WorldWideScience

Sample records for fusion produced neutrons

  1. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  2. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  3. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, K., E-mail: karol.malinowski@ncbj.gov.pl; Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in “sandwiches” of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The “sandwiches” were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  4. Experimental study of fusion neutron and proton yields produced by petawatt-laser-irradiated D2-3He or CD4-3He clustering gases

    CERN Document Server

    Bang, W; Bonasera, A; Quevedo, H J; Dyer, G; Bernstein, A C; Hagel, K; Schmidt, K; Gaul, E; Donovan, M E; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Andreoli, P; Barbarino, M; Kimura, S; Mazzocco, M; Natowitz, J B; Ditmire, T

    2013-01-01

    We report on experiments in which the Texas Petawatt laser irradiated a mixture of deuterium or deuterated methane clusters and helium-3 gas, generating three types of nuclear fusion reactions: D(d, 3He)n, D(d, t)p and 3He(d, p)4He. We measured the yields of fusion neutrons and protons from these reactions and found them to agree with yields based on a simple cylindrical plasma model using known cross sections and measured plasma parameters. Within our measurement errors, the fusion products were isotropically distributed. Plasma temperatures, important for the cross sections, were determined by two independent methods: (1) deuterium ion time-of-flight, and (2) utilizing the ratio of neutron yield to proton yield from D(d, 3He)n and 3He(d, p)4He reactions, respectively. This experiment produced the highest ion temperature ever achieved with laser-irradiated deuterium clusters.

  5. Estimates of fission barrier heights for neutron-deficient Po to Ra nuclei produced in fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagaidak Roman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section data for fission and evaporation residue production in fusion reactions leading to nuclei from Po to Ra have been considered in a systematic way in the framework of the conventional barrier-passing (fusion model coupled with the statistical model. The cross section data obtained in very asymmetric projectile-target combinations can be described within these models rather well with the adjusted model parameters. In particular, one can scale and fix the macroscopic (liquid-drop fission barrier heights (FBHs for nuclei involved in the de-excitation of compound nuclei produced in the reactions. The macroscopic FBHs for nuclei from Po to Ra have been derived in the framework of such analysis and compared with the predictions of various theoretical models.

  6. Neutron scattering effects on fusion ion temperature measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Lee (Bechtel/Nevada, Las Vegas, NV); Starner, Jason R.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Franklin, James Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Casey, Daniel T.

    2006-06-01

    To support the nuclear fusion program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), a consistent and verifiable method to determine fusion ion temperatures needs to be developed. Since the fusion temperature directly affects the width in the spread of neutron energies produced, a measurement of the neutron energy width can yield the fusion temperature. Traditionally, the spread in neutron energies is measured by using time-of-flight to convert a spread in neutron energies at the source to a spread in time at detector. One potential obstacle to using this technique at the Z facility at SNL is the need to shield the neutron detectors from the intense bremsstrahlung produced. The shielding consists of eight inches of lead and the concern is that neutrons will scatter in the lead, artificially broaden the neutron pulse width and lead to an erroneous measurement. To address this issue, experiments were performed at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics, which demonstrated that a reliable ion temperature measurement can be achieved behind eight inches of lead shielding. To further expand upon this finding, Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) was used to simulate the experimental geometric conditions and perform the neutron transport. MCNPX was able to confidently estimate results observed at the University of Rochester.

  7. Calculating fusion neutron energy spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, J.; Conroy, S.; Andersson Sundén, E.; Hellesen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Directional Relativistic Spectrum Simulator (DRESS) code can perform Monte-Carlo calculations of reaction product spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions, using fully relativistic kinematics. The code is set up to calculate energy spectra from neutrons and alpha particles produced in the D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He fusion reactions, but any two-body reaction can be simulated by including the corresponding cross section. The code has been thoroughly tested. The kinematics calculations have been benchmarked against the kinematics module of the ROOT Data Analysis Framework. Calculated neutron energy spectra have been validated against tabulated fusion reactivities and against an exact analytical expression for the thermonuclear fusion neutron spectrum, with good agreement. The DRESS code will be used as the core of a detailed synthetic diagnostic framework for neutron measurements at the JET and MAST tokamaks.

  8. Measurements of fusion neutrons from Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion Experiments on the Z accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, K. D.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Harding, E. C.; Awe, T. J.; Torres, J. A.; Jones, B.; Bur, J. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Styron, J. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    Strong evidence of thermonuclear neutron production has been observed during Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments on the Z accelerator. So far, these experiments have utilized deuterium fuel and produced primary DD fusion neutron yields up to 2e12 with electron and ion stagnation temperatures in the 2-3 keV range. We present MagLIF neutron measurements and compare to other data and implosion simulations. In addition to primary DD and secondary DT yields and ion temperatures, other complex physics regarding the degree of fuel magnetization and liner density are elucidated by the neutron measurements. Neutron diagnostic development for deuterium and future deuterium-tritium fuel experiments are also discussed. Sandia is sponsored by the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Fusion Neutron Flux Monitor for ITER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jinwei; YANG Qingwei; XIAO Gongshan; ZHANG Wei; SONG Xianying; LI Xu

    2008-01-01

    Neutron flux monitor (NFM) as an important diagnostic sub-system in ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) provides a global neutron source intensity, fusion power and neutron flux in real time. Three types of neutron flux monitor assemblies with different sensitivities and shielding materials have been designed. Through MCNP (Mante-Carlo neutral particle transport code) calculations, this extended system of NFM can detect the neutron flux in a range of 104 n/(cm2·s) to 1014 n/(cm2·s). It is capable of providing accurate neutron yield measurements for all operational modes encountered in the ITER experiments including the in-situ calibration. Combining both the counting mode and Campbelling (MSV; Mean Square Voltage) mode in the signal processing units, the requirement of the dynamic range (107) for these NFMs and time resolution (1 ms) can be met. Based on a uncertainty analysis, the estimated absolute measurement accuracies of the total fusion neutron yield can reach the required 10% level in both the early stage of the DD-phase and the full power DT operation mode. In the advanced DD-phase, the absolute measurement accuracy would be better than 20%.

  10. Fusion Enhancement for Neutron-Rich Light Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Varinderjit; Steinbach, T K; Hudan, S; deSouza, R T; Baby, L T; Kuvin, S A; Tripathi, V; Wiedenhover, I

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the fusion cross-section for neutron-rich light nuclei is crucial in ascertaining if fusion of these nuclei occurs in the outer crust of a neutron star. The fusion excitation function at near-barrier energies for the $^{19}$O + $^{12}$C system was measured and the experimental results are compared to the fusion excitation function of $^{18}$O + $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O + $^{12}$C. The experiment was performed by utilizing a beam of $^{19}$O, produced via the $^{18}$O(d,p) reaction, to bombard a $^{12}$C target at energies near the Coulomb barrier. Evaporation residues produced in fusion of $^{18,19}$O ions with $^{12}$C target nuclei were detected with good geometric efficiency and identified by measuring their energy and time-of-flight. A significant enhancement is observed in the fusion probability of $^{19}$O ions with a $^{12}$C target as compared to $^{18}$O ions. The larger cross-sections observed at near barrier energies is related to significant narrowing of the fusion barrier indicating a...

  11. Fusion neutron diagnostics on ITER tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertalot, L.; Barnsley, R.; Direz, M. F.; Drevon, J. M.; Encheva, A.; Jakhar, S.; Kashchuk, Y.; Patel, K. M.; Arumugam, A. P.; Udintsev, V.; Walker, C.; Walsh, M.

    2012-04-01

    ITER is an experimental nuclear reactor, aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear fusion realization in order to use it as a new source of energy. ITER is a plasma device (tokamak type) which will be equipped with a set of plasma diagnostic tools to satisfy three key requirements: machine protection, plasma control and physics studies by measuring about 100 different parameters. ITER diagnostic equipment is integrated in several ports at upper, equatorial and divertor levels as well internally in many vacuum vessel locations. The Diagnostic Systems will be procured from ITER Members (Japan, Russia, India, United States, Japan, Korea and European Union) mainly with the supporting structures in the ports. The various diagnostics will be challenged by high nuclear radiation and electromagnetic fields as well by severe environmental conditions (ultra high vacuum, high thermal loads). Several neutron systems with different sensitivities are foreseen to measure ITER expected neutron emission from 1014 up to almost 1021 n/s. The measurement of total neutron emissivity is performed by means of Neutron Flux Monitors (NFM) installed in diagnostic ports and by Divertor Neutron Flux Monitors (DNFM) plus MicroFission Chambers (MFC) located inside the vacuum vessel. The neutron emission profile is measured with radial and vertical neutron cameras. Spectroscopy is accomplished with spectrometers looking particularly at 2.5 and 14 MeV neutron energy. Neutron Activation System (NAS), with irradiation ends inside the vacuum vessel, provide neutron yield data. A calibration strategy of the neutron diagnostics has been developed foreseeing in situ and cross calibration campaigns. An overview of ITER neutron diagnostic systems and of the associated challenging engineering and integration issues will be reported.

  12. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by ...

  13. Production of Medical isotope Technecium-99 from DT Fusion neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguski, John; Gentile, Charles; Ascione, George

    2011-10-01

    High energy neutrons produced in DT fusion reactors have a secondary application for use in the synthesis of valuable man-made isotopes utilized in industry today. One such isotope is metastable Technecium-99 (Tc99m), a low energy gamma emitter used in ~ 85% of all medical imaging diagnostics. Tc99m is created through beta decay of Molybdenum-99 (Mo99), which itself has only a 66 hour half-life and must be created from a neutron capture by the widely available and stable isotope Molydenum-98. Current worldwide production of Tc99m occurs in just five locations and relies on obtaining the fission byproduct Mo99 from highly enriched Uranium reactors. A Tc99m generator using DT fusion neutrons, however, could potentially be operated at individual hospitals and medical facilities without the use of any fissile material. The neutron interaction of the DT neutrons with Molybdenum in a potential device geometry was modeled using Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP. Trial experiments were also performed to test the viability of using DT neutrons to create ample quantities of Tc99m. Modeling and test results will follow.

  14. Advanced Scintillator Detectors for Neutron Imaging in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert-Kleinrath, Verena; Danly, Christopher; Merrill, Frank; Simpson, Raspberry; Volegov, Petr; Wilde, Carl

    2016-10-01

    The neutron imaging team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been providing two-dimensional neutron imaging of the inertial confinement fusion process at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for over five years. Neutron imaging is a powerful tool in which position-sensitive detectors register neutrons emitted in the fusion reactions, producing a picture of the burning fuel. Recent images have revealed possible multi-dimensional asymmetries, calling for additional views to facilitate three-dimensional imaging. These will be along shorter lines of sight to stay within the existing facility at NIF. In order to field imaging capabilities equivalent to the existing system several technological challenges have to be met: high spatial resolution, high light output, and fast scintillator response to capture lower-energy neutrons, which have scattered from non-burning regions of fuel. Deuterated scintillators are a promising candidate to achieve the timing and resolution required; a systematic study of deuterated and non-deuterated polystyrene and liquid samples is currently ongoing. A test stand has been implemented to measure the response function, and preliminary data on resolution and light output have been obtained at the LANL Weapons Neutrons Research facility.

  15. The New Sorgentina Fusion Source-NSFS: 14 MeV neutrons for fusion and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Console Camprini, P.; Agostini, P.; Amendola, R.; Angelone, M.; Bernardi, D.; Bruni, F.; Capogni, M.; Colognesi, D.; Faccini, R.; Filabozzi, A.; Flammini, D.; Fiori, F.; Frisoni, M.; Grazzi, F.; Pillon, M.; Pizzuto, A.; Quintieri, L.; Sacchetti, F.; Valente, P.

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the design for the realization of an intense 14 MeV neutron facility devoted to test and validate materials suitable for harsh neutron environments, such as a fusion reactor, is well established. The “New Sorgentina” Fusion Source (NSFS) is a project that proposes an intense D-T 14 MeV neutron source achievable with T and D ion beams impinging on 2 m radius rotating targets. NSFS may produce about 1015 n/s at the target and has to be intended as an European facility that maybe realized in a few years, once provided a preliminary technological program devoted to the operation of the ion source in continuous mode, target heat loading/removal, target and tritium handling, inventor as well as site licensing. In this contribution, the main characteristics of NSFS project will be presented and its possible use as a multipurpose facility outlined.

  16. Effect of Fusion Neutron Source Numerical Models on Neutron Wall Loading in a D-D Tokamak Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义学; 吴宜灿

    2003-01-01

    Effect of various spatial and energy distributions of fusion neutron source on the calculation of neutron wall loading of Tokamak D-D fusion device has been investigated by means of the 3-D Monte Carlo code MCNP. A realistic Monte Carlo source model was developed based on the accurate representation of the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of fusion neutrons to solve the complicated problem of tokamak fusion neutron source modelling. The results show that those simplified source models will introduce significant uncertainties. For accurate estimation of the key nuclear responses of the tokamak design and analyses, the use of the realistic source is recommended. In addition, the accumulation of tritium produced during D-D plasma operation should be carefully considered.

  17. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyev, S. S.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion-fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m3Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  18. Neutrons produced by muons at 25 mwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragić, A.; Aničin, I.; Banjanac, R.; Udovičić, V.; Joković, D.; Maletić, D.; Savić, M.; Veselinović, N.; Puzović, J.

    2013-02-01

    The flux of fast neutrons produced by CR muons in lead at the depth of 25 mwe is measured. Lead is a common shielding material and neutrons produced in it in muon interactions are unavoidable background component, even in sensitive deep underground experiments. A low background gamma spectrometer, equipped with high purity Ge detector in coincidence with muon detector is used for this purpose. Neutrons are identified by the structure at 692 KeV in the spectrum of delayed coincidences, caused by the neutron inelastic scattering on Ge-72 isotope. Preliminary result for the fast neutron rate is 3.1(5) × 10--4n/cm2 · s.

  19. From the similarities between neutrons and radon to advanced radon-detection and improved cold fusion neutron-measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, L.; Espinosa, G.

    2014-07-01

    Neutrons and radon are both ubiquitous in the earth's crust. The neutrons of terrestrial origin are strongly related to radon since they originate mainly from the interactions between the alpha particles from the decays of radioactive-gas (namely Radon and Thoron) and the light nuclei. Since the early studies in the field of neutrons, the radon gas was used to produce neutrons by (α, n) reactions in beryllium. Another important similarity between radon and neutrons is that they can be detected only through the radiations produced respectively by decays or by nuclear reactions. These charged particles from the two distinct nuclear processes are often the same (namely alpha-particles). A typical neutron detector is based on a radiator facing a alpha-particle detector, such as in the case of a neutron film badge. Based on the similarity between neutrons and radon, a film badge for radon has been recently proposed. The radon film badge, in addition to be similar, may be even identical to the neutron film badge. For these reasons, neutron measurements can be easily affected by the presence of unpredictable large radon concentration. In several cold fusion experiments, the CR-39 plastic films (typically used in radon and neutron film-badges), have been the detectors of choice for measuring neutrons. In this paper, attempts will be made to prove that most of these neutron-measurements might have been affected by the presence of large radon concentrations.

  20. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananyev, S. S., E-mail: Ananyev-SS@nrcki.ru; Spitsyn, A. V., E-mail: spitsyn-av@nrcki.ru; Kuteev, B. V., E-mail: Kuteev-BV@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion–fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium–tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m{sup 3}Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium–tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  1. Fast Neutron Detector for Fusion Reactor KSTAR Using Stilbene Scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Gi-Dong; Kim, Yong-Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Various neutron diagnostic tools are used in fusion reactors to evaluate different aspects of plasma performance, such as fusion power, power density, ion temperature, fast ion energy, and their spatial distributions. The stilbene scintillator has been proposed for use as a neutron diagnostic system to measure the characteristics of neutrons from the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) fusion reactor. Specially designed electronics are necessary to measure fast neutron spectra with high radiation from a gamma-ray background. The signals from neutrons and gamma-rays are discriminated by the digital charge pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method, which uses total to partial charge ratio analysis. The signals are digitized by a flash analog-to-digital convertor (FADC). To evaluate the performance of the fabricated stilbene neutron diagnostic system, the efficiency of 10 mm soft-iron magnetic shielding and the detection efficiency of fast neutrons were tested experimentally using a 252Cf neutr...

  2. A Fusion Neutron Source Driven Sub-Critical Nuclear Energy System: A Way for Early Application of Fusion Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宜灿

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a sub-critical nuclear energy system driven by fusion neutron source, FDS, which can be used to transmute long-lived radioactive wastes and to produce fissile nuclear fuel as a way for early application of fusion technology. The necessity and feasibility to develop that system in China are illustrated on the basis of prediction of the demand of energy source in the first half of the 21th century, the status of current fission energy supply and the progress in fusion technology in the vorld. The characteristics of fusion neutron driver and the potential for transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes and breeding of fissile nuclear fuel in a blanket are analyzed. A scenario of development steps is proposed.``

  3. The measurement of neutron and neutron induced photon spectra in fusion reactor related assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Unholzer, S; Klein, H; Seidel, K

    2002-01-01

    The spectral neutron and photon fluence (or flux) measured outside and inside of assemblies related to fusion reactor constructions are basic quantities of fusion neutronics. The comparison of measured spectra with the results of MCNP neutron and photon transport calculations allows a crucial test of evaluated nuclear data as generally used in fusion applications to be carried out. The experiments concern mixed neutron/photon fields with about the same intensity of the two components. An NE-213 scintillation spectrometer, well described by response matrices for both neutrons and photons, is used as proton-recoil and Compton spectrometer. The experiments described here in more detail address the background problematic of two applications, an iron benchmark experiment with an ns-pulsed neutron source and a deep penetration mock-up experiment for the investigation of the ITER in-board shield system. The measured spectral neutron and photon fluences are compared with spectra calculated with the MCNP code on the b...

  4. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  5. Enhancement of fusion at near and sub-barrier energies for neutron-rich light nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Varinderjit; Steinbach, T K; Wiggins, B B; Hudan, S; Lin, R T deSouza Zidu; Horowitz, C J; Baby, L T; Kuvin, S A; Tripathi, Vandana; Wiedenhover, I

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the fusion cross-section for neutron-rich light nuclei is crucial in ascertaining if fusion of these nuclei occurs in the outer crust of a neutron star. We have therefore measured the fusion excitation function at near-barrier energies for the 19O + 12C system and compared the experimental results with the fusion excitation function of 18O + 12C and 16O + 12C. In the experiment a beam of 19O, produced via the 18O(d,p) reaction, was incident on a 12C target at energies near the Coulomb barrier. Evaporation residues produced in fusion of 18,19O ions with 12C target nuclei were detected with good geometric efficiency and identified by measuring their energy and time-of-flight. A significant enhancement in the fusion probability of 19O ions with a 12C target as compared to 18O ions is observed. The significantly larger cross-sections observed at near barrier energies are not predicted by a static model of fusion for 19O + 12C indicating that dynamics play an important role in the fusion of neutron-...

  6. Neutron Generation by Laser-Driven Spherically Convergent Plasma Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, G.; Yan, J.; Liu, J.; Lan, K.; Chen, Y. H.; Huo, W. Y.; Fan, Z.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, J.; Chen, Z.; Jiang, W.; Chen, L.; Tang, Q.; Yuan, Z.; Wang, F.; Jiang, S.; Ding, Y.; Zhang, W.; He, X. T.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate a new laser-driven spherically convergent plasma fusion scheme (SCPF) that can produce thermonuclear neutrons stably and efficiently. In the SCPF scheme, laser beams of nanosecond pulse duration and 1 014- 1 015 W /cm2 intensity uniformly irradiate the fuel layer lined inside a spherical hohlraum. The fuel layer is ablated and heated to expand inwards. Eventually, the hot fuel plasmas converge, collide, merge, and stagnate at the central region, converting most of their kinetic energy to internal energy, forming a thermonuclear fusion fireball. With the assumptions of steady ablation and adiabatic expansion, we theoretically predict the neutron yield Yn to be related to the laser energy EL, the hohlraum radius Rh, and the pulse duration τ through a scaling law of Yn∝(EL/Rh1.2τ0.2 )2.5. We have done experiments at the ShengGuangIII-prototype facility to demonstrate the principle of the SCPF scheme. Some important implications are discussed.

  7. Spin-off produced by the fusion research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Koichi; Konishi, Satoshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    Nuclear fusion devices are constructed by the integration of many frontier technologies and fusion science based on a wide area of science such as physics, electromagnetics, thermodynamics, mechanics, electrical engineering, electronics, material engineering, heat transfer and heat flow, thermal engineering, neutronics, cryogenics, chemical engineering, control engineering, instrumentation engineering, vacuum engineering. For this, the research and development of elementary technology for fusion devices contributes to advance the technology level of each basic field. In addition, the mutual stimulus among various research fields contributes to increase the potential level of whole 'science and technology'. The spin-offs produced by the fusion technology development give much contribution not only to the general industrial technologies such as semiconductor technology, precision machining of large component, but also contribute to the progress of the accelerator technology, application technology of superconductivity, instrumentation and diagnostics, plasma application technology, heat-resistant and heavy radiation-resistant material technology, vacuum technology, and computer simulation technology. The spin-off produced by the fusion technology development expedite the development of frontier technology of other field and give much contribution to the progress of basic science on physics, space science, material science, medical science, communication, and environment. This report describes the current status of the spin-off effects of fusion research and development by focusing on the contribution of technology development for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) to industrial technology. The possibilities of future application in the future are also included in this report from the view point of researchers working for nuclear fusion development. Although the nuclear fusion research has a characteristic to integrate the frontier

  8. Fusion-neutron measurements for magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on the Z accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, K. D.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Cooper, G. W.; Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Geissel, M.; Rovang, D. C.; Torres, J. A.; Bur, J. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Glebov, V. Yu; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Herrman, M. C.; Hess, M. H.; Johns, O.; Jones, B.; Lamppa, D. C.; Lash, J. S.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reneker, J.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Savage, M. E.; Smith, I. C.; Styron, J. D.; Vesey, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    Several magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) experiments have been conducted on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories since late 2013. Measurements of the primary DD (2.45 MeV) neutrons for these experiments suggest that the neutron production is thermonuclear. Primary DD yields up to 3e12 with ion temperatures ∼2-3 keV have been achieved. Measurements of the secondary DT (14 MeV) neutrons indicate that the fuel is significantly magnetized. Measurements of down-scattered neutrons from the beryllium liner suggest ρRliner∼1g/cm2. Neutron bang times, estimated from neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) measurements, coincide with peak x-ray production. Plans to improve and expand the Z neutron diagnostic suite include neutron burn-history diagnostics, increased sensitivity and higher precision nTOF detectors, and neutron recoil-based yield and spectral measurements.

  9. Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, M R; Nguyen-Manh, D; Zheng, S; Packer, L W; Sublet, J -Ch

    2013-01-01

    In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the "next-step" fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant co...

  10. Upgrade of the IGN-14 neutron generator for research on detection of fusion-plasma products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igielski, Andrzej; Kurowski, Arkadiusz; Janik, Władysław; Gabańska, Barbara; Woźnicka, Urszula, E-mail: Urszula.Woznicka@ifj.edu.pl

    2015-10-11

    The fast neutron generator (IGN-14) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Kraków (Poland) is a laboratory multi-purpose experimental device. Neutrons are produced in a beam-target D–D or D–T reactions. A new vacuum chamber installed directly to the end of the ion guide of IGN-14 makes it possible to measure not only neutrons but also alpha particles in the presence of a mixed radiation field of other accompanying reaction products. The new experimental setup allows test detectors dedicated to spectrometric measurements of thermonuclear fusion reaction products. - Highlights: • Nuclear reactions at the target correspond to the fusion reaction in hot plasma. • Measuring vacuum chamber has been built and installed. • Spatial distribution of the particle mixed fields in chamber was calculated. • New experimental setup for tests of detectors dedicated to measure of fusion reaction products.

  11. Diagnostic of fusion neutrons on JET tokamak using diamond detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsev, G.; Amosov, V.; Marchenko, N.; Meshchaninov, S.; Rodionov, R.; Popovichev, S.; JET EFDA contributors

    2014-08-01

    In 2011-2012, an experimental campaign with a significant yield of fusion neutrons was carried out on the JET tokamak. During this campaign the facility was equipped with two diamond detectors based on natural and artificial CVD diamond. These detectors were designed and manufactured in State Research Center of Russian Federation TRINITI. The detectors measure the flux of fast neutrons with energies above 0.2 MeV. They have been installed in the torus hall and the distance from the center of plasma was about 3 m. For some of the JET pulses in this experiment, the neutron flux density corresponded to the operational conditions in collimator channels of ITER Vertical Neutron Camera. The main objective of diamond monitors was the measurement of total fast neutron flux at the detector location and the estimation of the JET total neutron yield. The detectors operate as threshold counters. Additionally a spectrometric measurement channel has been configured that allowed us to distinguish various energy components of the neutron spectrum. In this paper we describe the neutron signal measuring and calibration procedure of the diamond detector. Fluxes of DD and DT neutrons at the detector location were measured. It is shown that the signals of total neutron yield measured by the diamond detector correlate with signals measured by the main JET neutron diagnostic based on fission chambers with high accuracy. This experiment can be considered as a successful test of diamond detectors in ITER-like conditions.

  12. Concept of DT fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan' ev, S.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Kuteev, B.V.; Cherkez, D.I. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shirnin, P.N.; Kazakovsky, N.T. [FSUE RFNC - VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    A concept of DT-fusion neutron source (FNS) with the neutron yield higher than 10{sup 18} neutrons per second is under design in Russia. Such a FNS is of interest for many applications: 1) basic and applied research (neutron scattering, etc); 2) testing the structural materials for fusion reactors; 3) control of sub-critical nuclear systems and 4) nuclear waste processing (including transmutation of minor actinides). This paper describes the fuel cycle concept of a compact fusion neutron source based on a small spherical tokamak (FNS-ST) with a MW range of DT fusion power and considers the key physics issues of this device. The major and minor radii are ∼0.5 and ∼0.3 m, magnetic field ∼1.5 T, heating power less than 15 MW and plasma current 1-2 MA. The system provides the fuel mixture with equal fractions of D and T (D:T = 1:1) for all FNS technology systems. (authors)

  13. Neutronic predesign tool for fusion power reactors system assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaboulay, J.-C., E-mail: jean-charles.jaboulay@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Li Puma, A. [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martínez Arroyo, J. [ETSEIB, Internship in CEA (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    SYCOMORE, a fusion reactor system code based on a modular approach, is under development at CEA. In this framework, this paper describes a methodology developed to build the neutronic module of SYCOMORE. This neutronic module aims to evaluate main neutronic parameters characterising a fusion reactor (tokamak): tritium breeding ratio, multiplication factor, nuclear heating as a function of the reactor main geometrical parameters (major radius, elongation, etc.), of the radial build, Li enrichment, blanket and shield thickness, etc. It is based on calculations carried out with APOLLO2 and TRIPOLI-4 CEA transport code on simplified 1D and 2D neutronic models. These models are validated versus a more detailed 3D Monte-Carlo model (using TRIPOLI-4). To ease the integration of this neutronic module in SYCOMORE and provide results instantly, a surrogate model that replicates the 1D and 2D neutronic model results was used. Among the different surrogate models types (polynomial interpolation, responses functions, interpolating by Kriging, artificial neural network, etc.) the neural networks were selected for their efficiency and flexibility. The methodology described in this paper to build SYCOMORE neutronic module is devoted to HCLL blanket, but it could be applied to any breeder blanket concept provided that appropriate validation could be carried out.

  14. Inference of total DT fusion neutron yield from prompt gamma-ray measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, J. A.; Herrmann, H. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Sayre, D.

    2014-10-01

    Prompt D-T fusion gamma-rays measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with the Gamma-ray Reaction History detector (GRH) have been used recently to infer the total DT fusion neutron yield of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. DT fusion produces energetic gamma-rays (16.75 MeV) with a small branching ratio of approximately (4.2 +/- 2.0)e-5 γ/n. While the large error bar precludes use of the branching ratio for an accurate yield determination, the gamma-rays themselves provide the most unperturbed measure of fusion burn and can be used for such a purpose. A cross-calibration for the DT fusion gamma-ray to neutron signal is obtained via low areal density exploding pusher implosions which have mostly unperturbed neutron and gamma-ray signals. The calibration is then used to infer total DT neutron yield from gamma-ray measurements on high areal-density, cryogenically layered implosions in which neutrons are heavily down-scattered (up to 30%). Furthermore, the difference between the gamma-ray inferred total DT yield and the primary neutron yield (unscattered neutrons) can be used to estimate the total down-scatter fraction. Error analysis and comparison of yield values will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL-ABS-657694.

  15. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  16. Basics of Fusion-Fissison Research Facility (FFRF) as a Fusion Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2011-06-03

    FFRF, standing for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility represents an option for the next step project of ASIPP (Hefei, China) aiming to a first fusion-fission multifunctional device [1]. FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China. With R/a=4/1m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50- 100 MW, Pfission=80-4000MW, 1 m thick blanket, FFRF has a unique fusion mission of a stationary fusion neutron source. Its pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission consists in accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications.

  17. Fusion of neutron rich oxygen isotopes in the crust of accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2007-01-01

    Fusion reactions in the crust of an accreting neutron star are an important source of heat, and the depth at which these reactions occur is important for determining the temperature profile of the star. Fusion reactions depend strongly on the nuclear charge $Z$. Nuclei with $Z\\le 6$ can fuse at low densities in a liquid ocean. However, nuclei with $Z=8$ or 10 may not burn until higher densities where the crust is solid and electron capture has made the nuclei neutron rich. We calculate the $S$ factor for fusion reactions of neutron rich nuclei including $^{24}$O + $^{24}$O and $^{28}$Ne + $^{28}$Ne. We use a simple barrier penetration model. The $S$ factor could be further enhanced by dynamical effects involving the neutron rich skin. This possible enhancement in $S$ should be studied in the laboratory with neutron rich radioactive beams. We model the structure of the crust with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the crust of accreting neutron stars may contain micro-crystals or regions of phase sep...

  18. Fusion Based Neutron Sources for Security Applications: Energy Optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, S.; Seviour, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of neutrons for na- tional security. The majority of work on security focuses on the use of either sealed tube DT fusors or fission sources, e.g. Cf-252. Fusion reactions enable the energy of the neu- tron beam to be chosen to suit the application, rather than the application being chosen based on the available neu- tron beam energy. In this paper we discuss simulations of fusion reactions demonstrating the broad range of energies available and methods f...

  19. Analysis of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatarik, R., E-mail: hatarik1@llnl.gov; Sayre, D. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Phillips, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Cerjan, C.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Mcnaney, J. M.; Munro, D. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Knauer, J. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    Neutron time-of-flight diagnostics have long been used to characterize the neutron spectrum produced by inertial confinement fusion experiments. The primary diagnostic goals are to extract the d + t → n + α (DT) and d + d → n + {sup 3}He (DD) neutron yields and peak widths, and the amount DT scattering relative to its unscattered yield, also known as the down-scatter ratio (DSR). These quantities are used to infer yield weighted plasma conditions, such as ion temperature (T{sub ion}) and cold fuel areal density. We report on novel methodologies used to determine neutron yield, apparent T{sub ion}, and DSR. These methods invoke a single temperature, static fluid model to describe the neutron peaks from DD and DT reactions and a spline description of the DT spectrum to determine the DSR. Both measurements are performed using a forward modeling technique that includes corrections for line-of-sight attenuation and impulse response of the detection system. These methods produce typical uncertainties for DT T{sub ion} of 250 eV, 7% for DSR, and 9% for the DT neutron yield. For the DD values, the uncertainties are 290 eV for T{sub ion} and 10% for the neutron yield.

  20. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  1. Novel Hydrophobin Fusion Tags for Plant-Produced Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritala, Anneli; Linder, Markus; Joensuu, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobin fusion technology has been applied in the expression of several recombinant proteins in plants. Until now, the technology has relied exclusively on the Trichoderma reesei hydrophobin HFBI. We screened eight novel hydrophobin tags, T. reesei HFBII, HFBIII, HFBIV, HFBV, HFBVI and Fusarium verticillioides derived HYD3, HYD4 and HYD5, for production of fusion proteins in plants and purification by two-phase separation. To study the properties of the hydrophobins, we used N-terminal and C-terminal GFP as a fusion partner. Transient expression of the hydrophobin fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed large variability in accumulation levels, which was also reflected in formation of protein bodies. In two-phase separations, only HFBII and HFBIV were able to concentrate GFP into the surfactant phase from a plant extract. The separation efficiency of both tags was comparable to HFBI. When the accumulation was tested side by side, HFBII-GFP gave a better yield than HFBI-GFP, while the yield of HFBIV-GFP remained lower. Thus we present here two alternatives for HFBI as functional fusion tags for plant-based protein production and first step purification. PMID:27706254

  2. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  3. Neutron flux assessment of a neutron irradiation facility based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztejnberg Gonçalves-Carralves, M L; Miller, M E

    2015-12-01

    Neutron generators based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion were considered for the design of a neutron irradiation facility for explanted organ Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) that could be installed in a health care center as well as in research areas. The chosen facility configuration is "irradiation chamber", a ~20×20×40 cm(3) cavity near or in the center of the facility geometry where samples to be irradiated can be placed. Neutron flux calculations were performed to study different manners for improving scattering processes and, consequently, optimize neutron flux in the irradiation position. Flux distributions were assessed through numerical simulations of several models implemented in MCNP5 particle transport code. Simulation results provided a wide spectrum of combinations of net fluxes and energy spectrum distributions. Among them one can find a group that can provide thermal neutron fluxes per unit of production rate in a range from 4.1·10(-4) cm(-2) to 1.6·10(-3) cm(-2) with epithermal-to-thermal ratios between 0.3% and 13% and fast-to-thermal ratios between 0.01% to 8%. Neutron generators could be built to provide more than 10(10) n s(-1) and, consequently, with an arrangement of several generators appropriate enough neutron fluxes could be obtained that would be useful for several BNCT-related irradiations and, eventually, for clinical practice.

  4. Low-background detection of fission neutrons produced by pulsed neutron interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Flammang, Robert W.; Seidel, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements designed to detect shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) have been carried out using a pulsed 8.5-MeV neutron source. Fission-neutron counts were detected as a function of time in the intervals between 100-μs neutron bursts at burst frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. The pulse timing sequences were chosen to optimize detection of fission neutrons produced by thermal-neutron-induced fission in the SNM. Fission neutrons were detected directly as proton, carbon, and silicon recoils in silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor fast neutron detectors. SiC detectors recorded neutron counts during and immediately following the source neutron bursts, allowing detection of fission neutrons with short (120 μs) die-away times. The SiC detectors demonstrated excellent background discrimination with more than 2000 neutron counts observed in time intervals where zero background counts were detected.

  5. A neutron study of the feline leukaemia virus fusion peptide: Implications for biological fusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah M. A.; Darkes, Malcolm J. M.; Bradshaw, Jeremy P.

    Neutron diffraction studies were performed on stacked phospholipid bilayers to determine the effects of the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) fusion peptide on membrane structure. Bilayers were composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine with 50% (mol) dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol. Neutron scattering profiles with peptide present showed an increase in scattering density in the lipid-tails region, whilst scattering by the lipid headgroup region was decreased. This is interpreted as a lowering of the packing density of the lipid headgroups and an increase in the packing density of the lipid tails. Modelling studies and experimental evidence have suggested that fusion peptides catalyse fusion by increasing the negative curvature of the target membrane's outer monolayer. Our results presented here add support to this hypothesis for the fusion mechanism. The 2H 2O scattering profile was also slightly perturbed in the lipid headgroup region with 1% (mol)FeLV fusion peptide present. The FeLV peptide had no significant effect on the organisation of bilayers containing only dioleoylphosphatidylcholine.

  6. Measurements of fusion neutron yields by neutron activation technique: Uncertainty due to the uncertainty on activation cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunas, Gediminas, E-mail: gediminas.stankunas@lei.lt [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-11

    The neutron activation technique is routinely used in fusion experiments to measure the neutron yields. This paper investigates the uncertainty on these measurements as due to the uncertainties on dosimetry and activation reactions. For this purpose, activation cross-sections were taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF-v1.05) in 640 groups ENDF-6 format for several reactions of interest for both 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons. Activation coefficients (reaction rates) have been calculated using the neutron flux spectra at JET vacuum vessel, both for DD and DT plasmas, calculated by MCNP in the required 640-energy group format. The related uncertainties for the JET neutron spectra are evaluated as well using the covariance data available in the library. These uncertainties are in general small, but not negligible when high accuracy is required in the determination of the fusion neutron yields.

  7. Axial Neutron Flux Evaluation in a Tokamak System: a Possible Transmutation Blanket Position for a Fusion-Fission Transmutation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; de P. Barros, Graiciany; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini Veloso, Maria A.; Costa, Antonella L.

    2012-08-01

    A sub-critical advanced reactor based on Tokamak technology with a D-T fusion neutron source is an innovative type of nuclear system. Due to the large number of neutrons produced by fusion reactions, such a system could be useful in the transmutation process of transuranic elements (Pu and minor actinides (MAs)). However, to enhance the MA transmutation efficiency, it is necessary to have a large neutron wall loading (high neutron fluence) with a broad energy spectrum in the fast neutron energy region. Therefore, it is necessary to know and define the neutron fluence along the radial axis and its characteristics. In this work, the neutron flux and the interaction frequency along the radial axis are evaluated for various materials used to build the first wall. W alloy, beryllium, and the combination of both were studied, and the regions more suitable to transmutation were determined. The results demonstrated that the best zone in which to place a transmutation blanket is limited by the heat sink and the shield block. Material arrangements of W alloy/W alloy and W alloy/beryllium would be able to meet the requirements of the high fluence and hard spectrum that are needed for transuranic transmutation. The system was simulated using the MCNP code, data from the ITER Final Design Report, 2001, and the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/MC-2.1 nuclear data library.

  8. Complete isotopic distributions of fragments produced in transfer- and fusion-induced reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaune O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two fission experiments have been performed at GANIL using 238U beams at different energies and light targets. Different fissioning systems were produced with centre of mass energies from 10 to 240 MeV and their decay by fission was investigated with GANIL spectrometers. Fission-fragment isotopic distributions have been obtained. The evolution with impinging energy of their properties, the neutron excess and the width of the neutron-number distributions, gives important insights into the dynamics of the fusion-fission mechanism.

  9. Fusion proteins useful for producing pinene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous pinene synthase (PS), or enzymatically active fragment or variant thereof, and optionally a geranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GPPS), or enzymatically active fragment or variant thereof, or a fusion protein comprising: (a) a PS and (b) a GPPS linked by a linker.

  10. Effect of neutron transfer in the fusion process near and below the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachkov, V. A.; Adel, A.; Karpov, A. V.; Denikin, A. S.; Zagrebaev, V. I. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation) and International University ' Dubna' , Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-20

    Near-barrier and sub-barrier fusion of weakly bound neutron-rich isotopes of lithium is explored within the empirical channel coupling model. Several combinations of colliding nuclei are proposed, for which strong enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion is predicted owing to coupling with neutron transfer channels.

  11. Neutron and photon transport calculations in fusion system. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    On the application of MCNP to the neutron and {gamma}-ray transport calculations for fusion reactor system, the wide range design calculation has been carried out in the engineering design activities for the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER) being developed jointly by Japan, USA, EU and Russia. As the objects of shielding calculation for fusion reactors, there are the assessment of dose equivalent rate for living body shielding and the assessment of the nuclear response for the soundness of in-core structures. In the case that the detailed analysis of complicated three-dimensional shapes is required, the assessment using MCNP has been carried out. Also when the nuclear response of peripheral equipment due to the gap streaming between blanket modules is evaluated with good accuracy, the calculation with MCNP has been carried out. The analyses of the shieldings for blanket modules and NBI port are explained, and the examples of the results of analyses are shown. In the blanket modules, there are penetrating holes and continuous gap. In the case of the NBI port, shielding plug cannot be installed. These facts necessitate the MCNP analysis with high accuracy. (K.I.)

  12. Swelling of nuclei embedded in neutron-gas and consequences for fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Umar, A S; Horowitz, C J; Reinhard, P -G; Maruhn, J A

    2015-01-01

    Fusion of very neutron rich nuclei may be important to determine the composition and heating of the crust of accreting neutron stars. We present an exploratory study of the effect of the neutron-gas environment on the structure of nuclei and the consequences for pycnonuclear fusion cross-sections in the neutron drip region. We studied the formation and properties of Oxygen and Calcium isotopes embedded in varying neutron-gas densities. We observe that the formed isotope is the drip-line nucleus for the given effective interaction. Increasing the neutron-gas density leads to the swelling of the nuclear density. We have used these densities to study the effect of this swelling on the fusion cross-sections using the S\\~{a}o-Paulo potential. At high neutron-gas densities the cross-section is substantially increased but at lower densities the modification is minimal.

  13. Calibration of the neutron detectors for the cluster fusion experiment on the Texas Petawatt Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, W.; Quevedo, H. J.; Dyer, G.; Rougk, J.; Kim, I.; McCormick, M.; Bernstein, A. C.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Three types of neutron detectors (plastic scintillation detectors, indium activation detectors, and CR-39 track detectors) were calibrated for the measurement of 2.45 MeV DD fusion neutron yields from the deuterium cluster fusion experiment on the Texas Petawatt Laser. A Cf-252 neutron source and 2.45 MeV fusion neutrons generated from laser-cluster interaction were used as neutron sources. The scintillation detectors were calibrated such that they can detect up to 10{sup 8} DD fusion neutrons per shot in current mode under high electromagnetic pulse environments. Indium activation detectors successfully measured neutron yields as low as 10{sup 4} per shot and up to 10{sup 11} neutrons. The use of a Cf-252 neutron source allowed cross calibration of CR-39 and indium activation detectors at high neutron yields ({approx}10{sup 11}). The CR-39 detectors provided consistent measurements of the total neutron yield of Cf-252 when a modified detection efficiency of 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} was used. The combined use of all three detectors allowed for a detection range of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 11} neutrons per shot.

  14. Response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators to 14 MeV fusion neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzaniga, C., E-mail: carlo.cazzaniga@mib.infn.it [University of Milano Bicocca, Departement of Physics, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano 20125 (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano 20125 (Italy); Nocente, M. [University of Milano Bicocca, Departement of Physics, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano 20125 (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano 20125 (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano 20125 (Italy); Rebai, M. [University of Milano Bicocca, Departement of Physics, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano 20125 (Italy); Pillon, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Pellegri, L. [University of Milano, Departement of Physics, Via Celoria 16, Milano 1-20133 (Italy); Gorini, G. [University of Milano Bicocca, Departement of Physics, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano 20125 (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano 20125 (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    The response of a 3″×3″ LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator to 14 MeV neutron irradiation has been measured at the Frascati Neutron Generator and simulated by means of a dedicated MCNP model. Several reactions are found to contribute to the measured response, with a key role played by neutron inelastic scattering and (n,2n) reactions on {sup 79}Br, {sup 81}Br and {sup 139}La isotopes. An overall 43% efficiency to 14 MeV neutron detection above an experimental threshold of 0.35 MeV is calculated and confirmed by measurements. Post irradiation activation of the crystal has been also observed and is explained in terms of nuclear decays from the short lived {sup 78}Br and {sup 80}Br isotopes produced in (n,2n) reactions. The results presented in this paper are of relevance for the design of γ-ray detectors in burning plasma fusion experiments of the next generation, such as ITER, where capability to perform measurements in an intense 14 MeV neutron flux is required.

  15. Fast neutron spectrometry with organic scintillators applied to magnetic fusion experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaschuck, Y A; Trykov, L A; Semenov, V P

    2002-01-01

    Neutron spectrometry with NE213 liquid scintillators is commonly used in thermonuclear fusion experiments to measure the 2.45 and 14.1 MeV neutron flux. We present the unfolded neutron spectrum, which was accumulated during several ohmic deuterium plasma discharges in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade using a 2''x2'' NE213 scintillator. In this paper, we review the application of organic scintillator neutron spectrometers to tokamaks, focusing in particular on the comparison between NE213 and stilbene scintillators. Various aspects of the calibration technique and neutron spectra unfolding procedure are considered in the context of their application for fusion neutron spectrometry. Testing and calibration measurements have been carried out using D-D and D-T neutron generator facilities with both NE213 and stilbene scintillators. The main result from these measurements is that stilbene scintillator has better neutron energy resolution than NE213. Our stilbene detector could be used for the determination of the ion ...

  16. Introducing the Fission-Fusion Reaction Process: Using a Laser-Accelerated Th Beam to produce Neutron-Rich Nuclei towards the N=126 Waiting Point of the r Process

    CERN Document Server

    Habs, D; Gross, M; Allinger, K; Bin, J; Henig, A; Kiefer, D; Ma, W; Schreiber, J

    2010-01-01

    We propose to produce neutron-rich nuclei in the range of the astrophysical r process around the waiting point N=126 by fissioning a dense laser-accelerated thorium ion bunch in a thorium target (covered by a polyethylene layer), where the light fission fragments of the beam fuse with the light fission fragments of the target. Via laser Radiation Pressure Acceleration using a high-intensity, short pulse laser, very efficiently bunches of solid state density of 232Th can be generated from a first Th production target, placed on a CH2 backing. Laser accelerated Th ions with about 7 MeV/u will pass through a thin polyethylene layer placed in front of a thicker second Th foil closely behind the first target and desintegrate into light and heavy fission fragments. In addition light ions (p,C) from the CH2 backing of the first Th target will be accelerated as well, inducing the fission process of 232Th also in the second Th target. The laser-accelerated ion bunches with solid state density, which are about 10^15 ti...

  17. Neutronics requirements for a DEMO fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion Consortium , Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Villari, R. [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Discussion and specification of neutronic requirements for a DEMO power plant. • TBR uncertainties are reviewed/discussed and design margins are elaborated. • Limits are given for radiation loads to super-conducting magnets and steel structural components. • Available DEMO results are compared to recommended limits and TBR design target. - Abstract: This paper addresses the neutronic requirements a DEMO fusion power plant needs to fulfil for a reliable and safe operation. The major requirement is to ensure Tritium self-sufficiency taking into account the various uncertainties and plant-internal losses that occur during DEMO operation. A further major requirement is to ensure sufficient protection of the superconducting magnets against the radiation penetrating in-vessel components and vessel. Reliable criteria for the radiation loads need to be defined and verified to ensure the reliable operation of the magnets over the lifetime of DEMO. Other issues include radiation induced effects on structural materials such as the accumulated displacement damage, the generation of gases such as helium which may deteriorate the material performance. The paper discusses these issues and their impact on design options for DEMO taking into account results obtained in the frame of European Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) 2013 programme activities with DEMO models employing the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB), the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL), and the water-cooled (WCLL) blanket concepts.

  18. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 mum of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb 83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by

  19. Neutron-energy-dependent defect production cross sections for fission and fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odette, G.R.; Doiron, D.R.

    1976-06-01

    Neutron cross sections for displacements and post-short-term cascade annealing defects are derived from nuclear kinematics calculations of primary atomic recoil energy distributions and the number of secondary defects produced per primary as a function of recoil energy. For the first time, recoil kinematics of charged- and multiple-particle emission reactions are treated rigorously using a compound-nucleus evaporation spectrum nuclear model. Secondary-defect production functions, derived from computer simulation experiments, are taken from the literature. Spectral-averaged defect production cross sections for a fusion reactor first-wall-type environment are on the order of 1.5 to 2.5 times those for a fast fission reactor core-type spectrum. The indicated range of uncertainty is primarily due to secondary-defect production model sensitivity. Nuclear model and data errors are expected to become more significant at high neutron energies, greater than approximately 20 MeV. Fusion reactor environments are found to produce some very energetic recoils and high-energy release events due to charged-particle reactions such as (n,..cap alpha..).

  20. Conceptual design of a camera system for neutron imaging in low fusion power tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, X.; Nocente, M.; Chen, Z.; Peng, X.; Cui, Z.; Du, T.; Hu, Z.; Li, T.; Fan, T.; Chen, J.; Li, X.; Zhang, G.; Yuan, G.; Yang, J.; Yang, Q.

    2016-02-01

    The basic principles for designing a camera system for neutron imaging in low fusion power tokamaks are illustrated for the case of the HL-2A tokamak device. HL-2A has an approximately circular cross section, with total neutron yields of about 1012 n/s under 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) heating. The accuracy in determining the width of the neutron emission profile and the plasma vertical position are chosen as relevant parameters for design optimization. Typical neutron emission profiles and neutron energy spectra are calculated by Monte Carlo method. A reference design is assumed, for which the direct and scattered neutron fluences are assessed and the neutron count profile of the neutron camera is obtained. Three other designs are presented for comparison. The reference design is found to have the best performance for assessing the width of peaked to broadened neutron emission profiles. It also performs well for the assessment of the vertical position.

  1. Lithium neutron producing target for BINP accelerator-based neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayanov, B; Belov, V; Kindyuk, V; Oparin, E; Taskaev, S

    2004-11-01

    Pilot innovative accelerator-based neutron source for neutron capture therapy is under construction now at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. One of the main elements of the facility is lithium target, that produces neutrons via threshold (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction at 25 kW proton beam with energies 1.915 or 2.5 MeV. In the present report, the results of experiments on neutron producing target prototype are presented, the results of calculations of hydraulic resistance for heat carrier flow and lithium layer temperature are shown. Calculation showed that the lithium target could run up to 10 mA proton beam before melting. Choice of target variant is substantiated. Program of immediate necessary experiments is described. Target design for neutron source constructed at BINP is presented. Manufacturing the neutron producing target up to the end of 2004 and obtaining a neutron beam on BINP accelerator-based neutron source are planned during 2005.

  2. Lithium neutron producing target for BINP accelerator-based neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayanov, B.; Belov, V.; Kindyuk, V.; Oparin, E.; Taskaev, S. E-mail: taskaev@inp.nsk.su

    2004-11-01

    Pilot innovative accelerator-based neutron source for neutron capture therapy is under construction now at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. One of the main elements of the facility is lithium target, that produces neutrons via threshold {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction at 25 kW proton beam with energies 1.915 or 2.5 MeV. In the present report, the results of experiments on neutron producing target prototype are presented, the results of calculations of hydraulic resistance for heat carrier flow and lithium layer temperature are shown. Calculation showed that the lithium target could run up to 10 mA proton beam before melting. Choice of target variant is substantiated. Program of immediate necessary experiments is described. Target design for neutron source constructed at BINP is presented. Manufacturing the neutron producing target up to the end of 2004 and obtaining a neutron beam on BINP accelerator-based neutron source are planned during 2005.

  3. Research and development of a compact discharge-driven D-D fusion neutron source for explosive detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)]. E-mail: kiyoshi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Masuda, Kai [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Takamatsu, Teruhisa [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Shiroya, Seiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan); Misawa, Tsuyoshi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan); Hotta, Eiki [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yamauchi, Kunihito [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Osawa, Hodaka [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshiyuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Current results are described on the research and development of the advanced humanitarian landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) devices. With a 50 mm-thick water-jacketed IEC device (IEC20C) of a 200 mm inner diameter, it can produce 10{sup 7} neutrons/s stably in CW mode for 80 kV and 80 mA. Ample 10.8 MeV {gamma}-rays produced through (n, {gamma}) reaction with nitrogen atoms in the melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}) powder (explosive simulant) are clearly measured by a BGO-NaI-combined scintillation sensor with distinct difference in cases with and without melamine. This proves feasibility of the identification of the buried landmines.

