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Sample records for fusion applications

  1. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying responses to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today that will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications. (author)

  2. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications

  3. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  4. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source

  5. The fusion applications study - FAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Engholm, B.A.; Bourque, R.F.; Cheng, E.T.; Schaffer, M.J.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (''FAME'') study, being conducted by GA Technologies for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, (US DOE) is described. This two-year program has a FY86 objective of Evaluating Alternative Applications of Fusion, and a FY87 goal of Exploring Innovative Applications. Applications are being reviewed and categorized into Baseline, Nuclear, Chemical, Electromagnetic, and Thermal application categories. The ''traditional'' applications of electricity generation, fissile fuel and tritium production, and hydrogen production continue to look attractive. Particularly promising new applications to date, with potential for near-term markets, are isotope production and radiation processing, especially when allied with the traditional application of electricity production. The economics of separate applications as well as coproduction are discussed. The combination of electricity and /sup 60/Co production appears to be one of the most attractive

  6. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1978-01-01

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. We have found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser fusion studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented

  7. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1977-01-01

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. It was found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented

  8. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1977-11-17

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. It was found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented.

  9. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2013), s. 197-212 ISSN 1210-2709. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/25./. Praha, 18.06.2012-21.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872; GA MŠk 7G10072 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : nuclear fusion * materials * plasma facing components * plasma-material interaction * functionally graded materials Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://ctn.cvut.cz/ap/download.php?id=797

  10. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  11. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPIELMAN, RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999

  12. Ceramics for applications in fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Six critical applications for ceramics in fusion systems are reviewed, and structural and electrical problem areas discussed. Fusion neutron radiation effects in ceramics are considered in relation to fission neutron studies. A number of candidate materials are proposed for further evaluation

  13. Superconducting magnets for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Fusion magnet technology has made spectacular advances in the past decade; to wit, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and the Large Coil Project. However, further advances are still required for advanced economical fusion reactors. Higher fields to 14 T and radiation-hardened superconductors and insulators will be necessary. Coupled with high rates of nuclear heating and pulsed losses, the next-generation magnets will need still higher current density, better stability and quench protection. Cable-in-conduit conductors coupled with polyimide insulations and better steels seem to be the appropriate path. Neutron fluences up to 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 in niobium tin are achievable. In the future, other amorphous superconductors could raise these limits further to extend reactor life or decrease the neutron shielding and corresponding reactor size

  14. A review of fusion torch applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastlund, B.J.; Gough, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fusion Torch is a concept developed in 1968 to propose the investigation of non-electrical uses of the flux of particle and electromagnetic radiation capable of being produced from a fusion plasma (leakage). The proposed applications include direct recycling of material, the use of electromagnetic radiation to produce H 2 fuel and novel methods of heat transfer. The purpose of this paper is to review progress, and to discuss ideas that have resulted from new magnetic containment concepts. The practicality of the Fusion Torch concept for direct recycling with D-T fuel cycles was questioned because of neutron-activation. Since 1968, low neutron fusion reactions have received serious consideration. The economics of adding applications features to a fusion reactor must be studied in relation to specific reactor designs. Calculations are presented to illustrate the large advantages applications could offer for low Q, high circulating power systems such as mirrors, small Tokamaks and linear pinches. Little advantage is predicated for high Q, high thermal efficiency systems typified by large Tokamaks. The production of fuels such as H 2 has received study using high temperature electrolysis, radiation chemistry, and thermochemical cycles. Ore reduction using differential ionization is also described. A summary of applications areas are presented along with ideas on the potential of large scale use of such systems

  15. Computer applications in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1975-02-01

    The role of Nuclear Engineering Education in the application of computers to controlled fusion research can be a very important one. In the near future the use of computers in the numerical modelling of fusion systems should increase substantially. A recent study group has identified five categories of computational models to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are called for. The development and application of computer codes to implement these models is a vital step in reaching the goal of fusion power. In order to meet the needs of the fusion program the National CTR Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computing centers at each of the major CTR laboratories by a communications network. The crucial element that is needed for success is trained personnel. The number of people with knowledge of plasma science and engineering that are trained in numerical methods and computer science is quite small, and must be increased substantially in the next few years. Nuclear Engineering departments should encourage students to enter this field and provide the necessary courses and research programs in fusion computing. (U.S.)

  16. Application to components for thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, R.

    1996-01-01

    Results on the stress characterization in various types of weldings, obtained by the neutron diffraction method, are presented; various analysis have been performed on steel welded or brazed joints with the view of application to the first wall and divertor of future thermonuclear fusion reactors such as NET/ITER

  17. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described

  18. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-12-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described.

  19. Application of fusion plasma technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.

    1976-06-01

    This report presents principal findings of studies conducted at Iowa State on Applications of Fusion Plasma Technology. Two tasks were considered. The first was to identify and investigate plasma processes for near term industrial applications of already developed plasma technology. The second was to explore the potential of reprocessing the fuel for fusion test facilities in a closed-cycle system. For the first task, two applications were considered. One was alumina reduction in magnetically confined plasmas, and the other was uranium enrichment using plasma centrifuges. For the second task, in-core and ex-core plasma purification were considered. Separation techniques that are compatible with the plasma state were identified and preliminary analysis of their effectiveness were carried out. The effects of differential ionization of impurities on the separation effectiveness are considered. Possible technical difficulties in both tasks are identified and recommendations for future work are given

  20. Computer applications in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of computers to controlled thermonuclear research (CTR) is essential. In the near future the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems should increase substantially. A recent panel has identified five categories of computational models to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies is called for. The development and application of computer codes to implement these models is a vital step in reaching the goal of fusion power. To meet the needs of the fusion program the National CTR Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computing centers at each of the major CTR Laboratories by a communication network. The crucial element needed for success is trained personnel. The number of people with knowledge of plasma science and engineering trained in numerical methods and computer science must be increased substantially in the next few years. Nuclear engineering departments should encourage students to enter this field and provide the necessary courses and research programs in fusion computing

  1. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm 2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10 -7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  2. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented

  3. FuzzyFusion: an application architecture for multisource information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kevin L.; Henning, Ronda R.

    2009-04-01

    The correlation of information from disparate sources has long been an issue in data fusion research. Traditional data fusion addresses the correlation of information from sources as diverse as single-purpose sensors to all-source multi-media information. Information system vulnerability information is similar in its diversity of sources and content, and in the desire to draw a meaningful conclusion, namely, the security posture of the system under inspection. FuzzyFusionTM, A data fusion model that is being applied to the computer network operations domain is presented. This model has been successfully prototyped in an applied research environment and represents a next generation assurance tool for system and network security.

  4. Prospects for fusion applications of reversed-field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) as a source of fusion neutrons for use in developing key fusion nuclear technologies is examined. This Fusion Test Facility (FTF) would emphasize high neutron wall loading, small plasma volume, low fusion and driver powers, and steady-state operation. Both parametric tradeoffs based on present-day physics understanding and a conceptual design based on an approx.1-MW/m 2 (neutron) driven operation are reported. 10 refs

  5. Optimization of beryllium for fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The primary function of beryllium in a fusion reactor blanket is neutron multiplication to enhance tritium breeding. However, because heat, tritium and helium will be generated in and/or transported through beryllium and because the beryllium is in contact with other blanket materials, the thermal, mechanical, tritium/helium and compatibility properties of beryllium are important in blanket design. In particular, tritium retention during normal operation and release during overheating events are safety concerns. Accommodating beryllium thermal expansion and helium-induced swelling are important issues in ensuring adequate lifetime of the structural components adjacent to the beryllium. Likewise, chemical/metallurgical interactions between beryllium and structural components need to be considered in lifetime analysis. Under accident conditions the chemical interaction between beryllium and coolant and breeding materials may also become important. The performance of beryllium in fusion blanket applications depends on fabrication variables and operational parameters. First the properties database is reviewed to determine the state of knowledge of beryllium performance as a function of these variables. Several design calculations are then performed to indicate ranges of fabrication and operation variables that lead to optimum beryllium performance. Finally, areas for database expansion and improvement are highlighted based on the properties survey and the design sensitivity studies

  6. Plasma facing materials for fusion reactor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Gordillo Garcia, Nuria; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Garoz, D.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The lack of plasma facing materials (PFM) able to withstand the severe magnetiicffusiion radiation conditions expected in fusion reactors is the actual bottle In both fusions approaches energy is released in the form of kinetic energy of neck for fusion to becomes a reality.

  7. Inertial fusion sciences and applications 99: state of the art 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, Ch.; Hogan, W.J.; Tanaka, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    This book brings together the texts of the communications presented at the conference 'Inertial fusion sciences and applications' held in Paris in 1999. These proceedings are shared into five sessions: laser fusion physics, fusion with particle beams, fusion with implosions, inertial fusion energy, and experimental applications of inertial fusion. (J.S.)

  8. Modular control of fusion power heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment

  9. Advances in Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: Algorithms and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingying Fu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of satellite and remote sensing techniques, more and more image data from airborne/satellite sensors have become available. Multi-sensor image fusion seeks to combine information from different images to obtain more inferences than can be derived from a single sensor. In image-based application fields, image fusion has emerged as a promising research area since the end of the last century. The paper presents an overview of recent advances in multi-sensor satellite image fusion. Firstly, the most popular existing fusion algorithms are introduced, with emphasis on their recent improvements. Advances in main applications fields in remote sensing, including object identification, classification, change detection and maneuvering targets tracking, are described. Both advantages and limitations of those applications are then discussed. Recommendations are addressed, including: (1 Improvements of fusion algorithms; (2 Development of “algorithm fusion” methods; (3 Establishment of an automatic quality assessment scheme.

  10. Application of polarized nuclei to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    It is shown that the d-t fusion reaction can be modified by polarizing nuclear spins. The ways in which this improves reactor performance are mentioned and the feasibility of the process of spin polarization for magnetic fusion is discussed. 18 refs

  11. Application of polarized nuclei to fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    It is shown that the d-t fusion reaction can be modified by polarizing nuclear spins. The ways in which this improves reactor performance are mentioned and the feasibility of the process of spin polarization for magnetic fusion is discussed. 18 refs.

  12. Evaluation of remote piping connectors for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welland, H.J.

    1985-08-01

    Four types of remotely actuated piping connectors were evaluated for their application to the fusion energy program. The evaluations are part of a study being performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., for the fusion program at Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, GmbH. Results of the connector evaluation will be used to develop preliminary concepts for connector improvements and new connector configurations

  13. Application of Bondarenko formalism to fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    The Bondarenko formalism used to account for resonance self-shielding effects (temperature and composition) in a Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor is reviewed. A material of interest in the RTPR blanket is 93 Nb, which exhibits a large number of capture resonance in the energy region below 800 keV. Although Nb constitutes a small volume fraction of the blanket, its presence significantly affects the nucleonic properties of the RTPR blanket. The effects of self-shielding in 93 Nb on blanket parameters such as breeding ratio, total afterheat, radioactivity, magnet-coil heating and total energy depositions have been studied. Resonance self-shielding of 93 Nb, as compared to unshielded cross sections, will increase tritium breeding by approximately 7 percent in the RTPR blanket and will decrease blanket radioactivity, total recoverable energy, and magnet-coil heating. Temperature effects change these parameters by less than 2 percent. The method is not restricted to the RTPR, as a single set of Bondarenko f-factors is suitable for application to a variety of fusion reactor designs

  14. Multi-sensor image fusion and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Rick S

    2005-01-01

    Taking another lesson from nature, the latest advances in image processing technology seek to combine image data from several diverse types of sensors in order to obtain a more accurate view of the scene: very much the same as we rely on our five senses. Multi-Sensor Image Fusion and Its Applications is the first text dedicated to the theory and practice of the registration and fusion of image data, covering such approaches as statistical methods, color-related techniques, model-based methods, and visual information display strategies.After a review of state-of-the-art image fusion techniques,

  15. Chromium-molybdenum steels for fusion-reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    Because ferritic steels have been found to have excellent resistance to swelling when irradiated in a fast-breeder reactor, Cr-Mo steels have recently become of interest for nuclear applications, both as cladding and duct material for fast-breeder reactors and as a first-wall and blanket structural material for fusion reactors. In this paper we will assess the Cr-Mo steels for fusion reactor applications. Possible approaches on how Cr-Mo steels may be further developed for this application will be proposed

  16. Bayesian information fusion networks for biosurveillance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnatsakanyan, Zaruhi R; Burkom, Howard S; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Lombardo, Joseph S

    2009-01-01

    This study introduces new information fusion algorithms to enhance disease surveillance systems with Bayesian decision support capabilities. A detection system was built and tested using chief complaints from emergency department visits, International Classification of Diseases Revision 9 (ICD-9) codes from records of outpatient visits to civilian and military facilities, and influenza surveillance data from health departments in the National Capital Region (NCR). Data anomalies were identified and distribution of time offsets between events in the multiple data streams were established. The Bayesian Network was built to fuse data from multiple sources and identify influenza-like epidemiologically relevant events. Results showed increased specificity compared with the alerts generated by temporal anomaly detection algorithms currently deployed by NCR health departments. Further research should be done to investigate correlations between data sources for efficient fusion of the collected data.

  17. Overview of defense applications of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.J.; Tobin, M.T.

    1989-08-15

    The objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is to demonstrate a significant fusion capability in the laboratory. The applications of ICF are broad and numerous, ranging from basic and applied science to weapons physics and weapons effects to energy production and eventually space power and propulsion. This paper is limited to a brief summary of the applications of ICF to defense programs, and in particular, the nuclear weapons R D and technology base. While relevant weapons physics experiments are currently conducted using the Nova laser, the ultimate contribution of ICF in this area will be a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) in which fusion yields of 100 to 1000 MJ, provided in a single experimental shot, can be used to attain the near-term applications.

  18. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  19. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, Amy; Callis, Richard; Efthimion, Philip; Foster, John; Keane, Christopher; Onsager, Terry; O'Shea, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  20. Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is proposed that Iran as a world's potential supplier of fossile fuel should participate in fusion research and gain experience in this new field. Fusion, as an ultimate source of energy in future, and the problems concerned with the fusion reactors are reviewed. Furthermore; plasma heating, magnetic and inertial confinement in a fusion reactor are discussed. A brief description of tokamak, theta pinch and magnetic mirror reactors is also included

  1. Dust Combustion Safety Issues for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety research task to identify the safety issues and phenomenology of metallic dust fires and explosions that are postulated for fusion experiments. There are a variety of metal dusts that are created by plasma erosion and disruptions within the plasma chamber, as well as normal industrial dusts generated in the more conventional equipment in the balance of plant. For fusion, in-vessel dusts are generally mixtures of several elements; that is, the constituent elements in alloys and the variety of elements used for in-vessel materials. For example, in-vessel dust could be composed of beryllium from a first wall coating, tungsten from a divertor plate, copper from a plasma heating antenna or diagnostic, and perhaps some iron and chromium from the steel vessel wall or titanium and vanadium from the vessel wall. Each of these elements has its own unique combustion characteristics, and mixtures of elements must be evaluated for the mixture’s combustion properties. Issues of particle size, dust temperature, and presence of other combustible materials (i.e., deuterium and tritium) also affect combustion in air. Combustion in other gases has also been investigated to determine if there are safety concerns with “inert” atmospheres, such as nitrogen. Several coolants have also been reviewed to determine if coolant breach into the plasma chamber would enhance the combustion threat; for example, in-vessel steam from a water coolant breach will react with metal dust. The results of this review are presented here.

  2. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  3. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  4. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design

  5. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  6. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined

  7. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined.

  8. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

  9. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine, E-mail: naj@mail.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States); Kruecker, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.kruecker@philips.com [Philips Research North America (United States); Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.kadoury@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (Canada); Kobeiter, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.kobeiter@gmail.com [CHU Henri Mondor, UPEC, Departments of Radiology and d' imagrie medicale (France); Venkatesan, Aradhana M., E-mail: VenkatesanA@cc.nih.gov; Levy, Elliot, E-mail: levyeb@cc.nih.gov; Wood, Bradford J., E-mail: bwood@cc.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  10. 'Maintain FENDL library for fusion applications'. FENDL-2 library for fusion applications - Status and future developments. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.; Trkov, A.

    2003-11-01

    The discussions and conclusions of the meeting to 'Maintain FENDL library for Fusion Applications' are summarized in this report. A presentation was made by each of the participants, followed by a review of FENDL-2: evaluations and recommendations, and discussions on the special purpose libraries and processed files, with relevant further action thereon being determined. (author)

  11. Multiprotocol, multiatlas statistical fusion: theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew J; Landman, Bennett A

    2017-07-01

    Multiatlas segmentation offers an exceedingly convenient process by which image segmentation tools can be created from a series of labeled atlases (i.e., raters). However, creation of the atlases is exceedingly time consuming and prone to shifts in clinical/research demands as anatomical definitions are refined, combined, or subdivided. Hence, a process by which atlases from distinct, but complementary, anatomical "protocols" could be combined would allow for greater innovation in structural analysis and efficiency of data (re)use. Recent innovation in protocol fusion has shown that propagation of information across distinct protocols is feasible. However, how to effectively include this information in simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) has been elusive. We present a generalization of the STAPLE framework to account for multiprotocol rater performance (i.e., accuracy of registered atlases). This approach, multiset STAPLE (MS-STAPLE), provides a statistical framework for combining label information from atlases that have been labeled with distinct protocols (i.e., whole brain versus subcortical) and is compatible with the current local, nonlocal, probabilistic, log-odds, and hierarchical innovations in STAPLE theory. Using the MS-STAPLE approach, information from a broad range of datasets can be combined so that each available dataset contributes in a spatially dependent manner to local labels. We evaluate the model in simulations and in the context of an experiment where an existing set of whole-brain labels (14 structures) is refined to include parcellation of subcortical structures (26 structures). In the empirical results, we see significant improvement in the Dice similarity coefficient when comparing MS-STAPLE to STAPLE and nonlocal MS-STAPLE to nonlocal STAPLE.

  12. Multi-Sensor Data Fusion for Future Telematics Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Baek Kim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present multi-sensor data fusion for telematics application. Successful telematics can be realized through the integration of navigation and spatial information. The well-determined acquisition of vehicle's position plays a vital role in application service. The development of GPS is used to provide the navigation data, but the performance is limited in areas where poor satellite visibility environment exists. Hence, multi-sensor fusion including IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit, GPS (Global Positioning System, and DMI (Distance Measurement Indicator is required to provide the vehicle's position to service provider and driver behind the wheel. The multi-sensor fusion is implemented via algorithm based on Kalman Filtering technique. Navigation accuracy can be enhanced using this filtering approach. For the verification of fusion approach, land vehicle test was performed and the results were discussed. Results showed that the horizontal position errors were suppressed around 1 meter level accuracy under simulated Non-GPS availability environment. Under normal GPS environment, the horizontal position errors were under 40 cm in curve trajectory and 27cm in linear trajectory, which are definitely depending on vehicular dynamics.

  13. Applications of computer modeling to fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Progress achieved during this report period is presented on the following topics: Development and application of gyrokinetic particle codes to tokamak transport, development of techniques to take advantage of parallel computers; model dynamo and bootstrap current drive; and in general maintain our broad-based program in basic plasma physics and computer modeling.

  14. Applications of computer modeling to fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Progress achieved during this report period is presented on the following topics: Development and application of gyrokinetic particle codes to tokamak transport, development of techniques to take advantage of parallel computers; model dynamo and bootstrap current drive; and in general maintain our broad-based program in basic plasma physics and computer modeling

  15. Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miley, George H

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with an introductory understanding of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC), a type of fusion meant to retain plasma using an electrostatic field. IEC provides a unique approach for plasma confinement, as it offers a number of spin-off applications, such as a small neutron source for Neutron Activity Analysis (NAA), that all work towards creating fusion power. The IEC has been identified in recent times as an ideal fusion power unit because of its ability to burn aneutronic fuels like p-B11 as a result of its non-Maxwellian plasma dominated by beam-like ions. This type of fusion also takes place in a simple mechanical structure small in size, which also contributes to its viability as a source of power. This book posits that the ability to study the physics of IEC in very small volume plasmas makes it possible to rapidly investigate a design to create a power-producing device on a much larger scale. Along with this hypothesis the book also includes a conceptual experiment propose...

  16. Sensor Fusion and Smart Sensor in Sports and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, José Jair Alves; Vieira, Mário Elias Marinho; Pires, Marcelo Bissi; Stevan, Sergio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    The following work presents an overview of smart sensors and sensor fusion targeted at biomedical applications and sports areas. In this work, the integration of these areas is demonstrated, promoting a reflection about techniques and applications to collect, quantify and qualify some physical variables associated with the human body. These techniques are presented in various biomedical and sports applications, which cover areas related to diagnostics, rehabilitation, physical monitoring, and the development of performance in athletes, among others. Although some applications are described in only one of two fields of study (biomedicine and sports), it is very likely that the same application fits in both, with small peculiarities or adaptations. To illustrate the contemporaneity of applications, an analysis of specialized papers published in the last six years has been made. In this context, the main characteristic of this review is to present the largest quantity of relevant examples of sensor fusion and smart sensors focusing on their utilization and proposals, without deeply addressing one specific system or technique, to the detriment of the others. PMID:27669260

  17. Sensor Fusion and Smart Sensor in Sports and Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jair Alves Mendes Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The following work presents an overview of smart sensors and sensor fusion targeted at biomedical applications and sports areas. In this work, the integration of these areas is demonstrated, promoting a reflection about techniques and applications to collect, quantify and qualify some physical variables associated with the human body. These techniques are presented in various biomedical and sports applications, which cover areas related to diagnostics, rehabilitation, physical monitoring, and the development of performance in athletes, among others. Although some applications are described in only one of two fields of study (biomedicine and sports, it is very likely that the same application fits in both, with small peculiarities or adaptations. To illustrate the contemporaneity of applications, an analysis of specialized papers published in the last six years has been made. In this context, the main characteristic of this review is to present the largest quantity of relevant examples of sensor fusion and smart sensors focusing on their utilization and proposals, without deeply addressing one specific system or technique, to the detriment of the others.

  18. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  19. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection

  20. Plasma-sprayed coatings for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullendore, A.W.; Mattox, D.M.; Whitley, J.B.; Sharp, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A series of plasma-sprayed coatings has been given a preliminary evaluation to assess the potential of this class of materials in fusion reactor applications. TiC, TiB 2 , Be and VBe 12 coatings on copper and stainless steel were tested for coating adherence, ion erosion resistance and susceptability to arc erosion. The coatings, in general, display a good resistance to thermal shock failure. The TiC and TiB 2 coatings exhibit favorable ion erosion characteristics and the resistance of the coatings to arc erosion was, in general, superior to that of stainless steel

  1. Technology requirements for commercial applications of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.G.; Rossi, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Current inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research is directed primarily at physics experiments intended to provide confidence in the scientific feasibility of the basic concept. In conjunction with these experiments, a variety of laser and particle beam drivers having potential for eventual use in fusion power plants is being developed. Expectations are that the scientific feasibility of ICF will be demonstrated in the latter part of the 1980s. At that time, the emphasis of the program will shift to engineering, economic, environmental, and licensing issues with the necessary technology development effort continuing into the early part of the next century. This paper discusses the technology requirements for the successive phases of engineering development leading to commercial application of ICF. The engineering areas requiring significant effort for ICF application include high average power driver development; pulsed high-energy power supply development; reactor cavity and heat transport system design; tritium extraction and control; commercial pellet development; pellet injection, tracking, and targeting systems design; materials radiation, fatigue, and corrosion behavior; and reactor plant systems integration and demonstration

  2. Chromium-molybdenum steels for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Because ferritic steels have been found to have excellent resistance to swelling when irradiated in a fast-breeder reactor, Cr-Mo steels have recently become of interest for nuclear applications, both as cladding and duct material for fast-breeder reactors and as a first-wall and blanket structural material for fusion reactors. In this paper we will assess the Cr-Mo steels for fusion reactor applications. Possible approaches on how Cr-Mo steels may be further developed for this application will be proposed. Generally, the Cr-Mo steels can be divided into two categories: unmodified, basically Cr-Mo-C steels and Cr-Mo-C steels modified by the addition of carbide-forming elements - in addition to chromium and molybdenum. Extensive research and development efforts have been conducted on the unmodified steels, especially 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo and 12 Cr-Mo steels. Considerable work has also been done on 12 Cr-Mo steels modified with additions of vanadium, niobium, titanium and tungsten. In recent years much of the research effort on this type of alloy has been directed at developing modified Cr-Mo steels with less than 12% Cr (approx. <= 9%) for applications where the 'stainless' properties imparted by chromium additions of at least 12% are not needed. We will examine the unmodified and modified steels in terms of hardenability, precipitation processes (stability at elevated temperatures), strength, and toughness. Where possible, we will discuss the effects of irradiation on these properties. Such a study leads to the types of tradeoffs that may be necessary when choosing between the well-researched unmodified 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel and a high-chromium modified steel. (orig.)

  3. Fusion-product energy loss in inertial confinement fusion plasmas with applications to target burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Miley, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been proposed as a competitor to magnetic fusion in the drive towards energy production, but ICF target performance still contains many uncertainties. One such area is the energy-loss rate of fusion products. This situation is due in part to the unique plasma parameters encountered in ICF plasmas which are compressed to more than one-thousand times solid density. The work presented here investigates three aspects of this uncertainty

  4. Response to FESAC survey, non-fusion connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Applications of the FES-supported beam and plasma simulation code, Warp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grote, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vay, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-29

    The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.

  5. Diagnostics systems developments and applications for laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    A variety of systems are required for adequate diagnostics of laser fusion experiments. Picosecond scale temporal measurements are typically made with ultrafast streak cameras. Visible and x-ray sensitive streak cameras with resolutions of 6 psec and 15 psec, respectively, and dynamic recording range in excess of 10 3 are in regular use on experiments at Livermore. The characteristics of these cameras and their applications to target experiment diagnostics are described. The development and testing of a prototype ultrafast framing system is discussed. Because of the need for ''real time'' data acquisition, analysis, and control systems, techniques for providing directly computer interfaced image data from streak and framing cameras and optical imaging systems are being developed. The status of these developments and the characteristics of the computer interfaced data and control systems on Argus and Shiva are summarized

  6. Inertial-confinement-fusion applications of ion-stopping theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.; Lee, Y.T.; Bailey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Methods were developed to calculate: (1) the stopping power of a hot plasma target, (2) the charge-state of a fast ion projectile, and (3) the final disposition of the deposited energy. The first issue refers to the stopping power for protons. The proton stopping power is altered in high-density or high-temperature targets, especially at velocities below the stopping peak. The second issue concerns the application of a proton stopping curve to the arbitrary projectile. The third topic is more specialized to inertial fusion and concerns the partition of deposited energy between ion (nuclear motion) degrees of freedom and those corresponding to bound and free electrons. The question here is whether a thermal equilibrium plasma is produced

  7. Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-06-01

    Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)

  8. Proceedings of the Office of Fusion Energy/DOE workshop on ceramic matrix composites for structural applications in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Lucas, G.E.

    1990-11-01

    A workshop to assess the potential application of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for structural applications in fusion reactors was held on May 21--22, 1990, at University of California, Santa Barbara. Participants included individuals familiar with materials and design requirements in fusion reactors, ceramic composite processing and properties and radiation effects. The primary focus was to list the feasibility issues that might limit the application of these materials in fusion reactors. Clear advantages for the use of CMCs are high-temperature operation, which would allow a high-efficiency Rankine cycle, and low activation. Limitations to their use are material costs, fabrication complexity and costs, lack of familiarity with these materials in design, and the lack of data on radiation stability at relevant temperatures and fluences. Fusion-relevant feasibility issues identified at this workshop include: hermetic and vacuum properties related to effects of matrix porosity and matrix microcracking; chemical compatibility with coolant, tritium, and breeder and multiplier materials, radiation effects on compatibility; radiation stability and integrity; and ability to join CMCs in the shop and at the reactor site, radiation stability and integrity of joints. A summary of ongoing CMC radiation programs is also given. It was suggested that a true feasibility assessment of CMCs for fusion structural applications could not be completed without evaluation of a material ''tailored'' to fusion conditions or at least to radiation stability. It was suggested that a follow-up workshop be held to design a tailored composite after the results of CMC radiation studies are available and the critical feasibility issues are addressed

  9. Assessment of fusion operators for medical imaging: application to MR images fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, V.; Boire, J.Y.

    2000-01-01

    We propose in the article to assess the results provided by several fusion operators in the case of T 1 - and T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance images fusion of the brain. This assessment deals with an expert visual inspection of the results and with a numerical analysis of some comparison measures found in the literature. The aim of this assessment is to find the 'best' operator according to the clinical study. This method is here applied to the quantification of brain tissue volumes on a brain phantom, and allows to select a fusion operator in any clinical study where several information is available. (authors)

  10. Advances in chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in sarcomas and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Garbutt, Cassandra C; Hornicek, Francis; Guo, Zheng; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2018-02-01

    Chromosomal translocations and fusion genes are very common in human cancer especially in subtypes of sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, synovial sarcoma and liposarcoma. The discovery of novel chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in different tumors are due to the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies such as whole genome sequencing. Recently, many novel chromosomal translocations and gene fusions have been identified in different types of sarcoma through NGS approaches. In addition to previously known sarcoma fusion genes, these novel specific fusion genes and associated molecular events represent important targets for novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of sarcomas. This review focuses on recent advances in chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in sarcomas and their potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of sarcomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High current pulsed linear ion accelerators for inertial fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Yonas, G.; Poukey, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Pulsed ion beams have a number of advantages for use as inertial fusion drivers. Among these are classical interaction with targets and good efficiency of production. As has been pointed out by members of the accelerator community, multistage accelerators are attractive in this context because of lower current requirements, low power flow per energy conversion stage and low beam divergence at higher ion energies. On the other hand, current transport limits in conventional accelerators constrain them to the use of heavy ions at energies much higher than those needed to meet the divergence requirements, resulting in large, costly systems. We have studied methods of neutralizing ion beams with electrons within the accelerator volume to achieve higher currents. The aim is to arrive at an inexpensive accelerator that can advantageously use existing pulsed voltage technology while being conservative enough to achieve a high repetition rate. Typical output parameters for reactor applications would be an 0 + beam of 30 kA at 300 MeV. We will describe reactor scaling studies and the physics of neutralized linear accelerators using magnetic fields to control the electron dynamics. Recent results are discussed from PULSELAC, a five stage multikiloampere device being tested at Sandia Laboratories

  12. Tracking and sensor data fusion methodological framework and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Sensor Data Fusion is the process of combining incomplete and imperfect pieces of mutually complementary sensor information in such a way that a better understanding of an underlying real-world phenomenon is achieved. Typically, this insight is either unobtainable otherwise or a fusion result exceeds what can be produced from a single sensor output in accuracy, reliability, or cost. This book provides an introduction Sensor Data Fusion, as an information technology as well as a branch of engineering science and informatics. Part I presents a coherent methodological framework, thus providing th

  13. Preliminary proposal for a beryllium technology program for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The program was designed to provide the answers to the critical issues of beryllium technology needed in fusion blanket designs. The four tasks are as follows: (1) Beryllium property measurements needed for fusion data base. (2) Beryllium stress relaxation and creep measurements for lifetime modelling calculations. (3) Simplified recycle technique development for irradiated beryllium. (4) Beryllium neutron multiplier measurements using manganese bath absolute calibration techniques

  14. Direct energy conversion for IEC fusion for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu; Nadler, Jon; Miley, George H.

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes a concept of extracting fusion power from D- 3 He fueled IEC (Inertia Electrostatic Configuration) devices. The fusion system consists of a series of fusion modules and direct energy converters at an end or at both ends. This system of multiple units is linear and is connected by a magnetic field. A pair of coils anti-parallel to the magnetic field yields a field-null domain at the center of each unit as required for IEC operation. A stabilizing coil installed between the coil pairs eliminates the strong attractive force between the anti-parallel coils. Accessible regions for charged particle trajectories are essentially isolated from the coil structure. Thus, charged particles are directed along magnetic field lines to the direct energy converter without appreciable losses. A direct energy converter unit designed to be compatible to this unique system is also described. It basically consists of a separator and a traveling wave converter. A separator separates low energy ions and electron from the 14.7 MeV fusion protons and then converts their energy into electricity. In the traveling wave direct energy converter, fusion protons are modulated to form bunches. It couples with a transmission line to couple AC power out. The overall conversion efficiency of this system, combined with E- 3 He IEC cores, is estimated as high as 60%. (author)

  15. Direct energy conversion for IEC fusion for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momota, Hiromu; Nadler, Jon [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Miley, George H. [Fusion Studies Laboratory, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes a concept of extracting fusion power from D-{sup 3}He fueled IEC (Inertia Electrostatic Configuration) devices. The fusion system consists of a series of fusion modules and direct energy converters at an end or at both ends. This system of multiple units is linear and is connected by a magnetic field. A pair of coils anti-parallel to the magnetic field yields a field-null domain at the center of each unit as required for IEC operation. A stabilizing coil installed between the coil pairs eliminates the strong attractive force between the anti-parallel coils. Accessible regions for charged particle trajectories are essentially isolated from the coil structure. Thus, charged particles are directed along magnetic field lines to the direct energy converter without appreciable losses. A direct energy converter unit designed to be compatible to this unique system is also described. It basically consists of a separator and a traveling wave converter. A separator separates low energy ions and electron from the 14.7 MeV fusion protons and then converts their energy into electricity. In the traveling wave direct energy converter, fusion protons are modulated to form bunches. It couples with a transmission line to couple AC power out. The overall conversion efficiency of this system, combined with E-{sup 3}He IEC cores, is estimated as high as 60%. (author)

  16. Potential ternary compounds for first wall fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.J.; Kisi, E.; Riley, D.; Healy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The demands placed on a first wall in a fusion facility are both numerous and demanding. In most cases up till now, the materials considered have largely been elemental or two component alloys but so far none have met the demanding benchmarks for a practical solution for long term applications. A family of compounds, call MAX Phases, cover a broad range of elements and have very promising synthesis properties as well as physical properties which indicate that they are well placed to be considered as potential candidates. There are over 600 compounds in this family though only 50 known have been synthesised so far, so it is not yet possible to claim a thorough study has been undertaken of this class of material. An examination of the properties of just one compound, Ti 3 SiC 2 , shows the potential for this class of materials. Consideration of Ti 3 SiC 2 is based on the earlier work on TiC and SiC as potential first wall materials. As a three element material Ti 3 SiC 2 is essentially a machineable ceramic with exceptional properties and is suited to both mechanical and electrical applications. Ti 3 SiC 2 has the high temperature and chemical resistance of a ceramic combined with a degree of ductility and a higher electrical conductivity than pure Ti. Furthermore, the material has far higher thermal conductivity than commercial stainless steel or Ti alloys, and although it has a high fracture toughness at high temperatures, it can be machined using conventional hardened steel tools. It exhibits excellent damage tolerance and good thermal shock resistance. Ti 3 SiC 2 has the advantage that there are a number of synthesis processes established which provide the opportunity to tailor the synthesis to meet specialist needs. One form of manufacture, called Self-Propagation High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS) promises to both form large quantities relatively inexpensively but also, through the high temperatures generated, will facilitate bonding to a variety of surfaces

  17. Charged-particle cross section data for fusion plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Cross-section data for fusion plasma calculations are reviewed for three categories: fusion reactions, nuclear elastic and inelastic scattering. While the data base for the basic D-T fuel cycle seems adequate for present purposes, continued refinement appears warranted. Further, increasing emphasis on advanced-fuel fusion introduces requirements for new reaction rate and charged-particle scattering data over a wider range of reacting species (light elements through 11 B) and over a larger energy range (to several MeV). These new needs are discussed along with suggestions for increased emphasis on providing the user with more convenient compilations. In particular, the extension of reactivities (< sigma V) to non-Maxwellian distributions, scattering matrix data, and development of computer based files are noted

  18. Advanced applications of diagnostics techniques to fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, G.; Rustichelli, F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of the future fusion reactors requires structural materials capable to withstand extreme operation conditions, including the exposure to 14 MeV neutrons and intense thermomechanical stresses. Furthermore, material technologies such as welding and joining, tiling, production of components having unusual size and shape must also be developed. Therefore the microstructural effects produced in such materials by irradiation or thermomechanical tests must also be studied by suitable 'diagnostic' techniques. In this work, after an introduction recalling the most critical material problems in fusion technology, several results are reviewed concerning the characterization of fusion-relevant materials by using radiation-based techniques such as neutron and X-ray scattering, positron annihilation and some other more common ones. (orig.)

  19. Reactor applications of the compact fusion advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle for a D-T tokamak fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, H.A.; Logan, B.G.; Campbell, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    We have made a preliminary design of a D-T fusion reactor blanket and MHD power conversion system based on the CFAR concept, and found that the performance and costs for the reference cycle are very attractive. While much remains to be done, the potential advantage of liquid metal Rankine cycles for fusion applications are much clearer now. These include low pressures and mass flow rates, a nearly isothermal module shell which minimizes problems of thermal distortion and stresses, and an insensitivity to pressure losses in the blanket so that the two-phase MHD pressure drops in the boilling part of the blanket and the ordinary vapor pressure drops in the pebble-bed superheating zones are acceptable (the direct result of pumping a liquid rather than having to compress a gas). There are no moving parts in the high-temperature MHD power generators, no steam bottoming plant is required, only small vapor precoolers and condensers are needed because of the high heat rejection trmperatures, and only a relatively small natural-draft heat exhanger is required to reject the heat to the atmosphere. The net result is a very compact fusion reactor and power conversion system which fit entirely inside an 18 meter radius reactor vault. Although we have not yet performed a detailed cost analysis, preliminary cost estimates indicate low capital costs and a very attractive cost of electricity. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Advances in Multi-Sensor Information Fusion: Theory and Applications 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Bo Jin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The information fusion technique can integrate a large amount of data and knowledge representing the same real-world object and obtain a consistent, accurate, and useful representation of that object. The data may be independent or redundant, and can be obtained by different sensors at the same time or at different times. A suitable combination of investigative methods can substantially increase the profit of information in comparison with that from a single sensor. Multi-sensor information fusion has been a key issue in sensor research since the 1970s, and it has been applied in many fields. For example, manufacturing and process control industries can generate a lot of data, which have real, actionable business value. The fusion of these data can greatly improve productivity through digitization. The goal of this special issue is to report innovative ideas and solutions for multi-sensor information fusion in the emerging applications era, focusing on development, adoption, and applications.

  1. Visioneering-Applications to Human Issues in Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-02

    Hueristics and Biases (Kahneman and Tversky) ◆ Framing ◆ Availability ◆ Anchoring ◆ Confirmation ◆ Order Effects Primacy / Recency ...Representativeness JDL - Data Fusion Group %LDV([DPSOHV ■ Primacy / Recency ◆ Hypotheses Formed Early May Lead to a Confirmation Bias • Information/Product which...why how physical objects events environment & enemy tactics friendly vulnerabilities & mission friendly assets effectiveness resource management enemy

  2. Application of coincidence techniques to fusion product measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Strachan, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    Measurement of two products of a fusion reaction in coincidence is proposed. Possible detector arrays and sample count rates have been evaluated for reactions in the TFR and TEXT tokamaks and in the TFTR neutral beamlines. The count rates indicate that this method is feasible on existing devices

  3. Soft x-ray streak camera for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    This thesis reviews the development and significance of the soft x-ray streak camera (SXRSC) in the context of inertial confinement fusion energy development. A brief introduction of laser fusion and laser fusion diagnostics is presented. The need for a soft x-ray streak camera as a laser fusion diagnostic is shown. Basic x-ray streak camera characteristics, design, and operation are reviewed. The SXRSC design criteria, the requirement for a subkilovolt x-ray transmitting window, and the resulting camera design are explained. Theory and design of reflector-filter pair combinations for three subkilovolt channels centered at 220 eV, 460 eV, and 620 eV are also presented. Calibration experiments are explained and data showing a dynamic range of 1000 and a sweep speed of 134 psec/mm are presented. Sensitivity modifications to the soft x-ray streak camera for a high-power target shot are described. A preliminary investigation, using a stepped cathode, of the thickness dependence of the gold photocathode response is discussed. Data from a typical Argus laser gold-disk target experiment are shown

  4. The National Ignition Facility - applications for inertial fusion energy and high-energy-density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Research in inertial fusion sciences and applications worldwide is making dramatic progress. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the US and the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) in France are being built to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. Experiments that have been done on current Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facilities in the US and around the world have demonstrated that the drive characteristics required for ignition are now well understood and a new plan for inertial fusion energy development has been put together by the community. Besides examining the conditions necessary for fusion ignition, targets were designed without fusion capsules. Equilibrium temperatures of hundreds of electron volts and megabar pressures were used to study astrophysical processes and measure equations of states at these extreme conditions. Recent studies of laser-matter interactions with femtosecond lasers have revealed some startling new phenomena due to the ability to achieve irradiances >1020 W cm-2. This paper will review recent results in fusion and high energy density science achieved by high intensity lasers at LLNL and will look ahead to what may achieved on NIF. (author)

  5. Application of a sensor fusion algorithm for improving grasping stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Hyun Suck; Moon, Hyung Pil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo Ja Choon

    2015-01-01

    A robot hand normally employees various sensors that are packaged in small form factor, perform with delicately accurate, and cost mostly very expensive. Grasping operation of the hand relies especially on accuracy of those sensors. Even with a set of advanced sensory systems embedded in a robot hand, securing a stable grasping is still challenging task. The present work makes an attempt to improve force sensor accuracy by applying sensor fusion method. An optimal weight value sensor fusion method formulated with Kalman filters is presented and tested in the work. Using a set of inexpensive sensors, the work achieves a reliable force sensing and applies the enhanced sensor stability to an object pinch grasping.

  6. ENDF/B-VI nuclear data evaluations for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.; Larson, D.C.; Young, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The next release of the ENDF/B data library planned for 1989 contains improved data evaluations of interest to the fusion neutronics community. New data formats permit inclusion of energy-angle correlated particle emission spectra and recoil nucleus energy spectra. Enhanced formats for covariance information have been developed. Many new isotopic evaluations will lead to improved energy conservation and kerma factor calculations. Improved nuclear model calculations will provide reliable particle emission data where experimental information is sparse. Improved Bayssian fitting codes will provide more accurate evaluations for data rich reactions such as Li(n,nt)α. All of the most important fusion material evaluations contain these new features. 32 refs., 8 figs

  7. Application of probabilistic risk assessment methodology to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1985-07-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) tools are applied to general fusion issues in a systematic way, generally qualitatively. The potential value of PRA to general fusion safety and economic issues is discussed. Several important design insights result: possible fault interactions must be minimized (decouple fault conditions), inherently safe designs must include provision for passively handling loss of site power and loss of coolant conditions, the reliability of the vacuum boundary appears vital to maximizing facility availabilty and minimizing safety risk, and economic analyses appear to be incomplete without consideration of potential availability loss from forced outrages. A modification to PRA formalism is introduced, called the fault interaction matrix. The fault interaction matrix contains information concerning what initial fault condition could lead to other fault conditions and with what frequency. Thus, the fault interaction matrix represents a way to present and measure the degree to which a designer has decoupled possible fault conditions in his design

  8. Thick Nano-Crystalline Diamond films for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawedeit, Christoph [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    2010-06-30

    This Diplomarbeit deals with the characterization of 9 differently grown diamond samples. Several techniques were used to determine the quality of these specimens for inertial confinement fusion targets. The quality of chemical vapor deposition diamond is usually considered in terms of the proportion of sp3-bonded carbon to sp2-bonded carbon in the sample. For fusion targets smoothness, Hydrogen content and density of the diamonds are further important characteristics. These characteristics are analyzed in this thesis. The research for thesis was done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institut für angewandte Festkörperphysik Freiburg, Germany. Additionally the Lehrstuhl fuer Nukleartechnik at Technical University of Germany supported the work.

