 14.5, and GD 15.5, and cleft palate were recorded on GD 17.5. The expression of guanosine diphosphate dissociation inhibitor (GDI) in fetal mice palate on GD 15.5 was examined by immunohistochemistry.   TCDD successfully induced cleft palate. Ten mg/ml FA and 5 mg/ml α-naphthoflavone significantly reduced TCDD-induced cleft palate. FA and α-naphthoflavone partly reduced TCDD-induced cleft palate but did not affect the expression of Rho GDI.   FA and α-naphthoflavone may reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species, inhibit MEE apoptosis through anti-oxidation, and increase filopodia and MEE movement. This may result in restoration of the ultrastructure of the palatal surface to a normal state, leading to the fusion and formation of complete palate in TCDD-treated fetal mice.

  8. Variations in Velopharyngeal Structure in Adults With Repaired Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jamie L; Kotlarek, Katelyn J; Sutton, Bradley P; Kuehn, David P; Jaskolka, Michael S; Fang, Xiangming; Point, Stuart W; Rauccio, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in velopharyngeal structures between adults with repaired cleft palate and normal resonance and adults without cleft palate. Thirty-six English-speaking adults, including 6 adults (2 males and 4 females) with repaired cleft palate (M = 32.5 years of age, SD = 17.4 years) and 30 adults (15 males and 15 females) without cleft palate (M = 23.3 years of age, SD = 4.1 years), participated in the study. Fourteen velopharyngeal measures were obtained on magnetic resonance images and compared between groups (cleft and noncleft). After adjusting for body size and sex effects, there was a statistically significant difference between groups for 10 out of the 14 velopharyngeal measures. Compared to those without cleft palate, participants with repaired cleft palate had a significantly shorter hard palate height and length, shorter levator muscle length, shorter intravelar segment, more acute levator angles of origin, shorter and thinner velum, and greater pharyngeal depth. Although significant differences were evident in the cleft palate group, individuals displayed normal resonance. These findings suggest that a wide variability in velopharyngeal anatomy can occur in the presence of normal resonance, particularly for those with repaired cleft palate. Future research is needed to understand how anatomic variability impacts function, such as during speech.

  9. Branchial cleft anomalies and their mimics: computed tomographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnsberger, H.R.; Mancuso, A.A.; Muraki, A.S.; Byrd, S.E.; Dillon, W.P.; Johnson, L.P.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    A review was made of the clinical records and radiographic examinations of 38 patients with neck lesions clinically suspected of being branchial cleft anomalies. The impact of computed tomography in this sometimes confusing clinical picture was assessed and CT criteria for diagnosing branchial cleft anomalies (BCAs) and differentiating them from their mimics were identified. Seventeen branchial cleft anomalies and 21 BCA mimics were evaluated. A definitive CT diagnosis of second branchial cleft cysts based on characteristic morphology, location, and displacement of surrounding structures was possible in 80% of cases. CT was found to be the best radiographic examination in making a definitive diagnosis of BCA if a neck mass was present

  10. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and palate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Sharma Dhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia, and facial clefting along with some associated features. Presence of all the three major features in a single individual is extremely rare. We report a case of 4 year 11 months old child with EEC syndrome having ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and cleft palate and ectrodactyly with some associated features. Clinical features, diagnosis and role of a dentist in the multidisciplinary treatment approach have been elaborated in this case report.

  11. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and palate syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Reema Sharma; Bora, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia, and facial clefting along with some associated features. Presence of all the three major features in a single individual is extremely rare. We report a case of 4 year 11 months old child with EEC syndrome having ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and cleft palate and ectrodactyly with some associated features. Clinical features, diagnosis and role of a dentist in the multidisciplinary treatment approach have been elaborated in this case report.

  12. The development of speech production in children with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of speech development of children with cleft palate +/- cleft lip. The chapter will begin with a discussion of the impact of clefting on speech. Next, we will provide a brief description of those factors impacting speech development...... for this population of children. Finally, research examining various aspects of speech development of infants and young children with cleft palate (birth to age five) will be reviewed. This final section will be organized by typical stages of speech sound development (e.g., prespeech, the early word stage...

  13. Changing lifestyles and oral clefts occurrence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    ; furthermore, smoking among pregnant women decreased considerably. Design and settings There are few places in which ecological studies of oral clefts are possible. Denmark provides a particularly good setting for this kind of study, due to a high ascertainment and a centralized registration of cleft cases...... through the last 65 years. Participants Cleft occurrence in Denmark 1936 to 1987 has previously been reported. Here we extend the study to include all live-born children with oral clefts born in Denmark in 1988 throguh 2001. Among a total of 992,727 live births 1332 children with CL(P) were born during...

  14. Risk factors and comorbidities in Brazilian patients with orofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heglayne Pereira Vital da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Considering that environmental risk factors substantially contribute to the etiology of orofacial clefts and that knowledge about the characteristics and comorbidities associated with oral clefts is fundamental to promoting better quality of life, this study aimed to describe the risk factors, main characteristics, and comorbidities of a group of patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P from Rio Grande do Norte (RN, Brazil. Data were obtained from 173 patients with CL/P using a form from the Brazilian database on Orofacial Clefts. Most patients were male with cleft lip and palate and had a normal size and weight at birth; presented few neonatal intercurrent events; and had anemia and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as main associated comorbidities. They also required timely surgical rehabilitation and multidisciplinary care to stimulate their neuropsychomotor development. In addition, a high frequency of familial recurrence and of parental consanguinity was evidenced in the studied population, especially for the cleft lip and cleft palate type. Other relevant findings were the considerable maternal exposure to alcohol, infections, smoking, and hypertension, as well as low supplementation with vitamins and minerals and deliberate consumption of analgesics, antibiotics, and antihypertensives during pregnancy. Characterization of the CL/P patient profile is essential for the planning of health services and integration among the health professionals involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these malformations. Our results reinforce the need for additional research to confirm the association between environmental factors and the development of orofacial clefts.

  15. Thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This document takes stock of the two ways of thermonuclear fusion research explored today: magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion. The basic physical principles are recalled first: fundamental nuclear reactions, high temperatures, elementary properties of plasmas, ignition criterion, magnetic confinement (charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, confinement and Tokamak principle, heating of magnetized plasmas (ohmic, neutral particles, high frequency waves, other heating means), results obtained so far (scale laws and extrapolation of performances, tritium experiments, ITER project), inertial fusion (hot spot ignition, instabilities, results (Centurion-Halite program, laser experiments). The second part presents the fusion reactor and its associated technologies: principle (tritium production, heat source, neutron protection, tritium generation, materials), magnetic fusion (superconducting magnets, divertor (role, principle, realization), inertial fusion (energy vector, laser adaptation, particle beams, reaction chamber, stresses, chamber concepts (dry and wet walls, liquid walls), targets (fabrication, injection and pointing)). The third chapter concerns the socio-economic aspects of thermonuclear fusion: safety (normal operation and accidents, wastes), costs (costs structure and elementary comparison, ecological impact and external costs). (J.S.)

  16. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  17. Intrasellar abscess simultaning a Rathke's cleft cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Toshihiko; Murakawa, Takatsugu; Iwai, Tomohiko; Hirata, Toshifumi; Sakai, Noboru

    1983-01-01

    Both symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst and intrasellar abscess are exceedingly rare. We present a case of intrasellar abscess developed in a Rathke's cleft cyst. A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with complaints of polyuria, polydipsia, headache, and remittent fever. On admission, his neurological and ophthalmological examination was normal. Panhypopituitarism was revealed by endocrine testing. Plain-skull X-ray films showed no abnormalities, but a CT scan showed a small cystic lesion with a ring-like enhancement in the sella turcica and paranasal sinusitis. Further sagittal reconstruction of the CT scan demonstrated that the diaphragma sellae protruded upwards and that the pituitary stalk was markedly enhanced and enlarged. After the sinusitis improved, transsphenoidal surgery was carried out. Approximately 1 ml of the purulent contents were aspirated from the intrasellar region. The postoperative course was uneventful. A histological examination of the abscess wall revealed a ciliated columnar epithelium and inflammatory-cell infiltration beneath the epithelium. (author)

  18. A study of nasal cavity volume in patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kenichi

    1996-01-01

    Nasal cavity volume was studied in 11 patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging. The areas of horizontal sections of the nasal cavity on the cleft and non-cleft sides were measured with the help of a personal computer and image analyzing software. Nasal cavity volume was determined by integrated volume calculation. The volume of each side was measured before and after cleft lip repair. Before cleft lip repair nasal cavity volume on the non-cleft side was larger than on the cleft side. However there was no significant difference in the volume of the cleft and non-cleft sides after cleft lip repair. (author)

  19. A study of nasal cavity volume in patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kenichi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-02-01

    Nasal cavity volume was studied in 11 patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging. The areas of horizontal sections of the nasal cavity on the cleft and non-cleft sides were measured with the help of a personal computer and image analyzing software. Nasal cavity volume was determined by integrated volume calculation. The volume of each side was measured before and after cleft lip repair. Before cleft lip repair nasal cavity volume on the non-cleft side was larger than on the cleft side. However there was no significant difference in the volume of the cleft and non-cleft sides after cleft lip repair. (author)

  20. Fenda cervical mediana Midline cervical cleft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Tagliarini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A fenda mediana congênita do pescoço é anomalia rara da parte ventral do pescoço. Em torno de 100 casos foram relatados na literatura, sendo o primeiro caso descrito por Bailey em 1924. Este defeito é relatado em associação com fenda mediana do lábio inferior, fenda da mandíbula e da língua, e hipoplasia de outras estruturas cervicais medianas. Acredita-se que seja uma malformação originada dos dois primeiros arcos branquiais. O tratamento da lesão consiste na excisão vertical da lesão e reparação do defeito resultante. A maioria dos autores recomenda evitar a reparação simples da lesão, preferindo a fechamento com a utilização de zetaplastia múltiplas, com o intuito de evitar fibrose e retração local. Neste artigo relatamos dois casos dessa anomalia e realizamos revisão bibliográfica.The midline cervical cleft is an unusual congenital anomaly of the ventral neck and fewer than 100 cases have been reported overall and the first described by Bailey in 1924. This anomaly is report in association with median cleft of lower lip, cleft mandible and tongue, and hypoplasia of other midline neck structures. Its considered an anomaly originated from the two first branchial arches. The treatment of this cleft is a vertical complete excision and a closure with multiple Z-plasty. Many authors recommend avoid linear closure and prefer multiple Z-plasty for evicted fibrosis and local retraction. In this paper we report 2 case of this anomaly and the literature is reviewed.

  1. Economic Valuation of the Global Burden of Cleft Disease Averted by a Large Cleft Charity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, Dan; Lin, Dan; Corlew, Scott

    2016-05-01

    This study attempts to quantify the burden of disease averted through the global surgical work of a large cleft charity, and estimate the economic impact of this effort over a 10-year period. Anonymized data of all primary cleft lip and cleft palate procedures in the Smile Train database were analyzed and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) calculated using country-specific life expectancy tables, established disability weights, and estimated success of surgery and residual disability probabilities; multiple age weighting and discounting permutations were included. Averted DALYs were calculated and gross national income (GNI) per capita was then multiplied by averted DALYs to estimate economic gains. 548,147 primary cleft procedures were performed in 83 countries between 2001 and 2011. 547,769 records contained complete data available for the study; 58 % were cleft lip and 42 % cleft palate. Averted DALYs ranged between 1.46 and 4.95 M. The mean economic impact ranged between USD 5510 and 50,634 per person. This corresponded to a global economic impact of between USD 3.0B and 27.7B USD, depending on the DALY and GNI values used. The estimated cost of providing these procedures based on an average reimbursement rate was USD 197M (0.7-6.6 % of the estimated impact). The immense economic gain realized through procedures focused on a small proportion of the surgical burden of disease highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of surgical treatment globally. This methodology can be applied to evaluate interventions for other conditions, and for evidence-based health care resource allocation.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Blog about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate and Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximino, Luciana Paula; Zambonato, Ticiana Cristina de Freitas; Picolini-Pereira, Mirela Machado; Castro Corrêa, Camila de; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro

    2018-01-01

    Introduction  Cleft lip and cleft palate can result in impairments in communication, specifically in hearing, making the use of technological resources such as blogs a fundamental guideline for health professionals. Objective  The aim of this study was to prepare and analyze the access to a blog about cleft lip and cleft palate and hearing as a pedagogical tool for health professionals. Methods  The first stage for the development of the blog was the selection of the content that would be addressed and the respective illustrations. The second stage was making the blog available through the WordPress platform, and the third stage included the evaluation of the blog, of the access to the WordPress statistical features, and of the quality of the blog through the Emory questionnaire, which was answered by 75 professionals. Results  The blog, titled "Fissure and Hearing", was developed with the architecture of a digital information environment containing a system of organization, navigation, labeling and search (first stage). The address hosting the blog was: http://fissuraeaudicao.wordpress.com (second stage). The result of the third stage included 56,269 views of the blog from different countries, and Brazil was the country with the highest viewing. Regarding the assessment by the Emory questionnaire, we found that for most of the major issues, the percentages obtained were or equal to 90%, while the analysis of the scales, navigation and structure presented the lowest scores. Conclusion  The blog was developed and enabled greater access to information available on the web about cleft lip and cleft palate and hearing.

  3. [Surgical treatment of first branchial cleft anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongjun; Kong, Weijia; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Jibao; Liu, Shiying; Shi, Hong

    2005-10-01

    To identify the clinical and anatomical presentations and to discuss the guidelines for surgical management of anomalies of the first branchial cleft. Twenty-one patients with first branchial cleft anomalies were treated in our department between January 1994 and December 2004, their clinical data were retrospectively analysed. Surgery was performed on all patients. Among them 13 were males and 8 females, ranging in age from 1.5 to 33 years with an average of 15 years. Anatomically, 3 types of first branchial cleft anomalies were identified: fistulas (n = 17), cysts (n = 2), and fistula combined with cyst (n = 2). Before definitive surgery, soma patients (n = 4) underwent incision and drainage for infection owing to the difficulties in diagnosing this anomaly. Methylthioninium Chloride was used in almost all cases for tracking the fistulous during operation. Wide exposure is necessary in many cases,and a standard parotidectomy incision allows adequate exposure of the anomaly and preservation of the facial nerve. Complete removal without complications depends on a good understanding of regional embryogenesis, an awareness of the different anatomical presentations, and a readiness to identify and protect the facial nerve during resection.

  4. Presurgical Unilateral Cleft Lip Anthropometrics and the Presence of Dental Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory S; Fisher, David M

    2015-07-01

    To investigate associations between cleft lip anthropometrics and dental anomalies in the permanent dentition in unilateral cleft lip patients. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Children with unilateral clefts of the lip, with or without cleft palate. Anthropometric lip measurements, made immediately prior to lip repair, were available for each patient. The presence of dental anomalies in the permanent dentition was assessed radiographically. The presence of associations between anthropometric lip measurements and prevalence rates of different dental anomalies were determined using logistic regression analyses. In the 122 included patients, the cleft lateral lip element was deficient in height in 80% and in transverse length in 84% of patients. Patients with more deficient cleft side lateral lip height and less deficient cleft side lateral lip transverse length were more likely to present with cleft side maxillary lateral incisor agenesis. On the other hand, patients with a less deficient cleft side lateral lip height and more deficient cleft side lateral lip transverse length were more likely to present with a cleft side supernumerary maxillary lateral incisor. When looking only at incomplete clefts, the cleft side lateral lip transverse length deficiency was more predictive of the presence of supernumerary maxillary lateral incisors (P = .030), while for complete clefts, the cleft side lateral lip height deficiency was more predictive of the presence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (P = .035). In patients with unilateral clefts, cleft lip anthropometrics have a predictive role in determining the occurrence of dental anomalies.

  5. Atomic fusion, Gerrard atomic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    In the approach to atomic fusion described here the heat produced in a fusion reaction, which is induced in a chamber by the interaction of laser beams and U.H.F. electromagnetic beams with atom streams, is transferred to a heat exchanger for electricity generation by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. (U.K.)

  6. [A retrospective study of orthodontic treatment of children with clefts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, I; Bar-Abudi, R; Abed, Y; Ben-Bassat, Y; Harari, D; Zilberman, Y

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the population of cleft patients treated in a Department of Orthodontics and the types of treatment modalities provided. Demographic, cleft related and treatment related data existing in the patients' files were supplemented by questionnaires. Comparisons were conducted among 3 cleft groups: cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP) and cleft palate (CP). The response rate was 36% (n = 152). The distribution of the patients in the 3 cleft groups, the sidedness, the male predominance and association with additional anomalies were similar to the reports in the literature. Most of the patients were the 3rd born (or more) and were of normal birth weight. Consanguity in the cleft families was at least 2.5 times more prevalent than that of the Israeli population and 30% reported on additional cleft in the family. Low birth weight and additional anomalies were found mainly in the CP group. Orthodontic involvement spanned 3 developmental periods: immediate postnatal presurgical treatment, phase I between the ages 6-8 years and full orthodontic treatment at a later age. Up to the age of 5 years only one lip operation was performed for 60% of the lip-affected children and one palate operation for 65% of the palate affected patients. 1. The distribution of the various cleft-related parameters in this retrospective study was similar to the findings in the literature. 2. The high prevalence of additional anomalies found emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the cleft babies. 3. Orthodontic treatment was rendered in one and two phase protocols in addition to immediate postnatal pre-surgical intervention.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic remodeling in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pandey, Subhash C

    2015-08-05

    Alcohol use and alcohol addiction represent dysfunctional brain circuits resulting from neuroadaptive changes during protracted alcohol exposure and its withdrawal. Alcohol exerts a potent effect on synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation in specific brain regions, providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Epigenetics has recently emerged as a critical regulator of gene expression and synaptic plasticity-related events in the brain. Alcohol exposure and withdrawal induce changes in crucial epigenetic processes in the emotional brain circuitry (amygdala) that may be relevant to the negative affective state defined as the "dark side" of addiction. Here, we review the literature concerning synaptic plasticity and epigenetics, with a particular focus on molecular events related to dendritic remodeling during alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Targeting epigenetic processes that modulate synaptic plasticity may yield novel treatments for alcoholism. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Peaceful fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Matthias [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  9. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of synaptic structural plasticity in impairments of spatial learning and memory induced by developmental lead exposure in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Xiao

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is found to impair cognitive function. Synaptic structural plasticity is considered to be the physiological basis of synaptic functional plasticity and has been recently found to play important roles in learning and memory. To study the effect of Pb on spatial learning and memory at different developmental stages, and its relationship with alterations of synaptic structural plasticity, postnatal rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control; Pre-weaning Pb (Parents were exposed to 2 mM PbCl2 3 weeks before mating until weaning of pups; Post-weaning Pb (Weaned pups were exposed to 2 mM PbCl2 for 9 weeks. The spatial learning and memory of rats was measured by Morris water maze (MWM on PND 85-90. Rat pups in Pre-weaning Pb and Post-weaning Pb groups performed significantly worse than those in Control group (p<0.05. However, there was no significant difference in the performance of MWM between the two Pb-exposure groups. Before MWM (PND 84, the number of neurons and synapses significantly decreased in Pre-weaning Pb group, but not in Post-weaning Pb group. After MWM (PND 91, the number of synapses in Pre-weaning Pb group increased significantly, but it was still less than that of Control group (p<0.05; the number of synapses in Post-weaning Pb group was also less than that of Control group (p<0.05, although the number of synapses has no differences between Post-weaning Pb and Control groups before MWM. In both Pre-weaning Pb and Post-weaning Pb groups, synaptic structural parameters such as thickness of postsynaptic density (PSD, length of synaptic active zone and synaptic curvature increased significantly while width of synaptic cleft decreased significantly compared to Control group (p<0.05. Our data demonstrated that both early and late developmental Pb exposure impaired spatial learning and memory as well as synaptic structural plasticity in Wistar rats.

  11. 17β-Estradiol-Induced Synaptic Rearrangements Are Accompanied by Altered Ectonucleotidase Activities in Male Rat Hippocampal Synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Nataša; Zarić, Marina; Drakulić, Dunja; Martinović, Jelena; Sévigny, Jean; Stanojlović, Miloš; Nedeljković, Nadežda; Grković, Ivana

    2017-03-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) rapidly, by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activates cell signaling cascades which induce formation of new dendritic spines in the hippocampus of males as in females, but the interaction with other metabolic processes, such as extracellular adenine nucleotides metabolism, are currently unknown. Extracellular adenine nucleotides play significant roles, controlling excitatory glutamatergic synapses and development of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity. Their precise regulation in the synaptic cleft is tightly controlled by ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase)/ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN) enzyme chain. Therefore, we sought to clarify whether a single systemic injection of E2 in male rats is accompanied by changes in the expression of the pre- and postsynaptic proteins and downstream kinases linked to E2-induced synaptic rearrangement as well as alterations in NTPDase/eN pathway in the hippocampal synaptosomes. Obtained data showed activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and upregulation of key synaptic proteins necessary for spine formation, 24 h after systemic E2 administration. In E2-mediated conditions, we found downregulation of NTPDase1 and NTPDase2 and attenuation of adenine nucleotide hydrolysis by NTPDase/eN enzyme chain, without changes in NTPDase3 properties and augmentation of synaptic tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) activity. Despite reduced NTPDase activities, increased TNAP activity probably prevents toxic accumulation of ATP in the extracellular milieu and also hydrolyzes accumulated ADP due to unchanged NTPDase3 activity. Thus, our initial evaluation supports idea of specific roles of different ectonucleotidases and their coordinated actions in E2-mediated spine remodeling and maintenance.

  12. Rare craniofacial clefts in Ibadan | Iyun | Nigerian Journal of Plastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Congenital craniofacial clefts are anatomical distortions of the face and cranium with deficiencies of excess of tissue in a linear pattern. The exact incidence of craniofacial clefts is unknown because cases are rare and series tend to be small. The aim of this study is to document our experience with congenital ...

  13. Teaching Palatoplasty Using a High-Fidelity Cleft Palate Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Homan; Podolsky, Dale J; Fisher, David M; Wong, Karen W; Lorenz, H Peter; Khosla, Rohit K; Drake, James M; Forrest, Christopher R

    2018-01-01

    Cleft palate repair is a challenging procedure for cleft surgeons to teach. A novel high-fidelity cleft palate simulator has been described for surgeon training. This study evaluates the simulator's effect on surgeon procedural confidence and palatoplasty knowledge among learners. Plastic surgery trainees attended a palatoplasty workshop consisting of a didactic session on cleft palate anatomy and repair followed by a simulation session. Participants completed a procedural confidence questionnaire and palatoplasty knowledge test immediately before and after the workshop. All participants reported significantly higher procedural confidence following the workshop (p cleft palate surgery experience had higher procedural confidence before (p cleft palate experience did not have higher mean baseline test scores than those with no experience (30 percent versus 28 percent; p > 0.05), but did have significantly higher scores after the workshop (61 percent versus 35 percent; p cleft palate simulator as a training tool to teach palatoplasty. Improved procedural confidence and knowledge were observed after a single session, with benefits seen among trainees both with and without previous cleft experience.

  14. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR THE CHILD WITH A CLEFT PALATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BENSEN, JACK F.; WHITE, FRAZER D.

    A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATES IS DESCRIBED. THE SOUTH FLORIDA CLEFT PALATE CLINIC, REPRESENTING NINE PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTIES, MEETS WEEKLY TO SEE SIX OR SEVEN CASES. SPEECH PERFORMANCE IS RECORDED ON SIX DIAGNOSTIC, DATA COLLECTING FORMS WHICH PROVIDE A BASIS FOR RECORDING CLINICAL JUDGMENTS. PROGNOSIS AND…

  15. We can predict postpalatoplasty velopharyngeal insufficiency in cleft palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jacques E; Godbout, Audrey; Arteau-Gauthier, Isabelle; Lacour, Sophie; Abel, Kati; McConnell, Elisa-Maude

    2014-02-01

    To find an anatomical measurement of the cleft palate (or a calculated parameter) that predicts the occurrence of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) after palatal cleft repair. Retrospective cohort study. Charts were reviewed from cleft palate patients who underwent palatoplasty by the Von Langenbeck technique for isolated cleft palate or Bardach two-flap palatoplasty for cleft lip-palate. Seven anatomical cleft parameters were prospectively measured during the palatoplasty procedure. Three blinded speech-language pathologists retrospectively scored the clinically assessed VPI at 4 years of age. The recommendation of pharyngoplasty was also used as an indicator of VPI. From 1993 to 2008, 67 patients were enrolled in the study. The best predicting parameter was the ratio a/(30 - b1), in which a is defined as the posterior gap between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall and b1 is the width of the cleft at the hard palate level. An a/(30 - b1) ratio >0.7 to 0.8 is associated with a higher risk of developing VPI (relative risk = 2.2-5.1, sensitivity = 72%-81%, P cleft at the hard palate level and the posterior gap between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall were found to be the most significant parameters in predicting VPI. The best correlation was obtained with the ratio a/(30 - b1). 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. THIRD BRANCHIAL CLEFT CYST PRESENTATION IN ADULTHOOD: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Srinjeeta Garg; Yuvraj Patil; Karan Vayangankar; Adip Shetty; Haritosh Kamalakar Velankar

    2014-01-01

    Third branchial cleft cysts (BCCs) are rare entities that represent abnormal persistence of the branchial apparatus. Most cases of third branchial cleft cysts (BCCs) are diagnosed in childhood and show a marked preference for the left side. However, here we present this rare anomaly in a 40 year old female which presented as a fast growing swelling in adulthood.

  17. Management of cleft lip and palate in Nigeria: A survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clefts of the lip and/or palate are the most common congenital craniofacial defects and second only to club foot among all congenital anomalies. The management of this condition is resource intensive due to the multidimensional needs. This survey was carried out to ascertain the current state of cleft ...

  18. Perioperative adverse airway events in cleft lip and palate repair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Airway-related problems account for the majority of anaesthetic morbidity in paediatric anaesthesia, but more so for cleft lip and palate repair. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency, pattern, management and outcome of adverse airway events during the perioperative period in cleft lip and palate ...

  19. Transverse facial cleft: A series of 17 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L K Makhija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse facial cleft (Tessier type 7 or congenital macrostomia is a rare congenital anomaly seldom occurring alone and is frequently associated with deformities of the structures developing from the first and second branchial arches. The reported incidence of No. 7 cleft varies from 1 in 60,000 to 1 in 300,000 live births. Material and Methods: Seventeen patients of transeverse facial cleft who presented to us in last 5 years were included in the study. Their history regarding familial and environmental predispositions was recorded. The cases were analysed on basis of sex, laterality, severity, associated anomalies and were graded according to severity. They were operated by z plasty technique and were followed up for 2 years to look for effectiveness of the technique and its complications. Result: Out of the seventeen patients of transverse cleft, none had familial predilection or any environmental etiology like antenatal radiological exposure or intake of drugs of teratogenic potential. Most of the patients (9/17 were associated with hemifacial microsomia and 1 patient was associated with Treacher Colin′s Syndrome. Out of the 6 cases of Grade I clefts, 4 were isolated transverse clefts and of the 10 patients of Grade II clefts, 7 were associated with hemifacial microsomia. We encountered only one case of Grade III Transverse Cleft which was not only associated with hemifacial microsomia but also had cardiac anomaly. Out of the17 cases, 15 were operated and in most of them the outcome was satisfactory.

