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Sample records for fusarium solani fs1

  1. Production of extracellular lipase by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani FS1

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Maria de Mascena Diniz; Morais, Marcia Maria Camargo de; Morais Jr., Marcos Antonio de; Melo, Eduardo Henrique Magalhães; Lima Filho, José Luiz de

    1999-01-01

    A Brazilian strain of Fusarium solani was tested for extracellular lipase production in peptone-olive oil medium. The fungus produced 10,500 U.l-1 of lipase after 72 hours of cultivation at 25oC in shake-flask at 120 rpm in a medium containing 3% (w/v) peptone plus 0.5% (v/v) olive oil. Glucose (1% w/v) was found to inhibit the inductive effect of olive oil. Peptone concentrations below 3% (w/v) resulted in a reduced lipase production while increased olive oil concentration (above 0.5%) did n...

  2. Production of extracellular lipase by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani FS1 Produção de lipase extracelular pelo fungo fitopatogênico Fusarium solani FS1

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Mascena Diniz Maia; Marcia Maria Camargo de Morais; Marcos Antonio de Morais Jr.; Eduardo Henrique Magalhães Melo; José Luiz de Lima Filho

    1999-01-01

    A Brazilian strain of Fusarium solani was tested for extracellular lipase production in peptone-olive oil medium. The fungus produced 10,500 U.l-1 of lipase after 72 hours of cultivation at 25oC in shake-flask at 120 rpm in a medium containing 3% (w/v) peptone plus 0.5% (v/v) olive oil. Glucose (1% w/v) was found to inhibit the inductive effect of olive oil. Peptone concentrations below 3% (w/v) resulted in a reduced lipase production while increased olive oil concentration (above 0.5%) did n...

  3. Production of extracellular lipase by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani FS1 Produção de lipase extracelular pelo fungo fitopatogênico Fusarium solani FS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Mascena Diniz Maia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian strain of Fusarium solani was tested for extracellular lipase production in peptone-olive oil medium. The fungus produced 10,500 U.l-1 of lipase after 72 hours of cultivation at 25oC in shake-flask at 120 rpm in a medium containing 3% (w/v peptone plus 0.5% (v/v olive oil. Glucose (1% w/v was found to inhibit the inductive effect of olive oil. Peptone concentrations below 3% (w/v resulted in a reduced lipase production while increased olive oil concentration (above 0.5% did not further stimulate lipase production. The optimum lipase activity was achieved at pH 8.6 and 30oC and a good enzyme stability (80% activity retention was observed at pH ranging from 7.6 to 8.6, and the activity rapidly dropped at temperatures above 50oC. Lipase activity was stimulated by the addition of n-hexane to the culture medium supernatants, in contrast to incubation with water-soluble solvents.

  4. Fusarium solani breast abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual manifestation of breast fusariosis was encountered in a 55-year-old female diabetic patient. Two fine needle aspirates (FNA from the abscess were done at three days interval and they showed hyaline, septate, branched, fungal hypahe in 10% potassium hydroxide mount. Fungal infection was confirmed by demonstrating the fungal hyphae in the midst of lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils in Leishman stained smears. Culture of both FNAs yielded a heavy and pure growth of Fusarium solani . The patient responded to oral ketoconazole 200 mg once daily for 3 weeks. The breast fusariosis reported here is presumably the first case in India.

  5. Fusarium solani infection in a kidney transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalo hypho mycosis due to Fusarium species mainly occurs in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical presentation varies from localized to disseminated involvement. A case of localized cutaneous fusariosis caused by Fusarium solani in a renal transplant patient is described and the skin manifestations of the disease are discussed.

  6. Development of specific primers for genus Fusarium and F. solani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... reproductive parts of plants. They are ... plant species in most parts of the world. .... 20 µl 2.5X master mix (Eppendorf) and 1 µl of each forward and ... List of primers developed for rapid detection of Fusarium sp. and F. solani.

  7. Formation of trichothecenes by Fusarium solani var. coeruleum and Fusarium sambucinum in potatoes.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Banna, A A; Scott, P M; Lau, P Y; Sakuma, T; Platt, H W; Campbell, V

    1984-01-01

    Fusarium solani var. coeruleum can form deoxynivalenol in potato tubers and in liquid medium, although concentrations observed in the rot were highly variable; acetyldeoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin were detected in 1 to 3 tubers only (of 57). Trichothecenes were also detected in a very few (3 of 20) cultures of Fusarium sambucinum in potato tubers.