  4. Viability of the ESS-Bilbao neutron source for irradiation of nuclear fusion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páramo, A. R.; Sordo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESS-Bilbao neutron source, currently under construction, is conceived as a multipurpose facility. It will offer a fast neutron beam line for materials irradiation. In this paper we discuss the viability of ESS-Bilbao for experimental studies of fusion materials. Making use of the already designed target station we have calculated the neutron spectrum expected in the fast neutron line. Then, we have studied the neutron irradiation effects in two model materials: iron and silica. We have calculated the expected PKA (primary knock-on atom) spectra and light species production as well as the damage production in these materials. Regarding structural materials, we conclude that the ESS-Bilbao neutron irradiation facility will play a minor role due to the resulting low neutron fluxes (about two orders of magnitude lower than in fusion reactors). On the other hand, ESS-Bilbao turns out to be relevant for studies of final lenses in laser fusion power plants. A comparison with the conditions expected for HiPER final lenses shows that the fluxes will be only a factor 5 smaller in ESS-Bilbao and the PKA spectra will be very similar. Taking into account, in addition, that relevant effects on lenses occur from the onset of irradiation, we conclude that an appropriate irradiation cell with in situ characterisation techniques will make ESS-Bilbao very attractive for applied neutron damage studies of laser fusion final lenses. Finally, we compare ESS-Bilbao with other facilities.

  5. A new concept of fusion neutron monitoring for PF-1000 device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jednorog Slawomir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The power output of plasma experiments and fusion reactors is a crucial parameter. It is determined by neutron yields that are proportional and directly related to the fusion yield. The number of emitted neutrons should be known for safety reasons and for neutron budget management. The PF-1000 is the large plasma facility based on the plasma focus phenomenon. PF-1000 is operating in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion in Warsaw. Neutron yield changes during subsequent pulses, which is immanent part of this type device and so it must be monitored in terms of neutron emission. The reference diagnostic intended for this purpose is the silver activation counter (SAC used for many years. Our previous studies demonstrated the applicability of radio-yttrium for neutron yield measurements during the deuterium campaign on the PF-1000 facility. The obtained results were compared with data from silver activation counter and shown linear dependence but with some protuberances in local scale. Correlation between results for both neutron monitors was maintained. But the yttrium monitor registered the fast energy neutron that reached measurement apparatus directly from the plasma pinch. Based on the preliminary experiences, the yttrium monitor was designed to automatically register neutron-induced yttrium activity. The MCNP geometrical model of PF-1000 and yttrium monitor were both used for calculation of the activation coefficient for yttrium. The yttrium monitor has been established as the permanent diagnostic for monitoring fusion reactions in the PF-1000 device.

  6. Data collection of fusion neutronics benchmark experiment conducted at FNS/JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Konno, Chikara; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Oyama, Yukio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-08-01

    Fusion neutronics benchmark experimental data have been continued at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility in JAERI. This report compiles unpublished results of the in-situ measurement experiments conducted by the end of 1996. Experimental data of neutron spectra in entire energy range, dosimetry reaction rates, gamma-ray spectrum and gamma-ray heating rates are acquired for five materials of beryllium, vanadium, iron, copper and tungsten. These experimental data along with data previously reported are effective for validating cross section data stored in evaluated nuclear data files such as JENDL. (author)

  7. On the physical conditions for arising a controlled fusion chain reaction supported by neutrons in fusion facilities with magnetic plasma confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Shmelyov

    2015-11-01

    The fusion neutron source is considered to be the “richest”: neutron generation is accompanied by relatively small-scale processes. The thermonuclear facility with low neutron absorption blanket under consideration here could create a high density neutron flux in the blanket. It can be concluded from the above that such thermonuclear facilities could be used for fast transmutation of long-lived fission products with low neutron absorption cross-section, and perhaps even without their preliminary isotopic separation.

  8. Proton recoil telescope based on diamond detectors for measurement of fusion neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Caiffi, B; Ripani, M; Pillon, M; Taiuti, M

    2015-01-01

    Diamonds are very promising candidates for the neutron diagnostics in harsh environments such as fusion reactor. In the first place this is because of their radiation hardness, exceeding that of Silicon by an order of magnitude. Also, in comparison to the standard on-line neutron diagnostics (fission chambers, silicon based detectors, scintillators), diamonds are less sensitive to $\\gamma$ rays, which represent a huge background in fusion devices. Finally, their low leakage current at high temperature suppresses the detector intrinsic noise. In this talk a CVD diamond based detector has been proposed for the measurement of the 14 MeV neutrons from D-T fusion reaction. The detector was arranged in a proton recoil telescope configuration, featuring a plastic converter in front of the sensitive volume in order to induce the (n,p) reaction. The segmentation of the sensitive volume, achieved by using two crystals, allowed to perform measurements in coincidence, which suppressed the neutron elastic scattering backg...

  9. International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) neutron source term simulation and neutronics analyses of the high flux test module

    CERN Document Server

    Simakov, S P; Heinzel, V; Moellendorff, U V

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the new results of the development work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe on the neutronics of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). An important step forward has been done in the simulation of neutron production of the deuteron-lithium source using the Li(d,xn) reaction cross sections from evaluated data files. The developed Monte Carlo routine and d-Li reaction data newly evaluated at INPE Obninsk have been verified against available experimental data on the differential neutron yield from deuteron-bombarded thick lithium targets. With the modified neutron source three-dimensional distributions of neutron and photon fluxes, displacement and gas production rates and nuclear heating inside the high flux test module (HFTM) were calculated. In order to estimate the uncertainty resulting from the evaluated data, two independent libraries, recently released by INPE and LANL, have been used in the transport calculations. The proposal to use a reflector around ...

  10. Numerical simulations of in-situ neutron detector calibration experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, L.P.; Hendel, H.W.; Liew, S.L.; Strachan, J.D.

    1990-02-01

    Accurate determinations of fusion neutron yields on the TFTR require that the neutron detectors be absolutely calibrated in-situ, using neutron sources of known strengths. For such calibrations, numerical simulations of neutron transport can be powerful tools in the design of experiments and the study of measurement results. On the TFTR, numerical calibration experiments' have been frequently used to complement actual detector calibrations. We present calculational approaches and transport models used in these numerical simulations, and summarize the results from simulating the calibration of {sup 235}U fission detectors carried out in December 1988. 12 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Measurement of DT fusion and neutron-induced gamma-rays using gas Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; McEvoy, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Ali, Z.; Stoeffl, W.

    2010-08-01

    A secondary gamma experiment was carried out using a Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) at the OMEGA laser facility. The primary experimental objective was to simulate neutron-induced secondary gamma production (n-γ) from a NIF implosion capsule, hohlraum, and thermo-mechanical package. The high-band width of the GCD enabled us to detect time delayed and Doppler broadened n-γ signals from five different puck materials (Si, SiO2, Al, Al2O3, Cu) placed near target chamber center. These measurements were used for MCNP & ITS ACCEPT code validation purposes. By a simple change of the GCD CO2 gas pressure the system can effectively eliminate signals induced by n-γ reactions and thereby allow quality measurements of DT fusion γ-rays that are produced at NIF (National Ignition Facility).

  12. Measurement of ultracold neutrons produced by using Doppler-shifted Bragg reflection at a pulsed-neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, T.O.; Carpenter, J.M.; Krohn, V.E.; Ringo, G.R.; Cronin, J.W.; Dombeck, T.W.; Lynn, J.W.; Werner, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ultracold neutrons (UCN) have been produced at the Argonne pulsed-neutron source by the Doppler shift of 400-m/s neutrons Bragg reflected from a moving crystal. The peak density of UCN produced at the crystal exceeds 0.1 n/cm/sup 3/.

  13. Evidence of nuclear fusion neutrons in an extremely small plasma focus device operating at 0.1 Joules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavéz, Cristián; Moreno, José; Altamirano, Luis; Huerta, Luis; Barbaglia, Mario; Clausse, Alejandro; Mayer, Roberto E.

    2017-08-01

    We report on D-D fusion neutron emission in a plasma device with an energy input of only 0.1 J, within a range where fusion events have been considered very improbable. The results presented here are the consequence of scaling rules we have derived, thus being the key point to assure the same energy density plasma in smaller devices than in large machines. The Nanofocus (NF)—our device—was designed and constructed at the P4 Lab of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. Two sets of independent measurements, with different instrumentation, were made at two laboratories, in Chile and Argentina. The neutron events observed are 20σ greater than the background. The NF plasma is produced from a pulsed electrical discharge using a submillimetric anode, in a deuterium atmosphere, showing empirically that it is, in fact, possible to heat and compress the plasma. The strong evidence presented here stretches the limits beyond what was expected. A thorough understanding of this could possibly tell us where the theoretical limits actually lie, beyond conjectures. Notwithstanding, a window is thus open for low cost endeavours for basic fusion research. In addition, the development of small, portable, safe nonradioactive neutron sources becomes a feasible issue.

  14. Microscopic dynamics simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yingxun; Li, Zhuxia

    2014-01-01

    The heavy-ion fusion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei are investigated with the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model. With a subtle consideration of the neutron skin thickness of nuclei and the symmetry potential, the stability of nuclei and the fusion excitation functions of heavy-ion fusion reactions $^{16}$O+$^{76}$Ge, $^{16}$O+$^{154}$Sm, $^{40}$Ca+$^{96}$Zr and $^{132}$Sn+$^{40}$Ca are systematically studied. The fusion cross sections of these reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier can be well reproduced by using the ImQMD model. The corresponding slope parameter of the symmetry energy adopted in the calculations is $L \\approx 78$ MeV and the surface energy coefficient is $g_{\\rm sur}=18\\pm 1.5$ MeVfm$^2$. In addition, it is found that the surface-symmetry term significantly influences the fusion cross sections of neutron-rich fusion systems. For sub-barrier fusion, the dynamical fluctuations in the densities of the reaction partners and the enhanced surface diffuseness at ...

  15. Fusion neutron irradiation of Ni(Si) alloys at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.S.; Guinan, M.W.; Hahn, P.A.

    1987-09-01

    Two Ni-4% Si alloys, with different cold work levels, are irradiated with 14 MeV fusion neutrons at 623 K, and their Curie temperatures are monitored during irradiation. The results are compared to those of an identical alloy irradiated by 2 MeV electrons. The results show that increasing dislocation density increases the Curie temperature change rate. At the same damage rate, the Curie temperature change rate for the alloy irradiated by 14 MeV fusion neutrons is only 6 to 7% of that for an identical alloy irradiated by 2 MeV electrons. It is well known that the migration of radiation induced defects contributes to segregation of silicon atoms at sinks in this alloy, causing the Curie temperature changes. The current results imply that the relative free defect production efficiency decreases from one for the electron irradiated sample to 6 to 7% for the fusion neutron irradiated sample. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. First downscattered neutron images from Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guler Nevzat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF are designed to understand and test the basic principles of self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT filled cryogenic plastic (CH capsules. The experimental campaign is ongoing to tune the implosions and characterize the burning plasma conditions. Nuclear diagnostics play an important role in measuring the characteristics of these burning plasmas, providing feedback to improve the implosion dynamics. The Neutron Imaging (NI diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by collecting images at two different energy bands for primary (13–15 MeV and downscattered (10–12 MeV neutrons. From these distributions, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. The first downscattered neutron images from imploding ICF capsules are shown in this paper.

  17. Nuclear data needs for neutron spectrum tailoring at International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a proposal of D-Li intense neutron source to cover all aspects of the fusion materials development in the framework of IEA collaboration. The new activity has been started to qualifying the important technical issues called Key Element technology Phase since 2000. Although the neutron spectrum can be adjusted by changing the incident beam energy, it is favorable to be carried out many irradiation tasks at the same time under the unique beam condition. For designing the tailored neutron spectrum, neutron nuclear data for the moderator-reflector materials up to 50 MeV are required. The data for estimating the induced radioactivity is also required to keep the radiation level low enough at maintenance time. The candidate materials and the required accuracy of nuclear data are summarized. (author)

  18. Results from systematic modeling of neutron damage in inertial fusion energy reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlado, J.M. E-mail: mperlado@denim.upm.es; Dominguez, E.; Malerba, L.; Marian, J.; Lodi, D.; Salvador, M.; Alonso, E.; Caturla, Ma.J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T

    2002-01-01

    Radiation damage is an important issue in the lifetime of the structural materials in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Reactor. The effect will strongly depend on the class of chamber protection at the IFE Reactor design. This paper gives results from DENIM, and collaboration with LLNL, on the necessary magnitudes for the final evaluation of neutron damage. The determination of the neutron intensities and energy spectra emerging from the target, the energy spectra of the Primary Knock-on Atoms (PKA) resulting from the neutron interactions, the modeling at microscopic scale of the pulsed irradiation in metals are reported, in addition to reference to the work on the time dependence of neutron flux in IFE protected chamber. Results are also presented on the damage accumulation in SiC, relevant both for magnetic (MFE) and inertial fusion.

  19. Fusion reaction around the Coulomb barrier with neutron-rich nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Atsushi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Two fusion reactions with neutron-rich nuclei are reported in this work. On the first reaction: {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 209}Bi, the fusion cross sections around the coulomb barrier were measured by determing {alpha} disintegration from compound nucleus Fr. In the field of 10-100 mb, the same total fusion cross sections were obtained. The phenomenon {sup 11}Be(neutron halo nucleus) alone increased and decreased was not observed. The fusion cross sections of {sup 27,29,31}Al+{sup 197}Au system were determined by using 130 kcps and 30 kcps of beam strength of {sup 29,31}Al, respectively. The value of {sup 27}Al was reproduced by calculation, but that of {sup 29}Al increased around barrier which could not be explained by CCDEF calculation. (S.Y.)

  20. Fission, spallation or fusion-based neutron sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kurt N Clausen

    2008-10-01

    In this paper the most promising technology for high power neutron sources is briefly discussed. The conclusion is that the route to high power neutron sources in the foreseeable future is spallation – short or long pulse or even CW – all of these sources will have areas in which they excel.

  1. Effect of positive Q-value neutron transfers on sub-barrier fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Pei-Wei; Feng, Zhao-Qing; Zhang, Fan; Li, Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Jian; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2017-06-01

    The role of positive Q-value neutron transfers in sub-barrier fusion reactions has been studied with a modified quantum coupled channels model with all order couplings (CCFULL model). Neutron rearrangement related only to the dynamical matching condition with no free parameters is implemented in the model, which provides a way to understand especially the Q-value dependence of sub-barrier fusion reactions. The fusion cross sections of the collision systems 40Ca+94, 96Zr have been calculated and analyzed. The general trend of experimental data can be reproduced well with additional channels for neutron rearrangement. We find that enhancement of sub-barrier fusion cross sections is closely related to the Q-value of the transferred neutrons, in particular for channels with sequential even number transferred neutrons. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11635003, 11025524, 11161130520, 11175218, U1332207) National Basic Research Program of China (2010CB832903) European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme (Fp7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES) Agreement Project (269131)

  2. High energy resolution characteristics on 14MeV neutron spectrometer for fusion experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Takada, Eiji; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A 14MeV neutron spectrometer suitable for an ITER-like fusion experimental reactor is now under development on the basis of a recoil proton counter telescope principle in oblique scattering geometry. To verify its high energy resolution characteristics, preliminary experiments are made for a prototypical detector system. The comparison results show reasonably good agreement and demonstrate the possibility of energy resolution of 2.5% in full width at half maximum for 14MeV neutron spectrometry. (author)

  3. Numerical study of neutron beam divergence in a beam-fusion scenario employing laser driven ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; McKenna, P.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.

    2016-09-01

    The most established route to create a laser-based neutron source is by employing laser accelerated, low atomic-number ions in fusion reactions. In addition to the high reaction cross-sections at moderate energies of the projectile ions, the anisotropy in neutron emission is another important feature of beam-fusion reactions. Using a simple numerical model based on neutron generation in a pitcher-catcher scenario, anisotropy in neutron emission was studied for the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. Simulation results are consistent with the narrow-divergence (∼ 70 ° full width at half maximum) neutron beam recently served in an experiment employing multi-MeV deuteron beams of narrow divergence (up to 30° FWHM, depending on the ion energy) accelerated by a sub-petawatt laser pulse from thin deuterated plastic foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism. By varying the input ion beam parameters, simulations show that a further improvement in the neutron beam directionality (i.e. reduction in the beam divergence) can be obtained by increasing the projectile ion beam temperature and cut-off energy, as expected from interactions employing higher power lasers at upcoming facilities.

  4. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-04-02

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented.

  5. One-and Two-Neutron Transfer Reactions in 11Be+208Pb and Mechanism of Lowering Fusion Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; LI Zhu-Xia; WU Xi-Zhen; WANG Nan; SUN Xiu-Quan

    2000-01-01

    We study one-and two-neutron transfer reactions in 11Be+208Pb by using the quantum molecular dynamics model. We find that lowering about 1-2 MeV of the potential barrier of 208Pb for fusion is gained when two neutrons separated from 11Be enter into 208Pb. Whereas no significant change of potential barrier is found when only the halo neutron separated from 11Be enters into 208Pb. The dynamical interplay between suppression and enhancement effects on the fusion probability in reaction 11Be+208Pb stemming from the easy separation of halo neutron and the long extending of neutron distribution is discussed.

  6. Simultaneous neutron and x-ray imaging of inertial confinement fusion experiments along a single line of sight at Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Day, T. H.; Herrmann, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Martinez, J. I.; Merrill, F. E.; Schmidt, D. W.; Simpson, R. A.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Fittinghoff, D. N.; Izumi, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Neutron and x-ray imaging provide critical information about the geometry and hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, existing diagnostics at Omega and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) cannot produce images in both neutrons and x-rays along the same line of sight. This leads to difficulty comparing these images, which capture different parts of the plasma geometry, for the asymmetric implosions seen in present experiments. Further, even when opposing port neutron and x-ray images are available, they use different detectors and cannot provide positive information about the relative positions of the neutron and x-ray sources. A technique has been demonstrated on implosions at Omega that can capture x-ray images along the same line of sight as the neutron images. The technique is described, and data from a set of experiments are presented, along with a discussion of techniques for coregistration of the various images. It is concluded that the technique is viable and could provide valuable information if implemented on NIF in the near future.

  7. TIME SCALES OF FUSION-FISSION REACTIONS CALCULATED FROM PRESCISSION NEUTRON MULTIPLICITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIWEKWILCZYNSKA, K; WILCZYNSKI, J; SIEMSSEN, RH; WILSCHUT, HW

    1995-01-01

    The time scale of fusion-fission reactions was found to be in the range from tau(f) = 5 . 10(-20) to 5 . 10(-19) s. This result was obtained from the analysis of the prescission neutron multiplicities with a new method combining the time-dependent statistical cascade calculations with the nuclear

  8. Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Boyd, J K; Powers, J J; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently developing a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system, called LIFE, to generate power and burn nuclear waste. We utilize inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical fission blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. It is composed of TRISO-based fuel cooled by the molten salt flibe. Low-yield (37.5 MJ) targets and a repetition rate of 13.3 Hz produce a 500 MW fusion source that is coupled to the subcritical blanket, which provides an additional gain of 4-8, depending on the fuel. In the present work, we describe the neutron transport and nuclear burnup analysis. We utilize standard analysis tools including, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, ORIGEN2 and Monteburns to perform the nuclear design. These analyses focus primarily on a fuel composed of depleted uranium not requiring chemical reprocessing or enrichment. However, other fuels such as weapons grade plutonium and highly-enriched uranium are also under consideration. In addition, we have developed a methodology using {sup 6}Li as a burnable poison to replace the tritium burned in the fusion targets and to maintain constant power over the lifetime of the engine. The results from depleted uranium analyses suggest up to 99% burnup of actinides is attainable while maintaining full power at 2GW for more than five decades.

  9. Resistivity damage rates in fusion-neutron-irradiated metals at 4. 2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinan, M.W.; Kinney, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in electrical resistivity at liquid helium temperature have been used to monitor the production of damage in dilute alloys of vanadium, niobium and molybdenum, and pure tungsten, aluminum and copper irradiated with high energy neutrons. The neutrons were produced at the Livermore rotating-target neutron sources (RTNS-I and RTNS-II). Further experiments on V, Nb and Mo were carried out with 30 MeV d-Be neutrons and slightly degraded fission-spectra neutrons. The results for all six materials are compared to those obtained in a pure fission spectrum. The relative damage production rates are in agreement with predictions based on damage energy calculations.

  10. Fusion reactions with the one-neutron halo nucleus 15C

    CERN Document Server

    Alcorta, M; Back, B B; Bedoor, S; Bertone, P F; Deibel, C M; DiGiovine, B; Esbensen, H; Greene, J P; Hoffmann, C R; Jiang, C L; Lighthall, J C; Marley, S T; Pardo, R C; Paul, M; Rogers, A M; Ugalde, C; Wuosmaa, A H

    2011-01-01

    The structure of 15C, with an s1/2 neutron weakly bound to a closed-neutron shell nucleus 14C, makes it a prime candidate for a one-neutron halo nucleus. We have for the first time studied the cross section for the fusion-fission reaction 15C + 232Th at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier and compared it to the yield of the neighboring 14C + 232Th system measured in the same experiment. At sub-barrier energies, an enhancement of the fusion yield by factors of 2-5 was observed for 15C, while the cross sections for 14C match the trends measured for 12,13C.

  11. Impact of temperature-velocity distribution on fusion neutron peak shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, D. H.; Field, J. E.; Hatarik, R.; Peterson, J. L.; Hartouni, E. P.; Spears, B. K.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2017-05-01

    Doppler broadening of the 14 MeV DT and 2.45 MeV DD fusion neutron lines has long been our best measure of temperature in a burning plasma. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), yields are high enough and our neutron spectrometers accurate enough that we see finer details of the peak shape. For example, we can measure the shift of the peak due to the bulk motion of the plasma, and we see indications of non-thermal broadening, skew, and kurtosis of the peak caused by the variations of temperature and fluid velocity during burn. We can also distinguish spectral differences among several lines of sight. This paper will review the theory of fusion neutron line shape, show examples of non-Gaussian line shapes and directional variations in NIF data, and describe detailed spectral shapes we see in radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of implosions.

  12. Reducing the tritium inventory in waste produced by fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamela, J., E-mail: jerome.pamela@cea.fr [CEA, Agence ITER-France, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Decanis, C. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Canas, D. [CEA, DEN/DADN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Liger, K.; Gaune, F. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Fusion devices including ITER will generate tritiated waste, some of which will need to be detritiated before disposal. • Interim storage is the reference solution offering an answer for all types of tritiated radwaste. • Incineration is very attractive for VLLW and possibly SL-LILW soft housekeeping waste, since it offers higher tritium and waste volume reduction than the alternative thermal treatment technique. • For metallic waste, further R&D efforts should be made to optimize tritium release management and minimize the need for interim storage. - Abstract: The specific issues raised by tritiated waste resulting from fusion machines are described. Of the several categories of tritium contaminated waste produced during the entire lifespan of a fusion facility, i.e. operating phase and dismantling phase, only two categories are considered here: metal components and solid combustible waste, especially soft housekeeping materials. Some of these are expected to contain a high level of tritium, and may therefore need to be processed using a detritiation technique before disposal or interim storage. The reference solution for tritiated waste management in France is a 50-year temporary storage for tritium decay, with options for reducing the tritium content as alternatives or complement. An overview of the strategic issues related to tritium reduction techniques is proposed for each radiological category of waste for both metallic and soft housekeeping waste. For this latter category, several options of detritiation techniques by thermal treatment like heating up or incineration are described. A comparison has been made between these various technical options based on several criteria: environment, safety, technical feasibility and costs. For soft housekeeping waste, incineration is very attractive for VLLW and possibly SL-LILW. For metallic waste, further R&D efforts should be conducted.

  13. Neutron dynamics and materials damage in inertial fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlado, J.M.; Malerba, L.; Marian, J.; Lodi, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, DENIM (Spain); Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Alonso, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Chemistry and Materials Science Div., CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Energy, tritium breeding, damage and activation in IFE blankets are affected by the neutron dynamics in the target, and the type of protection. The time-dependent structure of neutron transport (pulsed and very high intensity) led to new consequences in some key parameters (damage). A basic simulation on damage on SiC reveals an opposite response of the two sublattices: ductile Si, and fragile C. Radiation induced amorphization (accumulation of damage) is investigated and only argued for very low temperatures, and simulations of damage in metallic alloys show precipitates formation in a initial phase. (authors)

  14. Calculation of the absolute detection efficiency of a moderated /sup 235/U neutron detector on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, L.P.; Hendel, H.W.; Liew, S.L.

    1989-02-01

    Neutron transport simulations have been carried out to calculate the absolute detection efficiency of a moderated /sup 235/U neutron detector which is used on the TFTR as a part of the primary fission detector diagnostic system for measuring fusion power yields. Transport simulations provide a means by which the effects of variations in various shielding and geometrical parameters can be explored. These effects are difficult to study in calibration experiments. The calculational model, benchmarked against measurements, can be used to complement future detector calibrations, when the high level of radioactivity resulting from machine operation may severely restrict access to the tokamak. We present a coupled forward-adjoint algorithm, employing both the deterministic and Monte Carlo sampling methods, to model the neutron transport in the complex tokamak and detector geometries. Sensitivities of the detector response to the major and minor radii, and angular anisotropy of the neutron emission are discussed. A semi-empirical model based on matching the calculational results with a small set of experiments produces good agreement (+-15%) for a wide range of source energies and geometries. 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Estimation of the {alpha} particles and neutron distribution generated during a fusion reaction; Evaluation de la distribution des particules {alpha} et des neutrons issus de la reaction de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellacherie, S.

    1997-12-01

    The respective distributions (or density probabilities) of {alpha} particles and neutrons have been modeled using a Monte-Carlo method for the thermonuclear fusion reaction D + T {yields} {alpha} + n + 17.6 MeV. (N.T.).

  16. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  17. A diamond based neutron spectrometer for diagnostics of deuterium-tritium fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Calvani, P.; Croci, G.; Giacomelli, L.; Girolami, M.; Griesmayer, E.; Grosso, G.; Pillon, M.; Trucchi, D. M.; Gorini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Single crystal Diamond Detectors (SDD) are being increasingly exploited for neutron diagnostics in high power fusion devices, given their significant radiation hardness and high energy resolution capabilities. The geometrical efficiency of SDDs is limited by the size of commercially available crystals, which is often smaller than the dimension of neutron beams along collimated lines of sight in tokamak devices. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a 14 MeV neutron spectrometer consisting of 12 diamond pixels arranged in a matrix, so to achieve an improved geometrical efficiency. Each pixel is equipped with an independent high voltage supply and read-out electronics optimized to combine high energy resolution and fast signals (1 MHz) spectroscopy. The response function of a prototype SDD to 14 MeV neutrons has been measured at the Frascati Neutron Generator by observation of the 8.3 MeV peak from the 12C(n, α)9Be reaction occurring between neutrons and 12C nuclei in the detector. The measured energy resolution (2.5% FWHM) meets the requirements for neutron spectroscopy applications in deuterium-tritium plasmas.

  18. A diamond based neutron spectrometer for diagnostics of deuterium-tritium fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzaniga, C., E-mail: carlo.cazzaniga@mib.infn.it; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G. [University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Rebai, M.; Giacomelli, L. [University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Calvani, P.; Girolami, M.; Trucchi, D. M. [CNR-ISM, Research Area Roma 1, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015-Monterotondo Scalo (Rm) (Italy); Griesmayer, E. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Pillon, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Single crystal Diamond Detectors (SDD) are being increasingly exploited for neutron diagnostics in high power fusion devices, given their significant radiation hardness and high energy resolution capabilities. The geometrical efficiency of SDDs is limited by the size of commercially available crystals, which is often smaller than the dimension of neutron beams along collimated lines of sight in tokamak devices. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a 14 MeV neutron spectrometer consisting of 12 diamond pixels arranged in a matrix, so to achieve an improved geometrical efficiency. Each pixel is equipped with an independent high voltage supply and read-out electronics optimized to combine high energy resolution and fast signals (<30 ns), which are essential to enable high counting rate (>1 MHz) spectroscopy. The response function of a prototype SDD to 14 MeV neutrons has been measured at the Frascati Neutron Generator by observation of the 8.3 MeV peak from the {sup 12}C(n, α){sup 9}Be reaction occurring between neutrons and {sup 12}C nuclei in the detector. The measured energy resolution (2.5% FWHM) meets the requirements for neutron spectroscopy applications in deuterium-tritium plasmas.

  19. Moderator design studies for a new neutron reference source based on the D–T fusion reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Piper, Roman K.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The radioactive isotope Californium-252 (252Cf) is relied upon internationally as a neutron calibration source for ionizing radiation dosimetry because of its high specific activity. The source may be placed within a heavy-water (D2O) moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum representative of neutron fields common to commercial nuclear power plant environments, among others. Due to termination of the U.S. Department of Energy loan/lease program in 2012, the expense of obtaining 252Cf sources has undergone a significant increase, rendering high output sources largely unattainable. On the other hand, the use of neutron generators in research and industry applications has increased dramatically in recent years. Neutron generators based on deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction provide high neutron fluence rates and, therefore, could possibly be used as a replacement for 252Cf. To be viable, the 14.6 MeV D-T output spectrum must be significantly moderated to approximate common workplace environments. This paper presents the results of an effort to select appropriate moderating materials and design a configuration to reshape the primary neutron field toward a spectrum approaching that from a nuclear power plant workplace. A series of Monte-Carlo (MCNP) simulations of single layer high- and low-Z materials are used to identify initial candidate moderators. Candidates are refined through a similar series of simulations involving combinations of 2 to 5 different materials. The simulated energy distribution using these candidate moderators are rated in comparison to a target spectrum. Other properties, such as fluence preservation and/or enhancement, prompt gamma production and other characteristics are also considered.

  20. FAFNIR: Strategy and risk reduction in accelerator driven neutron sources for fusion materials irradiation data

    CERN Document Server

    Surrey, E; Caballero, A; Davenne, T; Findlay, D; Letchford, A; Thomason, J; Marrow, J; Roberts, S; Seryi, A; Connolly, B; Mummery, P; Owen, H

    2014-01-01

    The need to populate the fusion materials engineering data base has long been recognized, the IFMIF facility being the present proposed neutron source for this purpose. Re-evaluation of the regulatory approach for the EU proposed DEMO device shows that the specification of the neutron source can be reduced with respect to IFMIF, allowing lower risk technology solutions to be considered. The justification for this approach is presented and a description of a proposed facility, FAFNIR, is presented with more detailed discussion of the accelerator and target designs.

  1. Thermal-to-fusion neutron convertor and Monte Carlo coupled simulation of deuteron/triton transport and secondary products generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-bo; Liu, Han-gang; Wang, Kan; Yang, Xin; Feng, Qi-jie

    2012-09-01

    Thermal-to-fusion neutron convertor has being studied in China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). Current Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNP and GEANT, are inadequate when applied in this multi-step reactions problems. A Monte Carlo tool RSMC (Reaction Sequence Monte Carlo) has been developed to simulate such coupled problem, from neutron absorption, to charged particle ionization and secondary neutron generation. "Forced particle production" variance reduction technique has been implemented to improve the calculation speed distinctly by making deuteron/triton induced secondary product plays a major role. Nuclear data is handled from ENDF or TENDL, and stopping power from SRIM, which described better for low energy deuteron/triton interactions. As a validation, accelerator driven mono-energy 14 MeV fusion neutron source is employed, which has been deeply studied and includes deuteron transport and secondary neutron generation. Various parameters, including fusion neutron angle distribution, average neutron energy at different emission directions, differential and integral energy distributions, are calculated with our tool and traditional deterministic method as references. As a result, we present the calculation results of convertor with RSMC, including conversion ratio of 1 mm 6LiD with a typical thermal neutron (Maxwell spectrum) incidence, and fusion neutron spectrum, which will be used for our experiment.

  2. Analysis of the role of neutron transfer in asymmetric fusion reactions at subbarrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogloblin, A. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Zhang, H. Q.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M. [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Khlebnikov, S. V. [Khlopin Radium Institute (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, E. A.; Danilov, A. N.; Demyanova, A. S. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Trzaska, W. H. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Xu, X. X. [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Yang, F. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Sargsyan, V. V., E-mail: sargsyan@theor.jinr.ru; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Scheid, W. [Institüt für Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universität (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The excitation functions were measured for the {sup 28}Si + {sup 208}Pb complete-fusion (capture) reaction at deep subbarrier energies. The results were compared with the cross sections predicted within the quantum diffusion approach. The role of neutron transfer in the case of positive Q values in the {sup 28}Si + {sup 124}Sn, {sup 208}Pb; {sup 30}Si + {sup 124}Sn, {sup 208}Pb; {sup 20}Ne + {sup 208}Pb; {sup 40}Ca + {sup 96}Zr; and {sup 134}Te + {sup 40}Ca complete-fusion (capture) reactions is discussed.

  3. Nuclear fusion and carbon flashes on neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taam, R. E.; Picklum, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on detailed calculations of the thermal evolution of the carbon-burning shells in the envelopes of accreting neutron stars for mass-accretion rates of 1 hundred-billionth to 2 billionths of a solar mass per yr and neutron-star masses of 0.56 and 1.41 solar masses. The work of Hansen and Van Horn (1975) is extended to higher densities, and a more detailed treatment of nuclear processing in the hydrogen- and helium-burning regions is included. Results of steady-state calculations are presented, and results of time-dependent computations are examined for accretion rates of 3 ten-billionths and 1 billionth of solar mass per yr. It is found that two evolutionary sequences lead to carbon flashes and that the carbon abundance at the base of the helium shell is a strong function of accretion rate. Upper limits are placed on the accretion rates at which carbon flashes will be important.

  4. Spectroscopy of Neutrons Produced by (p,n) Reactions on Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Powell, J.; Ludewig, H.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.; Han, Guoping

    1997-05-01

    Alternative to nuclear reactors, epithermal neutron source are being developed for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Ideally, BNCT requires mono-energetic neutrons from about 1eV to 20keV depending on the tumor depth in brain. Accelerator based filtered neutron beams for BNCT produce continuous neutron spectra that need to be optimised. Neutron spectra resulting from bombarding Li target with protons, with various energies, were measured using proton recoil proportional counters. These spectra were analysed using the PSNS and HEPRO codes. The results from both analysis and Monte Carlo simulations are presented and the issues involved with either of the codes are discussed.

  5. Fusion-neutron damage in superconductors and magnet stabilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Guinan, M.W.; Kinney, J.H.

    1981-08-07

    Two NbTi and two Cu wires were irradiated with 14.8 MeV neutrons at 4.2 K to fluences of 6 to 8 x 10/sup 20/ n/m/sup 2/, using RTNS-II. Electrical resistances of Cu were monitored during irradiation. Magnetoresistances were measured in fields up to 12.4 T before and after irradiation and after isochronal annealing up to 273 K. Critical currents of NbTi were measured after irradiation, in feilds up to 10 T. The initial rate of increase of resistivity of the Cu was found to be 2.23 x 10/sup -31/ (..cap omega..-m)/(n/m/sup 2/). This rate could be predicted from fission reactor irradiations using damage energy scaling. The maximum observed change in the NbTi critical was a decrease of 3% at 4 T. At 6, 8, and 10 T there were no significant changes.

  6. A highly efficient neutron time-of-flight detector for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, N.; Yamaguchi, K.; Yamagajo, T.; Nakano, T.; Kasai, T.; Urano, T.; Azechi, H.; Nakai, S.; Iida, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed the highly efficient neutron detector system MANDALA for the inertial-confinement-fusion experiment. The MANDALA system consists of 842 elements plastic scintillation detectors and data acquisition electronics. The detection level is the yield of 1.2×105 for 2.5 MeV and 1×105 for 14.1 MeV neutrons (with 100 detected hits). We have calibrated the intrinsic detection efficiencies of the detector elements using a neutron generator facility. Timing calibration and integrity test of the system were also carried out with a 60Co γ ray source. MANDALA system was applied to the implosion experiments at the GEKKO XII laser facility. The integrity test was carried out by implosion experiments.

  7. Neutronics shielding analysis for the end plug of a tandem mirror fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, Magdi M. H.; Maynard, Charles W.

    1981-10-01

    A neutronics analysis using the Monte Carlo method is carried out for the end-plug penetration and magnet system of a tandem mirror fusion reactor. Detailed penetration and the magnets' three-dimensional configurations are modeled. A method of position dependent angular source biasing is developed to adequately sample the DT fusion source in the central cell region and obtain flux contributions at the penetration components. To assure cryogenic stability, the barrier cylindrical solenoid is identified as needing substantial shielding of about 1 m of a steel-lead-boron-carbide-water mixture. Heating rates there would require a thermal-hydraulic design similar to that in the central cell blanket region. The transition coils, however, need a minimal 0.2 m thickness shield. The leakage neutron flux at the direct converters is estimated at 1.3×1015 n/(m2·s), two orders of magnitude lower than that reported at the neutral beam injectors for tokamaks around 1017 n/(m2·s) for a 1 MW/m2 14 MeV neutron wall loading. This result is obtained through a coupling between the nuclear and plasma physics designs in which hydrogen ions rather than deuterium atoms are used for energy injection at the end plug, to avoid creating a neutron source there. This lower and controllable radiation leakage problem is perceived as a potential major advantage of tandem mirrors compared to tokamaks and laser reactor systems.

  8. Generation of the neutron response function of an NE213 scintillator for fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, F.; Eriksson, J.; Ericsson, G.; Hellesen, C.; Conroy, S.; Nocente, M.; Sundén, E. Andersson

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present a method to evaluate the neutron response function of an NE213 liquid scintillator. This method is particularly useful when the proton light yield function of the detector has not been measured, since it is based on a proton light yield function taken from literature, MCNPX simulations, measurements of gamma-rays from a calibration source and measurements of neutrons from fusion experiments with ohmic plasmas. The inclusion of the latter improves the description of the proton light yield function in the energy range of interest (around 2.46 MeV). We apply this method to an NE213 detector installed at JET, inside the radiation shielding of the magnetic proton recoil (MPRu) spectrometer, and present the results from the calibration along with some examples of application of the response function to perform neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) of fusion plasmas. We also investigate how the choice of the proton light yield function affects the NES analysis, finding that the result does not change significantly. This points to the fact that the method for the evaluation of the neutron response function is robust and gives reliable results.

  9. Species separation and modification of neutron diagnostics in inertial-confinement fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Inglebert, Aurelie; Larroche, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The different behaviours of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) in the hot spot of marginally-igniting cryogenic DT inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) targets are investigated with an ion Fokker-Planck model. With respect to an equivalent single-species model, a higher density and a higher temperature are found for T in the stagnation phase of the target implosion. In addition, the stagnating hot spot is found to be less dense but hotter than in the single-species case. As a result, the fusion reaction yield in the hot spot is significantly increased. Fusion neutron diagnostics of the implosion find a larger ion temperature as deduced from DT reactions than from DD reactions, in good agreement with NIF experimental results. ICF target designs should thus definitely take ion-kinetic effects into account.

  10. Neutron Yield and Ion Temperature from DD and DT Fusion in National Ignition Facility High-Foot Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, J. P.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Doeppner, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Munro, D. H.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Yeamans, C. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous measures of neutrons emitted from DT fusion implosions are postulated to provide insight into the fuel conditions during neutron emission. Neutron spectral diagnostics of National Ignition Facility ``high-foot'' implosions measure both the DT and DD fusion neutron spectra. Equivalent ion temperature is measured from the width of the DT and DD neutron emission and the respective yields from the peak areas. This work has focused on reasons for differing inferred temperatures from the DT and DD spectra and the yield ratio. Spatial and temporal averages of the DT and DD reactivities as corrections to the homogeneous and static temperature distributions are shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  11. Characteristics of neutrons produced by muons in a standard rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgin, A. S., E-mail: malgin@lngs.infn.it [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Characteristics of cosmogenic neutrons, such as the yield, production rate, and flux, were determined for a standard rock. The dependences of these quantities on the standard-rock depth and on the average muon energy were obtained. These properties and dependences make it possible to estimate easy the muon-induced neutron background in underground laboratories for various chemical compositions of rock.

  12. Impact of temperature-velocity distribution on fusion neutron peak shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, David

    2016-10-01

    Doppler broadening of the 14 MeV DT and 2.45 MeV DD fusion neutron lines has long been our best measure of temperature in a burning plasma. At the National Ignition Facility yields are high enough and our neutron spectrometers accurate enough that we see finer details of the peak shape. For example, we can measure the shift of the peak due to bulk motion of the plasma, and we see indications of non-thermal broadening, skew, and kurtosis of the peak caused by the variations of temperature and fluid velocity during burn. We can also distinguish spectral differences among several lines of sight. This talk will review the theory of fusion neutron line shape, show examples of non-Gaussian line shapes and directional variations in NIF data, and describe detailed spectral shapes we see in radhydro implosion simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Tokamak D T fusion neutron source requirements for closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2007-03-01

    This paper summarizes a series of conceptual design studies conducted with the purpose of determining if tokamak fusion neutron sources based on ITER physics and technology could meet the neutron source requirements for sub-critical fast-spectrum nuclear reactors that would help to close the nuclear fuel cycle by transmuting the transuranics in spent nuclear fuel. The studies were constrained to nuclear reactor and materials technologies under consideration in the US nuclear programme. Fuel cycle studies indicate that fusion neutron sources in the range ~200-500 MW would meet the needs of transmutation reactors, depending on other constraints such as materials damage to the nuclear fuel. A tokamak with R = 3.75 m, a = 1.1 m, B = 5.7-5.9 T, q95 = 3.00-4.0, I = 8.3-10 MA, βN = 2.0-2.85, HIPB98 = 1.0-1.06, γcd = 0.6 A Wm-2 would meet these requirements.

  14. Tables for simplifying calculations of activities produced by thermal neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Champion, W.R.

    1954-01-01

    The method of calculation described is useful for the types of work of which examples are given. It is also useful in making rapid comparison of the activities that might be expected from several different elements. For instance, suppose it is desired to know which of the three elements, cobalt, nickel, or vanadium is, under similar conditions, activated to the greatest extent by thermal neutrons. If reference is made to a cross-section table only, the values may be misleading unless properly interpreted by a suitable comparison of half-lives and abundances. In this table all the variables have been combined and the desired information can be obtained directly from the values of A 3??, the activity produced per gram per second of irradiation, under the stated conditions. Hence, it is easily seen that, under similar circumstances of irradiation, vanadium is most easily activated even though the cross section of one of the cobalt isotopes is nearly five times that of vanadium and the cross section of one of the nickel isotopes is three times that of vanadium. ?? 1954 Societa?? Italiana di Fisica.

  15. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A B; Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; McCluskey, M; Mastrosimone, D; Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C

    2014-06-01

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.

  16. Polarised SANS study of microstructural evolution under neutron irradiation in a martensitic steel for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppola, R.; Dewhurst, C.D.; Lindau, R.; May, R.P.; Moeslang, A.; Valli, M

    2004-03-01

    This work presents the results of polarised small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of modified martensitic steel DIN1.4914, originally developed for application in future fusion reactors (MANET steel). SANS measurements were made using the D22 instrument at the ILL Grenoble using an ad hoc polarised beam set-up. The investigated MANET samples were neutron irradiated and subsequently post-irradiation tempered to reproduce as much as possible the expected service conditions. The results, based on the analysis of the nuclear-magnetic interference, are discussed taking into account both the occurrence of Cr redistribution phenomena with correlated changes in the composition of the precipitate phases, and the growth of non-magnetic defects (He-bubbles or microvoids)

  17. FENDL-3 benchmark test with neutronics experiments related to fusion in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Chikara, E-mail: konno.chikara@jaea.go.jp; Ohta, Masayuki; Takakura, Kosuke; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •We have benchmarked FENDL-3.0 with integral experiments with DT neutron sources in Japan. •The FENDL-3.0 is as accurate as FENDL-2.1 and JENDL-4.0 or more. •Some data in FENDL-3.0 may have some problems. -- Abstract: The IAEA supports and promotes the gathering of the best data from evaluated nuclear data libraries for each nucleus involved in fusion reactor applications and compiles these data as FENDL. In 2012, the IAEA released a major update to FENDL, FENDL-3.0, which extends the neutron energy range from 20 MeV to greater than 60 MeV for 180 nuclei. We have benchmarked FENDL-3.0 versus in situ and TOF experiments using the DT neutron source at FNS at the JAEA and TOF experiments using the DT neutron source at OKTAVIAN at Osaka University in Japan. The Monte Carlo code MCNP-5 and the ACE file of FENDL-3.0 supplied from the IAEA were used for the calculations. The results were compared with measured ones and those obtained using the previous version, FENDL-2.1, and the latest version, JENDL-4.0. It is concluded that FENDL-3.0 is as accurate as or more so than FENDL-2.1 and JENDL-4.0, although some data in FENDL-3.0 may be problematic.

  18. On the absolute calibration of a DT fusion neutron yield diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz C.L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF have underscored the need for accurate total yield measurements of DT neutrons because yield measurements provide a measure of the predicted performance of the experiments. Future gas-puff DT experiments at Sandia National Laboratory's Z facility will also require similar measurements. For ICF DT experiments, the standard technique for measuring the neutron (14.1 MeV yield, counts the activity (counts/minute induced in irradiated copper samples. This activity occurs by the 63Cu(n,2n62Cu reaction where 62Cu decays by positrons (β+ with a half-life of 9.67 minutes. The calibrations discussed here employ the associated-particle method (APM, where the α (4He particles from the T(d,n4He reaction are measured to infer neutron fluxes on a copper sample. The flux induces 62Cu activity, measured in a coincidence counting system. The method leads to a relationship between a DT neutron yield and copper activity known as the F-factor. The goal in future experiments is to apply this calibration to measure the yield at NIF with a combined uncertainty approaching 5%.

  19. Neutronics optimization study for D-D fusion reactor blanket/shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, T.; Kanda, Y.; Nakashima, H.

    1985-12-01

    Position-dependent optimization calculations have been carried out on a D-D fusion reactor blanket/shield to maximize the energy gain in the blanket and to minimize the atomic displacement rate of the copper stabilizer in the superconducting magnet. The results obtained by using the optimization code SWAN indicate the advantage of D/sub 2/O coolant over H/sub 2/O coolant with respect to increasing the energy gain, and the difference in the optimal shield distributions between D-T and D-D neutron sources. The possibility of improving both the energy gain and radiation shielding characteristics is also discussed.

  20. Time Resolved Neutron Reflectivity During Supported Membrane Formation by Vesicle Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsioubas, Alexandros; Appavou, Marie-Sousai; Lairez, Didier

    2017-09-05

    The formation of supported lipid bilayers (SLB) on hydrophilic substrates through the method of unilamelar vesicle fusion is used routinely in a wide range of biophysical studies. In an effort to control and better understand the fusion process on the substrate, many experimental studies employing different techniques have been devoted to the elucidation of the fusion mechanism. In the present work we follow the kinetics of membrane formation using time-resolved (TR) neutron reflectivity, focussing at the structural changes near the solid/liquid interface. A clear indication of stacked bilayer structure is observed during the intermediate phase of SLB formation. Adsorbed lipid mass decrease is also measured at the final stage of the process. We have found that it is essential for the analysis of the experimental results to treat theoretically the shape of adsorbed lipid vesicles on an attractive substrate. The overall findings are discussed in relation to proposed fusion mechanisms from previous literature, while we argue that our observations favour a model involving enhanced adhesion of incoming vesicles on the edges of already formed bilayer patches.

  1. Evaluation of two-stage system for neutron measurement aiming at increase in count rate at Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Fusion Neutronics Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K., E-mail: shinohara.koji@jaea.go.jp; Ochiai, K.; Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Kitajima, S. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sasao, M. [Organization for Research Initiatives and Development, Doshisha University, Kyoto 602-8580 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    In order to increase the count rate capability of a neutron detection system as a whole, we propose a multi-stage neutron detection system. Experiments to test the effectiveness of this concept were carried out on Fusion Neutronics Source. Comparing four configurations of alignment, it was found that the influence of an anterior stage on a posterior stage was negligible for the pulse height distribution. The two-stage system using 25 mm thickness scintillator was about 1.65 times the count rate capability of a single detector system for d-D neutrons and was about 1.8 times the count rate capability for d-T neutrons. The results suggested that the concept of a multi-stage detection system will work in practice.

  2. How to produce a reactor neutron spectrum using a proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Wootan, David W.; Gates, Robert O.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Asner, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A method for reproducing the neutron energy spectrum present in the core of an operating nuclear reactor using an engineered target in an accelerator proton beam is proposed. The protons interact with a target to create neutrons through various (p,n) type reactions. Spectral tailoring of the emitted neutrons can be used to modify the energy of the generated neutron spectrum to represent various reactor spectra. Through the use of moderators and reflectors, the neutron spectrum can be modified to reproduce many different spectra of interest including spectra in small thermal test reactors, large pressurized water reactors, and fast reactors. The particular application of this methodology is the design of an experimental approach for using an accelerator to measure the betas produced during fission to be used to reduce uncertainties in the interpretation of reactor antineutrino measurements. This approach involves using a proton accelerator to produce a neutron field representative of a power reactor, and using this neutron field to irradiate fission foils of the primary isotopes contributing to fission in the reactor, creating unstable, neutron rich fission products that subsequently beta decay and emit electron antineutrinos. A major advantage of an accelerator neutron source over a neutron beam from a thermal reactor is that the fast neutrons can be slowed down or tailored to approximate various power reactor spectra. An accelerator based neutron source that can be tailored to match various reactor neutron spectra provides an advantage for control in studying how changes in the neutron spectra affect parameters such as the resulting fission product beta spectrum.

  3. How to Produce a Reactor Neutron Spectrum Using a Proton Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K.; Wootan, D.; Gates, R.; Schmitt, B.; Asner, D. M.

    A method for reproducing the neutron energy spectrum present in the core of an operating nuclear reactor using an engineered target in an accelerator proton beam is proposed. The protons interact with a target to create neutrons through various (p,n) type reactions. Spectral tailoring of the emitted neutrons can be used to modify the energy of the generated neutron spectrum to represent various reactor spectra. Through the use of moderators and reflectors, the neutron spectrum can be modified to reproduce many different spectra of interest including spectra in small thermal test reactors, large pressurized water reactors, and fast reactors. The particular application of this methodology is the design of an experimental approach for using an accelerator to measure the betas produced during fission to be used to reduce uncertainties in the interpretation of reactor antineutrino measurements. This approach involves using a proton accelerator to produce a neutron field representative of a power reactor, and using this neutron field to irradiate fission foils of the primary isotopes contributing to fission in the reactor, creating unstable, neutron rich fission products that subsequently beta decay and emit electron antineutrinos. A major advantage of an accelerator neutron source over a neutron beam from a thermal reactor is that the fast neutrons can be slowed down or tailored to approximate various power reactor spectra. An accelerator based neutron source that can be tailored to match various reactor neutron spectra provides an advantage for control in studying how changes in the neutron spectra affect parameters such as the resulting fission product beta spectrum.