  20. The nose in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, C. D.; Mladina, R.; Nolst Trenité, G. J.; Pigott, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Surgeons and orthodontists are still challenged to achieve 'better' noses for children with a unilateral cleft or lip, alveoulus and palate (UCLP). Various aspects are discussed: infant anatomy and later changes, developmental mechanics, cleft syndrome in animals with surgically produced facial

  1. Feeding Techniques for Children Who Have Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    This pamphlet on feeding techniques for children who have cleft lip and palate emphasizes the role of the parent as part of a team involving many specialists. The pamphlet begins with explanations of complete and incomplete separations of the lip, unilateral and bilateral cleft lips, corrective surgical procedures, etc. The importance of weight…

  2. Awareness, knowledge and attitude on cleft lip and palate among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... negative beliefs and attitudes toward the condition. The objective of this ... Conclusion: There is need for increased public enlightenment/health education to increase awareness and subsequently ... The parent's feelings about their child's cleft defect ..... Gene/environment causes of cleft lip and/or palate.

  3. Presurgical cleft lip and palate orthopedics: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzain I

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ibtesam Alzain,1 Waeil Batwa,2 Alex Cash,3 Zuhair A Murshid2 1Pediatric Dentistry, 2Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Cleft Lip and Palate Orthodontics, Queen Victoria NHS Foundation Trust, South Thames Cleft Service, London, UK Abstract: Patients with cleft lip and/or palate go through a lifelong journey of multidisciplinary care, starting from before birth and extending until adulthood. Presurgical orthopedic (PSO treatment is one of the earliest stages of this care plan. In this paper we provide a review of the PSO treatment. This review should help general and specialist dentists to better understand the cleft patient care path and to be able to answer patient queries more efficiently. The objectives of this paper were to review the basic principles of PSO treatment, the various types of techniques used in this therapy, and the protocol followed, and to critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of some of these techniques. In conclusion, we believe that PSO treatment, specifically nasoalveolar molding, does help to approximate the segments of the cleft maxilla and does reduce the intersegment space in readiness for the surgical closure of cleft sites. However, what we remain unable to prove equivocally at this point is whether the reduction in the dimensions of the cleft presurgically and the manipulation of the nasal complex benefit our patients in the long term. Keywords: presurgical orthopedic, nasoalveolar molding, cleft lip and palate

  4. Smile Train: The ascendancy of cleft care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Subodh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Though India has an estimated population of one million untreated cleft patients, facilities for its treatment have been limited and are not evenly distributed across the country. Furthermore, a paucity of committed cleft surgeons in fewer hospitals to provide quality surgical treatment to these patients, poverty, illiteracy, superstitions and poor connectivity in some remote regions severely limit the chances of an average cleft lip patient born in India from receiving rational and effective comprehensive treatment for his/her malady. The Smile Train Project with its singular focus on cleft patients started its philanthropic activities in India in the year 2000. It made hospitals and included clefts surgeon equal partners in this programme and helped them treat as many cleft patients as they possibly could. The Project encouraged improvement of the training and infrastructure in various centres across the length and breadth of the region. The Project received an unprecedented success in terms of growth of number of centres, cleft surgeons and quantum of cleft patients reporting for treatment. The G S Memorial Hospital is one such partner hospital. It started innovative outreach programmes and took a holistic view of the needs of these patients and their families. With the support of the Smile Train, it has not only succeeded in providing treatment to more than 14,500 patients in 5 years, but has also devised innovative outreach programmes and seamlessly incorporated salient changes in the hospital system to suit the needs of the target population.

  5. The nose in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.D.A. Verwoerd (Carel); R. Mladina (R.); G.J. Nolst-Trenité (Gilbert J.); R.W. Pigott (R.)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSurgeons and orthodontists are still challenged to achieve ‘better’ noses for children with a unilateral cleft or lip, alveolus and palate (UCLP). Various aspects are discussed: infant anatomy and later changes, developmental mechanics, cleft syndrome in animals with surgically produced

  6. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  7. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  8. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  9. Communicative abilities in toddlers and in early school age children with cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Jolien S.; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Siena M.

    Objectives: Evaluation of improvement in communicative abilities in children with nonsyndromic cleft palate. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective case history Study. Out of 117 children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate born in 1998, 1999 and 2000 and enrolled in the cleft palate team of the

  10. Craniofacial morphology in unoperated infants with isolated cleft palate. A cephalometric analysis in three projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N.V.; Kreiborg, S.; Jensen, B.L.

    58th Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, Minneapolis, Craniofacial morphology, unoperated infants, isolated cleft palate, cephalometric analysis, three projections......58th Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, Minneapolis, Craniofacial morphology, unoperated infants, isolated cleft palate, cephalometric analysis, three projections...

  11. Identification of 16q21 as a modifier of nonsyndromic orofacial cleft phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jenna C; Standley, Jennifer; Petrin, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are common, complex birth defects with extremely heterogeneous phenotypic presentations. Two common subtypes-cleft lip alone (CL) and CL plus cleft palate (CLP)-are typically grouped into a single phenotype for genetic analysis (i.e., CL with or without cleft palate, CL/P)...

  12. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  13. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  14. Cross-linguistic perspectives on speech assessment in cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Henningsson, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    . Finally, the influence of different languages on some aspects of language acquisition in young children with cleft palate is presented and discussed. Until recently, not much has been written about cross linguistic perspectives when dealing with cleft palate speech. Most literature about assessment......This chapter deals with cross linguistic perspectives that need to be taken into account when comparing speech assessment and speech outcome obtained from cleft palate speakers of different languages. Firstly, an overview of consonants and vowels vulnerable to the cleft condition is presented. Then......, consequences for assessment of cleft palate speech by native versus non-native speakers of a language are discussed, as well as the use of phonemic versus phonetic transcription in cross linguistic studies. Specific recommendations for the construction of speech samples in cross linguistic studies are given...

  15. Possible Estrogen Dependency in the Pathogenesis of Branchial Cleft Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan D. Raguse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Even though branchial cleft cysts are currently accepted as a congenital anomaly, there is often a long delay until clinical presentation; branchial cleft cysts classically appear in the second to fourth decade of life. Our observation of their occurrence in three pregnant women encouraged us to contemplate a possible hormonal influence. Methods. Immunohistological analysis was performed for the evaluation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 16 patients with a diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst, with three of them being pregnant. Results. Expression of ERα was detected within epithelial cells only in branchial cleft cysts in pregnant females; moreover, higher growth fractions (Ki-67/Mib1 were found. Conclusion. The fact that the estrogen receptor was expressed only in pregnant women, in contrast to 13 investigated cases, may suggest that the high level of estrogen in pregnancy is a possible explanation for the spontaneous growth of branchial cleft cysts.

  16. Possible Estrogen Dependency in the Pathogenesis of Branchial Cleft Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguse, Jan D; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Doll, Christian; Heiland, Max; Jöhrens, Korinna

    2017-01-01

    Even though branchial cleft cysts are currently accepted as a congenital anomaly, there is often a long delay until clinical presentation; branchial cleft cysts classically appear in the second to fourth decade of life. Our observation of their occurrence in three pregnant women encouraged us to contemplate a possible hormonal influence. Immunohistological analysis was performed for the evaluation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER α ) in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 16 patients with a diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst, with three of them being pregnant. Expression of ER α was detected within epithelial cells only in branchial cleft cysts in pregnant females; moreover, higher growth fractions (Ki-67/Mib1) were found. The fact that the estrogen receptor was expressed only in pregnant women, in contrast to 13 investigated cases, may suggest that the high level of estrogen in pregnancy is a possible explanation for the spontaneous growth of branchial cleft cysts.

  17. [Recurrent neck abscess due to a branchial cleft remnant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijff, Schelto; Mastboom, Walter J; Vriens, Menno R; Sidhu, Stan B; Delbridge, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Abscesses arising from a third or fourth branchial cleft remnant are uncommon clinical entities and are often not recognised in a timely manner. In a 33-year-old female patient with a recurrent abscess in the left side of her neck, the cause turned out to be a fistula in the third branchial cleft remnant. She was treated initially with antibiotics and prednisone without adequate results. When the abscess was finally surgically drained, she became very ill and was admitted to the ICU with sepsis and multiple organ failure. She was discharged from hospital after six weeks. Four months later, a third-branchial cleft remnant was found during pharyngoscopy, immediately after which the cleft remnant fistula was excised and an ipsilateral hemi-thyroidectomy was performed. In young patients with recurring peri-thyroidal abscesses, a branchial cleft remnant should be considered a causative factor; this could avoid high morbidity and a delay in the appropriate treatment.

  18. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  19. The Association study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... 12 Maternal and Children Metabolic-Genetic Key Laboratory, ... performed association analysis with NSCL/P in 504 cases and 455 healthy controls. Our ... GLI3 morphopathies have distinct clinical characteristics, the ..... Wehby G. L., Cassell C. H. 2010 The impact of orofacial clefts on quality of life and.

  20. Cleft lip with or without cleft palate and dermatoglyphic asymmetry: evaluation of a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiswanger, K; Cooper, M E; Weinberg, S M; Flodman, P; Keglovits, A Bundens; Liu, Y; Hu, D N; Melnick, M; Spence, M A; Marazita, M L

    2002-08-01

    To determine if Chinese individuals with non syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) display more dermatoglyphic asymmetry than unaffected relatives or controls. Case-control study with two control groups (genetically related and unrelated). A total of 500 CL/P probands from Shanghai, China, 421 unaffected relatives, and 66 controls of Chinese heritage. Finger and palm prints were collected, and pattern frequencies, total ridge counts (TRC), and atd angles were calculated. Asymmetry scores between right and left hands were defined for each of the three dermatoglyphic measures. Probands' asymmetry scores were compared statistically with the scores of unaffected relatives and controls. In general, the probands' asymmetry scores for TRC and atd angle did not differ significantly from the scores of either unaffected relatives or controls. However, probands with a positive family history of clefting showed significantly more asymmetry in their pattern types than either probands without a family history, unaffected relatives or controls. These results suggest that a unique genetic mechanism of developmental instability may obtain in CL/P individuals with a positive family history of clefting.

  1. #Cleft: The use of Social Media Amongst Parents of Infants with Clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, Joseph S; McCheyne, Melisande J; Morrison, Clinton S

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Many societies and organizations are using social media to reach their target audience. The extent to which parents of patients with craniofacial anomalies use social media has yet to be determined. The goal of this study is to characterize and describe the use of social media by the parents of children with cleft lip and palate as it pertains to the care of their child. Materials and Methods Parents or guardian of all patients presenting for initial consultation regarding a child's congenital cleft anomaly were contacted by phone or mail to complete a survey regarding their use of social media vis-à-vis their child's cleft anomaly. Participants were asked to answer a 19-question survey. Results Thirty-two families were contacted and 25 surveys were completed. Ninety-two percent of respondents used social media to learn about their child's diagnosis. Facebook (76%) and blogs (24%) were the most commonly accessed social media outlets, followed by Instagram (8%). Education about the diagnosis and treatment of cleft pathology (87%) was the most common reason for accessing social media, followed by companionship and support (56%), and advice about perioperative care (52%). Almost half (43%) of parents used social media to obtain information on their caregiver and treatment team, and 26% of parents used information gained on social media to guide their decision on where to seek care. Conclusion Social media is a readily available resource, one that will certainly shape the experiences of our patients and families for years to come.

  2. Dental anomalies in different cleft groups related to neural crest developmental fields contributes to the understanding of cleft aetiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Louise Claudius; Kjær, Inger; Mølsted, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze dental deviations in three cleft groups and relate findings to embryological neural crest fields (frontonasal, maxillary, and palatal). The overall purpose was to evaluate how fields are involved in different cleft types. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of clinical photographs...

  3. Lateral cervical cleft: a previously unreported anomaly resulting from incomplete disappearance of the second pharyngeal (branchial) cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, M H; Gedikoğlu, G; Tanyel, F C

    1999-03-01

    The authors present a 2-year-old boy with a skin defect located in the right lateral side of the neck. They suggest the defect is a partial failure of disappearance of the second pharyngeal (branchial) cleft and propose a name of lateral cervical cleft.

  4. Craniofacial morphology in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients consecutively treated with 1-stage repair of the cleft.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Surowiec, Z.; Offert, B.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Katsaros, C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the craniofacial morphology of children with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with a 1-stage simultaneous cleft repair performed in the first year of life. METHODS: Cephalograms and extraoral profile photographs of 61 consecutively treated

  5. Assessment of nostril symmetry after primary cleft rhinoplasty in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, S.G.; Devarakonda, V.; Reddy, RR

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the nostril symmetry following primary cleft rhinoplasty done with either a dorsal onlay or columellar strut graft in patients with non-syndromic complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. In this retrospective study 30 consecutive patients treated with autogenous

  6. Maxillary arch width in unoperated adult bilateral cleft lip and alveolus and complete bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latief, B.S.; Lekkas, C.; Kuijpers, M.A.R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study maxillary arch width in adult patients with bilateral cleft lip and alveolus (BCLA) or with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), who have not had any surgery. SETTING AND SAMPLING POPULATION: Eighteen patients with BCLA, 13 patients with BCLP, and 24 controls from

  7. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zuhaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the effi cacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1 To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM. (2 To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM. (3 To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results: Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, signifi cant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. Conclusions: PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle

  8. Cause analysis, prevention, and treatment of postoperative restlessness after general anesthesia in children with cleft palate

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hao; Mei, Xiao-Peng; Xu, Li-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital malformations of the oral and maxillofacial region, with an incidence rate of around 0.1%. Early surgical repair is the only method for treatment of a cleft lip and palate. However, because of the use of inhalation anesthesia in children and the physiological characteristics of the cleft palate itself combined with the particularities of cleft palate surgery, the incidence rate of postoperative emergence agitation (EA) in cleft palate surgery ...

  9. The occurrence of a branchial cleft cyst in the anterior mediastinum: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong; Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Yung; Gong, Joon Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Branchial cleft cysts and branchial anomalies develop from the branchial cleft apparatus that persists after fetal development. The most common anatomical site for the occurrence of branchial cleft cysts is in the cervical area, generally anterior to the sternomastoid muscle in the upper or middle portion of the neck. A mediastinal branchial cleft cyst is extremely rare and few cases have been reported. We report the case of branchial cleft cyst found in the anterior mediastinum with literature review

  10. The occurrence of a branchial cleft cyst in the anterior mediastinum: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong; Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Yung; Gong, Joon Hyuk [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Branchial cleft cysts and branchial anomalies develop from the branchial cleft apparatus that persists after fetal development. The most common anatomical site for the occurrence of branchial cleft cysts is in the cervical area, generally anterior to the sternomastoid muscle in the upper or middle portion of the neck. A mediastinal branchial cleft cyst is extremely rare and few cases have been reported. We report the case of branchial cleft cyst found in the anterior mediastinum with literature review.

  11. The Epidemiology of Cleft Lip and Palate in Canada, 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jennifer L K; Oddone-Paolucci, Elizabeth; Harrop, Robertston A

    2015-07-01

    To examine the birth prevalence, gender distribution, and pattern of surgical intervention for clefts in Canada (1998 to 2007). Also to highlight the difficulties associated with studying the epidemiology of clefts using the current data collection mechanisms. Epidemiologic data acquired from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Population-based study in Canada 1998 to 2007. All live births with an International Classification of Diseases (9th or 10th revision) diagnostic code for cleft palate or for cleft lip with or without cleft palate or with a surgical intervention code for repair of cleft lip or cleft palate. Birth prevalence, gender distribution, and pattern of surgical intervention. There were 3,015,325 live births in Canada (1998 to 2007). The mean birth prevalence was 0.82 per 1000 live births for cleft lip with or without cleft palate and 0.58 per 1000 live births for cleft palate. The birth prevalence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate was significantly higher in boys, with a stable boy to girl ratio of 1.75:1. Cleft palate was significantly greater in girls; however, the boy to girl ratio decreased from 0.97:1 in 1998 to 0.59:1 in 2007. The median age of repair in Canada from 1998 to 2007 was 4.7 months for cleft lip and 11.6 months for cleft palate. Thirty percent of patients underwent cleft palate repair after age 1. The birth prevalence of cleft palate and cleft lip with or without cleft palate is stable in Canada. An increasing birth prevalence of cleft palate in girls is suggested. The timing of surgical intervention is consistent with current standards. The challenges associated with collecting these data in Canada are discussed.

  12. The Multifaceted Role of SNARE Proteins in Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2017-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a key process in all living organisms that contributes to a variety of biological processes including viral infection, cell fertilization, as well as intracellular transport, and neurotransmitter release. In particular, the various membrane-enclosed compartments in eukaryotic cells need to exchange their contents and communicate across membranes. Efficient and controllable fusion of biological membranes is known to be driven by cooperative action of SNARE proteins, which constitute the central components of the eukaryotic fusion machinery responsible for fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. During exocytosis, vesicle-associated v-SNARE (synaptobrevin) and target cell-associated t-SNAREs (syntaxin and SNAP-25) assemble into a core trans-SNARE complex. This complex plays a versatile role at various stages of exocytosis ranging from the priming to fusion pore formation and expansion, finally resulting in the release or exchange of the vesicle content. This review summarizes current knowledge on the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying exocytosis triggered and catalyzed by SNARE proteins. Particular attention is given to the function of the peptidic SNARE membrane anchors and the role of SNARE-lipid interactions in fusion. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms by synaptic auxiliary proteins in SNARE-driven membrane fusion are briefly outlined.

  13. Diacylglycerol kinases in the coordination of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is activity-dependent modification of the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Although detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity are diverse and vary at different types of synapses, diacylglycerol (DAG-associated signaling has been considered as an important regulator of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. Recent evidence indicate that DAG kinases (DGKs, which phosphorylate DAG to phosphatidic acid to terminate DAG signaling, are important regulators of LTP and LTD, as supported by the results from mice lacking specific DGK isoforms. This review will summarize these studies and discuss how specific DGK isoforms distinctly regulate different forms of synaptic plasticity at pre- and postsynaptic sites. In addition, we propose a general role of DGKs as coordinators of synaptic plasticity that make local synaptic environments more permissive for synaptic plasticity by regulating DAG concentration and interacting with other synaptic proteins.

  14. Metabolic Turnover of Synaptic Proteins: Kinetics, Interdependencies and Implications for Synaptic Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laurie D.; Zuchman, Rina; Sorokina, Oksana; Müller, Anke; Dieterich, Daniela C.; Armstrong, J. Douglas; Ziv, Tamar; Ziv, Noam E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical synapses contain multitudes of proteins, which in common with all proteins, have finite lifetimes and therefore need to be continuously replaced. Given the huge numbers of synaptic connections typical neurons form, the demand to maintain the protein contents of these connections might be expected to place considerable metabolic demands on each neuron. Moreover, synaptic proteostasis might differ according to distance from global protein synthesis sites, the availability of distributed protein synthesis facilities, trafficking rates and synaptic protein dynamics. To date, the turnover kinetics of synaptic proteins have not been studied or analyzed systematically, and thus metabolic demands or the aforementioned relationships remain largely unknown. In the current study we used dynamic Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC), mass spectrometry (MS), Fluorescent Non–Canonical Amino acid Tagging (FUNCAT), quantitative immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics to systematically measure the metabolic half-lives of hundreds of synaptic proteins, examine how these depend on their pre/postsynaptic affiliation or their association with particular molecular complexes, and assess the metabolic load of synaptic proteostasis. We found that nearly all synaptic proteins identified here exhibited half-lifetimes in the range of 2–5 days. Unexpectedly, metabolic turnover rates were not significantly different for presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, or for proteins for which mRNAs are consistently found in dendrites. Some functionally or structurally related proteins exhibited very similar turnover rates, indicating that their biogenesis and degradation might be coupled, a possibility further supported by bioinformatics-based analyses. The relatively low turnover rates measured here (∼0.7% of synaptic protein content per hour) are in good agreement with imaging-based studies of synaptic protein trafficking, yet indicate that the metabolic load

  15. [Evaluation and treatment of children's laryngeal clefts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Tan, L T; Xu, Z M

    2018-01-07

    Objectives: To provide the experience about the diagnostic process and following management, and to discuss the outcome and predictors in children with laryngeal cleft (LC). Methods: A retrospective case study was conducted at an academic children's hospital. Thirty children were diagnosed as laryngeal cleft between January 2016 and April 2017.Airway evaluations were performed using both flexible and rigid endoscopy, and swallowing evaluations were performed using fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing or modified barium swallow. Results: Of 30 cases, 18 were male and 12 were female, ranging in age from birth to 8 years. Two cases were diagnosed as type 0 LC, and they were offered thickened liquid without medication. Throughout follow-up, they remained asymptomatic and showed no respiratory complications. Nineteen children were diagnosed as type Ⅰ LC. Six of them were significantly improved by anti-reflux therapy and feeding instructions. Four children were concomitant with swallowing dysfunction and/or neuromuscular disorders, and they were given a tracheotomy and routine management. Another 4 children were submitted surgical repair when routine treatment failed, and their symptoms were relieved. Five children were concomitant with larygomalacia, and their symptoms were totally ameliorated by supraglottoplasty. Three children were diagnosed as type Ⅱ LC. Two of them received surgical repair and clinically improved, and the rest one was treated by anti-reflux therapy and still under follow-up. Three children were diagnosed as type Ⅲ LC. One of them was underwent surgical repair and clinically improved. Two children were tracheotomized and treated by anti-reflux therapy. Three cases were diagnosed as type Ⅳ LC at birth and no one survived. Conclusions: Laryngeal cleft is a rare congenital anomaly manifesting with a variety of symptoms, including swallowing disorder, aspirations, dyspnea, stridor and hoarseness. Diagnosis and treatment of laryngeal

  16. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  17. Assessing Angle's malocclusion among cleft lip and/or palate patients in Jammu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akshay; Gupta, Anur; Bhardwaj, Amit; Vikram, S; Gomathi, Ajeetha; Singh, Karanprakash

    2016-04-01

    The study was conducted to examine the patients with abnormalities of cleft lip and/or palate and its association with different types of malocclusion. This descriptive study was done among 168 patients with abnormalities of cleft lip and/or palate. Angle's classification of malocclusion was applied for assessment of occlusion as Class I, Class II, and Class III. The types of oral clefts classification such as cleft lip unilateral and cleft lip bilateral, cleft palate (CP), unilateral cleft lip with palate (UCLP) and bilateral cleft lip with palate (BCLP) was considered. Chi-square test was applied to analyze the data at P clefts patients as cleft lip (81), CP (31), and both cleft lip and palate (53). The occurrence of unilateral cleft lip (44) was maximum among the sample followed by UCLP (39), and bilateral cleft lip (31). Maximum subjects with Class II (10.7%) and Class III (4.9%) malocclusion were seen with unilateral cleft lip deformities. None of the patients with UCLP had Class III malocclusion. Cleft lip was the most commonly observed deformity and high frequency of Class II and III malocclusion was evident. Therefore, patients with such abnormalities should be screened timely.

  18. Growth hormone deficiency in cleft lip and palate patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin AbdollahiFakhim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Failure to thrive (FTT is relatively common among cleft patients, most commonly attributed to feeding problems during the first months of life. Close association between midline clefts and pituitary gland abnormalities prompted us to determine the frequency of growth hormone deficiency in cleft patients, which is easily treated. Methods: Any cleft patient with FTT was studied and when the patient’s height was under the 3rd percentile of normal, growth hormone was checked after clonidine administration. Growth hormone was checked before and 30, 60 and 90 minutes after clonidine use. Results: Of 670 patients with cleft lip or palate, 31 patients (4% had some kind of growth retardation according to weight, height or head circumstance. Eighteen patients were under the 3rd percentile of normal height. Growth hormone deficiency was detected in 8 patients out of 18 patients and overall frequency of growth hormone deficiency among cleft patients with growth retardation was 25.8% (8 out of 31. Seven patients of 8 were male whereas one was female and half of the patients were syndromic. Conclusion: Cleft patients have many problems with normal feeding and all kind of support should be provided to achieve near-normal feeding and they should be monitored for normal growth. Any patient with growth retardation, especially height decrease, should be assessed for growth hormone deficiency.

  19. First branchial cleft anomalies: otologic manifestations and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Justin R; Purcell, Patricia L; Horn, David L; Sie, Kathleen C Y; Manning, Scott C

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the presentation of first branchial cleft anomalies and compares outcomes of first branchial cleft with other branchial cleft anomalies with attention to otologic findings. Case series with chart review. Pediatric tertiary care facility. Surgical databases were queried to identify children with branchial cleft anomalies. Descriptive analysis defined sample characteristics. Risk estimates were calculated using Fisher's exact test. Queries identified 126 subjects: 27 (21.4%) had first branchial cleft anomalies, 80 (63.4%) had second, and 19 (15.1%) had third or fourth. Children with first anomalies often presented with otologic complications, including otorrhea (22.2%), otitis media (25.9%), and cholesteatoma (14.8%). Of 80 children with second branchial cleft anomalies, only 3 (3.8%) had otitis. Compared with children with second anomalies, children with first anomalies had a greater risk of requiring primary incision and drainage: 16 (59.3%) vs 2 (2.5%) (relative risk [RR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-5; Pbranchial cleft anomalies often present with otologic complaints. They are at increased risk of persistent disease, particularly if anomalies lie medial to the facial nerve. They may require ear-specific surgery such as tympanoplasty. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  20. An unusual presentation of presentation of a branchial cleft cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Rahul; Greco, Gregory

    2012-05-01

    Branchial cleft cysts are congenital anomalies that arise from the aberrant embryological development of the branchial apparatus. The location of a branchial cleft cyst is determined by which branchial cleft failed to obliterate during embryological development, with the second branchial cleft cyst being the most commonly recognized lesion. Although the most common location for branchial cleft cysts is between the external auditory canal and the level of the clavicle, the literature does describe unusual locations. We present a case a 15-year-old boy who had an enlarging lesion on his back that had been present since birth. A presumptive radiologic diagnosis of lymphangioma circumscriptum was made. Upon excision of the lesion and pathologic examination, it was determined to be a branchial cleft cyst. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, and no recurrence was noted after a 2-year follow-up. Our clinical report demonstrates a lesion on the posterior thorax that proved to be a branchial cleft cyst and should always be part of the differential diagnosis for soft tissue masses of the thorax.

  1. Cleft lip and palate: series of unusual clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranaíba, Lívia Máris Ribeiro; Miranda, Roseli Teixeira de; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Almeida, Hudson de; Orsi Júnior, Julian Miranda; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face, corresponding to approximately 65% of all malformations of the craniofacial region. to describe unusual clinical cases of non-syndromic CL/P (CL/PNS), diagnosed in a reference service in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and correlate these alterations with possible risk factors. we carried out a retrospective study, between the years of 1992 and the 1st half of 2009, from medical records. Among the 778 cases of CL/PNS diagnosed in the period of 17 years, 5 (0.64%) were unusual CL/PNS, and all patients were male. It was found that among the 5 patients, 2 had incomplete right cleft lip with incomplete cleft palate, 2 were affected by left incomplete cleft lip and incomplete cleft palate, and 1 had a cleft lip and palate associated with complete right cleft palate. Risk factors such as consanguinity, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption, medication usage during pregnancy, history of abortion and/or stillbirths and maternal diseases were not associated with unusual CL/PNS. This study described 5 unusual cases of CL/PNS in a Brazilian population; no associations with the risk factors analyzed were seen. It also confirmed the unusualness of the prevalence of such alterations.