  9. Volatility from copper and tungsten alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolik, G.R.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Piet, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accident scenarios for fusion power plants present the potential for release and transport of activated constituents volatilized from first wall and structural materials. The extent of possible mobilization and transport of these activated species, many of which are ''oxidation driven'', is being addressed by the Fusion Safety Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report presents experimental measurements of volatilization from a copper alloy in air and steam and from a tungsten alloy in air. The major elements released included zinc from the copper alloy and rhenium and tungsten from the tungsten alloy. Volatilization rates of several constituents of these alloys over temperatures ranging from 400 to 1200 degree C are presented. These values represent release rates recommended for use in accident assessment calculations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Thermal Spray Coatings for Fusion Applications — Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel; Linke, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2007), s. 64-83 ISSN 1059-9630 Grant - others:-(XE) EFDA Task DV4/04 (TW0; -(XE) EFDA Task TW5-TVM-PSW Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : beryllium * boron carbide * plasma facing components * plasma sprayed coatings * thermonuclear fusion * tungsten Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2007

  11. Image-guided fusion and navigation: applications in tumor ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Liat; Mahgerefteh, Sam Y; Sosna, Jacob; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2013-12-01

    Navigation technology and multimodality image fusion represent an important development in interventional radiology. It is a rapidly developing field with great promise for improving, optimizing, and refining our workflow, especially for performing complex and difficult biopsies and ablations. It can potentially reduce procedure time, radiation dose, and complications while enhancing procedure accuracy and effectiveness. Additionally, such techniques are likely to greatly benefit less experienced operators and shorten the long learning curve to mastery of conventional procedures. Here, we describe different aspects of currently available image-guided fusion devices including the types of clinically available technological platforms (electromagnetic vs optical fusion) used to fuse prior and real-time images; pretest planning software; and advantages and limitations reported in preclinical and emerging clinical studies. Much refinement and development still needs to be performed for both the tracking systems and preablation software predictability, but this is anticipated as substantial research within the framework of multiple academic industrial partnerships is ongoing. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Environmental and safety envelope analysis for inertial fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Frank, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an envelope analysis concept and a generic process flow model which together can be used to identify and isolate plant functions and provide for detailed mass- and energy-balance bookkeeping for environmental and safety studies. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's (LASL) two laser fusion power plant concepts were analyzed with this approach. Samples of the detailed tables of material flow rates into and out of an envelope are presented in this paper. The tritium and lithium inventories and air activation were identified as having important potential environmental problems and safety risks

  13. Application of uncertainty analysis in conceptual fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Maynard, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    The theories of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described and applied to a new conceptual tokamak fusion reactor design--NUWMAK. The responses investigated in this study include the tritium breeding ratio, first wall Ti dpa and gas productions, nuclear heating in the blanket, energy leakage to the magnet, and the dpa rate in the superconducting magnet aluminum stabilizer. The sensitivities and uncertainties of these responses are calculated. The cost/benefit feature of proposed integral measurements is also studied through the uncertainty reductions of these responses

  14. Microwave generation for magnetic fusion energy applications, Task A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Singh, A.

    1990-05-01

    This report details progress over the past year in the research program ''Free Electron Lasers with Short Period Wigglers.'' The work is performed jointly by the laboratory for Plasma Research and the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Maryland and is funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy. The goal of the work is the development of an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) scheme for magnetic fusion plasmas such as the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). Our approach is the development of a free electron laser using a sheet electron beam and a short period wiggler magnet. The specific requirements for the heating method include 10 to 30 MW of average power with pulse durations of several seconds to CW at a frequency near 300 GHz (∼600 GHz) in the case of second harmonic (ECRH). Compatible with the experimental nature of the program, radiation frequency flexibility of 30% total bandwidth and 5% rapid dynamic (approx-lt 10 ms) bandwidth is desirable. As the source will eventually be applied to a reactor, priority is placed upon high system efficiency and reliability. Use of established technologies is encouraged where possible

  15. Application of simulation experiments to fusion materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Li, C.Y.

    1978-01-01

    One of the major problems in the development of structural alloys for use in magnetic fusion reactors (MFRs) is the lack of suitable materials testing facilities. This is because operating fusion reactors, even of the experimental size, do not exist. A primary task in the early stages of MFR alloy development will be to adapt currently available irradiation facilities for use in materials development. Thus, it is generally recognized that, at least for the next ten years, studies of irradiation effects in an MFR environment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of structural materials must utilize ion and fission neutron simulations. Special problems will arise because, in addition to displacement damage, an MFR radiation environment will produce, in candidate structural materials, higher and more significant concentrations of gaseous nuclear transmutation products, e.g., helium and hydrogen, than found in a fast breeder reactor. These effects must be taken into account when simulation techniques are employed, since they impact heavily on irradiation microstructure development and, hence, mechanical properties

  16. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  17. Development of vanadium base alloys for fusion first-wall/blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Matsui, H.; Votinov, S.; VanWitzenburg, W.

    1994-01-01

    Vanadium alloys have been identified as a leading candidate material for fusion first-wall/blanket applications. Certain vanadium alloys exhibit favorable safety and environmental characteristics, good fabricability, high temperature and heat load capability, good compatibility with liquid metals and resistance to irradiation damage effects. The current focus is on vanadium alloys with (3-5)% Cr and (3-5)% Ti with a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy as the leading candidate. Preliminary results indicate that the crack-growth rates of certain alloys are not highly sensitive to irradiation. Results from the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) which simulates fusion relevant helium/dpa ratios are similar to results from neutron irradiated material. This paper presents an overview of the recent results on the development of vanadium alloys for fusion first wall/blanket applications

  18. FENDL: International reference nuclear data library for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear data section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an internationally available fusion evaluated nuclear data library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of the ITER project and other fusion-related development projects. The present version of FENDL consists of the following sublibraries covering the necessary nuclear input for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase: FENDL/A-1.1: neutron activation cross-sections, selected from different available sources, for 636 nuclides, FENDL/D-1.0: nuclear decay data for 2900 nuclides in ENDF-6 format, FENDL/DS-1.0: neutron activation data for dosimetry by foil activation, FENDL/C-1.0: data for the fusion reactions D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) extracted from ENDF/B-6 and processed, FENDL/E-1.0:data for coupled neutron-photon transport calculations, including a data library for neutron interaction and photon production for 63 elements or isotopes, selected from ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3, or BROND-2, and a photon-atom interaction data library for 34 elements. The benchmark validation of FENDL-1 as required by the customer, i.e. the ITER team, is considered to be a task of high priority in the coming months. The well tested and validated nuclear data libraries in processed form of the FENDL-2 are expected to be ready by mid 1996 for use by the ITER team in the final phase of ITER EDA after extensive benchmarking and integral validation studies in the 1995-1996 period. The FENDL data files can be electronically transferred to users from the IAEA nuclear data section online system through INTERNET. A grand total of 54 (sub)directories with 845 files with total size of about 2 million

  19. Statistical modeling and data fusion of automotive sensors for object detection applications in a driving environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Miguel A.

    In this work, we consider the application of classical statistical inference to the fusion of data from different sensing technologies for object detection applications in order to increase the overall performance for a given active safety automotive system. Research evolved mainly around a centralized sensor fusion architecture assuming that three non-identical sensors, modeled by corresponding probability density functions (pdfs), provide discrete information of target being present or absent with associated probabilities of detection and false alarm for the sensor fusion engine. The underlying sensing technologies are the following standard automotive sensors: 24.5 GHz radar, high dynamic range infrared camera and a laser-radar. A complete mathematical framework was developed to select the optimal decision rule based on a generalized multinomial distribution resulting from a sum of weighted Bernoulli random variables from the Neyman-Pearson lemma and the likelihood ratio test. Moreover, to better understand the model and to obtain upper bounds on the performance of the fusion rules, we assumed exponential pdfs for each sensor and a parallel mathematical expression was obtained based on a generalized gamma distribution resulting from a sum of weighted exponential random variables for the situation when the continuous random vector of information is available. Mathematical expressions and results were obtained for modeling the following case scenarios: (i) non-identical sensors, (ii) identical sensors, (iii) combination of nonidentical and identical sensors, (iv) faulty sensor operation, (v) dominant sensor operation, (vi) negative sensor operation, and (vii) distributed sensor fusion. The second and final part of this research focused on: (a) simulation of statistical models for each sensing technology, (b) comparisons with distributed fusion, (c) overview of dynamic sensor fusion and adaptive decision rules.

  20. Boron coatings on graphite for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierson, H.O.; Mullendore, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study is an experimental investigation of boron coatings on graphite and the preliminary determination of some of their physical and nuclear related properties. The boron was obtained by the decomposition of diborane in argon at 500 0 C and one atm. Adhesion to the graphite (POCO AXF-5Q) was good if a slightly abraded surface was provided. The boron was pseudo-amorphous, had high purity with no visually observable porosity and the fractured surface showed no growth features. It was very hard (VHN 25 = 2400 kg/mm 2 ) and had good resistance to hydrogen ion erosion and arcing. It may, therefore, be a suitable candidate for first wall and limiter coatings in tokamak fusion reactors

  1. Development of Radiation-Hardening Ceramic Composites for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don Steiner

    2004-01-01

    This Progress Report describes work performed as a collaborative effort between Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This research is focused in four areas considered to be critical issues for using SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) as structural materials in a fusion environment: (1) Calculation of the critical dose and temperature for amorphization of SiC by using the TRIM computer code to analyze ORNL and literature data; (2) Measurement of irradiation-induced creep in monolithic SiC or stoichiometric SiC fibers; (3) Determining the effects of high-temperature irradiation on monolithic SiC as part of ORNL's METS experiment; and (4) Gauging the effectiveness of polymer impregnation pyrolysis in improving SiC/SiC composite hermicity. Progress in each area is described, as well as plans for next year

  2. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Preparation of processed nuclear data libraries for thermal, fast and fusion research and power reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.

    1994-03-01

    A Consultants Meeting on ''Preparation of Processed Nuclear Data Libraries for Thermal, Fast and Fusion Research and Power Reactor Applications'' was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency and held during December 13-16, 1993 December 8-10, 1993 at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna. The detailed agenda, the complete list of participants and the recommendations are presented in this report. (author)

  4. Integral data testing of JENDL-3.2 for fusion reactor and shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    Integral data testing of JENDL-3.2 is being performed in the activities of two working groups of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. The continuous and group-wise libraries prepared from JENDL-3.2 are planned to be tested by the working groups. In this paper, the continuous library FSXLIB-J3R2 processed from JENDL-3.2 for MCNP was tested for fission and fusion neutrons using data of integral experiments and compared to the results of JENDL-3.1. The results of integral data testing of JENDL-3.2 for fusion and shielding application are reviewed. (author)

  5. Evaluation of charged-particle reactions for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.M.; Resler, D.A.; Warshaw, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    New evaluations of the total reaction cross sections for {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He, {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, {sup 3}H(t,2n){sup 4}He,{sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He, and {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He have been completed. These evaluations are based on all known published data from 1946 to 1990 and include over 1150 measured data points from 67 references. The purpose of this work is to provide a consistent and well-documented set of cross sections for use in calculations relating to fusion energy research. A new thermonuclear data file, TDF, and a library of FORTRAN subprograms to read the file have been developed. Calculated from the new evaluations, the TDF file contains information on the Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates as a function of reaction and plasma temperature and the Maxwellian-averaged average energy of the interacting particles and reaction products. Routines are included that provide thermally-broadened spectral information for the secondary reaction products. 67 refs., 18 figs.

  6. Fusion radioactivity confinement and application to postulated ITER accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Brereton, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the ITER radioactivity confinement shows reduction of potential accidental releases to the environment by two orders of magnitude. Important credits are the 1% volume/day confinement leakage rate, radioactivity decay for short-lived isotopes, resumption of detritiation/negative pressure within seven days of the accident, and wind meander during the slow confinement leakage. Achieving this two order of magnitude credit in practice requires appropriate design details, especially the leakage rate and detritiation/negative pressure equipment, and research to validate some key assumptions. The confinement maximizes dependence on passive safety features, thereby working toward using fusion's potential safety advantages. The confinement includes several confinement zones with varying human access allowances. Some confinement areas are normally isolated from the environment, the closed ventilation zone. Some areas have an inert cover gas to inhibit combustion. If future assessments of accidental overpressure show the need, we propose a filter/vent system. This report documents our work for the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The report is consistent with the final CDA design reports and descriptions, except that our analysis includes a filter/vent. For gaseous or vapor tritium and for most activated aerosols, the reference release fraction is about 2%. For short-lived tungsten-rhenium aerosols, the reference release fraction is somewhat lower, as low as 0.5% for some accident scenarios. Even without resumption of detritiation/decontamination or negative pressure within seven days of the accident, the release fraction for stays below 4%

  7. Application of the integrated blanket-coil concept (IBC) to fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D.; Mohanti, R.; Duggan, W.

    1987-01-01

    A novel concept is proposed for combining the blanket and coil functions of a fusion reactor into a single component and several unique applications to fusion reactor embodiments are identified. The proposed concept takes advantage of the fact that lithium is a good electrical conductor in addition to being a unique tritium-breeding material capable of energy recovery and transport at high temperatures. This concept, designated the ''integrated-blanket-coil (IBC) concept'' has the potential for: allowing fusion reactor embodiments which are easier to maintain; making fusion reactors more compact with an intrinsic ultra-high mass power density (net kW/sub E//metric tonne); and enhancing the tritium breeding potential for special coil applications such as ohmic heating and bean identation. By assuming a sandwich construction for the IBC walls (i.e., a layered combination of a thin wall of structural material, insulator and structural materials) the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-induced pressure drops and associated pressure stresses are modest and well below design limits. Possible unique applications of the IBC concept have been investigated and include the IBC concept applied to the poloidal field (PF) coils, toroidal field (TF) coils, divertor coils, ohmic heating (OH) coils, and identation coils for bean shaping

  8. Bringing functions together with fusion enzymes--from nature's inventions to biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander

    2015-02-01

    It is a mammoth task to develop a modular protein toolbox enabling the production of posttranslational organized multifunctional enzymes that catalyze reactions in complex pathways. However, nature has always guided scientists to mimic evolutionary inventions in the laboratory and, nowadays, versatile methods have been established to experimentally connect enzymatic activities with multiple advantages. Among the oldest known natural examples is the linkage of two or more juxtaposed proteins catalyzing consecutive, non-consecutive, or opposing reactions by a native peptide bond. There are multiple reasons for the artificial construction of such fusion enzymes including improved catalytic activities, enabled substrate channelling by proximity of biocatalysts, higher stabilities, and cheaper production processes. To produce fused proteins, it is either possible to genetically fuse coding open reading frames or to connect proteins in a posttranslational process. Molecular biology techniques that have been established for the production of end-to-end or insertional fusions include overlap extension polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and recombination approaches. Depending on their flexibility and applicability, these methods offer various advantages to produce fusion genes in high throughput, different orientations, and including linker sequences to maximize the flexibility and performance of fusion partners. In this review, practical techniques to fuse genes are highlighted, enzymatic parameters to choose adequate enzymes for fusion approaches are summarized, and examples with biotechnological relevance are presented including a focus on plant biomass-degrading glycosyl hydrolases.

  9. Application of reliability analysis method to fusion component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The term reliability here implies that a component satisfies a set of performance criteria while under specified conditions of use over a specified period of time. For fusion nuclear technology, the reliability goal to be pursued is the development of a mean time between failures (MTBF) for a component which is longer than its lifetime goal. While the component lifetime is mainly determined by the fluence limitation (i.e., damage level) which leads to performance degradation or failure, the MTBF represents an arithmetic average life of all units in a population. One method of assessing the reliability goal involves determining component availability needs to meet the goal plant availability, defining a test-analyze-fix development program to improve component reliability, and quantifying both test times and the number of test articles that would be required to ensure that a specified target MTBF is met. Statistically, constant failure rates and exponential life distributions are assumed for analyses and blanket component development is used as an example. However, as data are collected the probability distribution of the parameter of interest can be updated in a Bayesian fashion. The nuclear component testing program will be structured such that reliability requirements for DEMO can be achieved. The program shall not exclude the practice of a good design (such as reducing the complexity of the system to the minimum essential for the required operation), the execution of high quality manufacturing and inspection processes, and the implication of quality assurance and control for component development. In fact, the assurance of a high quality testing/development program is essential so that there is no question left for reliability

  10. Quantifying the Interaction and Contribution of Multiple Datasets in Fusion: Application to the Detection of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Schwartz, Yuri; Calhoun, Vince D; Adali, Tulay

    2017-07-01

    The extraction of information from multiple sets of data is a problem inherent to many disciplines. This is possible by either analyzing the data sets jointly as in data fusion or separately and then combining as in data integration. However, selecting the optimal method to combine and analyze multiset data is an ever-present challenge. The primary reason for this is the difficulty in determining the optimal contribution of each data set to an analysis as well as the amount of potentially exploitable complementary information among data sets. In this paper, we propose a novel classification rate-based technique to unambiguously quantify the contribution of each data set to a fusion result as well as facilitate direct comparisons of fusion methods on real data and apply a new method, independent vector analysis (IVA), to multiset fusion. This classification rate-based technique is used on functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected from 121 patients with schizophrenia and 150 healthy controls during the performance of three tasks. Through this application, we find that though optimal performance is achieved by exploiting all tasks, each task does not contribute equally to the result and this framework enables effective quantification of the value added by each task. Our results also demonstrate that data fusion methods are more powerful than data integration methods, with the former achieving a classification rate of 73.5 % and the latter achieving one of 70.9 %, a difference which we show is significant when all three tasks are analyzed together. Finally, we show that IVA, due to its flexibility, has equivalent or superior performance compared with the popular data fusion method, joint independent component analysis.

  11. Structured Multi-level Data Fusion and Modelling of Heterogeneous Environmental Data for Future Internet Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeur, Zoheir; Chakravarthy, Ajay; Bashevoy, Maxim; Modafferi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    important approach provides a strong basis for the delivery of environmental observations at desired spatial and temporal scales to multiple users with various needs of spatial and temporal resolutions. It has also led to building robust future internet specific enablers on data fusion, which can indeed be used for multiple usage areas above and beyond the environmental domains of the Future Internet. In this paper, data and processing workflow scenarios shall be described. The fucntionalities of the multi-level fusion services shall be demonstrated and made accessible to the wider communities of the Fututre Internet. [1] The Environmental Observation Web and its Service Applications within the Future Internet. ENVIROFI IP. FP7-2011-ICT-IF Pr.No: 284898 http://www.envirofi.eu/

  12. New applications of planar image fusion in clinical nuclear medicine and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckier, Lionel S; Koncicki, Holly M

    2006-01-01

    Fusion of multiple modalities has become an integral part of modern imaging methodology, especially in nuclear medicine where PET and SPECT scanning are frequently paired with computed tomography (CT). We have extended image fusion from the tomographic realm to planar imaging in 2 specific applications. In the first, we combine planar scintigraphic images with photographic images of the body part of interest, using a predetermined transformation of images between the frames of reference. This technique is especially helpful in "hot spot" imaging applications where minimal background activity makes it difficult to locate abnormalities in an anatomic context. The technique has been demonstrated to be accurate, and results in increased reader confidence. We have also begun fusing orthopedic radiographs with photographic images of the extremities, using fiducial markers within each image set to perform an affine transformation unique for the particular image set. Preliminary results indicate that this method is accurate, and clinical evaluation is underway.

  13. Applications of induction linac technology to heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1977-07-01

    Evaluation of the application of heavy ion accelerators to ignite d-t pellets in a thermonuclear reactor is discussed. Accelerator design requirements considered include transport-limited current, beam injection conditions, and pulse bunching and focusing characteristics. The desirability of resonant and non-resonant accelerating structures is comparatively examined. The required power system switch tubes are discussed. It is concluded that heavy ion accelerators could offer a promising solution to the pellet-igniter problem. The advantages pointed out for this approach include electric efficiency greater than 10 percent, the possibility of high repetition rates (1 to 10 Hz), and a mature technological base. (RME)

  14. Interpolation method for the transport theory and its application in fusion-neutronics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents an interpolation method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The method is based on a flux synthesis technique using two reference-point solutions. The equation for the interpolated solution results in a Volterra integral equation which is proved to have a unique solution. As an application of the present method, tritium breeding ratio is calculated for a typical D-T fusion reactor system. The result is compared to that of a variational technique

  15. A GDT-based fusion neutron source for academic and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. K.; Forest, C. B.; Mirnov, V. V.; Peterson, E. E.; Waleffe, R.; Wallace, J.; Harvey, R. W.

    2017-10-01

    The design of a fusion neutron source based on the gas dynamic trap (GDT) configuration is underway. The motivation is both the ends and the means. There are immediate applications for neutrons including medical isotope production and actinide burners. Taking the next step in the magnetic mirror path will leverage advances in high-temperature superconducting magnets and additive manufacturing in confining a fusion plasma, and both the technological and physics bases exist. Recent breakthrough results at the GDT facility in Russia demonstrate stable confinement of a beta 60% mirror plasma at high Te ( 1 keV). These scale readily to a fusion neutron source with an increase in magnetic field, mirror ratio, and ion energy. Studies of a next-step compact device focus on calculations of MHD equilibrium and stability, and Fokker-Planck modeling to optimize the heating scenario. The conceptualized device uses off-the-shelf MRI magnets for a 1 T central field, REBCO superconducting mirror coils (which can currently produce fields in excess of 30T), and existing 75 keV NBI and 140 GHz ECRH. High harmonic fast wave injection is damped on beam ions, dramatically increasing the fusion reactivity for an incremental bump in input power. MHD stability is achieved with the vortex confinement scheme, where a biasing profile imposes optimal ExB rotation of the plasma. Liquid metal divertors are being considered in the end cells. Work supported by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation.

  16. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Pasciuto, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2016-01-26

    Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor's uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process.

  17. SU-D-304-07: Application of Proton Boron Fusion Reaction to Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J; Yoon, D; Shin, H; Kim, M; Suh, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: we present the introduction of a therapy method using the proton boron fusion reaction. The purpose of this study is to verify the theoretical validity of proton boron fusion therapy using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: After boron is accumulated in the tumor region, the emitted from outside the body proton can react with the boron in the tumor region. An increase of the proton’s maximum dose level is caused by the boron and only the tumor cell is damaged more critically. In addition, a prompt gamma ray is emitted from the proton boron reaction point. Here we show that the effectiveness of the proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) was verified using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: We found that a dramatic increase by more than half of the proton’s maximum dose level was induced by the boron in the tumor region. This increase occurred only when the proton’s maximum dose point was located within the boron uptake region (BUR). In addition, the 719 keV prompt gamma ray peak produced by the proton boron fusion reaction was positively detected. Conclusion: This therapy method features the advantages such as the application of Bragg-peak to the therapy, the accurate targeting of tumor, improved therapy effects, and the monitoring of the therapy region during treatment

  18. Beryllium armored mockups for fusion high flux application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.; Watson, R.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main requirements to use Be as a candidate for plasma facing component in ITER is providing a reliable joint between Be and Cu-alloy heat sink structure. In this work authors present the results of recent activity on this way. To create Be/CuCrZr joints the unique fast e-beam brazing technology was developed in Russia. The numbers of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were manufactured in Efremov Institute by fast e-beam brazing using Cu-Sn-In-Ni brazing alloy. These mock-ups were tested by Sandia Laboratory at the EBTS electron beam facility. The goals of the tests were to define the allowable dimensions of the armour tiles for the heat loads of more than 10 MW/m 2 , to find the limit of bond strength for the Be/CuCrZr joint and response to heat loads and to estimate the life time of the brazed tiles by thermo-cyclic testing. The screening and thermal fatigue results are presented. With the aim to check the applicability of developed fast brazing process to DS-Cu alloy (GlidCop) the actively cooled mock-up produced by fast brazing Be onto GlidCop structure was manufactured and tested in Efremov Institute, main results are discussed. Summarizing testing data authors show that the CuCrZr or DS-Cu heat sink armored with beryllium can survive high heat fluxes (≥10 MW/m 2 ) during thousand heating/cooling cycles without serious damaging in the armour material and its joint. (author)

  19. Report of the DOE panel on low activation materials for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    In February, 1982, the Office of Fusion Energy, DOE, through its Division of Development and Technology, established a Panel to examine materials with attractive radioactivation characteristics for applications in fusion power reactors. Since February, the Panel has met together and in subgroups numerous times. Input from knowledgeable people was elicited via a two day workshop held at UCLA in April, 1982. The agenda, titles of talks, and speakers are given in Appendix II. We present here a synopsis of the Panel's findings based upon both external information provided to us and upon the work and deliberations of the Panel itself. Conclusions and recommendations follow. Background technical information brought together by the Panel is relegated to Appendices III and IV.

  20. Analytical expressions for thermophysical properties of solid and liquid tungsten relevant for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tolias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of the literature is reviewed for several thermophysical properties of pure solid and liquid tungsten which constitute input for the modelling of intense plasma-surface interaction phenomena that are important for fusion applications. Reliable experimental data are analyzed for the latent heat of fusion, the electrical resistivity, the specific isobaric heat capacity, the thermal conductivity and the mass density from the room temperature up to the boiling point of tungsten as well as for the surface tension and the dynamic viscosity across the liquid state. Analytical expressions of high accuracy are recommended for these thermophysical properties that involved a minimum degree of extrapolations. In particular, extrapolations were only required for the surface tension and viscosity.

  1. Properties of V-4Cr-4Ti for application as fusion reactor structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Vanadium-based alloys are promising candidate materials for application in fusion reactor first-wall and blanket structures because they offer several important advantages, i.e. inherently low irradiation-induced activity, good mechanical properties, good compatibility with lithium, high thermal conductivity and good resistance to irradiation-induced swelling and damage. As part of a program to screen candidate alloys and develop an optimized vandanium-base alloy, extensive investigations of various V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti and V-Ti-Si alloys have been conducted after irradiation in lithium in fission reactors. From these investigations, V-4wt.%Cr-4wt.%Ti was indentified as the most promising alloy. The alloy exhibited attractive mechanical and physical properties that are prerequisites for first-wall and blanket structures, i.e. high tensile strength, high ductility, good creep properties, high impact energy, low ductile-brittle transition temperature before and after irradiation, excellent resistance to irradiation-induced swelling and microstructural instability and good resistance to corrosion in lithium. In particular, the alloy is virtually immune to irradiation-induced embrittlement, a remarkable property compared with other candidate materials being investigated in the fusion-reactor-materials community. The effects of helium, charged dynamically in simulation of realistic fusion reactor conditions, on tensile, ductile-brittle transition and swelling properties were insignificant. The thermal creep behavior of the alloy was significantly superior to that of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels. (orig.)

  2. Construction, expression, functional сharacterization and practical application of fusion protein SPA-ВAPmut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbatiuk O. B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The creation of genetically engineered fusion protein SPA-BAPmut and its application as a secondary immunoreagent in immunoassays. Methods. Gene cloning, PCR, electrophoresis, DNA sequencing, bacteria cells culturing, protein expression and purification, ELISA, Western-blotting were used. Results. The DNA sequences encoding Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SPA and bacterial alkaline phosphatase with enhanced catalytic activity (BAPmut were used for construction of gene encoding fusion protein SPA-BAPmut that was expressed in the high-productive Escherichia coli system and obtained in a soluble form. Cultivation conditions to provide a high-level expression of SPA-ВAPmut (> 1 g/l were determined. The target protein was obtained with purity more than 95 % using ІМАХ method. SPA-ВAPmut is thermostable, and both parts of fusion protein (SPA and BAPmut retain their IgG binding and alkaline phosphatase activity for a long time. SPA-BAPmut was used as a substitute of secondary antibodies in immunoassays. As little as 5 ng of the antigen could be detected in Western blotting and 1 g/ml of IgG in ELISA. Conclusions. The possibility of using SPA-ВAPmut as universal secondary immunoreagent for different types of immunoassays was shown.

  3. Some applications of mirror-generated electric potentials to alternative fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Transient electrical potentials can be generated in plasmas by utilizing impulsive mirror-generated forces acting on the plasma electrons together with ion inertia to cause momentary charge imbalance. In the Mirrortron such potentials are generated by applying a rapidly rising (tens of nanoseconds) localized mirror field to the central region of a hot-electron plasma confined between static mirrors. Because of the loss-cone nature of the electron distribution the sudden appearance of the pulsed mirror tends to expel electrons, whereas the ion density remains nearly constant. The quasi-neutrality condition then operates to create an electrical potential the equipotential surfaces of which can be shown theoretically to be congruent with surfaces of constant B. An alternative way of generating transient potentials is to apply a pulse of high-power microwaves to a plasma residing on a magnetic field with a longitudinal gradient. This technique resembles one employed in the Pleiade experiments. At gigawatt power levels, such as those produced by a Free Electron Laser, the production of very high transient potentials is predicted. Fusion-relevant applications of these ideas include heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion, and the possibility of employing these techniques to enhance the longitudinal confinement of fusion plasmas in multiple-mirror systems. 23 refs., 3 figs

  4. Infrared and visible image fusion using discrete cosine transform and swarm intelligence for surveillance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramanandham, Nirmala; Rajendiran, Kishore

    2018-01-01

    A novel image fusion technique is presented for integrating infrared and visible images. Integration of images from the same or various sensing modalities can deliver the required information that cannot be delivered by viewing the sensor outputs individually and consecutively. In this paper, a swarm intelligence based image fusion technique using discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain is proposed for surveillance application which integrates the infrared image with the visible image for generating a single informative fused image. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used in the fusion process for obtaining the optimized weighting factor. These optimized weighting factors are used for fusing the DCT coefficients of visible and infrared images. Inverse DCT is applied for obtaining the initial fused image. An enhanced fused image is obtained through adaptive histogram equalization for a better visual understanding and target detection. The proposed framework is evaluated using quantitative metrics such as standard deviation, spatial frequency, entropy and mean gradient. The experimental results demonstrate the outperformance of the proposed algorithm over many other state- of- the- art techniques reported in literature.

  5. Analysis and measurement of residual stress distribution of vanadium/ceramics joints for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1998-01-01

    Vanadium alloys are considered as candidate structural materials for fusion reactor system. When vanadium alloys are used in fusion reactor system, joining with ceramics for insulating is one of material issues to be solved to make component of fusion reactor. In the application of ceramics/metal jointing and coating, residual stress caused by difference of thermal expansion rate between ceramics and metals is an important factor in obtaining good bonding strength and soundness of coating. In this work, residual stress distribution in direct diffusion bonded vanadium/alumina joint (jointing temperature: 1400 C) was measured by small area X-ray diffraction method. And the comparison of finite element method (FEM) analysis and actual stress distribution was carried out. Tensile stress concentration at the edge of the boundary of the joint in alumina was observed. The residual stress concentration may cause cracks in alumina, or failure of bonding. Actually, cracks in alumina caused by thermal stress after bonding at 1500 C was observed. The stress concentration of the joint must be reduced to obtain good bonded joint. Lower bonding temperature or to devise the shape of the outer surface of the joint will reduce the stress concentration. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis of galaxite by plasma fusion & its application in refractory for cement rotary kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Padhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, chromite is used for making magnesia chrome bricks due to its low modulus of elasticity. But the use of magnesia chrome bricks in the sintering zone of cement rotary kilns causes environmental pollution due to the formation of Cr+6 compounds. In order to meet the above challenges and to satisfy the operational demands due to use of alternative fuels, now-a-days, galaxite spinel is being used in place of chromite as a chrome free material. Galaxite is not available in nature and electro fusion is the main process by virtue of which it is industrially manufactured. However, the main drawback of electro-fusion process is both time and energy consumption. In such a backdrop, the present work has been carried out which describes the synthesis of galaxite by plasma fusion process and also the characterization of its refractory properties for application in cement rotary kilns. This alternative process is absolutely new, faster in approach and also economically viable. The developed magnesia galaxite brick shows higher performance rate and is also economically cost effective as compared to the conventional magnesia chrome and magnesia galaxite bricks, presently available in the market.

  7. Advanced Computational Materials Science: Application to Fusion and Generation IV Fission Reactors (Workshop Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, RE

    2004-07-15

    The ''Workshop on Advanced Computational Materials Science: Application to Fusion and Generation IV Fission Reactors'' was convened to determine the degree to which an increased effort in modeling and simulation could help bridge the gap between the data that is needed to support the implementation of these advanced nuclear technologies and the data that can be obtained in available experimental facilities. The need to develop materials capable of performing in the severe operating environments expected in fusion and fission (Generation IV) reactors represents a significant challenge in materials science. There is a range of potential Gen-IV fission reactor design concepts and each concept has its own unique demands. Improved economic performance is a major goal of the Gen-IV designs. As a result, most designs call for significantly higher operating temperatures than the current generation of LWRs to obtain higher thermal efficiency. In many cases, the desired operating temperatures rule out the use of the structural alloys employed today. The very high operating temperature (up to 1000 C) associated with the NGNP is a prime example of an attractive new system that will require the development of new structural materials. Fusion power plants represent an even greater challenge to structural materials development and application. The operating temperatures, neutron exposure levels and thermo-mechanical stresses are comparable to or greater than those for proposed Gen-IV fission reactors. In addition, the transmutation products created in the structural materials by the high energy neutrons produced in the DT plasma can profoundly influence the microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of these materials. Although the workshop addressed issues relevant to both Gen-IV and fusion reactor materials, much of the discussion focused on fusion; the same focus is reflected in this report. Most of the physical models and computational methods

  8. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-12-16

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors.

  9. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors

  10. New design of cable-in-conduit conductor for application in future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jinggang; Wu, Yu; Li, Jiangang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Chao; Shi, Yi; Liu, Huajun; Mao, Zhehua; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Yagotintsev, Konstantin A.; Lubkemann, Ruben; Anvar, V. A.; Devred, Arnaud

    2017-11-01

    The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new tokamak device whose magnet system includes toroidal field, central solenoid (CS) and poloidal field coils. The main goal is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with about 1 GW fusion power and self-sufficiency by blanket. In order to reach this high performance, the magnet field target is 15 T. However, the huge electromagnetic load caused by high field and current is a threat for conductor degradation under cycling. The conductor with a short-twist-pitch (STP) design has large stiffness, which enables a significant performance improvement in view of load and thermal cycling. But the conductor with STP design has a remarkable disadvantage: it can easily cause severe strand indentation during cabling. The indentation can reduce the strand performance, especially under high load cycling. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a new design is proposed. The main characteristic of this new design is an updated layout in the triplet. The triplet is made of two Nb3Sn strands and one soft copper strand. The twist pitch of the two Nb3Sn strands is large and cabled first. The copper strand is then wound around the two superconducting strands (CWS) with a shorter twist pitch. The following cable stages layout and twist pitches are similar to the ITER CS conductor with STP design. One short conductor sample with a similar scale to the ITER CS was manufactured and tested with the Twente Cable Press to investigate the mechanical properties, AC loss and internal inspection by destructive examination. The results are compared to the STP conductor (ITER CS and CFETR CSMC) tests. The results show that the new conductor design has similar stiffness, but much lower strand indentation than the STP design. The new design shows potential for application in future fusion reactors.

  11. Recent developments in transient magneto-structural integrated analysis for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, Y.; Papadopoulos, S.; Richard, N.; Siakavellas, N.; Wu, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper three different numerical approaches modelling the mutual field-structure interactions during transient electromagnetic events are presented. The application of these approaches to simple plate models, simulating flexible conducting components of fusion devices, show that a magnetic damping is encountered when coupling effects between eddy currents and plate motion are taken into account. This damping increases with the applied magnetic field, modifying the mechanical behavior. An Integrated Design/Analysis System is also proposed, in order to combine different computer codes, obtaining performing computational schemes, in the field of 3D electromagneto-mechanical analyses

  12. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques, and Instrumentation, Industrial Applications, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1986-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. Contents cover the three main areas of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactor and Particle Accelerator Applications, and Nuclear Data), (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, and Tracers), and (iii) Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

  13. Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2007-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA promotes the development and application of nuclear technologies in Member States. The scientific and technical knowledge required for the construction and operation of large nuclear fusion research facilities, including ITER and the Laser Megajoule in France, and the Z machine and the National Ignition Facility in the United States of America, necessitates several accompanying research and development programmes in physics and technology. This is particularly true in the areas of materials science and fusion technology. Hence, the long standing IAEA effort to conduct coordinated research projects (CRPs) in these areas is aimed at: (i) the development of appropriate technical tools to investigate the issue of materials damage and degradation in a fusion plasma environment; and (ii) the emergence of a knowledge based understanding of the various processes underlying materials damage and degradation, thereby leading to the identification of suitable candidate materials fulfilling the stringent requirements of a fusion environment in any next step facility. Dense magnetized plasma (DMP) devices serve as a first test bench for testing of fusion relevant plasma facing materials, diagnostic development and calibration, technologies and scaling to conceptual principles of larger devices while sophisticated testing facilities such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are being designed. The CRP on Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology described herein was initiated in 2007 with the participation of 12 research institutions in 8 Member States and was concluded in 2011. It was designed with specific research objectives falling into two main categories: support to mainstream fusion research and development of DMP technology. This publication is a compilation of the individual reports submitted by the 12 CRP participants. These reports discuss

  14. A carbon-carbon composite materials development program for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.; Eatherly, W.P.; Engle, G.B.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1992-10-01

    Carbon-carbon composites increasingly are being used for plasma-facing component (PFC) applications in magnetic-confinement plasma-fusion devices. They offer substantial advantages such as enhanced physical and mechanical properties and superior thermal shock resistance compared to the previously favored bulk graphite. Next-generation plasma-fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), will require advanced carbon-carbon composites possessing extremely high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated extreme thermal heat loads. This report outlines a program that will facilitate the development of advanced carbon-carbon composites specifically tailored to meet the requirements of ITER and BPX. A strategy for developing the necessary associated design data base is described. Materials property needs, i.e., high thermal conductivity, radiation stability, tritium retention, etc., are assessed and prioritized through a systems analysis of the functional, operational, and component requirements for plasma-facing applications. The current Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Program on carbon-carbon composites is summarized. Realistic property goals are set based upon our current understanding. The architectures of candidate PFC carbon-carbon composite materials are outlined, and architectural features considered desirable for maximum irradiation stability are described. The European and Japanese carbon-carbon composite development and irradiation programs are described. The Working Group conclusions and recommendations are listed. It is recommended that developmental carbon-carbon composite materials from the commercial sector be procured via request for proposal/request for quotation (RFP/RFQ) as soon as possible

  15. Feasibility Assessment of Synchronous Fluorescence Spectral Fusion by Application to Argan Oil for Adulteration Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Tyler D; Foteini, Mellou; Brownfield, Brett; Kalivas, John H; Mousdis, George; Amine, Aziz; Georgiou, Constantinos

    2018-03-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) is used for quantitative analysis as well as for qualitative analysis, such as with classification methods. With SFS, determination of a useful wavelength interval between the excitation and emission wavelengths (Δλ) is required. There are a multitude of Δλ intervals that can be evaluated and optimization of the best one is complex. Presented here is a fusion approach for combining Δλ intervals, thereby negating the need to perform the selection by a skilled operator. To demonstrate the feasibility of omitting selection of the best Δλ interval, adulterated argan oil samples are studied. Argan oil is made from the argan tree, endemic to southwestern Morocco, and is well-known for its cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and nutritional applications. It is considered a luxury product and exported from Morocco around the world. Consequently, detection of argan oil adulteration followed by quantitative analysis of the adulterant concentration is important. This study uses fusion of SFS spectra obtained at ten Δλ intervals to first detect adulteration of argan oil by corn oil and then determination of the corn oil content. For detection of adulteration, 15 one-class classification methods were used simultaneously over the ten Δλ sets of SFS spectra. For tuning parameter dependent classifiers such as Mahalanobis distance, non-optimized classifiers are used. Raw classification values are used, removing the need to set classifier-dependent threshold values, albeit, ultimately, a fusion decision rule is needed for classification. For quantitative analysis, two calibration approaches are evaluated with fusion of these ten Δλ SFS spectral data sets. One is multivariate calibration by partial least squares (PLS). The second approach is a univariate calibration process where the SFS spectra are summed over respective SFS spectral ranges, also known as the area under the curve (AUC). For adulteration detection and quantitation of

  16. Workshop on beryllium for fusion applications. Proceedings. IEA Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1993-12-01

    As shown by recent developments beryllium has become one of the most important materials in the development of fusion reactors. It is practically the only neutron multiplier available for blankets with ceramic breeder materials and can be used with liquid metal breeders as well. It is one of the most likely materials to be used on the surface of the first walls and of the divertor. The neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium in a fusion reactor is not well know. Beryllium was extensively irradiated about 25-40 years ago and has been used since then in material testing reactors as reflector. In the meantime, however, beryllium has been improved quite considerably. Today it is possible to obtain commercially beryllium which is much more isotropic and contains smaller ammounts of oxide. There are already indications that these new kinds of beryllium behave better under irradiation. (orig.)

  17. Establishment and Application of Coalmine Gas Prediction Model Based on Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Lv

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly an accident involving gas is one of the greater disasters that can occur in a coalmine, thus being able to predict when an accident involving gas might occur is an essential aspect in loss prevention and the reduction of safety hazards. However, the traditional methods concerning gas safety prediction is hindered by multi-objective and non-continuous problem. The coalmine gas prediction model based on multi-sensor data fusion technology (CGPM-MSDFT was established through analysis of accidents involving gas using artificial neural network to fuse multi- sensor data, using an improved algorithm designed to train the network and using an early stop method to resolve the over-fitting problem, the network test and field application results show that this model can provide a new direction for research into predicting the likelihood of a gas related incident within a coalmine. It will have a broad application prospect in coal mining.