  4. Energy spectra and fluence of the neutrons produced in deformed space-time conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, F.; Rosada, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, spectra of energy and fluence of neutrons produced in the conditions of deformed space-time (DST), due to the violation of the local Lorentz invariance (LLI) in the nuclear interactions are shown for the first time. DST-neutrons are produced by a mechanical process in which AISI 304 steel bars undergo a sonication using ultrasounds with 20 kHz and 330 W. The energy spectrum of the DST-neutrons has been investigated both at low (less than 0.4 MeV) and at high (up to 4 MeV) energy. We could conclude that the DST-neutrons have different spectra for different energy intervals. It is therefore possible to hypothesize that the DST-neutrons production presents peculiar features not only with respect to the time (asynchrony) and space (asymmetry) but also in the neutron energy spectra.

  5. Analysis of Induced Gamma Activation by D-T Neutrons in Selected Fusion Reactor Relevant Materials with EAF-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klix, Axel; Fischer, Ulrich; Gehre, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Samples of lanthanum, erbium and titanium which are constituents of structural materials, insulating coatings and tritium breeder for blankets of fusion reactor designs have been irradiated in a fusion peak neutron field. The induced gamma activities were measured and the results were used to check calculations with the European activation system EASY-2010. Good agreement for the prediction of major contributors to the contact dose rate of the materials was found, but for minor contributors the calculation deviated up to 50%.

  6. Producing ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron star mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D J; Rosswog, S

    2006-05-01

    We report an extremely rapid mechanism for magnetic field amplification during the merger of a binary neutron star system. This has implications for the production of the short class of gamma-ray bursts, which recent observations suggest may originate in such mergers. In detailed magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the merger process, the fields are amplified by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities beyond magnetar field strength and may therefore represent the strongest magnetic fields in the universe. The amplification occurs in the shear layer that forms between the neutron stars and on a time scale of only 1 millisecond, that is, long before the remnant can collapse into a black hole.

  7. Three-dimensional neutron source models for toroidal fusion energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaybaugh, R.N. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)], E-mail: slaybaugh@wisc.edu; Wilson, P.P.H. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)], E-mail: wilsonp@engr.wisc.edu; El-Guebaly, L.A.; Marriott, E.P. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Developments in computer architecture and neutronics code capabilities have enabled high-resolution analysis of complex 3D geometries. Thus, accurately modeling 3D source distributions has become important for nuclear analyses. In this work two methods are described which generate and sample such 3D sources based directly on the plasma parameters of a fusion device and which facilitate the ability to update the neutron source following changes to the plasma physics configuration. The cylindrical mesh method is for toroidally symmetric machines and utilizes data in a standard file format which represents the poloidal magnetic flux on an R-Z grid. The conformal hexahedral mesh method takes plasma physics data generated in an idealized toroidal coordinate system and uses a Jacobian transformation and a functional expansion to generate the source. This work describes each methodology and associated test cases. The cylindrical mesh method was applied to ARIES-RS and the conformal hexahedral mesh method was applied to a uniform torus and ARIES-CS. The results of the test cases indicate that these improved source definitions can have important effects on pertinent engineering parameters, such as neutron wall loading, and should therefore be used for high-resolution nuclear analyses of all toroidal devices.

  8. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, T; Landoas, O; Briat, M; Kime, S; Rossé, B; Thfoin, I; Bourgade, J L; Disdier, L; Glebov, V Yu; Marshall, F J; Sangster, T C

    2012-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution (~10 μm) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MégaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a (60)Co γ-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 μm were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  9. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Kime, S.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MegaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 {mu}m were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  10. Fusion of proinsulin-producing bone marrow-derived cells with hepatocytes in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimiya, Mineko; Kojima, Hideto; Ichinose, Masumi; Arai, Ryohachi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Chan, Lawrence

    2007-03-06

    We previously reported that diabetes in mice is associated with the appearance of proinsulin-producing (Proins-P) cells in the liver. It was unclear, however, whether these Proins-P bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) merely transit through the liver or undergo fusion with hepatocytes, normally an extremely rare event. In this study, we found that, in diabetes, BMDC in the liver produce not only Proins but also TNF-alpha, suggesting that diabetes reprograms gene expression in BMDC, turning on "inappropriate" genes. Bone marrow transplantation using genetically marked donor and recipient mice showed that fusion occurs between Proins-P BMDC and hepatocytes. Cell fusion is further supported by the presence of the Y chromosome in Proins-P cells in female mice that received male bone marrow transplantation cells. Morphologically, Proins-P fusion cells are albumin-producing hepatocytes that constitute approximately 2.5% of the liver section area 5 months after diabetes induction. An extensive search failed to reveal any fusion cells in nondiabetic mice. Thus, diabetes causes fusion between Proins-P BMDC and hepatocytes in vivo, an observation that has implications for the pathophysiology of diabetes as well as the fundamental biology of heterotypic cell fusion.

  11. Role of neutron transfer processes on the 6Li+120Sn and 7Li+119Sn fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisichella M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results concerning the study of 6Li+120Sn and 7Li+119Sn systems are presented. These two sistems are characterised by very similar structures of the interacting nuclei and by different Q-value for one-and two- neutron transfer. Our aim is to disentangle the possible effects due to the different n-transfer Q-values, at sub-barriers energies, by comparing the two fusion excitation function. In these experiments the fusion cross section has been measured by using a stack activation technique. No particular differences in the two fusion excitation functions have been observed.

  12. Influence of projectile neutron number on cross section in cold fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragojevic, Irena; Dragojevic, I.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Elements 107-112 [1,2] have been discovered in reactions between {sup 208}Pb or {sup 209}Bi targets and projectiles ranging from {sup 54}Cr through {sup 70}Zn. In such reactions, the compound nucleus can be formed at excitation energies as low as {approx}12 MeV, thus this type of reaction has been referred to as 'cold fusion'. The study of cold fusion reactions is an indispensable approach to gaining a better understanding of heavy element formation and decay. A theoretical model that successfully predicts not only the magnitudes of cold fusion cross sections, but also the shapes of excitation functions and the cross section ratios between various reaction pairs was recently developed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski [3,4]. This theoretical model, also referred to as Fusion by Diffusion, has been the guide in all of our cold fusion studies. One particularly interesting aspect of this model is the large predicted difference in cross sections between projectiles differing by two neutrons. The projectile pair where this difference is predicted to be largest is {sup 48}Ti and {sup 50}Ti. To test and extend this model, {sup 208}Pb({sup 48}Ti,n){sup 255}Rf and {sup 208}Pb({sup 50}Ti,n){sup 257}Rf excitation functions were recently measured at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) 88-Inch Cyclotron utilizing the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS). The {sup 50}Ti reaction was carried out with thin lead targets ({approx}100 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}), and the {sup 48}Ti reaction with both thin and thick targets ({approx}470 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}). In addition to this reaction pair, reactions with projectile pairs {sup 52}Cr and {sup 54}Cr [5], {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Fe [6], and {sup 62}Ni [7] and {sup 64}Ni [8] will be discussed and compared to the Fusion by Diffusion predictions. The model predictions show a very good agreement with the data.

  13. Comprehensive Measurement of Neutron Yield Produced by 62 MeV Protons on Beryllium Target

    CERN Document Server

    Osipenko, M; Alba, R; Ricco, G; Schillaci, M; Barbagallo, M; Boccaccio, P; Celentano, A; Colonna, N; Cosentino, L; Del Zoppo, A; Di Pietro, A; Esposito, J; Figuera, P; Finocchiaro, P; Kostyukov, A; Maiolino, C; Santonocito, D; Scuderi, V; Viberti, C M

    2013-01-01

    A low-power prototype of neutron amplifier, based on a 70 MeV, high current proton cyclotron being installed at LNL for the SPES RIB facility, was recently proposed within INFN-E project. This prototype uses a thick Beryllium converter to produce a fast neutron spectrum feeding a sub-critical reactor core. To complete the design of such facility the new measurement of neutron yield from a thick Beryllium target was performed at LNS. This measurement used liquid scintillator detectors to identify produced neutrons by Pulse Shape Discrimination and Time of Flight technique to measure neutron energy in the range 0.5-62 MeV. To extend the covered neutron energy range He3 detector was used to measure neutrons below 0.5 MeV. The obtained yields were normalized to the charge deposited by the proton beam on the metallic Beryllium target. These techniques allowed to achieve a wide angular coverage from 0 to 150 degrees and to explore almost complete neutron energy interval.

  14. Progress on using deuteron-deuteron fusion generated neutrons for 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Renne, Paul R.; Becker, Tim; Waltz, Cory; Ayllon Unzueta, Mauricio; Zimmerman, Susan; Hidy, Alan; Finkel, Robert; Bauer, Joseph D.; Bernstein, Lee; van Bibber, Karl

    2017-04-01

    We present progress on the development and proof of concept of a deuteron-deuteron fusion based neutron generator for 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation. Irradiation with deuteron-deuteron fusion neutrons is anticipated to reduce Ar recoil and Ar production from interfering reactions. This will allow dating of smaller grains and increase accuracy and precision of the method. The instrument currently achieves neutron fluxes of ˜9×107 cm-2s-1 as determined by irradiation of indium foils and use of the activation reaction 115In(n,n')115mIn. Multiple foils and simulations were used to determine flux gradients in the sample chamber. A first experiment quantifying the loss of 39Ar is underway and will likely be available at the time of the presentation of this abstract. In ancillary experiments via irradiation of K salts and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis we determined the cross-sections of the 39K(n,p)39Ar reaction at ˜2.8 MeV to be 160 ± 35 mb (1σ). This result is in good agreement with bracketing cross-section data of ˜96 mb at ˜2.45 MeV and ˜270 mb at ˜4 MeV [Johnson et al., 1967; Dixon and Aitken, 1961 and Bass et al. 1964]. Our data disfavor a much lower value of ˜45 mb at 2.59 MeV [Lindström & Neuer, 1958]. In another ancillary experiment the cross section for 39K(n,α)36Cl at ˜2.8 MeV was determined as 11.7 ± 0.5 mb (1σ), which is significant for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology due to subsequent decay to 36Ar as well as for the determination of production rates of cosmogenic 36Cl. Additional experiments resolving the cross section functions on 39K between 1.5 and 3.6 MeV are on their way using the LICORNE neutron source of the IPN Orsay tandem accelerator. Results will likely be available at the time of the presentation of this abstract. While the neutron generator is designed for fluxes of ˜109 cm-2s-1, arcing in the sample chamber currently limits the power—straightforwardly correlated to the neutron flux—the generator can safely be run at. Further

  15. Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Nuclei Near the Z=82 Closed Shell via Symmetric Fusion Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondev F.G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam and decay-spectroscopy studies of neutron-deficient nuclei near the Z=82 shell closure were carried out using the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA and the Gammasphere array, in conjunction with symmetric fusion reactions and the Recoil Decay Tagging (RDT technique. The primary motivation was to study properties of 179Tl and 180Tl, and their daughter, and grand-daughter isotopes. For the first time, in-beam structures associated with 179Tl and 180Tl were observed, as well as γ rays associated with the 180Tl α decay. No long-lived isomer was identified in 180Tl, in contrast with the known systematics for the heavier odd-odd Tl isotopes.

  16. Neutron-induced reactions relevant for Inertial-Cofinement Fusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Melissa; Merrill, Frank; Rundberg, R.; Grim, Gary; Wilde, Carl; Hayes, Anna; Fowler, Malcom; Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2012-10-01

    Measuring the fluencies of both the low- & high-energy neutrons is a powerful mechanism for studying the implosion process, and the various parameters that drive inertial confinement fusion. We have developed a number of tools to measure the spectral characteristics of the NIF neutron spectrum. Most of these methods rely on exploiting the energy dependence of (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,3n) and (n,p) reactions on a variety of materials either implicitly present in the NIF implosion or through doping the target capsule or holraum. I will be discussing both prompt activation measurements, and debris activation measurements of these materials currently under development at LANL. Focusing specifically on the development of an in-situ detector to measure short-lived activation products, as well as a low-background counting facility we are developing at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to study longer-lived activation products. Furthermore, I will also be discussing several cross section measurements that are important for the interpretation of the data collected from these activation products.

  17. The effects of magnetic field topology on secondary neutron spectra in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbe, B.; Pecover, J.; Chittenden, J.

    2017-03-01

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept involves the compression of a magnetized fuel such that the stagnated fuel contains a magnetic field that can suppress heat flow losses and confine α particles. Magnetic confinement of α particles reduces the fuel ρR required for ignition. Recent work [1,2] has demonstrated that the magnitude of the magnetic field in deuterium fuel can be inferred from the yields and spectra of secondary DT neutrons. In this work we investigate the potential for using the shape of the secondary neutron spectra to diagnose the magnetic field topology in the stagnated fuel. Three different field topologies that could possibly occur in MagLIF experiments are studied: (1) a cylindrical fuel column containing axial and azimuthal magnetic field components, (2) a fuel column which is pinched at the ends to form a magnetic mirror and (3) a fuel column that has a helical tube shape with magnetic field lines following the helical path of the tube's axis. Each topology is motivated by observations from experimental or simulated MagLIF data. For each topology we use a multi-physics model to investigate the shapes of the secondary neutron spectra emitted from a steady-state stagnated fuel column. It is found that the azimuthal and helical topologies are more suitable than the mirror topology for reproducing an asymmetry in the axial spectra that was observed in experiments. Gorgon MHD simulations of the MagLIF implosion in 1D are also carried out. These show that sufficient azimuthal magnetic field can penetrate from the liner into the fuel to qualitatively reproduce the observed spectral asymmetry.

  18. Neutron field produced by 25 MeV deuteron on thick beryllium for radiobiological study; energy spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masashi; Mihara, Erika; Sasaki, Michiya; Nakamura, Takashi; Honma, Toshihiko; Kono, Koji; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2004-01-01

    Biological data is necessary for estimation of protection from neutrons, but there is a lack of data on biological effects of neutrons for radiation protection. Radiological study on fast neutrons has been done at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. An intense neutron source has been produced by 25 MeV deuterons on a thick beryllium target. The neutron energy spectrum, which is essential for neutron energy deposition calculation, was measured from thermal to maximum energy range by using an organic liquid scintillator and multi-sphere moderated 3He proportional counters. The spectrum of the gamma rays accompanying the neutron beam was measured simultaneously with the neutron spectrum using the organic liquid scintillator. The transmission by the shield of the spurious neutrons originating from the target was measured to be less than 1% by using the organic liquid scintillator placed behind the collimator. The measured neutron energy spectrum is useful in dose calculations for radiobiology studies.

  19. Radiography apparatus using gamma rays emitted by water activated by fusion neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.L.; Ikeda, Yujiro; Uno, Yoshitomo

    1996-11-05

    Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction using {sup 14}N-MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second {sup 16}N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.13 seconds of the activated oxygen is sufficient to permit gamma ray generation at a remote location where the activated water is transported, while not presenting a chemical or radioactivity hazard because the radioactivity falls to negligible levels after 1--2 minutes. 15 figs.

  20. Analysis of Induced Gamma Activation by D-T Neutrons in Selected Fusion Reactor Relevant Materials with EAF-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klix Axel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of lanthanum, erbium and titanium which are constituents of structural materials, insulating coatings and tritium breeder for blankets of fusion reactor designs have been irradiated in a fusion peak neutron field. The induced gamma activities were measured and the results were used to check calculations with the European activation system EASY-2010. Good agreement for the prediction of major contributors to the contact dose rate of the materials was found, but for minor contributors the calculation deviated up to 50%.

  1. Irradiation creep in austenitic and ferritic steels irradiated in a tailored neutron spectrum to induce fusion reactor levels of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Gibson, L.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Jitsukawa, S.

    1996-04-01

    Six austenitic stainless steels and two ferritic alloys were irradiated sequentially in two research reactors where the neutron spectrum was tailored to produce a He production rate typical of a fusion device. Irradiation began in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor where an atomic displacement level of 7.4 dpa was achieved and was then transferred to the High Flux Isotope Reactor for the remainder of the irradiation to a total displacement level of 19 dpa. Temperatures of 60 and 330{degree}C are reported on. At 330{degree}C irradiation creep was found to be linear in stress and fluence with rates in the range of 1.7 - 5.5 x 10{sup -4}% MPa{sup -1} dpa{sup -1}. Annealed and cold-worked materials exhibited similar creep rates. There is some indication that austenitic alloys with TiC or TiO precipitates had a slightly higher irradiation creep rate than those without. The ferritic alloys HT-9 and Fe-16Cr had irradiatoin creep rates about 0.5 x 10{sup -4}% MPa{sup -1} dpa{sup -1}. No meaningful data could be obtained from the tubes irradiated at 60{degree}C because of damage to the tubes.

  2. ACCELERATING FUSION REACTOR NEUTRONICS MODELING BY AUTOMATIC COUPLING OF HYBRID MONTE CARLO/DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT ON CAD GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondo, Elliott D [ORNL; Ibrahim, Ahmad M [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL; Grove, Robert E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).

  3. The Status of Research Regarding Magnetic Mirrors as a Fusion Neutron Source or Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T

    2008-12-23

    experiments have confirmed the physics of effluent plasma stabilization predicted by theory. The plasma had a mean ion energy of 10 keV and a density of 5e19m-3. If successful, the axisymmetric tandem mirror extension of the GDT idea could lead to a Q {approx} 10 power plant of modest size and would yield important applications at lower Q. In addition to the GDT method, there are four other ways to augment stability that have been demonstrated; including: plasma rotation (MCX), diverter coils (Tara), pondermotive (Phaedrus & Tara), and end wall funnel shape (Nizhni Novgorod). There are also 5 stabilization techniques predicted, but not yet demonstrated: expander kinetic pressure (KSTM-Post), Pulsed ECH Dynamic Stabilization (Post), wall stabilization (Berk), non-paraxial end mirrors (Ryutov), and cusp ends (Kesner). While these options should be examined further together with conceptual engineering designs. Physics issues that need further analysis include: electron confinement, MHD and trapped particle modes, analysis of micro stability, radial transport, evaluation and optimization of Q, and the plasma density needed to bridge to the expansion-region. While promising all should be examined through increased theory effort, university-scale experiments, and through increased international collaboration with the substantial facilities in Russia and Japan The conventional wisdom of magnetic mirrors was that they would never work as a fusion concept for a number of reasons. This conventional wisdom is most probably all wrong or not applicable, especially for applications such as low Q (DT Neutron Source) aimed at materials testing or for a Q {approx} 3-5 fusion neutron source applied to destroying actinides in fission waste and breeding of fissile fuel.

  4. Systematic study of the isotopic dependence of fusion dynamics for neutron- and proton-rich nuclei using a proximity formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Ghodsi, O N; Lari, F

    2016-01-01

    The behaviors of barrier characteristics and fusion cross sections are analyzed by changing neutron over wide range of colliding systems. For this purpose, we have extended our previous study (Eur. Phys. J. A \\textbf{48}, 21 (2012), it is devoted to the colliding systems with neutron-rich nuclei) to 125 isotopic systems with condition of $0.5\\leq N/Z \\leq 1.6$ for their compound nuclei. The AW 95, Bass 80, Denisov DP and Prox. 2010 potentials are used to calculate the nuclear part of interacting potential. The obtained results show that the trend of barrier heights $V_B$ and positions $R_B$ as well as nuclear $V_N$ and Coulomb $V_C$ potentials (at $R=R_B$) as a function of ($N/Z-1$) quantity are non-linear (second-order) whereas the fusion cross sections follow a linear-dependence.

  5. Nondestructive Inspection System for Special Nuclear Material Using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Neutrons and Laser Compton Scattering Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgaki, H.; Daito, I.; Zen, H.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Misawa, T.; Hajima, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Kando, M.; Fujimoto, S.

    2017-07-01

    A Neutron/Gamma-ray combined inspection system for hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs) in cargo containers has been developed under a program of Japan Science and Technology Agency in Japan. This inspection system consists of an active neutron-detection system for fast screening and a laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray source in coupling with nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method for precise inspection. The inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device has been adopted as a neutron source and two neutron-detection methods, delayed neutron noise analysis method and high-energy neutron-detection method, have been developed to realize the fast screening system. The prototype system has been constructed and tested in the Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University. For the generation of the laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray beam, a race track microtron accelerator has been used to reduce the size of the system. For the NRF measurement, an array of LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors has been adopted to realize a low-cost detection system. The prototype of the gamma-ray system has been demonstrated in the Kansai Photon Science Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology. By using numerical simulations based on the data taken from these prototype systems and the inspection-flow, the system designed by this program can detect 1 kg of highly enriched 235U (HEU) hidden in an empty 20-ft container within several minutes.

  6. An assessment of the evaporation and condensation phenomena of lithium during the operation of a Li(d,xn) fusion relevant neutron source

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knaster, J; Kanemura, T; Kondo, K

    2016-01-01

    The flowing lithium target of a Li(d,xn) fusion relevant neutron source must evacuate the deuteron beam power and generate in a stable manner a flux of neutrons with a broad peak at 14 MeV capable to cause similar phenomena as would undergo...

  7. Charge-injection-device performance in the high-energy-neutron environment of laser-fusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, F J; DeHaas, T; Glebov, V Yu

    2010-10-01

    Charge-injection devices (CIDs) are being used to image x rays in laser-fusion experiments on the University of Rochester's OMEGA Laser System. The CID cameras are routinely used up to the maximum neutron yields generated (∼10(14) DT). The detectors are deployed in x-ray pinhole cameras and Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes. The neutron fluences ranged from ∼10(7) to ∼10(9) neutrons/cm(2) and useful x-ray images were obtained even at the highest fluences. It is intended to use CID cameras at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a supporting means of recording x-ray images. The results of this work predict that x-ray images should be obtainable on the NIF at yields up to ∼10(15), depending on distance and shielding.

  8. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  9. Why does neutron transfer play different roles in sub-barrier fusion reactions $^{32}$S+$^{94,96}$Zr and $^{40}$Ca+$^{94,96}$Zr?

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, V V; Antonenko, N V; Scheid, W; Zhang, H Q

    2014-01-01

    The sub-barrier capture (fusion) reactions $^{32}$S+$^{90,94,96}$Zr, $^{36}$S+$^{90,96}$Zr, $^{40}$Ca+$^{90,94,96}$Zr, and $^{48}$Ca+$^{90,96}$Zr with positive and negative $Q$-values for neutron transfer are studied within the quantum diffusion approach and the universal fusion function representation. For these systems, the s-wave capture probabilities are extracted from the experimental excitation functions and are also analyzed. Different effects of the positive $Q_{xn}$-value neutron transfer in the fusion enhancement are revealed in the relatively close reactions $^{32}$S+$^{94,96}$Zr and $^{40}$Ca+$^{94,96}$Zr.

  10. Influence of differences in the proton and neutron distributions on nuclear fusion and fission; Infuence de la difference entre les distributions de protons et de neutrons dans le noyau sur les processus de fusion et de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowolski, A

    2006-04-15

    This thesis work is centred on some essential ingredients of a theoretical description of the reaction dynamics of the nuclear fusion and fission process, such as the interaction potential between projectile and target nuclei for fusion and the deformation energy landscape in a multidimensional space for the fission process. We have in particular evaluated the importance of the difference between the neutron and proton density distributions on these 2 processes. The fusion potential between the two interacting nuclei is obtained through the nucleon densities, determined in a self-consistent way through semiclassical density variational calculations for a given effective nucleon-nucleon effective interaction of the Skyrme type. These fusion barriers can then be used in a Langevin formalism to evaluation fusion cross sections. For the fission process it turns out to be essential to allow for the large variety of shapes which appear between the nuclear ground state and the the scission configuration. We show that a shape parametrisation taking into account elongation, as well as possible neck formation, left-right asymmetry and non-axiality allows a precise description of this phenomena in the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic approach. We are thus able to enrich the expression of the liquid-drop type energy through a term which describes the variation of the nuclear energy due to a deformation difference between the proton and neutron distribution. The resulting reduction of the fission barriers is only of the order of one MeV but this can easily cause a change in the fission cross-section by an order of magnitude and thus plays a capital role for the stability of super-heavy of exotic nuclei. (author)

  11. Antiproton Radiotherapy Peripheral Dose from Secondary Neutrons produced in the Annihilation of Antiprotons in the Target

    CERN Document Server

    Fahimian, Benjamin P; Keyes, Roy; Bassler, Niels; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Zankl, Maria; Holzscheiter, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    The AD-4/ACE collaboration studies the biological effects of antiprotons with respect to a possible use of antiprotons in cancer therapy. In vitro experiments performed by the collaboration have shown an enhanced biological effectiveness for antiprotons relative to protons. One concern is the normal tissue dose resulting from secondary neutrons produced in the annihilation of antiprotons on the nucleons of the target atoms. Here we present the first organ specific Monte Carlo calculations of normal tissue equivalent neutron dose in antiproton therapy through the use of a segmented CT-based human phantom. The MCNPX Monte Carlo code was employed to quantify the peripheral dose for a cylindrical spread out Bragg peak representing a treatment volume of 1 cm diameter and 1 cm length in the frontal lobe of a segmented whole-body phantom of a 38 year old male. The secondary neutron organ dose was tallied as a function of energy and organ.

  12. Shielding experiment of heavy-ion produced neutrons using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunomiya, T; Yonai, S; Takada, M; Fukumura, A; Nakamura, T

    2003-01-01

    A shielding experiment was performed at the HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba), of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), to measure neutron dose using a spherical TEPC (tissue-equivalent proportional counter) of 12.55 cm inner diameter. Neutrons are produced from a 5 cm thick stopping length Cu target bombarded by 400 MeV/nucleon C6+ ions and penetrate concrete or iron shields of various thicknesses at 0 degree to the beam direction. From this shielding experiment. y-distribution, mean lineal energy, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and mean-quality factor were obtained behind the shield as a function of shield thickness. The neutron dose attenuation lengths were also obtained as 126 g cm(-2) for concrete and 211 g cm(-2) for iron. The measured results were compared with the calculated results using the MARS Monte Carlo code.

  13. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A; Kulcinski, J; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Santarius, J; Simonen, T; Wirth, B D; Ying, A

    2009-11-23

    The successful operation (with {beta} {le} 60%, classical ions and electrons with Te = 250 eV) of the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia, extrapolates to a 2 MW/m{sup 2} Dynamic Trap Neutron Source (DTNS), which burns only {approx}100 g of tritium per full power year. The DTNS has no serious physics, engineering, or technology obstacles; the extension of neutral beam lines to steady state can use demonstrated engineering; and it supports near-term tokamaks and volume neutron sources. The DTNS provides a neutron spectrum similar to that of ITER and satisfies the missions specified by the materials community to test fusion materials (listed as one of the top grand challenges for engineering in the 21st century by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering) and subcomponents (including tritium-breeding blankets) needed to construct DEMO. The DTNS could serve as the first Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), called for by ReNeW, and could provide the data necessary for licensing subsequent FSNFs.

  14. A measurement of the absolute neutron beam polarization produced by an optically pumped sup 3 He neutron spin filter

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, D R; Crawford, B E; Delheij, P P J; Espy, M A; Haseyama, T; Jones, G; Keith, C D; Knudson, J; Leuschner, M B; Masaike, A; Masuda, Y; Matsuda, Y; Penttilae, S I; Pomeroy, V R; Smith, D A; Snow, W M; Szymanski, J J; Stephenson, S L; Thompson, A K; Yuan, V

    2002-01-01

    The capability of performing accurate absolute measurements of neutron beam polarization opens a number of exciting opportunities in fundamental neutron physics and in neutron scattering. At the LANSCE pulsed neutron source we have measured the neutron beam polarization with an absolute accuracy of 0.3% in the neutron energy range from 40 meV to 10 eV using an optically pumped polarized sup 3 He spin filter and a relative transmission measurement technique. sup 3 He was polarized using the Rb spin-exchange method. We describe the measurement technique, present our results, and discuss some of the systematic effects associated with the method.

  15. Shielding implications for secondary neutrons and photons produced within the patient during IMPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarco, J.; Kupelian, P.; Santhanam, A.; Low, D. [UCLA Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) uses a combination of computer controlled spot scanning and spot-weight optimized planning to irradiate the tumor volume uniformly. In contrast to passive scattering systems, secondary neutrons and photons produced from inelastic proton interactions within the patient represent the major source of emitted radiation during IMPT delivery. Various published studies evaluated the shielding considerations for passive scattering systems but did not directly address secondary neutron production from IMPT and the ambient dose equivalent on surrounding occupational and nonoccupational work areas. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the energy and angular distributions of secondary neutrons and photons following inelastic proton interactions within a tissue-equivalent phantom for incident proton spot energies between 70 and 250 MeV.Methods: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to calculate the ambient dose equivalent of secondary neutrons and photons produced from inelastic proton interactions in a tissue-equivalent phantom. The angular distribution of emitted neutrons and photons were scored as a function of incident proton energy throughout a spherical annulus at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 m from the phantom center. Appropriate dose equivalent conversion factors were applied to estimate the total ambient dose equivalent from secondary neutrons and photons.Results: A reference distance of 1 m from the center of the patient was used to evaluate the mean energy distribution of secondary neutrons and photons and the resulting ambient dose equivalent. For an incident proton spot energy of 250 MeV, the total ambient dose equivalent (3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mSv per proton Gy) was greatest along the direction of the incident proton spot (0 Degree-Sign -10 Degree-Sign ) with a mean secondary neutron energy of 71.3 MeV. The dose equivalent decreased by a factor of 5 in the

  16. A self-consistent method to analyze the effects of the positive Q-value neutron transfers on fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Jia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the present limitation of the need for external parameters to describe the nucleus–nucleus potential and the couplings in the coupled-channels calculations, this work introduces an improved method without adjustable parameter to overcome the limitation and then sort out the positive Q-value neutron transfers (PQNT effects based on the CCFULL calculations. The corresponding analysis for Ca+Ca, S,Ca+Sn, and S,Ca+Zr provides a reliable proof and a quantitative evaluation for the residual enhancement (RE related to PQNT. In addition, the RE for S32,Ca40+Zr94 shows an unexpected larger enhancement than S32,Ca40+Zr96 despite the similar multi-neutron transfer Q-values. This method should rather strictly test the fusion models and be helpful for excavating the underlying physics.

  17. Neutron irradiation of V-Cr-Ti alloys in the BOR-60 fast reactor: Description of the fusion-1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Tsai, H.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The FUSION-1 irradiation capsule was inserted in Row 5 of the BOR-60 fast reactor in June 1995. The capsule contains a collaborative RF/U.S. experiment to investigate the irradiation performance of V-Cr-Ti alloys in the temperature range 310 to 350{degrees}C. This report describes the capsule layout, specimen fabrication history, and the detailed test matrix for the U.S. specimens. A description of the operating history and neutronics will be presented in the next semiannual report.

  18. Velocity-space sensitivity of neutron spectrometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Eriksson, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Neutron emission spectrometry (NES) measures the energies of neutrons produced in fusion reactions. Here we present velocity-space weight functions for NES and neutron yield measurements. Weight functions show the sensitivity as well as the accessible regions in velocity space for a given range...

  19. Georgia Tech Studies of Sub-Critical Advanced Burner Reactors with a D-T Fusion Tokamak Neutron Source for the Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2009-09-01

    The possibility that a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, based on ITER physics and technology, could be used to drive sub-critical, fast-spectrum nuclear reactors fueled with the transuranics (TRU) in spent nuclear fuel discharged from conventional nuclear reactors has been investigated at Georgia Tech in a series of studies which are summarized in this paper. It is found that sub-critical operation of such fast transmutation reactors is advantageous in allowing longer fuel residence time, hence greater TRU burnup between fuel reprocessing stages, and in allowing higher TRU loading without compromising safety, relative to what could be achieved in a similar critical transmutation reactor. The required plasma and fusion technology operating parameter range of the fusion neutron source is generally within the anticipated operational range of ITER. The implications of these results for fusion development policy, if they hold up under more extensive and detailed analysis, is that a D-T fusion tokamak neutron source for a sub-critical transmutation reactor, built on the basis of the ITER operating experience, could possibly be a logical next step after ITER on the path to fusion electrical power reactors. At the same time, such an application would allow fusion to contribute to meeting the nation's energy needs at an earlier stage by helping to close the fission reactor nuclear fuel cycle.

  20. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R., E-mail: raspberry@lanl.gov; Danly, C.; Fatherley, V. E.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Christensen, K.; Fittinghoff, D.; Grim, G. P.; Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Skulina, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF.

  1. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R.; Christensen, K.; Danly, C.; Fatherley, V. E.; Fittinghoff, D.; Grim, G. P.; Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Merrill, F. E.; Skulina, K.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF.

  2. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: System for measurement of low yield neutron pulses from D D fusion reactions based upon a 3He proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José; Birstein, Lipo; Mayer, Roberto E.; Silva, Patricio; Soto, Leopoldo

    2008-08-01

    A conventional neutron detection technique was adapted to measure low neutron yields from D-D fusion pulses. This method uses a 3He proportional counter surrounded by a paraffin moderator. Electric signals generated in the 3He tube are fed into a preamplifier. The output of the preamplifier is directly connected to a digital oscilloscope. The time-integrated signals represent the charge generated in the 3He tube which is proportional to the total neutron yield. The integration time is determined by the preamplifier and moderator characteristics within some hundreds of microseconds. No meaningful neutron background was detected during this time window. The system, previously calibrated, was used to measure the neutron yield (low as 103 neutrons per pulse were measured.

  3. Advanced materials characterization and modeling using synchrotron, neutron, TEM, and novel micro-mechanical techniques - A European effort to accelerate fusion materials development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Fu, C.-C.; Kaprolat, A.

    2013-01-01

    For the realization of fusion as an energy source, the development of suitable materials is one of the most critical issues. The required material properties are in many aspects unique compared to the existing solutions, particularly the need for necessary resistance to irradiation with neutrons...... having energies up to 14 MeV. In addition to withstanding the effects of neutrons, the mechanical stability of structural materials has to be maintained up to high temperatures. Plasma-exposed materials must be compatible with the fusion plasma, both with regard to the generation of impurities injected...... as testing under neutron flux-induced conditions. For the realization of a DEMO power plant, the materials solutions must be available in time. The European initiative FEMaS-CA – Fusion Energy Materials Science – Coordination Action – aims at accelerating materials development by integrating advanced...

  4. Trans-splicing as a novel method to rapidly produce antibody fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Ryohei; Kiuchi, Hiroki [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ihara, Masaki [Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Mori, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Masayuki [Lifescience Lab. R and D, Fujifilm Co., 577 Ushijima, Kaisei-machi, Ashigarakami-gun, Kanagawa 258-8577 (Japan); Ueda, Hiroshi, E-mail: hueda@chembio.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2009-07-03

    To cultivate the use of trans-splicing as a novel means to rapidly express various antibody fusion proteins, we tried to express antibody-reporter enzyme fusions in a COS-1 co-transfection model. When a vector designed to induce trans-splicing with IgH pre-mRNA was co-transfected with a vector encoding the mouse IgM locus, the expression of V{sub H}-secreted human placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) as well as Fab-SEAP were successfully expressed both in mRNA and protein levels. Especially, the vectors encoding complementary sequence to S{mu} as a binding domain was accurate and efficient, producing trans-spliced mRNA of up to 2% of cis-spliced one. Since S{mu} sequence should exist in every IgH pre-mRNA, our finding will lead to the rapid production and analysis of various antibody-enzyme fusions suitable for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or antibody-dependent enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT).

  5. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  6. Why does neutron transfer play different roles in sub-barrier fusion reactions $^{32}$S+$^{94,96}$Zr and $^{40}$Ca+$^{94,96}$Zr?

    OpenAIRE

    Sargsyan, V.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Scheid, W.; H. Q. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The sub-barrier capture (fusion) reactions $^{32}$S+$^{90,94,96}$Zr, $^{36}$S+$^{90,96}$Zr, $^{40}$Ca+$^{90,94,96}$Zr, and $^{48}$Ca+$^{90,96}$Zr with positive and negative $Q$-values for neutron transfer are studied within the quantum diffusion approach and the universal fusion function representation. For these systems, the s-wave capture probabilities are extracted from the experimental excitation functions and are also analyzed. Different effects of the positive $Q_{xn}$-value neutron tra...

  7. Fast response neutron emission monitor for fusion reactor using stilbene scintillator and Flash-ADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoga, T; Ishikawa, M; Baba, M; Okuji, T; Oishi, T; Nakhostin, M; Nishitani, T

    2007-01-01

    The stilbene neutron detector which has been used for neutron emission profile monitoring in JT-60U has been improved, to respond to the requirement to observe the high-frequency phenomena in megahertz region such as toroidicity-induced Alfvén Eigen mode in burning plasma as well as the spatial profile and the energy spectrum. This high-frequency phenomenon is of great interest and one of the key issues in plasma physics in recent years. To achieve a fast response in the stilbene detector, a Flash-ADC is applied and the wave form of the anode signal stored directly, and neutron/gamma discrimination was carried out via software with a new scheme for data acquisition mode to extend the count rate limit to MHz region from 1.3 x 10(5) neutron/s in the past, and confirmed the adequacy of the method.

  8. Neutronic design studies of a conceptual DCLL fusion reactor for a DEMO and a commercial power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, I.; Veredas, G.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Ibarra, A.

    2016-01-01

    Neutronic analyses or, more widely, nuclear analyses have been performed for the development of a dual-coolant He/LiPb (DCLL) conceptual design reactor. A detailed three-dimensional (3D) model has been examined and optimized. The design is based on the plasma parameters and functional materials of the power plant conceptual studies (PPCS) model C. The initial radial-build for the detailed model has been determined according to the dimensions established in a previous work on an equivalent simplified homogenized reactor model. For optimization purposes, the initial specifications established over the simplified model have been refined on the detailed 3D design, modifying material and dimension of breeding blanket, shield and vacuum vessel in order to fulfil the priority requirements of a fusion reactor in terms of the fundamental neutronic responses. Tritium breeding ratio, energy multiplication factor, radiation limits in the TF coils, helium production and displacements per atom (dpa) have been calculated in order to demonstrate the functionality and viability of the reactor design in guaranteeing tritium self-sufficiency, power efficiency, plasma confinement, and re-weldability and structural integrity of the components. The paper describes the neutronic design improvements of the DCLL reactor, obtaining results for both DEMO and power plant operational scenarios.

  9. A generic data translation scheme for the coupling of high-fidelity fusion neutronics and CFD calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yuefeng, E-mail: yuefeng.qiu@kit.edu [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lu, Peng [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe (Germany); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Fischer, Ulrich; Pereslavtsev, Pavel; Kecskes, Szabolcs [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A data translation scheme has been developed for coupling Monte Carlo neutronics and CFD simulations. • It contains a generic data translation kernel, and interfaces for the MCNP, CFX and Fluent code. • A blanket test case model was investigated for validation and verification purposes. • Results of the so-called Inversion Check are very close to MCNP calculated results. - Abstract: The design of fusion device components is achieved through iterative coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses. A translation scheme has been developed for transferring the nuclear heating data from Monte Carlo (MC) neutronic calculations to CFD simulations. It contains a generic data translation kernel which supports the high-fidelity data mapping of MC meshes on CFD meshes, and provides interfaces for processing the nuclear response data on the meshes for CFD codes. This translation scheme has been implemented in the open-source pre- and post-processing platform SALOME to extend its capabilities on data manipulations and visualizations. For verification purposes, a blanket test case based on the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module was investigated. The processing of the heating distribution data was validated through a so-called Inversion Check comparing the inverted heating field with the original MC tally distribution. The results of the verification have been discussed in detail, and the reliability of the data translation scheme is concluded.

  10. Alloy Design for a Fusion Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Fusion power is generated when hot deuterium and tritium nuclei react, producing alpha particles and 14 MeV neutrons. These neutrons escape the reaction plasma and are absorbed by the surrounding material structure of the plant, transferring the heat of the reaction to an external cooling circuit. In such high-energy neutron irradiation environments, extensive atomic displacement damage and transmutation production of helium affect the mechanical properties of materials. Among these effect...

  11. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/−0.06) MG · cm, a ∼ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  12. Particle Filter-Based Recursive Data Fusion With Sensor Indexing for Large Core Neutron Flux Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Prakash Kumar; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P.; Roy, Kallol

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a sequential importance sampling particle filter (PF)-based multisensor multivariate nonlinear estimator for estimating the in-core neutron flux distribution for pressurized heavy water reactor core. Many critical applications such as reactor protection and control rely upon neutron flux information, and thus their reliability is of utmost importance. The point kinetic model based on neutron transport conveniently explains the dynamics of nuclear reactor. The neutron flux in the large core loosely coupled reactor is sensed by multiple sensors measuring point fluxes located at various locations inside the reactor core. The flux values are coupled to each other through diffusion equation. The coupling facilitates redundancy in the information. It is shown that multiple independent data about the localized flux can be fused together to enhance the estimation accuracy to a great extent. We also propose the sensor anomaly handling feature in multisensor PF to maintain the estimation process even when the sensor is faulty or generates data anomaly.

  13. Current-carrying element based on second-generation high-temperature superconductor for the magnet system of a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, M. S., E-mail: mihailnovikov@yandex.ru; Ivanov, D. P., E-mail: Ivanov-DP@nrcki.ru, E-mail: denis.ivanov30@mail.ru; Novikov, S. I., E-mail: novikov-si@nrcki.ru; Shuvaev, S. A., E-mail: ser-shuvaev@yandex.ru, E-mail: sergey.shuvaev@phystech.edu [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Application of current-carrying elements (CCEs) made of second-generation high-temperature superconductor (2G HTS) in magnet systems of a fusion neutron source (FNS) and other fusion devices will allow their magnetic field and thermodynamic stability to be increased substantially in comparison with those of low-temperature superconductor (LTS) magnets. For a toroidal magnet of the FNS, a design of a helical (partially transposed) CCE made of 2G HTS is under development with forced-flow cooling by helium gas, a current of 20–30 kA, an operating temperature of 10–20 K, and a magnetic field on the winding of 12–15 T (prospectively ∼20 T). Short-sized samples of the helical flexible heavy-current CCE are being fabricated and investigated; a pilot-line unit for production of long-sized CCE pieces is under construction. The applied fabrication technique allows the CCE to be produced which combines a high operating current, thermal and mechanical stability, manufacturability, and low losses in the alternating modes. The possibility of fabricating the CCE with the outer dimensions and values of the operating parameter required for the FNS (and with a significant margin) using already available serial 2G HTS tapes is substantiated. The maximum field of toroidal magnets with CCEs made of 2G HTS will be limited only by mechanical properties of the magnet’s casing and structure, while the thermal stability will be approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of toroidal magnets with LTS-based CCEs. The helical CCE made of 2G HTS is very promising for fusion and hybrid electric power plants, and its design and technologies of production, as well as the prototype coils made of it for the FNS and other tokamaks, are worth developing now.

  14. ANEM: A rotating composite target to produce an atmospheric-like neutron beam at the LNL SPES facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Urdaneta, Gabriela Carolina; Bisello, Dario; Esposito, Juan; Mastinu, Pierfrancesco; Prete, Gianfranco; Silvestrin, Luca; Wyss, Jeffery

    2016-09-01

    A fast neutron (E> MeV) irradiation facility is under development at the 70 MeV SPES proton cyclotron at LNL (Legnaro, Italy) to investigate neutron-induced Single Event Effects (SEE) in microelectronic devices and systems. After an overview on neutron-induced SEE in electronics, we report on the progress in the design of ANEM (Atmospheric Neutron EMulator), a water-cooled rotating target made of Be and W to produce neutrons with an energy spectrum similar to that of neutrons produced by cosmic rays at sea-level. In ANEM, the protons from the cyclotron alternatively impinge on two circular sectors of Be and W of different areas; the effective neutron spectrum is a weighted combination of the spectra from the two sectors. In this contribution, we present the results of thermal-mechanical Finite Element Analysis (ANSYS) calculations of the performance of the ANEM prototype. The calculations at this stage indicate that ANEM can deliver fast neutrons with an atmospheric-like energy spectrum and with an integral flux Φn(1-70 MeV) ˜107 n cm-2s-1 that is 3×109 more intense than the natural one at sea-level: a very competitive flux for SEE testing.

  15. Fusion energy and nuclear non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldston, Rob [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, Princeton (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Neutrons from DT fusion can be used to produce {sup 239}Pu or {sup 233}U. However since no fertile nor fissile material need be present in a pure fusion power plant, it would be relatively easy to detect significant covert transmutation in a declared facility. Clandestine fusion-based transmutation does not appear credible. Furthermore, no fissile materials are immediately available in a fusion breakout scenario. DT fusion systems produce and burn 400g of tritium per day, a small fraction of which, if diverted, could be used to enhance the efficiency, reliability and/or safety of a nuclear weapon. Very accurate T accountancy needs to be developed for fusion energy systems. Finally, the spread of inertial fusion energy R and D may result in dissemination of knowledge relevant to the design of nuclear weapons. International agreements to restrain information transfer are required. In summary, fusion is much safer from a proliferation standpoint than fission, but still requires verification and control.

  16. Recombinant GDNF: Tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein produced from insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianhong; Chian, Ru-Ju; Ay, Ilknur; Celia, Samuel A.; Kashi, Brenda B.; Tamrazian, Eric; Matthews, Jonathan C. [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Remington, Mary P. [Research Service, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Pepinsky, R. Blake [BiogenIdec, Inc., 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Fishman, Paul S. [Research Service, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Brown, Robert H. [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Francis, Jonathan W., E-mail: jwfrancisby@gmail.com [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent survival-promoting effects on CNS motor neurons in experimental animals. Its therapeutic efficacy in humans, however, may have been limited by poor bioavailability to the brain and spinal cord. With a view toward improving delivery of GDNF to CNS motor neurons in vivo, we generated a recombinant fusion protein comprised of rat GDNF linked to the non-toxic, neuron-binding fragment of tetanus toxin. Recombinant GDNF:TTC produced from insect cells was a soluble homodimer like wild-type GDNF and was bi-functional with respect to GDNF and TTC activity. Like recombinant rat GDNF, the fusion protein increased levels of immunoreactive phosphoAkt in treated NB41A3-hGFR{alpha}-1 neuroblastoma cells. Like TTC, GDNF:TTC bound to immobilized ganglioside GT1b in vitro with high affinity and selectivity. These results support further testing of recombinant GDNF:TTC as a non-viral vector to improve delivery of GDNF to brain and spinal cord in vivo.

  17. LICORNE: A new and unique facility for producing intense, kinematically focused neutron beams at the IPN Orsay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available LICORNE is a new neutron source recently installed at the tandem accelerator of the Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay, where a Li7-beam is used to bombard a hydrogen-containing target to produce an intense forward-directed neutron beam. The directionality of the beam, which is the unique characteristic of LICORNE, will permit the installation of γ-ray detectors dedicated to the investigation of fission fragment de-excitation which are unimpeded by neutrons from the source. A first experimental program will focus on the measurement of prompt γ-ray emission in the neutron-induced fission of fertile and fissile isotopes at incident neutron energies relevant for the core design of Generation-IV nuclear reactors. Other potential uses of the LICORNE facility for both fundamental and applied physics research are also presented.

  18. Measurement of 56Fe activity produced in inelastic scattering of neutrons created by cosmic muons in an iron shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmar, M; Jovančević, N; Nikolić, D

    2012-01-01

    We report on the study of the intensities of several gamma lines emitted after the inelastic scattering of neutrons in (56)Fe. Neutrons were produced via nuclear processes induced by cosmic muons in the 20tons massive iron cube placed at the Earth's surface and used as a passive shield for the HPGe detector. Relative intensities of detected gamma lines are compared with the results collected in the same iron shield by the use of the (252)Cf neutrons. Assessment against the published data from neutron scattering experiments at energies up to 14MeV is also provided. It allowed us to infer the qualitative information about the average energy of muon-created neutrons in the iron shield.

  19. LICORNE: A new and unique facility for producing intense, kinematically focused neutron beams at the IPN Orsay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. N.; Lebois, M.; Halipre, P.; Leniau, B.; Matea, I.; Verney, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Billnert, R.; Oberstedt, A.; Georgiev, G.; Ljungvall, J.

    2013-12-01

    LICORNE is a new neutron source recently installed at the tandem accelerator of the Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay, where a Li7-beam is used to bombard a hydrogen-containing target to produce an intense forward-directed neutron beam. The directionality of the beam, which is the unique characteristic of LICORNE, will permit the installation of γ-ray detectors dedicated to the investigation of fission fragment de-excitation which are unimpeded by neutrons from the source. A first experimental program will focus on the measurement of prompt γ-ray emission in the neutron-induced fission of fertile and fissile isotopes at incident neutron energies relevant for the core design of Generation-IV nuclear reactors. Other potential uses of the LICORNE facility for both fundamental and applied physics research are also presented.

  20. Fast Scintillation Probes For Investigation Of Pulsed Neutron Radiation From Small Fusion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Krzysztof J.

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the design as well as laboratory/performance tests results taken by means of the fast scintillation probes. The design of each scintillation probe is based on photomultiplier tube hybrid assembly, which—besides photomultiplier itself—also includes high-voltage divider optimized for recording of fast radiation bursts. Plastic scintillators with short-time response are applied as hard X-ray and neutron radiation detectors. Heavy-duty probe's housing provides efficient shielding against electromagnetic interference and allows carrying out pulsed neutron measurements in a harsh electromagnetic environment. The crucial parameters of scintillation probes have been examined during laboratory tests in which our investigations have been aimed mainly to determine: a time response, an anode radiant sensitivity and an electron transit time dependence on high-voltage supply. During the performance tests, the relative calibration of probes set has been done. It allowed to carry out very accurate measurements of neutron emission anisotropy and investigations of neutron radiation scattering by different materials. The usefulness of presented scintillation probes—embedded in the neutron time-of-flight diagnostic system was proven during experimental campaigns conducted on the plasma-focus PF1000 device.

  1. Review of Neutron Evaluation of 93Nb for Various Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Bao-sheng; CHEN; Guo-chang

    2012-01-01

    <正>Niobium is the important cladding structure material for fusion reactor, and also is one of the fission products produced by the nuclear fuel in reactors. So the 93Nb have important applications in neutron transport calculations.

  2. Design of an epithermal column for BNCT based on D D fusion neutron facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisi, E.; Zanini, A.; Manfredotti, C.; Palamara, F.; Sarotto, M.; Visca, L.; Nastasi, U.

    2007-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is currently performed on patients at nuclear reactors. At the same time the international BNCT community is engaged in the development of alternative facilities for in-hospital treatments. This paper investigates the potential of a novel high-output D-D neutron generator, developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (CA, USA), for BNCT. The simulation code MCNP-4C is used to realize an accurate study of the epithermal column in view of the treatment of deep tumours. Different materials and Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA) are investigated and an optimized configuration is proposed. The neutron beam quality is defined by the standard free beam parameters, calculated averaging over the collimator aperture. The results are discussed and compared with the performances of other facilities.

  3. Molecular Process Producing Oncogene Fusion in Lung Cancer Cells by Illegitimate Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Seki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of oncogenes by fusion to partner genes, caused by chromosome translocation and inversion, is a critical genetic event driving lung carcinogenesis. Fusions of the tyrosine kinase genes ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase, ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1, or RET (rearranged during transfection occur in 1%–5% of lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs and their products constitute therapeutic targets for kinase inhibitory drugs. Interestingly, ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions occur preferentially in LADCs of never- and light-smokers, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms that cause these rearrangements are smoking-independent. In this study, using previously reported next generation LADC genome sequencing data of the breakpoint junction structures of chromosome rearrangements that cause oncogenic fusions in human cancer cells, we employed the structures of breakpoint junctions of ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions in 41 LADC cases as “traces” to deduce the molecular processes of chromosome rearrangements caused by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and illegitimate joining. We found that gene fusion was produced by illegitimate repair of DSBs at unspecified sites in genomic regions of a few kb through DNA synthesis-dependent or -independent end-joining pathways, according to DSB type. This information will assist in the understanding of how oncogene fusions are generated and which etiological factors trigger them.