  2. Neurokinin-1 enables measles virus trans-synaptic spread in neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhortova, Nina R.; Askovich, Peter; Patterson, Catherine E.; Gechman, Lisa A.; Gerard, Norma P.; Rall, Glenn F.

    2007-01-01

    Measles virus (MV), a morbillivirus that remains a significant human pathogen, can infect the central nervous system, resulting in rare but often fatal diseases, such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Previous work demonstrated that MV was transmitted trans-synaptically and that, while a cellular receptor for the hemagglutinin (H) protein was required for MV entry, it was dispensable for subsequent cell-to-cell spread. Here, we explored what role the other envelope protein, fusion (F), played in trans-synaptic transport. We made the following observations: (1) MV-F expression in infected neurons was similar to that seen in infected fibroblasts; (2) fusion inhibitory peptide (FIP), an inhibitor of MV fusion, prevented both infection and spread in primary neurons; (3) Substance P, a neurotransmitter with the same active site as FIP, also blocked neuronal MV spread; and (4) both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of the Substance P receptor, neurokinin-1 (NK-1), reduced infection of susceptible mice. Together, these data implicate a role for NK-1 in MV CNS infection and spread, perhaps serving as an MV-F receptor or co-receptor on neurons

  3. Synaptic Correlates of Working Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yuanyuan; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2017-01-18

    Psychological studies indicate that human ability to keep information in readily accessible working memory is limited to four items for most people. This extremely low capacity severely limits execution of many cognitive tasks, but its neuronal underpinnings remain unclear. Here we show that in the framework of synaptic theory of working memory, capacity can be analytically estimated to scale with characteristic time of short-term synaptic depression relative to synaptic current time constant. The number of items in working memory can be regulated by external excitation, enabling the system to be tuned to the desired load and to clear the working memory of currently held items to make room for new ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Corticohippocampal Circuit, Synaptic Plasticity, and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Jayeeta; Siegelbaum, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity serves as a cellular substrate for information storage in the central nervous system. The entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus are interconnected brain areas supporting basic cognitive functions important for the formation and retrieval of declarative memories. Here, we discuss how information flow in the EC–hippocampal loop is organized through circuit design. We highlight recently identified corticohippocampal and intrahippocampal connections and how these long-range and local microcircuits contribute to learning. This review also describes various forms of activity-dependent mechanisms that change the strength of corticohippocampal synaptic transmission. A key point to emerge from these studies is that patterned activity and interaction of coincident inputs gives rise to associational plasticity and long-term regulation of information flow. Finally, we offer insights about how learning-related synaptic plasticity within the corticohippocampal circuit during sensory experiences may enable adaptive behaviors for encoding spatial, episodic, social, and contextual memories. PMID:26525152

  5. Astroglial Metabolic Networks Sustain Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  6. Astroglial metabolic networks sustain hippocampal synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-05

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  7. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  8. Cervical vertebral maturation of female children with orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Li, Wei Ran

    2013-09-01

    Objective : To evaluate the skeletal maturation of girls with orofacial clefts using the cervical vertebral maturation method. Design : Case-control study. Setting : The School of Stomatology, Peking University. Patients : A total of 173 girls with cleft lip and/or palate from 8 to 16 years old were compared with 1038 age-matched girls without clefts. Results : In the 8- to 9-year-olds, most of the girls from both groups were in cervical stage 1. In the 14- to 15-year-olds and 15- to 16-year-olds, almost all the girls from both groups were in cervical stages 5 and 6, and most of the 15- to 16-year-old girls were in cervical stage 6. Differences existed in each year for 9- to 14-year-olds, which was confirmed by statistical analysis. After ordinal logistical regression of data from girls 9 to 14 years of age, girls of the same age in the non-cleft lip and/or palate group were associated with 1.559 times the odds of having achieved higher cervical stages than those in the cleft lip and/or palate group. Most girls without cleft lip and/or palate were in cervical stages 3 and 4 in the 11- to 12-year-olds; whereas, it was not so obvious in the girls with cleft lip and/or palate. By the age of 12, girls with cleft lip and/or palate had 2.667 times the risk of delayed cervical stage 3, and the 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio was 1.013 to 7.019. Conclusions : Girls with cleft lip and/or palate are at a higher risk of delayed pubertal growth.

  9. Clinical photography among African cleft caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Babatunde Olaitan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to document the practice of photography among clinicians whose daily work depends and is influenced so much by medical photography. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires documenting the bio data, place of practice, and experience of cleft caregivers with clinical photography were distributed. Knowledge of rules guiding clinical photography and adherence to them were also asked. Types of camera used were documented and knowledge of the value of clinical photographs were also inquired. Results: Plastic surgeons constitute the highest proportion of 27 (38.6%, followed by Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons with 14 (20.0%. Twenty one (30.0% of the respondents always, 21 (30.0% often, 12 (17.1% frequently, while 9 respondents sometimes took photographs of their patients. Suggested uses of clinical photographs included training, 52 (74.3%, education, 51 (72.9%, medicolegal, 44 (62.9% and advertisement, 44 (62.9% among others. Twenty two (31.4% did not know that there were standard guidelines for taking clinical photographs. Twenty three (32.9% of them did not seek the consent of the patients before taking clinical photographs. Conclusion: While the practice of clinical photography is high among African cleft caregivers, there is a need for further education on the issues of standard rules and obtaining consent from patients.

  10. Modeling CMB lensing cross correlations with CLEFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Chirag; White, Martin [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vlah, Zvonimir, E-mail: modichirag@berkeley.edu, E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu, E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A new generation of surveys will soon map large fractions of sky to ever greater depths and their science goals can be enhanced by exploiting cross correlations between them. In this paper we study cross correlations between the lensing of the CMB and biased tracers of large-scale structure at high z . We motivate the need for more sophisticated bias models for modeling increasingly biased tracers at these redshifts and propose the use of perturbation theories, specifically Convolution Lagrangian Effective Field Theory (CLEFT). Since such signals reside at large scales and redshifts, they can be well described by perturbative approaches. We compare our model with the current approach of using scale independent bias coupled with fitting functions for non-linear matter power spectra, showing that the latter will not be sufficient for upcoming surveys. We illustrate our ideas by estimating σ{sub 8} from the auto- and cross-spectra of mock surveys, finding that CLEFT returns accurate and unbiased results at high z . We discuss uncertainties due to the redshift distribution of the tracers, and several avenues for future development.

  11. Reproductive patterns among Danish women with oral clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yttri, Janne Elin; Christensen, Kaare; Knudsen, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the reproduction pattern among Danish women born with isolated oral clefts with the Danish background population. Design and setting: A nationwide population based historic cohort-study based on three registers: The Danish Facial Cleft...... Register, The Danish Civil Registration System and the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset. Participants: Through linkages of the registers, number of children and the exact age at childbirth of all Danish women born with an oral cleft during 1950 through 1988 (N=1,931) were obtained. These data were...

  12. Branchial cleft cyst: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Surekha; Deshmukh, Revati; Karande, Prasad; Ingale, Yeshwant

    2014-01-01

    First branchial cleft anomaly is a rare disease of the head and neck. Because of its rarity, first branchial cleft anomaly is often misdiagnosed and results in inappropriate management. In this article, we present a case of type II first branchial cleft anomaly. A middle-aged woman who had suffered from swelling on lower jaw visited our department with the chief complaint of a swelling. She underwent complete excision of the lesion with preservation of the facial nerve. The patient recovered well and had no recurrence at 1-year of follow up.

  13. Third branchial cleft anomaly presenting as a retropharyngeal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R Y; Damrose, E J; Alavi, S; Maceri, D R; Shapiro, N L

    2000-08-31

    Branchial cleft anomalies are congenital developmental defects that typically present as a soft fluctuant mass or fistulous tract along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. However, branchial anomalies can manifest atypically, presenting diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Error or delay in diagnosis can lead to complications, recurrences, and even life-threatening emergencies. We describe a case of an infected branchial cleft cyst that progressed to a retropharyngeal abscess in a 5-week-old female patient. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings of this rare presentation of branchial cleft cyst are discussed.

  14. Duplicated facial nerve trunk with a first branchial cleft cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Drew; Poteet, Perry; Bower, Charles

    2014-03-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies are rare and their various anatomical relationships to the facial nerve have been described. We encountered a 15-year-old female with a type II first branchial cleft cyst presenting as a right neck mass that we found during surgical excision to transverse two main facial nerve trunks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a first branchial cleft anomaly in conjunction with a duplicated facial nerve trunk. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Cleft Palate Fistula Closure Utilizing Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi, Omri; Ginini, Jiriys George; van Aalst, John A; Shilo, Dekel; Naddaf, Raja; Aizenbud, Dror; Rachmiel, Adi

    2018-03-01

    Fistulas represent failure of cleft palate repair. Secondary and tertiary fistula repair is challenging, with high recurrence rates. In the present retrospective study, we review the efficacy of using acellular dermal matrix as an interposition layer for cleft palate fistula closure in 20 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2016. Complete fistula closure was obtained in 16 patients; 1 patient had asymptomatic recurrent fistula; 2 patients had partial closure with reduction of fistula size and minimal nasal regurgitation; 1 patient developed a recurrent fistula without changes in symptoms (success rate of 85%). We conclude that utilizing acellular dermal matrix for cleft palate fistula repair is safe and simple with a high success rate.

  16. Strategy for Nasal Reconstruction in Atypical Facial Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad M. Ghareeb, FRCS, MD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. It is difficult to put forward a strategy for the treatment of nasal clefts due to the rarity and diversity of anatomical aberrations of these cases contrary to the common nasal affection in cleft lip and palate patients, which differ in severity rather than differing in the morbid anatomy. This simple strategy for correction of these nasal clefts will hopefully help surgeons to achieve better results. In the mean time I intended to describe the morbid anatomy of these cases by choosing examples of each morbid anatomy.

  17. Maternal Risk Factors Associated with the Development of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate in Mexico: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Castro, Emmanuel; Acosta-Alfaro, Luis F; Guadron-Llanos, Alma M; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Gonzalez-Ibarra, Fernando; Osuna-Ramírez, Ignacio; Murillo-Llanes, Joel

    2017-07-01

    Cleft lip and palate, the most common developmental deformity, is seen worldwide and the etiology involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the maternal risk factors associated with the development of cleft lip and cleft palate. We conducted a case control study at the Women's Hospital in Culiacan, Mexico. Medical records were analyzed, including patients who delivered babies with and without cleft lip and cleft palate from January 2010 to December 2015. Multiple variables were analyzed, including gestational age, weight at birth, the use of folic acid and multivitamins during pregnancy, smoking, alcohol abuse, the use of recreational drugs, history of sexually transmitted infections, marital status, socioeconomic status, education, and nutritional status. We found that the maternal risk factors with the strongest association for the development of cleft lip and cleft palate were the following: patients who were not taking folic acid during pregnancy [OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.32-8.09], P=0.00; patients who were not taking vitamin supplementation during pregnancy [OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.19-7.27], P=0.02; smoking during pregnancy [OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.23-3.41], P=0.01; and alcohol abuse during pregnancy [OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.17-3.08], P=0.03. The main risk factors associated with the development of cleft lip and cleft palate in a Mexican population at the Women's hospital in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were smoking, alcohol abuse, and patients not taking folic acid and multivitamins during pregnancy.

  18. Cleft characteristics and treatment outcomes in hemifacial microsomia compared to non-syndromic cleft lip/palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentino, K M; Valstar, A; Padwa, B L

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) and cleft lip/palate (CL/P), and to compare them to a historic cohort of patients with non-syndromic CL/P treated at the same centre. A retrospective review of patients with HFM and CL/P was performed; the main outcome measures assessed were cleft type/side, surgical outcome, midfacial retrusion, and speech. Twenty-six patients (13 male, 13 female; mean age 22.7±14.9, range 1-52 years) with cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL±P) were identified: three with cleft lip (12%), two with cleft lip and alveolus and an intact secondary palate (8%), and 21 with cleft lip and palate (CLP) (81%; 15 unilateral and six bilateral). Four patients (19%) had a palatal fistula after palatoplasty. Twelve of 22 patients aged >5 years (55%) had midfacial retrusion and two (9%) required a pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Fisher's exact test demonstrated a higher frequency of complete labial clefting (P=0.004), CLP (P=0.009), midfacial retrusion (P=0.0009), and postoperative palatal fistula (P=0.03) in HFM compared to non-syndromic CL±P. There was no difference in VPI prevalence. This study revealed that patients with HFM and CL±P have more severe forms of orofacial clefting than patients with non-syndromic CL±P. Patients with HFM and CL±P have more severe midfacial retrusion and a higher palatal fistula rate compared to patients with non-syndromic CL±P. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing Technical Performance and Determining the Learning Curve in Cleft Palate Surgery Using a High-Fidelity Cleft Palate Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolsky, Dale J; Fisher, David M; Wong Riff, Karen W; Szasz, Peter; Looi, Thomas; Drake, James M; Forrest, Christopher R

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed technical performance in cleft palate repair using a newly developed assessment tool and high-fidelity cleft palate simulator through a longitudinal simulation training exercise. Three residents performed five and one resident performed nine consecutive endoscopically recorded cleft palate repairs using a cleft palate simulator. Two fellows in pediatric plastic surgery and two expert cleft surgeons also performed recorded simulated repairs. The Cleft Palate Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (CLOSATS) and end-product scales were developed to assess performance. Two blinded cleft surgeons assessed the recordings and the final repairs using the CLOSATS, end-product scale, and a previously developed global rating scale. The average procedure-specific (CLOSATS), global rating, and end-product scores increased logarithmically after each successive simulation session for the residents. Reliability of the CLOSATS (average item intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), 0.85 ± 0.093) and global ratings (average item ICC, 0.91 ± 0.02) among the raters was high. Reliability of the end-product assessments was lower (average item ICC, 0.66 ± 0.15). Standard setting linear regression using an overall cutoff score of 7 of 10 corresponded to a pass score for the CLOSATS and the global score of 44 (maximum, 60) and 23 (maximum, 30), respectively. Using logarithmic best-fit curves, 6.3 simulation sessions are required to reach the minimum standard. A high-fidelity cleft palate simulator has been developed that improves technical performance in cleft palate repair. The simulator and technical assessment scores can be used to determine performance before operating on patients.

  20. Genetic determinants of facial clefting: analysis of 357 candidate genes using two national cleft studies from Scandinavia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanand Jugessur

    Full Text Available Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark: 235 case-parent triads.We used two complementary statistical methods, TRIMM and HAPLIN, to look for associations across these two national samples. TRIMM tests for association in each gene by using multi-SNP genotypes from case-parent triads directly without the need to infer haplotypes. HAPLIN on the other hand estimates the full haplotype distribution over a set of SNPs and estimates relative risks associated with each haplotype. For isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (I-CL/P, TRIMM and HAPLIN both identified significant associations with IRF6 and ADH1C in both populations, but only HAPLIN found an association with FGF12. For isolated cleft palate (I-CP, TRIMM found associations with ALX3, MKX, and PDGFC in both populations, but only the association with PDGFC was identified by HAPLIN. In addition, HAPLIN identified an association with ETV5 that was not detected by TRIMM.Strong associations with seven genes were replicated in the Scandinavian samples and our approach effectively replicated the strongest previously known association in clefting--with IRF6. Based on two national cleft cohorts of similar ancestry, two robust statistical methods and a large panel of SNPs in the most promising cleft candidate genes to date, this study identified a previously unknown association with clefting for ADH1C and provides additional candidates and analytic approaches to advance the field.

  1. Un Futuro Prometedor para su Nino con Labio Hendido y Paladar Hendido. Edicion Refundida (Bright Promise for Your Child with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate. Revised Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Eugene T.; Berlin, Asa J.

    The booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to help parents of babies with cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Topics covered include the sequence of prenatal development and the effects of birth defects, common misconceptions about what causes the conditions, possible hereditary and environmental causes, and what it means to have a cleft palate or a…

  2. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  3. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  4. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  5. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  6. Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate: New BCL3 information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, C.; Hecht, J.T. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); Gasser, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We did not previously provide LOD scores for linkage assuming heterogeneity, as suggested by Ott for the linkage analysis of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and BCL3, ApoC2, and D19S178 in the paper by Stein et al. The results from analysis using the HOMOG program, allowing for heterogeneity under the reduced penetrance model, gave a maximum LOD score of 1.85 for ApoC2, 0.41 for BCL3, 0.03 for D19S178, and 1.72 for multipoint analysis in the interval. For the affecteds-only model, the values are 1.96 for ApoC2, 0.41 for BCL3, 0.01 for D19S178, and 1.44 for the multipoint analysis. 8 refs.

  7. Drosophila-Cdh1 (Rap/Fzr) a regulatory subunit of APC/C is required for synaptic morphology, synaptic transmission and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alexandria; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Hua, Shao-Ying; Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2013-11-01

    The assembly of functional synapses requires the orchestration of the synthesis and degradation of a multitude of proteins. Protein degradation and modification by the conserved ubiquitination pathway has emerged as a key cellular regulatory mechanism during nervous system development and function (Kwabe and Brose, 2011). The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase complex primarily characterized for its role in the regulation of mitosis (Peters, 2002). In recent years, a role for APC/C in nervous system development and function has been rapidly emerging (Stegmuller and Bonni, 2005; Li et al., 2008). In the mammalian central nervous system the activator subunit, APC/C-Cdh1, has been shown to be a regulator of axon growth and dendrite morphogenesis (Konishi et al., 2004). In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), APC2, a ligase subunit of the APC/C complex has been shown to regulate synaptic bouton size and activity (van Roessel et al., 2004). To investigate the role of APC/C-Cdh1 at the synapse we examined loss-of-function mutants of Rap/Fzr (Retina aberrant in pattern/Fizzy related), a Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Cdh1 during the development of the larval neuromuscular junction in Drosophila. Our cell biological, ultrastructural, electrophysiological, and behavioral data showed that rap/fzr loss-of-function mutations lead to changes in synaptic structure and function as well as locomotion defects. Data presented here show changes in size and morphology of synaptic boutons, and, muscle tissue organization. Electrophysiological experiments show that loss-of-function mutants exhibit increased frequency of spontaneous miniature synaptic potentials, indicating a higher rate of spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion events. In addition, larval locomotion and peristaltic movement were also impaired. These findings suggest a role for Drosophila APC/C-Cdh1 mediated ubiquitination in regulating synaptic morphology

  8. Flexible Proton-Gated Oxide Synaptic Transistors on Si Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Chang Jin; Gao, Ping Qi; Liu, Yang Hui; Xiao, Hui; Ye, Ji Chun; Wan, Qing

    2016-08-24

    Ion-conducting materials have received considerable attention for their applications in fuel cells, electrochemical devices, and sensors. Here, flexible indium zinc oxide (InZnO) synaptic transistors with multiple presynaptic inputs gated by proton-conducting phosphorosilicate glass-based electrolyte films are fabricated on ultrathin Si membranes. Transient characteristics of the proton gated InZnO synaptic transistors are investigated, indicating stable proton-gating behaviors. Short-term synaptic plasticities are mimicked on the proposed proton-gated synaptic transistors. Furthermore, synaptic integration regulations are mimicked on the proposed synaptic transistor networks. Spiking logic modulations are realized based on the transition between superlinear and sublinear synaptic integration. The multigates coupled flexible proton-gated oxide synaptic transistors may be interesting for neuroinspired platforms with sophisticated spatiotemporal information processing.

  9. Swallowing function after laryngeal cleft repair: more than just fixing the cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Alexander J; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Tabangin, Meredith E; Miller, Claire K; Cotton, Robin T; Rutter, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate and describe the swallowing function in children after laryngeal cleft repair. Ten-year (2002-2012) retrospective chart review. Academic tertiary care pediatric otolaryngology practice. Records of 60 children who had surgical repair of laryngeal cleft (ages 2 weeks-14 years) and postoperative functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing or videofluoroscopic swallow studies were examined retrospectively. Twenty-nine children had one postoperative swallow evaluation, 19 children had two, 4 children had three, 5 children had four, and 3 children had five. Median time to the first evaluation was 10.8 weeks (interquartile range [IQR]: 36.5, 231). On the final swallow evaluation, 34 (57%) children demonstrated normal swallowing parameters, 12 (20%) children showed penetration, and 14 (23%) children showed aspiration. Forty-three (72%) children were able to take everything by mouth normally or with minor behavioral modifications, 11 (18%) children required thickened fluids, and six (10%) children were kept nil per os (NPO). Mean improvement on the penetration-aspiration (pen-asp) scale was 2.13. On multivariable analysis, neurodevelopmental issues and gastronomy tube use were associated with the need for NPO status. Despite a high rate of surgical success, a substantial minority of children have persistent swallowing dysfunction after laryngeal cleft repair. Swallowing dysfunction after repair is multifactorial and arises from concomitant neurologic, anatomic, or other comorbidities that contribute to oropharyngeal and pharyngeal dysphagia. Based on our results, we recommend a testing schedule for postoperative swallowing evaluations after cleft repair. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  11. P2X Receptors and Synaptic Plasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pankratov, Y.; Lalo, U.; Krishtal, A.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 1 (2009), s. 137-148 ISSN 0306-4522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : ATP * P2X receptors * synaptic plasticity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2009

  12. Synaptic plasticity and the warburg effect

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Functional brain imaging studies show that in certain brain regions glucose utilization exceeds oxygen consumption, indicating the predominance of aerobic glycolysis. In this issue, Goyal et al. (2014) report that this metabolic profile is associated with an enrichment in the expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity and remodeling processes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Neuronal cytoskeleton in synaptic plasticity and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Weeks, Phillip R; Fournier, Alyson E

    2014-04-01

    During development, dynamic changes in the axonal growth cone and dendrite are necessary for exploratory movements underlying initial axo-dendritic contact and ultimately the formation of a functional synapse. In the adult central nervous system, an impressive degree of plasticity is retained through morphological and molecular rearrangements in the pre- and post-synaptic compartments that underlie the strengthening or weakening of synaptic pathways. Plasticity is regulated by the interplay of permissive and inhibitory extracellular cues, which signal through receptors at the synapse to regulate the closure of critical periods of developmental plasticity as well as by acute changes in plasticity in response to experience and activity in the adult. The molecular underpinnings of synaptic plasticity are actively studied and it is clear that the cytoskeleton is a key substrate for many cues that affect plasticity. Many of the cues that restrict synaptic plasticity exhibit residual activity in the injured adult CNS and restrict regenerative growth by targeting the cytoskeleton. Here, we review some of the latest insights into how cytoskeletal remodeling affects neuronal plasticity and discuss how the cytoskeleton is being targeted in an effort to promote plasticity and repair following traumatic injury in the central nervous system. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Parental age in relation to severity of clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron Andre; Kreiborg, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Lip and/or Palate (IC). Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test (5% significance level) was applied in order to test for group differences. Standard logistic regression was used in order to estimate the risk of developing CC relative to IC. Results. In the group with CC mean paternal age was 29.5+/-4.5 (1SD) years...... parental ages in the group with IC did not differ from normative population values during the same time period. Logistic regression showed for paternal age OR=1.1[1.04,1.16](Wald confidence limits); for maternal age 1.08[1.01,1.15]. Conclusions. The hypothesis was rejected. Parental age was significantly...... of cleft individuals, as well as to compare parental age in the cleft population with normative values of parental age. It was hypothesized that there was no difference in parental age between the cleft groups with incomplete and complete clefts, respectively. Methods/Descriptions. The consecutive non...

  15. Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacity to model and simulate key events in developmental toxicity using computational systems biology and biological knowledge steps closer to hazard identification across the vast landscape of untested environmental chemicals. In this context, we chose cleft palate as a model ...

  16. Contemporary Approaches in the Repair of Alveolar Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Tatli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies. The repair of the alveolar clefts is an important part of the treatment for patients with cleft lip and palate. The treatment concepts of alveolar bone grafting are still controversial. The corresponding controversial issues are; timing of alveolar bone grafting, graft materials, and timing of the orthodontic expansion. In the present article, aforementioned controversial issues and contemporary treatment modalities of the maxillary alveolar clefts were reviewed in the light of current literature. In conclusion, the most suitable time for alveolar bone grafting is mixed dentition period. Grafting procedure may be performed in the early or late phases of this period depending on some clinical features. Adjunct orthodontic expansion procedures should be performed before and/or after grafting depending on the patient's current features. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 563-574

  17. Ankyloglossia with cleft lip: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangid, Kritika; Alexander, Aurelian Jovita; Jayakumar, Nadathur Doraiswamy; Varghese, Sheeja; Ramani, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie is a congenital anomaly affecting the tongue, which is characterized by thick, short lingual frenulum. This condition causes many difficulties such as limited tongue protrusion, breastfeeding difficulties, speech impairment and lack of self-confidence. It is very rarely associated with any other congenital craniofacial disorders such as cleft lip, X-linked cleft palate, Van der Woude syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Orofacial digital syndrome, Beckwith Weidman syndrome or Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. This article presents a rare case of ankyloglossia associated with cleft lip treated with diode laser in a 12-year-old Indian boy who had undergone surgical correction of associated cleft lip soon after birth. Correction of ankyloglossia at a young age would lead to enhanced phonetics, improved oral hygiene, and overall personality development. PMID:26941523

  18. Ankyloglossia with cleft lip: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritika Jangid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie is a congenital anomaly affecting the tongue, which is characterized by thick, short lingual frenulum. This condition causes many difficulties such as limited tongue protrusion, breastfeeding difficulties, speech impairment and lack of self-confidence. It is very rarely associated with any other congenital craniofacial disorders such as cleft lip, X-linked cleft palate, Van der Woude syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Orofacial digital syndrome, Beckwith Weidman syndrome or Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. This article presents a rare case of ankyloglossia associated with cleft lip treated with diode laser in a 12-year-old Indian boy who had undergone surgical correction of associated cleft lip soon after birth. Correction of ankyloglossia at a young age would lead to enhanced phonetics, improved oral hygiene, and overall personality development.

  19. Management of Cleft Lip and Palate in Nigeria: A Survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-20

    Mar 20, 2017 ... Background: Clefts of the lip and/or palate are the most common congenital craniofacial ... in the number of surgeons, but the training, scope, and standard of care remain ... specialist fellowship qualifications, 6 others (8.6%).

  20. Synaptic remodeling, synaptic growth and the storage of long-term memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig H; Kandel, Eric R

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic remodeling and synaptic growth accompany various forms of long-term memory. Storage of the long-term memory for sensitization of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia has been extensively studied in this respect and is associated with the growth of new synapses by the sensory neurons onto their postsynaptic target neurons. Recent time-lapse imaging studies of living sensory-to-motor neuron synapses in culture have monitored both functional and structural changes simultaneously so as to follow remodeling and growth at the same specific synaptic connections continuously over time and to examine the functional contribution of these learning-related structural changes to the different time-dependent phases of memory storage. Insights provided by these studies suggest the synaptic differentiation and growth induced by learning in the mature nervous system are highly dynamic and often rapid processes that can recruit both molecules and mechanisms used for de novo synapse formation during development.