  8. Cutinase of Fusarium solani F. sp. pisi: mechanism of induction and relatedness to other Fusarium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshuk, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were made on the extracellular cutinase of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. I. The production of cutinase was found to be induced in spores of F. solani f. sp. pisi, strain T-8, by cutin and cutin hydrolysate. Fractionation and analysis of the cutin hydrolysate indicated that dihydroxy-C 16 acid and trihydroxy-C 18 acid were the cutin monomers most active for inducing cutinase. Measurement of cutinase-specific RNA levels by dot-blot hybridization with a [ 32 P]-labeled cutinase cDNA showed that the cutinase gene transcripts could be detected within 15 min after addition of the inducers. The results indicated that the fungal spores have the capacity to recognize the unique monomer components of the plant cuticle and rapidly respond by the synthesis of cutinase. II. Analysis of the genomic DNA's of seven strains of F. solani f. sp. pisi indicated that both high and low cutinase-producing strains contain at least one copy of the cutinase structural gene and a homologous promoter region. The data suggest a different promoter sequence exists in these additional copies. III. Relatedness of five phytopathogenic Fusarium species to F. solani f. sp. pisi was determined by their cutinase antigenic properties and gene homologies of cutinase cDNA from F. solani f. sp. pisi. The results suggest that formae specialis of F. solani are phylogenetically identical and that F. solani is quite distinct from the other Fusarium species tested

  9. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  10. Purification and characterization of nitrilase from Fusarium solani IMI196840

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Kubáč, David; Davidová, A.; Kaplan, Ondřej; Šulc, Miroslav; Šveda, Ondřej; Chaloupková, R.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 7 (2010), s. 1115-1120 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA MŠk OC09046; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA MPO FT-TA5/043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : fusarium solani * nitrilase * purification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.648, year: 2010

  11. Mild hydrolysis of nitriles by Fusarium solani strain O1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Kaplan, Ondřej; Klozová, Jana; Masák, J.; Čejková, A.; Jirků, V.; Stloukal, R.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 251-256 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020213; GA ČR GA203/05/2267; GA MŠk LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : fusarium solani Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  12. Bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Skovlund; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is a rare disease predominantly described in immunocompromised patients often due to leukemia. We report a case of bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient.......Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is a rare disease predominantly described in immunocompromised patients often due to leukemia. We report a case of bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient....

  13. Extracellular mycosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, K.; Arumugam, A.

    2014-08-01

    The development of eco-friendly methods for the synthesis of nanomaterial shape and size is an important area of research in the field of nanotechnology. The present investigation deals with the extracellular rapid biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani culture filtrate. The UV-vis spectra of the fungal culture filtrate medium containing gold ion showed peak at 527 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of gold nanoparticles. FTIR spectra provide an evidence for the presence of heterocyclic compound in the culture filtrate, which increases the stability of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The X-ray analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of the gold nanoparticles. AFM analysis showed the results of particle sizes (41 nm). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles are spherical in shape with the size range from 20 to 50 nm. The use of F. solani will offer several advantages since it is considered as a non-human pathogenic organism. The fungus F. solani has a fast growth rate, rapid capacity of metallic ions reduction, NPs stabilization and facile and economical biomass handling. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles could be highly advantageous from the point of view of synthesis in large quantities, time consumption, eco-friendly, non-toxic and easy downstream processing.

  14. Antifungal efficacy of natamycin in experimental fusarium solani keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xian-Hui; Gao, Wei-Juan; He, Xiao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical administration Natamycin, which is produced by China, in an experimental rabbit model of Fusarium solani keratitis, to provide experimental basis for the application of clinical safety. Fusarium solani was induced in the right eye of 30 New Zealand rabbits. Forty-eight hours after inoculation, the animals were divided into 3 different treatment groups, 10 rabbit eyes of each group: Group 1 (Natamycin) treated with topical Natamycin, group 2 (Natacyn) treated with topical Natacyn, group 3 (control) treated with topical saline solution. The eyes of each group was examined clinically with slit lamp using ulcer scoring system on day 4, 10, 15, and 21 for status of healing, corneal vascularisation, iritis, hypopyon and macular nebula. The findings were recorded on day 10 and day 21. Ulcer score on day 10, day 15, day 21: The score of Natamycin group are 1.45±0.16, 1.08±0.11, 0.70±0.40. The score of Natacyn group are 1.35±0.12, 1.10±0.12, 0.65±0.35. the score of control group are 1.30±0.08, 3.63±0.28, 3.80±0.16. Natamycin group and Natacyn group were different from control group (Pday 10 and day 21: The cure rate of the Natamycin group is 90% on day 10, and 100% on day 21. The cure rate of the Natacyn group is 80% on day 10, and 100% on day 21.Natamycin group and Natacyn group were different from control group (Pday 10 and day 21: in Natamycin group, the number of the eyes which have Corner vascularisation, iritis, hypopyon and macular nebula are 2,0,0,2. In Natacyn group, the number of the eyes which have Corner vascularisation, iritis, hypopyon and macular nebula are 1,0,0,2. In control group, the number of the eyes which have Corner vascularisation, iritis, hypopyon and macular nebula are 9,9,8,9.Natamycin group and Natacyn group were different from control group (P<0.01). There is no difference between Natamycin group and Natacyn group. Natamycin was found to be effective in fungal keratitis, similar to Natacyn, and it can