  4. Compared FEM and neutron diffraction study of residual strains in Eurofer97 prototype laser welds for fusion reactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppol, R. [ENEA - Casaccia, FPN, CP Roma (Italy); Asserin, O. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Hughes, D.J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A reliable characterization of residual strains and stresses is a crucial step in the development of high quality welds for Helium-Cooled-Lithium-Lead (HCLL) blanket modules for DEMO. This contribution will present the first results of a comparative study, carried out using Finite Element Model (FEM) calculations and neutron diffraction measurements to determine the strain and stress field in an Eurofer97 (9Cr, 0.01C, 1W, 0.2V Fe bal wt%) prototype laser weld. The neutron diffraction measurements were carried out at the SALSA diffractometer at the High Flux Reactor of the Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin, Grenoble, France. A diffracting volume of approximately 1 x 1 x 5 mm{sup 3} was defined, giving appropriate neutron counting times and allowing a significant comparison with the material volume sampled by FEM. The measurements were carried out at various distances from the weld and within the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), where the analysis of the detected diffraction line-widths provides information on the metallurgic phases produced during the heat treatment. The neutron diffraction results are compared with the theoretical calculations in view of providing them with an experimental validation. (authors)

  5. Scaling mechanisms of vapour/plasma shielding from laser-produced plasmas to magnetic fusion regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    The plasma shielding effect is a well-known mechanism in laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) reducing laser photon transmission to the target and, as a result, significantly reducing target heating and erosion. The shielding effect is less pronounced at low laser intensities, when low evaporation rate together with vapour/plasma expansion processes prevent establishment of a dense plasma layer above the surface. Plasma shielding also loses its effectiveness at high laser intensities when the formed hot dense plasma plume causes extensive target erosion due to radiation fluxes back to the surface. The magnitude of emitted radiation fluxes from such a plasma is similar to or slightly higher than the laser photon flux in the low shielding regime. Thus, shielding efficiency in LPPs has a peak that depends on the laser beam parameters and the target material. A similar tendency is also expected in other plasma-operating devices such as tokamaks of magnetic fusion energy (MFE) reactors during transient plasma operation and disruptions on chamber walls when deposition of the high-energy transient plasma can cause severe erosion and damage to the plasma-facing and nearby components. A detailed analysis of these abnormal events and their consequences in future power reactors is limited in current tokamak reactors. Predictions for high-power future tokamaks are possible only through comprehensive, time-consuming and rigorous modelling. We developed scaling mechanisms, based on modelling of LPP devices with their typical temporal and spatial scales, to simulate tokamak abnormal operating regimes to study wall erosion, plasma shielding and radiation under MFE reactor conditions. We found an analogy in regimes and results of carbon and tungsten erosion of the divertor surface in ITER-like reactors with erosion due to laser irradiation. Such an approach will allow utilizing validated modelling combined with well-designed and well-diagnosed LPP experimental studies for predicting

  6. Maximal design basis accident of fusion neutron source DEMO-TIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbasov, B. N., E-mail: Kolbasov-BN@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    When analyzing the safety of nuclear (including fusion) facilities, the maximal design basis accident at which the largest release of activity is expected must certainly be considered. Such an accident is usually the failure of cooling systems of the most thermally stressed components of a reactor (for a fusion facility, it is the divertor or the first wall). The analysis of safety of the ITER reactor and fusion power facilities (including hybrid fission–fusion facilities) shows that the initial event of such a design basis accident is a large-scale break of a pipe in the cooling system of divertor or the first wall outside the vacuum vessel of the facility. The greatest concern is caused by the possibility of hydrogen formation and the inrush of air into the vacuum chamber (VC) with the formation of a detonating mixture and a subsequent detonation explosion. To prevent such an explosion, the emergency forced termination of the fusion reaction, the mounting of shutoff valves in the cooling systems of the divertor and the first wall or blanket for reducing to a minimum the amount of water and air rushing into the VC, the injection of nitrogen or inert gas into the VC for decreasing the hydrogen and oxygen concentration, and other measures are recommended. Owing to a continuous feed-out of the molten-salt fuel mixture from the DEMO-TIN blanket with the removal period of 10 days, the radioactivity release at the accident will mainly be determined by tritium (up to 360 PBq). The activity of fission products in the facility will be up to 50 PBq.

  7. The Breakage-Fusion-Bridge Cycle Producing MLL Amplification in a Case of Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomere loss may lead to chromosomal instability via the breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB cycle which can result in genetic amplification and the formation of ring and dicentric chromosomes. This cycle continues until stable chromosomes are formed. The case of a 72-year-old female with refractory anaemia with excess blasts type 2 illustrates these events. Conventional cytogenetics produced a complex karyotype which included unstable abnormalities of chromosomes 11, 12, and 15. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analyses including multicolor-FISH (M-FISH and multicolor-banding (M-BAND revealed multiple clonal populations with 5 copies of MLL on either a ring chromosome composed entirely of chromosome 11 material or a derivative chromosome composed of chromosomes 11, 12, and 15. The FISH results also clarified the likely evolution of the karyotypic complexity. The simplest cell line contained a dic(12;15 in addition to copy number aberrations that are typical of MDS or AML. As the disease progressed, a ring 11 was formed. Subsequently, the ring 11 appears to have unwound and inserted itself into the dic(12;15 chromosome followed by an inversion of the derivative chromosome, producing a der(11;15;12. Telomeric loss and BFB cycles appear to have played an important role in the chromosomal rearrangements and clonal evolution demonstrated in the karyotype.

  8. A Novel Spectrometer for Measuring Laser-Produced Plasma X-Ray in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experimental investigations of inertial confinement fusion, the laser-produced high-temperature plasma contains very abundant information, such as the electron temperature and density, ionization. In order to diagnose laser-plasma distribution in space and evolution in time, an elliptical curved crystal spectrometer has been developed and applied to diagnose X-ray of laser-produced plasma in 0.2~2.46 nm region. According to the theory of Bragg diffraction, four kinds of crystal including LiF, PET, MiCa, and KAP were chosen as dispersive elements. The distance of crystal lattice varies from 0.4 to 2.6 nm. Bragg angle is in the range of 30°~67.5°, and the spectral detection angle is in 55.4°~134°. The curved crystal spectrometer mainly consists of elliptical curved crystal analyzer, vacuum configuration, aligning device, spectral detectors and three-dimensional microadjustment devices. The spectrographic experiment was carried out on the XG-2 laser facility. Emission spectrum of Al plasmas, Ti plasma, and Au plasmas have been successfully recorded by using X-ray CCD camera. It is demonstrated experimentally that the measured wavelength is accorded with the theoretical value.

  9. Neutrons produced by 75MeV/u 12C—ion on thick targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiGisheng; ZHANGTianmei; 等

    1999-01-01

    Fluence rates and angular distributions of the neutron emitted by 75MeV/u 12C-ion bombardment on thick Be and Au targets have been measured by means of the threshold detector activation method.Based on that,the neutron yields,emission rates in the forward direction and neutron dose equivalent rate distributions were deduced.

  10. A compact fast-neutron producing target for high resolution cross section measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flaska, M.

    2006-01-01

    A proper knowledge of neutron cross sections is very important for the operation safety of various nuclear facilities. Reducing uncertainties in the neutron cross sections can lead to an enhanced safety of present and future nuclear power systems. Accurate neutron cross sections also play a relevant

  11. Neutron measurements of stresses in a test artifact produced by laser-based additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas; Slotwinski, John; Moylan, Shawn

    2014-02-01

    A stainless steel test artifact produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering and similar to a proposed standardized test artifact was examined using neutron diffraction. The artifact contained a number of structures with different aspect ratios pertaining to wall thickness, height above base plate, and side length. Through spatial resolutions of the order of one millimeter the volumetric distribution of stresses in several was measured. It was found that the stresses peak in the tensile region around 500 MPa near the top surface, with balancing compressive stresses in the interior. The presence of a support structure (a one millimeter high, thin walled, hence weaker, lattice structure deposited on the base plate, followed by a fully dense AM structure) has only minor effects on the stresses.

  12. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Edward I.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    2015-10-27

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  13. Parameters optimization in a fission-fusion system with a mirror machine based neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, D. V.; Anikeev, A. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Brednikhin, S. A.; Frolov, S. A.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Prikhodko, V. V.

    2012-06-01

    Long-lived fission products utilization is a problem of high importance for the modern nuclear reactor technology. BINP jointly with NSI RAS develops a conceptual design of a hybrid sub-critical minor actinides burner with a neutron source based on the gas dynamic mirror machine (GDT) to resolve the stated task. A number of modelling tools was created to calculate the main parameters of the device. First of the codes, GENESYS, is a zero-dimensional code, designed for plasma dynamics numerical investigation in a GDT-based neutron source. The code contains a Monte-Carlo module for the determination of linear neutron emission intensity along the machine axis. Fuel blanket characteristics calculation was implemented by means of a static Monte-Carlo code NMC. Subcritical core, which has been previously analyzed by OECD-NEA, was used as a template for the fuel blanket of the modelled device. This article represents the codes used and recent results of the described system parameters optimization. Particularly, optimum emission zone length of the source and core multiplicity dependence on buffer zone thickness were defined.

  14. Experimental and numerical characterization of the neutron field produced in the n@BTF Frascati photo-neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Bedogni, R.; Buonomo, B.; Esposito, A.; Mazzitelli, G.; Foggetta, L.; Gomez Ros. J.M.; 10.1016/j.nima.2011.08.032

    2011-01-01

    science and studies of "single event effects". The intensity of the neutron beam obtainable with 510MeV electrons and its fluence energy distribution at a point of reference in the irradiation room were predicted by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally determined with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS). Due to the large photon contri...

  15. Neutron techniques. [for study of high-energy particles produced in large solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Glenn M., Jr.; Dunphy, Philip P.; Chupp, Edward L.; Evenson, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Three experimental methods are described which hold the most promise for improved energy resolution, time resolution and sensitivity in the detection of solar neutrons on satellites and/or long duration balloon flights: the neutron calorimeter, the solar neutron track chamber, and the solar neutron decay proton detector. The characteristics of the three methods as to energy range, energy resolution, time resolution, detection efficiency, and physical properties are delineated. Earlier techniques to measure the intensity of high-energy cosmic-ray neutrons at the top of the atmosphere and to search for solar neutrons are described. The past three decades of detector development has now reached the point where it is possible to make comprehensive and detailed measurements of solar neutrons on future space missions.

  16. Does prone repositioning before posterior fixation produce greater lordosis in lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yson, Sharon C; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Santos, Edward R G; Luna, Jeffrey T P; Polly, David W

    2014-10-01

    Retrospective comparative radiographic review. To determine if lateral to prone repositioning before posterior fixation confers additional operative level lordosis in lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedures. In a review of 56 consecutive patients who underwent LLIF, there was no statistically significant change in segmental lordosis from lateral to prone once a cage is in place. The greatest lordosis increase was observed after cage insertion. We reviewed 56 consecutive patients who underwent LLIF in the lateral position followed by posterior fixation in the prone position. Eighty-eight levels were fused. Disk space angle was measured on intraoperative C-arm images, and change in operative level segmental lordosis brought about by each of the following was determined: (1) cage insertion, (2) prone repositioning, and (3) posterior instrumentation. Paired t test was used to determine significance (α=0.05). Mean lordosis improvement brought about by cage insertion was 2.6 degrees (P=0.00005). There was a 0.1 degree mean lordosis change brought about by lateral to prone positioning (P=0.47). Mean lordosis improvement brought about by posterior fixation, including rod compression, was 1.0 degree (P=0.03). In LLIF procedures, the largest increase in operative level segmental lordosis is brought about by cage insertion. Further lordosis may be gained by placing posterior fixation, including compressive maneuvers. Prone repositioning after cage placement does not produce any incremental lordosis change. Therefore, posterior fixation may be performed in the lateral position without compromising operative level sagittal alignment.

  17. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: debona@iapar.br; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail: gould@tamu.edu; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.edu; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail: stelly@tamu.edu; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail: e-louzada@tamu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  18. Neutron Diagnostic Development for the Z Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kelly; Chandler, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Jones, B.; Gomez, M. R.; Knapp, P. F.; Sefkow, A. B.; Hansen, S. B.; Schmit, P. F.; Harding, E. C.; Norris, E.; Torres, J. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Styron, J. D.; Frenje, J.; Lahmann, B.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Fittinghoff, D.; May, M.; Snyder, L.; Moy, K.; Buckles, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    We are studying Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) and Gas Puff fusion neutron sources on the Z accelerator. MagLIF experiments have produced up to 3e12 primary DD neutrons with 2-3 keV ion temperatures and 1-2 ns burn widths. Gas puff experiments have produced up to 5e13 primary DD neutrons with higher ion temperatures, longer burn times, and evidence of non-thermonuclear production. For MagLIF, the yield is expected to increase rapidly with increased energy coupling, yet it remains unclear if Gas Puffs would scale as attractively. We review neutron measurements for these experiments and plans for developing neutron diagnostics for these two very different sources. Sandia is sponsored by the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Using FLUKA to Study Concrete Square Shield Performance in Attenuation of Neutron Radiation Produced by APF Plasma Focus Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, M. J.; Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, representatives from the Nuclear Engineering and physics Department of Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT) requested development of a project with the objective of determining the performance of a concrete shield for their Plasma Focus as neutron source. The project team in Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering and physics department of Amirkabir University of Technology choose some shape of shield to study on their performance with Monte Carlo code. In the present work, the capability of Monte Carlo code FLUKA will be explored to model the APF Plasma Focus, and investigating the neutron fluence on the square concrete shield in each region of problem. The physical models embedded in FLUKA are mentioned, as well as examples of benchmarking against future experimental data. As a result of this study suitable thickness of concrete for shielding APF will be considered.

  20. Spallation yield of neutrons produced in thick lead target bombarded with 250 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, F., E-mail: mf@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhanga, X.Y.; Ju, Y.Q.; Zhang, H.B.; Ge, H.L.; Wang, J.G. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, B. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Y.Y.; Xu, X.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, P.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Y.B.; Li, J.Y.; Xu, J.K. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liang, T.J. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, S.L. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Y.W.; Gu, L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-01-01

    The neutron yield from thick target of Pb irradiated with 250 MeV protons has been studied experimentally. The neutron production was measured with the water-bath gold method. The thermal neutron distributions in the water were determined according to the measured activities of Au foils. Corresponding results calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX were compared with the experimental data. It was found out that the Au foils with cadmium cover significantly changed the spacial distribution of the thermal neutron field. The corrected neutron yield was deduced to be 2.23±0.19 n/proton by considering the influence of the Cd cover on the thermal neutron flux.

  1. Spallation yield of neutrons produced in thick lead target bombarded with 250 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Ma, F.; Zhanga, X. Y.; Ju, Y. Q.; Zhang, H. B.; Ge, H. L.; Wang, J. G.; Zhou, B.; Li, Y. Y.; Xu, X. W.; Luo, P.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Y. B.; Li, J. Y.; Xu, J. K.; Liang, T. J.; Wang, S. L.; Yang, Y. W.; Gu, L.

    2015-01-01

    The neutron yield from thick target of Pb irradiated with 250 MeV protons has been studied experimentally. The neutron production was measured with the water-bath gold method. The thermal neutron distributions in the water were determined according to the measured activities of Au foils. Corresponding results calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX were compared with the experimental data. It was found out that the Au foils with cadmium cover significantly changed the spacial distribution of the thermal neutron field. The corrected neutron yield was deduced to be 2.23 ± 0.19 n/proton by considering the influence of the Cd cover on the thermal neutron flux.

  2. Construction of Recombinant Bacmid Containing M2e-Ctxb and Producing the Fusion Protein in Insect Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Nima; Mokhtari Azad, Talat; Nategh, Rakhshandeh; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Amirmozafari, Nour

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sequence variations in glycoproteins of influenza virus surface impel us to design new candidate vaccines yearly. Ectodomain of influenza M2 protein is a surface and highly conserved protein. M2e in influenza vaccines may eliminate the need for changing vaccine formulation every year. Objectives: In this study, a recombinant baculovirus containing M2e and cholera toxin subunit B fusion gene was generated with transposition process to express in large amounts in insect cell lines. Materials and Methods: M2e-ctxB fusion gene was created and cloned into pFastBac HT. The recombinant vector was transformed into DH10Bac cells to introduce the fusion gene into the bacmid DNA via a site-specific transposition process. The recombinant bacmid was then extracted from white colonies and further analyzed using PCR, DNA sequence analyzing, and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results: PCR and DNA sequence analyzing results showed that the fusion gene was constructed as a single open reading frame and was successfully inserted into bacmid DNA. Moreover, indirect immunofluorescence results showed that the fusion gene was successfully expressed. Conclusions: Baculovirus expression vector system is valuable to produce M2e based influenza vaccines due to its simple utilization and ease of target gene manipulation. The expressed protein in such systems can improve the evaluating process of new vaccination strategies. PMID:24719728

  3. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimaoka, T., E-mail: t.shimaoka@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Kaneko, J. H.; Tsubota, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Abe, Y.; Sakata, S.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H. [Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Isobe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sato, Y. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Chayahara, A.; Umezawa, H.; Shikata, S. [Diamond Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% ± 0.8% and 97.1% ± 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 7} cm/s and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 10{sup 7} cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.5–1 keV and neutron yield of more than 10{sup 9} neutrons/shot.

  4. Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the Tandem Mirror Reactor and thermochemical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.W.; Ribe, F.L.

    1981-01-21

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) the Tandem Mirror fusion driver, (2) the Cauldron blanket module, (3) the flowing microsphere, (4) coupling the reactor to the process, (5) the thermochemical cycles, and (6) chemical reactors and process units. (MOW)

  5. From laser particle acceleration to the synthesis of extremely neutron rich isotopes via the novel fission-fusion mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirolf, P. G., E-mail: Peter.Thirolf@lmu.de [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, Garching (Germany)

    2015-02-24

    High-power, short pulse lasers have emerged in the last decade as attractive tools for accelerating charged particles (electrons, ions) to high energies over mm-scale acceleration lengths, thus promising to rival conventional acceleration techniques in the years ahead. In the first part of the article, the principles of laser-plasma interaction as well as the techniques and the current status of the acceleration of electron and ion beams will be briefly introduced. In particular with the upcoming next generation of multi-PW class laser systems, such as the one under construction for the ELI-Nuclear Physics project in Bucharest (ELI-NP), very efficient acceleration mechanisms for brilliant ion beams like radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) come into reach. Here, ultra-dense ion beams reaching solid-state density can be accelerated from thin target foils, exceeding the density of conventionally accelerated ion beams by about 14 orders of magnitude. This unique property of laser-accelerated ion beams can be exploited to explore the scenario of a new reaction mechanism called ‘fission-fusion’, which will be introduced in the second part of the article. Accelerating fissile species (e.g. {sup 232}Th) towards a second layer of the same material will lead to fission both of the beam-like and target-like particles. Due to the close to solid-state density of the accelerated ion bunches, fusion may occur between neutron-rich (light) fission products. This may open an access path towards extremely neutron-rich nuclides in the vicinity of the N=126 waiting point of the astrophysical r process. ‘Waiting points’ at closed nucleon shells play a crucial role in controlling the reaction rates. However, since most of the pathway of heavy-element formation via the rapid-neutron capture process (r-process) runs in ‘terra incognita’ of the nuclear landscape, in particular the waiting point at N=126 is yet unexplored and will remain largely inaccessible to conventional

  6. Time-integrated measurements of fusion-produced protons emitted from PF-facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, A.; Szydlowski, A.; Zebrowski, J.; Sadowski, M. J.; Scholz, M.; Schmidt, H.; Karpinski, P.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports on measurements of fusion reaction protons, which were emitted from high-current Plasma Focus discharges. The experiments were carried out on two Plasma Focus facilities (PF-360 and PF-1000) and the obtained results are compared in the paper. The paper presents some detailed maps of the fusion proton fluxes, which were recorded with the pinhole cameras. These maps show distributions and shapes of fast proton sources within the pinch plasma column.

  7. Affibody-beta-galactosidase immunoconjugates produced as soluble fusion proteins in the Escherichia coli cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnmark, Jenny; Kampf, Caroline; Asplund, Anna; Höidén-Guthenberg, Ingmarie; Wester, Kenneth; Pontén, Fredrik; Uhlén, Mathias; Nygren, Per-Ake

    2003-10-01

    Recombinant immunoconjugates constitute a novel class of immunoassay reagents produced by genetic fusion between an antigen recognizing moiety and a reporter enzyme or fluorescent protein, obviating the need for chemical coupling. In this work, we describe the construction, Escherichia coli production and characterization of recombinant beta-galactosidase (beta-gal)-based immunoconjugates directed to human immunoglobulin A (IgA). As the antigen recognizing moieties, either monovalent or dimeric (head-to-tail) versions of an IgA-specific affibody (Z(IgA1)) were used, previously selected in vitro from a protein library based on combinatorial engineering of a single staphylococcal protein A domain. To increase the likelihood of proper presentation on the assembled homotetrameric enzyme surface, the affibody moieties were linked to the N-terminus of the enzyme subunits via a heptapeptide linker sequence. The two resulting immunoconjugates Z(IgA1)-beta-gal and (Z(IgA1))(2)-beta-gal, containing four and eight affibody moieties per enzyme, respectively, could be expressed as soluble and proteolytically stable proteins intracellularly in E. coli from where they were purified to high purity by a single anion exchange chromatography step. The yields of immunoconjugates were in the range 200-400 mg/l culture. Biosensor-binding studies showed that both the Z(IgA1)-beta-gal and (Z(IgA1))(2)-beta-gal immunoconjugates were capable of selective IgA-recognition, but with an apparent higher binding affinity for the variant containing divalent affibody moieties, presumably due to avidity effects. The applicability of this class of recombinant immunoconjugates was demonstrated by IgA detection in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot-blot analyses. In addition, using human kidney biopsy samples from a nephropathy patient, IgA depositions in glomeruli could be detected by immunohistochemistry with low background staining of tissue.

  8. The influence of the 2-neutron elastic transfer on the fusion of 42Ca + 40Ca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanini A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the fusion excitation function of this system using the 42Ca beam of the XTU Tandem of LNL on a thin 40Ca target enriched to 99.96% in mass 40. Cross sections have been measured down to ≤1 mb. The extracted barrier distribution shows clearly two main peaks. We have performed preliminary CC calculations where the 2+ coupling strengths have been taken from the literature and the schematic 2n pair transfer form factor has been used, with a deformation length σt= 0.39 fm. The excitation function is well reproduced by the calculation including the 2n transfer channel. However, including the octupole excitations destroys the agreement.

  9. Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Ruffini, R

    2015-12-01

    Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (E_{iso}≳10^{52}  erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.

  10. Neutron flux measurements around PLT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zankl, G.; Strachan, J.D.; Lewis, R.; Pettus, W.; Schmotzer, J.

    1980-09-01

    Using Indium activation foils, the toroidal and poloidal neutron emission patterns were determined for PLT plasmas which include ICRF and neutral beam heating. The activities produced the /sup 115/In (n,n') /sup 115m/In reaction were determined by counting the 336 keV ..gamma.. line of the /sup 115m/In decay. This activation cross section falls just below 2.5 MeV so that the influence of scattered neutrons of degraded energies is reduced. From the magnitude of the activity, the absolute calibration of the PLT fusion neutron emission is obtained with less than or equal to 40% accuracy.

  11. Conceptual design study FY 1981: synfuels from fusion - using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krikorian, O.H. (ed.)

    1982-02-09

    This report represents the second year's effort of a scoping and conceptual design study being conducted for the express purpose of evaluating the engineering potential of producing hydrogen by thermochemical cycles using a tandem mirror fusion driver. The hydrogen thus produced may then be used as a feedstock to produce fuels such as methane, methanol, or gasoline. The main objective of this second year's study has been to obtain some approximate cost figures for hydrogen production through a conceptual design study.

  12. Fission neutron irradiation of copper containing implanted and transmutation produced helium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Horsewell, A.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1992-01-01

    . The distributions of helium prior to fission neutron irradiation were determined by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and positron annihilation techniques (PAT). These specimens, together with pure copper, were then irradiated with fission neutrons in a single capsule in fast flux test...

  13. Determination of radionuclides produced by neutrons in heavily exposed workers of the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura for estimating an individual's neutron fluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Y; Noda, Y; Yonehara, H; Ishigure, N; Yoshida, S; Yukawa, M; Tagami, K; Ban-Nai, T; Uchida, S; Hirama, T; Akashi, M; Nakamura, Y

    2001-09-01

    In the Tokai-mura criticality accident, three workers were heavily exposed. Biological materials, such as blood, urine, vomit and hair, were collected from the workers and analyzed for radioactivities, produced by the neutron irradiation. Activation products. such as 24Na, -K and 82Br, were found in these materials by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radionuclide of the highest activity observed in biological materials was 24Na, e.g. the concentrations of this nuclide in the blood samples from the three patients at the accident time were 169, 92 and 23 Bq/ml, respectively. The concentrations of stable sodium in the same samples were determined by ICP-AES to obtain specific activities of 24Na (concentration ratio between the produced 24Na and stable 23Na), which are essential for estimating the neutron fluences and radiation doses. The specific activities of 24Na obtained for the three patients through the blood analysis were 8.2 x 10(4),4.3 x 10(4) and 1.2 x 10(4) Bq24Na/g23Na. Based on these values, individual's neutron fluences were estimated to be 5.7 x 10(11), 3.0 x 10(-1) and 0.85 x 10(11) cm(-2), respectively.

  14. Application of backscatter electrons for large area imaging of cavities produced by neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, V. I.; Averin, S. A.; Panchenko, V. L.; Portnykh, I. A.; Freyer, P. D.; Giannuzzi, L. A.; Garner, F. A.

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that with proper optimization, backscattered electrons in a scanning electron microscope can produce images of cavity distribution in austenitic steels over a large specimen surface for a depth of ∼500-700 nm, eliminating the need for electropolishing or multiple specimen production. This technique is especially useful for quantifying cavity structures when the specimen is known or suspected to contain very heterogeneous distributions of cavities. Examples are shown for cold-worked EK-164, a very heterogeneously-swelling Russian fast reactor fuel cladding steel and also for AISI 304, a homogeneously-swelling Western steel used for major structural components of light water cooled reactors. This non-destructive overview method of quantifying cavity distribution can be used to direct the location and number of required focused ion beam prepared transmission electron microscopy specimens for examination of either neutron or ion-irradiated specimens. This technique can also be applied in stereo mode to quantify the depth dependence of cavity distributions.

  15. Neutron measurements in the stray field produced by 158 GeV c(-1) per nucleon lead ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S; Birattari, C; Foglio Para, A; Nava, E; Silari, M; Ulrici, L

    1998-12-01

    This paper discusses measurements carried out at CERN in the stray radiation field produced by 158 GeV c(-1) per nucleon 208Pb82+ ions. The purpose was to test and intercompare the response of several detectors, mainly neutron measuring devices, and to determine the neutron spectral fluence as well as the microdosimetric (absorbed dose and dose equivalent) distributions in different locations around the shielding. Both active instruments and passive dosimeters were employed, including different types of Andersson-Braun rem counters, a tissue equivalent proportional counter, a set of superheated drop detectors, a Bonner sphere system, and different types of ion chambers. Activation measurements with 12C plastic scintillators and with 32S pellets were also performed to assess the neutron yield of high energy lead ions interacting with a thin gold target. The results are compared with previous measurements and with measurements made during proton runs.

  16. Neutronic performance issues of the breeding blanket options for the European DEMO fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion—Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SERMA, LPEC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moro, F. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Villari, R. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Breeder blanket concepts for DEMO—design features. • Neutronic characteristics of breeder blankets. • Evaluation of Tritium breeding potential. • Evaluation of shielding performance. - Abstract: This paper presents nuclear performance issues of the HCPB, HCLL, DCLL and WCLL breeder blankets, which are under development within the PPPT (Power Plant Physics and Technology) programme of EUROfusion, with the objective to assess the potential and suitability of the blankets for the application to DEMO. The assessment is based on the initial design versions of the blankets developed in 2014. The Tritium breeding potential is considered sufficient for all breeder blankets although the initial design versions of the HCPB, HCLL and DCLL blankets were shown to require further design improvements. Suitable measures have been proposed and proven to be sufficient to achieve the required Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) ≥ 1.10. The shielding performance was shown to be sufficient to protect the super-conducting toroidal field coil provided that efficient shielding material mixtures including WC or borated water are utilized. The WCLL blanket does not require the use of such shielding materials due to a very compact blanket support structure/manifold configuration which yet requires design verification. The vacuum vessel can be safely operated over the full anticipated DEMO lifetime of 6 full power years for all blanket concepts considered.

  17. Calculations to support JET neutron yield calibration: Modelling of neutron emission from a compact DT neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čufar, Aljaž; Batistoni, Paola; Conroy, Sean; Ghani, Zamir; Lengar, Igor; Milocco, Alberto; Packer, Lee; Pillon, Mario; Popovichev, Sergey; Snoj, Luka

    2017-03-01

    At the Joint European Torus (JET) the ex-vessel fission chambers and in-vessel activation detectors are used as the neutron production rate and neutron yield monitors respectively. In order to ensure that these detectors produce accurate measurements they need to be experimentally calibrated. A new calibration of neutron detectors to 14 MeV neutrons, resulting from deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas, is planned at JET using a compact accelerator based neutron generator (NG) in which a D/T beam impinges on a solid target containing T/D, producing neutrons by DT fusion reactions. This paper presents the analysis that was performed to model the neutron source characteristics in terms of energy spectrum, angle-energy distribution and the effect of the neutron generator geometry. Different codes capable of simulating the accelerator based DT neutron sources are compared and sensitivities to uncertainties in the generator's internal structure analysed. The analysis was performed to support preparation to the experimental measurements performed to characterize the NG as a calibration source. Further extensive neutronics analyses, performed with this model of the NG, will be needed to support the neutron calibration experiments and take into account various differences between the calibration experiment and experiments using the plasma as a source of neutrons.

  18. Measurements of neutrons produced by high-energy muons at the Boulby Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, H M; Bungau, C; Carson, M J; Chagani, H; Daw, E; Edwards, B; Ghag, C; Korolkova, E V; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lightfoot, P K; Lindote, A; Liubarsky, I; Lüscher, R; Majewski, P; Mavrokoridis, K; McMillan, J E; Murphy, A St J; Paling, S M; da Cunha, J Pinto; Preece, R M; Robinson, M; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Spooner, N J C; Sumner, T J; Walker, R J; Wang, H; White, J

    2008-01-01

    We present the first measurements of the muon-induced neutron flux at the Boulby Underground Laboratory. The experiment was carried out with an 0.73 tonne liquid scintillator that also served as an anticoincidence system for the ZEPLIN-II direct dark matter search. The experimental method exploited the delayed coincidences between high-energy muon signals and gamma-rays from radiative neutron capture on hydrogen or other elements. The muon-induced neutron rate, defined as the average number of detected neutrons per detected muon, was measured as $0.079 \\pm 0.003$ (stat.) neutrons/muon using neutron-capture signals above 0.55 MeV in a time window of 40-190 $\\mu$s after the muon trigger. Accurate Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron production, transport and detection in a precisely modeled laboratory and experimental setup using the GEANT4 toolkit gave a result 1.8 times higher than the measured value. The difference greatly exceeds all statistical and systematic uncertainties. As the vast majority of neutro...

  19. Dynamical simulation of the fission process and anisotropy of the fission fragment angular distributions of excited nuclei produced in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizadeh, H.

    2016-10-01

    Abstract. A stochastic approach based on four-dimensional Langevin equations was applied to calculate the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distributions, average prescission neutron multiplicity, and the fission probability in a wide range of fissile parameters for the compound nuclei 197Tl,225Pa,248Cf , and 264Rf produced in fusion reactions. Three collective shape coordinates plus the projection of total spin of the compound nucleus to the symmetry axis K were considered in the four-dimensional dynamical model. In the dynamical calculations, nuclear dissipation was generated through the chaos-weighted wall and window friction formula. Furthermore, in the dynamical calculations the dissipation coefficient of K ,γk was considered as a free parameter, and its magnitude inferred by fitting measured data on the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distributions for the compound nuclei 197Tl,225Pa,248Cf , and 264Rf. Comparison of the calculated results for the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distributions with the experimental data showed that the results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data by using values of the dissipation coefficient of K equal to (0.185-0.205), (0.175-0.192), (0.077-0.090), and (0.075-0.085) (MeVzs ) -1 /2 for the compound nuclei 197Tl,225Pa,248Cf , and 264Rf, respectively. It was also shown that the influence of the dissipation coefficient of K on the results of the calculations of the prescission neutron multiplicity and fission probability is small.

  20. Optimization of Shielded Scintillator for Neutron Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belancourt, Patrick; Morrison, John; Akli, Kramer; Freeman, Richard; High Energy Density Physics Team

    2011-10-01

    The High Energy Density Physics group is interested in the basic science of creating a neutron and gamma ray source. The neutrons and gamma rays are produced by accelerating ions via a laser into a target and creating fusion neutrons and gamma rays. A scintillator and photomultiplier tube will be used to detect these neutrons. Neutrons and photons produce ionizing radiation in the scintillator which then activates metastable states. These metastable states have both short and long decay rates. The initial photon count is orders of magnitude higher than the neutron count and poses problems for accurately detecting the neutrons due to the long decay state that is activated by the photons. The effects of adding lead shielding on the temporal response and signal level of the neutron detector will be studied in an effort to minimize the photon count without significant reduction to the temporal resolution of the detector. MCNP5 will be used to find the temporal response and energy deposition into the scintillator by adding lead shielding. Results from the simulations will be shown. Optimization of our scintillator neutron detection system is needed to resolve the neutron energies and neutron count of a novel neutron and gamma ray source.

  1. Measurement method of activation cross-sections of reactions producing short-lived nuclei with 14 MeV neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kawade, K; Kasugai, Y; Shibata, M; Iida, T; Takahashi, A; Fukahori, T

    2003-01-01

    We describe a method for obtaining reliable activation cross-sections in the neutron energy range between 13.4 and 14.9 MeV for the reactions producing short-lived nuclei with half-lives between 0.5 and 30 min. We noted neutron irradiation fields and measured induced activities, including (1) the contribution of scattered low-energy neutrons, (2) the fluctuation of the neutron fluence rate during the irradiation, (3) the true coincidence sum effect, (4) the random coincidence sum effect, (5) the deviation in the measuring position due to finite sample thickness, (6) the self-absorption of the gamma-ray in the sample material and (7) the interference reactions producing the same radionuclides or the ones emitting the gamma-ray with the same energy of interest. The cross-sections can be obtained within a total error of 3.6%, when good counting statistics are achieved, including an error of 3.0% for the standard cross-section of sup 2 sup 7 Al (n, alpha) sup 2 sup 4 Na. We propose here simple methods for measuri...

  2. Impact of flows on ion temperatures inferred from neutron spectra produced in NIF DT implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Doeppner, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Munro, D. H.; Patel, P.; Ralph, J. E.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Yeamans, C. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Neutron spectrometers on the NIF provide accurate, directional information of the DT and DD neutron spectra from layered DT implosions. Traditionally, ion temperatures (Tion) , essential for assessing conditions in the hotspot of the implosions, are inferred from the broadening of primary neutron spectra. Directional motion (flow) of the fuel at burn also impacts broadening and may lead to artificially inflated ``Tion'' values. We examine NIF neutron spectra to assess the impact of flows on measured Tion. Measured DT Ti on is consistently higher than measured DD Tion, which suggests that significant energy is lost to radial or turbulent kinetic fuel motion at peak burn. However, explaining the full observed Tion difference with fuel motion, as calculated from a Ballabio and Murphy analysis, leads to a thermal Tion too low to explain observed yields. These results have improved our understanding of hotspot formation and the concept of ``stagnation'' in layered NIF implosions. This work was supported in part by DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  3. Use of zooming and pulseshaping for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Kehne, D. M.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.

    2011-10-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317(2010)], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce ~ 1 Gbar shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is using the focal zoom capability of Nike and shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target to achieve higher densities and velocities. In-flight target density is inferred from target heating upon collision via DD neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE (NNSA) and Office of Naval Research. SAIC

  4. Optimizing pulse shaping and zooming for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.; Watari, T.

    2010-11-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010) ], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce extreme shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target and using the focal zoom capability of Nike to achieve higher densities and velocities. Spectroscopic measurements of electron temperature achieved upon impact will complement the neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE and Office of Naval Research.

  5. Oral administration of a cholera toxin B subunit-insulin fusion protein produced in silkworm protects against autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhaohui; Jin, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2005-09-22

    The oral administration of disease-specific autoantigens can induce oral immune tolerance and prevent or delay the onset of autoimmune disease symptoms. Here, we describe the construction of an edible vaccine consisting of a fusion protein composed of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and insulin that is produced in silkworm larvae at levels of up to 0.3 mg/ml of hemolymph. The silkworm bioreactor produced this fusion protein vaccine as the pentameric CTB-insulin form, which retained the GM1-ganglioside binding affinity and the native antigenicity of CTB and insulin. Non-obese diabetic mice fed hemolymph containing microgram quantities of the CTB-insulin fusion protein showed a prominent reduction in pancreatic islet inflammation and a delay in the development of symptoms of clinical diabetes. These results demonstrate that the silkworm bioreactor is a feasible production and delivery system for an oral protein vaccine designed to develop immunological tolerance against T-cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes by regulatory T-cell induction.

  6. A Model for Axions Producing Extended gamma-ray Emission from Neutron Star J0108-1431

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Bijan; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Axions are hypothetical particles proposed to solve the strong CP problem in QCD and may constitute a significant fraction of the dark matter in the Universe. Axions are expected to be produced in neutron stars and subsequently decay, producing gamma-rays detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). Considering that light axions may travel a long range before they decay into gamma rays, neutron stars may appear as a spatially-extended source of gamma rays. We extend our previous search for gamma rays from axions, based on a point source model, to consider the neutron star as an extended source of gamma rays.We investigate the spatial emission of gamma rays using phenomenological models. We present models including the fundamental astrophysics and relativistic, extended gamma-ray emission from axions around neutron stars. A Monte Carlo simulation of the LAT gives us an expectation for the extended angular profile and spectrum. We predict a mean angular spread of 0.8 degrees with energies in the range 30-200 MeV. We consider projected sensitivities for mass limits on axions from J0108-1431, a neutron star at a distance of 240 pc. We demonstrate the feasibility of setting more stringent limits for axions in this mass range, excluding a range not probed by observations before. Based on the extended angular profile of the source, the expected sensitivity of the 95% CL upper limit on the axion mass from J0108-1431 is >10 meV. We also consider observational strategies in the search for axions from J0108-1431 with the Fermi-LAT.

  7. Nanostructured rhodium films produced by pulsed laser deposition for nuclear fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, M.; Dellasega, D.; Grosso, G.; Conti, C.; Ubaldi, M. C.; Bottani, C. E.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper the possibilities offered by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for the production of nanostructured rhodium films with improved properties are explored. Thanks to its high reflectivity and low sputtering yield, rhodium is one of the best candidates for the development of thin films to be used in first mirrors, which are crucial components in many diagnostic systems of thermonuclear magnetic fusion machines, like tokamaks. Due to the features of PLD, by varying the process parameters it is possible to tailor both the structure, i.e. the nanocrystalline domain size of the deposited films, down to less than 5 nm and separately control the other relevant physical properties. This leads to modifications in growth regime and annealing dynamics, in such a way that both morphology and reflectivity achieve the properties demanded to use these films as mirrors for fusion applications, opening at the same time new possibilities for the future improvement of thermo-mechanical and adhesion properties.

  8. Characterization of an immunomodulatory Der p 2-FIP-fve fusion protein produced in transformed rice suspension cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chin-Fen; Kuo, I-Chun; Chen, Peng-Wen; Huang, Chiung-Hui; Seow, See Voon; Chua, Kaw Yan; Yu, Su-May

    2012-02-01

    Der p 2, a major allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites, is one of the most clinically relevant allergens to allergic patients worldwide. FIP-fve protein (Fve) from the golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) is an immunomodulatory protein with potential Th1-skewed adjuvant properties. Here, we produced and immunologically evaluated a Der p 2-Fve fusion protein as a potential immunotherapeutic for allergic diseases. Using an inducible expression system in cultured rice suspension cells, the recombinant Der p 2-Fve fusion protein (designated as OsDp2Fve) was expressed in rice cells under the control of an α-amylase gene (αAmy8) promoter and secreted under sucrose starvation. OsDp2Fve was partially purified from the cultured medium. The conformation of Der p 2 in OsDp2Fve remains intact as reflected by its unaltered allergenicity, as assessed by human IgE ELISA and histamine release assays, compared to non-fusion Der p 2 protein. Furthermore, the Fve protein expressed in OsDp2Fve retains its in vitro lymphoproliferative activity but loses its hemagglutination and lymphoagglutination effects compared to the native protein. Notably, in vivo evaluation showed that mice administered with OsDp2Fve possessed an enhanced production of Der p 2-specific IgG antibodies without potentiating the production of Der p 2-specific IgE and Th2 effector cytokines in comparison with mice co-administered with native Fve and Der p 2 proteins. These results suggest that the recombinant Der p 2-Fve fusion protein produced in rice suspension cell cultures has a great potential for allergy immunotherapy.

  9. Measurement of Neutrons Produced by Beam-Target Interactions via a Coaxial Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauble, Scott; Poehlmann, Flavio; Rieker, Gregory; Cappelli, Mark

    2011-10-01

    This poster presents a method to measure neutron yield from a coaxial plasma accelerator. Stored electrical energies between 1 and 19 kJ are discharged within a few microseconds across the electrodes of the coaxial gun, accelerating deuterium gas samples to plasma beam energies well beyond the keV energy range. The focus of this study is to examine the interaction of the plasma beam with a deuterated target by designing and fabricating a detector to measure neutron yield. Given the strong electromagnetic pulse associated with our accelerator, indirect measurement of neutrons via threshold-dependent nuclear activation serves as both a reliable and definitive indicator of high-energy particles for our application. Upon bombardment with neutrons, discs or stacks of metal foils placed near the deuterated target undergo nuclear activation reactions, yielding gamma-emitting isotopes whose decay is measured by a scintillation detector system. By collecting gamma ray spectra over time and considering nuclear cross sections, the magnitude of the original neutron pulse is inferred.

  10. Observed Multi-Decade DD and DT Z-Pinch Fusion Rate Scaling in 5 Dense Plasma Focus Fusion Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, E. C. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Lowe, D. R. [National Security Technologies, LLC; O' Brien, R. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Meehan, B. T. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2013-06-18

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) machines are in use worldwide or a wide variety of applications; one of these is to produce intense, short bursts of fusion via r-Z pinch heating and compression of a working gas. We have designed and constructed a series of these, ranging from portable to a maximum energy storage capacity of 2 MJ. Fusion rates from 5 DPF pulsed fusion generators have been measured in a single laboratory using calibrated activation detectors. Measured rates range from ~ 1015 to more than 1019 fusions per second have been measured. Fusion rates from the intense short (20 – 50 ns) periods of production were inferred from measurement of neutron production using both calibrated activation detectors and scintillator-PMT neutron time of flight (NTOF) detectors. The NTOF detectors are arranged to measure neutrons versus time over flight paths of 30 Meters. Fusion rate scaling versus energy and current will be discussed. Data showing observed fusion cutoff at D-D fusion yield levels of approximately 1*1012, and corresponding tube currents of ~ 3 MA will be shown. Energy asymmetry of product neutrons will also be discussed. Data from the NTOF lines of sight have been used to measure energy asymmetries of the fusion neutrons. From this, center of mass energies for the D(d,n)3He reaction are inferred. A novel re-entrant chamber that allows extremely high single pulse neutron doses (> 109 neutrons/cm2 in 50 ns) to be supplied to samples will be described. Machine characteristics and detector types will be discussed.

  11. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy Study of Neutron Irradiated High Temperature Superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-δ for Application in Fusion Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterníková, J.; Chudý, M.; Slugeň, V.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.; Sojak, S.; Petriska, M.; Hinca, R.; Degmová, J.; Sabelová, V.

    2012-02-01

    This study focuses on the crystallographic defects introduced by neutron irradiation and the resulting changes of the superconducting properties in the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ. This material is considered to be most promising for magnet systems in future fusion reactors. Two different bulk samples, pure non-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) and multi-seed YBa2Cu3O7-δ doped by platinum (MS2F) were studied prior to and after irradiation in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Vienna. Neutron irradiation is responsible for a significant enhancement of the critical current densities as well as for a reduction in critical temperature. The accumulation of small open volume defects (treatment.

  12. Analysis of an attempt at detection of neutrons produced in a plasma discharge electrolytic cell

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2013-01-01

    R. Faccini et al. \\cite{Faccini:2013} have attempted a replication of an earlier experiment by D. Cirillo et al. \\cite{Cirillo:2012} in which neutrons [as well as nuclear transmutations] were observed in a modified Mizuno cell. No neutron production is observed in the recent experiment \\cite{Faccini:2013} and no evidence for microwave radiation or nuclear transmutations are reported. A careful analysis shows major technical differences in the two experiments and we explore the underlying reasons for the lack of any nuclear activity in the newer experiment.

  13. Development of an inertial confinement fusion platform to study charged-particle-producing nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bacher, A.; Brune, C. R.; Casey, D. T.; Forrest, C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hohenberger, M.; Sayre, D. B.; Bionta, R. M.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Craxton, R. S.; Dearborn, D.; Farrell, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Garcia, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hale, G.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hohensee, M.; Holunga, D. M.; Hoppe, M.; Janezic, R.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Kohut, T. R.; Lahmann, B.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Marshall, F. J.; Masse, L.; McEvoy, A.; McKenty, P.; McNabb, D. P.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T. G.; Paris, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Pino, J.; Radha, P. B.; Remington, B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rosse, B.; Rubery, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Sanchez, J.; Schmitt, M.; Schoff, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Sio, H.; Stoeckl, C.; Tipton, R. E.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a platform to study astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions using inertial-confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA and National Ignition Facility laser facilities, with a particular focus on optimizing the implosions to study charged-particle-producing reactions. Primary requirements on the platform are high yield, for high statistics in the fusion product measurements, combined with low areal density, to allow the charged fusion products to escape. This is optimally achieved with direct-drive exploding pusher implosions using thin-glass-shell capsules. Mitigation strategies to eliminate a possible target sheath potential which would accelerate the emitted ions are discussed. The potential impact of kinetic effects on the implosions is also considered. The platform is initially employed to study the complementary T(t,2n)α, T(3He,np)α and 3He(3He,2p)α reactions. Proof-of-principle results from the first experiments demonstrating the ability to accurately measure the energy and yields of charged particles are presented. Lessons learned from these experiments will be used in studies of other reactions. The goals are to explore thermonuclear reaction rates and fundamental nuclear physics in stellar-like plasma environments, and to push this new frontier of nuclear astrophysics into unique regimes not reachable through existing platforms, with thermal ion velocity distributions, plasma screening, and low reactant energies.

  14. Construction and evaluation of an exopolysaccharide-producing engineered bacterial strain by protoplast fusion for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanshan; Luo, Yijing; Cao, Siyuan; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Jiang, Lingxi; Dong, Hanping; Yu, Li; Wu, Wei-Min

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter cloacae strain JD, which produces water-insoluble biopolymers at optimal temperature of 30°C, and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at high temperatures by protoplast fusion. The obtained fusant strain ZR3 produced exopolysaccharides at up to 45°C with optimal growth temperature at 35°C. The fusant produced exopolysaccharides of approximately 7.5 g/L or more at pH between 7.0 and 9.0. The feasibility of the enhancement of crude oil recovery with the fusant was tested in a sand-packed column at 40°C. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of the fusant was promising approach for MEOR. Mass growth of the fusant was confirmed in fermentor tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High energy neutrinos produced in the accretion disks by neutrons from nuclei disintegrated in the AGN jets

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, W

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of acceleration of nuclei in jets of active galaxies not far from the surface of an accretion disk. The nuclei can be accelerated in the re-connection regions in the jet and/or at the jet boundary, between the relativistic jet and its cocoon. It is shown that the relativistic nuclei can efficiently fragment onto specific nucleons in collisions with the disk radiation. Neutrons, directed towards the accretion disk, take a significant part of energy from the relativistic nuclei. These neutrons develop a cascade in the dense accretion disk. We calculate the neutrino spectra produced in such hadronic cascade within the accretion disk. We propose that the neutrinos produced in such scenario from the whole population of super-massive black holes in active galaxies can explain the extragalactic neutrino background recently measured by the IceCube neutrino detector, provided that $5\\%$ fraction of galaxies is AGN and a few percent of neutrons reach the accretion disk. It is predicted t...

  16. Spectral measurements of neutrons, protons, deuterons and tritons produced by 100 MeV/nucleon He bombardment

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosawa, T; Nakao, N; Shibata, T; Uwamino, Y; Fukumura, A

    1999-01-01

    We measured angular and energy distributions of neutrons, protons, deuterons and tritons produced by 100 MeV/nucleon He ions stopping in thick carbon, aluminum, copper and lead targets using the HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) of NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences), Japan by using the time-of-flight method coupled with the DELTA E-E counter system. The DELTA E counter of the NE102A plastic scintillator was used to discriminate charged particles from noncharged particles and to measure charged particle energy spectra. The E counter of the NE213 liquid scintillator was used to measure neutron energy spectra. The experimental spectra were compared with the calculation using the LCS code and the calculated spectra are generally in rather good agreement with the measured spectra of these four secondary particles.