  1. Maxillary distraction complications in cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeblaoui, Y; Morand, B; Brix, M; Lebeau, J; Bettega, G

    2010-06-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients often present with a class III malocclusion in connection with a three dimensional maxillary hypoplasia. Twenty-five to 60% of these patients need maxillary advancement. Two solutions are possible: orthognathic surgery and maxillary distraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications of maxillary distraction in CLP patients. Data was collected from the records of patients treated in our surgery unit between 2000 and 2007. Among the eight patients (four male and four female), five presented with a bilateral CLP, two with a unilateral CLP, and one with a unilateral cleft lip associated to a soft palate cleft. The average age at surgery was 17 years. All underwent a Le Fort I osteotomy with a pterygomaxillary disjunction. An external distractor was used for the first two patients and an internal distractor for the six following patients. After a seven-day latency, activation was implemented at a rate of 1mm twice a day. The average period of consolidation was four months. Maxillary advancement ranged between 7 and 19mm, with an average of 12.6mm. The average follow-up was four years. Complications were noted in seven patients: one intra-operative hemorrhage, one avulsion of a tooth anchored at the pterygoid process during osteotomy, three cases of device dysfunction, two cases of significant pain during activation, one loosening of the orthodontic arch in an external system, two cases of labial ulceration, and one maxillary sinusitis due to migration of a wisdom tooth. Complications of maxillary distraction in CLP patients were very frequent. Most were related to the device and did not interfere with the final result. This must be taken into account when indicating distraction and choosing the device. Two types of complications can occur during distraction: those related to the osteotomy and those related to the device. The complications related to the osteotomy are linked to the cicatricial ground of previous

  2. [Maxillary distraction complications in cleft patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeblaoui, Y; Morand, B; Brix, M; Lebeau, J; Bettega, G

    2008-09-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients often present with a class III malocclusion in connection with a three dimensional maxillary hypoplasia. Twenty-five to 60% of these patients require a maxillary advancement. Two solutions are possible: orthognathic surgery and maxillary distraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications of the maxillary distraction in CLP patients. Data was collected from the records of patients treated at our Surgery Unit between 2000 and 2007. Among the eight patients (four male and four female), five presented a bilateral CLP, two a unilateral CLP and one a unilateral cleft lip associated to a soft palate cleft. The average age at surgery was 17 years old. All had a Le Fort I osteotomy with a pterygomaxillary disjunction. The first two patients had external distractors and the six following internal ones. After a seven-day latency, activation was led to the rate of 1mm per day twice. The period of consolidation was four months on average. The maxillary advancement varied between 7 and 19 mm with an average of 12.6mm. The average follow-up was four years. We encountered difficulties and/or complications in seven patients: one intraoperatively haemorrhage, one avulsion of a tooth fixed at the pterygoid process during the osteotomy, three device failures, two cases of significant pains during activation, one dissociation of the dental anchorage of an external system, two labial ulcerations and one maxillary sinusitis by migration of the 18. Difficulties of maxillary distraction in CLP patients are very frequent. The majority is related to the distractors and did not interfere with the final result. But this frequency must be taken into account in the indication and in the choice of the material. Two types of complications can occur during distraction: those related to the osteotomy and those related to the material. The complications related to the osteotomy are in connection with the cicatricial ground of the CLP. They are

  3. Synaptic Plasticity, Dementia and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Zusso, Morena; Giusti, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment. Degenerative diseases of the human brain continue to pose one of biomedicine's most intractable problems. Research on human neurodegeneration is now moving from descriptive to mechanistic analyses. At the same time, it is increasing apparently that morphological lesions traditionally used by neuropathologists to confirm post-mortem clinical diagnosis might furnish us with an experimentally tractable handle to understand causative pathways. Consider the aging-dependent neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is characterised at the neuropathological level by deposits of insoluble amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in extracellular plaques and aggregated tau protein, which is found largely in the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. We now appreciate that mild cognitive impairment in early AD may be due to synaptic dysfunction caused by accumulation of non-fibrillar, oligomeric Aβ, occurring well in advance of evident widespread synaptic loss and neurodegeneration. Soluble Aβ oligomers can adversely affect synaptic structure and plasticity at extremely low concentrations, although the molecular substrates by which synaptic memory mechanisms are disrupted remain to be fully elucidated. The dendritic spine constitutes a primary locus of excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. These structures protruding from dendritic

  4. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  5. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  6. Phonetic description of babbling in Danish toddlers born with and without unilateral cleft lip and palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Albrechstn, Helle

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate prelinguistic vocalization sequences of 1-year-old children with and without cleft lip and palate. Design: Prospective study. Participants: Thirty-eight children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 36 control children born without clefts. The cleft children had...... of occurrence of nasal contoids and a smaller frequency of occurrence of alveolar contoids in the cleft group. Canonical babbling was achieved by most children in both groups, and no significant difference was found between the groups. Conclusions: Early closure of the soft palate seems to have a positive...... influence on the prelinguistic development of children with cleft palate....

  7. Congenital Palatal Fistula Associated with Submucous Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshete, Mekonen; Camison, Liliana; Abate, Fikre; Hailu, Taye; Demissie, Yohannes; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Butali, Azeez; Losken, H. Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although cleft lip and cleft palate are among the most common congenital malformations, the presence of an isolated congenital palatal fistula along with a submucous cleft is very rare. This appears as an oval-shaped, full-thickness fenestration in the palatal midline that does not fully extend anteriorly or posteriorly, accompanied by the findings of a submucous cleft. Because of the uncommon nature of this entity, there is controversy about its etiology, diagnosis, and management. Methods: Two cases of children with congenital palatal fistulae and a submucous cleft palate are presented who were treated in different settings by different surgeons. Cases are discussed along with a thorough review of the available literature. Results: Patient 1 presented at 4 years of age with “a hole in the palate” since birth and abnormal speech. His palatal fistula and submucous cleft were repaired with a modified von Langenbeck technique in Ethiopia. At a 2-year follow-up, the palate remained closed, but hypernasal speech persisted. Patient 2 was a 1-year-old presenting with failure to thrive and nasal regurgitation, who underwent a Furlow palatoplasty in the United States with good immediate results. She was unfortunately lost to follow-up. Conclusions: A congenital fenestration of the palate is rare. Reports reveal suboptimal speech at follow-up, despite various types of repair, especially when combined with a submucous cleft. Available literature suggests that repair should not focus on fistula closure only but instead on providing adequate palate length to provide good velopharyngeal function, as in any cleft palate repair. PMID:27014542

  8. [First branchial cleft cyst in nasopharynx: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report a rare case of first branchial cleft cyst arising from the nasopharynx. A 47-year old woman with a six-month-history of right ear stuffy and hearing loss was studied. Electronic nasopharyngeal examination revealed a mass in the nasopharynx of this case. The tumor was removed endoscopically with endonasal approach. Postoperative pathological examination indicated that it was branchial cleft cyst. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  9. The trochlear cleft: the ''black line'' of the trochlear trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissman, Robert D.; Nepute, Joshua; Fischer, Nathaniel von; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Hendry, Daniel; Ingalls, Jerrell; Kenter, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The ''cartilage black line sign'' is a recently described T2 dark cartilage lesion that we have identified appearing as a cleft in the trochlear trough. The purpose of our study was to define the MR imaging characteristics of a trochlear cleft, determine its incidence, and correlate the MR findings with arthroscopy. A total of 1,300 consecutive MR examinations of the knee were retrospectively reviewed by consensus of two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. The MR imaging characteristics and location of a trochlear cleft were determined. Imaging results were compared to arthroscopy when available. Patient age and gender were compared to 25 randomly selected control patients without trochlear clefts. A total of 25 (1.9%) individuals (11 females and 14 males; age range 19-45 years; mean age 28 years) were diagnosed with a trochlear cleft. The control group consisted of 11 females and 14 males; age range 19-83 years; mean age 46 years. Mean cleft length was 7 mm (range 6-12 mm); cleft location was consistently in the lower trochlear trough. No full-thickness cartilage defects were identified in the eight individuals in whom arthroscopic correlation was available. A grade 2 cartilage lesion was identified in a single individual; another progressed from grade 0 to a full-thickness trochlear lesion over an 8-month interval. Eight individuals were athletes. No significant difference in gender was noted between the two groups, however, the study group was significantly younger p < 0.0001. A trochlear cleft is a rare finding in young active individuals. It most likely indicates an incomplete cartilage fissure which may rarely progress to a full-thickness defect. (orig.)

  10. A Relationship between nasolabial appearance and self-esteem in adolescent with repaired cleft lip and cleft palate at Khon Kaen University Cleft Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patjanasoontornm, Niramol; Wongniyom, Kusalapom; Pradubwong, Suteera; Piyavhakul, Navanant; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2014-10-01

    To examine levels of self-esteem of adolescents with repaired cleft lip and cleft palate at Khon Kaen University Cleft Center and its correlation with nasolabial appearance. Across-sectional survey of 93 adolescents with repaired cleft lip and palate. A total nasolabial appearance score was 2.8 +/- 0.36 (fair to good). The mean of the total self-esteem score for all respondents was 20.11 +/- 3.27 (maximum 30). There was no-significant correlation between nasolabial appearance and self esteem (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficiency (r) = 0.18, p = 0.08. The self-esteem scores of good, fair and poor appearance were 20.5 +/- 0.98, 19.8 +/- 0.32, 19 +/- 2.09 respectively. The nasolabial appearance of repaired cleft lip and palate not be the only factor but other psychosocialfactors also may play a role in their self-esteem. The analysis of this study found no relationship between self-esteem and appearance.

  11. A case report of brachial cleft cyst in the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Mi; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo

    1993-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst is the most common lateral neck cyst ; the vast majority are of the second branchial cleft origin. This presumably reflects the greater depth and longer persistence of the second cleft, compared with the first, third, and fourth clefts. We experienced a 49-year-old male whose chief complaint was a abnormal mass of the cleft parotid gland area and neck. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. We diagnosed it as a second branchial cleft cyst in the neck and obtained results as follows: 1. In clinical examination, there was a 10 X 15 cm sized, fluctuant painful mass in the left neck and parotid area. 2. In radiographic examination, a low echogenic mass with internal cystic change in the inferior parotid gland area was noted sonographically. Computed tomograph showed a 3 X 4 cm sized, well-defined cystic mass with heterogenous solid component in the anterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle. MRI revealed 5 X 6 cm sized, well-marginated multiseparated mass in the same area. 3. In histopathological examination, lining of cyst was stratified squamous epithelium with typical lymph node pattern and inflammatory cell infiltration.

  12. A case report of brachial cleft cyst in the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Mi; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    Branchial cleft cyst is the most common lateral neck cyst ; the vast majority are of the second branchial cleft origin. This presumably reflects the greater depth and longer persistence of the second cleft, compared with the first, third, and fourth clefts. We experienced a 49-year-old male whose chief complaint was a abnormal mass of the cleft parotid gland area and neck. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. We diagnosed it as a second branchial cleft cyst in the neck and obtained results as follows: 1. In clinical examination, there was a 10 X 15 cm sized, fluctuant painful mass in the left neck and parotid area. 2. In radiographic examination, a low echogenic mass with internal cystic change in the inferior parotid gland area was noted sonographically. Computed tomograph showed a 3 X 4 cm sized, well-defined cystic mass with heterogenous solid component in the anterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle. MRI revealed 5 X 6 cm sized, well-marginated multiseparated mass in the same area. 3. In histopathological examination, lining of cyst was stratified squamous epithelium with typical lymph node pattern and inflammatory cell infiltration.

  13. Augmentation Rhinoplasty in Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity: Preliminary Patients’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. C. Tiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correction of cleft lip nasal deformity is challenging and there have been numerous methods described in the literature with little demonstrated technical superiority of one over another. The common clinical issues associated with cleft lip nasal deformity are its lack of symmetry, alar collapse on the affected side, obtuse nasal labial angle, short nasal length, loss of tip definition, and altered columella show among others. We carried out augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasties with rib graft in 16 patients over the one-year study period. Each of these patients was reviewed and given questionnaire before and after surgery to evaluate their response on the outcome to the approach. Preoperatively, nasal asymmetry is the main complaint (14/16, 87.5% among our series of patients. Postoperatively, 12 (75% patients out of the 16 reported significant improvement in their nasal symmetry with the other four marginal. All patients reported excellent nasal projection postoperatively with good nasal tip definition. Our series of patients reported overall good satisfaction outcome and will recommend this procedure to other patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. In conclusion, augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasty can be employed to achieve perceivable and satisfactory outcome in patients with cleft lip nasal deformity.

  14. Early lexical characteristics of toddlers with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L

    2014-11-01

    Objective : To examine development of early expressive lexicons in toddlers with cleft palate to determine whether they differ from those of noncleft toddlers in terms of size and lexical selectivity. Design : Retrospective. Patients : A total of 37 toddlers with cleft palate and 22 noncleft toddlers. Main Outcome Measures : The groups were compared for size of expressive lexicon reported on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory and the percentage of words beginning with obstruents and sonorants produced in a language sample. Differences between groups in the percentage of word initial consonants correct on the language sample were also examined. Results : Although expressive vocabulary was comparable at 13 months of age for both groups, size of the lexicon for the cleft group was significantly smaller than that for the noncleft group at 21 and 27 months of age. Toddlers with cleft palate produced significantly more words beginning with sonorants and fewer words beginning with obstruents in their spontaneous speech samples. They were also less accurate when producing word initial obstruents compared with the noncleft group. Conclusions : Toddlers with cleft palate demonstrate a slower rate of lexical development compared with their noncleft peers. The preference that toddlers with cleft palate demonstrate for words beginning with sonorants could suggest they are selecting words that begin with consonants that are easier for them to produce. An alternative explanation might be that because these children are less accurate in the production of obstruent consonants, listeners may not always identify obstruents when they occur.

  15. Comparing caries risk profiles between 5- and 10- year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate and non-cleft controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Anna Lena; Ullbro, Christer; Marcusson, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    of cleft lip and/or palate (CL(P)) children with non-cleft controls in the same age using a computerized caries risk assessment model. METHODS: The study group consisted of 133 children with CL(P) (77 subjects aged 5 years and 56 aged 10 years) and 297 non-cleft controls (133 aged 5 years and 164 aged 10......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that children with oral clefts may have higher caries prevalence in comparison with non-cleft controls but the relative importance of the potential risk factors is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the caries risk profiles in a group...

  16. Ophthalmic changes in cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Sólia Násser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current study aimed to analyze through a literature review evidence of association between ocular changes and non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P. A literature review was carried out in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Group protocol. PubMed, Scopus, Academic Google and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically searched. A total of 16 studies were accessed, and three made up the final sample.All three studied ocular abnormalities in patients with NSCL/P.The articles found ocular abnormalities in 6.21%, 17.54% and 1.03% of patients respectively.The presence of ocular abnormalities in patients with NSCL/P was significant in this systematic review, but the articles all agreed that future studies should explore the possibility of a greater occurrence of ocular changes in individuals with NSCL/P.

  17. Computed tomography of Rathke's cleft cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Teramoto, Akira; Mayanagi, Yoshiaki; Hanamura, Tetsu; Noguchi, Makoto; Takakura, Kintomo.

    1986-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) findings in six cases of Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) were presented. According to the location of the RCC, we divided these cases into two types - the suprasellar type and the intrasellar type. The characteristic CT findings are as follows: SUPRASELLAR type 1. smooth, round mass, 2. various densities, 3. no enhancement, INTRASELLAR type 1. low-density area in the posterior sella turcica, 2. no enhancement, 3. suprasellar high-density mass; enhanced pituitary gland pushed up by the intrasellar RCC. As RCC are more common than was formerly suspected, this disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient showing a non-enhancing, non-calcified sellar/suprasellar cyst on CT scans. (author)

  18. Computed tomography of Rathke's cleft cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Teramoto, Akira; Mayanagi, Yoshiaki; Hanamura, Tetsu; Noguchi, Makoto; Takakura, Kintomo

    1986-02-01

    The computed tomography (CT) findings in six cases of Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) were presented. According to the location of the RCC, we divided these cases into two types - the suprasellar type and the intrasellar type. The characteristic CT findings are as follows: SUPRASELLAR type 1. smooth, round mass, 2. various densities, 3. no enhancement, INTRASELLAR type 1. low-density area in the posterior sella turcica, 2. no enhancement, 3. suprasellar high-density mass; enhanced pituitary gland pushed up by the intrasellar RCC. As RCC are more common than was formerly suspected, this disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient showing a non-enhancing, non-calcified sellar/suprasellar cyst on CT scans.

  19. A comparative study of prelinguistic vocalizations in two groups of cleft toddlers and a non-cleft group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Enemark, Hans

    2000-01-01

    . The results of this investigation were compared to results previously reported for 19 children with cleft palate and 19 noncleft children at the age of 13 months. The children with clefts in that study received a two-stage palatal surgery. This surgical procedure was formerly used at our center and included...... children in the comparison group. Both groups of subjects with clefts had significantly fewer plosives in their contoid inventory than the noncleft group, and there was no difference regarding place of articulation between the group that received delayed closure of the hard palate and the noncleft group.......Objective: This study examined the prelinguistic contoid (consonant-like) inventories of 14 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (C-UCLP) at 13 months of age. The children had received primary veloplasty at 7 months of age and closure of the hard palate was performed at 3–5 years...

  20. Splenogonadal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lang Chen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Splenogonadal fusion (SGF is a rare congenital non-malignant anomaly characterized by fusion of splenic tissue to the gonad, and can be continuous or discontinuous. Very few cases have been diagnosed preoperatively, and many patients who present with testicular swelling undergo unnecessary orchiectomy under the suspicion of testicular neoplasm. A 16-year-old boy presented with a left scrotal mass and underwent total excision of a 1.6-cm tumor without damaging the testis, epididymis or its accompanying vessels. Pathologic examination revealed SFG (discontinuous type. If clinically suspected before surgery, the diagnosis may be confirmed by Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging, which shows uptake in both the spleen and accessory splenic tissue within the scrotum. Frozen section should be considered if there remains any doubt regarding the diagnosis during operation.

  1. Activation of Notch1 inhibits medial edge epithelium apoptosis in all-trans retinoic acid-induced cleft palate in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yadong; Dong, Shiyi; Wang, Weicai; Wang, Jianning [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510055 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510055 (China); Wang, Miao [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kiang Wu Hospital, Macao (China); Chen, Mu [Department of Stomatology, Nanshan Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, Shenzhen (China); Hou, Jinsong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510055 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510055 (China); Huang, Hongzhang, E-mail: drhuang52@163.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510055 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510055 (China)

    2016-08-26

    Administration of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on E12.0 (embryonic day 12.0) leads to failure of medial edge epithelium (MEE) disappearance and cleft palate. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between atRA and MEE remains to be identified. In this study, atRA (200 mg/kg) administered by gavage induced a 75% incidence of cleft palate in C57BL/6 mice. Notch1 was up-regulated in MEE cells in the atRA-treated group compared with the controls at E15.0, together with reduced apoptosis and elevated proliferation. Next, we investigated the mechanisms underlying atRA, Notch1 and MEE degradation in palate organ culture. Our results revealed that down-regulation of Notch1 partially rescued the inhibition of atRA-induced palate fusion. Molecular analysis indicated that atRA increased the expression of Notch1 and Rbpj and decreased the expression of P21. In addition, depletion of Notch1 expression decreased the expression of Rbpj and increased the expression of P21. Moreover, inhibition of Rbpj expression partially reversed atRA-induced MEE persistence and increased P21 expression. These findings demonstrate that atRA inhibits MEE degradation, which in turn induces a cleft palate, possibly through the Notch1/RBPjk/P21 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • atRA exposure on E12.0 induced MEE persistence and cleft palate. • Notch1 was up-regulated in MEE cells in the atRA-treated embryos. • atRA inhibits MEE degradation, which in turn induces cleft palate, possibly through the Notch1/RBPjk/P21 signaling pathway.

  2. Activation of Notch1 inhibits medial edge epithelium apoptosis in all-trans retinoic acid-induced cleft palate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yadong; Dong, Shiyi; Wang, Weicai; Wang, Jianning; Wang, Miao; Chen, Mu; Hou, Jinsong; Huang, Hongzhang

    2016-01-01

    Administration of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on E12.0 (embryonic day 12.0) leads to failure of medial edge epithelium (MEE) disappearance and cleft palate. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between atRA and MEE remains to be identified. In this study, atRA (200 mg/kg) administered by gavage induced a 75% incidence of cleft palate in C57BL/6 mice. Notch1 was up-regulated in MEE cells in the atRA-treated group compared with the controls at E15.0, together with reduced apoptosis and elevated proliferation. Next, we investigated the mechanisms underlying atRA, Notch1 and MEE degradation in palate organ culture. Our results revealed that down-regulation of Notch1 partially rescued the inhibition of atRA-induced palate fusion. Molecular analysis indicated that atRA increased the expression of Notch1 and Rbpj and decreased the expression of P21. In addition, depletion of Notch1 expression decreased the expression of Rbpj and increased the expression of P21. Moreover, inhibition of Rbpj expression partially reversed atRA-induced MEE persistence and increased P21 expression. These findings demonstrate that atRA inhibits MEE degradation, which in turn induces a cleft palate, possibly through the Notch1/RBPjk/P21 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • atRA exposure on E12.0 induced MEE persistence and cleft palate. • Notch1 was up-regulated in MEE cells in the atRA-treated embryos. • atRA inhibits MEE degradation, which in turn induces cleft palate, possibly through the Notch1/RBPjk/P21 signaling pathway.

  3. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  4. Fusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1995-09-01

    This article traces developments in the spectroscopy of high temperature laboratory plasma used in controlled fusion research from the early 1960's until the present. These three and a half decades have witnessed many orders of magnitude increase in accessible plasma parameters such as density and temperature as well as particle and energy confinement timescales. Driven by the need to interpret the radiation in terms of the local plasma parameters, the thrust of fusion spectroscopy has been to develop our understanding of (i) the atomic structure of highly ionised atoms, usually of impurities in the hydrogen isotope fuel; (ii) the atomic collision rates and their incorporation into ionization structure and emissivity models that take into account plasma phenomena like plasma-wall interactions, particle transport and radiation patterns; (iii) the diagnostic applications of spectroscopy aided by increasingly sophisticated characterisation of the electron fluid. These topics are discussed in relation to toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, particularly the Tokamak which appears to be the most promising approach to controlled fusion to date. (author)

  5. Attitudes of pregnant women and mothers of children with orofacial clefts toward prenatal diagnosis of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in a semiurban set-up in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Kadagad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the attitudes of pregnant women and mothers of children with orofacial clefts toward prenatal diagnosis of clefts and elective termination of pregnancy, and to investigate their opinion about who makes reproductive decisions in the family. Design: Two hundred subjects were included in the study prospectively regarding hypothetical prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of clefts. Setting: The study was done in a private tertiary care institution and a teaching hospital. Subjects/Participants: One hundred pregnant women consulting the Obstetrics department and 100 mothers of children with orofacial clefts in the Cleft and Craniofacial Unit were selected. Materials and Methods: Group I subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire and were shown preoperative and postoperative pictures of children treated for cleft lip and palate. Group II subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire. Results: Only 3% of Group I subjects and 2% of Group II opined that they would choose the elective termination of pregnancy if the fetus was diagnosed with a cleft on an ultrasound scan. In Group II, 70% subjects wished to have known about pregnancy affected with cleft prenatally and 96% said they would definitely avail ultrasound scans to determine pregnancy affected by clefts in future. Conclusions: Majority of the respondents from both the groups chose to continue with the pregnancy affected with a cleft when questioned regarding hypothetical prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of the cleft.

  6. Attitudes of pregnant women and mothers of children with orofacial clefts toward prenatal diagnosis of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in a semiurban set-up in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadagad, Poornima; Pinto, Pascal; Powar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the attitudes of pregnant women and mothers of children with orofacial clefts toward prenatal diagnosis of clefts and elective termination of pregnancy, and to investigate their opinion about who makes reproductive decisions in the family. Design: Two hundred subjects were included in the study prospectively regarding hypothetical prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of clefts. Setting: The study was done in a private tertiary care institution and a teaching hospital. Subjects/Participants: One hundred pregnant women consulting the Obstetrics department and 100 mothers of children with orofacial clefts in the Cleft and Craniofacial Unit were selected. Materials and Methods: Group I subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire and were shown preoperative and postoperative pictures of children treated for cleft lip and palate. Group II subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire. Results: Only 3% of Group I subjects and 2% of Group II opined that they would choose the elective termination of pregnancy if the fetus was diagnosed with a cleft on an ultrasound scan. In Group II, 70% subjects wished to have known about pregnancy affected with cleft prenatally and 96% said they would definitely avail ultrasound scans to determine pregnancy affected by clefts in future. Conclusions: Majority of the respondents from both the groups chose to continue with the pregnancy affected with a cleft when questioned regarding hypothetical prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of the cleft. PMID:22279286

  7. Cleft lip and palate: recommendations for dental anesthetic procedure based on anatomic evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Kiemle Trindade-Suedam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cleft lip and palate usually present dental anomalies of number, shape, structure and position in the cleft area and the general dentist is frequently asked to restore or extract those teeth. Considering that several anatomic variations are expected in teeth adjacent to cleft areas and that knowledge of these variations by general dentists is required for optimal treatment, the objectives of this paper are: 1 to describe changes in the innervation pattern of anterior teeth and soft tissue caused by the presence of a cleft, 2 to describe a local anesthetic procedure in unilateral and bilateral clefts, and 3 to provide recommendations to improve anesthetic procedures in patients with cleft lip and palate. The cases of 2 patients are presented: one with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, and the other with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. The patients underwent local anesthesia in the cleft area in order to extract teeth with poor bone support. The modified anesthetic procedure, respecting the altered course of nerves in the cleft maxilla and soft tissue alterations at the cleft site, was accomplished successfully and the tooth extraction was performed with no pain to the patients. General dentists should be aware of the anatomic variations in nerve courses in the cleft area to offer high quality treatment to patients with cleft lip and palate.

  8. Improved Early Cleft Lip and Palate Complications at a Surgery Specialty Center in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eugene; Deshpande, Gaurav; Schonmeyr, Bjorn; Restrepo, Carolina; Campbell, Alex

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate complication rates following cleft lip and cleft palate repairs during the transition from mission-based care to center-based care in a developing region. We performed a retrospective review of 3419 patients who underwent cleft lip repair and 1728 patients who underwent cleft palate repair in Guwahati, India between December 2010 and February 2014. Of those who underwent cleft lip repair, 654 were treated during a surgical mission and 2765 were treated at a permanent center. Of those who underwent cleft palate repair, 236 were treated during a surgical mission and 1491 were treated at a permanent center. Two large surgical missions to Guwahati, India, and the Guwahati Comprehensive Cleft Care Center (GCCCC) in Assam, India. Overall complication rates following cleft lip and cleft palate repair. Overall complication rates following cleft lip repair were 13.2% for the first mission, 6.7% for the second mission, and 4.0% at GCCCC. Overall complication rates following cleft palate repair were 28.0% for the first mission, 30.0% for the second mission, and 15.8% at GCCCC. Complication rates following cleft palate repair by the subset of surgeons permanently based at GCCCC (7.2%) were lower than visiting surgeons ( P cleft care delivery in the developing world can lead to decreased complication rates.