  15. Antagonistic Activities of Novel Peptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14 against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Gwon; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kwon, Kee-Deok; Seo, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyang Burm; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-12-09

    Bacillus species have recently drawn attention due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. This paper reports on the antifungal activity of novel peptides isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that B. amyloliquefaciens PT14 produces five peptides (PT14-1, -2, -3, -4a, and -4b) that exhibit antifungal activity but are inactive against bacterial strains. In particular, PT14-3 and PT14-4a showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. The PT14-4a N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified through Edman degradation, and a BLAST homology analysis showed it not to be identical to any other protein or peptide. PT14-4a displayed strong fungicidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 3.12 mg/L (F. solani) and 6.25 mg/L (F. oxysporum), inducing severe morphological deformation in the conidia and hyphae. On the other hand, PT14-4a had no detectable hemolytic activity. This suggests PT14-4a has the potential to serve as an antifungal agent in clinical therapeutic and crop-protection applications.

  16. Fusarium solani causing quasi-invasive infection of the foot in an immunocompetent middle-aged man from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan H Kudur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium solani is commonly found in soil, and it is associated with infections in immunocompromised individuals. Fusaroium solani causing infection in immunocompetent adult male is rare and usually overlooked. We report a case of mycetoma caused by Fusariom solani in an immunocompetent adult male from South India.

  17. Production of paclitaxel by Fusarium solani isolated from Taxus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCH U

    The mobile phase ... 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and absorbance was monitored at 227 nm. ... Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. ... engineering may improve paclitaxel production by F. solani.

  18. The Antagonism Mechanism Of Trichoderma spp. Towards Fusarium solani Mold

    OpenAIRE

    Utami Sri Hastuti; Indriana Rahmawati

    2016-01-01

    The antagonism ability of seven Trichoderma isolates towards F.solani have been observed and tested by dual culture technique. The antagonism mechanism observed by microscopic observation with light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The research result showed seven species of Trichoderma molds have different antagonism ability towards F.solani each other. The antagonism mechanism observed by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy were mycoparasitism, antibiosis, an...

  19. The Antagonism Mechanism Of Trichoderma spp. Towards Fusarium solani Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Sri Hastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antagonism ability of seven Trichoderma isolates towards F.solani have been observed and tested by dual culture technique. The antagonism mechanism observed by microscopic observation with light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The research result showed seven species of Trichoderma molds have different antagonism ability towards F.solani each other. The antagonism mechanism observed by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy were mycoparasitism, antibiosis, and competition.

  20. Estudio del antagonismo de algunas especies de Trichoderma sobre Fusarium Oxysporum y Rhizoctonia Solani Antagonism studies of Trichoderma sp.p.. with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Ricardo

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió el antagonismo de algunos aislamientos del hongo Trichoderma obtenidos de suelos colornbianos en el control de Fusarium oxysporum y Rhizoctonia solani. En los ensayos "in vitre" se observó un marcado antagonismo entre las colonias de los aislamientos de Trichoderma sobre R. sotsni, con una reducción apreciable
    del tamaño de la colonia y un antaqonismo menor sobre F. oxysporum. En los ensayos de parasitismo a nivel microscópico, se observó una gran interacción entre alqunos
    de los aislamientos de T. harzianum y T. hamatum y el patógéno R. solani rnanifestado por el enrollamiento, penetración, fragmentación y lisis de las hifas del patoqeno.
    Los aislamientos de Trichoderma causaron un retraso en la aparición de los síntomas, una reducción en la severidad de la
    enfermedad. y un menor número de plantas enfermas ocasionadas por F. oxysporum f. sp, cucumerinum en pepino cohombro, y su efecto fue superior en todos los casos a la
    aplicación del fungicida benomil. Los aislamientos del antagonista aumentaron la qerminación de las semillas, la emergencia y el tamaño de las plántulas y redujeron la severidad de la enfermedad ocasionada por R. solani en fríjol.Several experiments were conducted to study the antagonism of 17 isolates of Trichoderma from Colombian soils with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. In "in vitro" tests, a high antagonism between colonies was found being greater the antagonism of Trichoderma with R. solani. At the microscopic level it was observed a great interaction between T. harzianum and T. hamatum with R. solani in such a way that the hyphae of the pathogen showed coiling, penetration, fragmentation and lysis. The Trichoderma isolates caused reduction in the disease severity, in the incubation period and a lower number of diseased cucumber plants when they were inoeulated with F. oxysporum f. sp, cucumerinum and these effects were better than Benomyl