  17. Exciting (and detecting) gravitational waves from the tidally produced f-modes in highly eccentric neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirenti, Cecilia; Gold, Roman; Miller, M. Coleman

    2017-08-01

    After the first recent detections of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we expect to observe next gravitational radiation from neutron stars in the near future. Most interestingly, the signal from neutron star binaries could also carry information about the equation of state of cold, catalyzed, dense matter in the interior of neutron stars, which is in a regime not accessible to nuclear and particle physics experiments on Earth. For analyzing this information, more advanced gravitational wave detectors will be needed, such as third-generation detectors like the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer. Besides the gravitational wave signal produced by the orbital motion and merger of the binary, a rich spectrum of characteristic fluid oscillations is expected to be produced with low amplitude in the ringdown. The frequencies and physical properties of these modes have been extensively studied in linear perturbation theory (both Newtonian and relativistic) and they have already been found in numerical relativity simulations of isolated neutron stars and of hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers. Due to the high frequency of the fundamental (f-)modes, of the order of 1-2 kHz, the resonant excitation of these modes is not expected to be detectable in circular binaries. However, highly eccentric binaries could have the potential for exciting f-modes in their close passages, and recent numerical relativity simulations indicate that the energy deposited in the f-modes could be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory. The merger of highly eccentric neutron star binaries will be rare events, but we estimate that up to several tens could be detected per year out to the redshifts ~2-6 accessible with third-generation instruments. Finally, we note that the information from the amplitude, frequency and damping time of the f-modes can be used for simultaneously measuring the masses, moments of inertia and tidal Love

  18. Measurements of accelerator-produced leakage neutron and photon transmission through concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, K R; Nelson, W R; Fasso, A; Liu, J C; Mao, X; Jenkins, T M; Kleck, J H

    2003-02-01

    Optimum shielding of the radiation from particle accelerators requires knowledge of the attenuation characteristics of the shielding material. The most common material for shielding this radiation is concrete, which can be made using various materials of different densities as aggregates. These different concrete mixes can have very different attenuation characteristics. Information about the attenuation of leakage photons and neutrons in ordinary and heavy concrete is, however, very limited. To increase our knowledge and understanding of the radiation attenuation in concrete of various compositions, we have performed measurements of the transmission of leakage radiation, photons and neutrons, from a Varian Clinac 2100C medical linear accelerator operating at maximum electron energies of 6 and 18 MeV. We have also calculated, using Monte Carlo techniques, the leakage neutron spectra and its transmission through concrete. The results of these measurements and calculations extend the information currently available for designing shielding for medical electron accelerators. Photon transmission characteristics depend more on the manufacturer of the concrete than on the atomic composition. A possible cause for this effect is a non-uniform distribution of the high-density aggregate, typically iron, in the concrete matrix. Errors in estimated transmission of photons can exceed a factor of three, depending on barrier thickness, if attenuation in high-density concrete is simply scaled from that of normal density concrete. We found that neutron transmission through the high-density concretes can be estimated most reasonably and conservatively by using the linear tenth-value layer of normal concrete if specific values of the tenth-value layer of the high-density concrete are not known. The reason for this is that the neutron transmission depends primarily on the hydrogen content of the concrete, which does not significantly depend on concrete density. Errors of factors of two

  19. IRACM : A code system to calculate induced radioactivity produced by ions and neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Susumu; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Nishimura, Koichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Yamano, Naoki

    1997-05-01

    It is essential to estimate of radioactivity induced in accelerator components and samples bombarded by energetic ion beams and the secondary neutrons of high-energy accelerator facilities in order to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes and to minimize radiation exposure to personnel. A computer code system IRACM has been developed to estimate product nuclides and induced radioactivity in various radiation environments of accelerator facilities. Nuclide transmutation with incident particles of neutron, proton, deuteron, alpha, {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N, {sup 16}O, {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar can be computed for arbitrary multi-layer target system in a one-dimensional geometry. The code system consists of calculation modules and libraries including activation cross sections, decay data and photon emission data. The system can be executed in both FACOM-M780 mainframe and DEC workstations. (author)

  20. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroo, A; Abdel-Basset, N; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Hassan, A M

    2001-03-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4 x 10(12) n/cm2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The gamma-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented.

  1. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M

    2001-03-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The {gamma}-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented.

  2. Absolute measurement of the DT primary neutron yield on the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeper R.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the absolute neutron yield produced in inertial confinement fusion target experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF is essential in benchmarking progress towards the goal of achieving ignition on this facility. This paper describes three independent diagnostic techniques that have been developed to make accurate and precise DT neutron yield measurements on the NIF.

  3. Multitechnique study on a recombinantly produced Bacillus halodurans laccase and an S-layer/laccase fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner-Ortner-Bleckmann, Judith; Schrems, Angelika; Ilk, Nicola; Egelseer, Eva M; Sleytr, Uwe B; Schuster, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Methods for organizing functional materials at the nanometer scale are essential for the development of novel fabrication techniques. One of the most relevant areas of research in nanobiotechnology concerns technological utilization of self-assembly systems, wherein molecules spontaneously associate into reproducible supramolecular structures. For this purpose, the laccase of Bacillus halodurans C-125 was immobilized on the S-layer lattice formed by SbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 either by (i) covalent linkage of the enzyme to the natural protein self-assembly system or (ii) by construction of a fusion protein comprising the S-layer protein and the laccase. The laccase and the S-layer fusion protein were produced heterologously in Escherichia coli. After isolation and purification, the properties of the proteins, as well as the specific activity of the enzyme moiety, were investigated. Interestingly, the S-layer part confers a much higher solubility on the laccase as observed for the sole enzyme. Comparative spectrophotometric measurements of the enzyme activity revealed similar but significantly higher values for rLac and rSbpA/Lac in solution compared to the immobilized state. However, rLac covalently linked to the SbpA monolayer yielded a four to five time higher enzymatic activity than rSbpA/Lac immobilized on a solid support. Combined quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and electrochemical measurements (performed in an electrochemical QCM-D cell) revealed that rLac immobilized on the SbpA lattice had an approximately twofold higher enzymatic activity compared to that obtained with the fusion protein.

  4. Angular momentum limit of Hf isotopes produced in three fusion-evaporation reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Domscheit, J; Ernst, J; Fallon, P; Herskind, B; Hübel, H; Korten, W; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; Nenoff, N; Siem, S; Ward, D; Wilson, J N

    2001-01-01

    The compound nucleus sup 1 sup 6 sup 8 Hf was populated in three fusion-evaporation reactions with different beam-target mass asymmetries: sup 5 sup 0 Ti+ sup 1 sup 1 sup 8 Sn, sup 6 sup 4 Ni+ sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Ru and sup 7 sup 4 Ge+ sup 9 sup 4 Zr. Due to the large negative Q values of these reactions the compound nucleus is formed at low excitation energy. At three or four excitation energies for each reaction gamma-ray spectra of the evaporation residues sup 1 sup 6 sup 6 Hf to sup 1 sup 6 sup 3 Hf, corresponding to the 2n to 5n exit channels, respectively, were recorded with the Ge detectors of the 8 pi-spectrometer array. The gamma-ray multiplicity and total energy were measured using the inner ball of BGO detectors. This data was used to determine the maximum angular momentum transferred to each evaporation channel, the gamma-ray decay entry region and the relative cross sections. No differences are observed between the three reactions. This is explained by the very similar dependence of the excitation ...

  5. Repetitive tabletop plasma focus to produce a tunable damage factor on materials for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Inestrosa-Izurieta, Maria Jose; Moreno, Jose; Davis, Sergio; Bora, Biswajit; Avaria, Gonzalo; Jain, Jalaj; Altamirano, Luis; Panizo, Miguel; Gonzalez, Raquel; Rivera, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Future thermonuclear reactors, both magnetic and inertial confinement approaches, need materials capable of withstanding the extreme radiation and heat loads expected from high repetition rate plasma. A damage factor (F = qτ1/2) in the order of 104 (W/cm2) s1/2 is expected. The axial plasma dynamics after the pinch in a tabletop plasma focus of hundred joules, PF-400J, was characterized by means of pulsed optical refractive diagnostics. The energy, interaction time and power flux of the plasma burst interacting with targets was obtained. Results show a high dependence of the damage factor with the distance from the anode top where the sample is located. A tunable damage factor in the range 10- 105(W/cm2) s1/2 can be obtained. At present the PF-400J operating at 0.077 Hz is being used to study the effects of fusion-relevant pulses on material target, including nanostructured materials. A new tabletop device to be operated up to 1Hz including tunable damage factor has been designed and is being constructed, thus thousand cumulative shots on materials could be obtained in few minutes. The scaling of the damage factor for plasma foci operating at different energies is discussed. Supported by CONICYT: PIA ACT-1115, PAI 79130026.

  6. Temperature Measurements of Fusion Plasmas Produced by Laser-Irradiated D2-3 He or CD4-3 He Clustering Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, W.; Ditmire, T.; Quevedo, H.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Donovan, M.; Gaul, E.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Hagel, K.; Natowitz, J. B.

    2014-10-01

    We report on experiments in which a mixture of D2 or CD4 clusters and 3He gas was irradiated by a petawatt-laser pulse, generating nuclear fusion reactions such as D(d, 3He) n, D(d, t) p , and 3He(d, p)4He. We measured the yields of fusion neutrons and protons from these reactions and found them to agree with yields based on a simple cylindrical plasma model. The plasma temperature was determined by two different methods. In the first, it was derived from time-of-flight data of deuterium ions ejected from exploding D2 or CD4 clusters. In the second, it was measured from the ratio of neutron yield to proton yield from D(d, 3He) n and 3He(d, p)4He reactions, respectively. The temperatures determined by these two methods agree well, indicating (i) the ion energy distribution is not significantly distorted when ions travel in the disassembling plasma; (ii) the kinetic energy of deuterium ions, especially the hottest part responsible for nuclear fusion, is well described by a near-Maxwellian distribution.

  7. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  8. Neutron measurements in ITER using the Radial Neutron Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocco, D.; Esposito, B.; Moro, F.

    2012-03-01

    The Radial Neutron Camera (RNC) is one of the key diagnostic systems of the ITER international fusion experiment. It is designed to measure the uncollided 14 MeV and 2.5 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium (DT) and deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion reactions taking place in the ITER plasma through an array of 45 detectors positioned along collimated lines of sight. Scintillators and diamonds coupled to fast digital acquisition electronics are among the detectors presently considered for the RNC. The RNC will provide spatially resolved measurements of several plasma parameters needed for fusion power estimation, plasma control and plasma physics studies. The line-integrated RNC neutron fluxes are used to evaluate the local profile of the neutron emission (neutron emissivity, s-1m-3) and therefore the total neutron yield and the birth profile of the alpha particles. The temperature profile of the bulk ions can be derived from the Doppler broadened widths of the RNC line-integrated spectra, that also provide insight on the supra-thermal ions produced by the injection in the plasma of electromagnetic waves and neutral particles. The RNC emissivity and temperature measurements can be employed to estimate the composition of the ITER fuel, namely the ratio between the tritium and deuterium densities. Data processing techniques involving spatial inversion and spectra unfolding are necessary to deduce the profile quantities from the line-integrated RNC measurements. The expected performances of the RNC as a diagnostic for the neutron emissivity/ion temperature/fuel ratio profile (measurement range, time resolution, accuracy, precision) have been estimated by means of synthetic data simulating actual RNC measurements. The results of the simulations, together with an overall description of the diagnostic and of the measurement techniques, are presented.

  9. SHOW. A program for the integrated analysis of the data produced in a nuclear fusion experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracco, G.; Tudisco, O. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1998-03-01

    The report describes the program SHOW, an application devoted to the integrated analysis of the data produced in nuclear fusion experimental devices. The program is currently used for the analysis of the FTU data and a version is also available at JET. The code is written in FORTRAN 77, runs on IBM mainframes under MVS operating system and makes use of the GDDM graphical package. The program, that operates both in batch and interactive modes, permits to perform a graphical analysis of the data collected in the experimental databases. The report contains as appendixes the detailed description of all the program options together with a short illustration of the FTU databases. [Italiano] Il rapporto descrive il programma SHOW. Si tratta di una applicazione che permette l`analisi integrata dei dati prodotti da apparati sperimentali dedicati allo studio della fusione nucleare controllata. Il programma e` utilizzato per l`analisi dei dati di FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) e una versione e` disponibile anche al JET (Joint European Torus). Il codice e` scritto in FORTRAN 77 per mainframes IBM con sistema operativo MVS ed utilizza il pacchetto grafico GDDM. Il programma puo` funzionare sia in modo batch che in modo interattivo e permette di compiere l`elaborazione grafica dei dati raccolti nelle basi di dati sperimentali. Il rapporto contiene come appendici la descrizione dettagliata di tutte le opzioni del programma e una breve illustrazione delle basi di dati disponibili per FTU.

  10. Analysis of the pore structure of activated carbons produced from paper mill sludge using small angle neutron scattering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandi, G.; Khalil, N. R.; Littrell, K.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1999-12-13

    A novel, cost-effective, and environmentally benign process was developed to produce highly efficient carbon-based adsorbents (CBAs) from paper mill sludge. The production process required chemical activation of sludge using zinc chloride and pyrolysis at 750 C in N{sub 2} gas. The produced CBAs were characterized according to their surface area and pore size distribution using N{sub 2}-BET adsorption isotherm data. Further characterization of the surface and pore structure was conducted using a unified exponential/power law approach applied to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data. The structural features analyzed by SANS revealed the dependence of porosity with zinc chloride concentration. The presence of inaccessible pores was also determined by contrast-match experiments.

  11. Molybdenum-99-producing 37-element fuel bundle neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to a standard CANDU fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichita, E., E-mail: Eleodor.Nichita@uoit.ca; Haroon, J., E-mail: Jawad.Haroon@uoit.ca

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A 37-element fuel bundle modified for {sup 99}Mo production in CANDU reactors is presented. • The modified bundle is neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard bundle. • The modified bundle satisfies all safety criteria satisfied by the standard bundle. - Abstract: {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used radioisotope in diagnostic nuclear medicine, results from the radioactive decay of {sup 99}Mo which is currently being produced at various research reactors around the globe. In this study, the potential use of CANDU power reactors for the production of {sup 99}Mo is investigated. A modified 37-element fuel bundle, suitable for the production of {sup 99}Mo in existing CANDU-type reactors is proposed. The new bundle is specifically designed to be neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard 37-element CANDU fuel bundle in normal, steady-state operation and, at the same time, be able to produce significant quantities of {sup 99}Mo when irradiated in a CANDU reactor. The proposed bundle design uses fuel pins consisting of a depleted-uranium centre surrounded by a thin layer of low-enriched uranium. The new molybdenum-producing bundle is analyzed using the lattice transport code DRAGON and the diffusion code DONJON. The proposed design is shown to produce 4081 six-day Curies of {sup 99}Mo activity per bundle when irradiated in the peak-power channel of a CANDU core, while maintaining the necessary reactivity and power rating limits. The calculated {sup 99}Mo yield corresponds to approximately one third of the world weekly demand. A production rate of ∼3 bundles per week can meet the global demand of {sup 99}Mo.

  12. Hypervelocity Impact Fusion with Compressed Deuterium-Tritium Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Olariu, Silviu

    1998-01-01

    The neutron yields observed in inertial confinement fusion experiments for higher convergence ratios are about two orders of magnitude smaller than the neutron yields predicted by one-dimensional models, the discrepancy being attributed to the development of instabilities. We consider the possibility that ignition and a moderate gain could be achieved with existing laser facilities if the laser driver energy is used to produce only the radial compression of the fuel capsule to high densities ...

  13. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  14. Analysis of the influence of fusion synthesis parameters on the SO2 sorption properties of zeolites produced out of fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czuma Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash zeolites are interesting alternative for zeolies produced out of pure chemicals as well as for natural zeolites. It can be applied as SO2 sorbents out of flue gases. In the work the experiments were aimed at investigation of SO2 sorption capacity of samples produced out of fly ash in fusion process. The influence of fusion reaction parameters on the type of obtained zeolites and on the efficiency of synthesis was investigated. The samples containing the same types of zeolites, but with different production yield were testes on SO2 sorption capacity.

  15. Identification of new neutron-rich rare-earth nuclei produced in /sup 252/Cf spontaneous fission

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, R C; Gehrke, R J; Meikrantz, D H

    1981-01-01

    A program of systematic study of the decay properties of neutron-rich rare-earth nuclei with 30 sproduced in /sup 252/Cf spontaneous fission, is currently underway using the Idaho ESOL (Elemental Separation On Line) Facility. The chemistry system used for the rare-earth elemental separations consists of two high-performance chromatography columns connected in series and coupled to the /sup 252 /Cf fission source via a helium gas-jet transport arrangement. The time delay for separation and initiation of gamma -ray counting with results which have been obtained to date with this system include the identification of a number of new neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes including /sup 155/Pm (t/sub 1/2/=48+or-4 s) and /sup 163/Gd (t/sub 1 /2/=68+or-3 s), in addition to 5.51 min /sup 158/Sm which was identified in an earlier series of experiments. (11 refs).

  16. Shock wave produced by hadron-quark phase transition in neutron star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavo de Almeida, Luis, E-mail: lgalmeida@cbpf.br [Universidade Federal do Acre – Campus Floresta, Estrada do Canela Fina, km 12, CEP 69980-000, Cruzeiro do Sul, AC (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, Sérgio José Barbosa, E-mail: sbd@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, Hilário, E-mail: harg.astrophys@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca Av. Maracanã, 229, CEP 20271-110, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    In this work we present a schematic description of the detonation wave in hadronic matter inside a neutron star core. We have used a simplified two shells model where the inner shell medium is initially composed of a small lump of strange quark matter surrounded by a large outer shell composed of hadronic matter. We have utilized an equation of state (EOS) based on Relativistic Mean Field Theory with the parameter set NL3 to describe the nuclear and subnuclear phases. We use the MIT bag model to describe the strange quark matter. The hadron-quark phase transition actually induces highly non equilibrium modes, which may become a detonation process (faster) or a burning process (slower). The main purpose of the work is to study the formation of a remnant quark star and the possibility of mass ejection caused by the hadron-quark phase transition. We have found that the total amount of ejected mass is dependant of the bag constant utilized in the strange matter description.

  17. Fusion and neutron transfer reactions with weakly bound nuclei within time-dependent and coupled channel approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarin, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    The time-dependent Schrödinger equation and the coupled channel approach based on the method of perturbed stationary two-center states are used to describe nucleon transfers and fusion in low-energy nuclear reactions. Results of the cross sections calculation for the formation of the 198Au and fusion in the 6He+197Au reaction and for the formation of the 65Zn in 6He+64Zn reaction agree satisfactorily with the experimental data near the barrier. The Feynman's continual integrals calculations for a few-body systems were used for the proposal of the new form of the shell model mean field for helium isotopes.

  18. Validation of the manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, J; Osborne, D; Dumont, J; Peters, R; Mei, B; Pierce, G F; Kobayashi, K; Euwart, D

    2014-07-01

    Recombinant factor IX Fc (rFIXFc) fusion protein is the first of a new class of bioengineered long-acting factors approved for the treatment and prevention of bleeding episodes in haemophilia B. The aim of this work was to describe the manufacturing process for rFIXFc, to assess product quality and to evaluate the capacity of the process to remove impurities and viruses. This manufacturing process utilized a transferable and scalable platform approach established for therapeutic antibody manufacturing and adapted for production of the rFIXFc molecule. rFIXFc was produced using a process free of human- and animal-derived raw materials and a host cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells. The process employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including use of a protein A affinity capture chromatography step, which binds to the Fc portion of the rFIXFc molecule with high affinity and specificity, and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. Process validation studies were performed to evaluate identity, purity, activity and safety. The manufacturing process produced rFIXFc with consistent product quality and high purity. Impurity clearance validation studies demonstrated robust and reproducible removal of process-related impurities and adventitious viruses. The rFIXFc manufacturing process produces a highly pure product, free of non-human glycan structures. Validation studies demonstrate that this product is produced with consistent quality and purity. In addition, the scalability and transferability of this process are key attributes to ensure consistent and continuous supply of rFIXFc.

  19. Evaluation of clinoptilolite for removal of ammoniacal nitrogen produced in aquaculture by Neutron activation analysis and UV-VIS spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibiano C, L.; Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Martinez M, V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    In fish culture system, ammonia is excreted in the water as a metabolic by-product. In this work, sorption properties of clinoptilolite were determined and it was applied in culture of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss for the removal of the ammoniacal nitrogen. The original clinoptilolite was treated with 1N NaCl solution from 24 to 192 h, for exchange NH{sub 4} ions produced in fish culture. The content of Na in the clinoptilolite was determined by neutron activation analysis. The ammonium ion content in the exchange was analysed by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Maximum uptake of sodium was reached between 24 and 48 hours at neutral pH with granules of the clinoptilolite from 14 to 24 mesh size. The adsorption capacity was from 3.28 to 6.8 mg of ammonium per gram of clinoptilolite. (Author)

  20. A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Alan J. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Cooper, Gary Wayne [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Fehl, David Lee; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Smelser, Ruth Marie; Torres, Jose A.

    2013-09-01

    There are several machines in this country that produce short bursts of neutrons for various applications. A few examples are the Zmachine, operated by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM; the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY; and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) operated by the Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. They all incorporate neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors which measure neutron yield, and the shapes of the waveforms from these detectors contain germane information about the plasma conditions that produce the neutrons. However, the signals can also be %E2%80%9Cclouded%E2%80%9D by a certain fraction of neutrons that scatter off structural components and also arrive at the detectors, thereby making analysis of the plasma conditions more difficult. These detectors operate in current mode - i.e., they have no discrimination, and all the photomultiplier anode charges are integrated rather than counted individually as they are in single event counting. Up to now, there has not been a method for modeling an nTOF detector operating in current mode. MCNPPoliMiwas developed in 2002 to simulate neutron and gammaray detection in a plastic scintillator, which produces a collision data output table about each neutron and photon interaction occurring within the scintillator; however, the postprocessing code which accompanies MCNPPoliMi assumes a detector operating in singleevent counting mode and not current mode. Therefore, the idea for this work had been born: could a new postprocessing code be written to simulate an nTOF detector operating in current mode? And if so, could this process be used to address such issues as the impact of neutron scattering on the primary signal? Also, could it possibly even identify sources of scattering (i.e., structural materials) that

  1. Measurements of attenuation lengths through concrete and iron for neutrons produced by 800-MeV proton on tantalum target at ISIS

    CERN Document Server

    Nunomiya, T; Wright, P; Nakamura, T; Kim, E; Kurosawa, T; Taniguchi, S; Sasaki, M; Iwase, H; Uwamino, Y; Shibata, T; Ito, S; Perry, D R

    2002-01-01

    A deep penetration experiment through a thick bulk shield was performed at an intense spallation neutron source facility, ISIS, of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), United Kingdom. ISIS is a 800 MeV-200 mu A proton accelerator facility. Neutrons are produced from a tantalum target, and are shielded with approximately 3-m thick steel and 1-m thick ordinary concrete. On top of the shield, we measured the neutron flux attenuation through concrete and iron shields, which were additionally placed up to 120-cm and 60-cm thickness, respectively, using activation detectors of graphite and bismuth. The attenuation lengths of concrete and iron for high-energy neutrons above 20 MeV were obtained from the sup 1 sup 2 C(n, 2n) sup 1 sup 1 C reaction of graphite.

  2. On the role of fusion neutron source with thorium blanket in forming the nuclide composition of the nuclear fuel cycle of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    The possible role of available thorium resources of the Russian Federation in utilization of thorium in the closed (U-Pu)-fuel cycle of nuclear power is considered. The efficiency of application of fusion neutron sources with thorium blanket for economical use of available thorium resources is demonstrated. The objective of this study is the search for a solution of such major tasks of nuclear power as reduction of the amount of front-end operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and enhancement of its protection against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials with the smallest possible alterations in the fuel cycle. The earlier results are analyzed, new information on the amount of thorium resources of the Russian Federation is used, and additional estimates are made. The following basic results obtained on the basis of the assumption of involving fusion reactors with Th-blanket in future nuclear power for generation of the light uranium fraction 232+233+234U and 231Pa are formulated. (1) The fuel cycle would shift from fissile 235U to 233U, which is more attractive for thermal power reactors. (2) The light uranium fraction is the most "protected" in the uranium fuel component, and being mixed with regenerated uranium, it would become reduced-enrichment uranium fuel, which would relieve the problem of nonproliferation of the fissile material. (3) The addition of 231Pa into the fuel would stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties, thus making it possible to implement a long fuel residence time and, as a consequence, increase the export potential of the whole nuclear power technology. (4) The available thorium resource in the vicinity of Krasnoufimsk is sufficient for operation of the large-scale nuclear power industry of the Russian Federation with an electric power of 70 GW for more than one quarter of a century. The general conclusion is that involvement of a small number of fusion reactors with Th-blanket in the future nuclear power industry of the Russian

  3. Plot of expected distributions of the test statistics q=log(L(0^+)/L(2^+)) for the spin-0 and spin-2 (produced by gluon fusion) hypotheses

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Expected distributions of the test statistics q=log(L(0^+)/L(2^+)) for the spin-0 and spin-2 (produced by gluon fusion) hypotheses. The observed value is indicated by a vertical line. The coloured areas correspond to the integrals of the expected distributions used to compute the p-values for the rejection of each hypothesis.

  4. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  5. X-ray optical diagnostic of laser produced plasmas for nuclear fusion and X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butzbach, R.

    2001-07-01

    In the present work, the conception, design and appliance of toroidally bent crystals for the X-ray optical diagnostics of laser produced plasmas is discussed. The first part of this work deals with the development, design and characterization of an X-Ray microscope for the observation of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, which act against the confinement and ignition of the fuel in the inertial confinement fusion process. The aim of the second part of the present work was the diagnostic of the lasing medium for amplified spontaneous emission close to the water window. For this purpose, an one-dimensionally (1-D) imaging X-ray spectrometer based on toroidally bent quartz crystals was developed for the observation of the Ni-like 4f-3d transition of Yb, Hf, Ta, and W ions, which should be related to the amplified 4d-4p emission, since the 4f niveau is very close to the 4d niveau. Thus, the 4f-3d transition can serve as an indicator for the population of the 4d niveau. (orig.)

  6. Search for the standard model Higgs boson produced through vector boson fusion and decaying to $\\mathrm{b\\bar{b}}$

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dobur, Didar; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Aly, Reham; Aly, Shereen; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Lotfy, Ahmad; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Ali, Ahmed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Bagaturia, Iuri; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sudhakar, Katta; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Myagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Du Pree, Tristan; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Taroni, Silvia; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Ferro, Cristina; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Thomas, Laurent; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova PANEVA, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Hu, Zhen; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Yin, Hang; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mareskas-palcek, Darren; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Primavera, Federica; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Verzetti, Mauro; Demortier, Luc; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Christian, Allison; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Gomber, Bhawna; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    A first search is reported for a standard model Higgs boson (H) that is produced through vector boson fusion and decays to a bottom-quark pair. Two data samples, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.8 fb$^{-1}$ and 18.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV were selected for this channel at the CERN LHC. The observed significance in these data samples for a $ \\mathrm{ H \\to b\\bar{b} }$ signal at a mass of 125 GeV is 2.2 standard deviations, whilst the expected significance is 0.8 standard deviations. The fitted signal strength $\\mu=\\sigma/\\sigma_\\mathrm{SM}= 2.8 ^{+1.6}_{-1.4}$. The combination of this result with other CMS searches for the Higgs boson decaying to a b-quark pair, yields a signal strength of 1.0 $\\pm$ 0.4, corresponding to a signal significance of 2.6 standard deviations for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV.

  7. Optimization of mechanical properties of Al-metal matrix composite produced by direct fusion of beverage cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile); Inzunza, G.; Camurri, C.; Rodríguez, C. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile); Radovic, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 129, Concepción (Chile); Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Soldera, F.; Suarez, S. [Department of Materials Science, Saarland University, Campus D3.3, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2014-11-03

    The collection of used beverage cans is limited in countries where they are not fabricated; their low value does not justify the extra charge of exporting them for further processing. To address this increasingly serious problem, here we optimize the properties of an aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) obtained through direct fusion of beverage cans by using the slag generated in the melting process as reinforcement. This method consists of a modified rheocasting process followed by thixoforming. Our main operational variable is the shear rate applied to a semi-solid bath, subsequent to which a suitable heat treatment (T8) is proposed to improve the mechanical properties. The microstructure, the phases obtained and their effect on composite mechanical properties are analyzed. The composite material produced has, under the best conditions, a yield stress of 175 MPa and a tensile strength of 273 MPa. These results demonstrate that the proposed process does indeed transform the used beverage cans into promising composite materials, e.g., for structural applications.

  8. Search for the standard model Higgs boson produced through vector boson fusion and decaying to $\\mathrm{b\\bar{b}}$

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dobur, Didar; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Aly, Reham; Aly, Shereen; Assran, Yasser

    2015-08-27

    A first search is reported for a standard model Higgs boson (H) that is produced through vector boson fusion and decays to a bottom-quark pair. Two data samples, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.8 fb$^{-1}$ and 18.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV were selected for this channel at the CERN LHC. The observed significance in these data samples for a $ \\mathrm{ H \\to b\\bar{b} }$ signal at a mass of 125 GeV is 2.2 standard deviations, whilst the expected significance is 0.8 standard deviations. The fitted signal strength $\\mu=\\sigma/\\sigma_\\mathrm{SM}= 2.8 ^{+1.6}_{-1.4}$. The combination of this result with other CMS searches for the Higgs boson decaying to a b-quark pair, yields a signal strength of 1.0 $\\pm$ 0.4, corresponding to a signal significance of 2.6 standard deviations for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV.

  9. Fusion of the Dhfr/Mtx and IR/MAR gene amplification methods produces a rapid and efficient method for stable recombinant protein production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiemi Noguchi

    Full Text Available Amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene (Dhfr by methotrexate (Mtx exposure is commonly used for recombinant protein expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. However, this method is both time- and labor-intensive, and the high-producing cells that are generated are frequently unstable in culture. Another gene amplification method is based on using a plasmid bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR and a matrix attachment region (MAR, which result in the spontaneous initiation of gene amplification in transfected cells. The IR/MAR and Dhfr/Mtx methods of gene amplification are based on entirely different principles. In this study, we combine these two methods to yield a novel method, termed the IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method, which was used to express three proteins, the Fc receptor, GFP, and recombinant antibody. The fusion method resulted in a dramatic increase in expression of all three proteins in two CHO sub-lines, DXB-11, and DG44. The IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion amplified the genes rapidly and efficiently, and produced larger amounts of antibody than the Dhfr/Mtx or IR/MAR methods alone. While the amplified structure produced by the Dhfr/Mtx method was highly unstable, and the antibody production rate rapidly decreased with the culture time of the cells, the IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method resulted in stable amplification and generated clonal cells that produced large amounts of antibody protein over a long period of time. In summary, the novel IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method enables isolation of stable cells that produce larger amounts of a target recombinant protein more rapidly and easily than either the Dhfr/Mtx or IR/MAR methods alone.

  10. Fusion of the Dhfr/Mtx and IR/MAR gene amplification methods produces a rapid and efficient method for stable recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Chiemi; Araki, Yoshio; Miki, Daisuke; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    Amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene (Dhfr) by methotrexate (Mtx) exposure is commonly used for recombinant protein expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, this method is both time- and labor-intensive, and the high-producing cells that are generated are frequently unstable in culture. Another gene amplification method is based on using a plasmid bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR) and a matrix attachment region (MAR), which result in the spontaneous initiation of gene amplification in transfected cells. The IR/MAR and Dhfr/Mtx methods of gene amplification are based on entirely different principles. In this study, we combine these two methods to yield a novel method, termed the IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method, which was used to express three proteins, the Fc receptor, GFP, and recombinant antibody. The fusion method resulted in a dramatic increase in expression of all three proteins in two CHO sub-lines, DXB-11, and DG44. The IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion amplified the genes rapidly and efficiently, and produced larger amounts of antibody than the Dhfr/Mtx or IR/MAR methods alone. While the amplified structure produced by the Dhfr/Mtx method was highly unstable, and the antibody production rate rapidly decreased with the culture time of the cells, the IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method resulted in stable amplification and generated clonal cells that produced large amounts of antibody protein over a long period of time. In summary, the novel IR/MAR-Dhfr fusion method enables isolation of stable cells that produce larger amounts of a target recombinant protein more rapidly and easily than either the Dhfr/Mtx or IR/MAR methods alone.

  11. Search for invisible decays of a Higgs boson produced via vector boson fusion at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search for invisible decays of a Higgs boson produced via vector boson fusion has been performed in the 13 TeV dataset collected by CMS in 2015. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.30~fb$^{-1}$. A dedicated trigger is used to select events with a jet pair compatible with vector boson fusion production of a Higgs boson, together with missing energy from its invisible decay. The offline selection makes further use of the event topology. Backgrounds arise from $Z(\

  12. Transmutation of silicon carbide in fusion nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawan, M.E., E-mail: sawan@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI (United States); Katoh, Y.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The amount and type of metallic transmutants produced in SiC/SiC when used in magnetic (MFE) and inertial (IFE) confinement fusion systems are determined and compared to those obtained following irradiation in fission reactors. Up to ∼1.3% metallic transmutants are generated at the expected lifetime of the fusion blanket. Irradiation in fission reactors to the same fast neutron fluence produces about an order of magnitude lower metallic transmutation products than in fusion systems. While the dominant component in fusion systems is Mg, P is the main transmutation product in fission reactors. The impact on the SiC/SiC properties is not fully understood. The results of this work will help guide irradiation experiments in fission reactors to properly simulate the conditions in fusion systems by possible ion implantation. In addition, the results represent a necessary input for modeling activities aimed at understanding the expected effects on properties.

  13. Heat transfer problems associated with laser fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, T.G.; Bohachevsky, I.O.; Booth, L.A.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Briefly discussed are the laser-initiated fusion reaction, emissions that are produced, and methods that may be used to protect the walls of reactor cavities from these emissions. Thermal loadings encountered in laser fusion reactors will consist of energy deposition by discrete, short, intense pulses of x and gamma rays, fast alpha and other charged particles, and fusion neutrons. Presented are models of energy deposition in structural walls and blanket regions surrounding the reaction chamber and methods used to calculate resulting temperature increases and thermal stresses in these components. The results of such calculations indicate that the design conditions for the engineering of laser-initiated fusion reactors will be severe and a great amount of ingenuity and analysis will be required to meet them successfully.

  14. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  15. Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A. K.; Brenizer, J. S.

    Neutron radiography and its related two-dimensional (2D) neutron imaging techniques have been established as invaluable nondestructive inspection methods and quantitative measurement tools. They have been used in a wide variety of applications ranging from inspection of aircraft engine turbine blades to study of two-phase fluid flow in operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray radiography in that the method produces a 2D attenuation map of neutron radiation that has penetrated the object being examined. However, the images produced differ and are often complementary due to the differences between X-ray and neutron interaction mechanisms. The uses and types of 2D neutron imaging have expanded over the past 15 years as a result of advances in imaging technology and improvements in neutron generators/sources and computers. Still, high-intensity sources such as those from reactors and spallation neutron sources, together with conventional film radiography, remain the mainstay of high-resolution, large field-of-view neutron imaging. This chapter presents a summary of the history, methods, and related variations of neutron radiography techniques.

  16. Limitations of 14 MeV neutron simulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, W.; Bishop, G. R.; Sinha, A.

    1988-07-01

    A D-T fusion cycle produces five times more neutrons per unit of energy released than a fission cycle, with about twice the damage energy and the capability to produce ten times more hydrogen, helium and transmutation products than fission neutrons. They determine, together with other parameters, the lifetime of the construction materials for the low plasma-density fusion reactors (tokamak, tandem-mirror, etc.), which require a first wall. For the economie feasibility of fusion power reactors the first wall and blanket materials must withstand a dose approaching 300 to 400 dpa. Arguments are presented that demonstrate that today's simulation techniques using existing fission reactors and charged particle beams are excellent tools to study the underlying basic physical phenomena of the evolving damage structures but are not sufficient to provide a valid technological data base for the design of economie fusion power reactors. It is shown than an optimized spallation neutron source based on a continuous beam of 600 MeV, 6 mA protons is suitable to simulate first wall conditions. Comparing it with FMIT the 35 MeV, 100 mA D + -Li neutron source, we arrive at the following figure of merit: FM = {(dpa·volume) EURAC}/{(dpa·volume) FMIT} = {} = 111 reflecting the fact that the proton beam generates about 100 times more neutrons than the deuteron beam in FMIT for the same beam power.

  17. Fusion neutron irradiation induced ordering and defect production in Cu/sub 3/Au at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.S.; Guinan, M.W.; Kirk, M.A.; Hahn, P.A.

    1987-08-01

    We irradiate three Cu/sub 3/Au alloys different degrees of initial long-range order at temperatures between 300K and 434K. The resistivity of samples is monitored during irradiation and related to the long-term order parameter by the Muto relation. The results show that the ordering rate, which is proportional to the concentration of freely migrating vacancies, increases at the beginning and then decreases later with fluence. The decrease is a result of the continuous production of sinks in the form of dislocation loops. The effect of sinks on vacancy annihilation in some cases causes a reversed temperature dependence of ordering rate. The free vacancy production rate and the rate of sink production are determined using an ordering kinetics theory. The results of the 14 MeV neutron irradiations are compared to those obtained in other neutron spectra and particle irradiations. The estimated free vacancy production rate is also compared to the primary defect production rate measured at 4.2K in disordered samples.

  18. Detection of fusion residues produced by inverse kinematic reactions using a gas-filled split-pole spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, J F; Beene, J R; Bierman, J D; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gomez-Campo, J D; Gross, C J; Halbert, M L; Harding, T J; McNab, A I; McNeal, S P; Varner, R L; Zhao, K

    1999-01-01

    A focal plane detector has been constructed for detecting fusion residues in a gas-filled Enge split-pole spectrograph. It provides position, timing and energy for particle identification. With a timing channel plate detector in the target chamber, the particle time-of-flight can be measured. This detector system is particularly suitable for studying fusion-evaporation reactions in inverse kinematics. (author)

  19. Measurement of the dmud quartet-to-doublet molecular formation rate ratio (lambdaq : lambdad) and the mu d hyperfine rate (lambdaqd) using the fusion neutrons from mu- stops in D2 gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Nandita

    The MuSun experiment will determine the microd capture rate (micro - + d → n + n + nue) from the doublet hyperfine state Lambdad, of the muonic deuterium atom in the 1S ground state to a precision of 1.5%. Modern effective field theories (EFT) predict that an accurate measurement of Lambdad would determine the two-nucleon weak axial current. This will help in understanding all weak nuclear interactions such as the stellar thermonuclear proton-proton fusion reactions, the neutrino reaction nu + d (which explores the solar neutrino oscillation problem). It will also help us understand weak nuclear interactions involving more than two nucleons---double beta decay---as they do involve a two-nucleon weak axial current term. The experiment took place in the piE3 beam-line of Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) using a muon beam generated from 2.2 mA proton beam---which is the highest intensity beam in the world. The muons first passed through entrance scintillator and multiwire proportional chamber for determining thier entrance timing and position respectively. Then they were stopped in a cryogenic time projection chamber (cryo-TPC) filled with D2 gas. This was surrounded by plastic scintillators and multiwire proportional chambers for detecting the decay electrons and an array of eight liquid scintillators for detecting neutrons. Muons in deuterium get captured to form microd atoms in the quartet and doublet spin states. These atoms undergo nuclear capture from these hyperfine states respectively. There is a hyperfine transition rate from quartet-to-doublet state---lambdaqd along with dmicrod molecular formation which further undergoes a fusion reaction with the muon acting as a catalyst (MCF). The goal of this dissertation is to measure the dmicro d quartet-to-doublet rate ratio (lambdaq : lambdad) and microd hyperfine rate (lambda qd) using the fusion neutrons from micro. stops in D2 gas. The dmicrod molecules undergo MCF reactions from the doublet and the quartet state

  20. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  1. Neutron distribution and yield produced by 50 MeV/u 18O-ion on thick targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Neutron energy, fluence rate, angular distributions anddose equivalent rate distributions around the thick Be, Cu,Au targets bombarded by 50 MeV/u 18O-ion were measured usinga threshold detector activation method. At the same time, theneutron yields of 18O-ion and the neutron emission rates inthe forward direction were obtained approximately.

  2. Neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, N

    2003-01-01

    Various topics and issues on the neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources, mainly for neutron scattering experiments, are reviewed to give a wide circle of readers a better understanding of these sources in order to achieve a high neutronic performance. Starting from what neutrons are needed, what the spallation reaction is and how to produce slow-neutrons more efficiently, the outline of the target and moderator neutronics are explained. Various efforts with some new concepts or ideas have already been devoted to obtaining the highest possible slow-neutron intensity with desired pulse characteristics. This paper also reviews the recent progress of such efforts, mainly focused on moderator neutronics, since moderators are the final devices of a neutron source, which determine the source performance. Various governing parameters for neutron-pulse characteristics such as material issues, geometrical parameters (shape and dimensions), the target-moderator coupling scheme, the ortho-para-hydrogen ratio, po...

  3. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  4. Measurement of cross sections producing short-lived nuclei by 14 MeV neutron. Br, Te, Dy, Ho, Yb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.

    1997-03-01

    Nine neutron activation cross sections producing the nuclei with half-lives between 2 min and 57 min have been measured at energy range between 13.4 and 14.9 MeV for Br, Te, Dy, Ho, Yb. The cross sections of {sup 81}Br(n,p){sup 81m}Se, {sup 128}Te(n,p){sup 128m}Sb, {sup 128}Te(n,{alpha}){sup 125m}Sn, {sup 164}Dy(n,p){sup 164}Tb, {sup 165}Ho(n,{alpha}){sup 162}Tb, {sup 176}Yb(n,p){sup 176}Tm were newly obtained at the six energy points between 13.4-14.9 MeV, although the previous results have been obtained at one energy point. {sup 79}Br(n,2n){sup 78}Br, {sup 164}Dy(n,p){sup 164}Tb are compared with evaluated data of JENDL-3.2. The evaluations for these reactions agree reasonably well with experimental results. The cross sections of (n,p) reaction are compared with systematics by Kasugai et. al. The systematics agrees with experimental results. (author)

  5. Characterization of the secondary neutron field produced during treatment of an anthropomorphic phantom with x-rays, protons and carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, C La; Berger, T; Kaderka, R; Schardt, D; Burmeister, S; Labrenz, J; Reitz, G; Durante, M

    2014-04-21

    Short- and long-term side effects following the treatment of cancer with radiation are strongly related to the amount of dose deposited to the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. The characterization of the radiation field outside the planned target volume is the first step for estimating health risks, such as developing a secondary radioinduced malignancy. In ion and high-energy photon treatments, the major contribution to the dose deposited in the far-out-of-field region is given by neutrons, which are produced by nuclear interaction of the primary radiation with the beam line components and the patient's body. Measurements of the secondary neutron field and its contribution to the absorbed dose and equivalent dose for different radiotherapy technologies are presented in this work. An anthropomorphic RANDO phantom was irradiated with a treatment plan designed for a simulated 5 × 2 × 5 cm³ cancer volume located in the center of the head. The experiment was repeated with 25 MV IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy) photons and charged particles (protons and carbon ions) delivered with both passive modulation and spot scanning in different facilities. The measurements were performed with active (silicon-scintillation) and passive (bubble, thermoluminescence ⁶LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-600) and ⁷LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD-700)) detectors to investigate the production of neutral particles both inside and outside the phantom. These techniques provided the whole energy spectrum (E ≤ 20 MeV) and corresponding absorbed dose and dose equivalent of photo neutrons produced by x-rays, the fluence of thermal neutrons for all irradiation types and the absorbed dose deposited by neutrons with 0.8 thermal neutrons is observed for photons and, among ions, for passively modulated beams. For the treatment with high-energy x-rays, the contribution of secondary neutrons to the dose equivalent is of the same order of magnitude as the primary radiation. In carbon therapy delivered with

  6. Converting energy from fusion into useful forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Jenkins, I; Kiely, C

    2014-01-01

    If fusion power reactors are to be feasible, it will still be necessary to convert the energy of the nuclear reaction into usable form. The heat produced will be removed from the reactor core by a primary coolant, which might be water, helium, molten lithium-lead, molten lithium-containing salt, or CO2. The heat could then be transferred to a conventional Rankine cycle or Brayton (gas turbine) cycle. Alternatively it could be used for thermochemical processes such as producing hydrogen or other transport fuels. Fusion presents new problems because of the high energy neutrons released. These affect the selection of materials and the operating temperature, ultimately determining the choice of coolant and working cycle. The limited temperature ranges allowed by present day irradiated structural materials, combined with the large internal power demand of the plant, will limit the overall thermal efficiency. The operating conditions of the fusion power source, the materials, coolant, and energy conversion system w...

  7. Activation Characteristics of Fuel Breeding Blanket Module in Fusion Driven Subcritical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qun-Ying; LI Jian-Gang; CHEN Yi-Xue

    2004-01-01

    @@ Shortage of energy resources and production of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors are among the main problems which will be faced in the world in the near future. The conceptual design of a fusion driven subcritical system (FDS) is underway in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. There are alternative designs for multi-functional blanket modules of the FDS, such as fuel breeding blanket module (FBB)to produce fuels for fission reactors, tritium breeding blanket module to produce the fuel, i.e. tritium, for fusion reactor and waste transmutation blanket module to try to permanently dispose of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors, etc. Activation of the fuel breeding blanket of the fusion driven subcritical system (FDS-FBB) by D-T fusion neutrons from the plasma and fission neutrons from the hybrid blanket are calculated and analysed under the neutron wall loading 0.5 MW/m2 and neutron fluence 15 MW. yr/m2. The neutron spectrum is calculated with the worldwide-used transport code MCNP/4C and activation calculations are carried out with the well known European inventory code FISPACT/99 with the latest released IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL-2.0 and the ENDF/B-V uranium evaluated data. Induced radioactivities, dose rates and afterheats, etc, for different components of the FDS-FBB are compared and analysed.

  8. Utilization of Neutron Bang-time CVD diamond detectors at the Z Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Gordon; Hahn, Kelly; Ruiz, Carlos; Jones, Brent; Gomez, Matthew; Hess, Mark; Harding, Eric; Knapp, Patrick; Bur, James; Torres, Jose; Norris, Edward; Cooper, Gary; Styron, Jedediah; Moy, Ken; McKenna, Ian; Glebov, Vladimir; Fittinghoff, David; May, Mark; Snyder, Lucas

    2016-10-01

    We are utilizing Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) Diamond detectors at 2.3 meters on the Z accelerator to infer neutron bang-times from Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) sources yielding up to 3e12 DD neutrons and to bound the neutron time history of Deuterium Gas Puff loads producing 5e13 DD neutrons. The current implementation of the diagnostic and initial results will be shown as well as our future plans for the diagnostic. Sandia is sponsored by the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. [Comparison of chain breaks produced in DNA in vivo by gamma rays and neutrons; hypothesis of a new DNA radiolesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekert, B; Sabattier, R; Pironin, M; Latarjet, R

    1985-01-01

    Using the method of alkaline elution for the treatment of cell DNA in chinese hamster fibroblasts irradiated with low doses of either cobalt-60 gamma rays or p (34 MeV) Be neutrons, we determined the kinetics of radio-induced strand breaks. The comparison gamma rays-neutrons reveals important discrepancies which suggest that neutrons induce a so for unknown reaction in DNA simultaneously with single and double strand breakage. This observation could contribute to explain the high RBE value of high LET particles.

  10. Fission Fusion Hybrids: a nearer term application of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

    2011-10-01

    Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant. For waste incineration, hybrids burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs). The number of hybrids needed is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of fast reactors (FRs). The highly sub-critical hybrids, with a thermal/epithermal spectrum, incinerate > 95% of the waste in decades rather than the centuries needed for FRs. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for 3-4 times as many LWRs with no fuel reprocessing. Thorium fuel rods exposed to neutrons in the hybrid reach fissile concentrations that enable efficient burning in LWR without the proliferation risks of reprocessing. The proliferation risks of this method are far less than other fuel breeding approaches, including today's gas centrifuge. With this cycle, US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ~ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

  11. Expression and Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterial Ag85B/ESAT-6 Antigens Produced in Transgenic Plants by Elastin-Like Peptide Fusion Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Manuela Floss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored a novel system combining plant-based production and the elastin-like peptide (ELP fusion strategy to produce vaccinal antigens against tuberculosis. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the mycobacterial antigens Ag85B and ESAT-6 fused to ELP (TBAg-ELP were generated. Purified TBAg-ELP was obtained by the highly efficient, cost-effective, inverse transition cycling (ICT method and tested in mice. Furthermore, safety and immunogenicity of the crude tobacco leaf extracts were assessed in piglets. Antibodies recognizing mycobacterial antigens were produced in mice and piglets. A T-cell immune response able to recognize the native mycobacterial antigens was detected in mice. These findings showed that the native Ag85B and ESAT-6 mycobacterial B- and T-cell epitopes were conserved in the plant-expressed TBAg-ELP. This study presents the first results of an efficient plant-expression system, relying on the elastin-like peptide fusion strategy, to produce a safe and immunogenic mycobacterial Ag85B-ESAT-6 fusion protein as a potential vaccine candidate against tuberculosis.

  12. Neutron scatter camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

    2010-06-22

    An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

  13. Recombinant scorpine produced using SUMO fusion partner in Escherichia coli has the activities against clinically isolated bacteria and inhibits the Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    Full Text Available Scorpine, a small cationic peptide from the venom of Pandinus imperator, which has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-plasmodial activities, has potential important applications in the pharmaceutical industries. However, the isolation of scorpine from natural sources is inefficient and time-consuming. Here, we first report the expression and purification of recombinant scorpine in Escherichia coli, using small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO fusion partner. The fusion protein was expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and expression was verified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis. The fusion protein was purified to 90% purity by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni2+-NTA resin chromatography. After the SUMO-scorpine fusion protein was cleaved by the SUMO protease, the cleaved sample was reapplied to a Ni2+-NTA column. Tricine/SDS-PAGE gel results indicated that Scorpine had been purified successfully to more than 95% purity. The recombinantly expressed Scorpine showed anti-bacterial activity against two standard bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, and clinically isolated bacteria including S. aureus S, S. aureus R, A. baumannii S, and A. baumannii R. It also produced 100% reduction in Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in vitro. Thus, the expression strategy presented in this study allowed convenient high yield and easy purification of recombinant Scorpine for pharmaceutical applications in the future.

  14. Recombinant scorpine produced using SUMO fusion partner in Escherichia coli has the activities against clinically isolated bacteria and inhibits the Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; He, Xinlong; Gu, Yaping; Zhou, Huayun; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Scorpine, a small cationic peptide from the venom of Pandinus imperator, which has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-plasmodial activities, has potential important applications in the pharmaceutical industries. However, the isolation of scorpine from natural sources is inefficient and time-consuming. Here, we first report the expression and purification of recombinant scorpine in Escherichia coli, using small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion partner. The fusion protein was expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and expression was verified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis. The fusion protein was purified to 90% purity by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni2+-NTA) resin chromatography. After the SUMO-scorpine fusion protein was cleaved by the SUMO protease, the cleaved sample was reapplied to a Ni2+-NTA column. Tricine/SDS-PAGE gel results indicated that Scorpine had been purified successfully to more than 95% purity. The recombinantly expressed Scorpine showed anti-bacterial activity against two standard bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, and clinically isolated bacteria including S. aureus S, S. aureus R, A. baumannii S, and A. baumannii R. It also produced 100% reduction in Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in vitro. Thus, the expression strategy presented in this study allowed convenient high yield and easy purification of recombinant Scorpine for pharmaceutical applications in the future.

  15. A possible approach to 14MeV neutron moderation: A preliminary study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammini, D; Pilotti, R; Pietropaolo, A

    2017-07-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) interactions produce almost monochromatic neutrons with about 14MeV energy. These neutrons are used in benchmark experiments as well as for neutron cross sections assessment in fusion reactors technology. The possibility to moderate 14MeV neutrons for purposes beyond fusion is worth to be studied in relation to projects of intense D-T sources. In this preliminary study, carried out using the MCNP Monte Carlo code, the moderation of 14MeV neutrons is approached foreseeing the use of combination of metallic materials as pre-moderator and reflectors coupled to standard water moderators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coating Nanoparticles with Plant-Produced Transferrin-Hydrophobin Fusion Protein Enhances Their Uptake in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Lauri J.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Makila, Ermei M.

    2017-01-01

    to a surfactant phase in an aqueous two-phase system, and the transferrin moiety was able to reversibly bind iron. Coating porous silicon nanoparticles with the fusion protein resulted in uptake of the nanoparticles in human cancer cells. This study provides a proof-of concept for the functionalization...

  17. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  18. ACDOS3: a further improved neutron dose-rate code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.S.