  9. Variation among cleft centres in the use of secondary surgery for children with cleft palate: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Hossain, Monir; Carle, Adam C; Heaton, Pamela C; Britto, Maria T

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To test whether cleft centres vary in their use of secondary cleft palate surgery, also known as revision palate surgery, and if so to identify modifiable hospital factors and surgeon factors that are associated with use of secondary surgery. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Forty-three paediatric hospitals across the USA. Patients Children with cleft lip and palate who underwent primary cleft palate repair from 1999 to 2013. Main outcome measures Time from primary cleft palate repair to secondary palate surgery. Results We identified 4939 children who underwent primary cleft palate repair. At 10 years after primary palate repair, 44% of children had undergone secondary palate surgery. Significant variation existed among hospitals (ppalate repair before 9 months of age was associated with an increased hazard of secondary palate surgery (initial HR 6.74, 95% CI 5.30 to 8.73). Postoperative antibiotics, surgeon procedure volume and hospital procedure volume were not associated with time to secondary surgery (p>0.05). Of the outcome variation attributable to hospitals and surgeons, between-hospital differences accounted for 59% (ppalate surgery exists depending on a child’s age at primary palate repair and the hospital and surgeon performing their repair. Performing primary palate repair before 9 months of age substantially increases the hazard of secondary surgery. Further research is needed to identify other factors contributing to variation in palate surgery outcomes among hospitals and surgeons. PMID:29479567

  10. When there is more than a cleft: psychological adjustment when a cleft is associated with an additional condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie

    2014-01-01

    In spite of studies reporting a relatively high frequency of additional conditions in children with a cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P), almost no research has focused on this clinically important subgroup. The objective of this study was to compare psychosocial adjustment in children with CL/P with and without an additional condition. Cross-sectional data based on routine psychological assessments at age 10 years, with comparisons to national reference groups. Centralized treatment, Norway. Two hundred five children with CL/P (participation rate: 80.1%) from three consecutive birth cohorts. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self-report and parent report) and the Child Experience Questionnaire (self-report). Eighty-one children (39.5%) were identified as having at least one condition in addition to the cleft. These children reported significantly more psychosocial difficulties than children with a cleft alone. Differences between specific conditions were minor. Children with a cleft alone (n = 124) reported mean scores that were comparable to those reported by the reference group. There were no differences in adjustment between children with a visible versus a non-visible cleft. The present study highlights the need for research to be conducted in children with CL/P who have additional conditions to provide better knowledge and clinical care for a potentially vulnerable subgroup of children and their parents.

  11. Influence of Synaptic Depression on Memory Storage Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Yosuke; Nagata, Kenji; Oizumi, Masafumi; Okada, Masato

    2011-08-01

    Synaptic efficacy between neurons is known to change within a short time scale dynamically. Neurophysiological experiments show that high-frequency presynaptic inputs decrease synaptic efficacy between neurons. This phenomenon is called synaptic depression, a short term synaptic plasticity. Many researchers have investigated how the synaptic depression affects the memory storage capacity. However, the noise has not been taken into consideration in their analysis. By introducing ``temperature'', which controls the level of the noise, into an update rule of neurons, we investigate the effects of synaptic depression on the memory storage capacity in the presence of the noise. We analytically compute the storage capacity by using a statistical mechanics technique called Self Consistent Signal to Noise Analysis (SCSNA). We find that the synaptic depression decreases the storage capacity in the case of finite temperature in contrast to the case of the low temperature limit, where the storage capacity does not change.

  12. Radiographic study on maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation in cleft palate patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sam Sun; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-08-15

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation on diseases of maxillary sinus with cleft palate. The materials was 152 cephalometric Waters' projections consist of 76 cleft patients and 76 normal subjects. The results were as follows: 1. The disease of maxillary sinus was present in 49% of a cleft group and 14% of a control group, and prevalent in cleft side. 2. It showed no statistically significant difference in size of the maxillary sinus in cleft palate patients compared to the control population and in the cleft side to the noncleft side (p<0.05). 3. Nasal septum deviation was more severe in the cleft patient its average value was 3.55mm, compared to the control group, 0.99 mm (p<0.01) and 77% of the deviated nasal septum was deviated to the cleft side.

  13. Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients......Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients...

  14. Radiographic study on maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation in cleft palate patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sam Sun; You, Dong Soo

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation on diseases of maxillary sinus with cleft palate. The materials was 152 cephalometric Waters' projections consist of 76 cleft patients and 76 normal subjects. The results were as follows: 1. The disease of maxillary sinus was present in 49% of a cleft group and 14% of a control group, and prevalent in cleft side. 2. It showed no statistically significant difference in size of the maxillary sinus in cleft palate patients compared to the control population and in the cleft side to the noncleft side (p<0.05). 3. Nasal septum deviation was more severe in the cleft patient its average value was 3.55mm, compared to the control group, 0.99 mm (p<0.01) and 77% of the deviated nasal septum was deviated to the cleft side.

  15. The Role of Lip Adhesion in the Treatment of Cleft Lips

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... presence of a wide alveolar cleft (gap>7mm) with severely malpositioned maxillary segments. LA was performed at ... example head caps and elastic bands and intraoral orthodontic .... arch alignment in bilateral cleft lip and.

  16. Cleft lip and palate review: Epidemiology, risk factors, quality of life, and importance of classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureen Supit

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most occurring craniofacial anomaly in human, resulting from a complex etiology involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. The defect carries lifelong morbidity and economic burden. Children with clefts will require continuous medical interventions for at least the first 18 years of life, affecting many aspects of their lives. The extent and complexity of clefts vary infinitely, later determining individual management and outcome. Identification and classification play significant roles in initial assessment of these unique cleft cases, which affect options for following correctional attempts. Some classifications even allow measurement of progress after anatomical repositioning, and success rate after surgical repairs. The challenge of developing one such widely inclusive classification is discussed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 226-39Keywords: Cleft lip, cleft palate, congenital anomaly, cleft  classfications

  17. Cleft-lift operation for pilonidal sinuses under tumescent local anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders

    2011-01-01

    The use of tumescent local anesthesia in the Bascom cleft-lift procedure has not been described before.......The use of tumescent local anesthesia in the Bascom cleft-lift procedure has not been described before....

  18. Testing the face shape hypothesis in twins discordant for nonsyndromic orofacial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roosenboom, Jasmien; Indencleef, Karlijne; Hens, Greet

    2017-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs) are complex traits characterized by multifactorial inheritance and wide phenotypic variability. Numerous studies have shown subtle differences in the faces of unaffected relatives from cleft families compared to controls, the implication being that such outwar...

  19. Ultrafast Synaptic Events in a Chalcogenide Memristor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhong, Yingpeng; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jinjian; Xu, Xiaohua; Sun, Huajun; Miao, Xiangshui

    2013-04-01

    Compact and power-efficient plastic electronic synapses are of fundamental importance to overcoming the bottlenecks of developing a neuromorphic chip. Memristor is a strong contender among the various electronic synapses in existence today. However, the speeds of synaptic events are relatively slow in most attempts at emulating synapses due to the material-related mechanism. Here we revealed the intrinsic memristance of stoichiometric crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 that originates from the charge trapping and releasing by the defects. The device resistance states, representing synaptic weights, were precisely modulated by 30 ns potentiating/depressing electrical pulses. We demonstrated four spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) forms by applying programmed pre- and postsynaptic spiking pulse pairs in different time windows ranging from 50 ms down to 500 ns, the latter of which is 105 times faster than the speed of STDP in human brain. This study provides new opportunities for building ultrafast neuromorphic computing systems and surpassing Von Neumann architecture.

  20. Cleft lip and cleft palate relationship with familial marriage: a study in 136 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Clefts of the lip and palate are one of the most common congenital birth anomalies. Genetic factors play a great role in the etiology of them and the high percentage of the consanguineous marriage of the parents of the affected persons is one of the reasons. These defects not only make abnormal changes on appearance of the neonate, but also make a lot of stress and psychological problems for the patients and their families. Study on the prevalence of clefts, their risk factors and also genetic counseling for affected persons and their families can be a guideline for general population and probably reduce these anomalies over the generations."n"nMethods: Patients referred to the Department of Genetics, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran were studied. A total of 7374 pedigrees of all the patients admitted to the Department, were studied during 2002-2005 and 99 pedigrees with the patients with cleft lip± palate or isolated cleft palate were separated. The total number of cases among these 99 pedigrees was 136. The effects of consanguineous marriage, positive family history and sex were investigated among cases."n"nResults: 70.8% of patients with syndromic clefts and 58.7% of patients with nonsyndromic CL

  1. Cleft lip and palate in the arts: a critical reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, Masoud; Gross, Justin; Ovchinsky, Alexander; Wood-Smith, Donald

    2012-03-01

    The aesthetics of facial structure are used by humans to measure one's beauty, character, and overall "goodness." Individuals born with cleft lip and/or palate are often stigmatized and face much psychosocial adversity. Social attitudes and beliefs have a direct impact upon the psychological development of these individuals. Such social norms are in large part shaped by the physical representations of "good" and "attractive" in various art media including films, advertisements, and paintings. Individuals born with a cleft have been portrayed in the artworks of different eras. The light in which they are portrayed stems from the prevalent beliefs of each period and sheds light on the social attitudes of each epoch toward clefts. Here we discuss the social and psychological ramifications of these works. We then review several artworks representing cleft lip and/or palate and propose an active role for the artist in shaping social attitudes regarding facial deformities. Numerous articles and works of arts were examined and inspected for signs of facial deformity, with particular attention to cleft lip and/or palate. Social media have an important role in defining the norms of society. Much of the art of the past has depicted negatively individuals born with cleft lip and/or palate deformity, thus excluding them from the norm. In order to decrease the negative social stigmas of cleft lip and/or palate, it is now the responsibility of society to widen its range of norms to include individuals born with these deformities through "normal" representations in the various media.

  2. PREVALENCE OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chincharadze, S; Vadachkoria, Z; Mchedlishvili, I

    2017-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate take significant place in congenital malformations. We aimed to study epidemiological peculiarities of these pathologies in Georgia for 2006-2015. We compared magnitude of its distribution with the data from 1981-1990. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Georgia in 2006-2015 was 0.95±0.04 per 1000 live births, while in 1981-1990- it was 1.05, i.e. in contrast to 1980's frequency of these pathological conditions decreased to some extent. Distribution of cleft lip and palate varies across the country regions. The most intensive spread has been observed in Mtskheta-Mtianeti region, where prevalence composed 2.28/1000. In the rest of the regions frequency of these pathologies is significantly lower. For instance, in Kakheti the rate is equal to 1,87/1000, in Kvemo Kartli - 1.56/1000, in Shida Kartli - 1.55/1000. In the rest of the regions prevalence rate is lower than the country average. It should be noted that in Tbilisi the rate is as low as 0.80/1000. The lowest level has been reported in Guria - 0.56/1000. Currently cleft lip with palate is the most frequently occurring anomaly in Georgia accounting for 39.8% of all congenital malformations. Cleft lip alone ranks the second - 36.1%, followed by cleft palate (24.1%). These pathologies are more frequent in boys than in girls. 60.3% of the cases are reported in males, in contrast to girls - 39.7% (pcleft palate is the most common among girls, but in our case, it had higher prevalence among boys, 53.6% vs. 46,4%. Thus cleft lip and palate distribution in Georgia is characterized by epidemiological peculiarities, which should be considered in implementation of preventive measures.

  3. PINK1 heterozygous mutations induce subtle alterations in dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, G.; Schirinzi, T.; Martella, G.; Latagliata, E.C.; Puglisi, F.; Shen, J.; Valente, E.M.; Federici, M.; Mercuri, N.B.; Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are causative of autosomal recessive, early onset PD. Single heterozygous mutations have been repeatedly detected in a subset of patients as well as in non-affected subjects, and their significance has long been debated. Several neurophysiological studies from non-manifesting PINK1 heterozygotes have shown the existence of neural plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in the heterozygous state. Methods In the present study, we performed a functional analysis of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knock-out (PINK1+/−) mice by a multidisciplinary approach. Results We found that, despite a normal motor behavior, repetitive activation of cortical inputs to striatal neurons failed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas long-term depression (LTD) was normal. Although nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited normal morphological and electrophysiological properties with normal responses to dopamine receptor activation, we measured a significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum of PINK1+/−, compared to control mice, suggesting that a decrease in stimulus-evoked dopamine overflow acts as a major determinant for the LTP deficit. Accordingly, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the availability of dopamine in the synaptic cleft restored a normal LTP in heterozygous mice. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors rescued a physiological LTP and a normal dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence for striatal plasticity abnormalities even in the heterozygous disease state. These alterations might be considered an endophenotype to this monogenic form of PD, and a valid tool to characterize early disease stage and design possible disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24167038

  4. Inhibition of protein kinase C affects on mode of synaptic vesicle exocytosis due to cholesterol depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Alexey M., E-mail: fysio@rambler.ru; Zakyrjanova, Guzalija F., E-mail: guzik121192@mail.ru; Yakovleva, Anastasia A., E-mail: nastya1234qwer@mail.ru; Zefirov, Andrei L., E-mail: zefiroval@rambler.ru

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examine the involvement of PKC in MCD induced synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • PKC inhibitor does not decrease the effect MCD on MEPP frequency. • PKC inhibitor prevents MCD induced FM1-43 unloading. • PKC activation may switch MCD induced exocytosis from kiss-and-run to a full mode. • Inhibition of phospholipase C does not lead to similar change in exocytosis. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrated that depletion of membrane cholesterol by 10 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) results in increased spontaneous exocytosis at both peripheral and central synapses. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C in the enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis at frog motor nerve terminals after cholesterol depletion using electrophysiological and optical methods. Inhibition of the protein kinase C by myristoylated peptide and chelerythrine chloride prevented MCD-induced increases in FM1-43 unloading, whereas the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic events remained enhanced. The increase in FM1-43 unloading still could be observed if sulforhodamine 101 (the water soluble FM1-43 quencher that can pass through the fusion pore) was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests a possibility that exocytosis of synaptic vesicles under these conditions could occur through the kiss-and-run mechanism with the formation of a transient fusion pore. Inhibition of phospholipase C did not lead to similar change in MCD-induced exocytosis.

  5. Prevalence and Characteristics of Developmental Dental Anomalies in Iranian Orofacial Cleft Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Shabnam; Pakshir, Hamidreza; Samady, Hedyeh

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with oral clefts exhibit considerably more dental anomalies than individuals without clefts. These problems could initially be among the symptoms of their disease and/or they may be the side effect of their treatments. Pushback palatoplasty could cause some interference during the development of teeth and result in tooth defects. The study was performed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of developmental dental anomalies in orofacial cleft patients who attended Shiraz Orthodontics Research Center-Cleft Lip and Palate Clinic. We managed to compare dental anomaly traits based on gender and cleft side. Eighty out of 121 cleft patients were included in this cross-sectional study. All the patients used pushback palatoplasty in their palate closure surgeries. Intraoral photographs, panoramic and intraoral radiographs, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and dental and medical histories were examined and recorded by two observers. Data were analyzed using SPSS PC version 20.0. The differences in the side of cleft and dental anomalies were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. The mean age of patients was 14.27 years (SD=5.06). The most frequent cleft type was unilateral cleft lip and palate (50%) followed by bilateral cleft lip and palate (43.75%), cleft palate (2.5%) and cleft lip (1.25%). Male predominance (70%) was observed. 92.5 percent had at least one developmental dental anomaly. The most prevalent anomalies were hypodontia (71.25%) followed by microdontia (30%), root dilacerations (21.25%) and supernumerary teeth (15%). The most prevalent cleft types were unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate with male and left side predominance. Hypodontia, microdontia, dilacerations and supernumerary teeth were the most prevalent developmental dental anomalies among Iranian southwestern cleft patients. The surgical technique used to repair their cleft palate may have played a role in developmental dental defects.

  6. Synaptic theory of Replicator-like melioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Loewenstein

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of Melioration, organisms in repeated choice settings shift their choice preference in favor of the alternative that provides the highest return. The goal of this paper is to explain how this learning behavior can emerge from microscopic changes in the efficacies of synapses, in the context of two-alternative repeated-choice experiment. I consider a large family of synaptic plasticity rules in which changes in synaptic efficacies are driven by the covariance between reward and neural activity. I construct a general framework that predicts the learning dynamics of any decision-making neural network that implements this synaptic plasticity rule and show that melioration naturally emerges in such networks. Moreover, the resultant learning dynamics follows the Replicator equation which is commonly used to phenomenologically describe changes in behavior in operant conditioning experiments. Several examples demonstrate how the learning rate of the network is affected by its properties and by the specifics of the plasticity rule. These results help bridge the gap between cellular physiology and learning behavior.

  7. Fusion Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weynants, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    A concise overview is given of the principles of inertial and magnetic fusion, with an emphasis on the latter in view of the aim of this summer school. The basis of magnetic confinement in mirror and toroidal geometry is discussed and applied to the tokamak concept. A brief discussion of the reactor prospects of this configuration identifies which future developments are crucial and where alternative concepts might help in optimising the reactor design. The text also aims at introducing the main concepts encountered in tokamak research that will be studied and used in the subsequent lectures

  8. Characterization and extraction of the synaptic apposition surface for synaptic geometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan; Rodríguez, Angel; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; DeFelipe, Javier; Merchán-Pérez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical features of chemical synapses are relevant to their function. Two critical components of the synaptic junction are the active zone (AZ) and the postsynaptic density (PSD), as they are related to the probability of synaptic release and the number of postsynaptic receptors, respectively. Morphological studies of these structures are greatly facilitated by the use of recent electron microscopy techniques, such as combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and software tools that permit reconstruction of large numbers of synapses in three dimensions. Since the AZ and the PSD are in close apposition and have a similar surface area, they can be represented by a single surface—the synaptic apposition surface (SAS). We have developed an efficient computational technique to automatically extract this surface from synaptic junctions that have previously been three-dimensionally reconstructed from actual tissue samples imaged by automated FIB/SEM. Given its relationship with the release probability and the number of postsynaptic receptors, the surface area of the SAS is a functionally relevant measure of the size of a synapse that can complement other geometrical features like the volume of the reconstructed synaptic junction, the equivalent ellipsoid size and the Feret's diameter. PMID:23847474

  9. Centre-based statistics of cleft lip with/without alveolus and palate as well as cleft palate only patients in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Ahlam Hibatulla Ali; Abdo, Muhgat Ahmed Ali; Krentz, Helga; Lenz, Jan-Hendrik; Gundlach, Karsten K H

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the types and patterns of cleft lip with/without cleft alveolus and palate as well as cleft palate only as seen in Aden, Yemen. Retrospective, centre-based study conducted at the Cleft Lip and Palate Centre, Aden University, Yemen. Statistical evaluation of the data from all cleft patients who were registered at or referred to this centre during the years 2005-2011. A total of 1110 cleft patients were seen during the period studied (2005-2011). Amongst these there were 183 (16.48%) with a cleft lip and 144 (12.98) with a cleft of lip and alveolus, 228 (20.54%) had a cleft palate, and 555 (50%) had a combination of cleft lip, alveolus, and palate. The clefts were found more often in males than in females (56.5% boys versus 43.5% girls). This difference was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001). Statistically significant sex differences were also noted when evaluating the various cleft types. Isolated cleft palates were found most often in females. Among the cleft palate cases there were 102 (9.2%) with a cleft soft palate only. The ages of the patients were between one day and 40 years. Two hundred and one children (18%) had a positive family history of clefts. Among the risk factors considered in this study, consanguineous marriages among cousins were found most frequently (in 48% of the cases). In contrast to this, only 10% of the mothers had reported to have been taking medication directly prior to or during the first trimester of their pregnancy. On average the mothers were neither very young nor very old. The prevalence rate of orofacial cleft types among this Yemeni sample was similar to prevalence rates previously reported in white Caucasians. The present study did neither find many cases with medication before, nor during, pregnancy; there were few young or very old mothers; and the incidence of positive family histories was similar to those found in other studies on clefts. However, consanguineous marriages were

  10. Unilateral cleft lip and palate : treatment outcome and long-term craniofacial growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, Petrus Josephus Paulinus Maria

    2006-01-01

    Treatment results of children with a complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) from the Cleft Palate Craniofacial Unit of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre were evaluated and compared with prominent European cleft centers. Treatment outcome of the Nijmegen patients with UCLP and

  11. Speech and language development in toddlers with and without cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priester, G. H.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.

    Objective: The effect of early palate closure on speech and language development in children with cleft palate. Design: Comparative study. Setting: University Medical Center Groningen, Cleft Palate Team (The Netherlands). Materials and methods: Forty-three toddlers with cleft palate and thirty-two

  12. Oral Clefting in China Over the Last Decade: 205,679 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle R. Kling, MD

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: This study provides insight into cleft care in China as it reports the largest cohort of cleft patients treated by surgeons to date. Our results generally follow trends previously reported in China and developed countries. The male:female ratio for cleft palate patients was higher than expected. The average age at primary repair is higher than recommended, but seems to be decreasing.

  13. Morphological evaluation of clefts of the lip, palate, or both in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Santiago; Fiani, Nadine; Kan-Rohrer, Kimi H; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To systematically characterize the morphology of cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate in dogs. ANIMALS 32 client-owned dogs with clefts of the lip (n = 5), palate (23), or both (4) that had undergone a CT or cone-beam CT scan of the head prior to any surgical procedures involving the oral cavity or face. PROCEDURES Dog signalment and skull type were recorded. The anatomic form of each defect was characterized by use of a widely used human oral-cleft classification system on the basis of CT findings and clinical images. Other defect morphological features, including shape, relative size, facial symmetry, and vomer involvement, were also recorded. RESULTS 9 anatomic forms of cleft were identified. Two anatomic forms were identified in the 23 dogs with cleft palate, in which differences in defect shape and size as well as vomer abnormalities were also evident. Seven anatomic forms were observed in 9 dogs with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate, and most of these dogs had incisive bone abnormalities and facial asymmetry. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The morphological features of congenitally acquired cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate were complex and varied among dogs. The features identified here may be useful for surgical planning, developing of clinical coding schemes, or informing genetic, embryological, or clinical research into birth defects in dogs and other species.

  14. Associated Malformations in Children with Orofacial Clefts in Portugal: A 31-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice V. Pereira, MD

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions:. The overall prevalence of associated malformations of nearly 1 in 3 children with orofacial clefts stressed the need for a comprehensive evaluation of these patients by a multidisciplinary cleft team. Moreover, one-third of the children had multiple congenital anomalies of known origins. Thus, early routine screening for other malformations and genetic counseling might be valuable for orofacial clefts management.

  15. Early Predictors of Attachment in Infants with Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speltz, Matthew L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined attachment classification of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and isolated cleft palate (ICP) and comparison group at 12 months of age; found no significant differences. Findings suggest that infants with clefts, despite special needs and caregiving requirements, seem not to have elevated risk for insecure attachments at the end…

  16. Antenatal determinants of oro-facial clefts in Southern Nigeria | Omo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate, is the most common serious congenital anomaly that affects the orofacial regions. The management and care of the cleft patient constitutes a substantial proportion of the workload of the Nigerian maxillofacial surgeon and allied specialties. Yet, there are no specific ...

  17. Children with Diagnoses of Cleft Lip and/or Palate: What School Psychologists Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewicz, Eva Aleksandra; Ausikaitis, Ashley Etzel; Kapp-Simon, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature on orofacial clefting in children. The authors review the etiology, prevalence, and variations of clefting as well as issues related to neuropsychological, social, academic, emotional, and behavioral functioning of children with clefts. Finally, the authors discuss the implications for school…

  18. What does magnetic resonance imaging add to the prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of facial clefts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailáth-Pokorny, M; Worda, C; Krampl-Bettelheim, E; Watzinger, F; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound is the modality of choice for prenatal detection of cleft lip and palate. Because its accuracy in detecting facial clefts, especially isolated clefts of the secondary palate, can be limited, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used as an additional method for assessing the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of fetal MRI in the prenatal diagnosis of facial clefts. Thirty-four pregnant women with a mean gestational age of 26 (range, 19-34) weeks underwent in utero MRI, after ultrasound examination had identified either a facial cleft (n = 29) or another suspected malformation (micrognathia (n = 1), cardiac defect (n = 1), brain anomaly (n = 2) or diaphragmatic hernia (n = 1)). The facial cleft was classified postnatally and the diagnoses were compared with the previous ultrasound findings. There were 11 (32.4%) cases with cleft of the primary palate alone, 20 (58.8%) clefts of the primary and secondary palate and three (8.8%) isolated clefts of the secondary palate. In all cases the primary and secondary palate were visualized successfully with MRI. Ultrasound imaging could not detect five (14.7%) facial clefts and misclassified 15 (44.1%) facial clefts. The MRI classification correlated with the postnatal/postmortem diagnosis. In our hands MRI allows detailed prenatal evaluation of the primary and secondary palate. By demonstrating involvement of the palate, MRI provides better detection and classification of facial clefts than does ultrasound alone. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Exploring Subclinical Phenotypic Features in Twin Pairs Discordant for Cleft Lip and Palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Elizabeth J; Carlson, Jenna C; Cooper, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Monozygotic twins of an individual with an orofacial cleft have a significantly elevated risk for orofacial cleft compared with the general population, but still the concordance rate for orofacial cleft in monozygotic twins is about 40% to 50%. The goal of this study was to determine w...

  20. Fusion Canada issue 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Fusion Materials Research, ITER physics research, fusion performance record at JET, and design options for reactor building. 4 figs

  1. Differential Regulation of Synaptic Vesicle Tethering and Docking by UNC-18 and TOM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracheva, Elena O; Maryon, Ed B; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Richmond, Janet E

    2010-01-01

    The assembly of SNARE complexes between syntaxin, SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin is required to prime synaptic vesicles for fusion. Since Munc18 and tomosyn compete for syntaxin interactions, the interplay between these proteins is predicted to be important in regulating synaptic transmission. We explored this possibility, by examining genetic interactions between C. elegans unc-18(Munc18), unc-64(syntaxin) and tom-1(tomosyn). We have previously demonstrated that unc-18 mutants have reduced synaptic transmission, whereas tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced release. Here we show that the unc-18 mutant release defect is associated with loss of two morphologically distinct vesicle pools; those tethered within 25 nm of the plasma membrane and those docked with the plasma membrane. In contrast, priming defective unc-13 mutants accumulate tethered vesicles, while docked vesicles are greatly reduced, indicating tethering is UNC-18-dependent and occurs in the absence of priming. C. elegans unc-64 mutants phenocopy unc-18 mutants, losing both tethered and docked vesicles, whereas overexpression of open syntaxin preferentially increases vesicle docking, suggesting UNC-18/closed syntaxin interactions are responsible for vesicle tethering. Given the competition between vertebrate tomosyn and Munc18, for syntaxin binding, we hypothesized that C. elegans TOM-1 may inhibit both UNC-18-dependent vesicle targeting steps. Consistent with this hypothesis, tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced UNC-18 plasma membrane localization and a concomitant increase in both tethered and docked synaptic vesicles. Furthermore, in tom-1;unc-18 double mutants the docked, primed vesicle pool is preferentially rescued relative to unc-18 single mutants. Together these data provide evidence for the differential regulation of two vesicle targeting steps by UNC-18 and TOM-1 through competitive interactions with syntaxin.