  18. A shallow land buriable low-activation austenitic stainless steel for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1990-01-01

    First-wall components are the most activated materials in fusion reactors, but their activity can be reduced by material selection. The development of new alloys with good mechanical and physical properties and with low activation characteristics is needed. The PCA is one of the reference austenitic stainless steels for fusion structural applications in the United States. In this paper, the authors analyze the induced radioactivity in the PCA in connection with the shallow land burial (SLB) waste disposal concept. The most proper elemental substitutions is suggested for reducing the activity in the PCA. A low-activity version of the PCA is proposed. Since recycling is not possible, shallow land burial is the best achievable goal for a low-activation steel for the first wall. The PCA cannot be accepted for SLB, mainly due to the presence of molybdenum, niobium, and certain impurities. With limited elemental substitutions and impurity limitations, a new alloy (PCA-la) can be obtained. The PCA-la meets requirements for SLB. The properties of PCA-la should be comparable to those of the PCA. Fabrication and testing of specimens to check its main properties will be the next step of this work

  19. The tensile and fatigue properties of type 1.4914 ferritic steel for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmy, P.; Victoria, M.; Ruan, Y.

    1989-08-01

    Martensitic steels have received considerable attention as structural materials in fusion reactor applications. In present designs, fusion reactors are expected to operate in a cyclic mode, thus producing cyclic thermal stresses in the first wall. Due to its thermal expansion coefficient and very low swelling rate, 1.4914 martensitic steel is a suitable candidate for the first wall with high neutron loadings. This paper presents the preirradiation results obtained with subsize-specimens designed to be irradiated with a proton beam in the PIREX facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) of Wuerenlingen. Both tensile and low cycle fatigue tests were performed in vacuum in the region from 300 K to 870 K (720 K in the case of fatigue tests). Tensile tests on the subsize specimens (0.33 mm thick) compared well to those on bulk specimens, showing a minimum in ductility at around 620 K. The fatigue tests, performed on tubular specimens (3.4 mm external diameter, 0.35 mm wall thickness) showed substantial softening setting in at a low number of cycles. The initial microstructure observed in transmission microscopy consists of fine martensite laths. As cyclic deformation proceeds, dislocation cells form, that gradually replace the martensitic laths. (author) 19 figs., 5 tabs., 16 refs

  20. High thermal conductivity of graphite fiber silicon carbide composites for fusion reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Balden, M.; Causey, R.A.; Atsumi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of using CVI SiC/graphite fiber composites as low tritium retaining, high thermal conductivity composites for fusion applications are presented. Three-dimensional woven composites have been chemically vapor infiltrated with SiC and their thermophysical properties measured. One material used an intermediate grade graphite fiber in all directions (Amoco P55) while a second material used very high thermal conductive fiber (Amoco K-1100) in the high fiber density direction. The overall void was less than 20%. Strength as measured by four-point bending was comparable to those of SiC/SiC composite. The room temperature thermal conductivity in the high conductivity direction was impressive for both materials, with values >70 W/m K for the P-55 and >420 W/m K for the K-1100 variant. The thermal conductivity was measured as a function of temperature and exceeds the highest thermal conductivity of CVD SiC currently available at fusion relevant temperatures (>600 deg. C). Limited data on the irradiation-induced degradation in thermal conductivity is consistent with carbon fiber composite literature

  1. Impurity effects on reduced-activation ferritic steels developed for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Cheng, E.T.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Bloom, E.E.

    2000-01-01

    Reduced-activation steels are being developed for fusion applications by restricting alloying elements that produce long-lived radioactive isotopes when irradiated in the fusion neutron environment. Another source of long-lived isotopes is the impurities in the steel. To examine this, three heats of reduced-activation martensitic steel were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for low-level impurities that compromise the reduced-activation characteristics: a 5-ton heat of modified F82H (F82H-Mod) for which an effort was made during production to reduce detrimental impurities, a 1-ton heat of JLF-1, and an 18-kg heat of ORNL 9Cr-2WVTa. Specimens from commercial heats of modified 9Cr-1Mo and Sandvik HT9 were also analyzed. The objective was to determine the difference in the impurity levels in the F82H-Mod and steels for which less effort was used to ensure purity. Silver, molybdenum, and niobium were found to be the tramp impurities of most importance. The F82H-Mod had the lowest levels, but in some cases the levels were not much different from the other heats. The impurity levels in the F82H-Mod produced with present technology did not achieve the low-activation limits for either shallow land burial or recycling. The results indicate the progress that has been made and what still must be done before the reduced-activation criteria can be achieved

  2. First AC loss test and analysis of a Bi2212 cable-in-conduit conductor for fusion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jinggang; Shi, Yi; Wu, Yu; Li, Jiangang; Wang, Qiuliang; He, Yuxiang; Dai, Chao; Liu, Fang; Liu, Huajun; Mao, Zhehua; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Devred, Arnaud

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the Chinese fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with a fusion power of 50-200 MW, and plan to test the breeding tritium during the fusion reaction. This may require a maximum magnetic field of the central solenoid and toroidal field coils up to 15 T. New magnet technologies should be developed for the next generation of fusion reactors with higher requirements. Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) is considered as a potential and promising superconductor for the magnets in the CFETR. R&D activities are ongoing at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences for demonstration of the feasibility of a CICC based on Bi2212 round wire. One sub-size conductor cabled with 42 wires was designed, manufactured and tested with limited strand indentation during cabling and good transport performance. In this paper, the first test results and analysis on the AC loss of Bi2212 round wires and cabled conductor samples are presented. Furthermore, the impact of mechanical load on the AC loss of the sub-size conductor is investigated to represent the operation conditions with electromagnetic loads. The first tests provide an essential basis for the validation of Bi2212 CICC and its application in fusion magnets.

  3. New design of cable-in-conduit conductor for application in future fusion reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, J.; Wu, Y.; Li, J.; Liu, Fang; Dai, Chao; Shi, Y.; Liu, H.; Mao, Z.; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Yagotyntsev, Kostyantyn; Lubkemann, Ruben; Anvar, Valiyaparambil Abdulsalam; Devred, A.

    2017-01-01

    The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new tokamak device whose magnet system includes toroidal field, central solenoid (CS) and poloidal field coils. The main goal is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with about 1 GW fusion power and self-sufficiency by blanket. In order

  4. Fusion protein-based biofilm fabrication composed of recombinant azurin–myoglobin for dual-level biomemory application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taek; Chung, Yong-Ho; Yoon, Jinho; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed the fusion protein-based biofilm on the inorganic surface. • For making the fusion protein, the recombinant azurin and the myoglobin was conjugated by the native chemical ligation method. • The developed fusion protein shows unique electrochemical property. • The proposed fusion protein biofilm appears to be a good method for dual-level biomemory device. - Abstract: In the present study, a fusion protein-based biofilm composed of a recombinant azurin–myoglobin (Azu-Myo) has been developed and confirmed its original electrochemical property for dual-level biomemory device application. For this purpose, the azurin was modified with cysteine residues for direct immobilization and conjugation. Then, the recombinant azurin was conjugated with the myoglobin via a sulfo-SMCC bifunctional linker using the chemical ligation method (CLM). The SDS-PAGE and UV–vis spectroscopy were performed to examine the fusion protein conjugates. The prepared Azu-Myo fusion protein was self-assembled onto Au substrate for the biofilm fabrication. Then, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to confirm the immobilization and the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was carried out to the surface analysis. Also, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out to observe an electrochemical property of fabricated biofilm. As a result, the two pair of redox potential values was obtained for dual-level biomemory device application. Then, the dual-level biomemory function was verified by the multi-potential chronoamperometry (MPCA). The results indicate a new fabrication method and material combination for advances in bioelectronic device development

  5. SU-F-T-140: Assessment of the Proton Boron Fusion Reaction for Practical Radiation Therapy Applications Using MCNP6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, D; Bednarz, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The proton boron fusion reaction is a reaction that describes the creation of three alpha particles as the result of the interaction of a proton incident upon a 11B target. Theoretically, the proton boron fusion reaction is a desirable reaction for radiation therapy applications in that, with the appropriate boron delivery agent, it could potentially combine the localized dose delivery protons exhibit (Bragg peak) and the local deposition of high LET alpha particles in cancerous sites. Previous efforts have shown significant dose enhancement using the proton boron fusion reaction; the overarching purpose of this work is an attempt to validate previous Monte Carlo results of the proton boron fusion reaction. Methods: The proton boron fusion reaction, 11B(p, 3α), is investigated using MCNP6 to assess the viability for potential use in radiation therapy. Simple simulations of a proton pencil beam incident upon both a water phantom and a water phantom with an axial region containing 100ppm boron were modeled using MCNP6 in order to determine the extent of the impact boron had upon the calculated energy deposition. Results: The maximum dose increase calculated was 0.026% for the incident 250 MeV proton beam scenario. The MCNP simulations performed demonstrated that the proton boron fusion reaction rate at clinically relevant boron concentrations was too small in order to have any measurable impact on the absorbed dose. Conclusion: For all MCNP6 simulations conducted, the increase of absorbed dose of a simple water phantom due to the 11B(p, 3α) reaction was found to be inconsequential. In addition, it was determined that there are no good evaluations of the 11B(p, 3α) reaction for use in MCNPX/6 and further work should be conducted in cross section evaluations in order to definitively evaluate the feasibility of the proton boron fusion reaction for use in radiation therapy applications.

  6. Cellular Foams: A Potential Innovative Solid Breeder Material for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Ghoniem, N.; Williams, B.; Babcock, J.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic foam and cellular materials are being used in a wide variety of industries and are finding ever growing number of applications. Over the past decade advances in manufacturing of cellular materials have resulted in ceramics with highly uniform interconnected porosities ranging in size from a few μm to several mm. These relatively new ceramic foam materials have a unique set of thermo-mechanical properties, such as excellent thermal shock resistance and high surface to volume ratios. Based on new advances in processing ceramic foams, we suggest the development of ceramic foams or cellular ceramics for solid breeders in fusion reactor blankets. A cellular breeder material has a number of thermo-mechanical advantages over pebble beds, which can enhance blanket performance, improve operational stability, and reduce overall blanket costs

  7. Classical Methods of Statistics With Applications in Fusion-Oriented Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kardaun, Otto J W F

    2005-01-01

    Classical Methods of Statistics is a blend of theory and practical statistical methods written for graduate students and researchers interested in applications to plasma physics and its experimental aspects. It can also fruitfully be used by students majoring in probability theory and statistics. In the first part, the mathematical framework and some of the history of the subject are described. Many exercises help readers to understand the underlying concepts. In the second part, two case studies are presented exemplifying discriminant analysis and multivariate profile analysis. The introductions of these case studies outline contextual magnetic plasma fusion research. In the third part, an overview of statistical software is given and, in particular, SAS and S-PLUS are discussed. In the last chapter, several datasets with guided exercises, predominantly from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, are included and their physical background is concisely described. The book concludes with a list of essential keyword transl...

  8. Application of microwave spectroscopy to monitoring of discharge cleaning for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushiaki, Motoi; Miyahara, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    Microwave spectra of water were observed for measuring the partial pressure of water in residual gases of a plasma device during discharge cleaning. Water is a main constituent of residual gases in a vacuum vessel, and hence changes in the partial pressure indicate progress of the conditioning. Three main subjects were investigated with a Stark modulated microwave spectrometer: proportionality between the spectrum intensity and the partial pressure, discriminating power of the spectrometer for isotopic waters and usefulness of an experimental system for the radioactive substance HTO. Rotational spectra of the normal water H 2 O(22.235 GHz) and the hydrogen isotopic waters HDO(22.307 GHz) and HTO(16.563 GHz) were observed in several devices under different conditions. Applicability of this method to a fusion device is discussed on the results of these experiments. (author)

  9. Plasma etching to enhance the surface insulating stability of alumina for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant increase in the surface electrical conductivity of alumina, considered one of the most promising insulating materials for numerous applications in fusion devices, has been observed during ion bombardment in vacuum due to oxygen loss by preferential sputtering. Although this is expected to cause serious limitations to insulating components functionality, recent studies showed it is possible to restore the damaged lattice by oxygen reincorporation during thermal treatments in air. These studies also revealed a correlation between conductivity and ion beam induced luminescence, which is being used to monitor surface electrical conductivity degradation and help qualify the post irradiation recovery. Work now carried out for Wesgo alumina considers oxygen implantation and plasma etching as additional methods to improve recovered layer depth and quality. Both conductivity and luminescence results indicate the potential use of plasma etching not only for damage recovery, but also as a pre-treatment to enhance material stability during irradiation.

  10. Thermal-fatigue properties of coated materials for fusion device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullendore, A.W.; Whitley, J.B.; Mattox, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The adherence of plasma sprayed coatings of TiC, VC, TiB 2 and B on substrates of Cu, 316 SS, Mo, Ta and Poco AXF-5Q artificial graphite has been evaluated in a pulsed electron beam, thermal fatigue environment. The materials are candidates for application as limiter and armor components of tokamak fusion devices. Up to 500 cycles of heating at power densities of 1.5 kW/cm 2 for 1.5 sec. were used. Materials were tested both in the as-sprayed (19 to 33% porosity) condition and after hot isostatic pressing (HIP) to increase coating density. Some (e.g. TiC on Mo and Ta) showed good survivability in both the as-sprayed and HIP densified conditions. TiB 2 on Mo and Ta and VC on Poco graphite were improved while TiC + V on Mo and Ta were degraded by the HIP treatment

  11. Development of helium-cooled fusion applications: overview on major helium activities at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihli, T.; Arbeiter, F.; Ghidersa, B.; Gordeev, S.; Heinzel, V.; Ilic, M.; Messemer, G.; Stratmanns, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit

    2007-07-01

    Helium cooled high temperature components and reactors from today's point of view are most likely to capture a major importance in the future energy market. Similar to the tendency in the development of future fission reactors the main emphasis in regard to future fusion reactors is on Helium cooled systems. Both European reference blanket concepts are completely Helium cooled and in addition, the development of a Helium cooled divertor is in progress. Also the third, alternative European blanket concept 'Dual-coolant lead lithium' in regard to a DEMO fusion reactor relies on a Helium-cooled structure. In the International- Fusion-Material-Irradiation-Facility (IFMIF), again, Helium cooling is applied e.g. to the High Flux Test Module (HFTM). Against this background major Helium activities were launched at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, including the design and construction of several Helium Test Facilities applicable to perform various experiments from single effect studies up to full component tests for the qualification of complete test modules to be operated in ITER. In addition a fundamental research Programme is under way to improve the local Helium cooling technologies applied in different applications and to improve the knowledge base on heat transfer, boundary layers, turbulence development and flow structures as well as the dynamic behaviour of large Helium cycles under unsteady boundary conditions. An important complementary activity is found in the area of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were the most appropriate turbulence models are determined by code validation based on the obtained experimental data. In this paper an outline of the overall Helium cooling development strategy at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is given along with a brief description of the operated and planned Helium Test Facilities including the (i) ITHEX facility used for flow field studies in IFMIF-relevant transitional flows, (ii) the HEBLO facility used for

  12. Modeling of fully-developed, liquid metal, thin film flows for fusion divertor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Interest in thin film flows of liquid metal (LM) in a strong magnetic field has increased due to the possible application of such flows to the protection of divertor surfaces in a tokamak fusion reactor. In order to investigate the behavior of such a thin film flow in the fully-developed limit, a two-dimensional numerical model of open-channel, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow has been constructed. This flow is contained in a chute of arbitrary electrical conductance with a magnetic field perpendicular to the flow direction but with arbitrary azimuthal orientation. Results of this self-consistent model are used to examine issues of importance to the successful fusion divertor application of thin film flow, such as the uniform film height and heat transfer of the films. It is seen that the flow height can be dominated by even a small transverse component of the field, rather than the stronger coplanar component, due to the elongated nature of the film. The model is also used to determine the validity of the Hartmann-averaging technique, an approximation used extensively in previous developing film models to account for the effects of a dominant coplanar field. This Hartmann-averaging is shown to be accurate in predicting the behavior of the core flow in the strong coplanar MHD interaction regimes, but cannot predict the flow quantity in parallel layer jets that can make up an appreciable portion of the flow. The Hartmann-averaging method is seen to be unsuitable for elongated flows dominated by the transverse field component. (orig.)

  13. Application of optical tweezers and excimer laser to study protoplast fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawang, Titirat; Samipak, Sompid; Limtrakul, Jumras; Chattham, Nattaporn

    2015-07-01

    Protoplast fusion is a physical phenomenon that two protoplasts come in contact and fuse together. Doing so, it is possible to combine specific genes from one protoplast to another during fusion such as drought resistance and disease resistance. There are a few possible methods to induce protoplast fusion, for example, electrofusion and chemical fusion. In this study, chemical fusion was performed with laser applied as an external force to enhance rate of fusion and observed under a microscope. Optical tweezers (1064 nm with 100X objective N.A. 1.3) and excimer laser (308 nm LMU-40X-UVB objective) were set with a Nikon Ti-U inverted microscope. Samples were prepared by soaking in hypertonic solution in order to induce cell plasmolysis. Elodea Canadensis and Allium cepa plasmolysed leaves were cut and observed under microscope. Concentration of solution was varied to induce difference turgor pressures on protoplasts pushing at cell wall. Free protoplasts in solution were trapped by optical tweezers to study the effect of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution. PEG was diluted by Ca+ solution during the process to induced protoplast cell contact and fusion. Possibility of protoplast fusion by excimer laser was investigated and found possible. Here we report a novel tool for plant cell fusion using excimer laser. Plant growth after cell fusion is currently conducted.

  14. Convenient synthesis and application of versatile nucleic acid lipid membrane anchors in the assembly and fusion of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Oliver; Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Vogel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    or the construction of DNA origami structures. We herein present the synthesis and applications of versatile lipid membrane anchor building blocks suitable for solid phase oligonucleotide synthesis. These are readily synthesized in bulk in five to seven steps from commercially available precursors and can...... be incorporated at any position within an oligonucleotide without significantly altering duplex stability and structure as proven by thermal denaturation experiments and circular dichroism. Furthermore, applicability could be demonstrated by assembly and fusion of liposomes mediated by lipid...

  15. Application of ultrasonic NDT technique for butt fusion joints of plastic pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyung; Lim, Hyung Taik; Choi, Jeong Guen; Lee, Jae Myung [ANSCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The long term-durability and the soundness of the plastic pipe have been sufficiently verified through use of the plastic pipe during the past several decades. Recently, as the pipe material have been constantly developed, the application of the plastic pipe is expanded to various industrial fields, such as an increase of a use pressure, the bigger diameter of the pipe, etc. In a nuclear power plant where a carbon steel pipe and a stainless steel pipe are mainly used as a safety class III buried pipe, safety in an operation is seriously threatened by abrasion, heat deterioration or the like, frequently generated in a metal pipe. Therefore, in order to provide an alternate to this problem there is a rising interest on using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes which are known to provide much enhanced corrosion, abrasion and impact resistant properties. With polyethylene piping, one of the issue that is being looked into is the integrity of butt-fusion joint. At the present time the Referencing Code and Standard for the NDT technology of for butt fusion joint of the plastic pipe have not yet established. An optimum inspection parameters were determined according to the thickness of the HDPE pipe. It was also confirmed that most of the detection results of two techniques have matched with each other. In the PAUT, it is easy to distinguish signals with from the flaws made by the thin plate and the void. Also the resolving power of PAUT on the detection in the depth direction has been demonstrated to be satisfactory.

  16. Copper benchmark experiment for the testing of JEFF-3.2 nuclear data for fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, M.; Flammini, D.; Loreti, S.; Moro, F.; Pillon, M.; Villar, R.; Klix, A.; Fischer, U.; Kodeli, I.; Perel, R. L.; Pohorecky, W.

    2017-09-01

    A neutronics benchmark experiment on a pure Copper block (dimensions 60 × 70 × 70 cm3) aimed at testing and validating the recent nuclear data libraries for fusion applications was performed in the frame of the European Fusion Program at the 14 MeV ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). Reaction rates, neutron flux spectra and doses were measured using different experimental techniques (e.g. activation foils techniques, NE213 scintillator and thermoluminescent detectors). This paper first summarizes the analyses of the experiment carried-out using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the European JEFF-3.2 library. Large discrepancies between calculation (C) and experiment (E) were found for the reaction rates both in the high and low neutron energy range. The analysis was complemented by sensitivity/uncertainty analyses (S/U) using the deterministic and Monte Carlo SUSD3D and MCSEN codes, respectively. The S/U analyses enabled to identify the cross sections and energy ranges which are mostly affecting the calculated responses. The largest discrepancy among the C/E values was observed for the thermal (capture) reactions indicating severe deficiencies in the 63,65Cu capture and elastic cross sections at lower rather than at high energy. Deterministic and MC codes produced similar results. The 14 MeV copper experiment and its analysis thus calls for a revision of the JEFF-3.2 copper cross section and covariance data evaluation. A new analysis of the experiment was performed with the MCNP5 code using the revised JEFF-3.3-T2 library released by NEA and a new, not yet distributed, revised JEFF-3.2 Cu evaluation produced by KIT. A noticeable improvement of the C/E results was obtained with both new libraries.

  17. Copper benchmark experiment for the testing of JEFF-3.2 nuclear data for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelone M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A neutronics benchmark experiment on a pure Copper block (dimensions 60 × 70 × 70 cm3 aimed at testing and validating the recent nuclear data libraries for fusion applications was performed in the frame of the European Fusion Program at the 14 MeV ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG. Reaction rates, neutron flux spectra and doses were measured using different experimental techniques (e.g. activation foils techniques, NE213 scintillator and thermoluminescent detectors. This paper first summarizes the analyses of the experiment carried-out using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the European JEFF-3.2 library. Large discrepancies between calculation (C and experiment (E were found for the reaction rates both in the high and low neutron energy range. The analysis was complemented by sensitivity/uncertainty analyses (S/U using the deterministic and Monte Carlo SUSD3D and MCSEN codes, respectively. The S/U analyses enabled to identify the cross sections and energy ranges which are mostly affecting the calculated responses. The largest discrepancy among the C/E values was observed for the thermal (capture reactions indicating severe deficiencies in the 63,65Cu capture and elastic cross sections at lower rather than at high energy. Deterministic and MC codes produced similar results. The 14 MeV copper experiment and its analysis thus calls for a revision of the JEFF-3.2 copper cross section and covariance data evaluation. A new analysis of the experiment was performed with the MCNP5 code using the revised JEFF-3.3-T2 library released by NEA and a new, not yet distributed, revised JEFF-3.2 Cu evaluation produced by KIT. A noticeable improvement of the C/E results was obtained with both new libraries.

  18. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Boutard, J. L.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Kimura, A.; Lindau, R.; Odette, G. R.; Rieth, M.; Tan, L.; Tanigawa, H.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniques to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. Material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogen generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.

  19. Design and evaluation of a laser fusion energy station for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, K.D.; Bates, F.J.; Denning, R.S.; Triplett, M.B.; Waddell, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The identification and development of long-term energy options is important in the continued growth of industry in the United States. Fusion and particularly laser fusion is one of the possible options. This paper applies the criteria used by industry in the selection of an energy source to the first of a series of conceptual designs for a laser fusion energy station. Several conclusions are presented including the constraints placed on the design by the criteria

  20. Possible in-lattice confinement fusion (LCF). Dynamic application of atomic and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarasaki, Yuuki

    1995-01-01

    New scheme of a nuclear fusion reactor system is proposed, the basic concept of which comes from ingenious combination of hitherto developed techniques and verified facts; 1) so-called cold fusion (CF), 2) plasma of both magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and 3) accelerator-based D-T(D) neutron source. Details of the LCF reactor physics require dynamics of atomic data as well as nuclear data; interaction of ions with matters in solid and the problems of radiation damage. (author)

  1. Laser - driven high - energy ions and their application to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghesi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The acceleration of high-energy ion beams (up to several tens of MeV per nucleon) following the interaction of short and intense laser pulses with solid targets has been one of the most important results of recent laser-plasma research [1]. The acceleration is driven by relativistic electrons, which acquire energy directly from the laser pulse and set up extremely large (∼TV/m) space charge fields at the target interfaces. The properties of laser-driven ion beams (high brightness and laminarity, high-energy cut-off, ultrashort burst duration) distinguish them from lower energy ions accelerated in earlier experiments at moderate laser intensities, and compare favourably with those of 'conventional' accelerator beams. In view of these properties, laser-driven ion beams can be employed in a number of innovative applications in the scientific, technological and medical areas. We will discuss in particular aspects of interest to their application in an Inertial Confinement Fusion context. Laser-driven protons are indeed being considered as a possible trigger for Fast Ignition of a precompressed fuel.[2] Recent results relating to the optimization of beam energy and focusing will be presented. These include the use of laser-driven impulsive fields for proton beam collimation and focusing [3], and the investigation of acceleration in presence of finite-scale plasma gradient. Proposed target developments enabling proton production at high repetition rate will also be discussed. Another important area of application of proton beams is diagnostic use in a particle probing arrangement for detection of density non-homogeneities [4] and electric/magnetic fields [5]. We will discuss the use of laser-driven proton beams for the diagnosis of magnetic and electric fields in planar and hohlraum targets and for the detection of fields associated to relativistic electron propagation through dense matter, an issue of high relevance for electron driven Fast Ignition. [1] M

  2. Performance characteristics of shape memory alloy and its applications for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    As a shape memory alloy, Au-Cd alloy was found in 1951. Thereafter, also in In-Tl alloy, shape memory effect was found. The U.S. Naval Ordinance Laboratory developed Ni-Ti alloy, and published in 1965 as NITINOL. As Cu group shape memory alloys, there are Cu-Zn-Al alloy, Cu-Al-Be alloy and Cu-Al-Ni alloy. Recently, iron group shape memory alloy was published. In 1975, 'Shape memory effect and its application' symposium, in 1978, 'NITINOL heat engine international conference', and in 1982 and 1986, 'Martensite transformation international conference' were held, and the method of the proper use of shape memory alloys and the problems of the alloys themselves such as fatigue have been gradually clarified. In this report, the fundamental action characteristics of shape memory alloys are discribed from the viewpoint of the application, and the possibility of applying these characteristics to nuclear fusion devices and the advantage obtained as the result are explained. Shape memory effect and pseudo-elasticity, reversible shape memory effect, the thermodynamic behavior of shape memory alloys, transformation temperature range and using temperature range and so on are described. (Kako, I.)

  3. High-speed surface temperature measurements on plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Masanori; Kobayashi, Masanobu

    1996-01-01

    For the lifetime evaluation of plasma facing materials in fusion experimental machines, it is essential to investigate their surface behavior and their temperature responses during an off-normal event such as the plasma disruptions. An infrared thermometer with a sampling speed as fast as 1×10-6 s/data, namely, the high-speed infrared thermometer (HSIR), has been developed by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan. To evaluate an applicability of the newly developed HSIR on the surface temperature measurement of plasma facing materials, high heat flux beam irradiation experiments have been performed with three different materials under the surface heat fluxes up to 170 MW/m2 for 0.04 s in a hydrogen ion beam test facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. As for the results, HSIR can be applicable for measuring the surface temperature responses of the armor tile materials with a little modification. It is also confirmed that surface temperatures measured with the HSIR thermometer show good agreement with the analytical results for stainless steel and carbon based materials at a temperature range of up to 2500 °C. However, for aluminum the HSIR could measure the temperature of the high dense vapor cloud which was produced during the heating due to lower melting temperature. Based on the result, a multichannel arrayed HSIR thermometer has been designed and fabricated.

  4. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1994. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  5. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion, 1980-1993. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1993. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (I) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  6. Joint ICFRM-14 (14. international conference on fusion reactor materials) and IAEA satellite meeting on cross-cutting issues of structural materials for fusion and fission applications. PowerPoint presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference was devoted to the challenges in the development of new materials for advanced fission, fusion and hybrid reactors. The topics discussed include fuels and materials research under the high neutron fluence; post-irradiation examination; development of radiation resistant structural materials utilizing fission research reactors; core materials development for the advanced fuel cycle initiative; qualification of structural materials for fission and fusion reactor systems; application of charged particle accelerators for radiation resistance investigations of fission and fusion structural materials; microstructure evolution in structural materials under irradiation; ion beams and ion accelerators

  7. Automated Offline Arabic Signature Verification System using Multiple Features Fusion for Forensic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Darwish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The signature of a person is one of the most popular and legally accepted behavioral biometrics that provides a secure means for verification and personal identification in many applications such as financial, commercial and legal transactions. The objective of the signature verification system is to classify between genuine and forged signatures that are often associated with intrapersonal and interpersonal variability. Unlike other languages, Arabic has unique features; it contains diacritics, ligatures, and overlapping. Because of lacking any form of dynamic information during the Arabic signature’s writing process, it will be more difficult to obtain higher verification accuracy. This paper addresses the above difficulty by introducing a novel offline Arabic signature verification algorithm. The key point is using multiple feature fusion with fuzzy modeling to capture different aspects of a signature individually in order to improve the verification accuracy. State-of-the-art techniques adopt the fuzzy set to describe the properties of the extracted features to handle a signature’s uncertainty; this work also employs the fuzzy variables to describe the degree of similarity of the signature’s features to deal with the ambiguity of questioned document examiner judgment of signature similarity. It is concluded from the experimental results that the verification system performs well and has the ability to reduce both False Acceptance Rate (FAR and False Rejection Rate (FRR.

  8. Applications of controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR) fusion power in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R.K.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-03-01

    A review of the process and economics of basic steel production is presented for the purpose of indicating where CTR fusion energy may be applicable. The present conventional air blown blast furnace produces a relatively low Btu value top gas with limited usefulness. The industry consumes relatively large amounts of natural gas for reheating ingots, plates, etc. A concept is presented wherein oxygen is used in the blast furnace which would double the capacity of the furnace and produce a rich carbon monoxide gas stream useful as synthesis gas for methanol and ammonia production. A CTR supplying high energy radiation in a blanket would disproportionate carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen which could be used at high temperatures in the blast furnace in place of an oxygen supply stream. Coke would be used in this scheme. In a second scheme the oxygen is separated from the disproportioned CO 2 stream and CO is used in a direct reduction furnace which is followed by an electric furnace to refine the reduced product. Other schemes include iron ore reduction with electrolytic hydrogen and the use of thermal energy for reforming coal with steam or CO 2 for production of reducing gas. The electrosmelting of scrap metal using CTR power could become an important operation in the future. A complex of steel, fertilizer, fuel and chemical production is presented. Steel capacity and power requirement data are presented and projected to the year 2020. (U.S.)

  9. Image Restoration Using Functional and Anatomical Information Fusion with Application to SPECT-MRI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benameur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is usually viewed as an ill-posed problem in image processing, since there is no unique solution associated with it. The quality of restored image closely depends on the constraints imposed of the characteristics of the solution. In this paper, we propose an original extension of the NAS-RIF restoration technique by using information fusion as prior information with application in SPECT medical imaging. That extension allows the restoration process to be constrained by efficiently incorporating, within the NAS-RIF method, a regularization term which stabilizes the inverse solution. Our restoration method is constrained by anatomical information extracted from a high resolution anatomical procedure such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. This structural anatomy-based regularization term uses the result of an unsupervised Markovian segmentation obtained after a preliminary registration step between the MRI and SPECT data volumes from each patient. This method was successfully tested on 30 pairs of brain MRI and SPECT acquisitions from different subjects and on Hoffman and Jaszczak SPECT phantoms. The experiments demonstrated that the method performs better, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, than a classical supervised restoration approach using a Metz filter.

  10. Experimental evaluation of torsional fatigue strength of welded bellows and application to design of fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Suzuki, Kazuo; Sonobe, Tadashi; Hayashi, Yuzo; Mizuno, Gen-ichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Torsional fatigue strength of the welded bellows was evaluated experimentally, aiming the application to a port of a fusion device. The welded bellows revealed elastic torsional buckling and spiral distorsion even under a small angle of torsion. Twisting load never leads the welded bellows to fracture easily so far as the angle of torsion is not excessively large, and the welded bellows has the torsional fatigue strength much larger than that expected so far. Two formulae were proposed to evaluate the stress of the welded bellows under the forced angle of torsion; shearing stress evaluation formula in the case that torsional buckling does not occur and the axial bending stress evaluation formula in the case that torsional buckling occurs. And the results of the torsional fatigue experiments showed that the former is reasonably conservative and simulates the actual behavior of the welded bellows better than the latter in the high cycle fatigue region and vice versa in the low cycle fatigue region from the viewpoint of the mechanical design. The present evaluation method of the torsional fatigue strength was applied to the welded bellows for the port of the JT-60 vacuum vessel and its structural integrity was confirmed under the design load condition. (author)

  11. Application of super-computer to field of plasma physics and nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fields of plasma physics and nuclear fusion research, for carrying out the various numerical simulation of plasma, enormous amount of computation is required, accordingly, the computers as fast as possible are necessary. In the Electronic Computer Center attached to the Institute for Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, which is a national common utilization facility, the full scale super-computer VP-100 made in Japan was adopted, and utmost effort has been exerted to increase the speed of large scale computation as well as numerical simulation. In this paper, super-computers are briefly explained, and the example of especially the aspect of performance in the case of the Computer Center is described. Actually, the scale of simulation is limited by the capability of computers. The performance obtained by the computer code for research and the average performance obtained by the computer codes of wide range by using the VP-100 are discussed. Present fast computers are about 10 MFLOPS, therefore, the computers having the performance surpassing 100 MFLOPS may be super-computers. The features of vector computers, the performance related to application programs and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Potential applications of NbN composites in fusion reactor magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capone, D.W. II; Gray, K.E.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Ho, H.L.

    1986-02-01

    Recent projected requirements for large scale fusion reactor magnets call for the development of advanced superconducting materials capable of producing peak magnetic fields in excess of 15 T with current densities in the windings in excess of 2 x 10 3 A/cm 2 . These materials will be exposed to large stresses (up to 500 MPa) and neutron fluences as high as 10 22 n/cm 2 over the lifetime of the conductor. The demonstrated strain and radiation tolerance of NbN together with excellent superconducting properties make it a promising candidate to be used in a superconducting composite capable of satisfying these requirements. Our program at Argonne is directed towards demonstrating a method of fabrication which is capable of achieving these goals. Tests will be conducted on moderate lengths of NbN superconducting composites to verify the ability to achieve large overall current densities in magnetic fields up to 20 T. High field applications of NbN are also being investigated by groups in Japan and Germany

  13. The library of evaluated and experimental data on charged particles for fusion application (SaBa). Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvenigorodskij, A.G.; Zherebtsov, V.A.; Lazarev, L.M.; Dunaeva, S.A.; Generalov, L.N.; Taova, S.M.; Kamskaya, E.V.; Marshalkina, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic version of the evaluated and experimental data on charged particles for thermonuclear applications (SaBa) was prepared on the base of handbook 'Nuclear Physics Constants for Thermonuclear Fusion', INDC(CCP)-326/L+F, Vienna, 1991. Data on 100 channels for 52 reactions are presented in the Library. Program code was performed using the object-oriented programming environment Borland C ++ Builder for Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows NT operating systems. Optimal set of data processing procedures and friendly interface provide remarkable possibilities for the active use of this program for various applications in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It is available online (http:/www-nds.iaea.or.at/reports/data/saba/disk1.zip, ../disk2.zip, ../disk3.zip, on CD-ROM or on a set of PC diskettes from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, upon request. (author)

  14. Laser development for laser fusion applications research. Progress report, October 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Research progress is reported on three laser programs being developed for the commercialization of laser-fusion energy. The lasers include iodine, hydrogen fluoride and Group VI atoms (e.g., O, S, Se, Te). (TFD)

  15. Laser development for laser fusion applications research. Progress report, October 1977--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    Research progress is reported on three laser programs being developed for the commercialization of laser-fusion energy. The lasers include iodine, hydrogen fluoride and Group VI atoms (e.g., O, S, Se, Te)

  16. Laser fusion program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    This program is structured to proceed through a series of well defined fusion milestones to proof of the scientific feasibility, of laser fusion with the Shiva Nova system. Concurrently, those key technical areas, such as advanced lasers, which are required to progress beyond proof of feasibility, are being studied. We have identified and quantified the opportunities and key technical issues in military applications, such as weapons effects simulations, and in civilian applications, such as central-station electric power production. We summarize the current status and future plans for the laser fusion program at LLL, emphasizing the civilian applications of laser fusion

  17. Medical images fusion for application in treatment planning systems in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, Renato Assenci

    2006-01-01

    Software for medical images fusion was developed for utilization in CAT3D radiotherapy and MNPS radiosurgery treatment planning systems. A mutual information maximization methodology was used to make the image registration of different modalities by measure of the statistical dependence between the voxels pairs. The alignment by references points makes an initial approximation to the non linear optimization process by downhill simplex method for estimation of the joint histogram. The coordinates transformation function use a trilinear interpolation and search for the global maximum value in a 6 dimensional space, with 3 degree of freedom for translation and 3 degree of freedom for rotation, by making use of the rigid body model. This method was evaluated with CT, MR and PET images from Vanderbilt University database to verify its accuracy by comparison of transformation coordinates of each images fusion with gold-standard values. The median of images alignment error values was 1.6 mm for CT-MR fusion and 3.5 mm for PET-MR fusion, with gold-standard accuracy estimated as 0.4 mm for CT-MR fusion and 1.7 mm for PET-MR fusion. The maximum error values were 5.3 mm for CT-MR fusion and 7.4 mm for PET-MR fusion, and 99.1% of alignment errors were images subvoxels values. The mean computing time was 24 s. The software was successfully finished and implemented in 59 radiotherapy routine services, of which 42 are in Brazil and 17 are in Latin America. This method does not have limitation about different resolutions from images, pixels sizes and slice thickness. Besides, the alignment may be accomplished by axial, coronal or sagittal images. (author)

  18. Lifetime evaluation for thermal fatigue: application at the first wall of a tokamak fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Biggio, M.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal fatigue seems to be the most lifetime limiting phenomenon for the first wall of the next generation Tokamak fusion reactors. This work deals with the problem of the thermal fatigue in relation to the lifetime prediction of the fusion reactor first wall. The aim is to compare different lifetime methodologies among them and with experimental results. To fulfil this purpose, it has been necessary to develop a new numerical methodology, called reduced-3D, especially suitable for thermal fatigue problems

  19. Fusion interfaces for tactical environments: An application of virtual reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael W.

    1994-01-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and nonvirtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory, and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multisensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion interface concepts. This new facility, the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments (FITE) Facility is a specialized flight simulator enabling efficient concept development through rapid prototyping and direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE Facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operation fighter pilots in an air combat environment. The facility is utilized by a multidisciplinary design team composed of human factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, experimental psychologists, and oeprational pilots. The FITE computational architecture is composed of twenty-five 80486-based microcomputers operating in real-time. The microcomputers generate out-the-window visuals, in-cockpit and head-mounted visuals, localized auditory presentations, haptic displays on the stick and rudder pedals, as well as executing weapons models, aerodynamic models, and threat models.

  20. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  1. Characterization of precipitates in nano structured 14% Cr ODS alloys for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, P.; Klimenkov, M.; Lindau, R.; Möslang, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine Ti influence on microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS steels. ► Ti addition leads to bimodal grain size distribution. ► The formation of Ti oxide and Y–Ti–O particles is observed in Ti-containing steels. ► The best nanoparticle refinement and tensile strength are obtained with 0.3% Ti. ► Ti exhibits adverse effect on the Charpy impact property. - Abstract: Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steels, have been considered as promising materials for application in fusion power reactors up to about 750 °C. Four ODS RAF steels, with compositions of Fe–13.5Cr–2W–(0–0.2–0.3–0.4)Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 (in wt.%) were produced by powder metallurgy technique. For the different Ti-contents, the correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with energy- dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and electron energy loss spectrometer (EELS). A bimodal grain size distribution was observed in all as-hipped Ti-containing ODS alloys. These alloys consisted of coarse grains typical ranging from 1 μm to 8 μm and fine grains well below 1 μm in diameter. The addition of Ti resulted in the formation of spherical Ti oxides rather than Cr oxides owing to the stronger affinity of Ti. The influence of Ti on particle size refinement was striking and the optimum effect was obtained when adding 0.3% Ti. Generally the hardness increased consistently with increasing in Ti content. The ODS alloying with 0.3% Ti exhibit the highest strength due to the optimum refinement of mean ODS particle size.

  2. Additive manufacturing of 316L stainless steel by electron beam melting for nuclear fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Liu, Leifeng; Koptyug, Andrey; Wikman, Stefan; Olsen, Jon; Cui, Daqing; Shen, Zhijian

    2017-04-01

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by one of the metal additive manufacturing methods, Electron Beam Melting® (EBM®). Solid specimens of SS316L with 99.8% relative density were prepared from gas atomized precursor powder granules. After the EBM® process the phase remains as austenite and the composition has practically not been changed. The RCC-MR code used for nuclear pressure vessels provides guidelines for this study and tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C (RT) and 250 °C (ET). This work provides the first set of mechanical and microstructure data of EBM® SS316L for nuclear fusion applications. The mechanical testing shows that the yield strength, ductility and toughness are well above the acceptance criteria and only the ultimate tensile strength of EBM® SS316L is below the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterizations reveal the presence of hierarchical structures consisting of solidified melt pools, columnar grains and irregular shaped sub-grains. Lots of precipitates enriched in Cr and Mo are observed at columnar grain boundaries while no sign of element segregation is shown at the sub-grain boundaries. Such a unique microstructure forms during a non-equilibrium process, comprising rapid solidification and a gradient 'annealing' process due to anisotropic thermal flow of accumulated heat inside the powder granule matrix. Relations between process parameters, specimen geometry (total building time) and sub-grain structure are discussed. Defects are formed mainly due to the large layer thickness (100 μm) which generates insufficient bonding between a few of the adjacently formed melt pools during the process. Further studies should focus on adjusting layer thickness to improve the strength of EBM® SS316L and optimizing total building time.

  3. Progress in lattice Boltzmann methods for magnetohydrodynamic flows relevant to fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattison, M.J.; Premnath, K.N.; Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to simulating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is presented. The dynamics of the flow are simulated using a so-called multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE), in which a source term is included for the Lorentz force. The evolution of the magnetic induction is represented by introducing a vector distribution function and then solving an appropriate lattice kinetic equation for this function. The solution of both distribution functions are obtained through a simple, explicit, and computationally efficient stream-and-collide procedure. The use of the MRT collision term enhances the numerical stability over that of a single relaxation time approach. To apply the methodology to solving practical problems, a new extrapolation-based method for imposing magnetic boundary conditions is introduced and a technique for simulating steady-state flows with low magnetic Prandtl number is developed. In order to resolve thin layers near the walls arising in the presence of high magnetic fields, a non-uniform gridding strategy is introduced through an interpolated-streaming step applied to both distribution functions. These advances are particularly important for applications in fusion engineering where liquid metal flows with low magnetic Prandtl numbers and high Hartmann numbers are introduced. A number of MHD benchmark problems, under various physical and geometrical conditions are presented, including 3-D MHD lid driven cavity flow, high Hartmann number flows and turbulent MHD flows, with good agreement with prior data. Due to the local nature of the method, the LBM also demonstrated excellent performance on parallel machines, with almost linear scaling up to 128 processors for a MHD flow problem

  4. New WC-Cu thermal barriers for fusion applications: High temperature mechanical behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejado, E.; Dias, M.; Correia, J. B.; Palacios, T.; Carvalho, P. A.; Alves, E.; Pastor, J. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The combination of tungsten carbide and copper as a thermal barrier could effectively reduce the thermal mismatch between tungsten and copper alloy, which are proposed as base armour and heat sink, respectively, in the divertor of future fusion reactors. Furthermore, since the optimum operating temperature windows for these divertor materials do not overlap, a compatible thermal barrier interlayer between them is required to guarantee a smooth thermal transition, which in addition may mitigate radiation damage. The aim of this work is to study the thermo-mechanical properties of WC-Cu cermets fabricated by hot pressing. Focus is placed on the temperature effect and composition dependence, as the volume fraction of copper varies from 25 to 50 and 75 vol%. To explore this behaviour, fracture experiments are performed within a temperature range from room temperature to 800 °C under vacuum. In addition, elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient are estimated from these tests. Results reveal a strong dependence of the performance on temperature and on the volume fraction of copper and, surprisingly, a slight percent of Cu (25 vol%) can effectively reduce the large difference in thermal expansion between tungsten and copper alloy, which is a critical point for in service applications. The thermal performance of these materials, together with their mechanical properties could indeed reduce the heat transfer from the PFM to the underlying element while supporting the high thermal stresses of the joint. Thus, the presence of these cermets could allow the reactor to operate above the ductile to brittle transition temperature of tungsten, without compromising the underlying materials.