    1982-07-01

    ACD0S3 is a computer code designed primarily to calculate the activities and dose rates produced by neutron activation in a variety of simple geometries. Neutron fluxes, in up to 50 groups and with energies up to 20 MeV, must be supplied as part of the input data. The neutron-source strength must also be supplied, or alternately, the code will compute it from neutral-beam operating parameters in the case where the source is a fusion-reactor injector. ACD0S3 differs from the previous version ACD0S2 in that additional geometries have been added, the neutron cross-section library has been updated, an estimate of the energy deposited by neutron reactions has been provided, and a significant increase in efficiency in reading the data libraries has been incorporated.

  19. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures...... around 20 C, but at temperatures above 26 C we observe an increase in the scattered intensity due to fusion. The system is unusually well suited for the study of basic mechanisms of vesicle fusion. The vesicles are flexible with a bending rigidity of only a few k(H)T. The monolayer spontaneous curvature...

  20. Laser-induced mobilization of dust produced during fusion reactors operation; Mise en suspension par laser de poussieres generees lors du fonctionnement des reacteurs de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatry, A.

    2010-11-16

    During tokamak operation, plasma-wall interactions lead to material erosion process and dusts production. These dusts are mainly composed by carbon and tungsten, with sizes ranging from 10 nm to 100 {mu}m. For safety reasons and to guarantee an optimum reactor functioning, the dusts have to be kept in reasonable quantity. The dusts mobilization is a first step to collect them, and the laser is a promising technique for this application. To optimize the cleaning, physical mechanisms responsible for dust ejection induced by laser have been identified. Some particles, such as aggregates, are directly ablated by the laser. The metal droplets are ejected intact by an electrostatic force, induced by the photoelectrons. We also characterized the particles ejection to choose an appropriate collection device. (author) [French] Lors du fonctionnement d'une machine de fusion, les interactions plasma-parois conduisent a des processus d'erosion des materiaux et a la production de particules. Ces poussieres sont principalement composees de carbone et de tungstene. Pour des raisons de surete et afin de garantir un fonctionnement optimum du reacteur, il est important de garder en quantite raisonnable les poussieres dont la taille varie entre 10 nm et 100 {mu}m. La mise en suspension de ces poussieres est une etape preliminaire a leur recuperation, et le laser est une technique prometteuse pour cette application. Afin d'optimiser le nettoyage, les mecanismes physiques a l'origine de l'ejection induite par laser de ces poussieres ont ete identifies. Les agregats sont directement ablates par le laser et les gouttelettes metalliques sont ejectees intactes par une force electrostatique induite par les photoelectrons. Nous avons egalement caracterise l'ejection des particules pour choisir un systeme de recuperation adapte

  1. Preliminary Status Report of Neutron Radiation Effects and Damage to Neutron Imaging System Equipment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, L. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brand, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, J. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Caggiano, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); FItsos, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldblum, B. L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hall, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Harrig, K. P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kruse, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Laplace, T. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mahowald, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Matthews, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nielson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ratkiewicz, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Souza, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ureche, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ummel, C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiedrick, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zeiser, F. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway)

    2017-02-08

    A high-intensity neutron source is being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform neutron imaging (NI). Two accelerators are be- ing installed in the shielded, underground, north cave of Building 194 to produce neutrons via deuterium- deuterium fusion at 4 MeV or 7 MeV in a windowless gas cell. Over months to years of future experiments, elec- tronic and mechanical equipment in the room will be ir- radiated by a large uence of neutrons, which could cause them to fail or function incorrectly. Neutrons will also activate equipment and materials in the room, making frequent maintenance di cult and time-consuming, ex- acerbating the consequence of equipment failure. To test the neutron response and failure probability of mission- critical components, a variety of equipment intended to be located closest to the neutron source was irradiated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL's) 88-inch cyclotron, using neutrons produced from the breakup of deuterons impinging a thick beryllium target. The high neutron production and high neutron energy of this reaction in combination with the close-in geom- etry possible at the cyclotron allows the application of neutron doses expected to be delivered in months of NI facility operation in only a few days. In most cases, each piece of equipment was irradiated while powered, moni- tored remotely for failure, to test both its live response to irradiation in addition to permanent e ects. Aluminum activation foils were used as uence monitors, assuming the spectral shape measured by Meulders et. al.[1] While the neutron spectrum of the NI facility and the LBNL fa- cility were not identical, relative electronics and materials damage cross sections were used to equate an equivalent amount of energy-dependent neutron damage.

  2. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amgarou, K.; Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G.; Russo, S.

    2011-10-01

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to EFisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the "forward" and "sideward" proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and independently established and calibrated, is important for guaranteeing the robustness of the measured spectra and estimating their overall uncertainties.

  3. Higgs boson produced via vector boson fusion event recorded by CMS (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Real proton-proton collision event at 13 TeV in the CMS detector in which two high-energy electrons (green lines), two high-energy muons (red lines), and two-high energy jets (dark yellow cones) are observed. The event shows characteristics expected from Higgs boson production via vector boson fusion with subsequent decay of the Higgs boson in four leptons, and is also consistent with background standard model physics processes.

  4. Development of the radial neutron camera system for the HL-2A tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Yang, J W; Liu, Yi; Fan, T S; Luo, X B; Yuan, G L; Zhang, P F; Xie, X F; Song, X Y; Chen, W; Ji, X Q; Li, X; Du, T F; Ge, L J; Fu, B Z; Isobe, M; Song, X M; Shi, Z B; Yang, Q W; Duan, X R

    2016-06-01

    A new radial neutron camera system has been developed and operated recently in the HL-2A tokamak to measure the spatial and time resolved 2.5 MeV D-D fusion neutron, enhancing the understanding of the energetic-ion physics. The camera mainly consists of a multichannel collimator, liquid-scintillation detectors, shielding systems, and a data acquisition system. Measurements of the D-D fusion neutrons using the camera have been successfully performed during the 2015 HL-2A experiment campaign. The measurements show that the distribution of the fusion neutrons in the HL-2A plasma has a peaked profile, suggesting that the neutral beam injection beam ions in the plasma have a peaked distribution. It also suggests that the neutrons are primarily produced from beam-target reactions in the plasma core region. The measurement results from the neutron camera are well consistent with the results of both a standard (235)U fission chamber and NUBEAM neutron calculations. In this paper, the new radial neutron camera system on HL-2A and the first experimental results are described.

  5. Compact D-D/D-T neutron generators and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Tak Pui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Neutron generators based on the 2H(d,n)3He and 3H(d,n)4He fusion reactions are the most commonly available neutron sources. The applications of current commercial neutron generators are often limited by their low neutron yield and their short operational lifetime. A new generation of D-D/D-T fusion-based neutron generators has been designed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) by using high current ion beams hitting on a self-loading target that has a large surface area to dissipate the heat load. This thesis describes the rationale behind the new designs and their potential applications. A survey of other neutron sources is presented to show their advantages and disadvantages compared to the fusion-based neutron generator. A prototype neutron facility was built at LBNL to test these neutron generators. High current ion beams were extracted from an RF-driven ion source to produce neutrons. With an average deuteron beam current of 24 mA and an energy of 100 keV, a neutron yield of >109 n/s has been obtained with a D-D coaxial neutron source. Several potential applications were investigated by using computer simulations. The computer code used for simulations and the variance reduction techniques employed were discussed. A study was carried out to determine the neutron flux and resolution of a D-T neutron source in thermal neutron scattering applications for condensed matter experiments. An error analysis was performed to validate the scheme used to predict the resolution. With a D-T neutron yield of 1014 n/s, the thermal neutron flux at the sample was predicted to be 7.3 x 105 n/cm2s. It was found that the resolution of cold neutrons was better than that of thermal neutrons when the duty factor is high. This neutron generator could be efficiently used for research and educational purposes at universities. Additional applications studied were positron production and

  6. Compact D-D/D-T neutron generators and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Tak Pui

    2003-05-01

    Neutron generators based on the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He and {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He fusion reactions are the most commonly available neutron sources. The applications of current commercial neutron generators are often limited by their low neutron yield and their short operational lifetime. A new generation of D-D/D-T fusion-based neutron generators has been designed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) by using high current ion beams hitting on a self-loading target that has a large surface area to dissipate the heat load. This thesis describes the rationale behind the new designs and their potential applications. A survey of other neutron sources is presented to show their advantages and disadvantages compared to the fusion-based neutron generator. A prototype neutron facility was built at LBNL to test these neutron generators. High current ion beams were extracted from an RF-driven ion source to produce neutrons. With an average deuteron beam current of 24 mA and an energy of 100 keV, a neutron yield of >10{sup 9} n/s has been obtained with a D-D coaxial neutron source. Several potential applications were investigated by using computer simulations. The computer code used for simulations and the variance reduction techniques employed were discussed. A study was carried out to determine the neutron flux and resolution of a D-T neutron source in thermal neutron scattering applications for condensed matter experiments. An error analysis was performed to validate the scheme used to predict the resolution. With a D-T neutron yield of 10{sup 14} n/s, the thermal neutron flux at the sample was predicted to be 7.3 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s. It was found that the resolution of cold neutrons was better than that of thermal neutrons when the duty factor is high. This neutron generator could be efficiently used for research and educational purposes at universities. Additional applications studied were positron production and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The

  7. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D{sup +})-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  8. Reaction-in-Flight neutrons as a test of stopping power in degenerate plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.; Cerjan, C. J.; Jungman, G.; Fowler, M. M.; Gooden, M. E.; Grim, G. P.; Henry, E.; Rundberg, R. S.; Sepke, S. M.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Singleton, R. L.; Tonchev, A. P.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenically cooled inertial confinement fusion capsule designs are suitable for studies of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons. RIF neutrons occur when energetically up-scattered ions undergo DT reactions with a thermal ion in the plasma, producing neutrons in the energy range 9-30 MeV. The knock-on ions lose energy as they traverse the plasma, which directly affects the spectrum of the produced RIF neutrons. Here we present measurements from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of RIF neutrons produced in cryogenic capsules, with energies above 15 MeV. We show that the measured RIFs probe stopping under previously unexplored degenerate plasma conditions and constrain stopping models in warm dense plasma conditions.

  9. High efficient ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks by PW-ps laser pulses for producing fusion flames in DT and HB11 of solid state density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustaizis, S.; Lalousis, P.; Hora, H.; Miley, G. H.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks in the range of 1020 cm/s2 has been confirmed experimentally after this was long predicted as a non-thermal direct conversion of optical energy into plasma motion due to dominating nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces [1]. The use of laser pulses of more than PW power and ps or shorter duration can ignite a nuclear fusion flame in solid density deuterium tritium because the necessary energy flux of >108J/cm2 according to the theory of Chu [2] is available [3]. For the studies of the necessary velocities of the generated fusion flames above 1000 km/s the detailed processes can be analyzed by using the advanced genuine two-fluid hydrodynamic model [4] where it was surprising that the ignition of the fusion flame by the picosecond interaction needs a comparably long development in the nanosecond range before the thermal processes result in shock fronts similar to the Rakine-Hugoniot theory. For the evaluation of power generation the problem of lateral energy losses was studied by using very high pulsed magnetic fields. The recently produced 10 Kilotesla magnetic fields [5] are very promising for solutions.

  10. Fission signal detection using helium-4 gas fast neutron scintillation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M.; Kelley, R. P.; Murer, D.; Jordan, K. A.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate the unambiguous detection of the fission neutron signal produced in natural uranium during active neutron interrogation using a deuterium-deuterium fusion neutron generator and a high pressure 4He gas fast neutron scintillation detector. The energy deposition by individual neutrons is quantified, and energy discrimination is used to differentiate the induced fission neutrons from the mono-energetic interrogation neutrons. The detector can discriminate between different incident neutron energies using pulse height discrimination of the slow scintillation component of the elastic scattering interaction between a neutron and the 4He atom. Energy histograms resulting from this data show the buildup of a detected fission neutron signal at higher energies. The detector is shown here to detect a unique fission neutron signal from a natural uranium sample during active interrogation with a (d, d) neutron generator. This signal path has a direct application to the detection of shielded nuclear material in cargo and air containers. It allows for continuous interrogation and detection while greatly minimizing the potential for false alarms.

  11. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, K.S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (US)

    1993-02-11

    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory`s assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made.

  12. Fusion - 2050 perspective (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The results of strongly exothermic reaction of thermonuclear fusion between nuclei of deuterium and tritium are: helium nuclei and neutrons, plus considerable kinetic energy of neutrons of over 14 MeV. DT nuclides synthesis reaction is probably not the most favorable one for energy production, but is the most advanced technologically. More efficient would be possibly aneutronic fusion. The EU by its EURATOM agenda prepared a Road Map for research and implementation of Fusion as a commercial method of thermonuclear energy generation in the time horizon of 2050.The milestones on this road are tokomak experiments JET, ITER and DEMO, and neutron experiment IFMIF. There is a hope, that by engagement of the national government, and all research and technical fusion communities, part of this Road Map may be realized in Poland. The infrastructure build for fusion experiments may be also used for material engineering research, chemistry, biomedical, associated with environment protection, power engineering, security, ...

  13. Search for reaction-in-flight neutrons using thulium activation at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Gary; Rundberg, Robert; Tonchev, Anton; Fowler, Malcolm; Wilhelmy, Jerry; Archuleta, Tom; Bionta, Richard; Boswell, Mitzi; Gostic, Julie; Griego, Jeff; Knittel, Kenn; Klein, Andi; Moody, Ken; Shaughnessy, Dawn; Wilde, Carl; Yeamans, Charles

    2013-10-01

    We report on measurements of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons at the National Ignition Facility. RIF neutrons are produced in cryogenically layered implision by up-scattered deuterium, or tritium ions that undergo subsequent fusion reactions. The rate of RIF neutron production is proportional to the fuel areal density (| | R) and ion-stopping length in the dense fuel assembly. Thus, RIF neutrons provide information on charge particle stopping in a strongly coupled plasma, where perturbative modeling breaks down. To measure RIF neutrons, a set of thulium activation foils was placed 50 cm from layered cryogenic implosions at the NIF. The reaction 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm has a neutron kinetic energy threshold of 14.96 MeV. We will present results from initial experiments performed during the spring of 2013. Prepared by LANL under Contract DE-AC-52-06-NA25396, TSPA, LA-UR-13-22085.

  14. Parametric fits to 1-D neutron transport calculations for lithium-vanadium fusion power plant blankets in cylindrical and spherical geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Perkins, L.J.

    1995-06-16

    The authors performed 1-D coupled, neutron-gamma transport calculations for lithium-vanadium blankets and lithium-sodium cauldron pot blankets in cylindrical and spherical geometries. Parametric fits to the data are supplied for subsequent use in systems code models. Scaling relationships are given for various neutronics parameters of interest, including: tritium breeding ratio, neutron energy multiplication, magnet dose rates, magnet heating rates, and integrated magnet fluence.

  15. Measurement of reaction-in-flight neutrons using thulium activation at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, G. P.; Rundberg, R.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, G.; Boswell, M.; Klein, A.; Wilhelmy, J.; Tonchev, A.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2014-09-01

    We report on the first observation of tertiary reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons produced in compressed deuterium and tritium filled capsules using the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA. RIF neutrons are produced by third-order, out of equilibrium ("in-flight") fusion reactions, initiated by primary fusion products. The rate of RIF reactions is dependent upon the range of the elastically scattered fuel ions and therefore a diagnostic of Coulomb physics within the plasma. At plasma temperatures of ˜5 keV, the presence of neutrons with kinetic energies greater than 15 MeV is a unique signature for RIF neutron production. The reaction 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm has a threshold of 15.0 MeV, and a unique decay scheme making it a suitable diagnostic for observing RIF neutrons. RIF neutron production is quantified by the ratio of 167Tm/168Tm observed in a 169Tm foil, where the reaction 169Tm(n,2n)168Tm samples the primary neutron fluence. Averaged over 4 implosions1-4 at the NIF, the 167Tm/168Tm ratio is measured to be 1.5 +/- 0.3 x 10-5, leading to an average ratio of RIF to primary neutron ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.2 x 10-4. These ratios are consistent with the predictions for charged particle stopping in a quantum degenerate plasma.

  16. Analysis for Radiation and Shielding Dose in Plasma Focus Neutron Source Using FLUKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, M. J.; Amrollahi, R.; Habibi, M.

    2012-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for the attenuation of neutron radiation produced at Plasma focus (PF) devices through various shielding design. At the test site it will be fired with deuterium and tritium (D-T) fusion resulting in a yield of about 1013 fusion neutrons of 14 MeV. This poses a radiological hazard to scientists and personnel operating the device. The goal of this paper was to evaluate various shielding options under consideration for the PF operating with D-T fusion. Shields of varying neutrons-shielding effectiveness were investigated using concrete, polyethylene, paraffin and borated materials. The most effective shield, a labyrinth structure, allowed almost 1,176 shots per year while keeping personnel under 20 mSV of dose. The most expensive shield that used, square shield with 100 cm concrete thickness on the walls and Borated paraffin along with borated polyethylene added outside the concrete allowed almost 15,000 shot per year.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of the experimental pulse height spectra produced in diamond detectors by quasi-mono-energetic neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milocco, A., E-mail: alberto.milocco@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Department, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pillon, M.; Angelone, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Plompen, A.; Krása, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Trkov, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Department, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-08-21

    This work was carried out in view of the possible use of diamond detectors as high resolution neutron spectrometers for the ITER project. An MCNP5(X) based computational tool has been developed to simulate the fast neutron response of diamond detectors. The source neutrons are generated by a source routine, developed earlier, that includes deuteron beam energy loss, angular straggling, and two-body relativistic kinematics. The diamond detector routine calculates a pulse height spectrum that is built up by elastic and inelastic scattering, (n,a), (n,p), and (n,d) reaction channels. A combination of nuclear data from ENDF/B-VII.0, TENDL-2010, and ENSDF is used. The simulated spectra are compared with measured spectra. It is shown that the simulation tool allows an interpretation of most of the characteristic features in the spectrum. This is an important step towards the use of diamond detectors for spectral analysis and fluence measurements. {sup ©} 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative biological effectiveness of fission neutrons for producing micronuclei in the root-tip cells of onion seedlings after irradiation as dry seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Ishikawa, Masayori; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Endo, Satoru [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Ikeda, Hideo [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Education

    2002-12-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of mixed neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted at a {sup 252}Cf source at the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, compared with {sup 60}Co gamma-ray radiation was determined. The tissue-absorbed dose contribution of the accompanying gamma radiation was about 35.7% to the total tissue-absorbed dose from the {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation. The {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation and {sup 60}Co gamma rays produced approximate linear changes in the frequency of micronuclei induced in root-tip cells of Allium cepa L. onion seedlings after irradiation as dry dormant seeds with varying absorbed doses in onion seeds. Therefore, the RBE for radiation-induced micronuclei was calculated as the ratio of the slopes for the {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation and the {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The deduced RBE value of {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation of {sup 60}Co gamma rays to induce micronuclei in dry dormant onion seed cells was about 90.5{+-}3.6 ({+-}1{sigma}); the RBE of neutrons from the {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation was about 150{+-}6 ({+-}1{sigma}). Furthermore, the sensitivity ratio of the induction rate of micronuclei in dry dormant seeds to that in seedlings by neutrons from {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation was significantly different from that by {sup 60}Co gamma rays. From these results, we concluded that the repair efficiency of DNA damage induced by neutrons may be different from that by gamma rays. (author)

  19. A dosimetry study of deuterium-deuterium neutron generator-based in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Daniel A.

    A neutron irradiation cavity for in vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) to detect manganese, aluminum, and other potentially toxic elements in human hand bone has been designed and its dosimetric specifications measured. The neutron source is a customized deuterium-deuterium neutron generator which produces neutrons at 2.45 MeV by the fusion reaction 2H(d, n)3He at a calculated flux of 7 x 108 +/-30% s-1. A moderator/reflector/shielding (5 cm high density polyethylene (HDPE), 5.3 cm graphite & 5.7 cm borated HDPE) assembly has been designed and built to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the hand irradiation cavity and to reduce the extremity dose and effective dose to the human subject. Lead sheets are used to attenuate bremsstrahlung x rays and activation gammas. A Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6) was used to model the system and calculate extremity dose. The extremity dose was measured with neutron and photon sensitive film badges and Fuji electronic pocket dosimeter (EPD). The neutron ambient dose outside the shielding was measured by Fuji NSN3, and photon dose by a Bicron MicroREM scintillator. Neutron extremity dose was calculated to be 32.3 mSv using MCNP6 simulations given a 10 min IVNAA measurement of manganese. Measurements by EPD and film badge indicate hand dose to be 31.7 +/- 0.8 mSv for neutron and 4.2 +/- 0.2 mSv for photon for 10 mins; whole body effective dose was calculated conservatively to be 0.052 mSv. Experimental values closely match values obtained from MCNP6 simulations. These are acceptable doses to apply the technology for a manganese toxicity study in a human population.

  20. Improved fission neutron energy discrimination with 4He detectors through pulse filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting; Liang, Yinong; Rolison, Lucas; Barker, Cathleen; Lewis, Jason; Gokhale, Sasmit; Chandra, Rico; Kiff, Scott; Chung, Heejun; Ray, Heather; Baciak, James E.; Enqvist, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents experimental and computational techniques implemented for 4He gas scintillation detectors for induced fission neutron detection. Fission neutrons are produced when natural uranium samples are actively interrogated by 2.45 MeV deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction neutrons. Fission neutrons of energies greater than 2.45 MeV can be distinguished by their different scintillation pulse height spectra since 4He detectors retain incident fast neutron energy information. To enable the preferential detection of fast neutrons up to 10 MeV and suppress low-energy event counts, the detector photomultiplier gain is lowered and trigger threshold is increased. Pile-up and other unreliable events due to the interrogating neutron flux and background radiation are filtered out prior to the evaluation of pulse height spectra. With these problem-specific calibrations and data processing, the 4He detector's accuracy at discriminating fission neutrons up to 10 MeV is improved and verified with 252Cf spontaneous fission neutrons. Given the 4He detector's ability to differentiate fast neutron sources, this proof-of-concept active-interrogation measurement demonstrates the potential of special nuclear materials detection using a 4He fast neutron detection system.

  1. Medium and high spin structure in the 94Y isotope produced in fission induced by cold neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Fornal, B.; Leoni, S.; Bocchi, G.; Blanc, A.; Bottoni, S.; Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.; Urban, W.

    2017-10-01

    The level scheme of the neutron-rich 94Y isotope has been extended up to the 5324 keV excitation energy. During the analysis, a structure above the previously known (5+) isomer, at 1202 keV, was extended by employing multifold gamma-ray coincidence relationships measured with the EXILL array. For some of the new states, the spin-parity assignment has been proposed on the basis of gamma angular correlations and shell-model considerations. The newly identified structure is characteristic of spherical or nearly spherical configurations and no evidence for new isomers and rotational patterns was found.

  2. Method for net decrease of hazardous radioactive nuclear waste materials. [Thermal neutron irradiation of long-lived radionuclides to produce stable nuclides and short-lived radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, R.; Henyey, F.S.; Hochstim, A.R.

    1988-01-26

    A method of decreasing the amount of relatively long lived fission products in radioactive waste materials in excess of that due to their natural radioactive decay by producing relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides from the relatively long lived fission products is described comprising the steps of: (a) separating the fission products into at least (1) physically separate groups, and (2) relatively short lived fission product radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (b) storing the relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (c) exposing at least the groups containing Kr/sup 85/, Sr/sup 90/, Zr/sup 93/, Tc/sup 99/, Pd/sup 107/, I/sup 129/, Cs/sup 135/, Sm/sup 151/ + Eu, and actinides, to a high thermal neutron flux for separate, different predetermined periods of time selected in accordance with the long lived fission product nuclide in the corresponding group for inducing predetermined transformations of the relatively long lived fission product nuclides to produce relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (d) removing each exposed group containing the produced relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides from the high thermal neutron flux; (e) separating the removed group into (1) the produced short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides, and (2) a plurality of further groups having long lived fission product nuclides respectively corresponding to at least some of the long lived fission product nuclides or the groups of step (a); (f) storing the produced short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (g) joining at least one of the further groups to at least one of the groups of step (a) having a corresponding long lived fission product nuclide.

  3. Superheated drop neutron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Roy, B; Roy, S C; Das, Mala

    2000-01-01

    Superheated drops are known to detect neutrons through the nucleation caused by the recoil nuclei produced by the interactions of neutrons with the atoms constituting the superheated liquid molecule. A novel method of finding the neutron energy from the temperature dependence response of SDD has been developed. From the equivalence between the dependence of threshold energy for nucleation on temperature of SDD and the dependence of dE/dx of the recoil ions with the energy of the neutron, a new method of finding the neutron energy spectrum of a polychromatic as well as monochromatic neutron source has been developed.

  4. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced by vector boson fusion and decaying to beauty quarks with the ATLAS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534739; Schiavi, Carlo

    The Higgs Boson has been discovered in 2012 by the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations. Studying its properties and checking if they agree with the Standard Model predictions constitute pivotal topics in High Energy Physics research. This analysis presents the current status of a search for an Higgs Boson produced via the Vector Boson Fusion mechanism and decaying to a $b\\bar{b}$ pair, performed with $\\sim 20\\ fb^{-1}$ of LHC proton-proton data at $\\sqrt{S}=8$ TeV, collected by the ATLAS experiment during the 2012 data-taking campaign. For an Higgs mass of $125$ GeV, the Vector Boson Fusion process possesses the second largest cross section, and the bottom quark pair is the main decay channel. The clear event topology is exploited for trigger selection. The author's work focuses on data-screening tuning by means of Multivariate Analysis techniques, background modelling, signal extraction, and systematic errors assessment. We expect an uncertainty of the signal strength, normalized to the expected SM prediction,...

  5. Tri-membrane nanoparticles produced by combining liposome fusion and a novel patchwork of bicelles to overcome endosomal and nuclear membrane barriers to cargo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Asako; Mitsueda, Asako; Hasan, Mahadi; Ueda, Miho; Hama, Susumu; Warashina, Shota; Nakamura, Takashi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2016-03-01

    Membrane fusion is a rational strategy for crossing intracellular membranes that present barriers to liposomal nanocarrier-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA into the nucleus of non-dividing cells, such as dendritic cells. Based on this strategy, we previously developed nanocarriers consisting of a nucleic acid core particle coated with four lipid membranes [Akita, et al., Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 2940-2949]. However, including the endosomal membrane and two nuclear membranes, cells possess three intracellular membranous barriers. Thus, after entering the nucleus, nanoparticles coated with four membranes would still have one lipid membrane remaining, and could impede cargo delivery. Until now, coating a core particle with an odd number of lipid membranes was challenging. To produce nanocarriers with an odd number of lipid membranes, we developed a novel coating method involving lipid nano-discs, also known as bicelles, as a material for packaging DNA in a carrier with an odd number of lipid membranes. In this procedure, bicelles fuse to form an outer coating that resembles a patchwork quilt, which allows the preparation of nanoparticles coated with only three lipid membranes. Moreover, the transfection activity of dendritic cells with these three-membrane nanoparticles was higher than that for nanoparticles coated with four lipid membranes. In summary, we developed novel nanoparticles coated with an odd number of lipid membranes using the novel "patchwork-packaging method" to deliver plasmid DNA into the nucleus via membrane fusion.

  6. Quantifying interference of krypton produced from neutron irradiation of inclusion-hosted and lattice-coordinated bromine with 40Ar/39Ar geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Becker, Tim A.; Renne, Paul R.

    2017-08-01

    Various interfering reactions producing Ar isotopes during neutron irradiation from Cl, Ar, K, and Ca have been previously detailed with the significant ones being routinely corrected for in 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Interference of double charged 80Kr (80Kr++) with 40Ar has not yet been considered. Significant amounts of 80Kr are produced during neutron irradiation through the reaction 79Br(n,β-)80Kr. While previous workers reported a computed fission spectrum averaged cross section of ∼48 mb-compared to ∼113 mb for 39K(n,p)39Ar-we determined a ∼33-fold higher production rate of 80Kr from Br compared to 39Ar from K in the CLICIT facility of the OSU reactor. Low-K, high-Br phases, e.g., some amphiboles, and fluid or melt inclusion rich samples are prone to 80Kr++ interference biasing 40Ar/39Ar dates in the ‰ to % range. 80Kr++ resembles excess 40Ar in step-heating experiments. The interference can be corrected for by using the parallel reaction 81Br(n,β-)82Kr.

  7. Acoustically Driven Magnetized Target Fusion At General Fusion: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Peter; Laberge, M.; Donaldson, M.; Delage, M.; the Fusion Team, General

    2016-10-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) involves compressing an initial magnetically confined plasma of about 1e23 m-3, 100eV, 7 Tesla, 20 cm radius, >100 μsec life with a 1000x volume compression in 100 microseconds. If near adiabatic compression is achieved, the final plasma of 1e26 m-3, 10keV, 700 Tesla, 2 cm radius, confined for 10 μsec would produce interesting fusion energy gain. General Fusion (GF) is developing an acoustic compression system using pneumatic pistons focusing a shock wave on the CT plasma in the center of a 3 m diameter sphere filled with liquid lead-lithium. Low cost driver, straightforward heat extraction, good tritium breeding ratio and excellent neutron protection could lead to a practical power plant. GF (65 employees) has an active plasma R&D program including both full scale and reduced scale plasma experiments and simulation of both. Although acoustic driven compression of full scale plasmas is the end goal, present compression studies use reduced scale plasmas and chemically accelerated Aluminum liners. We will review results from our plasma target development, motivate and review the results of dynamic compression field tests and briefly describe the work to date on the acoustic driver front.

  8. ACDOS1: a computer code to calculate dose rates from neutron activation of neutral beamlines and other fusion-reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keney, G.S.

    1981-08-01

    A computer code has been written to calculate neutron induced activation of neutral-beam injector components and the corresponding dose rates as a function of geometry, component composition, and time after shutdown. The code, ACDOS1, was written in FORTRAN IV to calculate both activity and dose rates for up to 30 target nuclides and 50 neutron groups. Sufficient versatility has also been incorporated into the code to make it applicable to a variety of general activation problems due to neutrons of energy less than 20 MeV.

  9. Searching for the standard model Higgs boson produced by vector boson fusion in the fully hadronic four-jet topology with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyavskaya, Nadezda

    2017-01-01

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson produced by vector boson fusion in the fully hadronic four-jet topology is presented. The analysis is based on 2.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV collected by CMS in 2015. Upper limits, at 95\\% confidence level, on the production cross section times branching fraction of the Higgs boson decaying to bottom quarks, are derived for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV. The fitted signal strength relative to the expectation for the standard model Higgs boson is obtained. Results are also combined with the ones obtained with Run1 data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV collected in 2012.

  10. First online multireflection time-of-flight mass measurements of isobar chains produced by fusion-evaporation reactions: Toward identification of superheavy elements via mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schury, P.; Wada, M.; Ito, Y.; Kaji, D.; Arai, F.; MacCormick, M.; Murray, I.; Haba, H.; Jeong, S.; Kimura, S.; Koura, H.; Miyatake, H.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Ozawa, A.; Rosenbusch, M.; Reponen, M.; Söderström, P.-A.; Takamine, A.; Tanaka, T.; Wollnik, H.

    2017-01-01

    Using a multireflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph located after a gas cell coupled with the gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II, the masses of several α -decaying heavy nuclei were directly and precisely measured. The nuclei were produced via fusion-evaporation reactions and separated from projectilelike and targetlike particles using GARIS-II before being stopped in a helium-filled gas cell. Time-of-flight spectra for three isobar chains, 204Fr-204Rn-204At-204Po , 205Fr-205Rn-205At-205Po-205Bi , and 206Fr-206Rn-206At , were observed. Precision atomic mass values were determined for Fr-206204, Rn,205204, and At,205204. Identifications of 205Bi, Po,205204, 206Rn, and 206At were made with N ≲10 detected ions, representing the next step toward use of mass spectrometry to identify exceedingly low-yield species such as superheavy element ions.

  11. Maxillo-dental lesions produced in cats, after gamma and fast neutron irradiation. Radiographical and microradiographical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dambrain, R.; Dhem, A.; Meulders, J.P.; Wambersie, A.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma doses of 50 Gy, in 5 fractions over 29 days, induce severe modifications of the irradiated jaw in the cat, as shown by radiographical and microradiographical techniques. Four out 5 animals could survive up to one year; a fifth one died as a consequence of osteoradionecrosis. In addition, 2 animals, on which a tooth extraction was performed, died from osteoradionecrosis (role of trauma). Similar irradiations were performed with fast neutrons d(50) + Be at a total dose of 16.1 Gy in 5 fractions over 29 days. The ratio 50 Gy/16.1 Gy = 3.1 is the CNPF adopted for neutrontherapy applications at Louvain-la-Neuve. This irradiation was well tolerated by 7/7 animals. Only alveolodental ankylosis was observed in 3 cases, as well as a slight reduction in bone vitality in the dorsal part of the jaw. An eighth animal died from osteoradionecrosis induced by tooth extraction.

  12. Dense Plasma Focus as Collimated Source of D-D Fusion Neutron Beams for Irradiation Experiences and Study of Emitted Radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, M.; Niedbalski, J.; Moroso, R.; Guichón, S.; Supán, J.

    2008-04-01

    A "table-top" 2 kJ, 250 kA plasma focus, the PACO (Plasma AutoConfinado), designed by the Dense Plasma Group of IFAS is used in its optimum regime for neutron yield for obtaining collimated pulsed neutron beams (100 ns). A simple and low-cost shielding arrangement was developed in order to fully eliminate the 2.45 MeV neutrons generated in the PACO device (108 per shot at 31 kV, 1-2 mbar). Conventional neutron diagnostics: scintillator-photomultiplier (S-PMT), silver activation counters (SAC), etc., are used to determine the minimum width of the shielding walls. Emission of very hard electromagnetic pulses is also studied. Collimation using lead and copper plates is made to determine the localization of the very hard X-ray source. The maximum energy of the continuum photon distribution is estimated in 0,6 MeV using a system of filters.

  13. Plasma focus neutron anisotropy measurements and influence of a deuteron beam obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebitaher, A.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.

    2017-03-01

    The deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion neutron yield and anisotropy were measured on a shot-to-shot basis for the NX2 plasma focus (PF) device using two beryllium fast-neutron activation detectors at 0° and 90° to the PF axis. Measurements were performed for deuterium gas pressures in the range 6-16 mbar, and positive correlations between neutron yield and anisotropy were observed at all pressures. Subsequently, at one deuterium gas pressure (13 mbar), the contribution to the fusion yield produced by the forwardly-directed D+ ion beam, emitted from the plasma pinch, was investigated by using a circular Pyrex plate to obstruct the beam and suppress its fusion contribution. Neutron measurements were performed with the obstacle positioned at two distances from the anode tip, and also without the obstacle. It was found that 80% of the neutron yield originates in the plasma pinch column and just above that. In addition, proton pinhole imaging was performed from the 0° and 90° directions to the pinch. The obtained proton images are consistent with the conclusion that DD fusion is concentrated ( 80%) in the pinch column region.

  14. Neutron and Gamma-ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, Anatoly V.; Sasao, Mamiko; Kaschuck, Yuri A.; Kiptily, Vasily G.; Nishitani, Takeo; Popovichev, Sergey V.; Bertalot, Luciano

    2008-03-01

    Due to high neutron and gamma-ray yields and large size plasmas many future fusion reactor plasma parameters such as fusion power, fusion power density, ion temperature, fuel mixture, fast ion energy and spatial distributions can be well measured by various fusion product diagnostics. Neutron diagnostics provide information on fusion reaction rate, which indicates how close is the plasma to the ultimate goal of nuclear fusion and fusion power distribution in the plasma core, which is crucial for optimization of plasma breakeven and burn. Depending on the plasma conditions neutron and gamma-ray diagnostics can provide important information, namely about dynamics of fast ion energy and spatial distributions during neutral beam injection, ion cyclotron heating and generated by fast ions MHD instabilities. The influence of the fast particle population on the 2-D neutron source profile was clearly demonstrated in JET experiments. 2-D neutron and gamma-ray source measurements could be important for driven plasma heating profile optimization in fusion reactors. To meat the measurement requirements in ITER the planned set of neutron and gamma ray diagnostics includes radial and vertical neutron and gamma cameras, neutron flux monitors, neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The necessity of using massive radiation shielding strongly influences the diagnostic designs in fusion reactor, determines angular fields of view of neutron and gamma-ray cameras and spectrometers and gives rise to unavoidable difficulties in the absolute calibration. The development, testing in existing tokomaks and a possible engineering integration of neuron and gamma-ray diagnostic systems into ITER are presented.

  15. Non-electric applications for magneto-inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, John

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the generation of commercial electric power, there are several other applications for an intense pulse of neutrons that would be produced by magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) systems. Many of these applications can be achieved without the need for a fully developed reactor at high gain, and could thus be pursued at a much earlier stage of development which would dramatically reduce the risk of the long-term development and concern for the expense of an all-encompassing, single use system such as the tokamak or stellerator. A short list of applications well suited for MIF would include: (1) production of radioisotopes for medical applications and research, (2) efficient, high power propulsion through direct fusion heating of lithium propellants (3) Noninvasive interrogation of objects for homeland security (4) neutron radiography and tomography (5) destruction of long-lived radioactive waste, and (6) breeding of proliferation proof fissile fuel for existing nuclear reactors. These applications could all be pursued at lower neutron yield, but clearly the energy goals are by far the most significant and far reaching such as applying fusion energy as a hybrid to enable thorium cycle reactors which produce very little waste compared to the current uranium reactors. A discussion of how MIF could be configured and utilized to realize several of these uses will be discussed.

  16. The structure of Sindbis virus produced from vertebrate and invertabrate hosts determined by small angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lilin [ORNL; Piper, Amanda [North Carolina State University; Meilleur, Flora [ORNL; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; Hernandez, Raquel [North Carolina State University; Brown, Dennis [North Carolina State University; Heller, William T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The complex natural cycle of vectored viruses that transition between host species, such as between insects and mammals, makes understanding the full life cycle of the virus an incredibly complex problem. Sindbis virus, an arbovirus and prototypic alphavirus having an inner protein shell and an outer glycoprotein coat separated by a lipid membrane, is one example of a vectored virus that transitions between vertebrate and insect hosts. While evidence of host-specific differences in Sindbis virus has been observed, no work has been performed to characterize the impact of the host species on the structure of the virus. Here, we report the first study of the structural differences between Sindbis viruses grown in mammalian and insect cells, which were determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), a nondestructive technique that did not decrease the infectivity of the Sindbis virus particles studied. The scattering data and modeling showed that, while the radial position of the lipid bilayer did not change significantly, it was possible to conclude that it did have significantly more cholesterol when the virus was grown in mammalian cells. Additionally, the outer protein coat was found to be more extended in the mammalian Sindbis virus. The SANS data also demonstrated that the RNA and nucleocapsid protein share a closer interaction in the mammalian-cell-grown virus than in the virus from insect cells.

  17. Analyzing neutron time-of-flight spectra from the National Ignition Facility using moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatarik, R.; Field, J.; Eckart, M.; Grim, G.; Hartouni, E. P.; Moore, A.; Munro, D.; Sayre, D.

    2016-10-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by an indirectly driven implosion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) provides valuable insight into the performance of the capsule. There are four neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers being used at the NIF which can simultaneously measure DD and DT fusion neutrons on NIF shots. The width of theses peaks have been traditionally associated with the temperature of the plasma, recent work shows that it has to be considered a combination of flow and temperature distributions. This leads to a deviation from a pure gaussian shape of a single temperature static plasma and the presence of higher order moments in the neutron spectrum. The current status of the analysis of neutron spectra from the nTOF diagnostics at the NIF will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Multipurpose applications of the accelerator-based neutron source[1pt] GENEPI2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, F.; Baylac, M.; Billebaud, A.; Boge, P.; Cabanel, T.; Labussière, E.; Méplan, O.; Rey, S.

    2016-11-01

    GENEPI2 (GEnérateur de NEutrons Pulsé Intense) is an accelerator-based neutron source operating at LPSC laboratory in Grenoble (France). The neutrons are produced at 2.5MeV or 14.2MeV trough fusion reactions. GENEPI2 specifications allow performing efficiently accelerated irradiation tests of integrated circuits. This facility can also be operated to test and calibrate different types of detectors. This paper will describe the facility and its performances. Then, measurements of the neutron production will be presented as well as different types of experiments and irradiations. Finally, we describe upgrades undertaken to increase the neutron flux and optimize the facility for multiple applications.

  19. Statistical model calculations of pre-scission neutron multiplicity for the heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions with actinide target 232Th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Meenu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction mechanism of 19F + 232Th and 28Si + 232Th systems populating the near-super-heavy compound nuclei 251Es and 260Rf respectively are investigated using neutron multiplicity as a probe. The prescission neutron multiplicities of these compound nuclei are calculated at different excitation energies using a statistical model code. These calculations are performed using the Bohr-Wheeler transition state fission width as well as the dissipative dynamical fission width based on the Kramers’ prescription. For 19F + 232Th system, the measured yield of pre-scission is compared with the statistical model calculations for the decay of a compound nucleus in the excitation energy range of 54-90 MeV. The comparison between the measured and the calculated values indicates that the Bohr-Wheeler fission width underestimates the pre-scission neutron yield and a large amount of dissipation strength is required to reproduce the experimental pre-scission neutron multiplicities. The excitation energy dependence of the fitted values of the dissipation coefficient is also discussed. In addition, exploratory statistical model calculations of pre-scission neutron multiplicity for the 28Si + 232Th system are presented in the above range of excitation energy.

  20. Velocity-space sensitivities of neutron emission spectrometers at the tokamaks JET and ASDEX Upgrade in deuterium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Binda, F.; Cazzaniga, C.; Eriksson, J.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Nocente, M.; Salewski, M.; Tardini, G.

    2017-07-01

    Future fusion reactors are foreseen to be heated by the energetic alpha particles produced in fusion reactions. For this to happen, it is important that the energetic ions are sufficiently confined. In present day fusion experiments, energetic ions are primarily produced using external heating systems such as neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating. In order to diagnose these fast ions, several different fast-ion diagnostics have been developed and implemented in the various experiments around the world. The velocity-space sensitivities of fast-ion diagnostics are given by so-called weight functions. Here instrument-specific weight functions are derived for neutron emission spectrometry detectors at the tokamaks JET and ASDEX Upgrade for the 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in deuterium-deuterium reactions in deuterium plasmas. Using these, it is possible to directly determine which part of velocity space each detector observes.

  1. Measurement of cross sections producing short-lived nuclei by 14MeV neutron. Cd, Sn, Te, Nd, Gd, Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.

    1998-03-01

    Nine neutron activation cross sections producing the nuclei with half-lives between 25sec and 22min were measured at energy range between 13.4 and 14.9 MeV by activation method. The (n,p) and (n,{alpha}) reaction cross sections were measured for the isotopes of {sup 110}Cd, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 122}Te, {sup 130}Te and {sup 185}Re and those of {sup 130}Te, {sup 148}Nd and {sup 158}Gd, respectively. The present results were compared with our systematics proposed on the basis of 58 cross section data of (n,p) and 33 data of (n,{alpha}) reaction. Good agreements have been seen between them. (author)

  2. Deuteron beam interaction with lithium jet in a neutron source test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, A.

    1996-10-01

    Testing and evaluating candidate fusion reactor materials in a high-flux, high-energy neutron environment are critical to the success and economic feasibility of a fusion device. The current understanding of materials behavior in fission-like environments and existing fusion facilities is insufficient to ensure the necessary performance of future fusion reactor components. An accelerator-based deuterium—lithium system to generate the required high neutron flux for material testing is considered to be the most promising approach in the near future. In this system, a high-energy (30-40 MeV) deuteron beam impinges on a high-speed (10-20 m/s) lithium jet to produce the high-energy (≥ 14 MeV) neutrons required to simulate a fusion environment via the Li (d, n) nuclear stripping reaction. Interaction of the high-energy deuteron beam and the subsequent response of the high-speed lithium jet are evaluated in detail. Deposition of the deuteron beam, jet-thermal hydraulic response, lithium-surface vaporization rate, and dynamic stability of the jet are modeled. It is found that lower beam kinetic energies produce higher surface temperature and consequently higher Li vaporization rates. Larger beam sizes significantly reduce both bulk and surface temperatures. Thermal expansion and dynamic velocities (normal to jet direction) due to beam energy deposition and momentum transfer are much lower than jet flow velocity and decrease substantially at lower beam current densities.

  3. Search for charged Higgs bosons produced via vector boson fusion and decaying into a pair of W and Z bosons using proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Krammer, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Shopova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mohammed, Yasser; Salama, Elsayed; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva

    2017-10-04

    A search for charged Higgs bosons produced in vector boson fusion processes and decaying into W and Z A search for charged Higgs bosons produced via vector boson fusion and decaying into W and Z bosons using proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 13 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 15.2 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector in 2015 and 2016. The event selection requires three leptons (electrons or muons), two jets with large pseudorapidity separation and high dijet mass, and missing transverse momentum. The observation agrees with the standard model prediction. Limits on the vector boson fusion production cross section times branching fraction for new charged physical states are reported as a function of mass from 200 to 2000 GeV and interpreted in the context of Higgs triplet models.

  4. Development of Monte Carlo code for Z-pinch driven fusion neutron imaging diagnosis system simulation%Z箍缩中子编码诊断系统模拟平台搭建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾清刚; 张天奎; 张凤娜; 胡华四

    2013-01-01

    开发了基于Geant4的Z箍缩中子编码成像系统模拟平台,实现聚变中子编码成像诊断系统各关键部件的完整模拟.获得了低中子产额(约1010量级)下,中子经编码孔编码后在闪烁体阵列中形成的发光分布图像.利用维纳滤波、Richardson-Lucy(RL)及遗传算法(GA)对低中子产额下获得的极低信噪比图像进行重建,并对信噪比、中子产额及重建效果进行了对比研究,结果表明:遗传算法对低信噪比中子编码图像的重建具有很强的鲁棒性;中子编码图像的信噪比与遗传算法重建结果的准确性呈正比.%The model of Z-pinch driven fusion imaging diagnosis system was set up by a Monte Carlo code based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit. All physical processes that the reality involves are taken into consideration in simulation. The light image of low neutron yield (about 1010) pill was obtained. Three types of image reconstruction algorithm, i. e. Richardson-Lucy, Wiener filtering and genetic algorithm were employed to reconstruct the neutron image with a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) and yield. The effects of neutron yields and the SNR on reconstruction performance were discussed. The results show that genetic algorithm is very robust for reconstructing neutron images with a low SNR. And the index of reconstruction performance and the image correlation coefficient using genetic algorithm, are proportional to the SNR of the neutron coded image.

  5. Novel technologies and theoretical models in radiation therapy of cancer patients using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons produced by U-120 cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabaeva, L. I.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Gribova, O. V.; Velikaya, V. V.; Lisin, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of clinical use of neutron therapy with 6 MeV fast neutrons compared to conventional radiation therapy was carried out. The experience of using neutron and mixed neutron and photon therapy in patients with different radio-resistant malignant tumors shows the necessity of further studies and development of the novel approaches to densely-ionizing radiation. The results of dosimetry and radiobiological studies have been the basis for planning clinical programs for neutron therapy. Clinical trials over the past 30 years have shown that neutron therapy successfully destroys radio-resistant cancers, including salivary gland tumors, adenoidcystic carcinoma, inoperable sarcomas, locally advanced head and neck tumors, and locally advanced prostate cancer. Radiation therapy with 6.3 MeV fast neutrons used alone and in combination with photon therapy resulted in improved long-term treatment outcomes in patients with radio-resistant malignant tumors.

  6. Novel technologies and theoretical models in radiation therapy of cancer patients using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons produced by U-120 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Startseva, Zh. A., E-mail: zhanna.alex@rambler.ru; Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Velikaya, V. V., E-mail: viktoria.v.v@inbox.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The analysis of clinical use of neutron therapy with 6 MeV fast neutrons compared to conventional radiation therapy was carried out. The experience of using neutron and mixed neutron and photon therapy in patients with different radio-resistant malignant tumors shows the necessity of further studies and development of the novel approaches to densely-ionizing radiation. The results of dosimetry and radiobiological studies have been the basis for planning clinical programs for neutron therapy. Clinical trials over the past 30 years have shown that neutron therapy successfully destroys radio-resistant cancers, including salivary gland tumors, adenoidcystic carcinoma, inoperable sarcomas, locally advanced head and neck tumors, and locally advanced prostate cancer. Radiation therapy with 6.3 MeV fast neutrons used alone and in combination with photon therapy resulted in improved long-term treatment outcomes in patients with radio-resistant malignant tumors.

  7. Cold Fusion Production and Decay of Neutron-Deficient Isotopes of Dubnium and Development of Extraction Systems for Group V Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, Jacklyn M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-07-31

    Excitation functions for the 1n and 2n exit channels of the 208Pb(51V,xn)259-xDb reaction were measured. A maximum cross section of the 1n exit channel of 2070$+1100\\atop{-760}$ pb was measured at an excitation energy of 16.0 ± 1.8 MeV. For the 2n exit channel, a maximum cross section of 1660$+450\\atop{-370}$ pb was measured at 22.0 ± 1.8 MeV excitation energy. The 1n excitation function for the 209Bi(50Ti,n)258Db reaction was remeasured, resulting in a cross section of 5480$+1730\\atop{-1370}$ pb at an excitation energy of 16.0 ± 1.6 MeV. Differences in cross section maxima are discussed in terms of the fusion probability below the barrier. The extraction of niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) from hydrochloric acid and mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) was studied. The goal of the experiments was to find a system that demonstrates selectivity among the members of group five of the Periodic Table and is also suitable for the study of dubnium (Db, Z = 105). Experiments with niobium and tantalum were performed with carrier (10-6 M), carrier free (10-10 M) and trace (10-16 M) concentrations of metal using hydrochloric acid solution with concentrations ranging from 1 - 11 M. The extraction of niobium and tantalum from mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by HDEHP and BEHP as a function of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration was also investigated. The data obtained are used as the basis to discuss the speciation of niobium and tantalum under the conditions studied and to evaluate possible extraction mechanisms. The 74Se(18O,p3n)88gNb excitation function was measured to determine the best energy for producing the 88Nb used in chemistry experiments. A maximum cross section of 495 +- 5 mb was observed at an 18O energy of 74.0 Me

  8. Production of fast neutrons from deuteron beams in view of producing radioactive heavy ions beams; Etude de la production de neutrons rapides a partir de faisceaux de deutons en vue de la mise en oeuvre de faisceaux d'ions lourds radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, N

    2000-11-01

    This thesis is part of two research and development programmes for the study of neutron rich radioactive nuclear beam production. The technique is based on the ISOL method and can be summarized as follows. Fast neutrons are generated by the break-up of deuterons in a thick target. These neutrons irradiate a fissionable {sup 238}U target. The resulting fission products are extracted from the target, ionised, mass selected and post-accelerated. The aim of the thesis is to study the neutron angular and energetic distributions. After a bibliographical research to justify the choice of deuterons as the best projectile, we developed more specifically three points: - the extension of the activation detector method for neutron spectroscopy to a wide energy range (1 to 150 MeV), - the experimental measurement of neutron angular and energetic distributions produced by deuterons on thick targets. The deuteron energy ranges from 17 to 200 MeV and the thick targets were Be, C and U, - the realization of a code based on Serber's theory to predict the neutron distribution for any couple (deuteron energy-thick target). We conclude that for our application the most suitable target is C and the best deuteron energy is about 100 MeV. (author)

  9. Active neutron methods for nuclear safeguards applications using Helium-4 gas scintillation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jason M.