  2. Differential regulation of synaptic vesicle tethering and docking by UNC-18 and TOM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O Gracheva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The assembly of SNARE complexes between syntaxin, SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin is required to prime synaptic vesicles for fusion. Since Munc18 and tomosyn compete for syntaxin interactions, the interplay between these proteins is predicted to be important in regulating synaptic transmission. We explored this possibility, by examining genetic interactions between C. elegans unc-18(Munc18, unc-64(syntaxin and tom-1(tomosyn. We have previously demonstrated that unc-18 mutants have reduced synaptic transmission, whereas tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced release. Here we show that the unc-18 mutant release defect is associated with loss of two morphologically distinct vesicle pools; those tethered within 25nm of the plasma membrane and those docked with the plasma membrane. In contrast, priming defective unc-13 mutants accumulate tethered vesicles, while docked vesicles are greatly reduced, indicating tethering is UNC-18-dependent and occurs in the absence of priming. C. elegans unc-64 mutants phenocopy unc-18 mutants, losing both tethered and docked vesicles, whereas overexpression of open syntaxin preferentially increases vesicle docking, suggesting UNC-18/closed syntaxin interactions are responsible for vesicle tethering. Given the competition between vertebrate tomosyn and Munc18, for syntaxin binding, we hypothesized that C. elegans TOM-1 may inhibit both UNC-18-dependent vesicle targeting steps. Consistent with this hypothesis, tom-1 mutants exhibit enhanced UNC-18 plasma membrane localization and a concomitant increase in both tethered and docked synaptic vesicles. Furthermore, in tom-1;unc-18 double mutants the docked, primed vesicle pool is preferentially rescued relative to unc-18 single mutants. Together these data provide evidence for the differential regulation of two vesicle targeting steps by UNC-18 and TOM-1 through competitive interactions with syntaxin

  3. Exclusion of linkage between cleft lip with or without cleft palate and markers on chromosomes 4 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, S.H. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Malcolm, S.; Winter, R. [Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without associate cleft palate (CLP) is a common craniofacial defect, occurring in {approximately}1/1,000 live births. While the defect generally occurs sporadically, multiplex families have been reported. Segregation analyses have demonstrated that, in some families, CLP is inherited as an autosomal dominant/codominant disorder with low penetrance. Several clefting loci have been proposed on multiple chromosomes, including 6p24, 4q, and 19q13.1. Association studies and linkage studies suggested a locus that mapped to 6p24. We were unable to confirm this in a linkage study of 12 multigenerational families. A subsequent linkage study by Carinci et al., however, found evidence for linkage to this region in 14 of 21 clefting families. Additionally, Davies et al. studied the chromosomes of three individuals with cleft lip and palate, all of whom had a rearrangement involving 6p24. Their investigation supported a locus at 6p24. Carinci et al. reported that the most likely position for a clefting locus was at D6S89, which is centromeric to EDN1. This is in contrast to the findings of Davies et al., who suggested a placement telomeric to EDN1. F13A, which had been implicated in the initial association studies, is telomeric to EDN1. Thus, the region between F13A and D6S89 encompasses the regions proposed by both Davies et al. and Carinci et al. A second clefting locus, at 4q, was proposed by Beiraghi et al., who studied a single multigenerational family by linkage analysis. Their data suggested a locus near D4S175 and D4S192. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Paucity of secondary synaptic clefts in a case of congenital myasthenia with multiple contractures: ultrastructural morphology of a developmental disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L. M.; Jennekens, F. G.; Veldman, H.; Barth, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    A new form of congenital myasthenia is described. An infant whose foetal movements during pregnancy had been weak presented at birth with muscle weakness and multiple contractures of the lower limbs. The clinical course was characterised by myasthenic crises during febrile illnesses.

  5. A cross-sectional analysis of the prevalence of tooth agenesis and structural dental anomalies in association with cleft type in non-syndromic oral cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Alexandropoulos, Alexandros; Konstantoni, Nikoleta; Nassika, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tooth agenesis, microdontia, and tooth malformation among non-syndromic oral cleft patients and their potential association with cleft type and gender. Intraoral records and radiographs of 154 patients (97 males and 57 females) were examined. The variables assessed were tooth agenesis, microdontia, dental malformations, and cleft types. The statistics included chi-square and Fisher's exact tests as well as logistic regression to assess any mutual effects of gender and cleft type on the dental variables. Tooth agenesis occurred in 50% of the sample and microdontia in 18%. Non-statistically significant odds ratios for the association of gender and cleft type with tooth agenesis were obtained. Tooth agenesis was substantially higher at the unilateral right CL + P and the bilateral CL + P in quadrant 1 and at the unilateral left CL + P and bilateral CL + P in quadrant 2. It was also higher, at the isolated cleft palate (CP) in quadrants 3 and 4. These results were attributed to teeth 22 (31.8%) and 12 (21.6%) in the maxilla and to teeth 35 (6.1%) and 45 (5.4%) in the mandible. In unilateral CL + P patients, the cleft quadrant that presented tooth agenesis was associated with the side of the cleft. Interdisciplinary treatment of the oral cleft patients should take into consideration the high prevalence of tooth agenesis and their association with the different cleft types. The most frequently affected teeth by cleft are by far the upper lateral incisors. Results indicate that tooth agenesis appears to be a genetically controlled anomaly related to the orofacial cleft development through various genetic links and not caused by the cleft disruptive process.

  6. First branchial cleft anomaly, a case for misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanisnik, Bostjan; Didanovic, Vojko; Cizmarevic, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    First branchial cleft anomaly is a rare condition that is often misdiagnosed and falsely mistreated before complete and definitive surgical treatment. Its origin is uncertain and the presence of ectodermal and sometimes also mesodermal elements has led some authors to the conclusion that it represents buried nests of cells forming the first branchial cleft and the underlying mesoderm. First branchial cleft anomaly can be presented as a cystic lesion, fistula or sinus extending towards the membranous external ear canal. The sinus tract runs through the parotid gland in close association with the facial nerve. There is no imaging method capable of identifying a first branchial cleft anomaly with certainty. The danger of facial nerve injury during surgery and the failure to identify the sinus tract running to the external ear canal are the main reasons for incomplete excision. The facial nerve must be identified and preserved and the lesion completely excised. Facial nerve injury is more common in attempts to remove recurrent branchial cleft lesions.

  7. Association between maternal smoking, gender, and cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal smoking, gender and CL/P. METHODS: This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study. We interviewed 1519 mothers divided into two groups: Cases: mothers of children with CL/P (n = 843 and Controls: mothers of children without CL/P (n = 676. All mothers were classified as smoker or non-smoker subjects during the first trimester of pregnancy. To determine an association among maternal smoking, gender, and CL/P, odds ratios were calculated and the adjustment was made by a logistic regression model. RESULTS: An association between maternal smoking and the presence of cleft was observed. There was also a strong association between male gender and the presence of cleft (OR = 3.51; 95% CI 2.83-4.37. By binary logistic regression analysis, it was demonstrated that both variables were independently associated with clefts. In a multivariate analysis, male gender and maternal smoking had a 2.5- and a 1.5-time greater chance of having a cleft, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with a positive association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CL/P in male gender. The results support the importance of smoking prevention and introduction of cessation programs among women with childbearing potential.

  8. Association between maternal smoking, gender, and cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Coletta, Ricardo D; Oliveira, Eduardo A; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Rodrigues, Laíse A Mendes; Oliveira, Maria Christina; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face. To assess the relationship between maternal smoking, gender and CL/P. This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study. We interviewed 1519 mothers divided into two groups: mothers of children with CL/P (n=843) and mothers of children without CL/P (n=676). All mothers were classified as smoker or non-smoker subjects during the first trimester of pregnancy. To determine an association among maternal smoking, gender, and CL/P, odds ratios were calculated and the adjustment was made by a logistic regression model. An association between maternal smoking and the presence of cleft was observed. There was also a strong association between male gender and the presence of cleft (OR=3.51; 95% CI 2.83-4.37). By binary logistic regression analysis, it was demonstrated that both variables were independently associated with clefts. In a multivariate analysis, male gender and maternal smoking had a 2.5- and a 1.5-time greater chance of having a cleft, respectively. Our findings are consistent with a positive association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CL/P in male gender. The results support the importance of smoking prevention and introduction of cessation programs among women with childbearing potential. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Presurgical cleft lip and palate orthopedics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzain, Ibtesam; Batwa, Waeil; Cash, Alex; Murshid, Zuhair A

    2017-01-01

    Patients with cleft lip and/or palate go through a lifelong journey of multidisciplinary care, starting from before birth and extending until adulthood. Presurgical orthopedic (PSO) treatment is one of the earliest stages of this care plan. In this paper we provide a review of the PSO treatment. This review should help general and specialist dentists to better understand the cleft patient care path and to be able to answer patient queries more efficiently. The objectives of this paper were to review the basic principles of PSO treatment, the various types of techniques used in this therapy, and the protocol followed, and to critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of some of these techniques. In conclusion, we believe that PSO treatment, specifically nasoalveolar molding, does help to approximate the segments of the cleft maxilla and does reduce the intersegment space in readiness for the surgical closure of cleft sites. However, what we remain unable to prove equivocally at this point is whether the reduction in the dimensions of the cleft presurgically and the manipulation of the nasal complex benefit our patients in the long term. PMID:28615974

  10. MRI findings of fetal cleft lip and palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangbin; Chen Liguang; Zhu Xiangyu; Wang Cuiyan; Zhang Yinghua; Wang Liajuan; Li Huihua; Qiu Xiuling; Qu Lei; Wei Yulong; Ding Rui; Sun Xueqin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the MR findings of fetal cleft lip (CL) and evaluate the advantages and limitations of MRI in the diagnosis. Methods: Twelve pregnant women suspicious of fetal CL/cleft palate (CP) on ultrasonography were enrolled in the study. The findings of ultrasonography, MRI and following-up were compared. Results: MRI and ultrasonography detected 12 fetuses with CL/CP. The following-up results showed 1 case with incomplete cleft lip and the other 11 cases with complete cleft lips and cleft palates. MRI and unltrasonography were consistent with the follow-up in CL detection, showing completed or uncompleted soft tissue interruption of the fetal lips with amniotic fluid filling which is high signal on T 2 WI. On MRI, CP showed discontinuous of the soft tissue which were interrupted by long T 2 signal and communicating with oral cavity ad nasal cavity. MRI missed 1 case and excluded 1 case of CP. Ultrasonography predicted 5 case of CL, excluded 1 CP but missed 6 cases. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in detection CL/CP was 91.7% (11/12), 90.9% (10/11), 100% (1/1) for MRI and 50.0% (6/12), 45.5% (5/11), 100% (1/1) for ultrasonography, respectively. Conclusion: MR imaging had advantage over ultrasonography in detecting CP, MRI is an essential when CP is suspicious on ultrasonography. (authors)

  11. Causal attributions of cleft lip and palate across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednick, Lauren; Snyder, Julie; Schook, Carolyn; Blood, Emily A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Weatherley-White, R C A

    2013-11-01

    Objective : To describe and compare the causal beliefs associated with cleft lips and/or palates across several different countries. Design : Cross-sectional survey. Setting : Operation Smile surgery screenings in six developing countries. Participants : Two hundred seventy-nine adult patients and parents of children with cleft lips and/or palates in Kenya, Russia, Cambodia, India, Egypt, and Peru. Interventions : In person interviews were conducted with interpreters. Main Outcome Measure : As part of a larger study, a semistructured questionnaire was created to explore cleft perceptions, belief systems that affect these perceptions, and social reactions to individuals with clefts. Results : Causal attributions were grouped by category (environment, self-blame, supernatural, chance, unknown, or other) and type of locus of control (external, internal, or unknown). Results indicate significant difference by country for both causal attribution category (P < .001) and type (P < .001). This difference was maintained in multivariate analyses, which controlled for differences by demographic variables between countries. Conclusions : This study provides evidence that causal attributions for clefts are influenced by culture. As harmful beliefs about cause may continue to impact affected individuals and their families even after a repair, it is insufficient to provide surgical care alone. Care of the entire person must include attempts to change misinformed cultural beliefs through educating the broader community.

  12. Cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Shanghai, China: Evidence for an autosomal major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marazita, M.L. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)); Hu, Dan-Ning; Liu, You-E. (Zhabei Eye Institute, Shanghai (China)); Spence, A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Melnick, M. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Orientals are at higher risk for cleft lip with our without cleft palate (CL[+-] P) than Caucasians or blacks. The authors collected demographic and family data to study factors contributing to the etiology of CL[+-]P in Shanghai. The birth incidence of nonsyndromic CL[+-]P (SHanghai 1980-87) was 1.11/1,000, with a male/female ratio of 1.42. Almost 2,000 nonsyndromic CL[+-]P probands were ascertained from individuals operated on during the years 1956-83 at surgical hospitals in Shanghai. Detailed family histories and medical examinations were obtained for the probands and all available family members. Genetic analysis of the probands' families were performed under the mixed model with major locus (ML) and multifactorial (MFT) components. The hypothesis of no familial transmission and of MFT alone could be rejected. Of the ML models, the autosomal recessive was significantly most likely and was assumed for testing three complex hypothesis: (1) ML and sporadics; (2) ML and MFT; (3) ML, MFT, and sporadics. None of the complex models were more likely than the ML alone model. In conclusion, the best-fitting, most parsimonious model for CL[+-]P in Shanghai was that of an autosomal recessive major locus. 37 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Assessment of folic acid and DNA damage in cleft lip and cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Brooklyin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have identified the risk factors like folic acid deficiency during gestational period, family history for orofacial clefts, drugs like antiepileptic, vitamin A. But, the data regarding the folic acid status in children with cleft lip/palate is hardly evaluated in depth. Here, an assessment of folic acid and DNA damage were carried out in children with orofacial anomalies. Folic acid level and DNA damage were evaluated by folic acid assay (direct chemiluminescent technology and single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay method respectively. The mean value of plasma folic acid by direct chemiluminescent technology was 6.5±3.6 nmol/L and the normal value in children ranges from 11.3 to 47.6 nmol/L. The amount of damaged DNA, measured as the tail length of the comet in cases, was 19.4±8.9 ?m and the mean percentage of DNA in tail was 16.5±3.7. Folic acid deficiency could be the reason for DNA damage.

  14. Cell-based multi-parametric model of cleft progression during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayoni Ray

    Full Text Available Cleft formation during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the critical step initiating the growth and development of the complex adult organ. Previous experimental studies indicated requirements for several epithelial cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix (matrix adhesion, and cellular contraction in cleft formation; however, the relative contribution of each of these processes is not fully understood since it is not possible to experimentally manipulate each factor independently. We present here a comprehensive analysis of several cellular parameters regulating cleft progression during branching morphogenesis in the epithelial tissue of an early embryonic salivary gland at a local scale using an on lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model. We utilized measurements from time-lapse images of mouse submandibular gland organ explants to construct a temporally and spatially relevant cell-based 2D model. Our model simulates the effect of cellular proliferation, actomyosin contractility, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions on cleft progression, and it was used to test specific hypotheses regarding the function of these parameters in branching morphogenesis. We use innovative features capturing several aspects of cleft morphology and quantitatively analyze clefts formed during functional modification of the cellular parameters. Our simulations predict that a low epithelial mitosis rate and moderate level of actomyosin contractility in the cleft cells promote cleft progression. Raising or lowering levels of contractility and mitosis rate resulted in non-progressive clefts. We also show that lowered cell-cell adhesion in the cleft region and increased cleft cell-matrix adhesions are required for cleft progression. Using a classifier-based analysis, the relative importance of these four contributing cellular factors for effective cleft

  15. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  16. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Calafate

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology.

  17. Attractor neural networks with resource-efficient synaptic connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlevan, Cengiz; Sengupta, Anirvan

    Memories are thought to be stored in the attractor states of recurrent neural networks. Here we explore how resource constraints interplay with memory storage function to shape synaptic connectivity of attractor networks. We propose that given a set of memories, in the form of population activity patterns, the neural circuit choses a synaptic connectivity configuration that minimizes a resource usage cost. We argue that the total synaptic weight (l1-norm) in the network measures the resource cost because synaptic weight is correlated with synaptic volume, which is a limited resource, and is proportional to neurotransmitter release and post-synaptic current, both of which cost energy. Using numerical simulations and replica theory, we characterize optimal connectivity profiles in resource-efficient attractor networks. Our theory explains several experimental observations on cortical connectivity profiles, 1) connectivity is sparse, because synapses are costly, 2) bidirectional connections are overrepresented and 3) are stronger, because attractor states need strong recurrence.

  18. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  19. Fusion cuisine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    JJournalism studies as an academic field is characterized by multidisciplinarity. Focusing on one object of study, journalism and the news, it established itself by integrating and synthesizing approaches from established disciplines – a tendency that lives on today. This constant gaze to the out......JJournalism studies as an academic field is characterized by multidisciplinarity. Focusing on one object of study, journalism and the news, it established itself by integrating and synthesizing approaches from established disciplines – a tendency that lives on today. This constant gaze...... to the outside for conceptual inspiration and methodological tools lends itself to a journalism studies that is a fusion cuisine of media, communication, and related scholarship. However, what happens when this object becomes as fragmented and multifaceted as the ways we study it? This essay addresses...

  20. Lexical selectivity in Danish toddlers with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: All participants were video recorded at 18 months of age during play interaction with a parent. The video recordings were transcribed according to the IPA and an individual consonant inventory was established for each participant. The video recordings were also analysed with respect to word...... productions establishing an observed productive vocabulary size for each participant. Results: At 18 months of age Danish toddlers with cleft palate showed marked lexical selectivity in their early words. The distribution of consonant classes observed at 11 months of age in a previous study of the children...... as it has been described for English speaking toddlers with and without cleft palate, even though some qualitative differences were found. Keywords: consonant inventory, lexical selectivity, early words, cleft palate....

  1. Fixed prosthetic treatment in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajevska Jagoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prosthetic treatment of patients with cleft palate includes various treatment options such as fixed partial dentures, removable partial prosthesis, etc. The type of prosthetic appliance is determined by the oral health of each individual and the circumstances. We presented three adult patients with the cleft lip and palate subjected to prosthetic treatment. Case report. From the possible prosthetic solutions according to the conditions in the oral cavity and the circumstances, fixed partial dentures veneered with composite or ceramic were chosen. A proper relationship between the teeth was reached with the fixed partial dentures, and function established, the phonetics improved and satisfying aesthetics effect accomplished improving the profile appearance of the patient’s face. Plastic surgery of the nose was performed after that. Conclusion. Multidisclipinary treatment is necessary for favourable long-term outcome in cleft lip and palate patients.

  2. A rare variant of first branchial cleft fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnani, S; Mungutwar, V; Goyal, N K; Bansal, A

    2009-12-01

    We report an extremely rare variant of first branchial cleft anomaly. A 15-year-old girl presented with a history of recurrent mucopurulent discharge from an opening in the left infra-auricular region, since birth. Computed tomography fistulography showed a tortuous tract measuring approximately 4.61 cm, extending anteroinferiorly and medially from the external inframeatal opening to the lateral nasopharyngeal wall (anterior to the fossa of Rosenmuller). The tract was connected to the deep lobe of the parotid gland and lay 0.67 cm anterior to the carotid artery and posterior to the medial pterygoid muscle. This was an extremely rare variant of first branchial cleft fistula. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its type to be reported. Computed tomography fistulography is the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of branchial cleft fistula, and will also assist surgical planning.

  3. Facial tissue depths in children with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a craniofacial malformation affecting more than seven million people worldwide that results in defects of the hard palate, teeth, maxilla, nasal spine and floor, and maxillodental asymmetry. CLP facial soft-tissue depth (FSTD) values have never been published. The purpose of this research is to report CLP FSTD values and compare them to previously published FSTD values for normal children. Thirty-eight FSTDs were measured on cone beam computed tomography images of CLP children (n = 86; 7-17 years). MANOVA and ANOVA tests determined whether cleft type, age, sex, and bone graft surgical status affect tissue depths. Both cleft type (unilateral/bilateral) and age influence FSTDs. CLP FSTDs exhibit patterns of variation that differ from normal children, particularly around the oronasal regions of the face. These differences should be taken into account when facial reconstructions of children with CLP are created. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Ethics in Numbers: Auditing Cleft Treatment in Mexico and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Alexander, Samuel

    2017-09-01

    Plastic surgeons around the globe are implementing projects that mix audit with medical research to ensure and improve the level of care offered to patients with cleft lip and palate. Drawing on recent literature on "audit culture" and the global growth of "performance indicators" as a form of governance, I demonstrate the conjugation of ethics and the production of numerical indicators in cleft treatment. By standardizing documentation, cleft treatment audit programs facilitate evidence-based medicine and a form of reflexive self-governance. However, the abstraction that accompanies standardization is amplified as corollary data practices travel. In emerging as the answer to improving treatment, these projects lock out the politico-economic factors that mediate medical care in resource poor settings. This danger is compounded by the tendency of numerical governance to replace political conversation with technocratic expertise. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  5. Cleft Palate Fistula Closure Utilizing Acellular Dermal Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Emodi, DMD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Fistulas represent failure of cleft palate repair. Secondary and tertiary fistula repair is challenging, with high recurrence rates. In the present retrospective study, we review the efficacy of using acellular dermal matrix as an interposition layer for cleft palate fistula closure in 20 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2016. Complete fistula closure was obtained in 16 patients; 1 patient had asymptomatic recurrent fistula; 2 patients had partial closure with reduction of fistula size and minimal nasal regurgitation; 1 patient developed a recurrent fistula without changes in symptoms (success rate of 85%. We conclude that utilizing acellular dermal matrix for cleft palate fistula repair is safe and simple with a high success rate.

  6. Common dental anomalies in cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Sanjida; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common orofacial congenital malformation in live births. CLP can occur individually or in combination with other congenital deformities. Affected patients experience a number of dental, aesthetic, speech, hearing, and psychological complications and have a higher incidence of severe dental conditions. The purpose of this study is to characterise the different types of dental anomalies that are frequently associated with CLP patients based on a literature survey. By literature survey, this study characterises the different types of dental anomalies that are frequently associated with cleft lip and palate patients. Common dental anomalies associated with CLP are supernumerary tooth, congenitally missing tooth, delayed tooth development, morphological anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentition, delayed eruption of permanent maxillary incisors, microdontia, and abnormal tooth number. The incidence of certain dental anomalies is strongly correlated with Cleft lip and palate, a finding that is consistent with previous studies.

  7. The value of multislice spiral CT in the pre-operative diagnosis of cleft palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Guangxi; Sun Lianfen; Zhang Xiaolin; Yu Chengxin; Lu Ji; Wang Xiaopeng; Li Liya; Yang Cheng; Wang Jun; Tian Yiqing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the practical value of multislice spiral CT (MSCT) in the preoperative diagnosis of cleft palate. Methods: Twenty patients with cleft palate were examined by using thin-slice (1.25 mm/4i) axial MSCT scanning and CT virtual endoscope (CTVE) imaging before and after operations. The cleft of each lesion was measured in the primary axial images. Results: Of the 20 cases, soft-and-hard cleft palate (grade II) was detected in 10 cases, with the clefts of soft palate between 1.5 cm and 2.2 cm, and the clefts of soft-and-hard palate between 1.2 cm and 2.0 cm. The right utter cleft palates were found in 3 cases with the clefts of soft palate between 2.0 cm and 2.5 cm, the clefts of soft-and-hard palate between 2.0 cm and 2.4 cm, and the clefts of hard palate between 1.8 cm and 2.2 cm. The left utter cleft palates (grade III) were found in 5 cases with the clefts of soft palate between 1.2 cm and 1.8 cm, the clefts of soft-and-hard palate between 0.9 cm and 2.0 cm, and the clefts of hard palate between 0.9 cm and 1.8 cm. The bilateral utter cleft palates (grade III) were detected in 2 cases with the clefts of soft palate between 2.1 cm and 2.3 cm, the clefts of soft-and-hard palate between 1.8 cm and 2.0 cm, and the clefts of hard palate between 1.9 cm and 2.3 cm. Conclusion: MSCT could excellently display the shape of all lesions before operation, especially the splitting degree of hard cleft palates in the axial images. Accurate measurements could be done for the cleft of different lesions in MSCT images. CTVE could clearly and directly show the shape of the lesion's interior surface. The pre-operative and post-operative images of each case could be perfectly compared by the combination of MSCT and CTVE

  8. Management of an infant with cleft lip and palate with phocomelia in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, M S

    2000-12-01

    Cleft lip and palate is a severe birth defect occurring approximately one in 800-1000 newborn infants. The incidence varies widely among races. Cleft lip and palate together account for approximately 50% of all cases whereas isolated cleft lip and isolated cleft palate occur in about 25% of cases. Many of these congenital anomalies appear to be genetically determined though the majority are of unknown causes or teratogenic influences. Presented here is a 3 day old infant with bilateral cleft lip and palate and phocomelia for whom a feeding obturator was made and delivered to facilitate feeding.

  9. Tessier 3 Cleft in a Pre-Hispanic Anthropomorphic Figurine in El Salvador, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ramon Manuel; Martinez, Maria Guadalupe

    2017-03-01

    In 1976, Paul Tessier provided a numerical classification system for rare facial clefts, numbered from 0 to 14. The Tessier 3 cleft is a rare facial cleft extending from the philtrum of the upper lip through the wing of the nostril, and reaches the medial canthus of the eye. The aim of this document was to describe a pre-Hispanic anthropomorphic figurine dating from the classic period (200 A.D.-900 A.D.), which has a Tessier 3 cleft. We also discuss the documented pre-Hispanic beliefs about facial clefts.

  10. Oblique lip-alveolar banding in patients with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S; Bütow, K-W

    2015-04-01

    We report an oblique lip-alveolar band, a rare banding of soft tissue that involves the lip and alveolus, which we have found in five patients with cleft lip and palate (0.2%), compared with an incidence of the Simonartz lip-lip band of 5.7%). To our knowledge this has not been reported previously. In two patients the bands affected the cleft lip and alveolus bilaterally, with or without the palatal cleft, and in three the bands were unilateral cleft lip and alveolus with or without the palatal cleft. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic ...

  12. Statistical mechanics of attractor neural network models with synaptic depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhiko; Oizumi, Masafumi; Otsubo, Yosuke; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato

    2009-01-01

    Synaptic depression is known to control gain for presynaptic inputs. Since cortical neurons receive thousands of presynaptic inputs, and their outputs are fed into thousands of other neurons, the synaptic depression should influence macroscopic properties of neural networks. We employ simple neural network models to explore the macroscopic effects of synaptic depression. Systems with the synaptic depression cannot be analyzed due to asymmetry of connections with the conventional equilibrium statistical-mechanical approach. Thus, we first propose a microscopic dynamical mean field theory. Next, we derive macroscopic steady state equations and discuss the stabilities of steady states for various types of neural network models.

  13. Experimental Implementation of a Biometric Laser Synaptic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Pisarchik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We fabricate a biometric laser fiber synaptic sensor to transmit information from one neuron cell to the other by an optical way. The optical synapse is constructed on the base of an erbium-doped fiber laser, whose pumped diode current is driven by a pre-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron, and the laser output controls a post-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron. The implemented laser synapse displays very rich dynamics, including fixed points, periodic orbits with different frequency-locking ratios and chaos. These regimes can be beneficial for efficient biorobotics, where behavioral flexibility subserved by synaptic connectivity is a challenge.