  5. Three dimensional simulations of space charge dominated heavy ion beams with applications to inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ion fusion requires injection, transport and acceleration of high current beams. Detailed simulation of such beams requires fully self-consistent space charge fields and three dimensions. WARP3D, developed for this purpose, is a particle-in-cell plasma simulation code optimized to work within the framework of an accelerator's lattice of accelerating, focusing, and bending elements. The code has been used to study several test problems and for simulations and design of experiments. Two applications are drift compression experiments on the MBE-4 facility at LBL and design of the electrostatic quadrupole injector for the proposed ILSE facility. With aggressive drift compression on MBE-4, anomalous emittance growth was observed. Simulations carried out to examine possible causes showed that essentially all the emittance growth is result of external forces on the beam and not of internal beam space-charge fields. Dominant external forces are the dodecapole component of focusing fields, the image forces on the surrounding pipe and conductors, and the octopole fields that result from the structure of the quadrupole focusing elements. Goal of the design of the electrostatic quadrupole injector is to produce a beam of as low emittance as possible. The simulations show that the dominant effects that increase the emittance are the nonlinear octopole fields and the energy effect (fields in the axial direction that are off-axis). Injectors were designed that minimized the beam envelope in order to reduce the effect of the nonlinear fields. Alterations to the quadrupole structure that reduce the nonlinear fields further were examined. Comparisons were done with a scaled experiment resulted in very good agreement

  6. Methodology for accident analyses of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled pebble bed blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotov, Dobromir, E-mail: dobromir.panayotov@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona E-08019 (Spain); Grief, Andrew [Amec Foster Wheeler, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Merrill, Brad J.; Humrickhouse, Paul [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Trow, Martin; Dillistone, Michael; Murgatroyd, Julian T.; Owen, Simon [Amec Foster Wheeler, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona E-08019 (Spain); Peers, Karen; Lyons, Alex; Heaton, Adam; Scott, Richard [Amec Foster Wheeler, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Test Blanket Systems (TBS) DEMO breeding blankets (BB) safety demonstration. • Comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena. • Development of accident analysis specifications (AAS) via the use of phenomena identification and ranking tables (PIRT). • PIRT application to identify required physical models for BB accidents analysis, code assessment and selection. • Development of MELCOR and RELAP5 codes TBS models. • Qualification of the models via comparison with finite element calculations, code-tocode comparisons, and sensitivity studies. - Abstract: ‘Fusion for Energy’ (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of these TBSs into ITER and accident analysis is one of its critical components. A systematic approach to accident analysis has been developed under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements, together with Amec Foster Wheeler and INL efforts, have resulted in a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena while remaining consistent with the approach already applied to ITER accident analyses. The methodology phases are illustrated in the paper by its application to the EU HCPB TBS using both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes.

  7. Fusion protein-based biofilm fabrication composed of recombinant azurin-myoglobin for dual-level biomemory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taek; Chung, Yong-Ho; Yoon, Jinho; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, a fusion protein-based biofilm composed of a recombinant azurin-myoglobin (Azu-Myo) has been developed and confirmed its original electrochemical property for dual-level biomemory device application. For this purpose, the azurin was modified with cysteine residues for direct immobilization and conjugation. Then, the recombinant azurin was conjugated with the myoglobin via a sulfo-SMCC bifunctional linker using the chemical ligation method (CLM). The SDS-PAGE and UV-vis spectroscopy were performed to examine the fusion protein conjugates. The prepared Azu-Myo fusion protein was self-assembled onto Au substrate for the biofilm fabrication. Then, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to confirm the immobilization and the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was carried out to the surface analysis. Also, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out to observe an electrochemical property of fabricated biofilm. As a result, the two pair of redox potential values was obtained for dual-level biomemory device application. Then, the dual-level biomemory function was verified by the multi-potential chronoamperometry (MPCA). The results indicate a new fabrication method and material combination for advances in bioelectronic device development.

  8. Characterization of Thermobifida fusca Cutinase-Carbohydrate-Binding Module Fusion Proteins and Their Potential Application in Bioscouring▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Chen, Sheng; Xu, Meng; Cavoco-Paulo, Artur; Wu, Jing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Cutinase from Thermobifida fusca is thermally stable and has potential application in the bioscouring of cotton in the textile industry. In the present study, the carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) from T. fusca cellulase Cel6A (CBMCel6A) and Cellulomonas fimi cellulase CenA (CBMCenA) were fused, separately, to the carboxyl terminus of T. fusca cutinase. Both fusion enzymes, cutinase-CBMCel6A and cutinase-CBMCenA, were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Enzyme characterization showed that both displayed similar catalytic properties and pH stabilities in response to T. fusca cutinase. In addition, both fusion proteins displayed an activity half-life of 53 h at their optimal temperature of 50°C. Compared to T. fusca cutinase, in the absence of pectinase, the binding activity on cotton fiber was enhanced by 2% for cutinase-CBMCel6A and by 28% for cutinase-CBMCenA, whereas in the presence of pectinase, the binding activity was enhanced by 40% for the former and 45% for the latter. Notably, a dramatic increase of up to 3-fold was observed in the amount of released fatty acids from cotton fiber by both cutinase-CBM fusion proteins when acting in concert with pectinase. This is the first report of improving the scouring efficiency of cutinase by fusing it with CBM. The improvement in activity and the strong synergistic effect between the fusion proteins and pectinase suggest that they may have better applications in textile bioscouring than the native cutinase. PMID:20729325

  9. Kernel-Based Sensor Fusion With Application to Audio-Visual Voice Activity Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dov, David; Talmon, Ronen; Cohen, Israel

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of multiple view data fusion in the presence of noise and interferences. Recent studies have approached this problem using kernel methods, by relying particularly on a product of kernels constructed separately for each view. From a graph theory point of view, we analyze this fusion approach in a discrete setting. More specifically, based on a statistical model for the connectivity between data points, we propose an algorithm for the selection of the kernel bandwidth, a parameter, which, as we show, has important implications on the robustness of this fusion approach to interferences. Then, we consider the fusion of audio-visual speech signals measured by a single microphone and by a video camera pointed to the face of the speaker. Specifically, we address the task of voice activity detection, i.e., the detection of speech and non-speech segments, in the presence of structured interferences such as keyboard taps and office noise. We propose an algorithm for voice activity detection based on the audio-visual signal. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms competing fusion and voice activity detection approaches. In addition, we demonstrate that a proper selection of the kernel bandwidth indeed leads to improved performance.

  10. Superconductivity Engineering and Its Application for Fusion 3.Superconducting Technology as a Gateway to Future Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Katsuhiko

    Hopes for achieving a new source of energy through nuclear fusion rest on the development of superconducting technology that is needed to make future equipments more energy efficient as well as increase their performance. Superconducting technology has made progress in a wide variety of fields, such as energy, life science, electronics, industrial use and environmental improvement. It enables the actualization of equipment that was unachievable with conventional technology, and will sustain future “IT-Based Quality Life Style”, “Sustainable Environmental” and “Advanced Healthcare” society. Besides coil technology with high magnetic field performance, superconducting electoronics or device technology, such as SQUID and SFQ-circuit, high temperature superconducting material and advanced cryogenics technology might be great significance in the history of nuclear fusion which requires so many wide, high and ultra technology. Superconducting technology seems to be the catalyst for a changing future society with nuclear fusion. As society changes, so will superconducting technology.

  11. Applications of intelligent-measurement systems in controlled-fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Lindquist, W.B.; Peterson, R.L.; Wyman, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the control and instrumentation for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA. This large-scale scientific experiment in controlled thermonuclear fusion, which is currently being expanded, originally had 3000 devices to control and 7000 sensors to monitor. A hierarchical computer control system, is used with nine minicomputers forming the supervisory system. There are approximately 55 local control and instrumentation microcomputers. In addition, each device has its own monitoring equipment, which in some cases consists of a small computer. After describing the overall system a more detailed account is given of the control and instrumentation for two large superconducting magnets

  12. Alloy development for fast induced radioactivity decay for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Bloom, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    During the operation of a fusion reactor, the structural material of the first wall and blanket structure will become highly radioactive from activation by the high-energy fusion neutrons. A difficult radioactive waste management problem will be involved in the disposal of this material after the service lifetime is complete. One way to minimize the management problem is the use of structural materials where the radioactive isotopes in the irradiated material decay to levels that allow for simplified disposal techniques. We are exploring how ferritic and austenitic steels could be developed to meet this objective

  13. PFMC14. 14th international conference on plasma-facing materials and components for fusion applications. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The performance of fusion devices and of a future fusion power plant critically depends on the plasma facing materials and components. Resistance to local heat and particle loads, thermo-mechanical properties, as well as the response to neutron damage of the selected materials are critical parameters which need to be understood and tailored from atomistic to component levels. The 14th International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications addresses these issues. Among the topics of the joint conference recent developments and research results in the following fields are addressed: - Tungsten and tungsten alloys - Low-Z materials - Mixed materials - Erosion, redeposition and fuel retention - Materials under extreme thermal loads - Technology and testing of plasma-facing components - Neutron effects in plasma-facing materials - Advanced characterization of materials and components. Selected international speakers present overview lectures and treat detailed aspects of the given topics. Contributed papers to the subjects of the meeting are solicited for oral and poster presentations.

  14. L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi; Falck, Tillmann; Daemen, Anneleen; Tranchevent, Leon-Charles; Suykens, Johan Ak; De Moor, Bart; Moreau, Yves

    2010-06-08

    This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL) such as L(infinity), L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L(infinity) MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L(infinity) and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L(infinity) MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and clustering algorithms. To tackle the

  15. L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Moor Bart

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL such as L∞, L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L∞ MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. Results We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L∞ and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. Conclusions This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L∞ MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and

  16. Novel Orthogonal Signal Based Decomposition of Digital Signals: Application to Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Faheem Mohed

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, a novel orthogonal decomposition of an arbitrary “digital” signal is proposed. An approach to attack the problem of wireless sensor fusion using digital signal processing techniques is discussed. The merits of the proposed orthogonal decomposition are briefly discussed. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Leaf area index uncertainty estimates for model-data fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; D. Bryan Dail; D.Y. Hollinger

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of data uncertainties are required to integrate different observational data streams as model constraints using model-data fusion. We describe an approach with which random and systematic uncertainties in optical measurements of leaf area index [LAI] can be quantified. We use data from a measurement campaign at the spruce-dominated Howland Forest AmeriFlux...

  18. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S.L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D.E.J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W.W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C.S.; Blagoeva, N.; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Brinkmann, J.; Celino, M.; Ciupinski, L.; Correia, J.B.; De Backer, A.; Domain, C.; Gaganidze, E.; García-Rosales, C.; Gibson, J.; Gilbert, M.R.; Giusepponi, S.; Gludovatz, B.; Greuner, H.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Hoffmann, A.; Holstein, A.; Koch, F.; Krauss, W.; Li, H.; Lindig, S.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch.; López-Ruiz, P.; Maier, H.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mishra, T.P.; Muhammed, M.; Muñoz, A.; Muzyk, M.; Nordlund, K.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Opschoor, J.; Ordás, N.; Palacios, Y.; Pintsuk, G.; Pippan, R.; Reiser, J.; Riesch, J.; Roberts, S. G.; Romaner, L.; Rosiński, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schulmeyer, W.; Traxler, H.; Ureña, G.; van der Laan, J.G.; Veleva, L.; Wahlberg, S.; Walter, M.; Weber, T.; Weitkamp, T.; Wurster, S.; Yar, M.A.; You, J.H.; Zivelonghi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 432, 1-3 (2013), s. 482-500 ISSN 0022-3115 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tungsten * joining * composites * graded materials * fusion materials Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics Impact factor: 2.016, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311512004278

  19. Neutronics design of fusion reactors and application of blanket neutronics experiment to the design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi

    1976-10-01

    A conceptual design of a commercial fusion power reactor and a preliminary design of an experimental fusion reactor are under way. Based on the experience of the neutronics of the two reactors, the status of neutronics design and problems in the neutronics calculation are described. A series of blanket neutronics experiments has been carried out to examine validity of the nuclear data and calculation methods used in neutronics design of the fusion reactors. The measured fission-rate distributions in the four types of spherical blanket assemblies consisting of lithium and/or graphite and/or natural uranium are analyzed. The effects of uncertainty of the nuclear data, processing procedure of the multi-group cross sections, and approximations in neutron transport calculations upon the calculated fission-rates are investigated. The discrepancy between the calculated and measured values of fission-rates is caused mainly by neglecting the anisotropy of secondary neutrons from inelastic and (n,2n) reactions in the multi-group cross section calculation. The results of the analysis are applied to the neutronics design of the fusion reactors to evaluate the effect of the results upon the blanket nuclear characteristics. In consequence, the substitution of the reflector material, graphite by stainless steel is recommended. It is also pointed out that the present shielding design for the superconducting magnets may be insufficient and increased attenuation may be necessary. (auth.)

  20. A fusion protein consisting of the exopeptidases PepN and PepX-production, characterization, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressler, Timo; Pfahler, Nina; Merz, Michael; Hubschneider, Larissa; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Claaßen, Wolfgang; Fischer, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, general and specific aminopeptidases are of great interest, especially for protein hydrolysis in the food industry. As shown previously, it is confirmed that the general aminopeptidase N (PepN; EC 3.4.11.2) and the proline-specific peptidase PepX (EC 3.4.14.11) from Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 12046 show a synergistic effect during protein hydrolysis which results in high degrees of hydrolysis and reduced bitterness. To combine both activities, the enzymes were linked and a fusion protein called PepN-L1-PepX (FUS-PepN-PepX) was created. After production and purification, the fusion protein was characterized. Some of its biochemical characteristics were altered in favor for an application compared to the single enzymes. As an example, the optimum temperature for the PepN activity increased from 30 °C for the single enzyme to 35 °C for FUS-PepN. In addition, the temperature stability of PepX was higher for FUS-PepX than for the single enzyme (50 % compared to 40 % residual activity at 50 °C after 14 days, respectively). In addition, the disulfide bridge-reducing reagent β-mercaptoethanol did not longer inactivate the FUS-PepN activity. Furthermore, the K M values decreased for both enzyme activities in the fusion protein. Finally, it was found that the synergistic hydrolysis performance in a casein hydrolysis was not reduced for the fusion protein. The increase of the relative degree of hydrolysis of a prehydrolyzed casein solution was the same as it was for the single enzymes. As a benefit, the resulting hydrolysate showed a strong antioxidative capacity (ABTS-IC50 value: 5.81 μg mL(-1)).

  1. Spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herniated disk - fusion; Spinal stenosis - fusion; Laminectomy - fusion Patient Instructions Bathroom safety - adults Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Spine surgery - discharge Surgical wound care - open Images Scoliosis Spinal ...

  2. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S. L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S. M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W. W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Blagoeva, D.; Boldyryeva, H.; Brinkmann, J.; Celino, M.; Ciupinski, L.; Correia, J. B.; De Backer, A.; Domain, C.; Gaganidze, E.; García-Rosales, C.; Gibson, J.; Gilbert, M. R.; Giusepponi, S.; Gludovatz, B.; Greuner, H.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Hoffmann, A.; Holstein, N.; Koch, F.; Krauss, W.; Li, H.; Lindig, S.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch.; López-Ruiz, P.; Maier, H.; Matejicek, J.; Mishra, T. P.; Muhammed, M.; Muñoz, A.; Muzyk, M.; Nordlund, K.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Opschoor, J.; Ordás, N.; Palacios, T.; Pintsuk, G.; Pippan, R.; Reiser, J.; Riesch, J.; Roberts, S. G.; Romaner, L.; Rosiński, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schulmeyer, W.; Traxler, H.; Ureña, A.; van der Laan, J. G.; Veleva, L.; Wahlberg, S.; Walter, M.; Weber, T.; Weitkamp, T.; Wurster, S.; Yar, M. A.; You, J. H.; Zivelonghi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  3. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S.L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D.E.J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W.W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C.S.; Blagoeva, D.; Boldyryeva, H.

    2013-01-01

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme’s main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  4. [Application of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging in reservoir characterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zha, Ming; Guo, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Yong

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, spectral imaging technique has been applied widely in mineralogy and petrology. The technique combines the spectral technique with imaging technique. The samples can be analyzed and recognized both in spectra and space by using the technique. However, the problem is how to acquire the needful information from a large number of data of spectral imaging, and how to enhance the needful information. In the present paper, the experimental data were processed by using the technique of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging. The space distribution map of chemical composition and physical parameters of samples were obtained. The result showed that the distribution of different hydrocarbon in the reservoirs, pore connectivity, etc. were revealed well. The technique of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging provided a new method for reservoir characterization.

  5. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  6. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M., E-mail: Michael.rieth@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dudarev, S.L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M. [EFDA-Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Aktaa, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ahlgren, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Antusch, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Armstrong, D.E.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Baluc, N. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL - Materials, 5232 Villigen/PSI (Switzerland); Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue, de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Polytech ou Faculte des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Basuki, W.W. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Battabyal, M. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL - Materials, 5232 Villigen/PSI (Switzerland); Becquart, C.S. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, UMR 8207, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Blagoeva, D. [NRG, Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Boldyryeva, H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Praha (Czech Republic); and others

    2013-01-15

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  7. Doping-Induced Isotopic Mg11B2 Bulk Superconductor for Fusion Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting wires are widely used for fabricating magnetic coils in fusion reactors. Superconducting magnet system represents a key determinant of the thermal efficiency and the construction/operating costs of such a reactor. In consideration of the stability of 11B against fast neutron irradiation and its lower induced radioactivation properties, MgB2 superconductor with 11B serving as the boron source is an alternative candidate for use in fusion reactors with a severe high neutron flux environment. In the present work, the glycine-doped Mg11B2 bulk superconductor was synthesized from isotopic 11B powder to enhance the high field properties. The critical current density was enhanced (103 A·cm−2 at 20 K and 5 T over the entire field in contrast with the sample prepared from natural boron.

  8. Estimated heats of fusion of fluoride salt mixtures suitable for thermal energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A. K.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 973 K were estimated from a coupled analysis of the available thermodynamic data and phase diagrams. Simple binary eutectic systems with and without terminal solid solutions, binary eutectics with congruent melting intermediate phases, and ternary eutectic systems were considered. Several combinations of salts were identified, most notable the eutectics LiF-22CaF2 and NaF-60MgF2 which melt at 1039 and 1273 K respectively which posses relatively high heats of fusion/gm (greater than 0.7 kJ/g). Such systems would seemingly be ideal candidates for the light weight, high energy storage media required by the thermal energy storage unit in advanced solar dynamic power systems envisioned for the future space missions.

  9. Progress Towards the Development of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter for Aneutronic Fusion Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; Chap, A.; Wolinsky, J.; Scott, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and theory/simulation effort has been carried out to investigate the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), a scheme that has been proposed in the past for the direct conversion into electricity of the kinetic energy of an ion beam generated from fusion reactions. This effort has been focused in particular on the TWDEC process in the high density beam regime, thus accounting for the ion beam expansion due to its space charge.

  10. Primary investigation of clinical application of percutaneous posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jiang; Jiao Wencang; Chen Xiangrong; Li Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the feasibility, key technology, indications and clinical outcome of percutaneous lumbar interbody fusion. Methods: Clinical data from 32 cases [16 male, 16 female, age range 31-77 years, average disease duration (5.0±2.0) years] underwent percutaneous nucleotomy and endplate curettage was retrospectively analyzed. After percutaneous nucleotomy and endplate curettage, one expandable spinal spacer B-twin was introduced into the intervertebral space and some allograft cancellous bone implanted around the B-twin. Indications for treatment included degenerative lumbar disc herniation (LDH) with intervertebral distability or I degree spondylolisthesis (21 cases), LDH with intervertebral space collapse (10 cases) and lumbar discogenic pain (1 case). The symptoms and function of all patients were evaluated before, 3 months and 12 months after the operation by clinical outcome judgment criterion of surgical treatment for low back pain formulated by JOA, and the rate of clinical improvement and treatment efficacy were calculated. The JOA scales preoperatively, postoperatively and on the final follow-up was compared using ANOVA in SPSS. The changes before and after surgery with the JOA score and the the rate of clinical improvement between 3 months and 12 months after the operation was also compared using χ 2 test. Results: The average operation time 1 hour and blood loss 0.05). Conclusions: Percutaneous posterior lumbar interbody fusion with B-twin expandable fusion cage could lead to satisfactory outcome in the treatment of degenerative disc disease and intervertebral instability, which minimize surgical soft tissue and trauma spinal damage, does not destroy the structure of spinal stability. The long-term outcome, complications and fusion rate need further observing. (authors)

  11. Intensification of rare gas halide lasers with application to laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.R.; Eimerl, D.; Goldhar, J.; Murray, J.R.; Rapoport, W.R.; Schlitt, L.; Swingle, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The two techniques of backward-wave Raman pulse compression and pulse stacking are reviewed in the context of using KrF lasers as drivers in inertial confinement fusion. Experimental and theoretical results on Raman pulse compression in methane are presented including data on 70 to 75% pump energy extraction by the counter propagating Stokes wave. Results from on-going pulse stacker/Raman compressor experiments are also described, along with future investigations in this general area

  12. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibin Miao; Hongtian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is p...

  13. Sensor Data Fusion with Z-Numbers and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Xie, Chunhe; Zhuang, Miaoyan; Shou, Yehang; Tang, Yongchuan

    2016-09-15

    Sensor data fusion technology is widely employed in fault diagnosis. The information in a sensor data fusion system is characterized by not only fuzziness, but also partial reliability. Uncertain information of sensors, including randomness, fuzziness, etc., has been extensively studied recently. However, the reliability of a sensor is often overlooked or cannot be analyzed adequately. A Z-number, Z = (A, B), can represent the fuzziness and the reliability of information simultaneously, where the first component A represents a fuzzy restriction on the values of uncertain variables and the second component B is a measure of the reliability of A. In order to model and process the uncertainties in a sensor data fusion system reasonably, in this paper, a novel method combining the Z-number and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory is proposed, where the Z-number is used to model the fuzziness and reliability of the sensor data and the D-S evidence theory is used to fuse the uncertain information of Z-numbers. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it provides a more robust measure of reliability to the sensor data, and the complementary information of multi-sensors reduces the uncertainty of the fault recognition, thus enhancing the reliability of fault detection.

  14. Predicting interactome network perturbations in human cancer: application to gene fusions in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajingabo, Leon Juvenal; Daakour, Sarah; Martin, Maud; Grausenburger, Reinhard; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Dequiedt, Franck; Simonis, Nicolas; Twizere, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Genomic variations such as point mutations and gene fusions are directly or indirectly associated with human diseases. They are recognized as diagnostic, prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. However, predicting the functional effect of these genetic alterations beyond affected genes and their products is challenging because diseased phenotypes are likely dependent of complex molecular interaction networks. Using as models three different chromosomal translocations—ETV6-RUNX1 (TEL-AML1), BCR-ABL1, and TCF3-PBX1 (E2A-PBX1)—frequently found in precursor-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (preB-ALL), we develop an approach to extract perturbed molecular interactions from gene expression changes. We show that the MYC and JunD transcriptional circuits are specifically deregulated after ETV6-RUNX1 and TCF3-PBX1 gene fusions, respectively. We also identified the bulk mRNA NXF1-dependent machinery as a direct target for the TCF3-PBX1 fusion protein. Through a novel approach combining gene expression and interactome data analysis, we provide new insight into TCF3-PBX1 and ETV6-RUNX1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:25273558

  15. Spanish version of the Thought-Action Fusion Questionnaire and its application in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available I Jáuregui-Lobera,1,3 MA Santed-Germán,2 P Bolaños-Ríos,3 O Garrido-Casals3 1Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Engineering Department, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatments Department, UNED, Madrid, Spain; 3Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, Spain Purpose: The aims of the study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Thought-Action Fusion Questionnaire (TAF-SP, as well as to determine its validity by evaluating the relationship of the TAF-SP to different instruments. Patients and methods: Two groups were studied: one comprising 146 patients with eating disorders; and another a group of 200 students. Results: Three factors were obtained: TAF–Moral; TAF–Likelihood-others; and TAF–Likelihood-oneself. The internal consistency of the TAF-SP was determined by means of Cronbach’s α coefficient, with values ranging between 0.84–0.95. The correlations with other instruments reflected adequate validity. The three-factor structure was tested by means of a linear structural equation model, and the structure fit satisfactorily. Differences in TAF-SP scores between the diagnostic subgroups were also analyzed. Conclusion: The TAF-SP meets the psychometric requirements for measuring thought-action fusion and shows adequate internal consistency and validity. Keywords: thought-action fusion, cognitive distortions, validation, eating disorders

  16. Sensor Data Fusion with Z-Numbers and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor data fusion technology is widely employed in fault diagnosis. The information in a sensor data fusion system is characterized by not only fuzziness, but also partial reliability. Uncertain information of sensors, including randomness, fuzziness, etc., has been extensively studied recently. However, the reliability of a sensor is often overlooked or cannot be analyzed adequately. A Z-number, Z = (A, B, can represent the fuzziness and the reliability of information simultaneously, where the first component A represents a fuzzy restriction on the values of uncertain variables and the second component B is a measure of the reliability of A. In order to model and process the uncertainties in a sensor data fusion system reasonably, in this paper, a novel method combining the Z-number and Dempster–Shafer (D-S evidence theory is proposed, where the Z-number is used to model the fuzziness and reliability of the sensor data and the D-S evidence theory is used to fuse the uncertain information of Z-numbers. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it provides a more robust measure of reliability to the sensor data, and the complementary information of multi-sensors reduces the uncertainty of the fault recognition, thus enhancing the reliability of fault detection.

  17. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.K.; Scholz, R.; Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) effects of irradiation on fusion reactor materials, (2) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (3) carbon coatings for fusion applications, (4) surface damage of TiB 2 coatings under energetic D + and 4 He + irradiations, and (5) neutron dosimetry

  18. Qualification of Ti6Al4V ELI Alloy Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadroitsev, I.; Krakhmalev, P.; Yadroitsava, I.; Du Plessis, A.

    2018-03-01

    Rectangular Ti6Al4V extralow interstitials (ELI) samples were manufactured by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) in vertical and horizontal orientations relative to the build platform and subjected to various heat treatments. Detailed analyses of porosity, microstructure, residual stress, tensile properties, fatigue, and fracture surfaces were performed based on x-ray micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction methods. The types of fracture and the tensile fracture mechanisms of the LPBF Ti6Al4V ELI alloy were also studied. Detailed analysis of the microstructure and the corresponding mechanical properties were compared against standard specifications for conventional Ti6Al4V alloy for use in surgical implant applications. Conclusions regarding the mechanical properties and heat treatment of LPBF Ti6Al4V ELI for biomedical applications are made.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of SiC on C-C composites as plasma facing materials for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. J.; Lee, M. Y.; Park, J. Y.; Hong, G. W.; Kim, J. I.; Choi, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the low activation and excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, carbon-fiber reinforced carbon(C-C) composites have received much attention for plasma facing materials for fusion reactor and high-temperature structural applications such as aircrafts and space vehicles. These proposed applications have been frustrated by the lack of resistance to hydrogen erosion and oxidation on exposure to ambient oxidizing conditions at high temperature. Although Silicon Carbide (SiC) has shown excellent properties as an effective erosion-and oxidation-protection coating, many cracks are developed during fabrication and thermal cycles in use due to the Coefficients of Thermal Expansion(CTE) mismatch between SiC and C-C composite. In this study, we adopted a pyrolitic carbon as an interlayer between SiC and C-C substrate in order to minimize the CTE mismatch. The oxidation-protection performance of this composite was investigated as well

  20. The emissivity of W coatings deposited on carbon materials for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruset, C., E-mail: ruset@infim.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Falie, D.; Grigore, E.; Gherendi, M.; Zoita, V. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Zastrow, K.-D.; Matthews, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Courtois, X.; Bucalossi, J. [IRFM, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 SAINT PAUL LEZ DURANCE (France); Likonen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The emissivity of tungsten coatings deposited on carbon substrates such as CFC and fine grain graphite was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm in the temperature range of 400 °C–1200 °C. • The emissivity of other materials of interest for nuclear fusion such as tungsten and beryllium was measured as well. • The influence of substrate structure and of the viewing angle on the emissivity of W coatings was investigated in detail. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings deposited on carbon materials such as carbon fiber composite (CFC) or fine grain graphite are currently used in fusion devices as amour for plasma facing components (PFC). More than 4000 carbon tiles were W-coated by Combined Magnetron Sputtering and Ion Implantation technology for the ITER-like Wall at JET, ASDEX Upgrade and WEST tokamaks. The emissivity of W coatings is a key parameter required by protection systems of the W-coated PFC and also by the diagnostic tools in order to get correct values of temperature and heat loading. The emissivity of tungsten is rather well known, but the literature data refer to bulk tungsten or tungsten foils and not to coatings deposited on carbon materials. The emissivity was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm. It was found that the structure of the substrate has a significant influence on the emissivity values. The temperature dependence of the emissivity in the range of 400 °C–1200 °C and the influence of the viewing angle were investigated as well. The results are given in a table for W coatings and for other materials of interest for fusion such as bulk W and bulk Be.

  1. The emissivity of W coatings deposited on carbon materials for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruset, C.; Falie, D.; Grigore, E.; Gherendi, M.; Zoita, V.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Matthews, G.; Courtois, X.; Bucalossi, J.; Likonen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The emissivity of tungsten coatings deposited on carbon substrates such as CFC and fine grain graphite was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm in the temperature range of 400 °C–1200 °C. • The emissivity of other materials of interest for nuclear fusion such as tungsten and beryllium was measured as well. • The influence of substrate structure and of the viewing angle on the emissivity of W coatings was investigated in detail. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings deposited on carbon materials such as carbon fiber composite (CFC) or fine grain graphite are currently used in fusion devices as amour for plasma facing components (PFC). More than 4000 carbon tiles were W-coated by Combined Magnetron Sputtering and Ion Implantation technology for the ITER-like Wall at JET, ASDEX Upgrade and WEST tokamaks. The emissivity of W coatings is a key parameter required by protection systems of the W-coated PFC and also by the diagnostic tools in order to get correct values of temperature and heat loading. The emissivity of tungsten is rather well known, but the literature data refer to bulk tungsten or tungsten foils and not to coatings deposited on carbon materials. The emissivity was measured at the wavelengths of 1.064 μm, 1.75 μm, 3.75 μm and 4.0 μm. It was found that the structure of the substrate has a significant influence on the emissivity values. The temperature dependence of the emissivity in the range of 400 °C–1200 °C and the influence of the viewing angle were investigated as well. The results are given in a table for W coatings and for other materials of interest for fusion such as bulk W and bulk Be.

  2. Application of the water gas shift reaction to fusion fuel exhaust streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, A.M.; Cheh, C.H.; Glass, R.W.

    1983-10-01

    In a Fusion Fuel Clean Up (FCU) system, impurities will be removed from the fusion reactor exhaust and neutral beam line streams. Tritium in this impurity stream will be recovered and recycled to the fuel stream. In one flowsheet configuration of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), tritium is recovered from a simulated impurity stream via uranium hot metal beds and recycled to an isotope separation system. This study has shown, however, that the catalyzed water gas shift reaction, by which (H,D,T) 2 O and CO are converted to (H,D,T) 2 and CO 2 is a better method of (H,D,T) 2 O reduction than the hot metal beds. Catalytic reactors were designed, built and tested to provide data for the design of a prototype reactor to replace the hot metal beds in the FCU system. The prototype reactor contains only 10 g of catalyst and is expected to last at least 5 years. The reactor is small (1.3 cm OD x 13 cm long), operates at low temperatures (approximately 490 K) and will convert water to hydrogen, at a CO/H 2 O ratio of 1.5, with an efficiency of greater than 98 percent. Results show that the catalytic reactor is very stable even during upset conditions. Wide ranges of flow and a CO/H 2 O ratio variance from 1.3 upward have little effect on the conversion efficiency. Short term high temperature excursions do not affect the catalyst and lower temperatures will simply decrease the reaction rate resulting in lower conversions. The reactor appears to be unaffected by NO 2 , CO 2 , O 2 and N 2 in the feed stream at concentration levels expected in a fusion reactor exhaust stream

  3. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  4. Some fusion perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the concepts of nuclear fusion reactions, advanced fusion fuels, environmental impacts, etc., are explored using the following general outline: I. Principles of Fusion (Nuclear Fuels and Reactions, Lawson Condition, n tau vs T, Nuclear Burn Characteristics); II. Magnetic Mirror Possibilities (the Ion Layer and Electron Layer, Exponential Build-up at MeV energies, Lorentz trapping at GeV energies); III. Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects (Advanced Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects, Burn Characteristics and Applications, Excitation-heating Prospects for Runaway Ion Temperatures). Inasmuch as the outline is very skeletal, a significant research and development effort may be in order to evaluate these prospects in more detail and hopefully ''harness the H-bomb'' for peaceful applications, the author concludes. 28 references

  5. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  6. A Survey and Analysis of Frameworks and Framework Issues for Information Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, James

    This paper was stimulated by the proposed project for the Santander Bank-sponsored "Chairs of Excellence" program in Spain, of which the author is a recipient. That project involves research on characterizing a robust, problem-domain-agnostic framework in which Information Fusion (IF) processes of all description, to include artificial intelligence processes and techniques could be developed. The paper describes the IF process and its requirements, a literature survey on IF frameworks, and a new proposed framework that will be implemented and evaluated at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Colmenarejo Campus.

  7. Application of the Semantics Enrichment Concept in the Information Fusion for Command Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    compatibilité, représentation de la connaissance, logique floue. 1. Introduction The main objective of all aid command sytems, whatever may be the nature of...fuzzy logic. RÉSUMÉ Cet article concerne un nouveau concept, intitulé enrichissement de la sémantique, destiné à faciliter le processus de fusion...d’information en s’intéressant essentiellement à un moyen d’améliorer la pertinence de la connaissance opérationnelle. On commence par rappeler ce que

  8. Vacuum laser-produced plasma for analytical application in fusion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaviva, S; Caneve, L; Colao, F; Fantoni, R; Maddaluno, G

    2012-01-01

    LIBS is a well established tool for qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of surfaces, with micro-destructive characteristics and some capabilities for stratigraphy. In this work, the depth profiling capabilities of LIBS has been checked by determining the composition of multilayered samples simulating the plasma facing components fusion device covered with co-deposited impurity layers. A new experimental setup has been designed and realized in order to optimize the characteristics of a LIBS system working at low pressure and remotely.

  9. A Simple Application of Lightweight Fusion to Proving the Equivalence of Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    We show how Ohori and Sasano's recent lightweight fusion by fixed-point promotion provides a simple way to prove the equivalence of the two standard styles of specification of abstract machines: (1) as a transition function together with a `driver loop' implementing the iteration of this transition...... function; and (2) as a function directly iterating upon a configuration until reaching a final state, if ever. The equivalence hinges on the fact that the latter style of specification is a fused version of the former one. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our recent work on syntactic...... correspondences between reduction semantics and abstract machines, using refocusing...

  10. Advances in HYDRA and its applications to simulations of inertial confinement fusion targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinak M.M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new set of capabilities has been implemented in the HYDRA 2D/3D multiphysics inertial confinement fusion simulation code. These include a Monte Carlo particle transport library. It models transport of neutrons, gamma rays and light ions, as well as products they generate from nuclear and coulomb collisions. It allows accurate simulations of nuclear diagnostic signatures from capsule implosions. We apply it to here in a 3D simulation of a National Ignition Facility (NIF ignition capsule which models the full capsule solid angle. This simulation contains a severely rough ablator perturbation and provides diagnostics signatures of capsule failure due to excessive instability growth.

  11. Overview of processing technologies for tungsten-steel composites and FGMs for fusion applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Nevrlá, Barbara; Vilémová, Monika; Boldyryeva, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 267-273 ISSN 0029-5922. [Kudowa Summer School „Towards Fusion Energy“. Kudowa Zdrój, 09.06.2014-13.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma-facing components * functionally graded materials (FGMs), * tungsten * steel * plasma spraying * powder metallurgy Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.546, year: 2015 http://www.nukleonika.pl/#/?p=1222

  12. Plasma induced material defects and threshold values for thermal loads in high temperature resistant alloys and in refractory metals for first wall application in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Kny, E.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1986-10-01

    Materials for the application in the first wall of fusion reactors of the tokamak type are subjected to pulsed heat fluxes which range from some 0.5 MW m -2 to 10 MW m -2 during normal plasma operation, and which can exceed 1000 MW m -2 during total plasma disruptions. The structural defects and material fatigue caused by this types of plasma wall interaction are investigated and the results are plotted in threshold loading curves. Additionally, the results are, as far as possible, compared with quantitative, theoretical calculations. These procedures allow a semiquantitative evaluation of the applicability of the mentioned metals in the first wall of fusion reactors. (orig.) [de

  13. Trust Model of Wireless Sensor Networks and Its Application in Data Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenguo; Tian, Liqin; Lin, Chuang

    2017-03-28

    In order to ensure the reliability and credibility of the data in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), this paper proposes a trust evaluation model and data fusion mechanism based on trust. First of all, it gives the model structure. Then, the calculation rules of trust are given. In the trust evaluation model, comprehensive trust consists of three parts: behavior trust, data trust, and historical trust. Data trust can be calculated by processing the sensor data. Based on the behavior of nodes in sensing and forwarding, the behavior trust is obtained. The initial value of historical trust is set to the maximum and updated with comprehensive trust. Comprehensive trust can be obtained by weighted calculation, and then the model is used to construct the trust list and guide the process of data fusion. Using the trust model, simulation results indicate that energy consumption can be reduced by an average of 15%. The detection rate of abnormal nodes is at least 10% higher than that of the lightweight and dependable trust system (LDTS) model. Therefore, this model has good performance in ensuring the reliability and credibility of the data. Moreover, the energy consumption of transmitting was greatly reduced.

  14. An Improved Unmixing-Based Fusion Method: Potential Application to Remote Monitoring of Inland Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Guo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although remote sensing technology has been widely used to monitor inland water bodies; the lack of suitable data with high spatial and spectral resolution has severely obstructed its practical development. The objective of this study is to improve the unmixing-based fusion (UBF method to produce fused images that maintain both spectral and spatial information from the original images. Images from Environmental Satellite 1 (HJ1 and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS were used in this study to validate the method. An improved UBF (IUBF algorithm is established by selecting a proper HJ1-CCD image band for each MERIS band and thereafter applying an unsupervised classification method in each sliding window. Viewing in the visual sense—the radiance and the spectrum—the results show that the improved method effectively yields images with the spatial resolution of the HJ1-CCD image and the spectrum resolution of the MERIS image. When validated using two datasets; the ERGAS index (Relative Dimensionless Global Error indicates that IUBF is more robust than UBF. Finally, the fused data were applied to evaluate the chlorophyll a concentrations (Cchla in Taihu Lake. The result shows that the Cchla map obtained by IUBF fusion captures more detailed information than that of MERIS.

  15. Application of diffusion theory to the transport of neutral particles in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the widely held view that diffusion theory can not provide good accuracy for the transport of neutral particles in fusion plasmas is misplaced. In fact, it is shown that multigroup diffusion theory gives quite good accuracy as compared to the transport theory. The reasons for this are elaborated and some of the physical and theoretical reasons which make the multigroup diffusion theory provide good accuracy are explained. Energy dependence must be taken into consideration to obtain a realistic neutral atom distribution in fusion plasmas. There are two reasons for this; presence of either is enough to necessitate an energy dependent treatment. First, the plasma temperature varies spatially, and second, the ratio of charge-exchange to total plasma-neutral interaction cross section (c) is not close to one. A computer code to solve the one-dimensional multigroup diffusion theory in general geometry (slab, cylindrical and spherical) has been written for use on Cray computers, and its results are compared with those from the one-dimensional transport code ANISN to support the above finding. A fast, compact and versatile two-dimensional finite element multigroup diffusion theory code, FINAT, in X-Y and R-Z cylindrical/toroidal geometries has been written for use on CRAY computers. This code has been compared with the two dimensional transport code DOT-4.3. The accuracy is very good, and FENAT runs much faster compared even to DOT-4.3 which is a finite difference code

  16. Alloy development for fast induced radioactivity decay for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Bloom, E.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Cr-Mo ferritic (martensitic) steels and austenitic stainless steels (primarily type 316 and variations on that composition) are the leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment produces long-lived radioactive isotopes. These isotopes lead to difficult radioactive waste disposal problems once the structure is removed from service. Such problems could be reduced by developing steels that contain only elements that produce radioactive isotopes that decay to low levels in a reasonable time (tens of years instead of hundreds or thousands of years). This report discusses the development of such steels by making elemental substitutions in the steels now under consideration. Molybdenum must be replaced in the Cr-Mo steels; nickel and molybdenum both must be replaced in the austenitic stainless steels (the nitrogen concentration must be limited, and niobium, maintained to extremely low levels). Appropriate substitutions are tungsten for molybdenum in the Cr-Mo steels and manganese for nickel in the austenitic stainless steels. Indications are that suitable ferritic steels can be developed, but development of a nickel-free austenitic stainless steel with properties similar to the Cr-Ni stainless steels appears to be much more complex

  17. Development of high power ceramic lasers and possible application to nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagitani, Takagimi; Yagi, Hideki; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Lu, Jianren; Kaminskii, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    We have succeeded in fabricating high-transparent Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (YAG) and Y 2 O 3 laser ceramic materials using vacuum sintering method. Compared with single crystal, ceramics have the following advantages, namely: (1) Ease of fabrication; (2) Less expensive; (3) Fabrication of large size and high concentration; (4) Multi-layer and multi-functional ceramic structure; (5) Mass production, etc. On the base of Nd 3+ :YAG ceramics, we performed high efficient and high power (up to 1.46 kW) CW lasers with laser diode pumping. Optical properties of Nd:YAG ceramics, such as absorption, emission and fluorescence lifetime, were found to be similar to those of Nd:YAG single crystal. The thermal conductivity of Nd:YAG ceramics was measured, which is also found to be very similar to that of Nd:YAG single crystal. The simulated emission cross section of Nd 3+ :Y 2 O 3 happened to be in the range that is required for laser fusion driver. This makes Nd:Y 2 O 3 a potential candidate for being used in laser fusion system. Some optical properties of Nd:Y 2 O 3 ceramics were investigated and for the first time, CW room-temperature laser oscillation at two wavelength (1074.6 nm and 1078.6 nm) of 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 11/2 channel was obtained with a slope efficiency of 32%. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Matrix Square Root Operations for UKF within a UAV GPS/INS Sensor Fusion Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rhudy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF as the nonlinear estimator within a Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS sensor fusion algorithm for attitude estimation, various methods of calculating the matrix square root were discussed and compared. Specifically, the diagonalization method, Schur method, Cholesky method, and five different iterative methods were compared. Additionally, a different method of handling the matrix square root requirement, the square-root UKF (SR-UKF, was evaluated. The different matrix square root calculations were compared based on computational requirements and the sensor fusion attitude estimation performance, which was evaluated using flight data from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The roll and pitch angle estimates were compared with independently measured values from a high quality mechanical vertical gyroscope. This manuscript represents the first comprehensive analysis of the matrix square root calculations in the context of UKF. From this analysis, it was determined that the best overall matrix square root calculation for UKF applications in terms of performance and execution time is the Cholesky method.