    Active neutron methods use a neutron source to interrogate fissionable material. In this work a 4He gas scintillation fast neutron detection system is used to measure neutrons created by the interrogation. Three new applications of this method are developed: spent nuclear fuel assay, fission rate measurement, and special nuclear material detection. Three active neutron methods are included in this thesis. First a non-destructive plutonium assay technique called Multispectral Active Neutron Interrogation Analysis is developed. It is based on interrogating fuel with neutrons at several different energies. The induced fission rates at each interrogation energy are compared with results from a neutron transport model of the irradiation geometry in a system of equations to iteratively solve the inverse problem for isotopic composition. The model is shown to converge on the correct composition for a material with 3 different fissionable components, a representative neutron absorber, and any neutron transparent material such as oxygen in a variety of geometries. Next an experimental fission rate measurement technique is developed using 4He gas scintillation fast neutron detector. Several unique features of this detector allow it to detect and provide energy information on fast neutrons with excellent gamma discrimination efficiency. The detector can measure induced fission rate by energetically differentiating between interrogation neutrons and higher energy fission neutrons. The detector response to a mono-energetic deuterium-deuterium fusion neutron generator and a 252Cf source are compared to examine the difference in detected energy range. Finally we demonstrate a special nuclear material detection technique by detecting an unambiguous fission neutron signal produced in natural uranium during active neutron interrogation using a deuterium-deuterium neutron generator and a high pressure 4He gas fast neutron scintillation detector. Energy histograms resulting from this

  10. Reconstruction of missing transverse energy and prospect of searching for Higgs boson produced via vector boson fusion in Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pi, Haifeng

    2005-01-01

    We performed full detector simulation studies of missing transverse energy (Emiss T ) reconstruction and correction, and the prospects for searching for a low mass Higgs Boson (120 < mH < 250 GeV/c 2 ) produced via the vector boson fusion (VBF) process through the decay of H → W+W− → `νjj at Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment in Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We developed a new jet energy correction algorithm by parameterizing the jet energy distribution around the jet axis. The jet energy resolution is improved by calibrating the jet energy scale and by reducing the variance of the measurement error. Correction functions showed good performance in restoring the jet transverse momentum (pT) spectrum. The methods provide a good framework to study jet quantities and optimize jet reconstruction and correction techniques. We evaluated the performance of the CMS detector for measuring the Emiss T using QCD events. We also studied the contributions from detector resolution, minimum bias pileup, event...

  11. Transmutation of $^{239}$Pu and Other Nuclides Using Spallation Neutrons Produced by Relativistic Protons Reacting with Massive U- and Pb-Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Bamblevski, V P; Barabanov, M Yu; Bradnova, V; Chaloun, P; Hella, K M; Kalinnikov, V G; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Perelygin, V P; Pronskikh, V S; Pavliouk, A V; Solnyshkin, A A; Sosnin, A N; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Zaverioukha, O S; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Brandt, R; Langrock, E J; Vater, P; Van, J S; Westmeier, W; Dwivedi, K K; Guo Shi Lun; Li Li Qiang; Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Kievets, M K; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V; Modolo, G; Odoj, R; Zamani-Valassiadou, M

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies on the transmutation of some long-lived radioactive waste nuclei, such as ^{129}I, ^{237}Np, and ^{239}Pu, as well as on natural uranium and lanthanum (all of them used as sensors) were carried out at the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory for High Energies (JINR, Dubna). Spallation neutrons were produced by relativistic protons with energies in the range of 0.5 GeV\\le E(p)\\le 1.5 GeV interacting with 20 cm long uranium or lead target stacks. The targets were surrounded by 6 cm paraffin moderators. The radioactive sensors mentioned above were positioned on the outside surface of the moderator and contained typically approximately 0.5 up to 1 gram of long-lived isotopes. The highly radioactive targets were produced perfectly well-sealed in aluminum containers by the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia. From the experimentally observed transmutation rates one can easily extrapolate, that in a subcritical nuclear power assembly (or "energy amplifier") using a 10 mA pr...

  12. Measurements of fast neutrons by bubble detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, F.; Martinez, H. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Leal, B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rangel, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F (Mexico); Reyes, P. G. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario 100, Col. Centro, 50000, Toluca Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Neutron bubble detectors have been studied using Am-Be and D-D neuron sources, which give limited energy information. The Bubble Detector Spectrometer (BDS) have six different energy thresholds ranging from 10 KeV to 10 Mev. The number of bubbles obtained in each measurement is related to the dose (standardized response R) equivalent neutrons through sensitivity (b / {mu}Sv) and also with the neutron flux (neutrons per unit area) through a relationship that provided by the manufacturer. Bubble detectors were used with six different answers (0.11 b/ {mu}Sv, 0093 b/{mu}Sv, 0.14 b/{mu}Sv, 0.17 b/{mu}Sv, 0051 b/{mu}Sv). To test the response of the detectors (BDS) radiate a set of six of them with different energy threshold, with a source of Am-Be, placing them at a distance of one meter from it for a few minutes. Also, exposed to dense plasma focus Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II FPD) of ICN-UNAM, apparatus which produces fusion plasma, generating neutrons by nuclear reactions of neutrons whose energy emitting is 2.45 MeV. In this case the detectors were placed at a distance of 50 cm from the pinch at 90 Degree-Sign this was done for a certain number of shots. In both cases, the standard response is reported (Dose in {mu}Sv) for each of the six detectors representing an energy range, this response is given by the expression R{sub i}= B{sub i} / S{sub i} where B{sub i} is the number of bubbles formed in each and the detector sensitivity (S{sub i}) is given for each detector in (b / {mu}Sv). Also, reported for both cases, the detected neutron flux (n cm{sup -2}), by a given ratio and the response involves both standardized R, as the average cross section sigma. The results obtained have been compared with the spectrum of Am-Be source. From these measurements it can be concluded that with a combination of bubble detectors, with different responses is possible to measure the equivalent dose in a range of 10 to 100 {mu}Sv fields mixed neutron and gamma, and pulsed generated fusion

  13. Neutronic Reactor Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico; Zinn, Walter H.

    The argument of the present Patent is a radiation shield suitable for protection of personnel from both gamma rays and neutrons. Such a shield from dangerous radiations is achieved to the best by the combined action of a neutron slowing material (a moderator) and a neutron absorbing material. Hydrogen is particularly effective for this shield since it is a good absorber of slow neutrons and a good moderator of fast neutrons. The neutrons slowed down by hydrogen may, then, be absorbed by other materials such as boron, cadmium, gadolinium, samarium or steel. Steel is particularly convenient for the purpose, given its effectiveness in absorbing also the gamma rays from the reactor (both primary gamma rays and secondary ones produced by the moderation of neutrons). In particular, in the present Patent a shield is described, made of alternate layers of steel and Masonite (an hydrolized ligno-cellulose material). The object of the present Patent is not discussed in any other published paper.

  14. Contribution to the study of recoil species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation; Contribution a l'etude de la reactivite des especes de recul dans le ferrocyanure de potassium irradie aux neutrons thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriadec Vernier de Byans, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    The chemical species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation were separated and identified. The study of their behaviour upon thermal annealing has allowed to establish a scheme of reaction as well as a kinetic treatment of the data. Activation energies are determined in different conditions and the effects of radiation dose, oxygen and water of crystallisation upon the activation energies were studied. Preliminary E.S.R. data and its relevance to the decomposition process is also discussed. (authors) [French] On a separe et identifie les differentes especes chimiques produites par irradiation neutronique de ferrocyanure de potassium. L'etude de leur comportement au cours du recuit thermique a permis l'application de differentes cinetiques et l'etablissement d'un schema de reaction. On a deterrmine la valeur des energies d'activation dans differentes conditions de recuit ainsi que l'influence de la dose de radiations, de l'oxygene et de l'eau de cristallisation sur ces energies. Une serie de mesures de resonance paramagnetique electronique a complete cette etude. (auteurs)

  15. Study of nuclear recoils in liquid argon with monoenergetic neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Regenfus, C; Amsler, C; Creus, W; Ferella, A; Rochet, J; Walter, M

    2012-01-01

    For the development of liquid argon dark matter detectors we assembled a setup in the laboratory to scatter neutrons on a small liquid argon target. The neutrons are produced mono-energetically (E_kin=2.45 MeV) by nuclear fusion in a deuterium plasma and are collimated onto a 3" liquid argon cell operating in single-phase mode (zero electric field). Organic liquid scintillators are used to tag scattered neutrons and to provide a time-of-flight measurement. The setup is designed to study light pulse shapes and scintillation yields from nuclear and electronic recoils as well as from {\\alpha}-particles at working points relevant to dark matter searches. Liquid argon offers the possibility to scrutinise scintillation yields in noble liquids with respect to the populations of the two fundamental excimer states. Here we present experimental methods and first results from recent data towards such studies.

  16. Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miley, George H

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with an introductory understanding of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC), a type of fusion meant to retain plasma using an electrostatic field. IEC provides a unique approach for plasma confinement, as it offers a number of spin-off applications, such as a small neutron source for Neutron Activity Analysis (NAA), that all work towards creating fusion power. The IEC has been identified in recent times as an ideal fusion power unit because of its ability to burn aneutronic fuels like p-B11 as a result of its non-Maxwellian plasma dominated by beam-like ions. This type of fusion also takes place in a simple mechanical structure small in size, which also contributes to its viability as a source of power. This book posits that the ability to study the physics of IEC in very small volume plasmas makes it possible to rapidly investigate a design to create a power-producing device on a much larger scale. Along with this hypothesis the book also includes a conceptual experiment propose...

  17. New method of a "point-like" neutron source creation based on sharp focusing of high-current deuteron beam onto deuterium-saturated target for neutron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, S.; Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.

    2017-02-01

    A possibility of a compact powerful point-like neutron source creation is discussed. Neutron yield of the source based on deuterium-deuterium (D-D) reaction is estimated at the level of 1011 s‑1 (1013 s‑1 for deuterium-tritium reaction). The fusion takes place due to bombardment of deuterium- (or tritium) loaded target by high-current focused deuterium ion beam with energy of 100 keV. The ion beam is formed by means of high-current quasi-gasdynamic ion source of a new generation based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge in an open magnetic trap sustained by powerful microwave radiation. The prospects of proposed generator for neutron tomography are discussed. Suggested method is compared to the point-like neutron sources based on a spark produced by powerful femtosecond laser pulses.

  18. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Boutard, J. L.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Kimura, A.; Lindau, R.; Odette, G. R.; Rieth, M.; Tan, L.; Tanigawa, H.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniques to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. Material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogen generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.

  19. Study of Collimated Neutron Flux Monitors for MAST and MAST Upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Sangaroon, Siriyaporn

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the neutron emission, resulting from nuclear fusion reactions between the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, can provide a wealth of information on the confinement properties of fusion plasmas and how these are affected by Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) instabilities. This thesis describes work aimed to develop neutron measurement techniques for nuclear fusion plasma experiments, specifically regarding the performance and design of collimated neutron flux monitors (neutron ...

  20. Neutron production in deuterium gas-puff z-pinch with outer plasma shell at current of 3 MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Frusov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.; Krasa, J.

    2015-11-01

    Z-pinch experiments at the current of about 3 MA were carried out on the GIT-12 generator. The outer plasma shell of deuterium gas-puff was generated by the system of 48 plasma guns. This configuration exhibits a high efficiency of the production of DD fusion neutrons with the yield of above 1012 neutrons produced in a single shot with the duration of about 20 ns. The maximum energy of the neutrons produced in this pulse exceeded 30 MeV. The neutron radiation was measured using scintillation TOF detectors, CR-39 nuclear track detectors, bubble detectors BD-PND and BDS-10000 and by several types of nuclear activation detectors. These diagnostic tools were used to measure the anisotropy of neutron fluence and neutron energy spectra. It allows us to estimate the total number of DD neutrons, the contribution of other nuclear reactions, the amount of scattered neutrons, and other parameters of neutron production. This work was supported by the MSMT grants LH13283, LD14089.

  1. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion gamma ray physics (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Hoffman, N.; Wilson, D. C.; Stoeffl, W.; Dauffy, L.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.

    2010-10-01

    The gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic is a multichannel, time-resolved, energy-thresholded γ-ray spectrometer that provides a high-bandwidth, direct-measurement of fusion reaction history in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. 16.75 MeV deuterium+tritium (DT) fusion γ-rays, with a branching ratio of the order of 10-5γ/(14 MeV n), are detected to determine fundamental burn parameters, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, critical to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. During the tritium/hydrogen/deuterium ignition tuning campaign, an additional γ-ray line at 19.8 MeV, produced by hydrogen+tritium fusion with a branching ratio of unity, will increase the available γ-ray signal and may allow measurement of reacting fuel composition or ion temperature. Ablator areal density measurements with the GRH are also made possible by detection of 4.43 MeV γ-rays produced by inelastic scatter of DT fusion neutrons on C12 nuclei in the ablating plastic capsule material.

  2. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion gamma ray physics (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Hoffman, N.; Wilson, D. C.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, M/S E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stoeffl, W.; Dauffy, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Miller, E. K. [Special Technologies Laboratory, NSTec, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Ali, Z. A. [Livermore Operations, NSTec, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic is a multichannel, time-resolved, energy-thresholded {gamma}-ray spectrometer that provides a high-bandwidth, direct-measurement of fusion reaction history in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. 16.75 MeV deuterium+tritium (DT) fusion {gamma}-rays, with a branching ratio of the order of 10{sup -5}{gamma}/(14 MeV n), are detected to determine fundamental burn parameters, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, critical to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. During the tritium/hydrogen/deuterium ignition tuning campaign, an additional {gamma}-ray line at 19.8 MeV, produced by hydrogen+tritium fusion with a branching ratio of unity, will increase the available {gamma}-ray signal and may allow measurement of reacting fuel composition or ion temperature. Ablator areal density measurements with the GRH are also made possible by detection of 4.43 MeV {gamma}-rays produced by inelastic scatter of DT fusion neutrons on {sup 12}C nuclei in the ablating plastic capsule material.

  3. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion gamma ray physics (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H W; Hoffman, N; Wilson, D C; Stoeffl, W; Dauffy, L; Kim, Y H; McEvoy, A; Young, C S; Mack, J M; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M; Miller, E K; Ali, Z A

    2010-10-01

    The gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic is a multichannel, time-resolved, energy-thresholded γ-ray spectrometer that provides a high-bandwidth, direct-measurement of fusion reaction history in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. 16.75 MeV deuterium+tritium (DT) fusion γ-rays, with a branching ratio of the order of 10(-5)γ/(14 MeV n), are detected to determine fundamental burn parameters, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, critical to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. During the tritium/hydrogen/deuterium ignition tuning campaign, an additional γ-ray line at 19.8 MeV, produced by hydrogen+tritium fusion with a branching ratio of unity, will increase the available γ-ray signal and may allow measurement of reacting fuel composition or ion temperature. Ablator areal density measurements with the GRH are also made possible by detection of 4.43 MeV γ-rays produced by inelastic scatter of DT fusion neutrons on (12)C nuclei in the ablating plastic capsule material.

  4. IFMIF - International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity/Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental acceptability, safety, and economic viability win ultimately be the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power. This will entail the development of radiation- resistant and low- activation materials. These low-activation materials must also survive exposure to damage from neutrons having an energy spectrum peaked near 14 MeV with annual radiation doses in the range of 20 displacements per atom (dpa). Testing of candidate materials, therefore, requires a high-flux source of high energy neutrons. The problem is that there is currently no high-flux source of neutrons in the energy range above a few MeV. The goal, is therefore, to provide an irradiation facility for use by fusion material scientists in the search for low-activation and damage-resistant materials. An accellerator-based neutron source has been established through a number of international studies and workshops` as an essential step for materials development and testing. The mission of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to provide an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to produce high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator-based irradiation tests. It would generate material- specific activation and radiological properties data, and support the analysis of materials for use in safety, maintenance, recycling, decommissioning, and waste disposal systems.

  5. On three-dimensional reconstruction of a neutron/x-ray source from very few two-dimensional projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volegov, P. L., E-mail: volegov@lanl.gov; Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Simpson, R.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the source of neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the stagnation phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Very few two-dimensional projections of neutron images are available to reconstruct the three-dimensional neutron source. In this paper, we present a technique that has been developed for the 3D reconstruction of neutron and x-ray sources from a minimal number of 2D projections. We present the detailed algorithms used for this characterization and the results of reconstructed sources from experimental data collected at Omega.

  6. Recombinant Scorpine Produced Using SUMO Fusion Partner in Escherichia coli Has the Activities against Clinically Isolated Bacteria and Inhibits the Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Zhang; Xinlong He; Yaping Gu; Huayun Zhou; Jun Cao; Qi Gao

    2014-01-01

    Scorpine, a small cationic peptide from the venom of Pandinus imperator, which has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-plasmodial activities, has potential important applications in the pharmaceutical industries. However, the isolation of scorpine from natural sources is inefficient and time-consuming. Here, we first report the expression and purification of recombinant scorpine in Escherichia coli, using small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion partner. The fusion protein was ex...

  7. Overproduction, purification and characterization of human interferon alpha2a-human serum albumin fusion protein produced in methilotropic yeast Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, R. A.; Santoso, A.; Herawati, N.

    2017-05-01

    Human interferon alpha2a (hIFNα2a) is a therapeutic protein that used in cancer and hepatitis B/C therapy. The main problem of using hIFNα-2a is its short elimination half life due to its low molecular weight. Development of higher molecular weight protein by albumin fusion technology is a rational strategy to solve the problem. In our previous research we constructed an open reading frame (ORF) encoding hIFNα2a-human serum albumin (HSA) fusion protein that expressed in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) protease deficient strain SMD1168. This research was performed to overproduce, purify and characterize the fusion protein. To overproduce the protein, cultivation was performed in buffered complex medium containing glyserol (BMGY) for 24 h and protein overproduction was applied in buffered complex medium containing methanol (BMMY) for 48 hours at 30°C. The fusion protein was purified by blue sepharose affinity chromatography. Molecular weight characterization by SDS PAGE corresponds with its theoretical size, 85 kDa. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the fusion protein was recognized by anti hIFNα2 and anti HSA monoclonal antibody as well. Amino acid sequence of the fusion protein was determined by LC MS/MS2 mass spectrometry with trypsin as proteolitic enzyme. There were three fragments that identified as hIFNα2a and seven fragments that identified as HSA. Total identified amino acids were 150 residues with 20% coverage from total residues. To conclude, hIFNα2a-HSA fusion protein was overproduced, purified and characterized. Characterization based on molecular weight, antibody recognition and amino acid sequence confirmed that the fusion protein has correct identity as theoretically thought.

  8. The neutrons for science facility at SPIRAL-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, X.; Aïche, M.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Balanzat, E.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Ban, G.; Bauge, E.; Bélier, G.; Bém, P.; Borcea, C.; Caillaud, T.; Chatillon, A.; Czajkowski, S.; Dessagne, P.; Doré, D.; Fischer, U.; Frégeau, M. O.; Grinyer, J.; Guillous, S.; Gunsing, F.; Gustavsson, C.; Henning, G.; Jacquot, B.; Jansson, K.; Jurado, B.; Kerveno, M.; Klix, A.; Landoas, O.; Lecolley, F. R.; Lecouey, J. L.; Majerle, M.; Marie, N.; Materna, T.; Mrázek, J.; Negoita, F.; Novák, J.; Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.; Panebianco, S.; Perrot, L.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Ramillon, J. M.; Farget, F.; Ridikas, D.; Rossé, B.; Sérot, O.; Simakov, S. P.; Šimečková, E.; Štefánik, M.; Sublet, J. C.; Taïeb, J.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Thfoin, I.; Varignon, C.

    2017-09-01

    Numerous domains, in fundamental research as well as in applications, require the study of reactions induced by neutrons with energies from few MeV up to few tens of MeV. Reliable measurements also are necessary to improve the evaluated databases used by nuclear transport codes. This energy range covers a large number of topics like transmutation of nuclear waste, design of future fission and fusion reactors, nuclear medicine or test and development of new detectors. A new facility called Neutrons For Science (NFS) is being built for this purpose on the GANIL site at Caen (France). NFS is composed of a pulsed neutron beam for time-of-flight facility as well as irradiation stations for cross-section measurements. Neutrons will be produced by the interaction of deuteron and proton beams, delivered by the SPIRAL-2 linear accelerator, with thick or thin converters made of beryllium or lithium. Continuous and quasi-mono-energetic spectra will be available at NFS up to 40 MeV. In this fast energy region, the neutron flux is expected to be up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than at other existing time-of-flight facilities. In addition, irradiation stations for neutron-, proton- and deuteron-induced reactions will allow performing cross-section measurements by the activation technique. After a description of the facility and its characteristics, the experiments to be performed in the short and medium term will be presented.

  9. The neutrons for science facility at SPIRAL-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledoux X.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous domains, in fundamental research as well as in applications, require the study of reactions induced by neutrons with energies from few MeV up to few tens of MeV. Reliable measurements also are necessary to improve the evaluated databases used by nuclear transport codes. This energy range covers a large number of topics like transmutation of nuclear waste, design of future fission and fusion reactors, nuclear medicine or test and development of new detectors. A new facility called Neutrons For Science (NFS is being built for this purpose on the GANIL site at Caen (France. NFS is composed of a pulsed neutron beam for time-of-flight facility as well as irradiation stations for cross-section measurements. Neutrons will be produced by the interaction of deuteron and proton beams, delivered by the SPIRAL-2 linear accelerator, with thick or thin converters made of beryllium or lithium. Continuous and quasi-mono-energetic spectra will be available at NFS up to 40 MeV. In this fast energy region, the neutron flux is expected to be up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than at other existing time-of-flight facilities. In addition, irradiation stations for neutron-, proton- and deuteron-induced reactions will allow performing cross-section measurements by the activation technique. After a description of the facility and its characteristics, the experiments to be performed in the short and medium term will be presented.

  10. Functionalized silk assembled from a recombinant spider silk fusion protein (Z-4RepCT) produced in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Ronnie; Lau, Cheuk H; Ishida, Takuya; Ramström, Margareta; Sandgren, Mats; Hedhammar, My

    2016-05-01

    Functional biological materials are a growing research area with potential applicability in medicine and biotechnology. Using genetic engineering, the possibility to introduce additional functions into spider silk-based materials has been realized. Recently, a recombinant spider silk fusion protein, Z-4RepCT, was produced intracellularly in Escherichia coli and could after purification self-assemble into silk-like fibers with ability to bind antibodies via the IgG-binding Z domain. In this study, the use of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris for production of Z-4RepCT has been investigated. Temperature, pH and production time were influencing the amount of soluble Z-4RepCT retrieved from the extracellular fraction. Purification of secreted Z-4RepCT resulted in a mixture of full-length and degraded silk proteins that failed to self-assemble into fibers. A position in the C-terminal domain of 4RepCT was identified as being subjected to proteolytic cleavage by proteases in the Pichia culture supernatant. Moreover, the C-terminal domain was subjected to glycosylation during production in P. pastoris. These observed alterations of the CT domain are suggested to contribute to the failure in fiber assembly. As alternative approach, Z-4RepCT retrieved from the intracellular fraction, which was less degraded, was used and shown to retain ability to assemble into silk-like fibers after enzymatic deglycosylation. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Radiochemical problems of fusion reactors. 1. Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M.B.A.

    1984-02-01

    A list of fusion reactor candidate materials is given, for use in connection with blanket structure, breeding, moderation, neutron multiplication, cooling, magnetic field generation, electrical insulation and radiation shielding. The phenomena being studied for each group of materials are indicated. Suitable irradiation test facilities are discussed under the headings (1) accelerator-based neutron sources, (2) fission reactors, and (3) ion accelerators.

  12. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  13. Development of fast neutron pinhole camera using nuclear emulsion for neutron emission profile measurement in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Y.; Tomita, H.; Nakayama, Y.; Hayashi, S.; Morishima, K.; Isobe, M.; Cheon, M. S.; Ogawa, K.; Nishitani, T.; Naka, T.; Nakano, T.; Nakamura, M.; Iguchi, T.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a compact fast neutron camera based on a stack of nuclear emulsion plates and a pinhole collimator. The camera was installed at J-port of Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research at National Fusion Research Institute, Republic of Korea. Fast neutron images agreed better with calculated ones based on Monte Carlo neutron simulation using the uniform distribution of Deuterium-Deuterium (DD) neutron source in a torus of 40 cm radius.

  14. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  15. Comparison of bulk and pitcher-catcher targets for laser-driven neutron production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingale, L.; Petrov, G. M.; Maksimchuk, A.; Davis, J.; Freeman, R. R.; Joglekar, A. S.; Matsuoka, T.; Murphy, C. D.; Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Van Woerkom, L.; Krushelnick, K.

    2011-08-01

    Laser-driven d(d, n)-3He beam-target fusion neutron production from bulk deuterated plastic (CD) targets is compared with a pitcher-catcher target scheme using an identical laser and detector arrangement. For laser intensities in the range of (1-3) × 1019 W cm-2, it was found that the bulk targets produced a high yield (5 × 104 neutrons per steradian) beamed preferentially in the laser propagation direction. Numerical modeling shows the importance of considering the temperature adjusted stopping powers to correctly model the neutron production. The bulk CD targets have a high background target temperature leading to a reduced stopping power for the deuterons, which increases the probability of generating neutrons by fusion. Neutron production from the pitcher-catcher targets was not as efficient since it does not benefit from the reduced stopping power in the cold catcher target. Also, the inhibition of the deuteron acceleration by a proton rich contamination layer significantly reduces the pitcher-catcher neutron production.

  16. 球形托卡马克聚变嬗变堆中子学设计%NEUTRONICS DESIGN FOR A SPHERICAL TOKAMAK FUSION-TRANSMUTATION REACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯开明; 张国书; 郭增基

    2001-01-01

    Based on studies of spherical tokamak fusion reactors,a concept of fusion-transmutation reactor is put forward.A set of plasma parameters suitable for the transmutation blanket is selected.Using the transport and burn-up calculation code BISON3.0 and its associated database,transmutation rate of MA nuclear waste,energy multiplication,and tritium breeder rate in the transmutation blanket are calculated.%基于对球形托卡马克ST聚变堆的研究,提出了ST聚变嬗变堆的设计概念。对堆芯参数作了初步选择,确定了一组适合于嬗变包层的堆芯参数供中子学计算和结构设计参考,给出了旨在以嬗变次锕系元素(MA)核废物为目标的一维中子学计算结果。

  17. Source reconstruction for neutron coded-aperture imaging: A sparse method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongming; Hu, Huasi; Zhang, Fengna; Jia, Qinggang

    2017-08-01

    Neutron coded-aperture imaging has been developed as an important diagnostic for inertial fusion studies in recent decades. It is used to measure the distribution of neutrons produced in deuterium-tritium plasma. Source reconstruction is an essential part of the coded-aperture imaging. In this paper, we applied a sparse reconstruction method to neutron source reconstruction. This method takes advantage of the sparsity of the source image. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations were performed to obtain the system response. An interpolation method was used while obtaining the spatially variant point spread functions on each point of the source in order to reduce the number of point spread functions that needs to be calculated by the Monte Carlo method. Source reconstructions from simulated images show that the sparse reconstruction method can result in higher signal-to-noise ratio and less distortion at a relatively high statistical noise level.

  18. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion concept utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the implosion requirements to achieve inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept were recently conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z coils. Despite the relatively slow implosion velocity (70 km/s) in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were approximately 3 keV, and thermonuclear DD neutron yields up to 2e12 have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had a width ranging from 60-120 microns over a roughly 6 mm height and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray spectra from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.4 g/cm3 . In these experiments 1-5e10 secondary DT neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 2 mg/cm2, this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized. This is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the DT neutron time of flight spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and DD yields greater than 1e10. An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to radiate away the laser energy deposited in the fuel also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Modulating the Neutron Flux from a Mirror Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D D

    2011-09-01

    A 14-MeV neutron source based on a Gas-Dynamic Trap will provide a high flux of 14 MeV neutrons for fusion materials and sub-component testing. In addition to its main goal, the source has potential applications in condensed matter physics and biophysics. In this report, the author considers adding one more capability to the GDT-based neutron source, the modulation of the neutron flux with a desired frequency. The modulation may be an enabling tool for the assessment of the role of non-steady-state effects in fusion devices as well as for high-precision, low-signal basic science experiments favoring the use of the synchronous detection technique. A conclusion is drawn that modulation frequency of up to 1 kHz and modulation amplitude of a few percent is achievable. Limitations on the amplitude of modulations at higher frequencies are discussed.

  20. Comparison of chain breaks produced in DNA in vivo by gamma rays and neutrons; hypothesis of a new radiolesion in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkert, B.; Pironin, M. (Institut Curie, Section de Biologie, 91 - Orsay (France)); Sabatier, R. (Centre Hospitalier Regional d' Orleans, Service de Neutrontherapie, C.N.R.S., 45 (France)); Latarjet, R.

    1985-06-21

    Using the method of alkaline elution for the treatment of cell DNA in chinese hamster fibroblasts irradiated with low doses of either cobalt-60 gamma rays or p (34 MeV) Be neutrons, we determined the kinetics of radioinduced strand breaks. The comparison gamma rays-neutrons reveals important discrepancies which suggest that neutrons induce a so for unknown reaction in DNA simultaneously with single and double strand breakage. This observation could contribute to explain the high RBE value of high LET particles.

  1. The cross-section data from neutron activation experiments on niobium in the NPI p-7Li quasi-monoenergetic neutron field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakov S.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of protons on 7Li target produces the high-energy quasi- monoenergetic neutron spectrum with the tail to lower energies. Proton energies of 19.8, 25.1, 27.6, 30.1, 32.6, 35.0 and 37.4 MeV were used to obtain quasi-monoenergetic neutrons with energies of 18, 21.6, 24.8, 27.6, 30.3, 32.9 and 35.6 MeV, respectively. Nb cross-section data for neutron energies higher than 22.5 MeV do not exist in the literature. Nb is the important material for fusion applications (IFMIF as well. The variable-energy proton beam of NPI cyclotron is utilized for the production of neutron field using thin lithium target. The carbon backing serves as the beam stopper. The system permits to produce neutron flux density about 109  n/cm2/s in peak at 30 MeV neutron energy. The niobium foils of 15 mm in diameter and approx. 0.75 g weight were activated. The nuclear spectroscopy methods with HPGe detector technique were used to obtain the activities of produced isotopes. The large set of neutron energies used in the experiment allows us to make the complex study of the cross-section values. The reactions (n,2n, (n,3n, (n,4n, (n,He3, (n,α and (n,2nα are studied. The cross-sections data of the (n,4n and (n,2nα are obtained for the first time. The cross-sections of (n,2n and (n,α reactions for higher neutron energies are strongly influenced by low energy tail of neutron spectra. This effect is discussed. The results are compared with the EAF-2007 library.

  2. Ge(Li) detector gamma-ray spectrometer system for measurement of the spectra and production cross sections of. gamma. -rays produced by 14 MeV neutron nonelastic interaction with nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Ronglin; Shi Xiamin; Wu Yongshun; Xing Jinjiang; Ding Dazhao

    1982-02-01

    A 42 cm/sup 3/ Ge(Li) detector gamma-ray spectrometer system for measuring the spectra and the production cross sections of ..gamma..-rays produced by fast neutron nonelastic interaction with nuclei is described in this paper. The incident neutrons are produced by T(d,n)/sup 4/He reaction in an high tension set with the incident deuteron energy of 200 keV. The time of flight technique is used to discriminate between the scattered neutrons and gamma-rays resulting from nonelastic interaction. The ..cap alpha..-particles are picked up by a Si(Au) surface barrier detector and the ARC timing discriminaters are used in both Si(Au) and Ge(Li) channels. The overall time resolution (FWHM) of this system is 4.1 ns typically for energy selection threshold at 400keV. The block diagram of spectrometer system is described in detail. The complex complete shielding damage of Ge(Li) detector in this fast neutron field is well discussed.

  3. Temperature measurements of fusion plasmas produced by petawatt laser-irradiated D2-3He or CD4-3He clustering gases

    CERN Document Server

    Bang, W; Bonasera, A; Dyer, G; Quevedo, H J; Hagel, K; Schmidt, K; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Andreoli, P; Gaul, E; Bernstein, A C; Donovan, M; Barbarino, M; Kimura, S; Mazzocco, M; Sura, J; Natowitz, J B; Ditmire, T

    2013-01-01

    Two different methods have been employed to determine the plasma temperature in a laser-cluster fusion experiment on the Texas Petawatt laser. In the first, the temperature was derived from time-of-flight data of deuterium ions ejected from exploding D2 or CD4 clusters. In the second, the temperature was measured from the ratio of the rates of two different nuclear fusion reactions occurring in the plasma at the same time: D(d, 3He)n and 3He(d, p)4He. The temperatures determined by these two methods agree well, which indicates that: i) The ion energy distribution is not significantly distorted when ions travel in the disassembling plasma; ii) The kinetic energy of deuterium ions, especially the hottest part responsible for nuclear fusion, is well described by a near-Maxwellian distribution.

  4. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  5. Measuring neutron yield and ρR anisotropies with activation foils at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleuel D.L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neutron yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF are measured with a suite of diagnostics, including activation of ∼20–200 g samples of materials undergoing a variety of energy-dependent neutron reactions. Indium samples were mounted on the end of a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM, 25–50 cm from the implosion, to measure 2.45 MeV D-D fusion neutron yield. The 336.2 keV gamma rays from the 4.5 hour isomer of 115mIn produced by (n,n′ reactions are counted in high-purity germanium detectors. For capsules producing D-T fusion reactions, zirconium and copper are activated via (n,2n reactions at various locations around the target chamber and bay, measuring the 14 MeV neutron yield to accuracies on order of 7%. By mounting zirconium samples on ports at nine locations around the NIF chamber, anisotropies in the primary neutron emission due to fuel areal density asymmetries can be measured to a relative precision of 3%.

  6. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  7. The accomplishment of the Engineering Design Activities of IFMIF/EVEDA: The European-Japanese project towards a Li(d,xn) fusion relevant neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Ibarra, A.; Abal, J.; Abou-Sena, A.; Arbeiter, F.; Arranz, F.; Arroyo, J. M.; Bargallo, E.; Beauvais, P.-Y.; Bernardi, D.; Casal, N.; Carmona, J. M.; Chauvin, N.; Comunian, M.; Delferriere, O.; Delgado, A.; Diaz-Arocas, P.; Fischer, U.; Frisoni, M.; Garcia, A.; Garin, P.; Gobin, R.; Gouat, P.; Groeschel, F.; Heidinger, R.; Ida, M.; Kondo, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Kubo, T.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Leysen, W.; Mas, A.; Massaut, V.; Matsumoto, H.; Micciche, G.; Mittwollen, M.; Mora, J. C.; Mota, F.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Nitti, F.; Nishiyama, K.; Ogando, F.; O'hira, S.; Oliver, C.; Orsini, F.; Perez, D.; Perez, M.; Pinna, T.; Pisent, A.; Podadera, I.; Porfiri, M.; Pruneri, G.; Queral, V.; Rapisarda, D.; Roman, R.; Shingala, M.; Soldaini, M.; Sugimoto, M.; Theile, J.; Tian, K.; Umeno, H.; Uriot, D.; Wakai, E.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokomine, T.

    2015-08-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase under the frame of the Broader Approach Agreement between Europe and Japan, accomplished in summer 2013, on schedule, its EDA phase with the release of the engineering design report of the IFMIF plant, which is here described. Many improvements of the design from former phases are implemented, particularly a reduction of beam losses and operational costs thanks to the superconducting accelerator concept, the re-location of the quench tank outside the test cell (TC) with a reduction of tritium inventory and a simplification on its replacement in case of failure, the separation of the irradiation modules from the shielding block gaining irradiation flexibility and enhancement of the remote handling equipment reliability and cost reduction, and the water cooling of the liner and biological shielding of the TC, enhancing the efficiency and economy of the related sub-systems. In addition, the maintenance strategy has been modified to allow a shorter yearly stop of the irradiation operations and a more careful management of the irradiated samples. The design of the IFMIF plant is intimately linked with the EVA phase carried out since the entry into force of IFMIF/EVEDA in June 2007. These last activities and their on-going accomplishment have been thoroughly described elsewhere (Knaster J et al [19]), which, combined with the present paper, allows a clear understanding of the maturity of the European-Japanese international efforts. This released IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report (IIEDR), which could be complemented if required concurrently with the outcome of the on-going EVA, will allow decision making on its construction and/or serve as the basis for the definition of the next step, aligned with the evolving needs of our fusion community.

  8. Establishment of pregnancy after the transfer of nuclear transfer embryos produced from the fusion of argali (Ovis ammon) nuclei into domestic sheep (Ovis aries) enucleated oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K L; Bunch, T D; Mitalipov, S; Reed, W A

    1999-01-01

    Cloning mammalian species from cell lines of adult animals has been demonstrated. Aside from its importance for cloning multiple copies of genetically valuable livestock, cloning now has the potential to salvage endangered or even extinct species. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the bovine and domestic (Ovis aries) ovine oocyte cytoplasm on the nucleus of an established cell line from an endangered argali wild sheep (Ovis ammon) after nuclear transplantation. A fibroblast cell line was established from skin biopsies from an adult argali ram from the People's Republic of China. Early karyotype analysis of cells between 3-6 passages revealed a normal diploid chromosome number of 56. The argali karyotype consisted of 2 pairs of biarmed and 25 pairs of acrocentric autosomes, a large acrocentric and minute biarmed Y. Bovine ovaries were collected from a local abattoir, oocytes aspirated, and immediately placed in maturation medium consisting of M-199 containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 IU/mL penicillin, 100 microg/mL streptomycin, 0.5 microg/mL follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 5.0 microg/mL luetinizing hormone (LH) and 1.0 microg/mL estradiol. Ovine (O. aries) oocytes were collected at surgery 25 hours postonset of estrus from the oviducts of superovulated donor animals. All cultures were carried out at 39 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and air. In vitro matured MII bovine oocytes were enucleated 16-20 hours after onset of maturation and ovine oocytes within 2-3 hours after collection. Enucleation was confirmed using Hoechst 33342 and UV light. The donor argali cells were synchronized in G0-G1 phase by culturing in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) plus 0.5% fetal bovine serum for 5-10 days. Fusion of nuclear donor cell to an enucleated oocyte (cytoplast) to produce nuclear transfer (NT) embryos was induced by 2 electric pulses of 1.4 kV/cm for 30 microsc. Fused NT embryos were activated after 24 hours of maturation

  9. Investigation of Workplace-like Calibration Fields via a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) Neutron Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V; Piper, Roman K; Rathbone, Bruce A; McDonald, Joseph C

    2017-04-01

    Radiation survey meters and personal dosimeters are typically calibrated in reference neutron fields based on conventional radionuclide sources, such as americium-beryllium (Am-Be) or californium-252 (Cf), either unmodified or heavy-water moderated. However, these calibration neutron fields differ significantly from the workplace fields in which most of these survey meters and dosimeters are being used. Although some detectors are designed to yield an approximately dose-equivalent response over a particular neutron energy range, the response of other detectors is highly dependent upon neutron energy. This, in turn, can result in significant over- or underestimation of the intensity of neutron radiation and/or personal dose equivalent determined in the work environment. The use of simulated workplace neutron calibration fields that more closely match those present at the workplace could improve the accuracy of worker, and workplace, neutron dose assessment. This work provides an overview of the neutron fields found around nuclear power reactors and interim spent fuel storage installations based on available data. The feasibility of producing workplace-like calibration fields in an existing calibration facility has been investigated via Monte Carlo simulations. Several moderating assembly configurations, paired with a neutron generator using the deuterium tritium (D-T) fusion reaction, were explored.

  10. Status of ITER neutron diagnostic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Sasao, M.; Kaschuck, Yu. A.; Nishitani, T.; Batistoni, P.; Zaveryaev, V. S.; Popovichev, S.; Iguchi, T.; Jarvis, O. N.; Källne, J.; Fiore, C. L.; Roquemore, A. L.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Fisher, R.; Gorini, G.; Prosvirin, D. V.; Tsutskikh, A. Yu.; Donné, A. J. H.; Costley, A. E.; Walker, C. I.

    2005-12-01

    Due to the high neutron yield and the large plasma size many ITER plasma parameters such as fusion power, power density, ion temperature, fast ion energy and their spatial distributions in the plasma core can be measured well by various neutron diagnostics. Neutron diagnostic systems under consideration and development for ITER include radial and vertical neutron cameras (RNC and VNC), internal and external neutron flux monitors (NFMs), neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The two-dimensional neutron source strength and spectral measurements can be provided by the combined RNC and VNC. The NFMs need to meet the ITER requirement of time-resolved measurements of the neutron source strength and can provide the signals necessary for real-time control of the ITER fusion power. Compact and high throughput neutron spectrometers are under development. A concept for the absolute calibration of neutron diagnostic systems is proposed. The development, testing in existing experiments and the engineering integration of all neutron diagnostic systems into ITER are in progress and the main results are presented.

  11. Neutronic aspects of a DHCE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, I.C.; Tsai, H.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The DHCE (Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment) irradiation experiment was conceived to simulate fusion-relevant helium production in a fission reactor irradiation. The main objective is to maintain the Helium-to-DPA ratio at, roughly, the same level as expected in a fusion environment. The problem in fission reactor irradiation is that Helium production is very low, because the fission neutrons, for basically all structural materials relevant for fusion applications, do not have enough energy to trigger the Helium producing reactions. A DHCE experiment involves the decay of Tritium to Helium-3 to produce the required Helium during irradiation. This paper describes an analysis of the most important aspects of a DHCE experiment and compares different types of fission reactors and their suitability for performing such an experiment. It is concluded that DHCE experiments are feasible in a certain class of mixed-spectrum fission reactors, but a careful and detailed evaluation, for each facility and condition, must be performed to ensure the success of the experiment.

  12. High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi technology, 2003 E. Bayshore Rd. 94061, Redwood City, CA (United States); Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jones, G. [G and J Enterprise, 1258 Quary Ln, Suite F, Pleasanton California 94566 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 {mu}s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

  13. High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T.; Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A.; Jones, G.

    2013-04-01

    A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 × 109 n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 μs have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

  14. Modeling of water radiolysis at spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, L.L.; Kanner, G.S.; Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Brun, T.O.; Sommer, W.F.

    1998-12-01

    In spallation neutron sources neutrons are produced when a beam of high-energy particles (e.g., 1 GeV protons) collides with a (water-cooled) heavy metal target such as tungsten. The resulting spallation reactions produce a complex radiation environment (which differs from typical conditions at fission and fusion reactors) leading to the radiolysis of water molecules. Most water radiolysis products are short-lived but extremely reactive. When formed in the vicinity of the target surface they can react with metal atoms, thereby contributing to target corrosion. The authors will describe the results of calculations and experiments performed at Los Alamos to determine the impact on target corrosion of water radiolysis in the spallation radiation environment. The computational methodology relies on the use of the Los Alamos radiation transport code, LAHET, to determine the radiation environment, and the AEA code, FACSIMILE, to model reaction-diffusion processes.

  15. Preliminary Neutronics Design of Breed Blanket for Fusion-fission Hybrid Reactor%聚变-裂变增殖堆包层的初步中子学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵奉超; 栗再新

    2012-01-01

    基于国际热核实验堆ITER的堆芯参数和套管结构,对聚变-裂变增殖堆包层进行了初步中子学设计.基于国际热核实验堆的堆芯参数提出了采用套管结构,以天然金属铀为燃料和硅酸锂为氚增殖剂的快裂变-增殖堆包层的初步中子学设计方案.使用FENDL 2.1核数据库及MCNP程序自带的核数据库,用MCNP程序对套管结构快裂变-增殖堆包层进行一维的方案筛选及三维中子学的计算分析.计算分析包层内的一维功率密度分布、产氚率、钚增殖率分布,通过优化设计分析给出合理的包层设计方案,并计算氚增殖率TBR、能量放大倍数M、有效增值系数(Keff)、裂变增殖比等参数.%A preliminary neutronics design of breed blanket for fusion-fission hybrid reactor has been carried out based on the plasma parameters of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and casing structure. In the design of fast-fission breed blanket, the natural Uranium pebble bed is used as fuel and neutron multiplication and the Lithium silicate pebble bed is used as tritium breed material. By using FENDL2.1 nuclear database cross section library with native cross section library of MCNP nuclear database, the calculation and analysis are carried out with MCNP program. Through one-dimension calculation and analysis on different design proposals, a proper design proposal has been screened and then the three-dimension calculation and analysis have been implemented with the parameters of ITER. The calculation shows that the TBR of fusion-fission hybrid reactor is 1.13, it indicates that the design of breed blanket is able to meet self-sustaining of tritium and the calculation also indicates that the energy enlargement of fusion-ission hybrid reactor is 6.5 and Polonium breeding rate is 1.35, it means that the reactor is able to also product large quantities energy and Polonium and they could be used by light water reactor. Meanwhile, fission

  16. The intense neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W.B

    1966-07-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through {mu}-, {pi}- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  17. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...... on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through......Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...

  18. 混合堆增殖钍基燃料组件中子学分析%Neutronics Calculation of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Breeding Thorium Fuel Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马续波; 陈义学; 全国萍; 王悦; 韩静茹; 陆道纲

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary comparative study of the physical properties among 17×17 fuel assembly in PWRs for prototype between uranium assembly and hybrid breeding thorium-based assembly has been investigated respectively using the DRAGON software. The parameters such as fuel temperature coefficient, moderator temperature coefficient and that variation as a function of operation period have been investigated. Results show that the neutron properties of uranium-based assembly and hybrid breeding thorium-based assembly are similitude, but MA mass of hybrid breeding thorium-based assembly is evidently less than those of the uranium assembly.%采用压水堆17×17燃料组件模型,用燃料组件参数计算程序DRAGON分别对混合堆增殖钍燃料组件和全铀组件的中子学特性进行了研究,分析组件的燃料温度系数、慢化剂温度系数及其与燃耗的关系.计算结果表明,混合堆增殖钍燃料组件和全铀组件的中子特性相似,但钍燃料组件中的乏燃料组件中的次锕系核素(MA)的含量明显减少.

  19. A neutron activation spectrometer and neutronic experimental platform for the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C. B.; Gharibyan, N.

    2016-11-01

    At the National Ignition Facility, the diagnostic instrument manipulator-based neutron activation spectrometer is used as a diagnostic of implosion performance for inertial confinement fusion experiments. Additionally, it serves as a platform for independent neutronic experiments and may be connected to fast recording systems for neutron effect tests on active electronics. As an implosion diagnostic, the neutron activation spectrometers are used to quantify fluence of primary DT neutrons, downscattered neutrons, and neutrons above the primary DT neutron energy created by reactions of upscattered D and T in flight. At a primary neutron yield of 1015 and a downscattered fraction of neutrons in the 10-12 MeV energy range of 0.04, the downscattered neutron fraction can be measured to a relative uncertainty of 8%. Significant asymmetries in downscattered neutrons have been observed. Spectrometers have been designed and fielded to measure the tritium-tritium and deuterium-tritium neutron outputs simultaneously in experiments using DT/TT fusion ratio as a direct measure of mix of ablator into the gas.

  20. Fusion Ash Separation in the Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Joseph; Yeh, Meagan; McGreivy, Nick; Cohen, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) concept relies on low-neutron production by D-3He fusion to enable small, safe nuclear-fusion reactors to be built, an approach requiring rapid and efficient extraction of fusion ash and energy produced by D-3He fusion reactions. The ash exhaust stream would contain energetic (0.1-1 MeV) protons, T, 3He, and 4He ions and nearly 1e5 cooler (ca. 100 eV) D ions. The T extracted from the reactor would be a valuable fusion product in that it decays into 3He, which could be used as fuel. If the T were not extracted it would be troublesome because of neutron production by the D-T reaction. This paper discusses methods to separate the various species in a PFRC reactor's exhaust stream. First, we discuss the use of curved magnetic fields to separate the energetic from the cool components. Then we discuss exploiting material properties, specifically reflection, sputtering threshold, and permeability, to allow separation of the hydrogen from the helium isotopes. DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  1. JENDL fusion file 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yu Baosheng [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Kosako, Kazuaki [Sumitomo Atomic Industries, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamuro, Nobuhiro [Data Engineering Co. Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The double-differential cross sections (DDXs) of secondary neutrons have been evaluated for 79 isotopes and 13 natural elements ranging from H to Bi to improve the accuracy of predictions for the neutronics calculations in the D-T thermonuclear fusion applications. The data given in JENDL-3.1, which was the newest version of JENDL general purpose file when this project was initiated, was combined with new calculations based on the optical model, DWBA, pre-equilibrium and multi-step statistical models, and the DDX data were generated based on various kinds of systematics for medium-mass nuclei. Different methods were employed for light nuclei to which the above method could not be applied. In addition, the DDXs for emission of charged particles (p, d, t, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particle) were given for {sup 2}H, {sup 9}Be and elements heavier or equal to F. The present results give an overall good description of the measured DDX data of both the neutron and charged particles emission channels. The data were compiled in ENDF-6 format, and released in 1999 as a special purpose file of JENDL family, namely, JENDL Fusion File 99. (author)

  2. Core Plasma Characteristics of a Spherical Tokamak D-3He Fusion Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Bingren

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic fusion reactor using the advanced D-3He fuels has the advantage of much less-neutron productions so that the consequent damages to the first wall are less serious. If the establishment of this kind of reactor becomes realistic, the exploration of 3He on the moon will be largely motivated. Based on recent progresses in the spherical torus (ST) research, we have physically designed a D-3He fusion reactor using the extrapolated results from the ST experiments and also the present-day tokamak scaling. It is found that the reactor size significantly depends on the wall reflection coefficient of the synchrotron radiation and of the impurity contaminations.The secondary reaction between D-D that promptly leads to the D-T reaction producing 14 MeV neutrons is also estimated. Comparison of this D-3He ST reactor with the D-T reactor is made.

  3. Comparison between initial Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments and integrated simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefkow, A. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Geissel, M.; Hahn, K. D.; Hansen, S. B.; Harding, E. C.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Koning, J. M.; Marinak, M. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) approach to ICF has obtained thermonuclear fusion yields using the Z facility. Integrated magnetohydrodynamic simulations provided the design for the first neutron-producing experiments using capabilities that presently exist, and the initial experiments measured stagnation radii rstag < 75 μm, temperatures around 3 keV, and isotropic neutron yields up to YnDD = 2 ×1012 from imploded liners reaching peak velocities around 70 km/s over an implosion time of about 60 ns. We present comparisons between the experimental observables and post-shot degraded integrated simulations. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the concept of actinide burning instead of a once-through fuel cycle for disposing spent nuclear fuel seems to get much more attention. A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper. The thorium-based TRU fuel burns all of the long-lived actinides via a hard neutron spectrum while outputting power. A one-dimensional model of the reactor concept was built by means of the ONESN_BURN code with new data libraries. The numerical results included actinide radioactivity, biological hazard potential, and much higher burnup rate of high-level transuranic waste. The comparison of the fusion-fission reactor with the thermal reactor shows that the harder neutron spectrum is more efficient than the soft. The Th-U cycle produces less TRU, less radiotoxicity and fewer long-lived actinides. The Th-U cycle provides breeding of 233U with a long operation time (>20 years), hence significantly reducing the reactivity swing while improving safety and burnup.