  14. A pivotal role of GSK-3 in synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarrisa A Bradley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 has many cellular functions. Recent evidence suggests that it plays a key role in certain types of synaptic plasticity, in particular a form of long-term depression (LTD that is induced by the synaptic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. In the present article we summarise what is currently known concerning the roles of GSK-3 in synaptic plasticity at both glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. We summarise its role in cognition and speculate on how alterations in the synaptic functioning of GSK-3 may be a major factor in certain neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Attitudes of pregnant women and mothers of children with orofacial clefts toward prenatal diagnosis of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in a semiurban set-up in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kadagad, Poornima; Pinto, Pascal; Powar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the attitudes of pregnant women and mothers of children with orofacial clefts toward prenatal diagnosis of clefts and elective termination of pregnancy, and to investigate their opinion about who makes reproductive decisions in the family. Design: Two hundred subjects were included in the study prospectively regarding hypothetical prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of clefts. Setting: The study was done in a private tertiary care institution and a teaching hospital. Subjects/...

  16. Psychometric findings and normative values for the CLEFT-Q based on 2434 children and young adult patients with cleft lip and/or palate from 12 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riff, Karen WY Wong; Longmire, Natasha M.; Albert, Asteria; Allen, Gregory C.; Aydin, Mustafa Asim; Baker, Stephen B.; Cano, Stefan J.; Chan, Andrew J.; Courtemanche, Douglas J.; Dreise, Marieke M.; Goldstein, Jesse A.; Goodacre, Timothy E.E.; Harman, Karen E.; Munill, Montserrat; Mahony, Aisling O.; Aguilera, Mirta Palomares; Peterson, Petra; Pusic, Andrea L.; Slator, Rona; Stiernman, Mia; Tsangaris, Elena; Tholpady, Sunil S.; Vargas, Federico; Forrest, Christopher R.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with cleft lip and/or palate can undergo numerous procedures to improve appearance, speech, dentition and hearing. We developed a cleft-specific patient-reported outcome instrument to facilitate rigorous international measurement and benchmarking. METHODS: Data were collected from patients aged 8–29 years with cleft lip and/or palate at 30 hospitals in 12 countries between October 2014 and November 2016. Rasch measurement theory analysis was used to refine the scales and to examine reliability and validity. Normative CLEFT-Q values were computed for age, sex and cleft type. RESULTS: Analysis led to the refinement of an eating and drinking checklist and 12 scales measuring appearance (of the face, nose, nostrils, teeth, lips, jaws and cleft lip scar), health-related quality of life (psychological, social, school, speech distress) and speech function. All scales met the requirements of the Rasch model. Analysis to explore differential item functioning by age, sex and country provided evidence to support the use of a common scoring algorithm for each scale for international use. Lower (worse) scores on CLEFT-Q scales were associated with having a speech problem, being unhappy with facial appearance, and needing future cleft-related treatments, providing evidence of construct validity. Normative values for age, sex and cleft type showed poorer outcomes associated with older age, female sex and having a visible cleft. INTERPRETATION: The CLEFT-Q represents a rigorously developed instrument that can be used internationally to collect and compare evidence-based outcomes data from patients aged 8–29 years of age with cleft lip and/or palate. PMID:29661814

  17. The Prevalence of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate and Related Risk Factors among Iranian Children from 2000 to 2016: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Jafari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCleft lip and cleft palate (also, known as or facial clefts, are amongst the most common congenital deformities affecting the jaw and face as well as the most common defects associated with lip and palate. Thus, the current study was an attempt to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of or facial clefts in Iranian children.Materials and Methods:The present study, was conducted through a systematic search for articles recorded in the internal database (SID, IranMedex and Magiran, and external authoritative databases (Google scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE using the keywords including "cleft lip", "Iranian", "cleft palate", and "children" from 2000 to 2016. Then, 61 articles were collected. 47 studies with associated incidence or prevalence of cleft lip and cleft palate were included.Results:According to the findings of the review of the studies conducted in Iran, it is revealed that the prevalence of cleft lip and cleft palate was from 0.78 to 2.14 in Iranian children. It was revealed that several factors contributing to the development of this disorder consist of Family history ( P< 0.001, Antibiotics, ( P< 0.001, Stress in the first trimester of pregnancy (P=0.048, BMI before pregnancy (P=0.036 Seasonal factors (P= 0.03, and Consanguineous marriage (P=0.02.ConclusionAccording to the results of the present study, the prevalence of cleft lip and cleft palate is high in Iran in comparison with international studies. Furthermore, the prevalence of this disorder is reported to be higher in males than females. Therefore, it is recommended arrange the practical programs in order to help parents eliminate or diminish the factors that affect the prevalence of this disorder and complications.

  18. Stability after Cleft Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis or Conventional Orthognathic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Svenstrup, Martin; Pedersen, Thomas Klit

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare stability of maxillary advancements in patients with cleft lip and palate following distraction osteogenesis or orthognathic surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1) cleft lip and palate, 2) advancement > 8 mm. Eleven patients comprised the distraction...... changed in CONVG. At follow-up (T3), VOB increased in CONVG compared with DOG, (P = 0.01). Vertical position of A point differed between the groups (P = 0.04). No significant intergroup differences between soft tissue parameters occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Distraction osteogenesis resulted in a stable position...

  19. First Branchial Cleft Malformation with Duplication of External Auditory Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Pradipta Kumar; Raja, Kalairasi; Surianarayanan, Gopalakrishnan; Ganeshan, Sivaraman

    2013-01-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon, accounting for less than 10% of all branchial abnormalities. Their rare occurrence and varied presentation have frequently led to misdiagnosis and inadequate and inappropriate treatment of these conditions leading to repeated recurrences and secondary infection. In this paper, a case of 11-year girl with type 2 first branchial cleft defect is described. She first presented with a nonhealing ulcer of upper neck from childhood. Diagnosis had previously been missed and treated as tubercular ulcer. We confirmed the correct diagnosis by history and computerized tomography fistulogram. The lesion was completely excised with no further recurrence. PMID:24312740

  20. First Branchial Cleft Malformation with Duplication of External Auditory Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Kumar Parida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon, accounting for less than 10% of all branchial abnormalities. Their rare occurrence and varied presentation have frequently led to misdiagnosis and inadequate and inappropriate treatment of these conditions leading to repeated recurrences and secondary infection. In this paper, a case of 11-year girl with type 2 first branchial cleft defect is described. She first presented with a nonhealing ulcer of upper neck from childhood. Diagnosis had previously been missed and treated as tubercular ulcer. We confirmed the correct diagnosis by history and computerized tomography fistulogram. The lesion was completely excised with no further recurrence.

  1. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Masih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient′s weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  2. EEC syndrome sans clefting: Variable clinical presentations in a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakkar Sejal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft palate/lip syndrome (EEC is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome with varied presentation and is actually a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome leading to intra- and interfamilial differences in severity because of its variable expression and reduced penetrance. The cardinal features include ectrodactyly, sparse, wiry, hypopigmented hair, peg-shaped teeth with defective enamel and cleft palate/lip. A family comprising father, daughter and son presented to us with split hand-split foot deformity (ectrodactyly, epiphora, hair changes and deafness with variable involvement in each family member.

  3. Surgical management of cleft lip in pedo-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taware, C P; Kulkarni, S R

    1991-01-01

    The Present article describes in short etiology of cleft lip and cleft palate. With this in-born defect, patient develops crucial problems with feeding, phonation, overall growth and development of affected and allied soft and hard tissue structures. This in turn results in deformity and asymmetry which is going to affect functional requirements as well as aesthetic outlook. Hence it really becomes mandatory to correct this defect surgically as early as possible, at stipulated timings so as to avoid present and future anticipated problems.

  4. Maxillary growth in a congenital cleft palate canine model for surgical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradas-Lara, Irene; Casado-Gómez, Inmaculada; Martín, Conchita; Martínez-Sanz, Elena; López-Gordillo, Yamila; González, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bobada, Cruz; Chamorro, Manuel; Arias, Pablo; Maldonado, Estela; Ortega, Ricardo; Berenguer, Beatriz; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    We have recently presented the Old Spanish Pointer dog, with a 15-20% spontaneous congenital cleft palate rate, as a unique experimental model of this disease. This study aimed to describe the cleft palate of these dogs for surgical research purposes and to determine whether congenital cleft palate influences maxillofacial growth. Seven newborn Old Spanish Pointer dogs of both sexes, comprising a cleft palate group (n = 4) and a normal palate group (n = 3), were fed using the same technique. Macroscopic photographs and plaster casts from the palate, lateral radiographs and computer tomograms of the skull were taken sequentially over 41 weeks, starting at week 5. The cleft morphology, the size and the tissue characteristics in these dogs resembled the human cleft better than current available animal models. During growth, the cleft width varies. Most of the transverse and longitudinal measures of the palate were statistically lower in the cleft palate group. The cleft palate group showed hypoplasia of the naso-maxillary complex. This model of congenital cleft palate seems suitable for surgical research purposes. A reduced maxillofacial pre- and post-natal development is associated to the congenital cleft palate in the Old Spanish Pointer dog. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in cleft lip and palate patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Fumio; Akai, Hidemi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    Alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate has becomes a routine part of most treatment regimes. This study was undertaken to estimate how much bone needs to be grafted into the cleft cavity and to evaluate the grafted bone using 3-DCT over a period from the early postoperative stage to after one year. Seventy-five patients divided into four groups according to the type of cleft were studied. All patients underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting using particulate cancellous bone from the anterior iliac crest. The bone graft areas were divided into two regions: the extra-cleft region and the intra-cleft region. The weight and the volume of the grafted bone were correlated and the average density was 1.5 g/ml regardless of the cleft type. The bone in the extra-cleft region could be seen in almost all slices of the CT scans, from the lower alveolar process to the piriform aperture. The extra-cleft graft ratio of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate is higher than that of cleft lip and alveolus. The extra-cleft grafting is necessary to restore facial symmetry. The grafted bone was decreased in both height and volume following three months and adequate bone bridging was maintained for one year. We concluded that 3-DCT findings are one of the most valuable methods to evaluate postoperative conditions after alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  6. Isolated cleft of the ala nasi: A report of seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rajesh Jinka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial clefts other than cleft lip & palate are reported to be 1.4 to 4.9 per 100,000 live births. Of these, clefts of nose are usually associated with other clefts. Isolated cleft of Ala is rare, 0.7% of all clefts reported by Monasterio. In an analysis of photographic records of 3,500 consecutive patients with craniofacial clefts including cleft lip & palate registered with us between 1985- 2012 which were accessed through our data base, 13 patients with nasal clefts were identified, seven out of which had Isolated cleft of the Ala. All were treated by a rotation flap of the Ala with good results with the longest follow up of 14Yrs. The authors have emphasised the rarity of the condition and presented a simple surgical procedure for correction. In the opinion of the authors this very simple procedure which can be performed by the junior surgeon gives a good long term result in the management of cleft Ala.

  7. Root development of permanent lateral incisor in cleft lip and palate children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarlal Deepti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the root development of lateral incisor on the cleft side with the root development of its contralateral tooth in cleft lip and palate children. Setting: Cleft lip and palate wing, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: A sample of 96 orthopantamograms of patients with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate was selected, regardless of sex and race. Main Outcome Measure: Orthopantamograms were analyzed for root development of lateral incisor on the cleft and noncleft side. Associated anomalies like hypodontia, supernumerary teeth, malformed lateral incisors and root development of canine, if present, were recorded. Findings and Conclusions: Root development of permanent lateral incisor was delayed on the cleft side compared to the noncleft side. There was a statistically significant relationship between levels of root development of lateral incisors on the cleft side within the different study groups ( P < 0.05. Incidence of hypodontia increased in proportion to cleft severity. Frequency of missing second premolars, supernumerary teeth and malformed lateral incisors increased in cleft lip and palate patients. Root development of canine showed a slight delay on the cleft side when compared to the canine on the noncleft side.

  8. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in cleft lip and palate patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Fumio; Akai, Hidemi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate has becomes a routine part of most treatment regimes. This study was undertaken to estimate how much bone needs to be grafted into the cleft cavity and to evaluate the grafted bone using 3-DCT over a period from the early postoperative stage to after one year. Seventy-five patients divided into four groups according to the type of cleft were studied. All patients underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting using particulate cancellous bone from the anterior iliac crest. The bone graft areas were divided into two regions: the extra-cleft region and the intra-cleft region. The weight and the volume of the grafted bone were correlated and the average density was 1.5 g/ml regardless of the cleft type. The bone in the extra-cleft region could be seen in almost all slices of the CT scans, from the lower alveolar process to the piriform aperture. The extra-cleft graft ratio of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate is higher than that of cleft lip and alveolus. The extra-cleft grafting is necessary to restore facial symmetry. The grafted bone was decreased in both height and volume following three months and adequate bone bridging was maintained for one year. We concluded that 3-DCT findings are one of the most valuable methods to evaluate postoperative conditions after alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  9. The characteristics and distribution of dental anomalies in patients with cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Philip K T; Lo, Lun-Jou; Cheng, Min-Chi; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Dental anomalies associated with different severities of cleft lip and palate have been rarely reported. This retrospective study investigates the characteristics of dental anomalies associated with different types of cleft, and compares the dental anomaly traits based on sex and severity of cleft. Cleft patients born in 1995 with qualified diagnostic records from 7 to 11 years were included for evaluation. Records were retrieved from database of Chang Gung Craniofacial Center, including panoramic radiographs and intraoral photographs. In total, 196 patients with complete records were included in the evaluation. This study compares the dental anomalies associated with each type of cleft. The frequency of dental anomalies in the maxillary incisor area in the cleft palate (CP) group (20%) was significantly lower than that in other groups. The frequency of missing maxillary lateral incisors (MLIs) increased as the cleft severity increased. Supernumerary teeth and missing lower incisors exhibited the opposite trend. No sexual dimorphism appeared in terms of the frequencies of peg laterals and missing MLIs. The distribution patterns of missing MLIs and peg laterals in males, but not in females, were consistent for the three types of unilateral clefts. Regarding the characteristics of dental anomalies among the three unilateral clefts, missing MLIs, supernumerary teeth, and missing lower incisors were found to be related to cleft severity. The maxillary lateral incisor was the most affected tooth in the cleft area. The frequency of missing MLIs and peg laterals was not sexual dimorphic, but the distribution pattern was different between the sexes.

  10. Analysis of the correlative factors for velopharyngeal closure of patients with cleft palate after primary repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Li, Yang; Shi, Bing; Yin, Heng; Zheng, Guang-Ning; Zheng, Qian

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the correlative factors for velopharyngeal closure of patients with cleft palate after primary repair. Ninety-five nonsyndromic patients with cleft palate were enrolled. Two surgical techniques were applied in the patients: simple palatoplasty and combined palatoplasty with pharyngoplasty. All patients were assessed 6 months after the operation. The postoperative velopharyngeal closure (VPC) rate was compared by χ(2) test and the correlative factors were analyzed with logistic regression model. The postoperative VPC rate of young patients was higher than that of old patients, the group with incomplete cleft palate was higher than the group with complete cleft palate, and combined palatoplasty with pharyngoplasty was higher than simple palatoplasty. Operative age, cleft type, and surgical technique were the contributing factors for postoperative VPC rate. Operative age, cleft type, and surgical technique were significant factors influencing postoperative VPC rate of patients with cleft palate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. proBDNF Negatively Regulates Neuronal Remodeling, Synaptic Transmission, and Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent plasticity shapes postnatal development of neural circuits, but the mechanisms that refine dendritic arbors, remodel spines, and impair synaptic activity are poorly understood. Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF modulates neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP via TrkB activation. BDNF is initially translated as proBDNF, which binds p75NTR. In vitro, recombinant proBDNF modulates neuronal structure and alters hippocampal long-term plasticity, but the actions of endogenously expressed proBDNF are unclear. Therefore, we generated a cleavage-resistant probdnf knockin mouse. Our results demonstrate that proBDNF negatively regulates hippocampal dendritic complexity and spine density through p75NTR. Hippocampal slices from probdnf mice exhibit depressed synaptic transmission, impaired LTP, and enhanced long-term depression (LTD in area CA1. These results suggest that proBDNF acts in vivo as a biologically active factor that regulates hippocampal structure, synaptic transmission, and plasticity, effects that are distinct from those of mature BDNF.

  12. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  13. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  14. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  15. The Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale for 18-Year-Old Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients: A Tool for Nasolabial Aesthetics Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, F J; Mosmuller, D G M; de Vet, H C W; Mouës, C M; Breugem, C C; van der Molen, A B Mink; Don Griot, J P W

    2018-01-01

    Objective To develop a reliable and easy-to-use method to assess the nasolabial appearance of 18-year-old patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP). Design Retrospective analysis of nasolabial aesthetics using a 5-point ordinal scale and newly developed photographic reference scale: the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale (CARS). Three cleft surgeons and 20 medical students scored the nasolabial appearance on standardized frontal photographs. Setting VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam. Patients Inclusion criteria: 18-year-old patients, unilateral cleft lip and palate, available photograph of the frontal view. history of facial trauma, congenital syndromes affecting facial appearance. Eighty photographs were available for scoring. Main Outcome Measures The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the CARS for 18-year-old patients when used by cleft surgeons and medical students. Results The interobserver reliability for the nose and lip together was 0.64 for the cleft surgeons and 0.61 for the medical students. There was an intraobserver reliability of 0.75 and 0.78 from the surgeons and students, respectively, on the nose and lip together. No significant difference was found between the cleft surgeons and medical students in the way they scored the nose ( P = 0.22) and lip ( P = 0.72). Conclusions The Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale for 18-year-old patients has a substantial overall estimated reliability when the average score is taken from three or more cleft surgeons or medical students assessing the nasolabial aesthetics of CLP patients.

  16. Novel 3-D Analysis for the Assessment of Cleft Dimensions on Digital Models of Infants With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botticelli, Susanna; Pedersen, Thomas Klit; Küseler, Annelise

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a 3-D standardized analysis of cleft dimensions. MATERIALS: Thirty-one plaster casts of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) infants were laser scanned. Landmarks and coordinate system were defined. Linear distances and surfaces were measured, and the ratio between cleft...... and palatal area was calculated (3-D infant cleft severity ratio [3D ICSR]). The digitally measured areas were compared with silicone membranes, adapted to the plaster casts, and analyzed by optic microscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Repeatability, reproducibility, and validity. RESULTS: Bland-Altman plots...

  17. Description of Mexican Cleft Surgeons' Experience With Foreign Surgical Volunteer Missions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbrunner, Anna R; Kelley, Kristen D; Buckstaff, Taylor; McIntyre, Joyce K; Sigler, Alicia; Gosman, Amanda A

    2018-05-01

    Mexican cleft surgeons provide multidisciplinary comprehensive cleft lip and palate care to children in Mexico. Many Mexican cleft surgeons have extensive experience with foreign, visiting surgeons. The purpose of this study was to characterize Mexican cleft surgeons' domestic and volunteer practice and to learn more about Mexican cleft surgeons' experience with visiting surgeons. A cross-sectional validated e-mail survey tool was sent to Mexican cleft surgeons through 2 Mexican plastic surgery societies and the Asociación Mexicana de Labio y Paladar Hendido y Anomalías Craneofaciales, the national cleft palate society that includes plastic and maxillofacial surgeons who specialize in cleft surgery. We utilized validated survey methodology, including neutral fact-based questions and repeated e-mails to survey nonresponders to maximize validity of statistical data; response rate was 30.6% (n = 81). Mexican cleft surgeons performed, on average, 37.7 primary palate repairs per year with an overall complication rate of 2.5%; 34.6% (n = 28) of respondents had direct experience with patients operated on by visiting surgeons; 53.6% of these respondents performed corrective surgery because of complications from visiting surgeons. Respondents rated 48% of the functional outcomes of visiting surgeons as "acceptable," whereas 43% rated aesthetic outcomes of visiting surgeons as "poor"; 73.3% of respondents were never paid for the corrective surgeries they performed. Thirty-three percent of Mexican cleft surgeons believe that there is a role for educational collaboration with visiting surgeons. Mexican cleft surgeons have a high volume of primary cleft palate repairs in their domestic practice with good outcomes. Visiting surgeons may play an important role in Mexican cleft care through educational collaborations that complement the strengths of Mexican cleft surgeons.

  18. Synaptic Democracy and Vesicular Transport in Axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Levien, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Synaptic democracy concerns the general problem of how regions of an axon or dendrite far from the cell body (soma) of a neuron can play an effective role in neuronal function. For example, stimulated synapses far from the soma are unlikely to influence the firing of a neuron unless some sort of active dendritic processing occurs. Analogously, the motor-driven transport of newly synthesized proteins from the soma to presynaptic targets along the axon tends to favor the delivery of resources to proximal synapses. Both of these phenomena reflect fundamental limitations of transport processes based on a localized source. In this Letter, we show that a more democratic distribution of proteins along an axon can be achieved by making the transport process less efficient. This involves two components: bidirectional or "stop-and-go" motor transport (which can be modeled in terms of advection-diffusion), and reversible interactions between motor-cargo complexes and synaptic targets. Both of these features have recently been observed experimentally. Our model suggests that, just as in human societies, there needs to be a balance between "efficiency" and "equality".

  19. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Research during this report period has covered the following areas: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) MACKLIB-IV, a new library of nuclear response functions, (5) energy storage and power supply requirements for commercial fusion reactors, (6) blanket/shield design evaluation for commercial fusion reactors, and (7) cross section measurements, evaluations, and techniques

  20. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  1. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission resonance model (TRM) is combined with some electrochemistry of the cathode surface and found to provide a good fit to new data on excess heat. For the first time, a model for cold fusion not only fits calorimetric data but also predicts optimal trigger points. This suggests that the model is meaningful and that the excess heat phenomenon claimed by Fleischmann and Pons is genuine. A crucial role is suggested for the overpotential and, in particular, for the concentration overpotential, i.e., the hydrogen overvoltage. Self-similar geometry, or scale invariance, i.e., a fractal nature, is revealed by the relative excess power function. Heat bursts are predicted with a scale invariance in time, suggesting a possible link between the TRM and chaos theory. The model describes a near-surface phenomenon with an estimated excess power yield of ∼1 kW/cm 3 Pd, as compared to 50 W/cm 3 of reactor core for a good fission reactor. Transmission resonance-induced nuclear transmutation, a new type of nuclear reaction, is strongly suggested with two types emphasized: transmission resonance-induced neutron transfer reactions yielding essentially the same end result as Teller's hypothesized catalytic neutron transfer and a three-body reaction promoted by standing de Broglie waves. In this paper suggestions for the anomalous production of heat, particles, and radiation are given

  2. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R ampersand D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R ampersand D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase

  3. GFA Taq I polymorphism and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijia; Ma, Lian

    2015-01-01

    The transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) Taq I polymorphism has been indicated to be correlated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) susceptibility, but study results are still debatable. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted. We conducted a comprehensive search of Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, the Cochrane database, PubMed, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM-disc, 1979-2014), the database of National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, 1979-2014) and the full paper database of Chinese Science and Technology of Chongqing (VIP, 1989-2014) to identify suitable studies. There were 18 studies suitable for this meta-analysis, involving a total of 3135 cases and 3575 controls. Significantly increased CL/P risk was observed (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.17-1.89; P = 0.001). In subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, there was evidence in the Caucasian population for an association between this polymorphism and CL/P risk (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.14-2.02; P = 0.004). However, no significant association was found between this his polymorphism and CL/P risk in African and Hispanic populations. According to a specific CL/P type, increased clip lip and palate risk and clip palate risk were found (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.10-1.73; P = 0.005; OR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.01-1.66; P = 0.042). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis found that the TGFA Taq I polymorphism may be associated with CL/P susceptibility. PMID:26064247

  4. Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in Patients With Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate in a Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranaiba, Lívia Máris Ribeiro; Coletta, Ricardo D; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Quintino, Rafaela Pacífico; de Barros, Letízia Monteiro; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio

    2013-07-01

    Objective : Many studies have demonstrated a high frequency of dental anomalies in patients with cleft lip and/or palate. Because dental anomalies may complicate dental treatment, we investigated the prevalence of dental anomalies in a group of Brazilian patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate. Design, Participants, Setting : Retrospective analysis was performed using clinical records of 296 patients aged between 12 and 30 years with repaired nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate without history of tooth extraction and orthodontic treatment. Associations between oral clefts and presence of dental anomalies outside the cleft area were investigated. Results : Dental anomalies were identified in 39.9% of the nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate patients, and tooth agenesis (47.5%), impacted tooth (13.1%), and microdontia (12.7%) were the most common anomalies. Cleft lip patients were less affected by dental anomalies compared with cleft palate or cleft lip and palate patients (p  =  .057). Specifically, patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate were significantly more affected by dental anomalies than those with bilateral cleft lip and palate (p  =  .00002), and individuals with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (p  =  .002) and complete cleft palate (p  =  .01) were significantly more affected by tooth agenesis than other cleft types. Agenesis of the premolars (p  =  .043) and maxillary lateral incisors (p  =  .03) were significantly more frequent in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Conclusions : The present study revealed a high frequency of dental anomalies in nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate patients and further demonstrated that patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate were frequently more affected by dental anomalies than those with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Moreover, our results demonstrate that dental anomalies should be considered during dental treatment planning for

  5. Expression of the synaptic exocytosis-regulating molecule complexin 2 in taste buds and its participation in peripheral taste transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yoshimoto, Joto; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2015-06-01

    Taste information from type III taste cells to gustatory neurons is thought to be transmitted via synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying taste transduction through this pathway have not been fully elucidated. In this study, to identify molecules that participate in synaptic taste transduction, we investigated whether complexins (Cplxs), which play roles in regulating membrane fusion in synaptic vesicle exocytosis, were expressed in taste bud cells. Among four Cplx isoforms, strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in type III taste cells. To investigate the function of CPLX2 in taste transduction, we observed taste responses in CPLX2-knockout mice. When assessed with electrophysiological and behavioral assays, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2-knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These results suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction from type III taste cells to gustatory neurons. A part of taste information is thought to be transmitted via synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To identify molecules that participate in synaptic taste transduction, we investigated complexins (Cplxs) expression in taste bud cells. Strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in taste bud cells. Furthermore, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2- knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Trans-sinusoidal maxillary distraction in three cleft patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Martini, M.; Nadjmi, N.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Jagtman, A.K.; Bergé, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The trans-sinusoidal maxillary distractor (TS-MD) was used to achieve maxillary advancement in three patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. After preoperative computer-aided planning of the distraction vectors, each TS-MD was bent on a stereolithographic model of the maxilla of the patient.