  19. Mesh Refinement for Particle-In-Cell Plasma Simulations: Applications to - and benefits for - Heavy-Ion-Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.-L.; Colella, P.; McCorquodale, P.; Van Straalen, B.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    The numerical simulation of the driving beams in a heavy ion fusion power plant is a challenging task, and simulation of the power plant as a whole, or even of the driver, is not yet possible. Despite the rapid progress in computer power, past and anticipated, one must consider the use of the most advanced numerical techniques, if we are to reach our goal expeditiously. One of the difficulties of these simulations resides in the disparity of scales, in time and in space, which must be resolved. When these disparities are in distinctive zones of the simulation region, a method which has proven to be effective in other areas (e.g., fluid dynamics simulations) is the mesh refinement technique. They discuss the challenges posed by the implementation of this technique into plasma simulations (due to the presence of particles and electromagnetic waves). They will present the prospects for and projected benefits of its application to heavy ion fusion. In particular to the simulation of the ion source and the final beam propagation in the chamber. A collaboration project is under way at LBNL between the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group (ANAG) and the HIF group to couple the Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) library (CHOMBO) developed by the ANAG group to the Particle-In-Cell accelerator code WARP developed by the HIF-VNL. They describe their progress and present their initial findings

  20. Mesh Refinement for Particle-In-Cell Plasma Simulations: Applications to - and benefits for - Heavy-Ion-Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vay, J.-L.; Colella, P.; McCorquodale, P.; Van Straalen, B.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    The numerical simulation of the driving beams in a heavy ion fusion power plant is a challenging task, and simulation of the power plant as a whole, or even of the driver, is not yet possible. Despite the rapid progress in computer power, past and anticipated, one must consider the use of the most advanced numerical techniques, if we are to reach our goal expeditiously. One of the difficulties of these simulations resides in the disparity of scales, in time and in space, which must be resolved. When these disparities are in distinctive zones of the simulation region, a method which has proven to be effective in other areas (e.g., fluid dynamics simulations) is the mesh refinement technique. They discuss the challenges posed by the implementation of this technique into plasma simulations (due to the presence of particles and electromagnetic waves). They will present the prospects for and projected benefits of its application to heavy ion fusion. In particular to the simulation of the ion source and the final beam propagation in the chamber. A collaboration project is under way at LBNL between the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group (ANAG) and the HIF group to couple the Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) library (CHOMBO) developed by the ANAG group to the Particle-In-Cell accelerator code WARP developed by the HIF-VNL. They describe their progress and present their initial findings.

  1. [Application of Combined Detection of Fusion Gene and BIOMED-2 Standardized Ig Gene Rearrangement System in Childhood B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Xin-Rong; Zheng, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    To explore the application of combined detection of fusion gene and BIOMED-2 standardized immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangement system in diagnosis and treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Multiplex-PCR amplifications and RQ-PCR of RNA/DNA were performed using ALL fusion gene detection kit and BIOMED-2 primer. The Ig gene rearrangements were analyzed by using PCR fragment analysis system. Out of 251 children with B-ALL, 77 cases were TEL-AML1(+) , 28 cases were E2A-PBX1(+) , 10 cases were MLL-AF4(+) , 11 cases were BCR-ABL(+) , the total positive rate was 50.2%, 82.5% showed IgH VH-JH rearrangement, 53.4% showed IgK rearrangement. The positive rate of combined detection of fusion gene and gene rearrangement was 99%. E2A-PBX1(+) and MLL-AF4(+) with IgK(+) gene rearrangement group was compared with negative control group, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001 or P = 0.005); 105 ALL fusion gene positive cases had been detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) simultaneously, the accordance rate of fusion gene and FISH was more than 94%. The combined detection of ALL fusion gene and BIOMED-2 standardized clonality analysis system can improve the positive detected rate of B-ALL dramatically, and make the grouping of disease prognosis more accurately; this combined detection is a more faster and sensitive method than FISH.

  2. Linear study and bundle adjustment data fusion; Application to vision localization; Recherche lineaire et fusion de donnees par ajustement de faisceaux; Application a la localisation par vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michot, J.

    2010-12-09

    The works presented in this manuscript are in the field of computer vision, and tackle the problem of real-time vision based localization and 3D reconstruction. In this context, the trajectory of a camera and the 3D structure of the filmed scene are initially estimated by linear algorithms and then optimized by a nonlinear algorithm, bundle adjustment. The thesis first presents a new technique of line search, dedicated to the nonlinear minimization algorithms used in Structure-from-Motion. The proposed technique is not iterative and can be quickly installed in traditional bundle adjustment frameworks. This technique, called Global Algebraic Line Search (G-ALS), and its two-dimensional variant (Two way-ALS), accelerate the convergence of the bundle adjustment algorithm. The approximation of the re-projection error by an algebraic distance enables the analytical calculation of an effective displacement amplitude (or two amplitudes for the Two way-ALS variant) by solving a degree 3 (G-ALS) or 5 (Two way-ALS) polynomial. Our experiments, conducted on simulated and real data, show that this amplitude, which is optimal for the algebraic distance, is also efficient for the Euclidean distance and reduces the convergence time of minimizations. One difficulty of real-time tracking algorithms (monocular SLAM) is that the estimated trajectory is often affected by drifts: on the absolute orientation, position and scale. Since these algorithms are incremental, errors and approximations are accumulated throughout the trajectory and cause global drifts. In addition, a tracking vision system can always be dazzled or used under conditions which prevented temporarily to calculate the location of the system. To solve these problems, we propose to use an additional sensor measuring the displacement of the camera. The type of sensor used will vary depending on the targeted application (an odometer for a vehicle, a lightweight inertial navigation system for a person). We propose to

  3. Plasma Wall Interaction Phenomena on Tungsten Armour Materials for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uytdenhouwen, I. [SCK.CEN - The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Massaut, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Van Oost, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    One of the most attractive future complements to present energy sources is nuclear fusion. A large progress was made throughout the last decade from both the physical as the technological area leading to the construction of the ITER machine. One of the key issues that recently received a large interest at international level is focused on the Plasma Wall Interaction (PWI). One of the promising Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) are Tungsten (W) and Tungsten alloys. However, despite the worldwide use and industrial availability of W, the database of physical and mechanical properties is very limited. Especially after fusion relevant neutron irradiation and PWI phenomena, most of the properties are still unknown. The plasma fuel consists out of deuterium (D) and tritium (T). Tritium is radio-active and therefore an issue from the safety point of view. During steady-state plasma operation of future fusion power plants, the PFM need to extract a power density of {approx}10-20 MW/m{sup 2}. On top of this heat, transient events will deposit an additional non-negligible amount of energy (Disruptions, Vertical Displacement Events, Edge Localized Modes) during short durations. These severe heat loads cause cracking and even melting of the surface resulting in a reduced lifetime and the creation of dust. A contribution to the understanding of cracking phenomena under the severe thermal loads is described as well as the properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Several W grades were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (SCK.CEN) and the thermal loads were simulated with the electron-beam facility JUDITH (FZJ). Since knowledge should be gained about the Tritium retention in the PFM for safety and licensing reasons, a unique test facility at SCK.CEN is being set-up. The plasmatron VISION-I will simulate steady state plasmas for Tritium retention studies. The formation of surface cracks and dust, the initial porosity, neutron induced traps, re-deposited material - change the Tritium

  4. Plasma Wall Interaction Phenomena on Tungsten Armour Materials for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uytdenhouwen, I.; Massaut, V.; Linke, J.; Van Oost, G.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most attractive future complements to present energy sources is nuclear fusion. A large progress was made throughout the last decade from both the physical as the technological area leading to the construction of the ITER machine. One of the key issues that recently received a large interest at international level is focused on the Plasma Wall Interaction (PWI). One of the promising Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) are Tungsten (W) and Tungsten alloys. However, despite the worldwide use and industrial availability of W, the database of physical and mechanical properties is very limited. Especially after fusion relevant neutron irradiation and PWI phenomena, most of the properties are still unknown. The plasma fuel consists out of deuterium (D) and tritium (T). Tritium is radio-active and therefore an issue from the safety point of view. During steady-state plasma operation of future fusion power plants, the PFM need to extract a power density of ∼10-20 MW/m 2 . On top of this heat, transient events will deposit an additional non-negligible amount of energy (Disruptions, Vertical Displacement Events, Edge Localized Modes) during short durations. These severe heat loads cause cracking and even melting of the surface resulting in a reduced lifetime and the creation of dust. A contribution to the understanding of cracking phenomena under the severe thermal loads is described as well as the properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Several W grades were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (SCK.CEN) and the thermal loads were simulated with the electron-beam facility JUDITH (FZJ). Since knowledge should be gained about the Tritium retention in the PFM for safety and licensing reasons, a unique test facility at SCK.CEN is being set-up. The plasmatron VISION-I will simulate steady state plasmas for Tritium retention studies. The formation of surface cracks and dust, the initial porosity, neutron induced traps, re-deposited material - change the Tritium

  5. Augmented virtualised reality-Applications and benefits in remote handling for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Ryan; Hamilton, David

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 10 years VR has been used at JET in an increasingly important role. It now finds use in various aspects of task preparation including planning, mock-up, training and task overview. It also plays an important role in actual operations where it is used to gain a more complete view of the work area. The JET VR implementation does not have on-line monitoring of the remote environment and the robot modelling has accuracy limitations, so this system cannot be used as the primary means of viewing. Work is currently underway with the aim of allowing such as system to run at ITER with full remote environment monitoring with high enough precision and accuracy so as to allow its use as the primary viewing method. This paper looks at how this augmented virtualised reality solution would be applied and considers some of the additional benefits AVR could have in remote handling for fusion.

  6. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, F.Q.L.; John, B.; Skinner, C.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Calle, C.I.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm3 volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales (<1 s).

  7. Application of the level set method for multi-phase flow computation in fusion engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X-Y.; Ni, M-J.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulation of multi-phase flow is essential to evaluate the feasibility of a liquid protection scheme for the power plant chamber. The level set method is one of the best methods for computing and analyzing the motion of interface among the multi-phase flow. This paper presents a general formula for the second-order projection method combined with the level set method to simulate unsteady incompressible multi-phase flow with/out phase change flow encountered in fusion science and engineering. The third-order ENO scheme and second-order semi-implicit Crank-Nicholson scheme is used to update the convective and diffusion term. The numerical results show this method can handle the complex deformation of the interface and the effect of liquid-vapor phase change will be included in the future work

  8. Review of gas gun technology with emphasis on fusion fueling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flagg, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of current light gas gun and related hyper-velocity launcher technology with emphasis on physical and technological limits, advantages, and disadvantages as they apply to injection requirements for refueling Tokamak type nuclear fusion reactors. It is shown that the mass and velocity requirements for refueling are well within the capabilities of the state of the art and can be produced by several of the different types of gun/launching devices. The practical problems of adapting this performance capability to the refueling task are addressed and some possible configurations are given including both single pellet and multiple pellet injection. A short bibliography is given for those who wish additional detailed information

  9. Application of a model to investigate the effective thermal conductivity of randomly packed fusion pebble beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Jie; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    In our precious study, a prediction model, which calculates the effective thermal conductivity k{sub eff} of mono-sized pebble beds, has been developed and validated. Based on this model, here the effects of these influencing factors such as pebble size, thermal radiation, contact area, filling gas, gas flow, gas pressure, etc. on the k{sub eff} of randomly packed fusion pebble beds are studied and analyzed. The pebble beds investigated include Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}O, Be and BeO pebble beds. In the current study, many important and meaningful conclusions are derived and some of them are similar to the existing research results. Particularly, some critters that under which conditions the effect of some influencing factors can be neglected or should be considered are also presented.

  10. Powerful 160-keV neutral deuterium beam injector for application in fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumelli, M.; Bayetti, P.; Becherer, R.; Bottiglioni, F.; Desmons, M.; Jequier, F.; Pamela, J.; Raimbault, P.; Valckx, F.P.G.

    1986-07-01

    A 160-keV neutral deuterium beam injector has been developed for plasma heating in JET (Joint European Torus) fusion experiment. This injector has been reliably operated at 5.9-MW extracted deuterium ion beam power (37-A, 160-keV ion beam) and 5-s pulse duration. The neutral beam power was 1.75 MW corresponding to an overall neutral injector power efficiency of 30%. The beam divergence was 0.6/sup 0/. The ion beam was accelerated with a three-grid multiaperture system (aperture diameter phi = 11 mm). The accelerating gap length was 24 mm. The extracted deuterium ion current density amounted to 150 mA/cm/sup 2/. Grid and source body power loadings were acceptable for quasi-steady-state operation.

  11. Powerful 160-keV neutral deuterium beam injector for application in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.; Bayetti, P.; Becherer, R.; Bottiglioni, F.; Desmons, M.; Jequier, F.; Pamela, J.; Raimbault, P.; Valckx, F.P.G.

    1986-01-01

    A 160-keV neutral deuterium beam injector has been developed for plasma heating in JET (Joint European Torus) fusion experiment. This injector has been reliably operated at 5.9-MW extracted deuterium ion beam power (37-A, 160-keV ion beam) and 5-s pulse duration. The neutral beam power was 1.75 MW corresponding to an overall neutral injector power efficiency of 30%. The beam divergence was 0.6 0 . The ion beam was accelerated with a three-grid multiaperture system (aperture diameter phi = 11 mm). The accelerating gap length was 24 mm. The extracted deuterium ion current density amounted to 150 mA/cm 2 . Grid and source body power loadings were acceptable for quasi-steady-state operation

  12. Shallow-Land Buriable PCA-type austenitic stainless steel for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron-induced activity in the PCA (Primary Candidate Alloy) austenitic stainless steel is examined, when used for first-wall components in a DEMO fusion reactor. Some low-activity definitions, based on different waste management and disposal concepts, are introduced. Activity in the PCA is so high that any recycling of the irradiated material can be excluded. Disposal of PCA radioactive wastes in Shallow-Land Buriable (SLB) is prevented as well. Mo, Nb and some impurity elements have to be removed or limited, in order to reduce the radioactivity of the PCA. Possible low-activity versions of the PCA are introduced (PCA-la); they meet the requirements for SLB and may also be recycled under certain conditions. (author)

  13. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1991-08-01

    This report contains three documents describing the progress made by the University of Illinois electromagnetic railgun program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of the United States Department of Energy during the period from July 16, 1990 to August 16, 1991. The first document contains a brief summary of the tasks initiated, continued, or completed, the status of major tasks, and the research effort distribution, estimated and actual, during the period. The second document contains a description of the work performed on time resolved laser interferometric density measurement of the railgun plasma-arc armature. The third document is an account of research on the spectroscopic measurement of the electron density and temperature of the railgun plasma arc

  14. Ultrafast gated intensifier design for laser fusion x-ray framing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Kalibjian, R.; Thomas, S.W.; Cook, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    A major challenge for laser fusion is the study of the symmetry and the hydrodynamic stability of imploding fuel capsules. Streaked x-radiography, in one space and one time dimension, does not provide sufficient information. Two (spatial) dimensional frames of 10 to 100 ps duration are required with good image quality, minimum geometrical distortion (approximately 1%), dynamic range greater than 1000 and greater than 200 x 200 pixels. A gated transmission line imager (TLI) can meet these requirements with frame times between 30 and 100 ps. An instrument of this type is now being developed. Progress on this instrument including theory of operation, ultrafast pulse generation and propagation, component integration, and high resolution phosphor screen development are presented

  15. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Miao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is proposed based on the Kalman filter. Then, this modeling is simulated and tested on a sample vehicle, using Carsim and Simulink software to test the results. The results showed the merits of this modeling.

  16. Interface topography and residual stress distributions in W coatings for fusion armour applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.; Vincent, R.; Matthews, G.; Dance, B.; Grant, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) tungsten (W) coatings are potential plasma facing components in future fusion power plants. However, the large coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between W and underlying structural steels and other metallic materials poses a significant problem for manufacturing and service life because of the evolution of large thermally induced stresses leading to failure. In this paper, the effects of the substrate/coating interface 3D geometry on stress distributions are investigated using finite element analysis and VPS experiments to manufacture up to 2 mm thick W coatings. The key factors that affect internal stress distributions during thermal exposure have been identified including graded composition inter-layers, stress concentration effects, mechanical adhesion, and the possible role of segmentation in relieving coating stresses on surface sculptured substrates

  17. Overview of processing technologies for tungsten-steel composites and FGMs for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matějíček Jiří

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten is a prime candidate material for the plasma-facing components in future fusion devices, e.g. ITER and DEMO. Because of the harsh and complex loading conditions and the differences in material properties, joining of the tungsten armor to the underlying construction and/or cooling parts is a complicated issue. To alleviate the thermal stresses at the joint, a sharp interface may be replaced by a gradual one with a smoothly varying composition. In this paper, several techniques for the formation of tungsten-steel composites and graded layers are reviewed. These include plasma spraying, laser cladding, hot pressing and spark plasma sintering. Structure, composition and selected thermal and mechanical properties of representative layers produced by each of these techniques are presented. A summary of advantages and disadvantages of the techniques and an assessment of their suitability for the production of plasma-facing components is provided.

  18. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  19. Hybrid modeling of plasma and applications to fusion and space physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazeminejad, F.

    1989-01-01

    Obtaining reasonable solutions to the nonlinear equations is crucial to the understanding of the behavior of plasmas. With the advent of high speed computers, computer modeling of plasmas has moved into the front row of the tools used in research of their nonlinear plasma dynamics. There are roughly speaking two types of plasma models, particle models and fluid models. Particle models try to emulate nature by following the motion of a large number of charged particles in their self consistent electromagnetic fields. Fluid models on the other hand use macroscopic fluid equations to model the plasma. MHD models are typical of this type. Particle models in general require larger memory for the computer due to the massive amount of data associated with the particles' kinematical variables. Particle models are generally limited to studying small regions of plasma for relatively short time intervals. Fluid models are better fit to handle large scales and long times; i.e., quite often the complete plasma involved in an experiment. The drawback of the fluid models however is that, they miss the physical phenomenon taking place at the microscale and these phenomenon can influence the properties of fluid. Another approach is to start with fluid models and incorporate more physics. Such models are referred to as hybrid models. In this thesis, two such models are discussed. They are then applied to two problems; the first is a simulation of the artificial comet generated by the AMPTE experiment; the second is the production of enhanced noise in fusion plasmas by injected energetic ions or by fusion reaction products. In both cases the models demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experimental observations

  20. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  1. Single and nested tungsten-wire-array dynamics and applications to inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Wire array z-pinches show great promise as x-ray sources for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The double z-pinch hohlraum, for example, has produced capsule radiation drive symmetric to within 3%. This ICF concept will require that each of two 20-mm-diam arrays scale to x-ray powers ˜1 PW, to drive high-yield (>0.2 GJ) capsules to ignition. High-yield fusion will also require a temporally shaped radiation pulse to drive a low-entropy capsule implosion. Recently, improved understanding of high current (11-19 MA) single and nested wire-array dynamics has enabled significant progress towards these goals. As at lower currents, a single wire array (and both the outer and inner arrays of a nested system) shows a wire ablation phase, axial modulation of the ablation rate, a larger ablation rate for larger diameter wires, trailing mass and trailing current. These processes and others produce a broad mass profile that may impact the optimization of x-ray output for single and nested arrays. Our new insights into wire array physics have led to 20-mm-diam single and nested arrays with peak powers of 150-190 TW at implosion times of 55-90 ns, increased from 60-120 TW at 95-110 ns, improving power scaling. Radiation pulse shapes required for 3-shock isentropic compression of high-yield ICF capsules have also been demonstrated with nested wire arrays operating in current-transfer mode. In collaboration with: D.B. Sinars, R.A. Vesey, E.M. Waisman, W.A. Stygar, D.E. Bliss, S.V. Lebedev, J.P. Chittenden, P.V. Sasorov, R.W. Lemke, E.P. Yu, B.B. Afeyan, G.R. Bennett, M.G. Mazarakis, M.R. Lopez, M.E. Savage, J.L. Porter, T.A. Mehlhorn.

  2. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-01

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  3. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil

    2012-04-01

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  4. Fusion strategies for selecting multiple tuning parameters for multivariate calibration and other penalty based processes: A model updating application for pharmaceutical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencate, Alister J.; Kalivas, John H.; White, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    New multivariate calibration methods and other processes are being developed that require selection of multiple tuning parameter (penalty) values to form the final model. With one or more tuning parameters, using only one measure of model quality to select final tuning parameter values is not sufficient. Optimization of several model quality measures is challenging. Thus, three fusion ranking methods are investigated for simultaneous assessment of multiple measures of model quality for selecting tuning parameter values. One is a supervised learning fusion rule named sum of ranking differences (SRD). The other two are non-supervised learning processes based on the sum and median operations. The effect of the number of models evaluated on the three fusion rules are also evaluated using three procedures. One procedure uses all models from all possible combinations of the tuning parameters. To reduce the number of models evaluated, an iterative process (only applicable to SRD) is applied and thresholding a model quality measure before applying the fusion rules is also used. A near infrared pharmaceutical data set requiring model updating is used to evaluate the three fusion rules. In this case, calibration of the primary conditions is for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of tablets produced in a laboratory. The secondary conditions for calibration updating is for tablets produced in the full batch setting. Two model updating processes requiring selection of two unique tuning parameter values are studied. One is based on Tikhonov regularization (TR) and the other is a variation of partial least squares (PLS). The three fusion methods are shown to provide equivalent and acceptable results allowing automatic selection of the tuning parameter values. Best tuning parameter values are selected when model quality measures used with the fusion rules are for the small secondary sample set used to form the updated models. In this model updating situation, evaluation of

  5. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  6. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  7. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...... by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  8. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  9. Fusion of Terrestrial and Airborne Laser Data for 3D modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hani Mahmoud

    This thesis deals with the 3D modeling phase of the as-built large BIM projects. Among several means of BIM data capturing, such as photogrammetric or range tools, laser scanners have been one of the most efficient and practical tool for a long time. They can generate point clouds with high resolution for 3D models that meet nowadays' market demands. The current 3D modeling projects of as-built BIMs are mainly focused on using one type of laser scanner data, such as Airborne or Terrestrial. According to the literatures, no significant (few) efforts were made towards the fusion of heterogeneous laser scanner data despite its importance. The importance of the fusion of heterogeneous data arises from the fact that no single type of laser data can provide all the information about BIM, especially for large BIM projects that are existing on a large area, such as university buildings, or Heritage places. Terrestrial laser scanners are able to map facades of buildings and other terrestrial objects. However, they lack the ability to map roofs or higher parts in the BIM project. Airborne laser scanner on the other hand, can map roofs of the buildings efficiently and can map only small part of the facades. Short range laser scanners can map the interiors of the BIM projects, while long range scanners are used for mapping wide exterior areas in BIM projects. In this thesis the long range laser scanner data obtained in the Stop-and-Go mapping mode, the short range laser scanner data, obtained in a fully static mapping mode, and the airborne laser data are all fused together to bring a complete effective solution for a large BIM project. Working towards the 3D modeling of BIM projects, the thesis framework starts with the registration of the data, where a new fast automatic registration algorithm were developed. The next step is to recognize the different objects in the BIM project (classification), and obtain 3D models for the buildings. The last step is the development of an

  10. VISTA -- A Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Application Powered by Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, C D

    2005-03-31

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an ideal technology to power self-contained single-stage piloted (manned) spacecraft within the solar system because of its inherently high power/mass ratios and high specific impulses (i.e., high exhaust velocities). These technological advantages are retained when ICF is utilized with a magnetic thrust chamber, which avoids the plasma thermalization and resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. We started with Rod Hyde's 1983 description of an ICF-powered engine concept using a magnetic thrust chamber, and conducted a more detailed systems study to develop a viable, realistic, and defensible spacecraft concept based on ICF technology projected to be available in the first half of the 21st century. The results include an entirely new conical spacecraft conceptual design utilizing near-existing radiator technology. We describe the various vehicle systems for this new concept, estimate the missions performance capabilities for general missions to the planets within the solar system, and describe in detail the performance for the baseline mission of a piloted roundtrip to Mars with a 100-ton payload. For this mission, we show that roundtrips totaling {ge}145 days are possible with advanced DT fusion technology and a total (wet) spacecraft mass of about 6000 metric tons. Such short-duration missions are advantageous to minimize the known cosmic-radiation hazards to astronauts, and are even more important to minimize the physiological deteriorations arising from zero gravity. These ICF-powered missions are considerably faster than those available using chemical or nuclear-electric-propulsion technologies with minimum-mass vehicle configurations. VISTA also offers onboard artificial gravity and propellant-based shielding from cosmic rays, thus reducing the known hazards and physiological deteriorations to insignificant levels. We emphasize, however, that the degree

  11. Diode-pumped solid-state laser driver experiments for inertial fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.D.; Payne, S.A.; Emanuel, M.E.; Smith, L.K.; Powell, H.T.; Krupke, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    Although solid-state lasers have been the primary means by which the physics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) have been investigated, it was previously thought that solid-state laser technology could not offer adequate efficiencies for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Orth and co-workers have recently designed a conceptual IFE power plant, however, with a high efficiency diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) driver that utilized several recent innovations in laser technology. It was concluded that DPSSLs could offer adequate performance for IFE with reasonable assumptions. This system was based on a novel diode pumped Yb-doped Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F (Yb:S-FAP) amplifier. Because this is a relatively new gain medium, a project was established to experimentally validate the diode-pumping and extraction dynamics of this system at the smallest reasonable scale. This paper reports on the initial experimental results of this study. We found the pumping dynamics and extraction cross-sections of Yb:S-FAP crystals to be similar to those previously inferred by purely spectroscopic techniques. The saturation fluence for pumping was measured to be 2.2 J/cm 2 using three different methods based on either the spatial, temporal, or energy transmission properties of a Yb:S-FAP rod. The small signal gain implies an emission cross section of 6.0x10 -20 cm 2 . Up to 1.7 J/cm 3 of stored energy density was achieved in a 6x6x44 mm 3 Yb:S-FAP amplifier rod. In a free running configuration diode-pumped slope efficiencies up to 43% were observed with output energies up to ∼0.5 J per 1 ms pulse from a 3x3x30 mm 3 rod. When the rod was mounted in a copper block for cooling, 13 W of average power was produced with power supply limited operation at 70 Hz with 500 μs pulses

  12. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  13. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  14. Experimental setup for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for fusion plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Sachin Singh; Sharma, Uttam; Choudhary, K.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Ghosh, J.; Sharma, Jayshree

    2013-01-01

    Plasma wall interaction (PWI) in fusion grade machines puts stringent demands on the choice of materials in terms of high heat load handling capabilities and low sputtering yields. Choice of suitable material still remains a challenge and open topic of research for the PWI community. Carbon fibre composites (CFC), Beryllium (Be), and Tungsten (W) are now being considered as first runners for the first wall components of future fusion machines. Tungsten is considered to be one of the suitable materials for the job because of its superior properties than carbon like low physical sputtering yield and high sputter energy threshold, high melting point, fairly high re-crystallization temperature, low fuel retention capabilities, low chemical sputtering with hydrogen and its isotopes and most importantly the reparability with various plasma techniques both ex-situ and in-situ. Plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition is considered among various techniques as the most preferable technique for fabricating tungsten coated graphite tiles to be used as tokamak first wall and target components. These coated tiles are more favourable compared to pure tungsten due to their light weight and easier machining. A system has been designed, fabricated and installed at SVITS, Indore for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) technique for Fusion plasma applications. The system contains a vacuum chamber, a turbo-molecular pump, two electrodes, vacuum gauges, mass analyzer, mass flow controllers and a RF power supply for producing the plasma using hydrogen gas. The graphite tiles will be put on one of the electrodes and WF6 gas will be inserted in a controlled manner in the hydrogen plasma to achieve the tungsten-coating with WF6 dissociation. The system is integrated at SVITS, Indore and a vacuum of the order of 3*10 -6 is achieved and glow discharge plasma has been created to test all the sub-systems. The system design with

  15. [Application of small freeze-drying allogeneic bone plots mixed with autologous bone graft in spinal fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changqing; Li, Zhenyu; Zhou, Wenyu; Zeng, Tenghui; Sun, Shiquan; Li, Baoxing

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the osteoblasts effect, complications and influencing factors in the application of small freeze-drying allogeneic bone plots mixed autologous bone fragments in spinal surgery, and to compare with autogenous bone graft. From January 2003 to January 2007, 515 cases of spinal injuries were treated. A total of 324 cases were treated with small freeze-drying allogeneic bone plots mixed with autologous bone grafts (group A), including 211 males and 113 females with an average age of 36 years (18-83 years). There were 182 cases of thoracolumbar vertebra fracture, 68 cases of lumbar spondylolisthesis, 47 cases of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis, 17 cases of cervical disc herniation, 5 cases of cervical spine fracture-dislocation and 5 cases of thoracolumbar vertebra tumor. The weight of bone graft was 10-60 g (mean 30 g). A total of 191 cases were treated with autogenous bone grafting (group B), including 135 males and 56 females with an average age of 32 years (23-78 years). There were 109 cases of thoracolumbar vertebra fracture, 23 cases of lumbar spondylolisthesis, 17 cases of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis, 19 cases of cervical disc herniation, and 23 cases of cervical spine fracture-dislocation. The weight of bone graft was 10-50 g (mean 25 g). In group A, effusion of wound increased in 4 cases and the result of bacterial culture was negative; effusion was absorbed after 2 weeks of local irrigation, drainage and cortin management. In group B, no obvious effusion was observed. The follow-up time was 10-36 months (mean 17.4 months) in group A and 8-36 months (mean 16.8 months) in group B. The bone healing was achieved in 308 cases within 4-10 months (mean 8.1 months) and in 184 cases within 4-10 months (mean 5.8 months), and the bone fusion rates were 95.06% and 96.34% in groups A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference in bone fusion rate between groups (P > 0.05). According to Mankin and Komender evaluation standard, the response

  16. Materials studies for magnetic fusion energy applications at low temperatures, 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Simon, N. J.

    1984-05-01

    Work leading toward development of strong, tough structural alloys for use in superconducting magnets of magnetic fusion power plants is reported. Low temperature studies were conducted to assess the quantitative dependence of the yield strength, density, and elastic constants of AISI 304 stainless steels upon carbon and nitrogen concentration. Tensile property measurements of developmental austenitic steels confirmed the dependence of yield strength upon temperature. Evidence is presented to show that the flow strength and austenite stability of stainless steels are not significantly affected by 8-T fields at 4 K. Instrumentation developed for low temperature testing included a computer assisted apparatus used to measure threshold fatigue. Low temperature welding research involved an investigation of the weld reinforcement effect on the weld joint strength and measurements of the 4 K fracture toughness of magnesium-chromium steel weldments and electroodes. In the area of non-metallics, a standardized test specimen was devised to aid in screening radiation-resistant composites for magnet insulation. Mechanical properties of concrete mortar and polyurethane foam at 4 K are reported.

  17. Activity of fusion prophenoloxidase-GFP and its potential applications for innate immunity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yang

    Full Text Available Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO is essential for physiological functions such as melanization of invading pathogens, wound healing and cuticle sclerotization. The insect PPO activation pathway is well understood. However, it is not very clear how PPO is released from hemocytes and how PPO takes part in cellular immunity. To begin to assess this, three Drosophila melanogaster PPO genes were separately fused with GFP at the C-terminus (rPPO-GFP and were over-expressed in S2 cells. The results of staining and morphological observation show that rPPO-GFP expressed in S2 cells has green fluorescence and enzyme activity if Cu(2+ was added during transfection. Each rPPO-GFP has similar properties as the corresponding rPPO. However, cells with rPPO-GFP over-expressed are easier to trace without PO activation and staining. Further experiments show that rPPO1-GFP is cleaved and activated by Drosophila serine protease, and rPPO1-GFP binds to Micrococcus luteus and Beauveria bassiana spores as silkworm plasma PPO. The above research indicates that the GFP-tag has no influence on the fusion enzyme activation and PPO-involved innate immunity action in vitro. Thus, rPPO-GFP may be a convenient tool for innate immunity study in the future if it can be expressed in vivo.

  18. Clinical Applications of Phage-Derived sFvs and sFv Fusion Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Chester

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Single chain Fv antibodies (sFvs have been produced from filamentous bacteriophage libraries obtained from immunised mice. MFE-23, the most characterised of these sFvs, is reactive with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, a glycoprotein that is highly expressed in colorectal adenocarcinomas. MFE-23 has been expressed in bacteria and purified in our laboratory for two clinical trials; a gamma camera imaging trial using 123I-MFE-23 and a radioimmunoguided surgery trial using 125I-MFE-23, where tumour deposits are detected by a hand-held probe during surgery. Both these trials show MFE-23 is safe and effective in localising tumour deposits in patients with cancer. We are now developing fusion proteins which use MFE-23 to deliver a therapeutic moiety; MFE-23::CPG2 targets the enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2 for use in the ADEPT (antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy system and MFE::TNFα aims to reduce sequestration and increase tumor concentrations of systemically administered TNFα.

  19. Compatibility of vanadium alloys with reactor-grade helium for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, G.E.C.; Bishop, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the compatibility of vanadium alloys with reactor-grade helium and to define the helium gas chemistry requirements for fusion reactors, miniature tensile specimens of V-5Cr-5Ti. V-10Cr-5Ti, and V-12.5Cr-5 Ti were exposed in a once-through system to helium with 70 vppm-H 2 (measured oxygen partial pressures of 10 -12 atm) and bottle helium (measured oxygen partial pressures of -4 atm) between 500 and 700 degree C for up to 1008 h. The weight changes in the specimens were recorded. The helium-exposed specimens were tensile tested, and the effects of exposure on mechanical properties were assessed. Exposure between 500 and 700 degree C for 1008 h in He+70 vppm-H 2 resulted in complete embrittlement of all the alloys in room temperature tensile tests. The fracture mode was primarily cleavage, probably caused by a hydrogen-induced shift in the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Weight gains increased with temperature and were largest for the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. Specimens exposed for 531 h between 500 and 700 degree C in bottle He exhibited two distinct fracture morphologies on the fracture surfaces. Brittle cleavage around the edges of specimens gave way to ductile dimpling in the center of the specimens. The brittle region around the periphery of the specimen is most likely the highest vanadium oxide. V 2 O 5

  20. Application of diffusion theory to neutral atom transport in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.Z.; Conn, R.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    It is found that the energy dependent diffusion theory provides excellent accuracy in the modelling of transport of neutral atoms in fusion plasmas. Two reasons in particular explain the good accuracy. First, while the plasma is optically thick for low energy neutrals, it is optically thin for high energy neutrals and the diffusion theory with Marshak boundary conditions gives accurate results for an optically thin medium, even for small values of c, the ratio of the scattering cross-section to the total cross-section. Second, the effective value of c at low energy is very close to 1 because of the downscattering via collisions of high energy neutrals. The first reason is proven computationally and theoretically by solving the transport equation in a power series in c and solving the diffusion equation with 'general' Marshak boundary conditions. The second reason is established numerically by comparing the results from a one-dimensional, general geometry, multigroup diffusion theory code, written for this purpose, with the results obtained using the transport code ANISN. Earlier studies comparing one-speed diffusion and transport theory indicated that the diffusion theory would be inaccurate. A detailed analysis shows that this conclusion is limited to a very specific case. Surprisingly, for a very wide range of conditions and when energy dependence is included, the diffusion theory is highly accurate. (author)

  1. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  2. Supporting Pervasive Computing Applications with Active Context Fusion and Semantic Context Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Nirmalya; Gu, Tao; Das, Sajal

    2010-01-01

    Future pervasive computing applications are envisioned to adapt the applications’ behaviors by utilizing various contexts of an environment and its users. Such context information may often be ambiguous and also heterogeneous, which make the delivery of unambiguous context information to real...... applications extremely challenging. Thus, a significant challenge facing the development of realistic and deployable context-aware services for pervasive computing applications is the ability to deal with these ambiguous contexts. In this paper, we propose a resource optimized quality assured context mediation...

  3. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  4. High-Energy-Density-Physics Studies for Inertial Confinement Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.

    2017-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of the static, transport, and optical properties of high-energy-density (HED) plasmas is essential for reliably designing and understanding inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In the warm-dense-matter regime routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, many-body strong-coupling and quantum electron degeneracy effects play an important role in determining plasma properties. The past several years have witnessed intense efforts to assess the importance of the microphysics of ICF targets, both theoretically and experimentally. On the theory side, first-principles methods based on quantum mechanics have been applied to investigate the properties of warm, dense plasmas. Specifically, self-consistent investigations have recently been performed on the equation of state, thermal conductivity, and opacity of a variety of ICF ablators such as polystyrene (CH), beryllium, carbon, and silicon over a wide range of densities and temperatures. In this talk, we will focus on the most-recent progress on these ab initio HED physics studies, which generally result in favorable comparisons with experiments. Upon incorporation into hydrocodes for ICF simulations, these first-principles ablator-plasma properties have produced significant differences over traditional models in predicting 1-D target performance of ICF implosions on OMEGA and direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944. *In collaboration with L. A. Collins, T. R. Boehly, G. W. Collins, J. D. Kress, and V. N. Goncharov.

  5. Powder metallurgical processing of self-passivating tungsten alloys for fusion first wall application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Ruiz, P.; Ordás, N.; Iturriza, I. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Walter, M.; Gaganidze, E. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lindig, S.; Koch, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); García-Rosales, C., E-mail: cgrosales@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, presently the main candidate material for first wall armour of future fusion reactors. In case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress, a protective oxide scale will be formed on the surface of W avoiding the formation of volatile and radioactive WO{sub 3}. Bulk WCr12Ti2.5 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and their properties compared to bulk WCr10Si10 alloys from previous work. The MA parameters were adjusted to obtain the best balance between lowest possible amount of contaminants and effective alloying of the elemental powders. After HIP, a density >99% is achieved for the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy and a very fine and homogeneous microstructure with grains in the submicron range is obtained. Unlike the WCr10Si10 material, no intergranular ODS phase inhibiting grain growth was detected. The thermal and mechanical properties of the WCr10Si10 material are dominated by the silicide (W,Cr){sub 5}Si{sub 3}; it shows a sharp ductile-to brittle transition in the range 1273–1323 K. The thermal conductivity of the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy is close to 50 W/mK in the temperature range of operation; it exhibits significantly higher strength and lower DBTT – around 1170 K – than the WCr10Si10 material.

  6. Modeling and control simulation of an electromechanical mm-wave launching system for thermonuclear fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsironis, Christos, E-mail: ctsiron@mail.ntua.gr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54 136 Thessaloniki (Greece); Giannopoulos, Iordanis K.; Vasileiadou, Soultana; Kakogiannos, Ioannis D.; Kalligeropoulos, Dimitrios [Department of Automation, Technological Education Institute of Piraeus, 122 44 Piraeus (Greece)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Open-loop modeling and control simulation of an electromechanical mm-wave launcher. • Simulations of the experiment without employing the real (hardware) system. • Launcher mirror dynamics correspond to a second-order weakly-nonlinear system. • Closed-loop control design in terms of cascade PIDs achieves required performance. - Abstract: Controlled thermonuclear fusion via magnetic confinement, still in experimental stage, has the potential to become a viable and environment-friendly solution to the energy problem, especially for the high-power needs of modern industry. In order to optimize the operation of devices based on the tokamak principle, automatic control systems are envisaged to fulfill the requirements for the magnetic equilibrium and plasma stability, with copper coils, neutral gas injectors and microwave sources used as actuators. In present-day experiments, the implemented control loops are simple and practical, however in future devices like ITER (presently under construction) more sophisticated control design will be required, based on realistic closed-loop simulations with efficient computational tools and real-time diagnosing. For magnetohydrodynamic instability control, the system should include physics/engineering models for the plasma dynamics, the wave actuation and the diagnostic sensors, as well as controllers based on classical or modern principles. In this work, we present a model for a specific design of a controlled electromechanical millimeter-wave launcher, which executes the major part of the wave actuation, and perform numerical simulations of its open-loop dynamics and closed-loop control for scenarios relevant to tearing mode stabilization in medium-sized tokamaks.

  7. Experimental studies of lithium-based surface chemistry for fusion plasma-facing materials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, J.P.; Rokusek, D.L.; Harilal, S.S.; Nieto-Perez, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Heim, B.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium has enhanced the operational performance of fusion devices such as: TFTR, CDX-U, FTU, T-11 M, and NSTX. Lithium in the solid and liquid state has been studied extensively in laboratory experiments including its erosion and hydrogen-retaining properties. Reductions in physical sputtering up to 40-60% have been measured for deuterated solid and liquid lithium surfaces. Computational modeling indicates that up to a 1:1 deuterium volumetric retention in lithium is possible. This paper presents the results of systematic in situ laboratory experimental studies on the surface chemistry evolution of ATJ graphite under lithium deposition. Results are compared to post-mortem analysis of similar lithium surface coatings on graphite exposed to deuterium discharge plasmas in NSTX. Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components in NSTX have shown substantial reduction of hydrogenic recycling. Questions remain on the role lithium surface chemistry on a graphite substrate has on particle sputtering (physical and chemical) as well as hydrogen isotope recycling. This is particularly due to the lack of in situ measurements of plasma-surface interactions in tokamaks such as NSTX. Results suggest that the lithium bonding state on ATJ graphite is lithium peroxide and with sufficient exposure to ambient air conditions, lithium carbonate is generated. Correlation between both results is used to assess the role of lithium chemistry on the state of lithium bonding and implications on hydrogen pumping and lithium sputtering. In addition, reduction of factors between 10 and 30 reduction in physical sputtering from lithiated graphite compared to pure lithium or carbon is also measured.