  5. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  6. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Keek, L.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes thermonuclear burning in the neutron star envelope, creating carbon and heavier elements. The fusion process may proceed in an unstable manner, resulting in a thermonuclear runaway. Within one seco...

  7. Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2002-05-31

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

  8. Search for charged Higgs bosons produced in vector boson fusion processes and decaying into a pair of W and Z bosons using proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-05-08

    A search for charged Higgs bosons produced via vector boson fusion and decaying into W and Z bosons using proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=13 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 15.2 inverse femtobarns collected with the CMS detector in 2015 and 2016. The event selection requires three leptons (electrons or muons), two jets with large pseudorapidity separation and high dijet mass, and missing transverse momentum. The observation agrees with the standard model prediction. Limits on the vector boson fusion production cross section times branching fraction for new charged physical states are reported as a function of mass from 200 to 2000 GeV and interpreted in the context of Higgs triplet models.

  9. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced by vector-boson fusion in 8 TeV pp collisions and decaying to bottom quarks with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet

    2016-11-21

    A search with the ATLAS detector is presented for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced by vector-boson fusion and decaying to a pair of bottom quarks, using 20.2 ${fb}^{-1}$ of LHC proton--proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. The signal is searched for as a resonance in the invariant mass distribution of a pair of jets containing $b$-hadrons in vector-boson-fusion candidate events. The yield is measured to be $-0.8 \\pm 2.3$ times the Standard Model cross-section for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV. The upper limit on the cross-section times the branching ratio is found to be 4.4 times the Standard Model cross-section at the 95% confidence level, consistent with the expected limit value of 5.4 (5.7) in the background-only (Standard Model production) hypothesis.

  10. The intense neutron generator and future factory type ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W.B

    1968-07-01

    A neutron factory is likely to sell its product in the form of isotopes. To ay neutron factories are nuclear reactors. Ion accelerators may also produce isotopes by direct interaction and, at high enough energies, mesons and hyperons. The challenge of the electrical production of neutrons goes far beyond the isotope market. It challenges the two popular concepts for long term large scale energy, the fast breeder reactor and controlled thermonuclear fusion. For this use about 4% of nuclear generated power would be applied in a feedback loop generating extra neutrons. Competition rests on operating and processing costs. The Intense Neutron Generator proposal now cancelled would have been full scale for such a use, but much further advance in accelerator engineering is required and anticipated. Perhaps most promising is the application of the ion drag principle in which rings of fast electrons are accelerated along their axis dragging ions with them by electrostatic attraction. Due to the much larger mass of the ions they can acquire much higher energy than the electrons and the process could be efficient. Such accelerators have not yet been made but experimental and theoretical studies are promising. (author)

  11. Synthesis of the heaviest nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzenberg, G.; Morita, K.

    2015-12-01

    Cold fusion of heavy ions paved the way to superheavy elements. It was proposed by Yu.Ts. Oganessian more than forty years ago in 1974 [1,2]. First experiments were carried out at JINR Dubna, starting with the reaction 40Ar + 208Pb → 248Fm* where several hundreds to thousand atoms were produced on one day. The large production rate indicating an enhancement of the fusion cross section, especially for the evaporation of two or three neutrons, proved the concept of cold-fusion with the use of the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb as a target. The Dubna experiments were extended to the transactinide region beyond rutherfordium. The breakthrough came with the separation in-flight. Two different approaches were used: kinematic separation with the velocity filter SHIP [3] at GSI Darmstadt, and with the gasfilled separator GARIS [4,5] at RIKEN. With SHIP the concept of cold fusion of massive nuclear systems was convincingly confirmed by the observation of the one-neutron evaporation channel in the production of 247Rf in an irradiation of 208Pb with 50Ti [6] in 1981 which opened the way to the transactinide region. At SHIP the elements bohrium (107) to copernicium (112) were discovered [7]. A new closed shell region around hassium was found. The RIKEN experiments started in 2002. They confirmed the GSI results and in addition improved the data on structure and production of elements hassium to copernicium significantly. The heaviest element ever created in a cold fusion reaction, Z = 113, was observed at GARIS [8,9].

  12. Spectrometry behind concrete shielding for neutrons produced by 400 MeV/u {sup 12}C ions impinging on a thick graphite target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbacher, G.; Iwase, H.; Radon, T.; Schardt, D.; Wiegel, B.; Schuhmacher, H.; Wittstock, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Neutron spectra were measured at the GSI heavy ion accelerator using the Bonner sphere spectrometer NEMUS. The irradiation experiments were carried out at Cave A, an experimental area at the GSI heavy ion synchrotron SIS. A 400 MeV/u carbon ion beam impinging on a thick graphite target was used as neutron source. Spectral distributions were determined by unfolding the measured readings using the unfolding code MAXED for four positions outside the shielding and for four positions in the entry maze of Cave A. First results are presented for two positions from Monte Carlo simulations carried out with a newer version of FLUKA considering both the particle production in nucleus-nucleus collisions and the transportation of particles through the shielding. Measured and calculated neutron spectra are compared for these positions. (orig.)

  13. Transmutation of 129I and 237Np using spallation neutrons produced by 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.-S.; Schmidt, Th.; Langrock, E.-J.; Vater, P.; Brandt, R.; Adam, J.; Bradnova, V.; Bamblevski, V. P.; Gelovani, L.; Gridnev, T. D.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kulakov, B. A.; Sosnin, A. N.; Perelygin, V. P.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.; Phlippen, P.-W.; Zamani-Valassiadou, M.; Adloff, J. C.; Debeauvais, M.; Hashemi-Nezhad, S. R.; Guo, S.-L.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.-L.; Dwivedi, K. K.; Zhuk, I. V.; Boulyga, S. F.; Lomonossova, E. M.; Kievitskaja, A. F.; Rakhno, I. L.; Chigrinov, S. E.; Wilson, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    Small samples of 129I and 237Np, two long-lived radwaste nuclides, were exposed to spallation neutron fluences from relatively small metal targets of lead and uranium, that were surrounded with a 6 cm thick paraffin moderator, and irradiated with 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons. The (n,γ) transmutation rates were determined for these nuclides. Conventional radiochemical La- and U-sensors and a variety of solid-state nuclear track detectors were irradiated simultaneously with secondary neutrons. Compared with results from calculations with well-known cascade codes (LAHET from Los Alamos and DCM/CEM from Dubna), the observed secondary neutron fluences are larger.

  14. Transmutation of {sup 129}I and {sup 237}Np using spallation neutrons produced by 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, J.-S.; Schmidt, T.Th.; Langrock, E.-J.; Vater, P.; Brandt, R. E-mail: brandtr@mailer.uni-marburg.de; Adam, J.; Bradnova, V.; Bamblevski, V.P.; Gelovani, L.; Gridnev, T.D.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Kulakov, B.A.; Sosnin, A.N.; Perelygin, V.P.; Pronskikh, V.S.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.; Phlippen, P.-W.; Zamani-Valassiadou, M.; Adloff, J.C.; Debeauvais, M.; Hashemi-Nezhad, S.R.; Guo, S.-L.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.-L.; Dwivedi, K.K.; Zhuk, I.V.; Boulyga, S.F.; Lomonossova, E.M.; Kievitskaja, A.F.; Rakhno, I.L.; Chigrinov, S.E.; Wilson, W.B

    2001-05-11

    Small samples of {sup 129}I and {sup 237}Np, two long-lived radwaste nuclides, were exposed to spallation neutron fluences from relatively small metal targets of lead and uranium, that were surrounded with a 6 cm thick paraffin moderator, and irradiated with 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons. The (n,{gamma}) transmutation rates were determined for these nuclides. Conventional radiochemical La- and U-sensors and a variety of solid-state nuclear track detectors were irradiated simultaneously with secondary neutrons. Compared with results from calculations with well-known cascade codes (LAHET from Los Alamos and DCM/CEM from Dubna), the observed secondary neutron fluences are larger.

  15. Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Am using neutrons produced in target-blanket system `Energy plus Transmutation' by relativistic protons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Adam; K Katovsky; A Balabekyan; V G Kalinnikov; M I Krivopustov; H Kumawat; A A Solnyshkin; V I Stegailov; S G Stetsenko; V M Tsoupko-Sitnikov; W Westmeier

    2007-02-01

    Target-blanket facility `Energy + Transmutation' was irradiated by proton beam extracted from the Nuclotron Accelerator in Laboratory of High Energies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Neutrons generated by the spallation reactions of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 GeV protons and lead target interact with subcritical uranium blanket. In the neutron field outside the blanket, radioactive iodine, neptunium, plutonium and americium samples were irradiated and transmutation reaction yields (residual nuclei production yields) have been determined using -spectroscopy. Neutron field's energy distribution has also been studied using a set of threshold detectors. Results of transmutation studies of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am are presented.

  16. Dynamical effects in fusion with exotic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Phuoc, K; Simpson, E C

    2016-01-01

    [Background] Reactions with stable beams have demonstrated a strong interplay between nuclear structure and fusion. Exotic beam facilities open new perspectives to understand the impact of neutron skin, large isospin, and weak binding energies on fusion. Microscopic theories of fusion are required to guide future experiments. [Purpose] To investigate new effects of exotic structures and dynamics in near-barrier fusion with exotic nuclei. [Method] Microscopic approaches based on the Hartree-Fock (HF) mean-field theory are used for studying fusion barriers in $^{40-54}$Ca+$^{116}$Sn reactions for even isotopes. Bare potential barriers are obtained assuming frozen HF ground-state densities. Dynamical effects on the barrier are accounted for in time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations of the collisions. Vibrational couplings are studied in the coupled-channel framework and near-barrier nucleon transfer is investigated with TDHF calculations. [Results] The development of a neutron skin in exotic calcium iso...

  17. Knockdown of MAP4 and DNAL1 produces a post-fusion and pre-nuclear translocation impairment in HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Daniel E; Hope, Thomas J

    2012-01-05

    DNAL1 and MAP4 are both microtubule-associated proteins. These proteins were identified as HIV-1 dependency factors in a screen with wild-type HIV-1. In this study we demonstrate that knockdown using DNAL1 and MAP4 siRNAs and shRNAs inhibits HIV-1 infection regardless of envelope. Using a fusion assay, we show that DNAL1 and MAP4 do not impact fusion. By assaying for late reverse transcripts and 2-LTR circles, we show that DNAL1 and MAP4 inhibit both by approximately 50%. These results demonstrate that DNAL1 and MAP4 impact reverse transcription but not nuclear translocation. DNAL1 and MAP4 knockdown cells do not display cytoskeletal defects. Together these experiments indicate that DNAL1 and MAP4 may exert their functions in the HIV life cycle at reverse transcription, prior to nuclear translocation.

  18. Use of D-T-produced fast neutrons for in vivo body composition analysis: a reference method for nutritional assessment in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehayias, J.J. [USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington St., Boston, 02111-1524 MA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Body composition has become the main outcome of many nutritional intervention studies including osteoporosis, malnutrition, obesity, AIDS, and aging. Traditional indirect body composition methods developed with healthy young adults do not apply to the elderly or diseased. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used to assess in vivo elements characteristic of specific body compartments. Non-bone phosphorus for muscle is measured by the {sup 31}P(n,{alpha}){sup 28}Al reaction, and nitrogen for protein via the {sup 14}N(n,2n){sup 13}N fast neutron reaction. Inelastic neutron scattering is used to measure total body carbon and oxygen. Body fat is derived from carbon after correcting for contributions from protein, bone, and glycogen. Carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) is used to measure the distribution of fat and lean tissue in the body and to monitor small changes of lean mass. A sealed, D-T neutron generator is used for the production of fast neutrons. Carbon and oxygen mass and their ratio are measured in vivo at a radiation exposure of less than 0.06 mSv. Gamma-ray spectra are collected using large BGO detectors and analyzed for the 4.43 MeV state of carbon and 6.13 MeV state of oxygen, simultaneously with the irradiation. P and N analysis by delayed fast neutron activation is performed by transferring the patient to a shielded room equipped with an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A combination of measurements makes possible the assessment of the ''quality'' of fat-free mass. The neutron generator system is used to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments, to study mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging, and to investigate methods for preserving function and quality of life in the elderly. It is also used as a reference method for the validation of portable instruments of nutritional assessment. (orig.)

  19. Transmutation of Minor Actinides in a Spherical Torus Tokamak Fusion Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGKaiming; ZHANGGuoshu

    2002-01-01

    Fusion energy will be a long-term energy source. Great efforts have been devoted to fusion research in the past 50 years, and there is still a long way to go. Transmutation of high-level waste (HLW) utilizing D-T fusion neutrons is a good choice for an early application of fusion.

  20. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  1. Praseodymium activation detector for measuring bursts of 14 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Tim, E-mail: meehanbt@nv.doe.go [National Security Technologies, LLC, P.O. Box 98521, North Las Vegas, NV 89030 (United States); Hagen, E.C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, P.O. Box 98521, North Las Vegas, NV 89030 (United States); Ruiz, C.L.; Cooper, G.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2010-08-21

    A new, accurate, neutron activation detection scheme for measuring pulsed neutrons has been designed and tested. The detection system is sensitive to neutrons with energies above 10 MeV; importantly, it is insensitive to gamma radiation <10 MeV and to lower-energy (e.g., fission and thermal) neutrons. It is based upon the use of {sup 141}Pr, an element that has a single, naturally occurring isotope, a significant n,2n cross-section, and decays by positron emission that result in two coincident 511 keV photons. Neutron fluences are thus inferred by relating measured reaction product decay activity to fluence. Specific sample activity is measured using the sum-peak method to count gamma-ray coincidences from the annihilation of the positron decay products. The system was tested using 14 and 2.45 MeV neutron bursts produced by NSTec Dense Plasma Focus Laboratory fusion sources. Lead, copper, beryllium, and silver activation detectors were compared. The detection method allows measurement of 14 MeV neutron yield with a total error of {approx}18%.

  2. Benchmark experiment on vanadium assembly with D-T neutrons. Leakage neutron spectrum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokooo; Murata, I.; Nakano, D.; Takahashi, A. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan); Maekawa, F.; Ikeda, Y.

    1998-03-01

    The fusion neutronics benchmark experiments have been done for vanadium and vanadium alloy by using the slab assembly and time-of-flight (TOF) method. The leakage neutron spectra were measured from 50 keV to 15 MeV and comparison were done with MCNP-4A calculations which was made by using evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2, JENDL-Fusion File and FENDL/E-1.0. (author)

  3. Measurement of neutron flux spectra in a Tungsten Benchmark by neutron foil activation method

    OpenAIRE

    Negoita, Cezar Ciprian

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear design of fusion devices such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), which is an experimental fusion reactor based on the "tokamak" concept, rely on the results of neutron physical calculations. These depend on the knowledge of the neutron and photon flux spectra which is particularly important because it permits to anticipate the possible answers of the whole structure to phenomena such as nuclear heating, tritium breeding, atomic displaceme...

  4. Response of diamond detector sandwich to 14 MeV neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Osipenko, M; Ricco, G; Caiffi, B; Pompili, F; Pillon, M; Verona-Rinati, G; Cardarelli, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the measurement of the response of 50 $\\mu$m thin diamond detectors to 14 MeV neutrons. Such neutrons are produced in fusion reactors and are of particular interest for ITER neutron diagnostics. Among semiconductor detectors diamond has properties most appropriate for harsh radiation and temperature conditions of a fusion reactor. However, 300-500 $\\mu$m thick diamond detectors suffer significant radiation damage already at neutron fluences of the order of $10^{14}$ n/cm$^2$. It is expected that a 50 $\\mu$m thick diamond will withstand a fluence of $>10^{16}$ n/cm$^2$. We tested two 50 $\\mu$m thick single crystal CVD diamonds, stacked to form a ``sandwich'' detector for coincidence measurements. The detector measured the conversion of 14 MeV neutrons, impinging on one diamond, into $\\alpha$ particles which were detected in the second diamond in coincidence with nuclear recoil. For $^{12}C(n,\\alpha)^{9}Be$ reaction the total energy deposited in the detector gives access to the initial ...

  5. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  6. Preliminary cross sections for gamma rays produced by interaction of 1 to 40 MeV neutrons with sup 59 Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slusarchyk, T.E.

    1989-10-15

    Data for 46 distinct gamma rays previously obtained at the 20-meter station of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) were studied to determine cross sections for 1.0-40.0 MeV neutron interactions with {sup 59}Co. Data reduction methods and preliminary cross sections are given in this report. 5 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. {sup 99}Tc transmutation by spallation neutrons produced in a large lead block; Transmutation de {sup 99}Tc par des neutrons de spallation produits dans un grand massif de plomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamonje, S.; Arnould, H.; Bompas, C.A.; Del Moral, R.; Lacoste, V. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 Gradignan (France); TARC Collaboration under leadership of C. Rubbia

    1997-06-01

    In the search of hybrid system (the coupling of the particle accelerator to an under-critical reactor) for radioactive waste transmutation the TARC (Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing) program has been developed. One of the target of the TARC program is the study of the efficiency of a `Energy Amplifier` system for nuclear waste incineration. Among the radioactive wastes the most interesting is the fission product {sup 99}Tc from nuclear plants heaving a half-live of {approx} 10{sup 5} years. Using a fast rabbit technique and gamma ray spectroscopy, the transmutation rate of {sup 99}Tc by spallation neutrons inside a large lead block was measured. The data from each 9 s rabbit cycle were stocked by means of an acquisition system based on the CERN CASCADE code especially adapted for gamma spectroscopy and able to catch large amounts of coincidence events. The measurements technique is described and the preliminary results are given. Also, in progress are simulations using new technique for production and propagation of neutrons in lead. Due to the plenty of spallation neutrons the capability of burning certain nuclear wastes is already proved

  8. Precision Measurement of 56Fe(n,n γ) Cross Sections Using 14.1 MeV Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David

    2016-03-01

    Integral production cross sections for 846.8 keV and 1238.3 keV prompt gamma rays from 14.1 MeV neutrons interactions on 56Fe are reported. The experimental technique takes advantage of the 1.5 nanosecond coincidence timing resolution between the neutron production time and the gamma ray detection time to reject noise, together with the large 30% solid angle gamma ray coverage. The scattering angle coverage with respect to the neutron beam direction extends from 60 degrees to 120 degrees. The neutron flux is measured using the detected associated alpha-particle from the D-T fusion reaction produced using an associated particle neutron generator. Present cross section measurements using other techniques with limited timing resolution and solid angle coverage are in agreement at neutron energies lower than 6 MeV. At higher neutron energies reported results can disagree by more than 20%. The more accurate technique used in these measurements can distinguish between the differences in the present reported results at higher neutron energies. The author would like to thank TechSource, Inc. and Advanced Physics Technologies, LLC. for their support in this work.

  9. Neutron and X-ray diagnostics for SZP experiments at Zebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, T.; McGee, E.; Covington, A.; Dutra, E.; Wessel, F. J.; Ruskov, E.; Rahman, H. U.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Conti, F.

    2016-10-01

    The Zebra pulsed-power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) of the University of Nevada produces current pulses of up to a megaamp with a rise time of 70 ns. By passing this current through a structured gas jet target, such as the Staged-Z-pinch (SZP), the project hopes to approach near energy gain conditions from fusion reactions in a pinched plasma. This article describes the setup and instrumentation at Zebra for detecting the neutron and x-ray output of the pinch and the procedures for reducing these signals to a quantitative measurement of the yields. Scintillation detectors with fast PMT detectors and activation decay measurements are the primary neutron diagnostics. These measurements are of prime importance in determining the parameters required to optimize the gas jet conditions for fusion. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  10. Transmutation of nuclear waste with a low-aspect-ratio Tokamak neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Moon, Se Youn [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The transmutation characteristics of transuranics (TRUs) in a transmutation reactor based on a LAR (Low-aspect-ratio) tokamak as a neutron source are investigated. The optimum radial build of a transmutation reactor is found by using a coupled analysis of the tokamak systems and the neutron transport. The dependences of the transmutation characteristics on the aspect ratio A in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 and on the fusion power in the range of 150 to 500 MW are investigated. An equilibrium fuel cycle is developed for effective transmutation, and show that with one unit of the transmutation reactor based on the LAR tokamak producing fusion power in the range of a few hundred MWs, up to 3 PWRs (1.0 GWe capacity) can be supported with a burn-up fraction larger than 50%.

  11. Transmutation of nuclear waste with a low-aspect-ratio tokamak neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Moon, Se Youn

    2014-10-01

    The transmutation characteristics of transuranics (TRUs) in a transmutation reactor based on a LAR (Low-aspect-ratio) tokamak as a neutron source are investigated. The optimum radial build of a transmutation reactor is found by using a coupled analysis of the tokamak systems and the neutron transport. The dependences of the transmutation characteristics on the aspect ratio A in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 and on the fusion power in the range of 150 to 500 MW are investigated. An equilibrium fuel cycle is developed for effective transmutation, and show that with one unit of the transmutation reactor based on the LAR tokamak producing fusion power in the range of a few hundred MWs, up to 3 PWRs (1.0 GWe capacity) can be supported with a burn-up fraction larger than 50%.

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Yang, Shun-Li; Wei, Yan-Quan; Sun, De-Hui; Yin, Shuang-Hui; Ma, Jun-Wu; Liu, Zai-Xin; Guo, Jian-Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Yin, Hong; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2013-07-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV.

  13. Improved characterization of the CR-39 efficiency for detecting DD neutrons based on data from OMEGA, NIF and the MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, L. M.; Lahmann, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Bionta, R.; Yeamans, C.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.

    2016-10-01

    CR-39 nuclear track detectors are extensively used to measure fluences and spectra of charged particles produced in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. An accurate determination of the CR-39 response to neutrons is important both to perform direct neutron fluence measurements and to estimate the level of neutron-induced background impacting charged-particle measurements. The CR-39 efficiency for detecting neutrons depends on several factors, including the manufacturing process of the CR-39, etching conditions and characteristics of the scanning system employed to detect the neutron-induced tracks. The CR-39 response to DD neutrons has been characterized using implosions at OMEGA and the NIF as well as a neutron generator at the MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility. A new approach provides significantly better precision than previously demonstrated in the literature. This method will be used to characterize DD fusion isotropy at the Z Facility. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF), LLNL and SNL.

  14. Effect of Process and Post-Process Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of an A357 Alloy Produced via Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Aversa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A357 samples were realized by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF on building platforms heated up to different temperatures. The effect of the preheating temperature and of the post processing heat treatment on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the samples was studied. It was demonstrated that building platform heating can act as an in situ ageing heat treatment following the fast cooling that arises during laser scanning. A 17% higher ultimate tensile strength was achieved by the selection of the optimum building platform temperature. Moreover, the possibility to further increase the mechanical properties by means of a direct ageing heat treatment was investigated.

  15. Search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in vector boson fusion and decaying to bottom quarks using the Run1 and 2015 Run2 data samples.

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyavskaya, Nadezda

    2016-01-01

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson is presented in the Vector Boson Fusion production channel with decay to bottom quarks. A data sample comprising 2.2 fb$^-1$ of proton-proton collision at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV collected during the 2015 running period has been analyzed. Production upper limits at 95\\% Confidence Level are derived for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, as well as the fitted signal strength relative to the expectation for the standard model Higgs boson. Results are also combined with the ones obtained with Run1 sqrt(s) = 8 TeV data collected in 2012.

  16. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  17. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  18. Optimization study of normal conductor tokamak for commercial neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Sakai, R.; Okamoto, A.

    2017-05-01

    The optimum conceptual design of tokamak with normal conductor coils was studied for minimizing the cost for producing a given neutron flux by using a system code, PEC. It is assumed that the fusion neutrons are used for burning transuranics from the fission reactor spent fuel in the blanket and a fraction of the generated electric power is circulated to opearate the tokamak with moderate plasma fusion gain. The plasma performance was assumed to be moderate ones; {β\\text{N}}~∼ ~3{--}4 in the aspect ratio A~=~2{--}3 and {{H}98y2}~=~1 . The circulating power is an important factor affecting the cost. Though decreasing the aspect ratio is useful to raise the plasma beta and decrease the toroidal field, the maximum field in the coil starts to rise in the very low aspect ratio range and then the circulating power increases with decrease in the plasma aspect ratio A below A~∼ ~2 , while the construction cost increases with A . As a result, the cost per neutron has its minimum around A~∼ ~2.2 , namely, between ST and the conventional tokamak. The average circulating power fraction is expected to be ~51%.

  19. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall.

  20. Observation of neutron spectrum from deuterated plastic irradiated by 100 picosecond and sub-picosecond ultra-intense laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, N.; Miyoshi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Habara, H.; Kodama, R.; Sentoku, S.; Fujita, H.; Kitagawa, Y.; Katou, Y.; Mima, K.; Tanaka, K. A.

    1998-11-01

    For understanding of the fundamental physics of the fast ignition, it is crucial to investigate the fast ion production in a high density plasma irradiated by an ultra-intense laser. The energy spectrum of the neutrons produced in the deuterated target reflects the energy spectrum of fast deuterons accelerated in the interacting region. Due to high penetration ability of fast neutron, the neutron spectra directly bring out the information of the hot ions from the high density plasma. We have observed 10^6 of the DD neutrons produced in a deuterated polystyrene (C8D8)x target irradiated by the 500-fs intense laser (up to 10^19 W/cm^2). The fast neutron spectra were measured by multi-channel time-of-flight neutron spectrometer (MANDALA) at the GEKKO XII laser facility of Osaka University. The spectrometer has two sets of 421 channel detector arrays which were located at 90 and 54.7 degrees with respect to the irradiation axis. The observed spectral width of DD neutrons were 1.35 MeV in full width of half maximum. This spectrum result from the fusion reaction created by accelerated ions which have energy about 300 keV. We report the details of the experimental results and the quantitative analysis using particle in cell code.

  1. Development of indigenous insulation material for superconducting magnets and study of its characteristics under influence of intense neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajiv; Tanna, V. L.; Rao, C. V. S.; Abhangi, Mitul; Vala, Sudhirsinh; Sundaravel; Varatharajan, S.; Sivakumar, S.; Sasi, K.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-02-01

    Epoxy based glass fiber reinforced composites are the main insulation system for the superconducting magnets of fusion machines. 14MeV neutrons are generated during the DT fusion process, however the energy spectra and flux gets modified to a great extent when they reach the superconducting magnets. Mechanical properties of the GFRP insulation material is reported to degrade up to 30%. As a part of R & D activity, a joint collaboration with IGCAR, Kalpakkam has been established. The indigenous insulation material is subjected to fast neutron fluence of 1014 - 1019 n/m2 (E>0.1 MeV) in FBTR and KAMINI Reactor, India. TRIM software has been used to simulate similar kind of damage produced by neutrons by ion irradiation with 5 MeV Al ions and 3 MeV protons. Fluence of the ions was adjusted to get the same dpa. We present the test experiment of neutron irradiation of the composite material (E-glass, S-glass fiber boron free and DGEBA epoxy). The test results of tensile, inter laminar shear and electrical breakdown strength as per ASTM standards, assessment of micro-structure surface degradation before and after irradiation will be presented. MCNP simulations are carried out for neutron flux, dose and damages produced in the insulation material.

  2. Comparison of DT neutron production codes MCUNED, ENEA-JSI source subroutine and DDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čufar, Aljaž, E-mail: aljaz.cufar@ijs.si [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lengar, Igor; Kodeli, Ivan [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Milocco, Alberto [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sauvan, Patrick [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, UNED, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Conroy, Sean [VR Association, Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Snoj, Luka [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Results of three codes capable of simulating the accelerator based DT neutron generators were compared on a simple model where only a thin target made of mixture of titanium and tritium is present. Two typical deuteron beam energies, 100 keV and 250 keV, were used in the comparison. • Comparisons of the angular dependence of the total neutron flux and spectrum as well as the neutron spectrum of all the neutrons emitted from the target show general agreement of the results but also some noticeable differences. • A comparison of figures of merit of the calculations using different codes showed that the computational time necessary to achieve the same statistical uncertainty can vary for more than 30× when different codes for the simulation of the DT neutron generator are used. - Abstract: As the DT fusion reaction produces neutrons with energies significantly higher than in fission reactors, special fusion-relevant benchmark experiments are often performed using DT neutron generators. However, commonly used Monte Carlo particle transport codes such as MCNP or TRIPOLI cannot be directly used to analyze these experiments since they do not have the capabilities to model the production of DT neutrons. Three of the available approaches to model the DT neutron generator source are the MCUNED code, the ENEA-JSI DT source subroutine and the DDT code. The MCUNED code is an extension of the well-established and validated MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The ENEA-JSI source subroutine was originally prepared for the modelling of the FNG experiments using different versions of the MCNP code (−4, −5, −X) and was later extended to allow the modelling of both DT and DD neutron sources. The DDT code prepares the DT source definition file (SDEF card in MCNP) which can then be used in different versions of the MCNP code. In the paper the methods for the simulation of the DT neutron production used in the codes are briefly described and compared for the case of a

  3. Horizontal transmission of malignancy: in-vivo fusion of human lymphomas with hamster stroma produces tumors retaining human genes and lymphoid pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available We report the in-vivo fusion of two Hodgkin lymphomas with golden hamster cheek pouch cells, resulting in serially-transplanted (over 5-6 years GW-532 and GW-584 heterosynkaryon tumor cells displaying both human and hamster DNA (by FISH, lymphoma-like morphology, aggressive metastasis, and retention of 7 human genes (CD74, CXCR4, CD19, CD20, CD71, CD79b, and VIM out of 24 tested by PCR. The prevalence of B-cell restricted genes (CD19, CD20, and CD79b suggests that this uniform population may be the clonal initiating (malignant cells of Hodgkin lymphoma, despite their not showing translation to their respective proteins by immunohistochemical analysis. This is believed to be the first report of in-vivo cell-cell fusion of human lymphoma and rodent host cells, and may be a method to disclose genes regulating both organoid and metastasis signatures, suggesting that the horizontal transfer of tumor DNA to adjacent stromal cells may be implicated in tumor heterogeneity and progression. The B-cell gene signature of the hybrid xenografts suggests that Hodgkin lymphoma, or its initiating cells, is a B-cell malignancy.

  4. Dynamical effects in fusion with exotic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Phuoc, K.; Simenel, C.; Simpson, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Reactions with stable beams have demonstrated strong interplay between nuclear structure and fusion. Exotic beam facilities open new perspectives to understand the impact of neutron skin, large isospin, and weak binding energies on fusion. Microscopic theories of fusion are required to guide future experiments. Purpose: To investigate new effects of exotic structures and dynamics in near-barrier fusion with exotic nuclei. Method: Microscopic approaches based on the Hartree-Fock (HF) mean-field theory are used for studying fusion barriers in -54Ca40+116Sn reactions for even isotopes. Bare potential barriers are obtained assuming frozen HF ground-state densities. Dynamical effects on the barrier are accounted for in time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations of the collisions. Vibrational couplings are studied in the coupled-channel framework and near-barrier nucleon transfer is investigated with TDHF calculations. Results: The development of a neutron skin in exotic calcium isotopes strongly lowers the bare potential barrier. However, this static effect is not apparent when dynamical effects are included. On the contrary, a fusion hindrance is observed in TDHF calculations with the most neutron-rich calcium isotopes which cannot be explained by vibrational couplings. Transfer reactions are also important in these systems due to charge equilibration processes. Conclusions: Despite its impact on the bare potential, the neutron skin is not seen as playing an important role in the fusion dynamics. However, the charge transfer with exotic projectiles could lead to an increase of the Coulomb repulsion between the fragments, suppressing fusion. The effects of transfer and dissipative mechanisms on fusion with exotic nuclei deserve further studies.

  5. Neutron Scattering Investigations of Correlated Electron Systems and Neutron Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sonja Lindahl

    are a unique probe for studying the atomic and molecular structure and dynamics of materials. Even though neutrons are very expensive to produce, the advantages neutrons provide overshadow the price. As neutrons interact weakly with materials compared to many other probes, e.g. electrons or photons......, it is possible to make a neutron scattering experiment through sample environment equipment like cryostats or pressure cells. Another advantage of neutron experiments is that the wavelength and energy of the neutron match the inter-atomic distances and basic excitations of solid materials. The scattering cross...... is not taken into account in previous reports on the field effect of magnetic scattering, since usually only L 0 is probed. A paper draft submitted for publication describing the results of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments performed on the oxygen-doped La2CuO4+y HTSC is appended (Tc 40 K...

  6. Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) axicell configuration: NbTi magnet system. Manufacturing/producibility final report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschel, A.J.; White, W.L.

    1985-05-01

    This Final MFTF-B Manufacturing/Producibility Report covers facilities, tooling plan, manufacturing sequence, schedule and performance, producibility, and lessons learned for the solenoid, axicell, and transition coils, as well as a deactivation plan, conclusions, references, and appendices.

  7. Production of very neutron-deficient isotopes near sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Sn via reactions involving light-particle and cluster emission

    CERN Document Server

    La Commara, M; D'Onofrio, A; Gadea, A; Glogowski, M; Jarillo-Herrero, P; Belcari, N; Borcea, R; De Angelis, G; Fahlander, C; aGórska, M; Grawe, H; Hellström, M; Kirchner, R; Rejmund, M; Roca, V; Roeckl, E; Romano, M; Rykaczewski, K; Schmidt, K; Terrasi, F

    2000-01-01

    The production of very neutron-deficient isotopes near sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Sn has been investigated by using on-line mass separation of evaporation residues produced by heavy-ion induced complete-fusion reactions. We measured the cross sections for sup 9 sup 9 Cd, sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 In, sup 1 sup 0 sup 1 Sn and sup 1 sup 0 sup 2 In via sup 5 sup 8 Ni+ sup 5 sup 8 Ni fusion reactions followed by cluster emission, and via sup 5 sup 8 Ni+ sup 5 sup 0 Cr fusion reactions accompanied by evaporation of protons, neutrons or alpha particles. Both types of reactions yield similar cross sections for the production of exotic nuclei near sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Sn. The data are discussed in comparison with results obtained from statistical-model calculations.

  8. Refined Calculations of Secondary Nuclear Reactions in Magneto-Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Paul; Knapp, Patrick; Hansen, Stephanie; Gomez, Matthew; Hahn, Kelly; Sinars, Daniel; Peterson, Kyle; Slutz, Stephen; Sefkow, Adam; Awe, Thomas; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    Diagnosing the degree of magnetic flux compression at stagnation in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is critical for charting the performance of any MIF concept. In pure deuterium plasma, the transport of high-energy tritons produced by the aneutronic DD fusion reaction depends strongly on the magnetic field. The tritons probe and occasionally react with the fuel, emitting secondary DT neutrons. We show that the DT/DD neutron yield ratio and the secondary DT neutron spectra can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product (BR), the critical confinement parameter for MIF. The amount of fuel-pusher mix also can be constrained by secondary reactions. We discuss the sensitivity to plasma inhomogeneities of the calculations and outline methods to relate secondary yields to alpha particle energy deposition in ignition-relevant experiments employing DT fuel. We compare our calculations to recent tests of the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept on the Z Pulsed Power Facility. Supported in part by the SNL Truman Fellowship, which is part of the LDRD Program, and sponsored by Sandia Corporation (a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation) as Operator of SNL under its U.S. DoE Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Nuclear Fusion Effects Induced in Intense Laser-Generated Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deutered polyethylene (CD2n thin and thick targets were irradiated in high vacuum by infrared laser pulses at 1015W/cm2 intensity. The high laser energy transferred to the polymer generates plasma, expanding in vacuum at supersonic velocity, accelerating hydrogen and carbon ions. Deuterium ions at kinetic energies above 4 MeV have been measured by using ion collectors and SiC detectors in time-of-flight configuration. At these energies the deuterium–deuterium collisions may induce over threshold fusion effects, in agreement with the high D-D cross-section valuesaround 3 MeV energy. At the first instants of the plasma generation, during which high temperature, density and ionacceleration occur, the D-D fusions occur as confirmed by the detection of mono-energetic protonsand neutrons with a kinetic energy of 3.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV, respectively, produced by the nuclear reaction. The number of fusion events depends strongly on the experimental set-up, i.e. on the laser parameters (intensity, wavelength, focal spot dimension, target conditions (thickness, chemical composition, absorption coefficient, presence of secondary targets and used geometry (incidence angle, laser spot, secondary target positions.A number of D-D fusion events of the order of 106÷7 per laser shot has been measured.

  10. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  11. Neutron Repulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Oliver K.

    2011-01-01

    Earth is connected gravitationally, magnetically and electrically to its heat source - a neutron star that is obscured from view by waste products in the photosphere. Neutron repulsion is like the hot filament in an incandescent light bulb. Excited neutrons are emitted from the solar core and decay into hydrogen that glows in the photosphere like a frosted light bulb. Neutron repulsion was recognized in nuclear rest mass data in 2000 as the overlooked source of energy, the keystone of an arch...

  12. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-01-01

    .... A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium–Uranium (Th–U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper...

  13. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  14. Beyond Californium-A Neutron Generator Alternative for Dosimetry and Instrument Calibration in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Roman K; Mozhayev, Andrey V; Murphy, Mark K; Thompson, Alan K

    2017-09-01

    Evaluations of neutron survey instruments, area monitors, and personal dosimeters rely on reference neutron radiations, which have evolved from the heavy reliance on (α,n) sources to a shared reliance on (α,n) and the spontaneous fission neutrons of californium-252 (Cf). Capable of producing high dose equivalent rates from an almost point source geometry, the characteristics of Cf are generally more favorable when compared to the use of (α,n) and (γ,n) sources or reactor-produced reference neutron radiations. Californium-252 is typically used in two standardized configurations: unmoderated, to yield a fission energy spectrum; or with the capsule placed within a heavy-water moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum that is generally considered more appropriate for evaluating devices used in nuclear power plant work environments. The U.S. Department of Energy Cf Loan/Lease Program, a longtime origin of affordable Cf sources for research, testing and calibration, was terminated in 2009. Since then, high-activity sources have become increasingly cost-prohibitive for laboratories that formerly benefited from that program. Neutron generators, based on the D-T and D-D fusion reactions, have become economically competitive with Cf and are recognized internationally as important calibration and test standards. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are jointly considering the practicality and technical challenges of implementing neutron generators as calibration standards in the U.S. This article reviews the characteristics of isotope-based neutron sources, possible isotope alternatives to Cf, and the rationale behind the increasing favor of electronically generated neutron options. The evaluation of a D-T system at PNNL has revealed characteristics that must be considered in adapting generators to the task of calibration and testing where accurate determination of a dosimetric quantity is

  15. Efficient activation of human T cells of both CD4 and CD8 subsets by urease-deficient recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG that produced a heat shock protein 70-M. tuberculosis-derived major membrane protein II fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tetsu; Tsukamoto, Yumiko; Maeda, Yumi; Tamura, Toshiki; Makino, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) capable of activating human naive T cells, urease-deficient BCG expressing a fusion protein composed of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived major membrane protein II (MMP-II) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of BCG (BCG-DHTM) was produced. BCG-DHTM secreted the HSP70-MMP-II fusion protein and effectively activated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) by inducing phenotypic changes and enhanced cytokine production. BCG-DHTM-infected DCs activated naive T cells of both CD4 and naive CD8 subsets, in an antigen (Ag)-dependent manner. The T cell activation induced by BCG-DHTM was inhibited by the pretreatment of DCs with chloroquine. The naive CD8(+) T cell activation was mediated by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) and the proteosome-dependent cytosolic cross-priming pathway. Memory CD8(+) T cells and perforin-producing effector CD8(+) T cells were efficiently produced from the naive T cell population by BCG-DHTM stimulation. Single primary infection with BCG-DHTM in C57BL/6 mice efficiently produced T cells responsive to in vitro secondary stimulation with HSP70, MMP-II, and M. tuberculosis-derived cytosolic protein and inhibited the multiplication of subsequently aerosol-challenged M. tuberculosis more efficiently than did vector control BCG. These results indicate that the introduction of MMP-II and HSP70 into urease-deficient BCG may be useful for improving BCG for control of tuberculosis.

  16. The neutron imaging diagnostic at NIF (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F E; Bower, D; Buckles, R; Clark, D D; Danly, C R; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Fatherley, V E; Fittinghoff, D N; Gallegos, R; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Loomis, E N; Lutz, S; Malone, R M; Martinson, D D; Mares, D; Morley, D J; Morgan, G L; Oertel, J A; Tregillis, I L; Volegov, P L; Weiss, P B; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C

    2012-10-01

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  17. Formation of austenite in high Cr ferritic/martensitic steels by high fluence neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Faulkner, R. G.; Morgan, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    High Cr ferritic/martensitic steels are leading candidates for structural components of future fusion reactors and new generation fission reactors due to their excellent swelling resistance and thermal properties. A commercial grade 12%CrMoVNb ferritic/martensitic stainless steel in the form of parent plate and off-normal weld materials was fast neutron irradiated up to 33 dpa (1.1 × 10 -6 dpa/s) at 400 °C and 28 dpa (1.7 × 10 -6 dpa/s) at 465 °C, respectively. TEM investigation shows that the fully martensitic weld metal transformed to a duplex austenite/ferrite structure due to high fluence neutron irradiation, the austenite was heavily voided (˜15 vol.%) and the ferrite was relatively void-free; whilst no austenite phases were detected in plate steel. Thermodynamic and phase equilibria software MTDATA has been employed for the first time to investigate neutron irradiation-induced phase transformations. The neutron irradiation effect is introduced by adding additional Gibbs free energy into the system. This additional energy is produced by high energy neutron irradiation and can be estimated from the increased dislocation loop density caused by irradiation. Modelling results show that neutron irradiation reduces the ferrite/austenite transformation temperature, especially for high Ni weld metal. The calculated results exhibit good agreement with experimental observation.

  18. Formation of austenite in high Cr ferritic/martensitic steels by high fluence neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z. [IPTME, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3U (United Kingdom)], E-mail: zheng.lu@lboro.ac.uk; Faulkner, R.G.; Morgan, T.S. [IPTME, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3U (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-01

    High Cr ferritic/martensitic steels are leading candidates for structural components of future fusion reactors and new generation fission reactors due to their excellent swelling resistance and thermal properties. A commercial grade 12%CrMoVNb ferritic/martensitic stainless steel in the form of parent plate and off-normal weld materials was fast neutron irradiated up to 33 dpa (1.1 x 10{sup -6} dpa/s) at 400 deg. C and 28 dpa (1.7 x 10{sup -6} dpa/s) at 465 deg. C, respectively. TEM investigation shows that the fully martensitic weld metal transformed to a duplex austenite/ferrite structure due to high fluence neutron irradiation, the austenite was heavily voided ({approx}15 vol.%) and the ferrite was relatively void-free; whilst no austenite phases were detected in plate steel. Thermodynamic and phase equilibria software MTDATA has been employed for the first time to investigate neutron irradiation-induced phase transformations. The neutron irradiation effect is introduced by adding additional Gibbs free energy into the system. This additional energy is produced by high energy neutron irradiation and can be estimated from the increased dislocation loop density caused by irradiation. Modelling results show that neutron irradiation reduces the ferrite/austenite transformation temperature, especially for high Ni weld metal. The calculated results exhibit good agreement with experimental observation.

  19. The Design and Optimization Spectrometer with Double Diagnostics of a Neutron Time-of-Flight Scintillators for Neutron on EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴; 袁熙; 谢旭飞; 樊铁栓; 陈金象; 李湘庆

    2012-01-01

    Neutron energy spectrometry diagnosis plays an important role in magnetic con- finement fusion. A new neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with double scintillators is designed and optimized for the EAST toknmak. A set of optimM parameters is obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, based on the GEANT4 and ROOT codes. The electronic setup of the measurement system is designed. The count rate capability is increased by introducing a flash ADC. The designed spectrometer with high resolution and efficiency is capable of being applied to fusion neutron diagnostics. Applications in mixed-energy and continuous energy neutron fields can also be considered.

  20. Neutron beam design for low intensity neutron and gamma-ray radioscopy using small neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Two small neutron sources of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be radioisotopes were used for design of neutron beams applicable to low intensity neutron and gamma ray radioscopy (LINGR). In the design, Monte Carlo code (MCNP) was employed to generate neutron and gamma ray beams suited to LINGR. With a view to variable neutron spectrum and neutron intensity, various arrangements were first examined, and neutron-filter, gamma-ray shield and beam collimator were verified. Monte Carlo calculations indicated that with a suitable filter-shield-collimator arrangement, thermal neutron beam of 3,900 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with neutron/gamma ratio of 7x10 sup 7 , and 25 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with very large neutron/gamma ratio, respectively, could be produced by using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf(122 mu g) and a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be(37GBq)radioisotopes at the irradiation port of 35 cm from the neutron sources.

  1. Neutron-Rich Silver Isotopes Produced by a Chemically Selective Laser Ion-Source: Test of the R-Process " Waiting-Point " Concept

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The r-process is an important nucleosynthesis mechanism for several reasons: \\begin{enumerate} \\item It is crucial to an understanding of about half of the A>60 elemental composition of the Galaxy; \\item It is the mechanism that forms the long-lived Th-U-Pu nuclear chronometers which are used for cosmochronolgy; \\item It provides an important probe for the temperature (T$ _{9} $)-neutron density ($n_{n}$) conditions in explosive events; and last but not least \\item It may serve to provide useful clues to and constraints upon the nuclear properties of very neutron-rich heavy nuclei. \\end{enumerate} \\\\ \\\\With regard to nuclear-physics data, of particular interest are the T$ _{1/2} $ and P$_{n-} $ values of certain$\\,$ "waiting-point"$\\,$ isotopes in the regions of the A $ \\approx $ 80 and 130. r-abundance peaks. Previous studies of $^{130}_{\\phantom{1}48}$Cd$_{82}$ and $^{79}_{29}$Cu$_{50}$. $\\beta$-decay properties at ISOLDE using a hot plasma ion source were strongly complicated by isobar and molecular-ion c...

  2. Nuclear Fusion with Polarized Nucleons & PolFusion

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, Ralf; Büscher, Markus; Vasilyev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a detailed examination of the latest work on the potential of polarized fuel to realize the vision of energy production by nuclear fusion. It brings together contributions from nuclear physicists and fusion physicists with the aims of fostering exchange of information between the two communities, describing the current status in the field, and examining new ideas and projects under development. It is evident that polarized fuel can offer huge improvements for the first generation of fusion reactors and open new technological possibilities for future generations, including neutron lean reactors, which could be the most popular and sustainable energy production option to avoid environmental problems. Nevertheless, many questions must be resolved before polarized fuel can be used for energy production in the different reactor types. Readers will find this book to be a stimulating source of information on the key issues. It is based on contributions from leading scientists delivered at the meetin...

  3. Picosecond Neutron Yields from Ultra-Intense Laser-Target Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, C. Leland; Fuchs, Julien

    2009-11-01

    High-flux neutron sources for neutron imaging and materials analysis applications have typically been provided by accelerator-based (Spallation Neutron Source) and reactor-based (High Flux Isotope Reactor) neutron sources. A novel approach is to use ultra-intense (> 10^18 W/cm^2) laser-target interactions to generate picosecond, collimated neutrons. Here we examine the feasibility of a source based on current (LULI) and upcoming laser facility capabilities. A Monte-Carlo code calculates angular and energy distributions of neutrons generated by D-D fusion events occurring within a deuterated target for a given incident beam of D+ ions. The parameters of the deuteron beam are well understood from laser-plasma and laser-target studies relevant to fast-ignition fusion. Expected neutron yields are presented in comparison to conventional neutron sources, previous experimental neutron yields, and within the context of neutron shielding safety requirements.

  4. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Scholz, M.; Igielski, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS (IFJPAN), Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Karpinski, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock - Swierk (Poland)

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  5. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-01

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, α)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting β- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  6. Fission Product Yields from 232Th, 238U, and 235U Using 14 MeV Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, B. D.; Greenwood, L. R.; Flaska, M.; Pozzi, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission yield studies using deuterium-tritium fusion-produced 14 MeV neutrons have not yet directly measured fission yields from fission products with half-lives on the order of seconds (far from the line of nuclear stability). Fundamental data of this nature are important for improving and validating the current models of the nuclear fission process. Cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA) was performed on three actinide targets-thorium-oxide, depleted uranium metal, and highly enriched uranium metal-at the University of Michigan's Neutron Science Laboratory (UM-NSL) using a pneumatic system and Thermo-Scientific D711 accelerator-based fusion neutron generator. This was done to measure the fission yields of short-lived fission products and to examine the differences between the delayed fission product signatures of the three actinides. The measured data were compared against previously published results for 89Kr, -90, and -92 and 138Xe, -139, and -140. The average percent deviation of the measured values from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files VII.1 (ENDF/B-VII.1) for thorium, depleted-uranium, and highly-enriched uranium were -10.2%, 4.5%, and -12.9%, respectively. In addition to the measurements of the six known fission products, 23 new fission yield measurements from 84As to 146La are presented.

  7. Deuteron and neutron induced activation in the Eveda accelerator materials: implications for the accelerator maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.; Sanz, J.; Garcia, N.; Cabellos, O. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, lnstituto de Fusion Nuclear (Spain); Sauvan, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C.; Sedano, L.A. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Association Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) is an accelerator-based DLi neutron source designed to test fusion reactor candidate materials for high fluence neutrons. Before deciding IFMIF construction, an engineering design and associated experimental data acquisition, defined as EVEDA, has been proposed. Along the EVEDA accelerator, deuteron beam losses collide with the accelerator materials, producing activation and consequent radiations responsible of dose. Calculation of the dose rates in the EVEDA accelerator room is necessary in order to analyze the feasibility for manual maintenance. Dose rates due to the activation produced by the deuteron beam losses interaction with the accelerator materials, will be calculated with the ACAB activation code, using EAF2007 library for deuteron activation cross-sections. Also, dose rates from the activation induced by the neutron source produced by the interaction of deuteron beam losses with the accelerator materials and the deuterium implanted in the structural lattice, will be calculated with the SRIM2006, TMAP7, DROSG2000/NEUYIE, MCNPX and ACAB codes. All calculations will be done for the EVEDA accelerator with the room temperature DTL structure, which is based on copper cavities for the DTL. Some calculations will be done for the superconducting DTL structure, based on niobium cavities for the DTL working at cryogenic temperature. Final analysis will show the dominant mechanisms and major radionuclides contributing to the surface dose rates. (authors)

  8. Self characterization of a coded aperture array for neutron source imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volegov, P. L., E-mail: volegov@lanl.gov; Danly, C. R.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F. E.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Fittinghoff, D. N. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the stagnation stage of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Since the neutron source is small (∼100 μm) and neutrons are deeply penetrating (>3 cm) in all materials, the apertures used to achieve the desired 10-μm resolution are 20-cm long, triangular tapers machined in gold foils. These gold foils are stacked to form an array of 20 apertures for pinhole imaging and three apertures for penumbral imaging. These apertures must be precisely aligned to accurately place the field of view of each aperture at the design location, or the location of the field of view for each aperture must be measured. In this paper we present a new technique that has been developed for the measurement and characterization of the precise location of each aperture in the array. We present the detailed algorithms used for this characterization and the results of reconstructed sources from inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments at NIF.

  9. The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX)

    2007-10-01

    The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth.

  10. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  11. GALS – setup for production and study of heavy neutron rich nuclei