  7. Helping the Child with a Cleft Palate in Your Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Pentz, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    Guidelines for teachers of a student with a cleft palate include understand the physical problem; know what kind of speech problem to expect; be alert to the possibility of language-based learning difficulties; watch for signs of hearing loss; be alert to socialization problems; help the student make up work; and avoid self-fulfilling prophecies.…

  8. Frequency of oronasal fistulae in complete cleft palate repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of oro-nasal fistula in patients undergoing complete cleft palate repair by two flappalatoplasty. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plastic Surgery, Services Hospital, Lahore, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Patients admitted to the study place for repair of cleft palate after informed consent obtained were included. Cleft palate was repaired by two-flap palatoplasty, using Bardach technique. Patients were discharged on the second postoperative day and followed-up at third week postoperatively. During follow-up visits, fistulae formation and their sites were recorded on pre-designed proforma. Results: Among the total 90 patients, 40 patients (44.4%) were male and 50 patients (55.6%) were female. The mean age was 6.4 +- 5.7 years ranging from 9 months to 20 years. At third week follow-up, 5 patients (5.6%) had fistulae formation. Four patients (80%) had anterior fistulae and one patient (20%) had posterior fistula. Conclusion: With two-flap palatoplasty Bardach procedure for repair of cleft palate, the complication of fistula formation was uncommon at 5.6%, provided the repair was tension free and multi-layered. (author)

  9. Reliable critical sized defect rodent model for cleft palate research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Nesrine Z; Doschak, Michael R; Major, Paul W; Talwar, Reena

    2014-12-01

    Suitable animal models are necessary to test the efficacy of new bone grafting therapies in cleft palate surgery. Rodent models of cleft palate are available but have limitations. This study compared and modified mid-palate cleft (MPC) and alveolar cleft (AC) models to determine the most reliable and reproducible model for bone grafting studies. Published MPC model (9 × 5 × 3 mm(3)) lacked sufficient information for tested rats. Our initial studies utilizing AC model (7 × 4 × 3 mm(3)) in 8 and 16 weeks old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats revealed injury to adjacent structures. After comparing anteroposterior and transverse maxillary dimensions in 16 weeks old SD and Wistar rats, virtual planning was performed to modify MPC and AC defects dimensions, taking the adjacent structures into consideration. Modified MPC (7 × 2.5 × 1 mm(3)) and AC (5 × 2.5 × 1 mm(3)) defects were employed in 16 weeks old Wistar rats and healing was monitored by micro-computed tomography and histology. Maxillary dimensions in SD and Wistar rats were not significantly different. Preoperative virtual planning enhanced postoperative surgical outcomes. Bone healing occurred at defect margin leaving central bone void confirming the critical size nature of the modified MPC and AC defects. Presented modifications for MPC and AC models created clinically relevant and reproducible defects. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phonological Patterns Observed in Young Children with Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broen, Patricia A.; And Others

    The study examined the speech production strategies used by 4 young children (30- to 32-months-old) with cleft palate and velopharyngeal inadequacy during the early stages of phonological learning. All the children had had primary palatal surgery and were producing primarily single word utterances with a few 2- and 3-word phrases. Analysis of each…

  11. Cleft Palate Repair Using a Double Opposing Z-Plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Craig; Shah, Ajul; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2016-07-01

    Cleft palate is a common congenital defect with several described surgical repairs. The most successful treatment modality remains a controversy. The goals of repair focus on achievement of normal speech and optimizing velopharyngeal function while minimizing both fistula formation and facial growth restriction. In this video, the authors demonstrate use of the double opposing Z-plasty technique in the repair of a Veau II type cleft palate. The video demonstrates the marking, incisions, dissection, and repair of the cleft. It also examines the use of von Langenbeck-type relaxing incisions and demonstrates a specific approach to the repair of this particular cleft. The authors believe that the Furlow double opposing Z-plasty with the von Langenbeck relaxing incision can provide the best postoperative outcome by combining the benefits of each individual operation. The Z-plasty technique works to correct the aberrant muscle of the soft palate while increasing the length of the palate. The authors believe that this results in better velopharyngeal function.

  12. Overexpression of mouse TTF-2 gene causes cleft palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian; Shi, Jia-Yu; Wu, Min; Wang, Yan; Li, Ling; Liu, Yan; Zheng, Qian; Huang, Lei; Shi, Bing

    2012-01-01

    In humans, mutations of the gene encoding for thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2 or FOXE1) result in Bamforth syndrome. Bamforth syndrome is characterized by agenesis, cleft palate, spiky hair and choanal atresia. TTF-2 null mice (TTF-2−/−) also exhibit cleft palate, suggesting its involvement in the palatogenesis. However, the molecular pathology and genetic regulation by TTF2 remain largely unknown. In the present study, the recombinant expression vector pBROAD3-TTF-2 containing the promoter of the mouse ROSA26 gene was created to form the structural gene of mouse TTF-2 and was microinjected into the male pronuclei of fertilized ova. Sequence analysis confirmed that the TTF-2 transgenic mouse model was established successfully. The transgenic mice displayed a phenotype of cleft palate. In addition, we found that TTF-2 was highly expressed in the medial edge epithelium (MEE) from the embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) to E14.5 in TTF-2 transgenic mice. These observations suggest that overexpression of TTF-2 during palatogenesis may contribute to formation of cleft palate. PMID:22304410

  13. Psychiatric Diagnoses in Individuals with Non-Syndromic Oral Clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    for 247,821 person-years, and 85,653 individuals without OC followed for 2,501,129 person-years. RESULTS: A total of 953 (11.1%) of the individuals with OC (9.6% for cleft lip (CL), 10.8% for cleft lip and palate (CLP) and 13.1% for cleft palate (CP)) and 8,117 (9.5%) in the comparison group had at least...... one psychiatric diagnosis. Cox proportional hazard regression model revealed that individuals with OC had significantly higher risk of a psychiatric diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.12-1.28). When examining cleft type, no difference was found for CL (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.......90-1.17), but CLP was associated with a small increased risk (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01-1.26), whereas individuals with CP had the largest increased risk (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.30-1.62). The largest differences were found in schizophrenia-like disorders, mental retardation and pervasive developmental disorders, but we...

  14. Branchial cleft or cervical lymphoepithelial cysts: etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosser, Jeffrey W; Pires, Carlos Alberto S; Feinberg, Stephen E

    2003-01-01

    The cervical lymphoepithelial or branchial cleft cyst is a developmental cyst that has a disputed pathogenesis. The objective of this article is to provide a brief review of the literature and to define diagnostic terms related to this anomaly, as well as to describe its etiology, clinical presentation and treatment. The cervical lymphoepithelial or branchial cleft cyst usually presents as a unilateral, soft-tissue fluctuant swelling that typically appears in the lateral aspect of the neck, anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and becomes clinically evident late in childhood or in early adulthood. Clinicians can diagnose the cyst with appropriate imaging to assess the extent of the lesion before definitive surgical treatment. The authors describe a patient who underwent excision of a well-encapsulated cystic structure that was diagnosed as a branchial cleft cyst. The cervical lymphoepithelial or branchial cleft cyst can be easily misdiagnosed as a parotid swelling or odontogenic infection. It is imperative that clinicians make an accurate diagnosis so that appropriate treatment (that is, surgical excision) can be performed. If the cysts are treated properly, recurrences are rare.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Ethanol Ablation for Branchial Cleft Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, E J; Baek, S M; Baek, J H; Shin, S Y; Han, M; Kim, C-H

    2017-12-01

    Branchial cleft cyst is a common congenital lesion of the neck. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ethanol ablation as an alternative treatment to surgery for branchial cleft cyst. Between September 2006 and October 2016, ethanol ablation was performed in 22 patients who refused an operation for a second branchial cleft cyst. After the exclusion of 2 patients who were lost to follow-up, the data of 20 patients were retrospectively evaluated. All index masses were confirmed as benign before treatment. Sonography-guided aspiration of the cystic fluid was followed by injection of absolute ethanol (99%) into the lesion. The injected volume of ethanol was 50%-80% of the volume of fluid aspirated. Therapeutic outcome, including the volume reduction ratio, therapeutic success rate (volume reduction ratio of >50% and/or no palpable mass), and complications, was evaluated. The mean index volume of the cysts was 26.4 ± 15.7 mL (range, 3.8-49.9 mL). After ablation, the mean volume of the cysts decreased to 1.2 ± 1.1 mL (range, 0.0-3.5 mL). The mean volume reduction ratio at last follow-up was 93.9% ± 7.9% (range, 75.5%-100.0%; P branchial cleft cysts who refuse, or are ineligible for, an operation. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. [Diagnosis and surgical operation for fourth branchial cleft anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting; Hua, Qingquan

    2011-11-01

    To explore diagnosis and surgical operation through analyzing clinical features of the fourth branchial cleft anomalies. Clinical materials of 10 patients with the fourth branchial cleft anomalies were retrospectively analyzed, and literatures were studied to explore the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment methods of surgical operation; lesions of 10 patients were completely removed by surgical operation, and internal sinus was properly handled. All 10 cases were cured, no recurrence were observed during a follow-up of 1-3 years. 1 patient appeared low voice, and drinking cough, back to normality after 2 weeks; 1 patient appeared paralysis of left hypoglossal nerves, back to normality after 3 months. Recurrent deep neck abscess and chronic sinus infections of anterior area in the lower part of neck should be considered with the diagnosis of the fourth branchial cleft anomalies. Enhanced neck CT scan and barium sulfate meal examination aid to diagnosis, pathological examination can be confirmed. Complete surgical removal of lesions is an effective treatment of fourth branchial cleft anomalies, knowing of the courses of internal sinus and spread of infection, and use of principle of selective neck dissection is the key to ensure complete removal of lesions.

  17. Genetic studies in congenital anterior midline cervical cleft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L P; Pfeiffer, P; Andersen, M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anterior midline cervical cleft (CAMCC) is a rare anomaly, with less than 100 cases reported. The cause of CAMCC is unknown, but genetic factors must be considered as part of the etiology. Three cases of CAMCC are presented. This is the first genetic study of isolated CAMCC. Conventional...

  18. Study of oral clefts: Indication of gene-environment interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.J.; Beaty, T.H.; Panny, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    In this study of infants with isolated birth defects, 69 cleft palate-only (CPO) cases, 114 cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P), and 284 controls with non-cleft birth defects (all born in Maryland during 1984-1992) were examined to test for associations among genetic markers and different oral clefts. Modest associations were found between transforming growth factor {alpha} (TGF{alpha}) marker and CPO, as well as that between D17S579 (Mfd188) and CL/P in this study. The association between TGF{alpha} marker and CPO reflects a statistical interaction between mother`s smoking and child`s TGF{alpha} genotype. A significantly higher risk of CPO was found among those reporting maternal smoking during pregnancy and carrying less common TGF{alpha} TaqI allele (odds ratio=7.02 with 95% confidence interval 1.8-27.6). This gene-environment interaction was also found among those who reported no family history of any type of birth defect (odds ratio=5.60 with 95% confidence interval 1.4-22.9). Similar associations were seen for CL/P, but these were not statistically significant.

  19. Cleft lip and palate malformations: essential knowledge for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleft lip and palate malformations are a common group of congenital abnormalities, and are therefore frequently encountered by the general practitioner, who is often the primary coordinator in the management of these patients. This is especially true in a South African setting, where specialist treatment is not always readily ...

  20. Awareness, knowledge and attitude on cleft lip and palate among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate knowledge and awareness of cleft lip and palate (CLP) deformity may help to counter the negative beliefs and attitudes toward the condition. The objective of this study was to assess the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude of women attending antenatal clinics about CLP. Materials and ...

  1. Classification of first branchial cleft anomalies: is it clinically relevant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are three classification systems for first branchial cleft anomalies currently in use. The Arnot, Work and Olsen classifications describe these lesions on the basis of morphology, tissue of origin and clinical appearance. However, the clinical relevance of these classifications is debated, as they may not be ...

  2. Airway and Respiratory Complications in Children Undergoing Cleft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Standard inhalational halothane induction or intravenous induction using thiopentone or propofol was employed. The trachea was intubated with a RAE tube (for cleft lip repair only) or armoured endotracheal tube (for palatal surgery) under deep inhalational anaesthesia or muscle relaxants. Standard intra-.

  3. [A modified Onizuka cheiloplasty for repairing the unilateral cleft lip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Qiang; Li, Zengjian; Xu, Xianyi

    2011-08-01

    To explore the surgical technique of a modified Onizuka cheiloplasty for repairing the unilateral cleft lip. 24 patients with unilateral cleft lip were repaired by modified Onizuka cheiloplasty. The rotation flap ended at the midpoint of nasal columella crease. A small triangle skin flap was formed above the vermilion border of the advancement flap. The small triangle flap was inserted to the medial side after the Cupid's bow was built. The skin of the flap C was denuded along the nasal columella crease and the muscle was sutured to the alar base for augmentation of nostril floor on the cleft side. The tip of the advancement flap was sutured at the midpoint of nasal columella crease and the skin of nasal floor was trimmed to hide the incision line around the nasal columella base. It was found that the Cupid's bow was rebuilt in a natural form and the configuration of the upper lip was reconstructed symmetrically. The long term follow up studies showed that the philtrum column was not disturbed by the small triangle flap and the nasal floor was rebuilt without obvious scars. The modified Onizuka cheiloplasty is an easy learning technique and efficient for repairing the unilateral cleft lip. This technique can satisfy the patients by reducing the length of scar as well as rebuilding a natural form of upper lip and nostril floor.

  4. Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome with cleft palate, absent nipples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 6 year old child, second in order of birth of non consanguineous Egyptian parents with typical characteristics of Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome. The patient had sparse light hair over the scalp, scanty eyebrows and eyelashes, a high arched cleft palate, decayed oligodontic teeth, hyperpigmentation all over ...

  5. Autogenous Tooth Transplantation In Adult Orofacial Cleft Deformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of autotransplantation of a tooth in a 26 year old female African cleft palate patient is reported. This case report emphasizes the possibility and success of autotransplantation in our centre, it also emphasizes that transplantation is only technique sensitive but less equipment sensitive. It further stresses that an ...

  6. High patient satisfaction after secondary rhinoplasty in cleft lip patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hens, Greet; Picavet, Valerie A.; Poorten, Vincent Vander; Schoenaers, Joseph; Jorissen, Mark; Hellings, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed the subjective outcome of secondary rhinoplasty in cleft lip patients. Questionnaires were sent to 38 patients who had undergone a secondary rhinoplasty. A total of 30 questionnaires were returned and analyzed. Patients were asked to score their preoperative and postoperative nasal

  7. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Lower Facial Asymmetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate and Non-Cleft Patients with Class III Skeletal Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yifan; Chen, Gui; Fu, Zhen; Ma, Lian; Li, Weiran

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), both the condylar-fossa relationships and the mandibular and condylar asymmetries between unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients and non-cleft patients with class III skeletal relationship, and to investigate the factors of asymmetry contributing to chin deviation. The UCLP and non-cleft groups consisted of 30 and 40 subjects, respectively, in mixed dentition with class III skeletal relationships. Condylar-fossa relationships and the dimensional and positional asymmetries of the condyles and mandibles were examined using CBCT. Intra-group differences were compared between two sides in both groups using a paired t-test. Furthermore, correlations between each measurement and chin deviation were assessed. It was observed that 90% of UCLP and 67.5% of non-cleft subjects had both condyles centered, and no significant asymmetry was found. The axial angle and the condylar center distances to the midsagittal plane were significantly greater on the cleft side than on the non-cleft side (P=0.001 and P=0.028, respectively) and were positively correlated with chin deviation in the UCLP group. Except for a larger gonial angle on the cleft side, the two groups presented with consistent asymmetries showing shorter mandibular bodies and total mandibular lengths on the cleft (deviated) side. The average chin deviation was 1.63 mm to the cleft side, and the average absolute chin deviation was significantly greater in the UCLP group than in the non-cleft group (P=0.037). Compared with non-cleft subjects with similar class III skeletal relationships, the subjects with UCLP showed more severe lower facial asymmetry. The subjects with UCLP presented with more asymmetrical positions and rotations of the condyles on axial slices, which were positively correlated with chin deviation.

  8. Early mother-child interaction and later quality of attachment in infants with an orofacial cleft compared to infants without cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersaat, Stephanie; Monnier, Maryline; Peter, Camille; Bolomey, Luce; Borghini, Ayala; Despars, Josée; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Müller-Nix, Carole; Ansermet, François; Hohlfeld, Judith

    2013-11-01

    Objective : The main objective of this study was to assess mother-child patterns of interaction in relation to later quality of attachment in a group of children with an orofacial cleft compared with children without cleft. Design : Families were contacted when the child was 2 months old for a direct assessment of mother-child interaction and then at 12 months for a direct assessment of the child's attachment. Data concerning socioeconomical information and posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers were collected at the first appointment. Participants : Forty families of children with a cleft and 45 families of children without cleft were included in the study. Families were recruited at birth in the University Hospital of Lausanne. Results : Results showed that children with a cleft were more difficult and less cooperative during interaction at 2 months of age with their mother compared with children without a cleft. No significant differences were found in mothers or in dyadic interactive styles. Concerning the child's attachment at 12 months old, no differences were found in attachment security. However, secure children with a cleft were significantly more avoidant with their mother during the reunion episodes than secure children without cleft. Conclusion : Despite the facial disfigurement and the stress engendered by treatment during the first months of the infant's life, children with cleft and their mothers are doing as well as families without cleft with regard to the mothers' mental health, mother-child relationships, and later quality of attachment. A potential contribution for this absence of difference may be the pluridisciplinary support that families of children with cleft benefit from in Lausanne.

  9. A presynaptic role for PKA in synaptic tagging and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Alan Jung; Havekes, Robbert; Choi, Jennifer Hk; Luczak, Vince; Nie, Ting; Huang, Ted; Abel, Ted

    2014-10-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling molecules are spatially restricted within neurons by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Although studies on compartmentalized PKA signaling have focused on postsynaptic mechanisms, presynaptically anchored PKA may contribute to synaptic plasticity and memory because PKA also regulates presynaptic transmitter release. Here, we examine this issue using genetic and pharmacological application of Ht31, a PKA anchoring disrupting peptide. At the hippocampal Schaffer collateral CA3-CA1 synapse, Ht31 treatment elicits a rapid decay of synaptic responses to repetitive stimuli, indicating a fast depletion of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. The interaction between PKA and proteins involved in producing this pool of synaptic vesicles is supported by biochemical assays showing that synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2), Rim1, and SNAP25 are components of a complex that interacts with cAMP. Moreover, acute treatment with Ht31 reduces the levels of SV2. Finally, experiments with transgenic mouse lines, which express Ht31 in excitatory neurons at the Schaffer collateral CA3-CA1 synapse, highlight a requirement for presynaptically anchored PKA in pathway-specific synaptic tagging and long-term contextual fear memory. These results suggest that a presynaptically compartmentalized PKA is critical for synaptic plasticity and memory by regulating the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic system in addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aile evan Huijstee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addictive drugs remodel the brain’s reward circuitry, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, by inducing widespread adaptations of glutamatergic synapses. This drug-induced synaptic plasticity is thought to contribute to both the development and the persistence of addiction. This review highlights the synaptic modifications that are induced by in vivo exposure to addictive drugs and describes how these drug-induced synaptic changes may contribute to the different components of addictive behaviour, such as compulsive drug use despite negative consequences and relapse. Initially, exposure to an addictive drug induces synaptic changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA. This drug-induced synaptic potentiation in the VTA subsequently triggers synaptic changes in downstream areas of the mesocorticolimbic system, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the prefrontal cortex (PFC, with further drug exposure. These glutamatergic synaptic alterations are then thought to mediate many of the behavioural symptoms that characterize addiction. The later stages of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the NAc and in particular in the PFC play a role in maintaining addiction and drive relapse to drug-taking induced by drug-associated cues. Remodelling of PFC glutamatergic circuits can persist into adulthood, causing a lasting vulnerability to relapse. We will discuss how these neurobiological changes produced by drugs of abuse may provide novel targets for potential treatment strategies for addiction.

  11. Phosphodiesterase Inhibition to Target the Synaptic Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Kelly R.; Plath, Niels; Svenstrup, Niels; Menniti, Frank S.

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a disease of synaptic dysfunction that ultimately proceeds to neuronal death. There is a wealth of evidence that indicates the final common mediator of this neurotoxic process is the formation and actions on synaptotoxic b-amyloid (Aβ). The premise in this review is that synaptic dysfunction may also be an initiating factor in for AD and promote synaptotoxic Aβ formation. This latter hypothesis is consistent with the fact that the most common risk factors for AD, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) allele status, age, education, and fitness, encompass suboptimal synaptic function. Thus, the synaptic dysfunction in AD may be both cause and effect, and remediating synaptic dysfunction in AD may have acute effects on the symptoms present at the initiation of therapy and also slow disease progression. The cyclic nucleotide (cAMP and cGMP) signaling systems are intimately involved in the regulation of synaptic homeostasis. The phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a superfamily of enzymes that critically regulate spatial and temporal aspects of cyclic nucleotide signaling through metabolic inactivation of cAMP and cGMP. Thus, targeting the PDEs to promote improved synaptic function, or 'synaptic resilience', may be an effective and facile approach to new symptomatic and disease modifying therapies for AD. There continues to be a significant drug discovery effort aimed at discovering PDE inhibitors to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we review the current status of those efforts as they relate to potential new therapies for AD.

  12. Synaptogenic proteins and synaptic organizers: "many hands make light work".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Nils

    2009-03-12

    Synaptogenesis is thought to be mediated by cell adhesion proteins, which induce the initial contact between an axon and its target cell and subsequently recruit and organize the presynaptic and postsynaptic protein machinery required for synaptic transmission. A new study by Linhoff and colleagues in this issue of Neuron identifies adhesion proteins of the LRRTM family as novel synaptic organizers.

  13. Synaptic Tagging, Evaluation of Memories, and the Distal Reward Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, Marc; Kempter, Richard; Leibold, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity exhibits distinct phases. The synaptic tagging hypothesis suggests an early phase in which synapses are prepared, or "tagged," for protein capture, and a late phase in which those proteins are integrated into the synapses to achieve memory consolidation. The synapse specificity of the tags is consistent with…

  14. Glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic system in addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huijstee, Aile N.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2015-01-01

    Addictive drugs remodel the brain’s reward circuitry, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, by inducing widespread adaptations of glutamatergic synapses. This drug-induced synaptic plasticity is thought to contribute to both the development and the persistence of addiction. This review highlights the synaptic modifications that are induced by in vivo exposure to addictive drugs and describes how these drug-induced synaptic changes may contribute to the different components of addictive behavior, such as compulsive drug use despite negative consequences and relapse. Initially, exposure to an addictive drug induces synaptic changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This drug-induced synaptic potentiation in the VTA subsequently triggers synaptic changes in downstream areas of the mesocorticolimbic system, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with further drug exposure. These glutamatergic synaptic alterations are then thought to mediate many of the behavioral symptoms that characterize addiction. The later stages of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the NAc and in particular in the PFC play a role in maintaining addiction and drive relapse to drug-taking induced by drug-associated cues. Remodeling of PFC glutamatergic circuits can persist into adulthood, causing a lasting vulnerability to relapse. We will discuss how these neurobiological changes produced by drugs of abuse may provide novel targets for potential treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:25653591

  15. Modulation of synaptic plasticity by stress hormone associates with plastic alteration of synaptic NMDA receptor in the adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Chung Tse

    Full Text Available Stress exerts a profound impact on learning and memory, in part, through the actions of adrenal corticosterone (CORT on synaptic plasticity, a cellular model of learning and memory. Increasing findings suggest that CORT exerts its impact on synaptic plasticity by altering the functional properties of glutamate receptors, which include changes in the motility and function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype of glutamate receptor (AMPAR that are responsible for the expression of synaptic plasticity. Here we provide evidence that CORT could also regulate synaptic plasticity by modulating the function of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs, which mediate the induction of synaptic plasticity. We found that stress level CORT applied to adult rat hippocampal slices potentiated evoked NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses within 30 min. Surprisingly, following this fast-onset change, we observed a slow-onset (>1 hour after termination of CORT exposure increase in synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs. To investigate the consequences of the distinct fast- and slow-onset modulation of NMDARs for synaptic plasticity, we examined the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD within relevant time windows. Paralleling the increased NMDAR function, both LTP and LTD were facilitated during CORT treatment. However, 1-2 hours after CORT treatment when synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs is increased, bidirectional plasticity was no longer facilitated. Our findings reveal the remarkable plasticity of NMDARs in the adult hippocampus in response to CORT. CORT-mediated slow-onset increase in GluN2A in hippocampal synapses could be a homeostatic mechanism to normalize synaptic plasticity following fast-onset stress-induced facilitation.

  16. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying; Li Qinglin; Behnisch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: → I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. → I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. → I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. → Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. → Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated

  17. Nicotinic mechanisms influencing synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andon Nicholas PLACZEK; Tao A ZHANG; John Anthony DANI

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed throughout the hippocampus, and nicotinic signaling plays an important role in neuronal function. In the context of learning and memory related behaviors associated with hippocampal function, a potentially significant feature of nAChR activity is the impact it has on synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons has long been considered a contributing cellular mechanism of learning and memory. These same kinds of cellular mechanisms are a factor in the development of nicotine addiction. Nicotinic signaling has been demonstrated by in vitro studies to affect synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons via multiple steps, and the signaling has also been shown to evoke synaptic plasticity in vivo. This review focuses on the nAChRs subtypes that contribute to hippocampal synaptic plasticity at the cellular and circuit level. It also considers nicotinic influences over long-term changes in the hippocampus that may contribute to addiction.

  18. Synaptic transmission block by presynaptic injection of oligomeric amyloid beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Herman; Yu, Eunah; Pigino, Gustavo; Hernandez, Alejandro I.; Kim, Natalia; Moreira, Jorge E.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2009-01-01

    Early Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology is characterized by synaptic changes induced by degradation products of amyloid precursor protein (APP). The exact mechanisms of such modulation are unknown. Here, we report that nanomolar concentrations of intraaxonal oligomeric (o)Aβ42, but not oAβ40 or extracellular oAβ42, acutely inhibited synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse. Further characterization of this phenotype demonstrated that presynaptic calcium currents were unaffected. However, electron microscopy experiments revealed diminished docked synaptic vesicles in oAβ42-microinjected terminals, without affecting clathrin-coated vesicles. The molecular events of this modulation involved casein kinase 2 and the synaptic vesicle rapid endocytosis pathway. These findings open the possibility of a new therapeutic target aimed at ameliorating synaptic dysfunction in AD. PMID:19304802

  19. [Involvement of aquaporin-4 in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Gao, Jian-Feng

    2017-06-25

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is the predominant water channel in the central nervous system (CNS) and primarily expressed in astrocytes. Astrocytes have been generally believed to play important roles in regulating synaptic plasticity and information processing. However, the role of AQP-4 in regulating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, cognitive function is only beginning to be investigated. It is well known that synaptic plasticity is the prime candidate for mediating of learning and memory. Long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity, and they share some but not all the properties and mechanisms. Hippocampus is a part of limbic system that is particularly important in regulation of learning and memory. This article is to review some research progresses of the function of AQP-4 in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and propose the possible role of AQP-4 as a new target in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.

  20. [Inconformity between soft tissue defect and bony defect in incomplete cleft palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Ma, Lian

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the inconformity between soft tissue defect and bony defect by observing the cleft extent of palate with complete secondary palate bony cleft in incomplete cleft palate patient. The patients with incomplete cleft palate treated in Hospital of Stomatology Peking University from July 2012 to June 2013 were reviewed, of which 75 cases with complete secondary palate bony cleft were selected in this study. The CT scan and intraoral photograph were taken before operation. The patients were classified as four types according to the extent of soft tissue defect. Type 1: soft tissue defect reached incisive foremen region, Type 2 was hard and soft cleft palate, Type 3 soft cleft palate and Type 4 submucous cleft palate. Type 1 was defined as conformity group (CG). The other three types were defined as inconformity group (ICG) and divided into three subgroups (ICG-I), (ICG-II) and (ICG-III). Fifty-seven patients were in ICG group, and the rate of inconformity was 76% (57/75). The percentage of ICG-I, ICG-II and ICG-III was 47% (27/57), 23% (13/57) and 30% (17/57), respevtively. There are different types of soft tissue deformity with complete secondary palate bony cleft. The inconformity between soft tissue and hard tissue defect exits in 3/4 of isolated cleft palate patients.