  8. Shock attenuation in two-phase (gas-liquid) jets for inertial fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascar, Celine C.

    Z-Pinch IFE (Inertial Fusion Energy) reactor designs will likely utilize high yield targets (˜ 3 GJ) at low repetition rates (˜ 0.1 Hz). Appropriately arranged thick liquid jets can adequately protect the cavity walls from the target X-rays, ions, and neutrons. However, the shock waves and mechanical loadings produced by rapid heating and evaporation of incompressible liquid jets may be challenging to accommodate within a small reactor cavity. This investigation examines the possibility of using two-phase compressible (liquid/gas) jets to protect the cavity walls in high yield IFE systems, thereby mitigating the mechanical consequences of rapid energy deposition within the jets. Two-phase, free, vertical jets with different cross sections (planar, circular, and annular) were examined over wide ranges of liquid velocities and void fractions. The void fraction and bubble size distributions within the jets were measured; correlations to predict variations of the slip ratio and the Sauter mean diameter were developed. An exploding wire system was used to generate a shock wave at the center of the annular jets. Attenuation of the shock by the surrounding single- or two-phase medium was measured. The results show that stable coherent jets can be established and steadily maintained over a wide range of inlet void fractions and liquid velocities, and that significant attenuation in shock strength can be attained with relatively modest void fractions (˜ 1%); the compressible two-phase jets effectively convert and dissipate mechanical energy into thermal energy within the gas bubbles. The experimental characteristics of single- and two-phase jets were compared against predictions of a state-of-art CFD code (FLUENTRTM ). The data obtained in this investigation will allow reactor system designers to predict the behavior of single- and two-phase jets and quantify their effectiveness in mitigating the consequences of shock waves on the cavity walls in high yield IFE systems.

  9. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon-Golcher, E.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ∼ few mm), high current density (J ∼ several tens of mA/cm 2 ) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield ( ) at different operating conditions are presented for K + and Cs + contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K + beam of ∼90 mA/cm 2 were observed in 2.3 (micro)s pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (∼ 1 (micro)s), high current densities (∼ 100 mA/cm 2 ) and low operating pressures ( e psilon) n (le) 0.006 π mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ∼ 5mA) by about a factor of 10

  10. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon-Golcher, Edwin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ~ few mm), high current density (J ~ several tens of mA/cm2) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield () at different operating conditions are presented for K+ and Cs+ contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K+ beam of ~90 mA/cm2 were observed in 2.3 μs pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (~ 1 μs), high current densities (~ 100 mA/cm+) and low operating pressures (< 2 mtorr) were verified. For the latter, high but acceptable levels of beam emittance were measured (εn ≤ 0.006 π· mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ~ 5mA) by about a factor of 10.

  11. Basic principles of lead and lead-bismuth eutectic application in blanket of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Pinaev, S.S.; Muraviev, E.V.; Romanov, P.V.

    2005-01-01

    High magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop is an important issue for liquid metal blanket concepts. To decrease magnetohydrodynamic resistance authors propose to form insulating coatings on internal surface of blanket ducts at any moment of fusion reactor exploitation. It may be achieved easily if lead or lead-bismuth eutectic is used and technology of oxidative potential handling is applied. A number of experiments carried out in NNSTU show the availability of the proposed technology. It bases on formation of the insulating coatings that consist of the oxides of components of the structural materials and of the coolant components. In-situ value of the insulating coatings characteristics ρδ is ∼ 10 -5 Ohm·m 2 for steels and 5,0x10 -6 - 5,0x10 -5 Ohm·m 2 for vanadium alloys. Thermal cycling is possible during exploitation of a blanket. The experimental research of the insulating coatings properties during thermal cycling have shown that the coatings formed into the lead and lead-bismuth coolants save there insulating properties. Experience of many years is an undoubted advantage of the lead-bismuth coolant and less of the lead coolant in comparison with lithium. Russian Federation possesses of experience of exploitation of the research and industrial facilities, of experience of creation of the pumps, steamgenerators and equipment with heavy liquid metal coolants. The unique experience of designing, assembling and exploitation of the fission reactors with lead-bismuth coolant is also available. The problem of technology of lead and lead-bismuth coolants for power high temperature radioactive facilities has been solved. Accidents, emergency situations such as leakage of steamgenerators or depressurization of gas system in facilities with lead and lead-bismuth coolants have been explored and suppressed. (author)

  12. Particle beam fusion progress report January 1979 through June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The following chapters are included: (1) fusion target studies, (2) target experiments, (3) particle beam source development, (4) particle beam experiments, (5) pulsed power research and development, (6) pulsed fusion applications, and (7) electron beam fusion accelerator project

  13. Estimating spillover benefits of large R and D projects: Application of real options modelling approach to the case of thermonuclear fusion R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyagin, Denis; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of spillover benefits of the ongoing R and D programme on thermonuclear fusion technology. The spillover effects are understood here as positive externalities of publicly funded R and D, demonstration and deployment (RDDD) activities that may be revealed at the companies' level in the form of newly created knowledge stock; development of innovative products/processes with broader market applications; strengthening of R and D, manufacturing and marketing capabilities; etc. An integrated compound real options model is proposed that allows to estimate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme taking into account the different types of spillover benefits along with the hidden real options value arising due to uncertainty and managerial flexibility. It was found that the value of spillover effects, modelled as “expansion option”, could represent a significant proportion of the overall socio-economic value of fusion RDDD programme (nearly 20%). This paper clearly demonstrates that, besides a high-level mission to assure sustainable energy supply, fusion RDDD programme may yield substantial net socio-economic benefits that may be at least two times higher compared to the expected RD and D costs, and hence the pursuit of even more ambitious programme is economically justified. - Highlights: ► Evaluate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme. ► Consider different types of spillover effects. ► Economic value of spillovers is estimated with a compound real options model. ► Spillover benefits could represent up to 20% of the value of fusion RDDD programme.

  14. Supporting Pervasive Computing Applications with Active Context Fusion and Semantic Context Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Nirmalya; Gu, Tao; Das, Sajal

    2010-01-01

    Future pervasive computing applications are envisioned to adapt the applications’ behaviors by utilizing various contexts of an environment and its users. Such context information may often be ambiguous and also heterogeneous, which make the delivery of unambiguous context information to real app...

  15. Fusion of multimodal medical images. Application to dynamic tri dimensional study of vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunie, L.

    1992-12-01

    The object of this thesis is to put in correspondence images coming from different ways. The area of application is biomedical imaging, particularly dynamic imaging in three dimensional calculations of spinal cord. The use of computers allows modeling. Then a study of validation by clinical experimentation on spinal cord proves the efficiency of the simulation

  16. Applications of computer modeling to fusion research. Progress report, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1989-12-31

    Progress achieved during this report period is presented on the following topics: Development and application of gyrokinetic particle codes to tokamak transport, development of techniques to take advantage of parallel computers; model dynamo and bootstrap current drive; and in general maintain our broad-based program in basic plasma physics and computer modeling.

  17. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  18. Generation of intense ion beams and their application to controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreike, P.; Ferch, R.L.; Friedman, A.

    1977-01-01

    Successful generation of pulsed multi-kA proton beams in the energy range 0.2 to 1.7 MeV using existing pulsed power technology has been achieved by three different techniques: reflex triodes, pinched electron-beam diodes and magnetically insulated diodes. Peak current densities in excess of 10 kAcm -2 have been observed on the NRL Gamble II machine and over 1.0 kAcm -2 on the Cornell Neptune machine. Peak total ion currents above 200 kA are produced by Gamble II. The potential applications of intense ion beams to magnetic confinement include (i) plasma heating and (ii) ion rings. A summary of continuous theoretical and experimental investigations on these applications is presented. (author)

  19. Fusion research activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiwen

    1998-01-01

    The fusion program in China has been executed in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion for more than 30 years. Basing on the situation of the power supply requirements of China, the fusion program is becoming an important and vital component of the nuclear power program in China. This paper reviews the status of fusion research and next step plans in China. The motivation and goal of the Chinese fusion program is explained. Research and development on tokamak physics and engineering in the southwestern institute of physics (SWIP) and the institute of plasma physics of Academic Sinica (ASIPP) are introduced. A fusion breeder program and a pure fusion reactor design program have been supported by the state science and technology commission (SSTC) and the China national nuclear corporation (CNNC), respectively. Some features and progress of fusion reactor R and D activities are reviewed. Non fusion applications of plasma science are an important part of China fusion research; a brief introduction about this area is given. Finally, an introductional collaboration network on fusion research activities in China is reported. (orig.)

  20. Simulation and Experimental Study on the Efficiency of Traveling Wave Direct Energy Conversion for Application to Aneutronic Fusion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, Alfonso; Chap, Andrew; Miley, George; Scott, John

    2013-10-01

    A study based on both Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and experiments is being developed to study the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC,) with the perspective of application to aneutronic fusion reaction products and space propulsion. The PIC model is investigating in detail the key TWDEC physics process by simulating the time-dependent transfer of energy from the ion beam to an electric load connected to ring-type electrodes in cylindrical symmetry. An experimental effort is in progress on a TWDEC test article at NASA, Johnson Space Center with the purpose of studying the conditions for improving the efficiency of the direct energy conversion process. Using a scaled-down ion energy source, the experiment is primarily focused on the effect of the (bunched) beam density on the efficiency and on the optimization of the electrode design. The simulation model is guiding the development of the experimental configuration and will provide details of the beam dynamics for direct comparison with experimental diagnostics. Work supported by NASA, Johnson Space Center.

  1. DAFNE: A Matlab toolbox for Bayesian multi-source remote sensing and ancillary data fusion, with application to flood mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addabbo, Annarita; Refice, Alberto; Lovergine, Francesco P.; Pasquariello, Guido

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution, remotely sensed images of the Earth surface have been proven to be of help in producing detailed flood maps, thanks to their synoptic overview of the flooded area and frequent revisits. However, flood scenarios can be complex situations, requiring the integration of different data in order to provide accurate and robust flood information. Several processing approaches have been recently proposed to efficiently combine and integrate heterogeneous information sources. In this paper, we introduce DAFNE, a Matlab®-based, open source toolbox, conceived to produce flood maps from remotely sensed and other ancillary information, through a data fusion approach. DAFNE is based on Bayesian Networks, and is composed of several independent modules, each one performing a different task. Multi-temporal and multi-sensor data can be easily handled, with the possibility of following the evolution of an event through multi-temporal output flood maps. Each DAFNE module can be easily modified or upgraded to meet different user needs. The DAFNE suite is presented together with an example of its application.

  2. SNaPe: a versatile method to generate multiplexed protein fusions using synthetic linker peptides for in vitro applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Veronika; Cryle, Max J

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of protein complexes and multi-domain proteins is highly important in biology, although the in vitro characterization of these systems is often complicated by their size or the transient nature of protein/protein interactions. To assist in the characterization of such protein complexes, we have developed a modular approach to fusion protein generation that relies upon Sortase-mediated and Native chemical ligation using synthetic Peptide linkers (SNaPe) to link two separately expressed proteins. In this approach, we utilize two separate linking steps - sortase-mediated and native chemical ligation - together with a library of peptide linkers to generate libraries of fusion proteins. We have demonstrated the viability of SNaPe to generate libraries from fusion protein constructs taken from the biosynthetic enzymes responsible for late stage aglycone assembly during glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis. Crucially, SNaPe was able to generate fusion proteins that are inaccessible via direct expression of the fusion construct itself. This highlights the advantages of SNaPe to not only access fusion proteins that have been previously unavailable for biochemical and structural characterization but also to do so in a manner that enables the linker itself to be controlled as an experimental parameter of fusion protein generation. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. GNSS/Electronic Compass/Road Segment Information Fusion for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Collision Avoidance Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Cheng, Qi; Xue, Dabin; Wang, Guanyu; Ochieng, Washington Yotto

    2017-11-25

    The increasing number of vehicles in modern cities brings the problem of increasing crashes. One of the applications or services of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) conceived to improve safety and reduce congestion is collision avoidance. This safety critical application requires sub-meter level vehicle state estimation accuracy with very high integrity, continuity and availability, to detect an impending collision and issue a warning or intervene in the case that the warning is not heeded. Because of the challenging city environment, to date there is no approved method capable of delivering this high level of performance in vehicle state estimation. In particular, the current Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based collision avoidance systems have the major limitation that the real-time accuracy of dynamic state estimation deteriorates during abrupt acceleration and deceleration situations, compromising the integrity of collision avoidance. Therefore, to provide the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) for collision avoidance, this paper proposes a novel Particle Filter (PF) based model for the integration or fusion of real-time kinematic (RTK) GNSS position solutions with electronic compass and road segment data used in conjunction with an Autoregressive (AR) motion model. The real-time vehicle state estimates are used together with distance based collision avoidance algorithms to predict potential collisions. The algorithms are tested by simulation and in the field representing a low density urban environment. The results show that the proposed algorithm meets the horizontal positioning accuracy requirement for collision avoidance and is superior to positioning accuracy of GNSS only, traditional Constant Velocity (CV) and Constant Acceleration (CA) based motion models, with a significant improvement in the prediction accuracy of potential collision.

  4. Applications of Research Reactors Towards Research on Materials for Nuclear Fusion Technology. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion is widely considered to represent a nearly unlimited source of energy. Recent progress in the quest for fusion energy includes the design and current construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), for which a licence has recently been obtained as a first of its kind fusion nuclear installation. ITER is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy production in excess of 500 MW for several consecutive minutes. ITER, however, will not be able to address all the nuclear fusion technology issues associated with the design, construction and operation of a commercial fusion power plant. The demonstration of an adequate tritium or fuel breeding ratio, as well as the development, characterization and testing of structural and functional materials in an integrated nuclear fusion environment, are examples of issues for which ITER is unable to deliver complete answers. To fill this knowledge gap, several facilities are being discussed, such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility and, eventually, a fusion demonstration power plant (DEMO). However, for these facilities, a vast body of preliminary research remains to be performed, for instance, concerning the preselection and testing of suitable materials able to withstand the high temperature and pressure, and intense radiation environment of a fusion reactor. Given their capacity for material testing in terms of available intense neutron fluxes, dedicated irradiation facilities and post-irradiation examination laboratories, high flux research reactors or material test reactors (MTRs) will play an indispensable role in the development of fusion technology. Moreover, research reactors have already achieved an esteemed legacy in the understanding of material properties and behaviour, and the knowledge gained from experiments in fission materials in certain cases can be applied to fusion systems, particularly those

  5. Controlled fusion; La fusion controlee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, J.L

    2005-07-01

    During the last fifty years the researches on controlled thermonuclear fusion reached great performance in the magnetic confinement (tokamaks) as in the inertial confinement (lasers). But the state of the art is not in favor of the apparition of the fusion in the energy market before the second half of the 21 century. To explain this opinion the author presents the fusion reactions of light nuclei and the problems bound to the magnetic confinement. (A.L.B.)

  6. Finite element modeling and experimental study of brittle fracture in tempered martensitic steels for thermonuclear fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    The present report studies the brittle fracture in high-chromium reduced activation tempered martensitic steels foreseen as structural materials for thermonuclear fusion reactors. Developing the adequate materials that can withstand the severe irradiation conditions of the burning plasma in a fusion reactor is one of the major challenges to be solved in order to make profit from the great advantages of thermonuclear fusion as an energy source. High-chromium tempered martensitic steels such as F82H and the most advanced version Eurofer97 are among the main candidate materials for structural applications in future fusion power plants due to low irradiation-induced swelling, good mechanical and thermal properties, and reasonably fast radioactive decay. Drawback of this kind of steels is irradiation embrittlement, which is manifested by a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift to higher temperatures after irradiation. The laboratory specimen fracture data has to be transferred to real components in order to assess the performance of these steels in the different operating and transient conditions they could find during the operation life of a fusion reactor. The specimen geometry effects and specimen size effects on measured fracture toughness need to be properly understood, taken into account and predicted with an appropriate model. The microstructure of Eurofer97 and F82H has been characterized and compared by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to identify microstructural features that could play a role in the measured fracture toughness. Both steels have similar but slightly different chemical composition and final heat treatments but the prior austenitic grain size measured in F82H is approximately 8 times larger than in Eurofer97. The alloying element tantalum is added to stabilize the austenite grain size. In Eurofer97 it forms carbides of an

  7. Sn-Li, a new coolant/breeding material for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.-K.; Mattas, R.; Wang, Z.; Cheng, E. T.; Sawan, M.; Zinkle, S.; McCarthy, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    A new breeding material, Sn-Li has been proposed for the APEX and ALPS programs. The key reason for proposing this material is that it has very low vapor pressure. Since both APEX and ALPS are investigating free surface flow for the blanket and divertor, respectively, low vapor pressure is a big advantage. This paper summarizes the results from a preliminary investigation. The early conclusion is that Sn-Li can be used as the coolant/breeding material for the APEX and ALPS applications. It has several attractive features, such as low vapor pressure and high thermal conductivity, but it also has some potential issues, such as material compatibility and activation. Further investigation will be required to assess the potential advantages of this material compared to other breeding materials

  8. Data Fusion and Commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications for First Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Casey

    The commercial unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) market is dominated by vehicles designed specifically for photography, with few UAVs possessing sensing capabilities beyond vision or thermal imaging. While relatively affordable and readily available, these UAVs have limited effectiveness in the field of emergency response. These existing UAVs, however, can be improved through sensor integration to make them applicable to emergency response. The focus of this thesis is to develop a UAV system designed for disasters involving radiation. This is done by combining radiation detection, imaging, and a global positioning system (GPS) with a commercial UAV to create a vehicle that can assess the affected region following a potentially radioactive incident. The challenges associated with using low cost commercial UAVs in disaster assessment, including data transmission range, endurance, payload, and control range, were also investigated.

  9. Unscented Multi-Point Smoother for Fusion of Delayed Displacement Measurements: Application to Agricultural Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Hauan Arbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual Odometry (VO is increasingly a useful tool for robotic navigation in a variety of applications, including weed removal for agricultural robotics. The methods of evaluating VO are often computationally expensive and can cause the VO measurements to be significantly delayed with respect to a compass, wheel odometry, and GPS measurements. In this paper we present a Bayesian formulation of fusing delayed displacement measurements. We implement solutions to this problem based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF, leading to what we term an unscented multi-point smoother. The proposed methods are tested in simulations of an agricultural robot. The simulations show improvements in the localization RMS error when including the VO measurements with a variety of latencies.

  10. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  11. New approach to information fusion for Lipschitz classifiers ensembles: Application in multi-channel C-OTDR-monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, Andrey V.; Egorov, Dmitry V. [LPP “EqualiZoom”, Astana, 010000 (Kazakhstan)

    2016-06-08

    This paper presents new results concerning selection of an optimal information fusion formula for an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. The goal of information fusion is to create an integral classificatory which could provide better generalization ability of the ensemble while achieving a practically acceptable level of effectiveness. The problem of information fusion is very relevant for data processing in multi-channel C-OTDR-monitoring systems. In this case we have to effectively classify targeted events which appear in the vicinity of the monitored object. Solution of this problem is based on usage of an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers each of which corresponds to a respective channel. We suggest a brand new method for information fusion in case of ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. This method is called “The Weighing of Inversely as Lipschitz Constants” (WILC). Results of WILC-method practical usage in multichannel C-OTDR monitoring systems are presented.

  12. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...... multinucleated cell or TRAcP activity. But end-point analyses do not show how the fusion came about. This would not be a problem if fusion of osteoclasts was a random process and occurred by the same molecular mechanism from beginning to end. However, we and others have in the recent period published data...... suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...

  13. Fusion physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference for graduate students and an invaluable guide for more experienced researchers. It provides an introduction to nuclear fusion and its status and prospects, and features specialized chapters written by leaders in the field, presenting the main research and development concepts in fusion physics. It starts with an introduction to the case for the development of fusion as an energy source. Magnetic and inertial confinement are addressed. Dedicated chapters focus on the physics of confinement, the equilibrium and stability of tokamaks, diagnostics, heating and current drive by neutral beam and radiofrequency waves, and plasma–wall interactions. While the tokamak is a leading concept for the realization of fusion, other concepts (helical confinement and, in a broader sense, other magnetic and inertial configurations) are also addressed in the book. At over 1100 pages, this publication provides an unparalleled resource for fusion physicists and engineers.

  14. A Novel Strategy for the Preparation of Codon-Optimized Truncated Ulp1 and its Simplified Application to Cleavage the SUMO Fusion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Haifeng; Liu, Yawei; Li, Yuting; Yan, Lei; Yuan, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Yufei; Wu, Yan; Liu, Jieting; Zhang, Chunlei; Chu, Yanhui

    2016-04-01

    Ubiquitin-like protease 1 (Ulp1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerges as a fundamental tool to obtain the natural N-terminal target protein by cleavage of the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion protein. However, the costly commercial Ulp1 and its complicated procedures limit its application in the preparation of the target protein with natural N-terminal sequence. Here, we describe the preparation of bioactive codon-optimized recombinant truncated Ulp1 (Leu403-Lys621) (rtUlp1) of S. cerevisiae in Escherichia coli using only one-step with Ni-NTA affinity chromatograph, and the application of rtUlp1 to cleave the SUMO fusion protein by simply mixing the purified rtUlp1, SUMO fusion protein and DL-Dithiothreitol in Tris-HCl buffer. The optimal expression level of non-fusion protein rtUlp1 accounts for approximately 50 % of the total cellular protein and 36% of the soluble form by addition of isopropyl β-D-l-thiogalactopyranoside at a final concentration of 0.4 mM at 18 °C for 20 h. The purification of target protein rtUlp1 was conducted by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The final yield of rtUlp1 was 45 mg/l in flask fermentation with a purity up to 95%. Furthermore, the high purity of rtUlp1 could effectively cleave the SUMO-tTβRII fusion protein (SUMO gene fused to truncated transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II gene) with the above simplified approach, and the specific activity of the rtUlp1 reached up to 2.8 × 10(4) U/mg, which is comparable to the commercial Ulp1. The preparation and application strategy of the rtUlp1 with commonly available laboratory resources in this study will be convenient to the cleavage of the SUMO fusion protein to obtain the natural N-terminal target protein, which can be implemented in difficult-to-express protein functional analysis.

  15. Effect of linker length and residues on the structure and stability of a fusion protein with malaria vaccine application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamriz, Shabnam; Ofoghi, Hamideh; Moazami, Nasrin

    2016-09-01

    Recombinant protein technology has revolutionized the world of biology and medicine. Following this progress, fusion protein technology, as a novel innovation, has opened new horizons for the development of proteins that do not naturally exist. Fusion proteins are generated via genetically fusing two or more genes coding for separate proteins, thus the product is a single protein having functional properties of both proteins. As an indispensable element in fusion protein construction, linkers are used to separate the functional domains in order to improve their expression, folding and stability. We computationally fused an antigen and an adjuvant together using different linkers to obtain a two-domain fusion construct which can potentially act as an oral vaccine candidate against malaria. We then predicted the structures computationally to find out the probable folding of each domain in the designed construct. One of the fusion constructs was selected based on the highest value for C-score. Ramchandran Plot analysis represented that most residues were fallen in favorable regions. Our in silico analysis showed that (GGGGS)3 linker confers the best structure and stability for our target fusion protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Friction stir welding of F82H steel for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon, E-mail: shnoh@kaeri.re.kr [Fusion Structural Materials Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ando, Masami; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Fusion Structural Materials Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Fujii, Hidetoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    In the present study, friction stir welding was employed to join F82H steels and develop a potential joining technique for a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. The microstructures and mechanical properties on the joint region were investigated to evaluate the applicability of friction stir welding. F82H steel sheets were successfully butt-joined with various welding parameters. In welding conditions, 100 rpm and 100 mm/min, the stirred zone represented a comparable hardness distribution with a base metal. Stirred zone induced by 100 rpm reserved uniformly distributed precipitates and very fine ferritic grains, whereas the base metal showed a typical tempered martensite with precipitates on the prior austenite grain boundary and lath boundary. Although the tensile strength was decreased at 550 °C, the stirred zone treated at 100 rpm showed comparable tensile behavior with base metal up to 500 °C. Therefore, friction stir welding is considered a potential welding method to preserve the precipitates of F82H steel.

  17. Universal Stochastic Multiscale Image Fusion: An Example Application for Shale Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Kirill M.; Karsanina, Marina V.; Mallants, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    Spatial data captured with sensors of different resolution would provide a maximum degree of information if the data were to be merged into a single image representing all scales. We develop a general solution for merging multiscale categorical spatial data into a single dataset using stochastic reconstructions with rescaled correlation functions. The versatility of the method is demonstrated by merging three images of shale rock representing macro, micro and nanoscale spatial information on mineral, organic matter and porosity distribution. Merging multiscale images of shale rock is pivotal to quantify more reliably petrophysical properties needed for production optimization and environmental impacts minimization. Images obtained by X-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy were fused into a single image with predefined resolution. The methodology is sufficiently generic for implementation of other stochastic reconstruction techniques, any number of scales, any number of material phases, and any number of images for a given scale. The methodology can be further used to assess effective properties of fused porous media images or to compress voluminous spatial datasets for efficient data storage. Practical applications are not limited to petroleum engineering or more broadly geosciences, but will also find their way in material sciences, climatology, and remote sensing.

  18. Irradiation tests of radiation resistance optical fibers for fusion diagnostic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Shikama, Tatsuo; Nishitani, Takeo; Yamamoto, Shin; Nagata, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Bun; Toh, Kentaro; Hori, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    To promote development of radiation-resistant core optical fibers, the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Engineering Design Activity) recommended carrying out international round-robin irradiation tests of optical fibers to establish a reliable database for their applications in the ITER plasma diagnostics. Ten developed optical fibers were irradiation-tested in a Co-60 gamma cell, a Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Also, some of them were irradiation tested in a fast neutron irradiation facility of FNS (Fast Neutron Source), especially to study temperature dependence of neutron-associated irradiation effects. Included were several Japanese fluorine doped fibers and one Japanese standard fiber (purified and undoped silica core), as well as seven Russian fibers. Some of Russian fibers were drawn by Japanese manufactures from Russian made pre-form rods to study effects of manufacturing processes to radiation resistant properties. The present paper will describe behaviors of growth of radiation-induced optical transmission loss in the wavelength range of 350-1750nm. Results indicate that role of displacement damages by fast neutrons are very important in introducing permanent optical transmission loss. Spectra of optical transmission loss in visible range will depend on irradiation temperatures and material parameters of optical fibers.

  19. Antibacterial activity of fusion from biosynthesized acidocin/silver nanoparticles and its application for eggshell decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeer Mohammed, A B; Al-Saman, Mahmoud A; Tayel, Ahmed A

    2017-09-01

    Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are useful to control the persistent development of pathogenic microorganisms in food and medicine fields. The bacteriocin acidocin was extracted from Lactobacillus acidophilus M1 that was isolated from fermented milk, purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation, and gel filtration column chromatography using Sephadex matrix and applied as a potential antibacterial agent. The molecular weight of the purified acidocin was estimated using SDS-PAGE to be 6.6 kDa. The acidocin was compared with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), biosynthesized by Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 16404, against two bacterial strains Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Both acidocin and SNPs showed significance antibacterial effects using disc and well diffusion methods; the maximum antibacterial activity was proved against B. cereus from acidocin/SNPs composite using a ratio of 1/1 from each agent. The application of acidocin/SNPs composite as immersion solution, for disinfecting chicken eggshells, resulted in remarkable reduction in microbial load on the shells of 5.53 log 10 CFU/eggshell. Results could provide an eco-friendly approach for potential antimicrobial composites to be used in food preservation and other health protection researches. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. PULSELAC program: space charge neutralized ion beams for inertial fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamphries, S.; Anderson, R.; Freeman, J.; Lockner, T.; Poukey, J.; Ramirez, J.

    1982-01-01

    A linear induction accelerator PULSELAC-C constructed in Sandy Laboratories (USA) according to the program of intense ion beam application for thermonuclear fision initiation is described. The PULSELAC-C facility is intended to accelerate ions from N + to Ar + up to 4 Met at a beam current of 5 kA and pulse duration of 50 ns. The concept of induction acceleration and self-neutralization of the ion space charge by low-energy ele-- ctrons at magnetic isolation of accelerating gaps is used in the PULSELAC-C. The ion acceleration is planned to be performed in 16 aceelerating gaps each of them being designed for a 250 kV voltage at a pulse duration of 50 ns A large number of preliminary experiments on acceleration in such gaps have been conducted. A beam of 600 keV carbon ions with a 3 kA curpent and a divergence equal to 0.01 rad is obtained in the injector-5 gaps system

  1. FENDL/E-2.0. Evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections and photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. Version 1, March 1997. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the description of a physical tape containing the basic evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections, photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. It is part of the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications FENDL-2. The data are available cost-free from the Nuclear Data Section upon request. The data can also be retrieved by the user via online access through international computer networks. (author)

  2. Radioisotope production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engholm, B.A.; Cheng, E.T.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotope production in fusion reactors is being investigated as part of the Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (FAME) study. /sup 60/Co is the most promising such product identified to date, since the /sup 60/Co demand for medical and food sterilization is strong and the potential output from a fusion reactor is high. Some of the other radioisotopes considered are /sup 99/Tc, /sup 131/l, several Eu isotopes, and /sup 210/Po. Among the stable isotopes of interest are /sup 197/Au, /sup 103/Rh and Os. In all cases, heat or electricity can be co-produced from the fusion reactor, with overall attractive economics

  3. Potential applications of fusion neutral beam facilities for advanced material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Surface processing techniques involving high energy ion implantation have achieved commercial success for semiconductors and biomaterials. However, wider use has been limited in good part by economic factors, some of which are related to the line-of-sight nature of the beam implantation process. Plasma source ion implantation is intended to remove some of the limitations imposed by directionality of beam systems and also to help provide economies of scale. The present paper will outline relevant technologies and areas of expertise that exist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in relation to possible future needs in materials processing. Experience in generation of plasmas, control of ionization states, pulsed extraction, and sheath physics exists. Contributions to future technology can be made either for the immersion mode or for the extracted beam mode. Existing facilities include the High Power Test Facility, which could conservatively operate at 1 A of continuous current at 100 kV delivered to areas of about 1 m 2 . Higher instantaneous voltages and currents are available with a reduced duty cycle. Another facility, the High Heat Flux Facility can supply a maximum of 60 kV and currents of up to 60 A for 2 s on a 10% duty cycle. Plasmas may be generated by use of microwaves, radio-frequency induction or other methods and plasma properties may be tailored to suit specific needs. In addition to ion implantation of large steel components, foreseeable applications include ion implantation of polymers, ion implantation of Ti alloys, Al alloys, or other reactive surfaces

  4. The European fusion file project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.

    1989-01-01

    The European Fusion File (EFF) is a nuclear data file for application in fusion-reactor blanket design calculations, in particular for neutron and photon transport calculations of the Next European Torus (NET). This paper presents the main objectives of the programme for the period 1989 to 1991

  5. Fusion Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  6. Linear study and bundle adjustment data fusion; Application to vision localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michot, J.

    2010-01-01

    The works presented in this manuscript are in the field of computer vision, and tackle the problem of real-time vision based localization and 3D reconstruction. In this context, the trajectory of a camera and the 3D structure of the filmed scene are initially estimated by linear algorithms and then optimized by a nonlinear algorithm, bundle adjustment. The thesis first presents a new technique of line search, dedicated to the nonlinear minimization algorithms used in Structure-from-Motion. The proposed technique is not iterative and can be quickly installed in traditional bundle adjustment frameworks. This technique, called Global Algebraic Line Search (G-ALS), and its two-dimensional variant (Two way-ALS), accelerate the convergence of the bundle adjustment algorithm. The approximation of the re-projection error by an algebraic distance enables the analytical calculation of an effective displacement amplitude (or two amplitudes for the Two way-ALS variant) by solving a degree 3 (G-ALS) or 5 (Two way-ALS) polynomial. Our experiments, conducted on simulated and real data, show that this amplitude, which is optimal for the algebraic distance, is also efficient for the Euclidean distance and reduces the convergence time of minimizations. One difficulty of real-time tracking algorithms (monocular SLAM) is that the estimated trajectory is often affected by drifts: on the absolute orientation, position and scale. Since these algorithms are incremental, errors and approximations are accumulated throughout the trajectory and cause global drifts. In addition, a tracking vision system can always be dazzled or used under conditions which prevented temporarily to calculate the location of the system. To solve these problems, we propose to use an additional sensor measuring the displacement of the camera. The type of sensor used will vary depending on the targeted application (an odometer for a vehicle, a lightweight inertial navigation system for a person). We propose to

  7. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  8. Ceramics for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors

  9. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  10. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  11. Data fusion mathematics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Raol, Jitendra R

    2015-01-01

    Fills the Existing Gap of Mathematics for Data FusionData fusion (DF) combines large amounts of information from a variety of sources and fuses this data algorithmically, logically and, if required intelligently, using artificial intelligence (AI). Also, known as sensor data fusion (SDF), the DF fusion system is an important component for use in various applications that include the monitoring of vehicles, aerospace systems, large-scale structures, and large industrial automation plants. Data Fusion Mathematics: Theory and Practice offers a comprehensive overview of data fusion, and provides a

  12. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    SNARE proteins constitute the minimal machinery needed for membrane fusion. SNAREs operate by forming a complex, which pulls the lipid bilayers into close contact and provides the mechanical force needed for lipid bilayer fusion. At the chemical synapse, SNARE-complex formation between...... the vesicular SNARE VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2 and the target (plasma membrane) SNAREs SNAP25 and syntaxin-1 results in fusion and release of neurotransmitter, synchronized to the electrical activity of the cell by calcium influx and binding to synaptotagmin. Formation of the SNARE complex is tightly regulated...... and appears to start with syntaxin-1 bound to an SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) protein. Proteins of the Munc13-family are responsible for opening up syntaxin and allowing sequential binding of SNAP-25 and VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2. N- to C-terminal “zippering” of the SNARE domains leads to membrane fusion...

  13. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  14. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  15. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  16. Ultrastructural Analysis of Myoblast Fusion in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shiliang; Chen, Elizabeth H.

    2008-01-01

    Myoblast fusion in Drosophila has become a powerful genetic system with which to unravel the mechanisms underlying cell fusion. The identification of important components of myoblast fusion by genetic analysis has led to a molecular pathway toward our understanding of this cellular process. In addition to the application of immunohistochemistry and live imaging techniques to visualize myoblast fusion at the light microscopic level, ultrastructural analysis using electron microscopy remains an...

  17. Atomic data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research

  18. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  19. Optimization of proximity ligation assay (PLA) for detection of protein interactions and fusion proteins in non-adherent cells: application to pre-B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaize, Lydie; Jakobczyk, Hélène; Rio, Anne-Gaëlle; Gandemer, Virginie; Troadec, Marie-Bérengère

    2017-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities, including chromosomal translocations, are described for many hematological malignancies. From the clinical perspective, detection of chromosomal abnormalities is relevant not only for diagnostic and treatment purposes but also for prognostic risk assessment. From the translational research perspective, the identification of fusion proteins and protein interactions has allowed crucial breakthroughs in understanding the pathogenesis of malignancies and consequently major achievements in targeted therapy. We describe the optimization of the Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) to ascertain the presence of fusion proteins, and protein interactions in non-adherent pre-B cells. PLA is an innovative method of protein-protein colocalization detection by molecular biology that combines the advantages of microscopy with the advantages of molecular biology precision, enabling detection of protein proximity theoretically ranging from 0 to 40 nm. We propose an optimized PLA procedure. We overcome the issue of maintaining non-adherent hematological cells by traditional cytocentrifugation and optimized buffers, by changing incubation times, and modifying washing steps. Further, we provide convincing negative and positive controls, and demonstrate that optimized PLA procedure is sensitive to total protein level. The optimized PLA procedure allows the detection of fusion proteins and protein interactions on non-adherent cells. The optimized PLA procedure described here can be readily applied to various non-adherent hematological cells, from cell lines to patients' cells. The optimized PLA protocol enables detection of fusion proteins and their subcellular expression, and protein interactions in non-adherent cells. Therefore, the optimized PLA protocol provides a new tool that can be adopted in a wide range of applications in the biological field.

  20. DisasterHub: A mobile application for enabling crowd generated data fusion in Earth Observation disaster management services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironis, Vassilis; Herekakis, Themistocles; Tsouni, Alexia; Kontoes, Charalampos Haris

    2016-04-01

    by DisasterHub, an application proposal that won the MYGEOSS Second Call for Innovative Apps (http://beyond-eocenter.eu/index.php/ann-blog/197-disasterhub-mygeoss). DisasterHub will fill the gap by introducing a mobile application that will act as a middleware between mobile users and BEYOND services, building on the concept of citizen observatories in support of Copernicus, GEO, GEOSS, and UN-SPIDER. In this context the roadmap for generating beneficial EO services through DisasterHub is sketched in two main branches: (i) ingestion, processing and fusion of big multimodal data with additional spatiotemporal evidences (originated from Core Copernicus, GEO, GEOSS) for deriving higher value DRR and EMS products, (ii) interlinking the web and mobile platforms for the exchange and ease access of the societies to open EO/crowd generated data. The benefited communities will be effectively enlarged through DisasterHub mobile app. Mutually the BEYOND ecosystem will profit from the large amount of tagged information returned from the field, forming a unique input to the production chains and assimilation of predictive modeling. In conclusion DisasterHub will showcase in the EO community an enhanced EO services ecosystem with a software infrastructure for easy access of mobile users to the real-time monitoring and early-warning systems of BEYOND and tools for incorporating crowd-sourced data with open geospatial and socioeconomic data via open/linked data ingestion mechanisms (APIs), retrieved from the GEOSS Data-CORE, Copernicus and other EU portals.

  1. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  2. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards

  3. FENDL/C-1.0. Charged-particle reaction data library for fusion applications Version 1.0 of November 1991. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the FENDL/C-1.0 charged-particle reaction data library which is a sublibrary of FENDL, the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications. This file contains evaluated data in ENDF-6 format for the D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) reactions. The processed information, i.e. Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates, and related quantities, calculated from reaction cross-sections, are also included. The data are available from the Nuclear Data Section online via INTERNET by FTP command, or on magnetic tape upon request. (author). 1 tab

  4. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  5. Fusion Power Program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the January-March 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power.

  6. Destination fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumar, B.; Shapira, D.; Stelson, P.H.; Beckerman, M.; Harmon, B.A.; Teh, K.; Ayik, S.

    1986-01-01

    The orbiting yields of reaction products from the 28 Si + 14 N interaction have been measured. The relative magnitudes of the orbiting yields indicate that the dinuclear complex (DNCs) formed in such interactions live sufficiently long to permit the equilibration of charge and mass. Since both the 16 O and the 12 C orbiting yields exceed the 14 N, it appears that there is no preferred directions for mass flow between the interacting nuclei. Since the orbiting yields are typically 10% of the fusion yield, and we believe the orbiting process reflects how the DNCs formed in such collisions evolve towards fusion, it seems apt to conclude that fusion occurs not through a process of continual particle exchange whereby one nucleus is gradually consumed by the other, but by a dinuclear system that retains it mass asymmetry. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Magnetic fusion energy and computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups

  8. Laser-Plasma Interaction in Presence of an Obliquely External Magnetic Field: Application to Laser Fusion without Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, M.; Jafari, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear interaction of ultra-high power laser beam with fusion plasma at relativistic regime in the presence of obliquely external magnetic Geld has been studied. Imposing an external magnetic Geld on plasma can modify the density profile of the plasma so that the thermal conductivity of electrons reduces which is considered to be the decrease of the threshold energy for ignition. To achieve the fusion of Hydrogen-Boron (HB) fuel, the block acceleration model of plasma is employed. Energy production by HB isotopes can be of interest, since its reaction does not generate radioactive tritium. By using the inhibit factor in the block model acceleration of plasma and Maxwell's as well as the momentum transfer equations, the electron density distribution and dielectric permittivity of the plasma medium are obtained. Numerical results indicate that with increasing the intensity of the external magnetic field, the oscillation of the laser magnetic field decreases, while the dielectric permittivity increases. Moreover, the amplitude of the electron density becomes highly peaked and the plasma electrons are strongly bunched with increasing the intensity of external magnetic field. Therefore, the magnetized plasma can act as a positive focusing lens to enhance the fusion process. Besides, we find that with increasing θ-angle (from oblique external magnetic field) between 0 and 90°, the dielectric permittivity increases, while for θ between 90° and 180°, the dielectric permittivity decreases with increasing θ.

  9. The Applications of Decision-Level Data Fusion Techniques in the Field of Multiuser Detection for DS-UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yebo Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the decision-level data fusion techniques are extended to the multiuser detection (MUD field. Then two novel MUD algorithms, that is the chairman arbitrating decision-level fusion criterion (CA-DFC based MUD algorithm and the veto logic decision-level fusion criterion (VL-DFC based MUD algorithm, are proposed for DS-UWB communication systems. In CA-DFC based method, the chairman can make his arbitration among the preliminary decisions from sub-optimal detectors by his own rule. In the VL-DFC based method, the undetermined bits in these preliminary decisions are considered to construct a simplified solution space, and then the chairman can make his final decision within this space. Simulation results demonstrate that the performances of CA-DFC and VL-DFC based MUD algorithms are superior to those of other sub-optimal MUD algorithms, and even close to that of OMD. Moreover, both of these proposed algorithms have lower computational complexity than OMD, which reveals their efficiency. Compared with CA-DFC, VL-DFC based algorithm achieves a little improvement in its performance, at the cost of the increment in its computational complexity. Thus, they can be applied to different practical situations.

  10. The Applications of Decision-Level Data Fusion Techniques in the Field of Multiuser Detection for DS-UWB Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yebo; Yang, Minglei; Shi, Zhenguo; Wu, Zhilu

    2015-09-25

    In this paper, the decision-level data fusion techniques are extended to the multiuser detection (MUD) field. Then two novel MUD algorithms, that is the chairman arbitrating decision-level fusion criterion (CA-DFC) based MUD algorithm and the veto logic decision-level fusion criterion (VL-DFC) based MUD algorithm, are proposed for DS-UWB communication systems. In CA-DFC based method, the chairman can make his arbitration among the preliminary decisions from sub-optimal detectors by his own rule. In the VL-DFC based method, the undetermined bits in these preliminary decisions are considered to construct a simplified solution space, and then the chairman can make his final decision within this space. Simulation results demonstrate that the performances of CA-DFC and VL-DFC based MUD algorithms are superior to those of other sub-optimal MUD algorithms, and even close to that of OMD. Moreover, both of these proposed algorithms have lower computational complexity than OMD, which reveals their efficiency. Compared with CA-DFC, VL-DFC based algorithm achieves a little improvement in its performance, at the cost of the increment in its computational complexity. Thus, they can be applied to different practical situations.