  1. Toxin production by Fusarium solani from declining citrus plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest Fusarium sp. followed by Aspergillus, Phytophthora, Pythium, Penicillium and Alternaria species were remote from the collected samples of roots and soil from the four tehsils of Sargodha district of Pakistan. The maximum Fusarium sp. was isolated from the roots of declining citrus trees from tehsil Bhalwal ...

  2. Vegetative compatibility group of Fusarium solani pathogenic to tobacco plant in peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norhafeez bin Jusoh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five strains of Fusarium solani isolated from root rot of tobacco from Kelantan and Terengganu, Malaysia were tested for the pathogenicity on tobacco seedlings by root dipping method. All 5 isolates showed discoloration on the roots. The nitrate non-utilizing (nit mutants were generated from these pathogenic strains of F. solani and a compatible nit1 and NitM pair was obtained in each strain. Vegetative Compatible Groups (VCGs by nit mutants were determined. All 5 strains of F. solani were assigned to the independent VCGs. Non-pathogenic strains of F. solani previously isolated from root rot of tobacco in Malaysia also generated nit mutants and were assigned to 10 different VCGs. However, complementation of nit mutants between 5 pathogenic strains and 7 non-pathogenic strains of F. solani was not achieved. Both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains were assigned to the independent VCGs. This suggested that the isolates of F. solani pathogenic to tobacco were derived from the progenies of crossing in the field. However, perithecium formation was not observed in their cultures.

  3. Estudio del antagonismo de algunas especies de Trichoderma sobre Fusarium Oxysporum y Rhizoctonia Solani Antagonism studies of Trichoderma sp.p.. with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Ricardo; Arcos Omar; Arbelaez Germán

    1989-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudió el antagonismo de algunos aislamientos del hongo Trichoderma obtenidos de suelos colornbianos en el control de Fusarium oxysporum y Rhizoctonia solani. En los ensayos "in vitre" se observó un marcado antagonismo entre las colonias de los aislamientos de Trichoderma sobre R. sotsni, con una reducción apreciable
    del tamaño de la colonia y un antaqonismo menor sobre F. oxysporum. En los ensayos de parasitismo a nivel microscópico, se observó una gran interac...

  4. Analysis of Iranian isolates of Fusarium solani using morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... showed that the isolates showed a high genetic diversity. Ten clusters were ..... pathogenicity towards pea (Kistler et al., 1996;. Wasmann and .... Fusarium eumartii and its action on pathogenesis related proteins. Eur. J. Plant ...

  5. Genome Sequence of an Endophytic Fungus, Fusarium solani JS-169, Which Has Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung A; Jeon, Jongbum; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Ki-Tae; Choi, Gobong; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Yangsun; Yang, Hee-Sun; Yeo, Joo-Hong; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Soonok

    2017-10-19

    An endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani strain JS-169, isolated from a mulberry twig, showed considerable antifungal activity. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. The assembly comprises 17 scaffolds, with an N 50 value of 4.93 Mb. The assembled genome was 45,813,297 bp in length, with a G+C content of 49.91%. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

  6. UV-B-irradiation effect on growth reactions of phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushcha, M.Yi.; Dyachenko, A.Yi.; Dmitryijev, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    The UV-B irradiation effect on spore germination and hyphae growth of phythopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani was studied. Spores irradiation by small doses of 0,1 - 1,0 kJ/m 2 results in growth stimulation of primary hyphae. Adaptive effect of UV-B small doses for fungi was shown. Preliminary irradiation in doses of 0,1 - 0,5 kJ/m 2 increased spore radioresistance and diminished the effect of the next damaging dose