  11. Fusion cuisine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    define the culinary tradition of journalism studies in the first place. In so doing, we offer a recipe for journalism studies fusion cooking that: 1) considers technological change (audiences’ diets); 2) analyses institutional change (audiences’ supermarket of information); and 3) evaluates journalism...

  12. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  13. Fusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aschbacher, Michael; Oliver, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey article on the theory of fusion systems, a relatively new area of mathematics with connections to local finite group theory, algebraic topology, and modular representation theory. We first describe the general theory and then look separately at these connections.

  14. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S.; Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Loughlin, M.; Secco, A.

    2003-01-01

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  15. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    2001-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  16. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  17. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagren, O; Moiseenko, V.E.; Noack, K.

    2008-10-01

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  18. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  19. Prospects for ion beam fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The promise of pellet fusion by high energy heavy ions has evolved very rapidly, partly because of prior pellet work in the laser and e beam programs and partly because of an inherently good match to the application. ERDA sponsored a summer study in 1976 which has had a significant impact on the direction the ion beam fusion program has evolved. Experimental R and D work has been initiated in three of the U.S. accelerator laboratories. Argonne's development program is described. This development work, if successful, should lead to a great deal of confidence that the concept of pellet fusion by high energy heavy ions is indeed practical.

  20. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  1. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  2. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  3. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    S., Sudo; Y., Tomita; S., Yamaguchi; A., Iiyoshi; H., Momota; O., Motojima; M., Okamoto; M., Ohnishi; M., Onozuka; C., Uenosono

    1993-01-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  4. Sensor Data Fusion for Body State Estimation in a Bipedal Robot and Its Feedback Control Application for Stable Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ching-Pei; Chen, Jing-Yi; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lu, Jau-Ching; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We report on a sensor data fusion algorithm via an extended Kalman filter for estimating the spatial motion of a bipedal robot. Through fusing the sensory information from joint encoders, a 6-axis inertial measurement unit and a 2-axis inclinometer, the robot’s body state at a specific fixed position can be yielded. This position is also equal to the CoM when the robot is in the standing posture suggested by the detailed CAD model of the robot. In addition, this body state is further utilized...

  5. Rovibrationally Resolved Time-Dependent Collisional-Radiative Model of Molecular Hydrogen and Its Application to a Fusion Detached Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Sawada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel rovibrationally resolved collisional-radiative model of molecular hydrogen that includes 4,133 rovibrational levels for electronic states whose united atom principal quantum number is below six is developed. The rovibrational X 1 Σ g + population distribution in a SlimCS fusion demo detached divertor plasma is investigated by solving the model time dependently with an initial 300 K Boltzmann distribution. The effective reaction rate coefficients of molecular assisted recombination and of other processes in which atomic hydrogen is produced are calculated using the obtained time-dependent population distribution.

  6. Inversion techniques in the Soft X-Ray tomography of fusion plasmas: towards real-time applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mlynář, Jan; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Bonheure, G.; Murari, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2010), s. 733-741 ISSN 1536-1055. [Workshop on Fusion Data Processing, Validation and Ananlyses/6th./. Madrid, 25.01.2010-27.01.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2055; GA ČR GA202/09/1467; GA MŠk LA08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma tomography * real - time control * soft-X-ray diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.654, year: 2010 http://www.new.ans.org/store/j_10922

  7. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  8. A Type-2 fuzzy data fusion approach for building reliable weighted protein interaction networks with application in protein complex detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehranfar, Adele; Ghadiri, Nasser; Kouhsar, Morteza; Golshani, Ashkan

    2017-09-01

    Detecting the protein complexes is an important task in analyzing the protein interaction networks. Although many algorithms predict protein complexes in different ways, surveys on the interaction networks indicate that about 50% of detected interactions are false positives. Consequently, the accuracy of existing methods needs to be improved. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to detect the protein complexes in 'noisy' protein interaction data. First, we integrate several biological data sources to determine the reliability of each interaction and determine more accurate weights for the interactions. A data fusion component is used for this step, based on the interval type-2 fuzzy voter that provides an efficient combination of the information sources. This fusion component detects the errors and diminishes their effect on the detection protein complexes. So in the first step, the reliability scores have been assigned for every interaction in the network. In the second step, we have proposed a general protein complex detection algorithm by exploiting and adopting the strong points of other algorithms and existing hypotheses regarding real complexes. Finally, the proposed method has been applied for the yeast interaction datasets for predicting the interactions. The results show that our framework has a better performance regarding precision and F-measure than the existing approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficiency of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter with High-Density Beam for Applications to Aneutronic Fusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, Alfonso

    2012-03-01

    Due to the appeal of aneutronic fusion, a variety of reactor concepts have been proposed in past. In most cases, to achieve a positive net power balance these reactor concepts rely on a significant re-circulation of the energy produced to maintain a non-equilibrium configuration (unlike ignited plasmas). The availability of a direct conversion process with high efficiency is then critical for determining the feasibility of a reactor (particularly when the ``almost true aneutronic'' reaction like p-^11B is considered). A Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC, [1]) is considered for the energy conversion of a high-density beam formed by the fusion products (MeV-range α-particles). As in [2], a PIC code is utilized for a realistic beam model. The study is focused on the possibility of obtaining high-efficiency coupling between a modulated high-density ``bunched'' beam, accounting also for a neutralizing electron environment, and the TWDEC electrode collector structure.[4pt] [1] Momota et al. (1999) Fus. Tech., 35, 60[0pt] [2] Y.Yasaka et al. (2009), Nucl. Fus., 49, 075009

  10. Extension and improvement of the FENDL library for fusion applications (FENDL-2). Report of an IAEA advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.; Pashchenko, A.B.

    1997-09-01

    The present report contains the summary of the IAEA Advisory Meeting on Extension and Improvement of the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL), organized by IAEA Nuclear Data Section and held in IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 3 to 7 March 1997. The FENDL library is a comprehensive collection of high-quality nuclear data, selected from the various existing national data libraries, covering the necessary input for physics and engineering studies of the material development, design, operation and safety of ITER and other fusion devices. The library has undergone an intensive testing and validation against integral benchmarks. The main scope of the Meeting was to discuss recent developments within FENDL project, review new evaluations to be included in the library, and decide on the release of the second version of the library (FENDL-2.0). During the meeting it was demonstrated that the FENDL-2.0 library shows a net improvement over the preceding FENDL-1. The release of the Library was authorized with the exception of the general purpose field FENDL/E-2.0 and its processed form, which is scheduled at the end of 1997. (author)

  11. Nonlinear Theoretical Tools for Fusion-related Microturbulence: Historical Evolution, and Recent Applications to Stochastic Magnetic Fields, Zonal-flow Dynamics, and Intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Fusion physics poses an extremely challenging, practically complex problem that does not yield readily to simple paradigms. Nevertheless, various of the theoretical tools and conceptual advances emphasized at the KaufmanFest 2007 have motivated and/or found application to the development of fusion-related plasma turbulence theory. A brief historical commentary is given on some aspects of that specialty, with emphasis on the role (and limitations) of Hamiltonian/symplectic approaches, variational methods, oscillation-center theory, and nonlinear dynamics. It is shown how to extract a renormalized ponderomotive force from the statistical equations of plasma turbulence, and the possibility of a renormalized K-? theorem is discussed. An unusual application of quasilinear theory to the problem of plasma equilibria in the presence of stochastic magnetic fields is described. The modern problem of zonal-flow dynamics illustrates a confluence of several techniques, including (i) the application of nonlinear-dynamics methods, especially center-manifold theory, to the problem of the transition to plasma turbulence in the face of self-generated zonal flows; and (ii) the use of Hamiltonian formalism to determine the appropriate (Casimir) invariant to be used in a novel wave-kinetic analysis of systems of interacting zonal flows and drift waves. Recent progress in the theory of intermittent chaotic statistics and the generation of coherent structures from turbulence is mentioned, and an appeal is made for some new tools to cope with these interesting and difficult problems in nonlinear plasma physics. Finally, the important influence of the intellectually stimulating research environment fostered by Prof. Allan Kaufman on the author's thinking and teaching methodology is described.

  12. Nonlinear theoretical tools for fusion-related microturbulence: Historical evolution, and recent applications to stochastic magnetic fields, zonal-flow dynamics, and intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krommes, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fusion physics poses an extremely challenging, practically complex problem that does not yield readily to simple paradigms. Nevertheless, various of the theoretical tools and conceptual advances emphasized at the KaufmanFest 2007 have motivated and/or found application to the development of fusion-related plasma turbulence theory. A brief historical commentary is given on some aspects of that specialty, with emphasis on the role (and limitations) of Hamiltonian/symplectic approaches, variational methods, oscillation-center theory, and nonlinear dynamics. It is shown how to extract a renormalized ponderomotive force from the statistical equations of plasma turbulence, and the possibility of a renormalized K-χ theorem is discussed. An unusual application of quasilinear theory to the problem of plasma equilibria in the presence of stochastic magnetic fields is described. The modern problem of zonal-flow dynamics illustrates a confluence of several techniques, including (i) the application of nonlinear-dynamics methods, especially center-manifold theory, to the problem of the transition to plasma turbulence in the face of self-generated zonal flows; and (ii) the use of Hamiltonian formalism to determine the appropriate (Casimir) invariant to be used in a novel wave-kinetic analysis of systems of interacting zonal flows and drift waves. Recent progress in the theory of intermittent chaotic statistics and the generation of coherent structures from turbulence is mentioned, and an appeal is made for some new tools to cope with these interesting and difficult problems in nonlinear plasma physics. Finally, the important influence of the intellectually stimulating research environment fostered by Prof. Allan Kaufman on the author's thinking and teaching methodology is described.

  13. Nonlinear Theoretical Tools for Fusion-related Microturbulence: Historical Evolution, and Recent Applications to Stochastic Magnetic Fields, Zonal-flow Dynamics, and Intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Krommes

    2009-05-19

    Fusion physics poses an extremely challenging, practically complex problem that does not yield readily to simple paradigms. Nevertheless, various of the theoretical tools and conceptual advances emphasized at the KaufmanFest 2007 have motivated and/or found application to the development of fusion-related plasma turbulence theory. A brief historical commentary is given on some aspects of that specialty, with emphasis on the role (and limitations) of Hamiltonian/symplectic approaches, variational methods, oscillation-center theory, and nonlinear dynamics. It is shown how to extract a renormalized ponderomotive force from the statistical equations of plasma turbulence, and the possibility of a renormalized K-χ theorem is discussed. An unusual application of quasilinear theory to the problem of plasma equilibria in the presence of stochastic magnetic fields is described. The modern problem of zonal-flow dynamics illustrates a confluence of several techniques, including (i) the application of nonlinear-dynamics methods, especially center-manifold theory, to the problem of the transition to plasma turbulence in the face of self-generated zonal flows; and (ii) the use of Hamiltonian formalism to determine the appropriate (Casimir) invariant to be used in a novel wave-kinetic analysis of systems of interacting zonal flows and drift waves. Recent progress in the theory of intermittent chaotic statistics and the generation of coherent structures from turbulence is mentioned, and an appeal is made for some new tools to cope with these interesting and difficult problems in nonlinear plasma physics. Finally, the important influence of the intellectually stimulating research environment fostered by Prof. Allan Kaufman on the author's thinking and teaching methodology is described.

  14. Stem Cells in Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Michael A; Haudenschild, Dominik R; Wegner, Adam M; Klineberg, Eric O

    2017-12-01

    Review of literature. This review of literature investigates the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in spinal fusion, highlights potential uses in the development of bone grafts, and discusses limitations based on both preclinical and clinical models. A review of literature was conducted looking at current studies using stem cells for augmentation of spinal fusion in both animal and human models. Eleven preclinical studies were found that used various animal models. Average fusion rates across studies were 59.8% for autograft and 73.7% for stem cell-based grafts. Outcomes included manual palpation and stressing of the fusion, radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histological analysis. Fifteen clinical studies, 7 prospective and 8 retrospective, were found. Fusion rates ranged from 60% to 100%, averaging 87.1% in experimental groups and 87.2% in autograft control groups. It appears that there is minimal clinical difference between commercially available stem cells and bone marrow aspirates indicating that MSCs may be a good choice in a patient with poor marrow quality. Overcoming morbidity and limitations of autograft for spinal fusion, remains a significant problem for spinal surgeons and further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of stem cells in augmenting spinal fusion.

  15. Radioactivity and fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, H.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is expected to give an ultimate solution to energy problems over the long term. From recent progress in developing technology for fusion reactors, we can anticipate a prototype fusion reactor by 2030. This review article describes the present status of nuclear fusion research, including muon catalyzed fusion (μCF) which attracts quite new physical interest. Tritium is an essential component of fusion reactors, because the first-stage fusion reactors will utilize a mixture of deuterium and tritium as their fuel. The knowledge about tritium as well as the fusion-neutron induced radioactivity is summarized in terms of nuclear fusion research. (orig.)

  16. Hold-time effects on the fatigue life of CuCrZr alloys for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xianglin; Pan, Xiao; Singh, Bachu N.; Li, Meimei; Stubbins, James F.

    2007-01-01

    The fatigue and creep-fatigue response of copper alloys is of interest due to the cyclic thermal-mechanical loading processes a fusion first wall will experience during operation. Creep-fatigue experiments were performed on a CuCrZr alloy with an overaged heat treatment at room temperature to determine the effects on fatigue life of a 10 s hold period applied at the maximum tension and compression points in the fatigue loading cycle. The hold period produced a reduction in the number of cycles to failure. This reduction was largest at the lowest strain amplitudes and the longest fatigue lives, the region of most interest for component design. Stress relaxation was observed during the hold periods even at room temperature where thermally-activated creep processes are not expected. The large reduction in fatigue life is apparently due to a change in the crack initiation mode from transgranular with no hold period to intergranular with a hold period

  17. Density measurements of H- and D- for fusion applications (final scientific report contract FU-CT-2000-50001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boilson, D

    2003-03-01

    The main topic of this contract is the implementation of the Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy (CRS) technique proposed for quantitative measurement of negative H{sup -} and D{sup -} densities in the Kamaboko III ion source on the MANTIS test bed in the DRFC, CEA Cadarache. MANTIS is used for the development of high density negative ion current beams for use in NBI systems in proposed nuclear fusion reactors. The source used at the MANTIS test stand is a scale version of the source designed for the ITER neutral beam injection system called the Kamaboko III ion source. This report outlines the performance of the KAMABOKO source when operated in caseiated mode. The effect of plasma grid temperature, Cs seeding, Cs consumption, and long pulse, 1000 s, beam extraction are discussed, and the limitations observed with the MANTIS system are identified and further objectives outlined. (author)

  18. On the Equivalence between Small-Step and Big-Step Abstract Machines: A Simple Application of Lightweight Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    We show how Ohori and Sasano's recent lightweight fusion by fixed-point promotion provides a simple way to prove the equivalence of the two standard styles of specification of abstract machines: (1) in small-step form, as a state-transition function together with a `driver loop,' i.e., a function......-step specification. We illustrate this observation here with a recognizer for Dyck words, the CEK machine, and Krivine's machine with call/cc. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our current work on small-step abstract machines as obtained by refocusing a function implementing a reduction semantics (a...... implementing the iteration of this transition function; and (2) in big-step form, as a tail-recursive function that directly maps a given configuration to a final state, if any. The equivalence hinges on our observation that for abstract machines, fusing a small-step specification yields a big...

  19. Density measurements of H- and D- for fusion applications (final scientific report contract FU-CT-2000-50001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilson, D.

    2003-03-01

    The main topic of this contract is the implementation of the Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy (CRS) technique proposed for quantitative measurement of negative H - and D - densities in the Kamaboko III ion source on the MANTIS test bed in the DRFC, CEA Cadarache. MANTIS is used for the development of high density negative ion current beams for use in NBI systems in proposed nuclear fusion reactors. The source used at the MANTIS test stand is a scale version of the source designed for the ITER neutral beam injection system called the Kamaboko III ion source. This report outlines the performance of the KAMABOKO source when operated in caseiated mode. The effect of plasma grid temperature, Cs seeding, Cs consumption, and long pulse, 1000 s, beam extraction are discussed, and the limitations observed with the MANTIS system are identified and further objectives outlined. (author)

  20. Application and Continued Development of Thin Faraday Collectors as a Lost Ion Diagnostic for Tokamak Fusion Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Ed Cecil

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishment of sixteen years of work toward the development of thin foil Faraday collectors as a lost energetic ion diagnostic for high temperature magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Following initial, proof of principle accelerator based studies, devices have been tested on TFTR, NSTX, ALCATOR, DIII-D, and JET (KA-1 and KA-2). The reference numbers refer to the attached list of publications. The JET diagnostic KA-2 continues in operation and hopefully will provide valuable diagnostic information during a possible d-t campaign on JET in the coming years. A thin Faraday foil spectrometer, by virtue of its radiation hardness, may likewise provide a solution to the very challenging problem of lost alpha particle measurements on ITER and other future burning plasma machines.

  1. Results of tritium experiments on ceramic electrolysis cells and palladium diffusers for application to fusion reactor fuel cleanup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.V.; Binning, K.E.; Konishi, S.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Tritium tests at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly have demonstrated that ceramic electrolysis cells and palladium alloy diffuser developed in Japan are possible components for a fusion reactor fuel cleanup system. Both components have been successfully operated with tritium for over a year. A failure of the first electrolysis cell was most likely the result of an over voltage on the ceramic. A simple circuit was developed to eliminate this mode of failure. The palladium diffusers tubes exhibited some degradation of mechanical properties as a result of the build up of helium from the tritium decay, after 450 days of operation with tritium, however the effects were not significant enough to affect the performance. New models of the diffuser and electrolysis cell, providing higher flow rates and more tritium compatible designs are currently being tested with tritium. 8 refs., 5 figs

  2. Characterization of the axial plasma shock in a table top plasma focus after the pinch and its possible application to testing materials for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo, E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación y Aplicaciones en Física de Plasmas y Potencia Pulsada, P" 4, Santiago-Talca (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Inestrosa-Izurieta, María José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación y Aplicaciones en Física de Plasmas y Potencia Pulsada, P" 4, Santiago-Talca (Chile); Veloso, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Gutiérrez, Gonzalo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Vergara, Julio [Facultad de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Clausse, Alejandro [CNEA-CONICET and Universidad Nacional del Centro, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Bruzzone, Horacio [CONICET and Universidad de Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Castillo, Fermín [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); and others

    2014-12-15

    The characterization of plasma bursts produced after the pinch phase in a plasma focus of hundreds of joules, using pulsed optical refractive techniques, is presented. A pulsed Nd-YAG laser at 532 nm and 8 ns FWHM pulse duration was used to obtain Schlieren images at different times of the plasma dynamics. The energy, interaction time with a target, and power flux of the plasma burst were assessed, providing useful information for the application of plasma focus devices for studying the effects of fusion-relevant pulses on material targets. In particular, it was found that damage factors on targets of the order of 10{sup 4} (W/cm{sup 2})s{sup 1/2} can be obtained with a small plasma focus operating at hundred joules.

  3. Characterization of the axial plasma shock in a table top plasma focus after the pinch and its possible application to testing materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4, Santiago-Talca (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile))" data-affiliation=" (Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación y Aplicaciones en Física de Plasmas y Potencia Pulsada, P4, Santiago-Talca (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile))" >Soto, Leopoldo; 4, Santiago-Talca (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile))" data-affiliation=" (Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación y Aplicaciones en Física de Plasmas y Potencia Pulsada, P4, Santiago-Talca (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile))" >Pavez, Cristian; 4, Santiago-Talca (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile))" data-affiliation=" (Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación y Aplicaciones en Física de Plasmas y Potencia Pulsada, P4, Santiago-Talca (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile))" >Moreno, José; 4, Santiago-Talca (Chile))" data-affiliation=" (Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación y Aplicaciones en Física de Plasmas y Potencia Pulsada, P4, Santiago-Talca (Chile))" >Inestrosa-Izurieta, María José; Veloso, Felipe; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Vergara, Julio; Clausse, Alejandro; Bruzzone, Horacio; Castillo, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of plasma bursts produced after the pinch phase in a plasma focus of hundreds of joules, using pulsed optical refractive techniques, is presented. A pulsed Nd-YAG laser at 532 nm and 8 ns FWHM pulse duration was used to obtain Schlieren images at different times of the plasma dynamics. The energy, interaction time with a target, and power flux of the plasma burst were assessed, providing useful information for the application of plasma focus devices for studying the effects of fusion-relevant pulses on material targets. In particular, it was found that damage factors on targets of the order of 10 4 (W/cm 2 )s 1/2 can be obtained with a small plasma focus operating at hundred joules

  4. Lumbar spine stability after combined application of interspinous fastener and modified posterior lumbar interbody fusion: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuchun; Zhu, Lei; Su, Qing

    2014-05-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and internal fixation are commonly performed for the treatment of lower back pain due to lumbar spinal degeneration. We have developed a novel interspinous fixation device, the interspinous fastener (ISF) for potential use in the surgical management of degenerative spinal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro biomechanical characteristics of calf lumbar spine specimens after ISF fixation with modified PLIF. Ten lumbar spine (L3-L6) specimens from ten fresh calf cadavers (8-10 weeks of age) were used. Each specimen underwent sequential testing for each of the following four groups: no instrumentation (INTACT); interspinous fusion device fixation + PLIF (ISF); unilateral pedicle screw and titanium rod fixation + PLIF (UPS); bilateral pedicle screw and titanium rod fixation + PLIF (BPS). Outcome measures included angular range of motion (ROM) during unloaded and loaded (8 Nm) flexion, extension, left bending, right bending, left torsion and right torsion. For all unloaded and loaded assessments, ROM was significantly higher in the INTACT group compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Similarly, ROM was significantly higher in the UPS group (indicating decreased stability) compared with the ISF and BPS groups (P < 0.05). The only significant difference between the ISF and BPS groups was in the ROM with unloaded extension (higher in the BPS group, P = 0.006). We found that ISF fixation with PLIF of the lower lumbar spine provided biomechanical stability that was equivalent to that associated with bilateral pedicle screw/rod fixation with PLIF. The ISF shows potential as an alternative means of fixation in the surgical management of degenerative spinal disease.

  5. Data Fusion Concepts and Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, H B

    2012-01-01

    “Data Fusion: Concepts and Ideas” provides a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and idea of multisensor data fusion. This textbook is an extensively revised second edition of the author's successful book: "Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: An Introduction". The book is self-contained and no previous knowledge of multi-sensor data fusion is assumed. The reader is made familiar with tools taken from a wide range of diverse subjects including: neural networks, signal processing, statistical estimation, tracking algorithms, computer vision and control theory which are combined by using a common statistical framework. As a consequence, the underlying pattern of relationships that exists between the different methodologies is made evident. The book is illustrated with many real-life examples taken from a diverse range of applications and contains an extensive list of modern references. The new completely revised and updated edition includes nearly 70 pages of new material including a full new chapter as well as...

  6. Fusion Imaging for Procedural Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Brandon M; Eleid, Mackram F; Thaden, Jeremy J

    2017-11-27

    The field of percutaneous structural heart interventions has grown tremendously in recent years. This growth has fueled the development of new imaging protocols and technologies in parallel to help facilitate these minimally-invasive procedures. Fusion imaging is an exciting new technology that combines the strength of 2 imaging modalities and has the potential to improve procedural planning and the safety of many commonly performed transcatheter procedures. In this review we discuss the basic concepts of fusion imaging along with the relative strengths and weaknesses of static vs dynamic fusion imaging modalities. This review will focus primarily on echocardiographic-fluoroscopic fusion imaging and its application in commonly performed transcatheter structural heart procedures. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  8. Catalogue of nuclear fusion codes - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    A catalogue is presented of the computer codes in nuclear fusion research developed by JAERI, Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development in particular. It contains a total of about 100 codes under the categories: Atomic Process, Data Handling, Experimental Data Processing, Engineering, Input and Output, Special Languages and Their Application, Mathematical Programming, Miscellaneous, Numerical Analysis, Nuclear Physics, Plasma Physics and Fusion Research, Plasma Simulation and Numerical Technique, Reactor Design, Solid State Physics, Statistics, and System Program. (auth.)

  9. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  10. Fast rigorous numerical method for the solution of the anisotropic neutron transport problem and the NITRAN system for fusion neutronics application. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, A.; Rusch, D.

    1979-07-01

    Some recent neutronics experiments for fusion reactor blankets show that the precise treatment of anisotropic secondary emissions for all types of neutron scattering is needed for neutron transport calculations. In the present work new rigorous methods, i.e. based on non-approximative microscopic neutron balance equations, are applied to treat the anisotropic collision source term in transport equations. The collision source calculation is free from approximations except for the discretization of energy, angle and space variables and includes the rigorous treatment of nonelastic collisions, as far as nuclear data are given. Two methods are presented: first the Ii-method, which relies on existing nuclear data files and then, as an ultimate goal, the I*-method, which aims at the use of future double-differential cross section data, but which is also applicable to the present single-differential data basis to allow a smooth transition to the new data type. An application of the Ii-method is given in the code system NITRAN which employs the Ssub(N)-method to solve the transport equations. Both rigorous methods, the Ii- and the I*-method, are applicable to all radiation transport problems and they can be used also in the Monte-Carlo-method to solve the transport problem. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Application of Lean Principles to Neurosurgical Procedures: The Case of Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery, a Literature Review and Pilot Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jesse J; Raskin, Jeffrey S; Hardaway, Fran; Holste, Katherine; Brown, Sarah; Raslan, Ahmed M

    2018-03-14

    Delivery of higher value healthcare is an ultimate government and public goal. Improving efficiency by standardization of surgical steps can improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and lead to higher value healthcare. Lean principles and methodology have improved timeliness in perioperative medicine; however, process mapping of surgery itself has not been performed. To apply Plan/Do/Study/Act (PDSA) cycles methodology to lumbar posterior instrumented fusion (PIF) using lean principles to create a standard work flow, identify waste, remove intraoperative variability, and examine feasibility among pilot cases. Process maps for 5 PIF procedures were created by a PDSA cycle from 1 faculty neurosurgeon at 1 institution. Plan, modularize PIF into basic components; Do, map and time components; Study, analyze results; and Act, identify waste. Waste inventories, spaghetti diagrams, and chartings of time spent per step were created. Procedural steps were broadly defined in order to compare steps despite the variability in PIF and were analyzed with box and whisker plots to evaluate variability. Temporal variabilities in duration of decompression vs closure and hardware vs closure were significantly different (P = .003). Variability in procedural step duration was smallest for closure and largest for exposure. Wastes including waiting and instrument defects accounted for 15% and 66% of all waste, respectively. This pilot series demonstrates that lean principles can standardize surgical workflows and identify waste. Though time and labor intensive, lean principles and PDSA methodology can be applied to operative steps, not just the perioperative period.

  12. Application of Quality by Design to the characterization of the cell culture process of an Fc-Fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller, Yolande; Solacroup, Thomas; Deparis, Véronique; Barbafieri, Marco; Gleixner, Ralf; Broly, Hervé; Eon-Duval, Alex

    2012-06-01

    The production bioreactor step of an Fc-Fusion protein manufacturing cell culture process was characterized following Quality by Design principles. Using scientific knowledge derived from the literature and process knowledge gathered during development studies and manufacturing to support clinical trials, potential critical and key process parameters with a possible impact on product quality and process performance, respectively, were determined during a risk assessment exercise. The identified process parameters were evaluated using a design of experiment approach. The regression models generated from the data allowed characterizing the impact of the identified process parameters on quality attributes. The main parameters having an impact on product titer were pH and dissolved oxygen, while those having the highest impact on process- and product-related impurities and variants were pH and culture duration. The models derived from characterization studies were used to define the cell culture process design space. The design space limits were set in such a way as to ensure that the drug substance material would consistently have the desired quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The role and application of ion beam analysis for studies of plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Marek; Petersson, Per; Alves, Eduardo; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Coad, Joseph Paul; Heinola, Kalle; Mayer, Matej; Widdowson, Anna

    2016-03-01

    First wall materials in controlled fusion devices undergo serious modification by several physical and chemical processes arising from plasma-wall interactions. Detailed information is required for the assessment of material lifetime and accumulation of hydrogen isotopes in wall materials. The intention of this work is to give a concise overview of key issues in the characterization of plasma-facing materials and components in tokamaks, especially in JET with an ITER-Like Wall. IBA techniques play a particularly prominent role here because of their isotope selectivity in the low-Z range (1-10), high sensitivity and combination of several methods in a single run. The role of 3He-based NRA, RBS (standard and micro-size beam) and HIERDA in fuel retention and material migration studies is presented. The use of tracer techniques with rare isotopes (e.g. 15N) or marker layers on wall diagnostic components is described. Special instrumentation, development of equipment to enhance research capabilities and issues in handling of contaminated materials are addressed.

  14. Experimental results of a sheet-beam, high power, FEL amplifier with application to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The experimental study of sheet-beam FELs as candidate millimeter-wave sources for heating magnetic fusion plasmas has achieved a major milestone. In a proof-of-principle, pulsed experiment, saturated FEL amplifier operation was achieved with 250 kW of output power at 86 GHz. Input microwave power was 1 kW, beam voltage was 450 kV and beam current was 17 A. The planar wiggler had a peak value of 3.8 kG, a period of 0.96 cm and was 71 cm long. The linear gain of 30 dB, saturated gain of 24 dB and saturated efficiency of 3% all are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Follow-on work would include development of a thermionic sheet-beam electron-gun compatible with CW FEL operation, adding a section of tapered wiggler to increase the output power to levels in excess of 1 megawatt, and increasing the FEL frequency.

  15. On the equivalence between small-step and big-step abstract machines: a simple application of lightweight fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We show how Ohori and Sasano’s recent lightweight fusion by fixed-point promotion provides a simple way to prove the equivalence of the two standard styles of specification of abstract machines: (1) in small-step form, as a state-transition function together with a ‘driver loop’, i.e., a function......-step specification. We illustrate this observation here with a recognizer for Dyck words, the CEK machine, and Krivine’s machine with call/cc. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our current work on small-step abstract machines as obtained by refocusing a function implementing a reduction semantics (a...... implementing the iteration of this transition function; and (2) in big-step form, as a tail-recursive function that directly maps a given configuration to a final state, if any. The equivalence hinges on our observation that for abstract machines, fusing a small-step specification yields a big...

  16. Irradiation creep at temperatures of 400 degrees C and below for application to near-term fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Gibson, L.T.; Mansur, L.K.

    1996-01-01

    To study irradiation creep at 400 degrees C and below, a series of six austenitic stainless steels and two ferritic alloys was irradiated sequentially in two research reactors where the neutron spectrum was tailored to produce a He production rate typical of a fusion device. Irradiation began in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor; and, after an atomic displacement level of 7.4 dpa, the specimens were moved to the High Flux Isotope Reactor for the remainder of the 19 dpa accumulated. Irradiation temperatures of 60, 200, 330, and 400 degrees C were studied with internally pressurized tubes of type 316 stainless steel, PCA, HT 9, and a series of four laboratory heats of: Fe-13.5Cr-15Ni, Fe-13.5Cr-35Ni, Fe-1 3.5Cr-1 W-0.18Ti, and Fe-16Cr. At 330 degrees C, irradiation creep was shown to be linear in fluence and stress. There was little or no effect of cold-work on creep under these conditions at all temperatures investigated. The HT9 demonstrated a large deviation from linearity at high stress levels, and a minimum in irradiation creep with increasing stress was observed in the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary alloys

  17. Sensor Data Fusion for Body State Estimation in a Bipedal Robot and Its Feedback Control Application for Stable Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pei Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a sensor data fusion algorithm via an extended Kalman filter for estimating the spatial motion of a bipedal robot. Through fusing the sensory information from joint encoders, a 6-axis inertial measurement unit and a 2-axis inclinometer, the robot’s body state at a specific fixed position can be yielded. This position is also equal to the CoM when the robot is in the standing posture suggested by the detailed CAD model of the robot. In addition, this body state is further utilized to provide sensory information for feedback control on a bipedal robot with walking gait. The overall control strategy includes the proposed body state estimator as well as the damping controller, which regulates the body position state of the robot in real-time based on instant and historical position tracking errors. Moreover, a posture corrector for reducing unwanted torque during motion is addressed. The body state estimator and the feedback control structure are implemented in a child-size bipedal robot and the performance is experimentally evaluated.

  18. Characterization of deuterium clusters mixed with helium gas for an application in beam-target-fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, W.; Quevedo, H. J.; Bernstein, A. C.; Dyer, G.; Ihn, Y. S.; Cortez, J.; Aymond, F.; Gaul, E.; Donovan, M. E.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Natowitz, J. B.; Albright, B. J.; Fernández, J. C.; Ditmire, T.

    2014-12-01

    We measured the average deuterium cluster size within a mixture of deuterium clusters and helium gas by detecting Rayleigh scattering signals. The average cluster size from the gas mixture was comparable to that from a pure deuterium gas when the total backing pressure and temperature of the gas mixture were the same as those of the pure deuterium gas. According to these measurements, the average size of deuterium clusters depends on the total pressure and not the partial pressure of deuterium in the gas mixture. To characterize the cluster source size further, a Faraday cup was used to measure the average kinetic energy of the ions resulting from Coulomb explosion of deuterium clusters upon irradiation by an intense ultrashort pulse. The deuterium ions indeed acquired a similar amount of energy from the mixture target, corroborating our measurements of the average cluster size. As the addition of helium atoms did not reduce the resulting ion kinetic energies, the reported results confirm the utility of using a known cluster source for beam-target-fusion experiments by introducing a secondary target gas.

  19. Density-Functional-Theory-Based Equation-of-State Table of Beryllium for Inertial Confinement Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y. H.; Hu, S. X.

    2017-10-01

    Beryllium has been considered a superior ablator material for inertial confinement fusion target designs. Based on density-functional-theory calculations, we have established a wide-range beryllium equation-of-state (EOS) table of density ρ = 0.001 to ρ = 500 g/cm3 and temperature T = 2000 to 108 K. Our first-principles equation-of-state (FPEOS) table is in better agreement with widely used SESAMEEOS table (SESAME2023) than the average-atom INFERNOmodel and the Purgatoriomodel. For the principal Hugoniot, our FPEOS prediction shows 10% stiffer behavior than the last two models at maximum compression. Comparisons between FPEOS and SESAMEfor off-Hugoniot conditions show that both the pressure and internal energy differences are within 20% between two EOS tables. By implementing the FPEOS table into the 1-D radiation-hydrodynamics code LILAC, we studied the EOS effects on beryllium target-shell implosions. The FPEOS simulation predicts up to an 15% higher neutron yield compared to the simulation using the SESAME2023 EOS table. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. The pre-image problem for Laplacian Eigenmaps utilizing L 1 regularization with applications to data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Doster, Timothy

    2017-07-01

    As the popularity of non-linear manifold learning techniques such as kernel PCA and Laplacian Eigenmaps grows, vast improvements have been seen in many areas of data processing, including heterogeneous data fusion and integration. One problem with the non-linear techniques, however, is the lack of an easily calculable pre-image. Existence of such pre-image would allow visualization of the fused data not only in the embedded space, but also in the original data space. The ability to make such comparisons can be crucial for data analysts and other subject matter experts who are the end users of novel mathematical algorithms. In this paper, we propose a pre-image algorithm for Laplacian Eigenmaps. Our method offers major improvements over existing techniques, which allow us to address the problem of noisy inputs and the issue of how to calculate the pre-image of a point outside the convex hull of training samples; both of which have been overlooked in previous studies in this field. We conclude by showing that our pre-image algorithm, combined with feature space rotations, allows us to recover occluded pixels of an imaging modality based off knowledge of that image measured by heterogeneous modalities. We demonstrate this data recovery on heterogeneous hyperspectral (HS) cameras, as well as by recovering LIDAR measurements from HS data.

  1. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  2. Magnetic fusion 1985: what next

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1985-03-01

    Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion.

  3. Magnetic fusion 1985: what next

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1985-03-01

    Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion

  4. Radiation effects on structural ceramics in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, G.R.; Price, R.J.; Trester, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required to serve in a conventional role as electrical and thermal insulators and dielectrics in fusion power reactors. In addition, certain ceramic materials can play a unique structural role in fusion power reactors by virtue of their very low induced radioactivity from fusion neutron capture. The aspects of safety, long-term radioactive waste management, and personnel access for maintenance and repair can all be significantly improved by applying the low-activation ceramics to the structural materials of the first-wall and blanket regions of a fusion reactor. Achievement of long service life at high structural loads and thermal stresses on the materials exposed to high-radiation doses presents a critical challenge for fusion. In this paper, we discuss radiation effects on structural ceramics for fusion application

  5. Precipitation sensitivity to alloy composition in Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic steels developed for reduced activation for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Special austenitic steels are being designed in which alloying elements like Mo, Nb, and Ni are replaced with Mn, W, V, Ti, and/or Ta to reduce the long-term radioactivity induced by fusion reactor irradiation. However, the new steels still need to have properties otherwise similar to commercial steels like type 316. Precipitation strongly affects strength and radiation-resistance in austenitic steels during irradiation at 400--600/degree/C, and precipitation is also usually quite sensitive to alloy composition. The initial stage of development was to define a base Fe-Cr-Mn-C composition that formed stable austenite after annealing and cold-working, and resisted recovery or excessive formation of coarse carbide and intermetallic phases during elevated temperature annealing. These studies produced a Fe-12Cr-20Mn-0.25C base alloy. The next stage was to add the minor alloying elements W, Ti, V, P, and B for more strength and radiation-resistance. One of the goals was to produce fine MC precipitation behavior similar to the Ti-modified Fe-Cr-Ni prime candidate alloy (PCA). Additions of Ti+V+P+B produced fine MC precipitation along network dislocations and recovery/recrystallization resistance in 20% cold worked material aged at 800/degree/C for 166h, whereas W, Ti, W+Ti, or Ti+P+B additions did not. Addition of W+Ti+V+P+B also produced fine MC, but caused some σ phase formation and more recrystallization as well. 29 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Study of the Fe-Ti/W system for joining applications in high-temperature fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, J. de; Sánchez, M.; Alvaredo, P.; Gordo, E.; Ureña, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulations show good correlation versus experimental results for Fe-Ti/W system. • The joint is predicted to be stable at the service conditions of the component. • The predictions could help to analyze different scenarios during its service life. - Abstract: The interaction of the Fe-Ti/W system in a brazed divertor component of the future fusion power plant has been studied. The reactivity between the substrates and the filler is an important factor to obtain a high quality joint. Thermodynamic and diffusion simulation software can be valuable tools for studying these effects, particularly in scenarios that are difficult to experimentally analyze. Two different strategies have been performed: 1) simulation processes using the Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software to calculate the phase diagram and simulate the diffusion process, respectively, and 2) experimental tests in a furnace to join W-W substrates using a filler with an 86Fe-Ti composition to analyze the operational brazeability and compare it with the simulation results. The simulation processes predicted two of the three phases that formed at the experimental joint (α-Fe and TiC). The interaction at the W-filler interface predicted by DICTRA correlates with the experimental results, where Fe, Ti and C diffused into the W substrate and moved the interface by 25 μm. Simulations also show the stability of the interface over the lifetime of the component. The combined use of Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software enabled the accurate prediction of different scenarios in the system of Fe-Ti-C/W.

  7. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, S; Murari, A; Vagliasindi, G; Arena, P; Mazon, D; De Maack, A

    2010-08-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN-unlike software CNN implementations.

  8. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palazzo, S.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e dei Sistemi, Universita degli Studi di Catania, 95125 Catania (Italy); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Mazon, D. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); De Maack, A. [Arts et Metiers Paris Tech Engineering College (ENSAM), 13100 Aix-en-Provence (France); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-08-15

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496x560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN - unlike software CNN implementations.

  9. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, S.; Murari, A.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Mazon, D.; de Maack, A.; Jet-Efda Contributors

    2010-08-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496×560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN—unlike software CNN implementations.

  10. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazzo, S.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Murari, A.; Mazon, D.; De Maack, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496x560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN - unlike software CNN implementations.

  11. Fusion of multimodal medical images. Application to dynamic tri dimensional study of vertebral column; Fusion d`images medicales multimodales. Application a l`etude tridimensionnelle dynamique de la colonne vertebrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunie, L.

    1992-12-01

    The object of this thesis is to put in correspondence images coming from different ways. The area of application is biomedical imaging, particularly dynamic imaging in three dimensional calculations of spinal cord. The use of computers allows modeling. Then a study of validation by clinical experimentation on spinal cord proves the efficiency of the simulation.

  12. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  13. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  14. Performance evaluation of multi-sensor data fusion technique for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    sive algorithm suitable for real-time application using digital computers. Among different approaches for Kalman Filter-based sensor fusion, two commonly employed ... Multi-sensor data fusion strategy at Test Range. The fusion scheme adopted at Integrated Test Range is shown in figure 2. The scheme is evolved based on ...

  15. Fusion of High-Rate GPS and Seismic Data: Applications to Early Warning Systems for Mitigation of Geological Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Crowell, B.; Webb, F.; Kedar, S.; Clayton, R.; Miyahara, B.

    2008-12-01

    We discuss the fusion of low-latency (1 s) high-rate (1 Hz or greater) CGPS displacements and traditional seismic data, in order to extend the frequency range and timeliness of surface displacement data already available at lower frequencies from space borne InSAR and (typically daily) CGPS coordinate time series. The goal is development of components of early warning systems for mitigation of geological hazards (direct seismic damage, tsunamis, landslides, volcanoes). The advantage of the GPS data is that it is a direct measurement of ground displacement. With seismic data, this type of measure has to be obtained by deconvolution of the instrument response and integration of the broadband (velocity) measurements, or a double integration of the strong motion (acceleration) measurements. Due to the bandwidth and the dynamic range limits of seismometers the accuracy of absolute displacements so derived is poor. This problem is not present in the high-sample rate GPS data. While the seismic measurement provides a powerful constraint on the much noisier GPS measurements, unlike the seismometer, the GPS receiver never clips. Using the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table at USCD, we present an example of combining in real-time 50 Hz GPS displacements and 250 Hz raw accelerometer data using a multi-rate Kalman filter, previously applied to bridge monitoring. A full-scale 7- story building atop the shake table was subjected to high intensity shaking by replaying the Sylmar accelerometer record from the Mw 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake. The resulting 250 Hz displacement waveform is significantly more accurate than obtained solely by low-pass filtering and double integration of the 250 Hz accelerometer records. Next we demonstrate the elements of an earthquake early warning system by analyzing the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-Oki thrust earthquake off Hokkaido Island detected by the dense Japan national real-time CGPS

  16. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  17. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Research during this report period has covered the following areas: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) MACKLIB-IV, a new library of nuclear response functions, (5) energy storage and power supply requirements for commercial fusion reactors, (6) blanket/shield design evaluation for commercial fusion reactors, and (7) cross section measurements, evaluations, and techniques

  18. Fusion-protein-assisted protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Bostjan; Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J

    2015-07-01

    Fusion proteins can be used directly in protein crystallization to assist crystallization in at least two different ways. In one approach, the `heterologous fusion-protein approach', the fusion partner can provide additional surface area to promote crystal contact formation. In another approach, the `fusion of interacting proteins approach', protein assemblies can be stabilized by covalently linking the interacting partners. The linker connecting the proteins plays different roles in the two applications: in the first approach a rigid linker is required to reduce conformational heterogeneity; in the second, conversely, a flexible linker is required that allows the native interaction between the fused proteins. The two approaches can also be combined. The recent applications of fusion-protein technology in protein crystallization from the work of our own and other laboratories are briefly reviewed.

  19. The Effect of Multispectral Image Fusion Enhancement on Human Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House The effect of multispectral image fusion enhancement on human efficiency 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...fusion across its associated problem space of application. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ideal observer analysis, Efficiency, Image fusion, Multispectral imagery...Implications (2017) 2:19 DOI 10.1186/s41235-016-0045-0 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Open Access The effect of multispectral image fusion enhancement on human

  20. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R ampersand D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R ampersand D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase

  1. Structural materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, M.; Baluc, N.; Spaetig, P.

    2001-01-01

    In order to preserve the condition of an environmentally safe machine, present selection of materials for structural components of a fusion reactor is made not only on the basis of adequate mechanical properties, behavior under irradiation and compatibility with other materials and cooling media, but also on their radiological properties, i.e. activity, decay heat, radiotoxicity. These conditions strongly limit the number of materials available to a few families of alloys, generically known as low activation materials. We discuss the criteria for deciding on such materials, the alloys resulting from the application of the concept and the main issues and problems of their use in a fusion environment. (author)

  2. Superconducting magnets for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting magnets for fusion reactor applications are being developed in the U.S., Europe, Japan and the USSR. A substantial technological base already exists, but magnets for fusion face special problems and strong incentives for higher performance. In the U.S. high-field magnets for mirrors are being addressed by construction of the superconducting (NbTi) MFTF and by Nb 3 Sn conductor development. Large toroidal field magnets for tokamaks are being developed through the Large Coil Program, which involves design and construction of NbTi and Nb 3 Sn coils by six industrial teams, three in the U.S. and three in other countries

  3. Fusion program research materials inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, T.K.; Wiffen, F.W.; Davis, J.W.; Lechtenberg, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory maintains a central inventory of research materials to provide a common supply of materials for the Fusion Reactor Materials Program. This will minimize unintended material variations and provide for economy in procurement and for centralized record keeping. Initially this inventory is to focus on materials related to first-wall and structural applications and related research, but various special purpose materials may be added in the future. The use of materials from this inventory for research that is coordinated with or otherwise related technically to the Fusion Reactor Materials Program of DOE is encouraged

  4. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-01-01

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83

  5. Radiation compression and laser-fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhic, M.E.

    1973-03-01

    A new way of exchanging energy between light and moving matter is described. Calculations show this effect to be efficient for relativistic velocities. Possible applications to the field of laser-fusion are explored

  6. Feasibility study of an optical resonator for applications in neutral-beam injection systems for the next generation of nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorucci, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    This work is part of a larger project called SIPHORE (Single gap Photo-neutralizer energy Recovery injector), which aims to enhance the overall efficiency of one of the mechanisms through which the plasma is heated, in a nuclear fusion reactor, i.e. the Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system. An important component of a NBI system is the neutralizer of high energetic ion beams. SIPHORE proposes to substitute the gas cell neutralizer, used in the current NBI systems, with a photo-neutralizer exploiting the photo-detachment process within Fabry Perot cavities. This mechanism should allow a relevant NBI global efficiency of η≥ 60%, significantly higher than the one currently possible (η≤25% for ITER). The present work concerns the feasibility study of an optical cavity with suitable properties for applications in NBI systems. Within this context, the issue of the determination of an appropriated optical cavity design has been firstly considered and the theoretical and experimental analysis of a particular optical resonator has been carried on. The problems associated with the high levels of intracavity optical power (∼3 MW) required for an adequate photo-neutralization rate have then been faced. In this respect, we addressed both the problem of the thermal effects on the cavity mirrors due to their absorption of intra-cavity optical power (∼1 W) and the one associated to the necessity of a high powerful input laser beam (∼1 kW) to feed the optical resonator. (author)

  7. Enhanced research in ground-penetrating radar and multisensor fusion with application to the detection and visualization of buried waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devney, A.J.; DiMarzio, C.; Kokar, M.; Miller, E.L.; Rappaport, C.M.; Weedon, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Recognizing the difficulty and importance of the landfill remediation problems faced by DOE, and the fact that no one sensor alone can provide complete environmental site characterization, a multidisciplinary team approach was chosen for this project. The authors have developed a multisensor fusion approach that is suitable for the wide variety of sensors available to DOE, that allows separate detection algorithms to be developed and custom-tailored to each sensor. This approach is currently being applied to the Geonics EM-61 and Coleman step-frequency radar data. High-resolution array processing techniques were developed for detecting and localizing buried waste containers. A soil characterization laboratory facility was developed using a HP-8510 network analyzer and near-field coaxial probe. Both internal and external calibration procedures were developed for de-embedding the frequency-dependent soil electrical parameters from the measurements. Dispersive soil propagation modeling algorithms were also developed for simulating wave propagation in dispersive soil media. A study was performed on the application of infrared sensors to the landfill remediation problem, particularly for providing information on volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in the atmosphere. A dust-emission lidar system is proposed for landfill remediation monitoring. Design specifications are outlined for a system which could be used to monitor dust emissions in a landfill remediation effort. The detailed results of the investigations are contained herein

  8. Enhanced research in ground-penetrating radar and multisensor fusion with application to the detection and visualization of buried waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devney, A.J.; DiMarzio, C.; Kokar, M.; Miller, E.L.; Rappaport, C.M.; Weedon, W.H.

    1996-05-14

    Recognizing the difficulty and importance of the landfill remediation problems faced by DOE, and the fact that no one sensor alone can provide complete environmental site characterization, a multidisciplinary team approach was chosen for this project. The authors have developed a multisensor fusion approach that is suitable for the wide variety of sensors available to DOE, that allows separate detection algorithms to be developed and custom-tailored to each sensor. This approach is currently being applied to the Geonics EM-61 and Coleman step-frequency radar data. High-resolution array processing techniques were developed for detecting and localizing buried waste containers. A soil characterization laboratory facility was developed using a HP-8510 network analyzer and near-field coaxial probe. Both internal and external calibration procedures were developed for de-embedding the frequency-dependent soil electrical parameters from the measurements. Dispersive soil propagation modeling algorithms were also developed for simulating wave propagation in dispersive soil media. A study was performed on the application of infrared sensors to the landfill remediation problem, particularly for providing information on volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) in the atmosphere. A dust-emission lidar system is proposed for landfill remediation monitoring. Design specifications are outlined for a system which could be used to monitor dust emissions in a landfill remediation effort. The detailed results of the investigations are contained herein.

  9. [Signal Patterns of Dual Color Dual Fusion Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization for Detection of Genetic Abnormality in Adult Patients with ALL and Their Clinical Application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Zhang-Lin; Xin, Yan-Hong; Liu, Shu-Yuan; Li, Xin; Wan, La-Gen

    2016-04-01

    To study the signal patterns of dual color dual fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (DCDF-FISH) for detection of genetic abnormality in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and their diagnostic value and clinical application. The clinical data of 68 ALL patients confirmed in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively; The bone marrow samples were detected by DCDF-FISH, flow cytometry, conventional cytogenetics (CCG), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the correlation of these results was compared. And the reaction of patients to treatment was dynamically observed by DCDF-FISH. Sixteen signal patterns were found in DCDF-FISH, including 14 kinds of atypical signal patterns (signal patterns of 1R2G, 2R3G, 2R4G and 3R3G as abnormal signal patterns without BCR/ABL fusion gene. Signal patterns of 1R1G1F, 1R1G3F, 1R1G4F, 1R2G1F, 1R2G2F, 1R2G3F, 1RnG2F (n ≥ 3), 2R2G1F, 1G4F, 1R4F corresponded to t (9;22) karyotype). Ph(+) ALL patients accounted for 17. All cases with Ph chromosome or BCR/ABL positive were B-ALL or My(+)-B-ALL. The Ph chromosome was detected in 12 cases (positive rate was 18%) by CCG. The positive rate was 25% (17/68) by DCDF-FISH and RT-PCR. The DCDF-FISH fluorescence pattern change before and after chemotherapy of the patients showed that the quantity and form of the signal pattern was changed after chemotherapy, and the common characteristics was the Ph chromosome in patients. The DCDF-FISH is a sensitive and reliable method for the detection of BCR/ABL rearrangement. Analyzing the dynamical change of DCDF-FISH signal patterns has been comfirmed to have a important guiding significance in the diagnosis, and anlysis of response to therapy, drug resistance and the prognosis of ALL patients.

  10. X-FIDO: An Effective Application for Detecting Olive Quick Decline Syndrome with Deep Learning and Data Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Albert C.; Luvisi, Andrea; De Bellis, Luigi; Ampatzidis, Yiannis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a vision-based program to detect symptoms of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) on leaves of Olea europaea L. infected by Xylella fastidiosa, named X-FIDO (Xylella FastIdiosa Detector for O. europaea L.). Previous work predicted disease from leaf images with deep learning but required a vast amount of data which was obtained via crowd sourcing such as the PlantVillage project. This approach has limited applicability when samples need to be tested with traditional methods (i...

  11. Fusion utilization projections in the United States energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.

    1979-11-01

    The following topics are discussed in some detail in this report: (1) applications of fusion energy, (2) fusion implementation in the US energy system, (3) reactor performance requirements, (4) technology for electric applications, and (5) technology for synthetic fuel/chemical applications. (MOW)

  12. Fusion utilization projections in the United States energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.

    1979-11-01

    The following topics are discussed in some detail in this report: (1) applications of fusion energy, (2) fusion implementation in the US energy system, (3) reactor performance requirements, (4) technology for electric applications, and (5) technology for synthetic fuel/chemical applications

  13. Review of fusion synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  14. Near Term Fission-Fusion Hybrids- Advantages for Fission and Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Valanju, P.

    2010-11-01

    Fission-fusion hybrids are described with unique advantages relative to fission only systems, for different missions. Innovative designs allow hybrids to incinerate waste, or produce fuel, with far fewer hybrids than would be possible with fission-only fast reactors. In addition, hybrids can perform these missions while addressing concerns regarding proliferation, by using unique fuel cycles, not accessible to fission alone, that use no reprocessing, or greatly reduced reprocessing. These goals can be achieved using fusion devices in the range considered for fusion Component Test Facilities (CTF). The fusion physics and fusion engineering performance necessary for these missions is far less stringent than for a pure fusion power reactor. Unique designs aspects substantially separate the fission and fusion aspects, allowing much more independent development of each. Hence, a suitable hybrid can provide a nearer term, lower risk, application for fusion, and be an additional incentive to implement a fusion CTF device. The fuel cycle possibilities above are verified using Monte-Carlo neutron calculations. Fusion neutron sources with high power densities and modest power levels are sufficient and necessary.

  15. Design study of a G-band FEL amplifier for application to cyclotron resonant heating in magnetic fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, H. P.; Read, M. E.; Jackson, R. H.; Pershing, D. E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1995-04-01

    A G-band (140-150 GHz) free-electron laser is described using a coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler. The CHI wiggler is produced by insertion into a solenoid of a central rod and an outer ring composed of alternating ferrite and nonferrite spacers. The position of the spacers is such that the ferrite (nonferrite) spacers on the central rod are opposite the nonferrite (ferrite) spacers on the outer ring. The field is cylindrically symmetric and exhibits minima in the center of the gap providing for enhanced beam focusing. We describe a tapered wiggler amplifier for plasma heating applications. Preliminary design studies using a nonlinear simulation indicates that output powers of 3.5 MW are possible using a 690 kV/40 A electron beam for a total efficiency of 13%. It is important to note that no beam loss was observed even for realistic values of beam energy spread.

  16. Deuterides of light elements: low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up and applications to thermonuclear fusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.M.; Smith, V.H.; Smith, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    Thermonuclear burn-up and thermonuclear applications are discussed for a number of deuterides and DT hydrides of light elements. These deuterides and corresponding DT hydrides are often used as thermonuclear fuels or components of such fuels. In fact, only for these substances thermonuclear energy gain exceeds (at some densities and temperatures) the bremsstrahlung loss and other high-temperature losses, i.e., thermonuclear burn-up is possible. Herein, thermonuclear burn-up in these deuterides and DT hydrides is considered in detail. In particular, a simple method is proposed to determine the critical values of the burn-up parameter x c for these substances and their mixtures at different temperatures and densities. The results for equimolar DT mixtures coincide quite well with the results of previous calculations. Also, the natural or Z limit is determined for low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up in the deuterides of light elements. (author)

  17. X-FIDO: An Effective Application for Detecting Olive Quick Decline Syndrome with Deep Learning and Data Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Albert C; Luvisi, Andrea; De Bellis, Luigi; Ampatzidis, Yiannis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a vision-based program to detect symptoms of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) on leaves of Olea europaea L. infected by Xylella fastidiosa , named X-FIDO ( Xylella FastIdiosa Detector for O. europaea L.). Previous work predicted disease from leaf images with deep learning but required a vast amount of data which was obtained via crowd sourcing such as the PlantVillage project. This approach has limited applicability when samples need to be tested with traditional methods (i.e., PCR) to avoid incorrect training input or for quarantine pests which manipulation is restricted. In this paper, we demonstrate that transfer learning can be leveraged when it is not possible to collect thousands of new leaf images. Transfer learning is the re-application of an already trained deep learner to a new problem. We present a novel algorithm for fusing data at different levels of abstraction to improve performance of the system. The algorithm discovers low-level features from raw data to automatically detect veins and colors that lead to symptomatic leaves. The experiment included images of 100 healthy leaves, 99 X. fastidiosa -positive leaves and 100 X. fastidiosa -negative leaves with symptoms related to other stress factors (i.e., abiotic factors such as water stress or others diseases). The program detects OQDS with a true positive rate of 98.60 ± 1.47% in testing, showing great potential for image analysis for this disease. Results were obtained with a convolutional neural network trained with the stochastic gradient descent method, and ten trials with a 75/25 split of training and testing data. This work shows potential for massive screening of plants with reduced diagnosis time and cost.

  18. X-FIDO: An Effective Application for Detecting Olive Quick Decline Syndrome with Deep Learning and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert C. Cruz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a vision-based program to detect symptoms of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS on leaves of Olea europaea L. infected by Xylella fastidiosa, named X-FIDO (Xylella FastIdiosa Detector for O. europaea L.. Previous work predicted disease from leaf images with deep learning but required a vast amount of data which was obtained via crowd sourcing such as the PlantVillage project. This approach has limited applicability when samples need to be tested with traditional methods (i.e., PCR to avoid incorrect training input or for quarantine pests which manipulation is restricted. In this paper, we demonstrate that transfer learning can be leveraged when it is not possible to collect thousands of new leaf images. Transfer learning is the re-application of an already trained deep learner to a new problem. We present a novel algorithm for fusing data at different levels of abstraction to improve performance of the system. The algorithm discovers low-level features from raw data to automatically detect veins and colors that lead to symptomatic leaves. The experiment included images of 100 healthy leaves, 99 X. fastidiosa-positive leaves and 100 X. fastidiosa-negative leaves with symptoms related to other stress factors (i.e., abiotic factors such as water stress or others diseases. The program detects OQDS with a true positive rate of 98.60 ± 1.47% in testing, showing great potential for image analysis for this disease. Results were obtained with a convolutional neural network trained with the stochastic gradient descent method, and ten trials with a 75/25 split of training and testing data. This work shows potential for massive screening of plants with reduced diagnosis time and cost.

  19. Prospect of realizing nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Report describes the results of the research work on nuclear fusion, which CRIEPI has carried out for about ten years from the standpoint of electric power utilities, potential user of its energy. The principal points are; (a) economic analysis (calculation of costs) based on Japanese analysis procedures and database of commercial fusion reactors, including fusion-fission hybrid reactors, and (b) conceptual design of two types of hybrid reactors, that is, fission-fuel producing DMHR (Demonstration Molten-Salt Hybrid Reactor) and electric-power producing THPR (Tokamak Hybrid Power Reactor). The Report consists of the following chapters: 1. Introduction. 2. Conceptual Design of Hybrid Reactors. 3. Economic Analysis of Commercial Fusion Reactors. 4. Basic Studies Applicable Also to Nuclear Fusion Technology. 5. List of Published Reports and Papers; 6. Conclusion. Appendices. (author)

  20. TMX: a new fusion plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The primary goal of the magnetic fusion energy program at LLL is the development of a technically and economically feasible approach to the generation of fusion energy. Results from our earlier 2XIIB experiment lead us to believe that a fusion power plant based on a mirror system is technically feasible, assuming a favorable extrapolation to plasmas of reactor size. Achieving economic feasibility is more difficult. For power-producing applications, a reactor needs a large Q, the ratio of fusion power output to the power injected to sustain the system. In a conventional mirror reactor, the fusion power is only about equal to the power injected by the neutral beams--that is, Q is only about unity. A new idea, the tandem mirror concept described in this article, promises to increase this gain, enhancing Q by at least a factor of 5

  1. Magnetic-fusion energy and computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups

  2. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  3. Laser fusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  4. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  5. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  6. Fusion Canada issue 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  7. Absolute spectral characterization of silicon barrier diode: Application to soft X-ray fusion diagnostics at Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezinet, D.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental protocol for absolute calibration of photo-detectors. Spectral characterization is achieved by a methodology that unlike the usual line emissions-based method, hinges on the Bremsstrahlung radiation of a Soft X-Ray (SXR) tube only. Although the proposed methodology can be applied virtually to any detector, the application presented in this paper is based on Tore Supra's SXR diagnostics, which uses Silicon Surface Barrier Diodes. The spectral response of these n-p junctions had previously been estimated on a purely empirical basis. This time, a series of second-order effects, like the spatial distribution of the source radiated power or multi-channel analyser non linearity, are taken into account to achieve accurate measurements. Consequently, a parameterised physical model is fitted to experimental results and the existence of an unexpected dead layer (at least 5 μm thick) is evidenced. This contribution also echoes a more general on-going effort in favour of long-term quality of passive radiation measurements on Tokamaks

  8. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  9. User's perspective on fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    The need in fusion, from the electric utilities viewpoint, is for fusion to be a real option, not huge, complicated nuclear plants costing $10 billion each and requiring restructuring the energy industry to provide and use them. A course for future fusion reactor work in order to be a real option is discussed. The advantages of alternate concepts to the tokamak are presented

  10. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  11. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  12. Zipping into fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Fusion of lipid bilayers in cells facilitates the active transport of chemicals. Non-viral membrane fusion is regulated by a cascade of proteins as the process is highly regulated both in space and time. In eukaryotic cells, the so-called SNARE protein complex is at the heart of fusion. However,

  13. The UKAEA's fusion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweetman, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    D.R. Sweetman, director of the UKAEA fusion programme, reviews the current state of the work being performed on the UK-Euratom fusion programme. The JET programme, Tokamak programme, reversed field pinch programme, fusion technology and funding are all discussed. (author)

  14. Assessing a new direction for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The principal application proposed for fusion for the past 40 years has been the central station, electrical power generation plant. However, the sizable increases that were forecast for future electrical power demands have not been realized to date. Only coal power plants have been increasing (3%/year) generating capacity (Annual Energy Outlook, 1998) . Likewise, the ability of fusion to deliver economical electrical power has not been credibly postulated, much less demonstrated. Together these two factors have stagnated the commercialization of fusion power. It is now time for a reassessment of what fusion can best do for the world. Fusion, with a practically inexhaustible energy supply, has many unique properties that enable a wide variety of useful products. A study by the ARIES team is underway to review possible fusion applications and assess those with the potential to provide useful and worthwhile new products. A roadmap of possible applications has been developed to assess the utilization of the unique properties of the fusion process. The potential product categories are energy production (fuel, electricity, heat), space propulsion, altered or transmuted material properties (transmutation, waste treatment, tritium production), chemical compound dissociation (waste treatment, ore reduction, refining), and direct use of fusion nuclear products (radiography, lithography, radiotherapy, activation analyses). An evaluation methodology based on the success and failure of previous large, national and international technology development projects was developed to assess and recommend encouraging fusion product applications. A list of significant attributes was defined to describe and characterize projects that are likely to succeed or fail in the global marketplace. These attributes were assigned weights according to their perceived value to the national or global enterprise. An additive utility theory methodology was used to qualitatively evaluate the proposed

  15. Liquid-metal MHD flow in a duct whose cross section changes from a rectangle to a trapezoid, with applications in fusion blanket designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    This paper treats the liquid-metal MHD flow in a semi-infinite rectangular duct and a semi-infinite trapezoidal duct, which are connected by a finite-length transition duct. There is a strong, transverse, uniform magnetic field. The walls parallel to the magnetic field (sides) remain parallel, while the walls intersecting the magnetic field are twisted in the transition duct to provide the change in cross sectional shape. The left side has a constant height, while the height of the right side increases or decreases in the transition duct. This geometry gives a skewed velocity profile with a high velocity near the left side, provided the right side is relatively thick. All walls are thin and electrically conducting, but the sides are considerably thicker than the other walls. The application is to fusion-reactor blankets in which a high velocity near the first wall (separating the plasma chamber from the coolant) improves the thermal performance. Junctions of different ducts with walls parallel to the magnetic field are treated for the first time. In expansions, contractions and other geometric transition ducts, as well as in straight ducts with axially varying magnetic fields, the fluid flow and electric currents are concentrated in boundary layers adjacent to the sides and in the side. At a junction with a straight duct with a uniform magnetic field, the flow and current must transfer from the boundary layers adn sides to the core regions. These transfers at junctions play a key role in any three-dimensional flow.

  16. Liquid-metal MHD flow in a duct whose cross section changes from a rectangle to a trapezoid, with applications in fusion blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    This paper treats the liquid-metal MHD flow in a semi-infinite rectangular duct and a semi-infinite trapezoidal duct, which are connected by a finite-length transition duct. There is a strong, transverse, uniform magnetic field. The walls parallel to the magnetic field (sides) remain parallel, while the walls intersecting the magnetic field are twisted in the transition duct to provide the change in cross sectional shape. The left side has a constant height, while the height of the right side increases or decreases in the transition duct. This geometry gives a skewed velocity profile with a high velocity near the left side, provided the right side is relatively thick. All walls are thin and electrically conducting, but the sides are considerably thicker than the other walls. The application is to fusion-reactor blankets in which a high velocity near the first wall (separating the plasma chamber from the coolant) improves the thermal performance. Junctions of different ducts with walls parallel to the magnetic field are treated for the first time. In expansions, contractions and other geometric transition ducts, as well as in straight ducts with axially varying magnetic fields, the fluid flow and electric currents are concentrated in boundary layers adjacent to the sides and in the side. At a junction with a straight duct with a uniform magnetic field, the flow and current must transfer from the boundary layers adn sides to the core regions. These transfers at junctions play a key role in any three-dimensional flow

  17. Sulfated polysaccharide, curdlan sulfate, efficiently prevents entry/fusion and restricts antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in vitro: a possible candidate for clinical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ichiyama

    Full Text Available Curdlan sulfate (CRDS, a sulfated 1→3-β-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV. CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion. The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the β-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered.

  18. Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating on carbon-based panels for nuclear fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, Changheui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Steady-state heat fluxes of 1–3 MW/m 2 were applied to the W coated specimens. • Less micro-pores and grain growth were observed for the dual-process coating. • Loss of coating thickness was observed for the simple PS W coating. • Dual-process PVD/PS W coating was resistant to erosion due to the surface PVD layer. - Abstract: Various tungsten (W) coating techniques have been used for the application of plasma facing material in nuclear fusion devices, which resulted in limited success. In this study, a dual-process W coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the thermal performance of the coating structure. The dual-process coating structure consisted of a thin (∼7 μm) multilayer W/Mo physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating layer deposited on top of the relatively thick (∼160 μm) plasma spray (PS) W coating on a graphite substrate panel. Then the coated sample was exposed to plasma heat flux of 1–3 MW/m 2 for 300 s. With addition of a thin surface PVD coating layer, the microstructure change in underlying PS W coating was substantially reduced compared to the simple PS W coating structure. The thickness of overall coating structure was maintained for the dual-process PVD/PS coated samples after the thermal loading tests, while a significant reduction in thickness due to surface erosion was observed for the simple PS W coated samples. The improvement in surface erosion resistance in the dual-process coating structure was discussed in view of the characteristics of PVD and PS coating layers.

  19. Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating on carbon-based panels for nuclear fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Steady-state heat fluxes of 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} were applied to the W coated specimens. • Less micro-pores and grain growth were observed for the dual-process coating. • Loss of coating thickness was observed for the simple PS W coating. • Dual-process PVD/PS W coating was resistant to erosion due to the surface PVD layer. - Abstract: Various tungsten (W) coating techniques have been used for the application of plasma facing material in nuclear fusion devices, which resulted in limited success. In this study, a dual-process W coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the thermal performance of the coating structure. The dual-process coating structure consisted of a thin (∼7 μm) multilayer W/Mo physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating layer deposited on top of the relatively thick (∼160 μm) plasma spray (PS) W coating on a graphite substrate panel. Then the coated sample was exposed to plasma heat flux of 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} for 300 s. With addition of a thin surface PVD coating layer, the microstructure change in underlying PS W coating was substantially reduced compared to the simple PS W coating structure. The thickness of overall coating structure was maintained for the dual-process PVD/PS coated samples after the thermal loading tests, while a significant reduction in thickness due to surface erosion was observed for the simple PS W coated samples. The improvement in surface erosion resistance in the dual-process coating structure was discussed in view of the characteristics of PVD and PS coating layers.

  20. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  1. Potential use of nuclear pumped lasers as fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Greenspan, E.; Gilligan, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of an energy-storage type nuclear pumped laser (NPL) suitable for laser fusion feedback applications is briefly noted. Then, the use of NPLs in fusion-fission-hybrid systems is presented and analyzed from an energetic point of view. Unique hybrid blanket concepts are proposed that enable approx. 3 fissions in the laser medium per fusion neutron while still providing approx. 2 fissile atoms per fusion neutron. Such designs would enable use of a very low gain fusion device as the driver. (orig.) [de

  2. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, J D

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered.

  3. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, J.D.

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered

  4. Information fusion in personal biometric authentication based on the iris pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenghua; Han, Jiuqiang

    2009-01-01

    Information fusion in biometrics has received considerable attention. This paper focuses on the application of information fusion techniques in iris recognition. To improve the reliability and accuracy of personal identification based on the iris pattern, this paper proposes the schemes of multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion. Multialgorithmic fusion integrates the improved phase algorithm and the DCT-based algorithm, and multiinstance fusion combines information from the left iris and the right iris of an individual. Both multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion are carried out at the matching score level and the support vector machine (SVM)-based fusion rule is utilized to generate fused scores for final decision. The experimental results on the noisy iris database UBIRIS demonstrate that the proposed fusion schemes can perform better than the single recognition systems, and further prove that information fusion techniques are feasible and effective to improve the accuracy and robustness of iris recognition especially under noisy conditions

  5. Information fusion in personal biometric authentication based on the iris pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenghua; Han, Jiuqiang

    2009-04-01

    Information fusion in biometrics has received considerable attention. This paper focuses on the application of information fusion techniques in iris recognition. To improve the reliability and accuracy of personal identification based on the iris pattern, this paper proposes the schemes of multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion. Multialgorithmic fusion integrates the improved phase algorithm and the DCT-based algorithm, and multiinstance fusion combines information from the left iris and the right iris of an individual. Both multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion are carried out at the matching score level and the support vector machine (SVM)-based fusion rule is utilized to generate fused scores for final decision. The experimental results on the noisy iris database UBIRIS demonstrate that the proposed fusion schemes can perform better than the single recognition systems, and further prove that information fusion techniques are feasible and effective to improve the accuracy and robustness of iris recognition especially under noisy conditions.

  6. Fusion the energy of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    McCracken, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Fusion: The Energy of the Universe, 2e is an essential reference providing basic principles of fusion energy from its history to the issues and realities progressing from the present day energy crisis. The book provides detailed developments and applications for researchers entering the field of fusion energy research. This second edition includes the latest results from the National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, CA, and the progress on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak programme at Caderache, France.

  7. An optimized data fusion method and its application to improve lateral boundary conditions in winter for Pearl River Delta regional PM2.5 modeling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Hu, Yongtao; Zheng, Junyu; Zhai, Xinxin; Huang, Ran

    2018-05-01

    Lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) are essential for chemical transport models to simulate regional transport; however they often contain large uncertainties. This study proposes an optimized data fusion approach to reduce the bias of LBCs by fusing gridded model outputs, from which the daughter domain's LBCs are derived, with ground-level measurements. The optimized data fusion approach follows the framework of a previous interpolation-based fusion method but improves it by using a bias kriging method to correct the spatial bias in gridded model outputs. Cross-validation shows that the optimized approach better estimates fused fields in areas with a large number of observations compared to the previous interpolation-based method. The optimized approach was applied to correct LBCs of PM2.5 concentrations for simulations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region as a case study. Evaluations show that the LBCs corrected by data fusion improve in-domain PM2.5 simulations in terms of the magnitude and temporal variance. Correlation increases by 0.13-0.18 and fractional bias (FB) decreases by approximately 3%-15%. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying data fusion to improve regional air quality modeling.

  8. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  9. Fusion technology 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, C.; Gasparatto, M.; Knoepfel, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the biennial series of symposia on the title subject, organized by the European Fusion Laboratories, is the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. The coverage of the volume includes the technological aspects of fusion reactors in relation to new developments, this forming a guideline for the definition of future work. These proceedings comprise three volumes and contain both the invited lectures and contributed papers presented at the symposium which was attended by 569 participants from around the globe. The 343 papers, including 12 invited papers, characterize the increasing interest of industry in the fusion programme, giving a broad and current overview on the progress and trends fusion technology is experiencing now, as well as indicating the future for fusion devices

  10. Temperature and grain size effect on the fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of OFHC copper and CuCrZr for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, X.; Wu, X.; Stubbins, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Copper and its alloys are prime candidates for high heat flux applications in fusion reactor systems due to their high thermal conductivity. This class of materials is of particular interest for the first wall and divertor structures in ITER. In service, these components will endure not only the cyclic loading but also the stress relaxation and microstructural recovery during the pulsed mode operation. Thus the fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior is central to materials selection since thermal-mechanical cycling will limit component life. Several studies of the fatigue performance which include hold time effects indicate that the hold process can substantially degrade the material fatigue life even at room temperature, 0.22 T m , which is well below temperatures typically associated with thermally-induced creep and stress relaxation. This reduction in fatigue life is found to be most dramatic in the low strain amplitude, high cycle fatigue regime where fatigue lives can be reduced by a factor of more than two. It is also found that the reduction in fatigue life requires only a short hold period of 10 s, much shorter than the anticipated on/off cycles in ITER of 1000 s/100 s. Grain size is an important parameter affecting material fatigue performance. Early studies show that fatigue life of copper reduces with increasing the grain size in both continuous fatigue and creep-fatigue conditions at room temperature. It is found that the mode of fatigue crack initiation changes with changing of the testing modes, grain size and strain amplitudes, which finally determines the fatigue life of OFHC copper. The mechanisms controlling the room temperature creep damage in OHFC copper with different grain size are interesting and should also be investigated at higher temperatures. To examine this issue in greater detail, a series of will be conducted with different grain sizes at different temperature. Selected interrupted fatigue and creep

  11. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2011-12-01

    This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated

  12. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated

  13. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P.

    1998-01-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  14. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, M. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy); Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P. [Energetics Dept., Polytechnic of Turin (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  15. Health physics in fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.Y.; Dinner, P.J.

    1984-06-01

    Experience in the control of tritium exposures to workers and the public gained through the design and operation of Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations has been applied to fusion projects and to design studies on emerging fusion reactor concepts. Ontario Hydro performance in occupational tritium exposure control and environmental impact is reviewed. Application of tritium control technologies and dose management methodology during facility design is highlighted

  16. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: the great illusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaud, A.

    1985-01-01

    Is controlled thermonuclear fusion one day destined to become a source of power generation on an industrial scale. The author's answer to this basic question is an emphatic no. In an analysis of the difficulties, particularly those of a technological nature, which application and control of electricity generating based on fusion (deuterium-tritium) involve, the author is of the opinion that this source of energy is scarcely likely to provide commercial outlets [fr

  17. Influence of the Training Library Composition on a Patch-based label fusion method: Application to Hippocampus Segmentation on the ADNI dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupe, Pierrick; Fonov, Vladimir; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    segmentation methods. However, the complex relationship between the intensity of the MR signal and the HC boundaries makes it difficult to accurately achieve this task. In the past few years, label fusion methods have demonstrated high performances in anatomical structure segmentation [2-4]. These methods use...... manual segmentations of anatomical MRIs from a training library to perform the segmentation of a subject. Recently, we have proposed a new nonlocal patch-based label fusion method and demonstrated that this approach can accurately segment the HC on young adults through an efficient fusion of manual...... at the structure level, our method deals with a finer level by comparing subparts of the structure (i.e., small 3D cubes). In this study, we propose to validate our nonlocal patch-based method on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database by segmenting the HC of Cognitively Normal (CN...

  18. Image fusion tool: Validation by phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, A.; Geworski, L.; Richter, M.; Ivancevic, V.; Munz, D.L.; Muehler, M.; Ditt, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Validation of a new image fusion tool with regard to handling, application in a clinical environment and fusion precision under different acquisition and registration settings. Methods: The image fusion tool investigated allows fusion of imaging modalities such as PET, CT, MRI. In order to investigate fusion precision, PET and MRI measurements were performed using a cylinder and a body contour-shaped phantom. The cylinder phantom (diameter and length 20 cm each) contained spheres (10 to 40 mm in diameter) which represented 'cold' or 'hot' lesions in PET measurements. The body contour-shaped phantom was equipped with a heart model containing two 'cold' lesions. Measurements were done with and without four external markers placed on the phantoms. The markers were made of plexiglass (2 cm diameter and 1 cm thickness) and contained a Ga-Ge-68 core for PET and Vitamin E for MRI measurements. Comparison of fusion results with and without markers was done visually and by computer assistance. This algorithm was applied to the different fusion parameters and phantoms. Results: Image fusion of PET and MRI data without external markers yielded a measured error of 0 resulting in a shift at the matrix border of 1.5 mm. Conclusion: The image fusion tool investigated allows a precise fusion of PET and MRI data with a translation error acceptable for clinical use. The error is further minimized by using external markers, especially in the case of missing anatomical orientation. Using PET the registration error depends almost only on the low resolution of the data

  19. Multisource Remote Sensing Imagery Fusion Scheme Based on Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD and Its Application to the Extraction of Bamboo Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most bamboo forests grow in humid climates in low-latitude tropical or subtropical monsoon areas, and they are generally located in hilly areas. Bamboo trunks are very straight and smooth, which means that bamboo forests have low structural diversity. These features are beneficial to synthetic aperture radar (SAR microwave penetration and they provide special information in SAR imagery. However, some factors (e.g., foreshortening can compromise the interpretation of SAR imagery. The fusion of SAR and optical imagery is considered an effective method with which to obtain information on ground objects. However, most relevant research has been based on two types of remote sensing image. This paper proposes a new fusion scheme, which combines three types of image simultaneously, based on two fusion methods: bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD and the Gram-Schmidt transform. The fusion of panchromatic and multispectral images based on the Gram-Schmidt transform can enhance spatial resolution while retaining multispectral information. BEMD is an adaptive decomposition method that has been applied widely in the analysis of nonlinear signals and to the nonstable signal of SAR. The fusion of SAR imagery with fused panchromatic and multispectral imagery using BEMD is based on the frequency information of the images. It was established that the proposed fusion scheme is an effective remote sensing image interpretation method, and that the value of entropy and the spatial frequency of the fused images were improved in comparison with other techniques such as the discrete wavelet, à-trous, and non-subsampled contourlet transform methods. Compared with the original image, information entropy of the fusion image based on BEMD improves about 0.13–0.38. Compared with the other three methods it improves about 0.06–0.12. The average gradient of BEMD is 4%–6% greater than for other methods. BEMD maintains spatial frequency 3.2–4.0 higher than

  20. Application of the INS facility as a high-flux benchmark for neutron dosimetry and for radiation damage studies in D--T fusion spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.; Emigh, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    An Intense Neutron Source facility (INS), is presently under construction at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This facility is being built by the Energy Research and Development Administration for the radiation damage program in magnetic fusion energy. The facility will contain two D-T neutron sources, both producing about 10 15 primary 14-MeV neutrons per second on a continuous basis. One source will be used to produce a ''pure'' 14-MeV spectrum while the other will be surrounded by a multiplying blanket converter to produce a fusion-like spectrum with a total of about 10 16 neutrons per second

  1. Neutronic Parametric Study on a Conceptual Design for a Transmutation Fusion Blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq Siddique, M.; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Fusion energy may be the one of options of future energy. In all over the world, researchers are putting their efforts for its commercial and economical availability. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors have been studied for various applications in China. First milestone of fusion energy is expected to be the fusion fission hybrid reactors. In fusion-fission hybrid reactor the blanket design is of second prime importance after fusion source. In this study conceptual design of a fusion blanket is initiated for calculation of tritium production, transmutation of minor actinides (MA) and fission products (FP) and energy multiplication calculations

  2. Economics of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics

  3. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  4. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has

  5. Remote Sensing Image Fusion at the Segment Level Using a Spatially-Weighted Approach: Applications for Land Cover Spectral Analysis and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Segment-level image fusion involves segmenting a higher spatial resolution (HSR image to derive boundaries of land cover objects, and then extracting additional descriptors of image segments (polygons from a lower spatial resolution (LSR image. In past research, an unweighted segment-level fusion (USF approach, which extracts information from a resampled LSR image, resulted in more accurate land cover classification than the use of HSR imagery alone. However, simply fusing the LSR image with segment polygons may lead to significant errors due to the high level of noise in pixels along the segment boundaries (i.e., pixels containing multiple land cover types. To mitigate this, a spatially-weighted segment-level fusion (SWSF method was proposed for extracting descriptors (mean spectral values of segments from LSR images. SWSF reduces the weights of LSR pixels located on or near segment boundaries to reduce errors in the fusion process. Compared to the USF approach, SWSF extracted more accurate spectral properties of land cover objects when the ratio of the LSR image resolution to the HSR image resolution was greater than 2:1, and SWSF was also shown to increase classification accuracy. SWSF can be used to fuse any type of imagery at the segment level since it is insensitive to spectral differences between the LSR and HSR images (e.g., different spectral ranges of the images or different image acquisition dates.

  6. A new analysis procedure to extract fusion excitation function with large beam energy dispersions: application to the 6Li+120Sn and 7Li+119Sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pietro Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper it is described an analysis procedure suited for experiments where cross-sections strongly varying with energy are measured using beams having large energy dispersion. These cross-sections are typically the sub-barrier fusion excitation function of reactions induced by radioactive beams. The large beam energy dispersion, typical of these experiments, can lead to ambiguities in the association of the effective beam energy to the reaction product yields and consequently to an error in the determination of the excitation function. As a test case, the approach is applied to the experiments 6Li+120Sn and 7Li+119Sn measured in the energy range 14 MeV ≤ Ec.m. ≤28 MeV. The complete fusion cross sections are deduced from activation measurements using the stacked target technique. The results of these experiments, that employ the two weakly-bound stable Li isotopes, show that the complete fusion cross sections above the barrier are suppressed of about 70% and 85% with respect to the Universal Fusion Function, used as a standard reference, in the 6Li and 7Li induced reactions respectively. Moreover, the excitation functions of the two systems at energies below the barrier, do not show significant differences, despite the two systems have different n-transfer Qvalue.

  7. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures...... around 20 C, but at temperatures above 26 C we observe an increase in the scattered intensity due to fusion. The system is unusually well suited for the study of basic mechanisms of vesicle fusion. The vesicles are flexible with a bending rigidity of only a few k(H)T. The monolayer spontaneous curvature......, Ho, depends strongly on temperature in a known way and is thus tunable. For temperatures where H-0 > 0 vesicles tyre long-term stable, while in the range H-0 fusion rate increases the more negative the Spontaneous curvature Through a quantitative;analysis of the fusion rate we arrive tit...

  8. Document controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou, C.; Demarthon, F.; Ter Minassian, V.

    2004-01-01

    Since the years 30, the magnetic confinement is one of the researches programs to control the nuclear fusion. This document presents in a first part the historical aspects of the researches on the controlled fusion and in the second part the nuclear fusion. The nuclear fusion forcing two atomic nuclei to fuse together by reproducing the conditions of the thermonuclear reactions that make the stars burn. This technology is a potential source of inexhaustible energy for the future. Then are presented the tokamak which make possible to confine an extremely hot gaseous mixture (plasma that is over one hundred million degrees) in a vacuum chamber and the ITER project (superconductor tokamak) that will make it possible to attain the stage in which the plasma maintains the fusion reaction itself and therefore produces more energy than it consumes. The last part presents the projects of new fusion reactors. (A.L.B.)

  9. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  10. Muon catalysed fusion: the status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, L.I.

    1994-01-01

    The main features and the state of the art of muon catalyzed fusion (MCF) are presented. The different application of MCF in atomic, molecular and nuclear physics are discussed. The possible practical applications of MCF for the production of the intense 14 MeV neutron source and the nuclear fuel are outlined. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  12. Status of fusion maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  13. Perfect focusing fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, G.; Takeda, T.; Iwata, G.; Mori, S.; Inoue, K.; Tanaka, M.

    1994-01-01

    We propose new perfect focusing (perfo) fusion systems in which ion- or atom-beam is used as a target for the fusion reaction, and ions (perfo particles) of different species moving in the perfo field collide with them. The 'efficiency' defined as the ratio of the fusion energy output to the radiation loss is ∼300, ∼20, and ∼4 for the T+D, 3 He+D, and 11 B+H reactions, respectively. (author)

  14. Magnetic-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    In February 1980, the Director of Energy Research requested that the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) review the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Program. Of particular concern to the DOE was the judicious choice of the next major steps toward demonstration of economic power production from fusion. Of equal concern was the overall soundness of the DOE Magnetic Fusion Program: its pace, scope, and funding profiles. Their finding and recommendations are included

  15. Maximum Likelihood Fusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-09

    Symposium of Robotics Re- search. Sienna, Italy: Springer, 2003. [12] D. Hall and J. Llinas, “An introduction to multisensor data fusion ,” Proceed- ings of...a data fusion approach for combining Gaussian metric models of an environment constructed by multiple agents that operate outside of a global... data fusion , hypothesis testing,maximum likelihood estimation, mobile robot navigation REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT

  16. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  17. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  18. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  19. Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2002-01-01

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs

  20. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Sanjiv [Portola Valley, CA; Pritha, Ray [Mountain View, CA

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.