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons storage by Fusarium solani in intracellular lipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdin, Anthony; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Newsam, Ray; Robinson, Gary; Durand, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Accumulation and elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in the fungus Fusarium solani. When the fungus was grown on a synthetic medium containing benzo[a]pyrene, hyphae of F. solani contained numerous lipid vesicles which could be stained by the lipid-specific dyes: Sudan III and Rhodamine B. The fluorescence produced by Rhodamine B and PAH benzo[a]pyrene were at the same locations in the fungal hyphae, indicating that F. solani stored PAH in pre-existing lipid vesicles. A passive temperature-independent process is involved in the benzo[a]pyrene uptake and storage. Sodium azide, a cytochrome c oxidation inhibitor, and the two cytoskeleton inhibitors colchicine and cytochalasin did not prevent the transport and accumulation of PAH in lipid vesicles of F. solani hyphae. F. solani degraded a large range of PAHs at different rates. PAH intracellular storage in lipid vesicles was not necessarily accompanied by degradation and was common to numerous other fungi. - Fungi can store PAHs intracellularly in lipid vesicles independently of their PAH degradation abilities

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons storage by Fusarium solani in intracellular lipid vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdin, Anthony [Laboratoire de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 17 avenue Bleriot, BP 699, 62228 Calais Cedex (France); Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa [Laboratoire de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 17 avenue Bleriot, BP 699, 62228 Calais Cedex (France)]. E-mail: lounes@univ-littoral.fr; Newsam, Ray [Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ (United Kingdom); Robinson, Gary [Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ (United Kingdom); Durand, Roger [Laboratoire de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 17 avenue Bleriot, BP 699, 62228 Calais Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    Accumulation and elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in the fungus Fusarium solani. When the fungus was grown on a synthetic medium containing benzo[a]pyrene, hyphae of F. solani contained numerous lipid vesicles which could be stained by the lipid-specific dyes: Sudan III and Rhodamine B. The fluorescence produced by Rhodamine B and PAH benzo[a]pyrene were at the same locations in the fungal hyphae, indicating that F. solani stored PAH in pre-existing lipid vesicles. A passive temperature-independent process is involved in the benzo[a]pyrene uptake and storage. Sodium azide, a cytochrome c oxidation inhibitor, and the two cytoskeleton inhibitors colchicine and cytochalasin did not prevent the transport and accumulation of PAH in lipid vesicles of F. solani hyphae. F. solani degraded a large range of PAHs at different rates. PAH intracellular storage in lipid vesicles was not necessarily accompanied by degradation and was common to numerous other fungi. - Fungi can store PAHs intracellularly in lipid vesicles independently of their PAH degradation abilities.

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium. solani and F. oxysporum associated with crown disease of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, R; Salleh, B; Latiffah, Z

    2013-01-01

    Crown disease (CD) is infecting oil palm in the early stages of the crop development. Previous studies showed that Fusarium species were commonly associated with CD. However, the identity of the species has not been resolved. This study was carried out to identify and characterize through morphological approaches and to determine the genetic diversity of the Fusarium species. 51 isolates (39%) of Fusarium solani and 40 isolates (31%) of Fusarium oxysporum were recovered from oil palm with typical CD symptoms collected from nine states in Malaysia, together with samples from Padang and Medan, Indonesia. Based on morphological characteristics, isolates in both Fusarium species were classified into two distinct morphotypes; Morphotypes I and II. Molecular characterization based on IGS-RFLP analysis produced 27 haplotypes among the F. solani isolates and 33 haplotypes for F. oxysporum isolates, which indicated high levels of intraspecific variations. From UPGMA cluster analysis, the isolates in both Fusarium species were divided into two main clusters with the percentage of similarity from 87% to 100% for F. solani, and 89% to 100% for F. oxysporum isolates, which was in accordance with the Morphotypes I and II. The results of the present study indicated that F. solani and F. oxysporum associated with CD of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia were highly variable.

  10. Estudio del antagonismo de algunas especies de trichoderma sobre fusarium oxysporum y rhizoctonia solani

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Ricardo; Arcos, Omar; Arbelaez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudió el antagonismo de algunos aislamientos del hongo Trichoderma obtenidos de suelos colornbianos en el control de Fusarium oxysporum y Rhizoctonia solani. En los ensayos "in vitre" se observó un marcado antagonismo entre las colonias de los aislamientos de Trichoderma sobre R. sotsni, con una reducción apreciabledel tamaño de la colonia y un antaqonismo menor sobre F. oxysporum. En los ensayos de parasitismo a nivel microscópico, se observó una gran interacción entre a...

  11. The thermal stability of the Fusarium solani pisi cutinase as a function of pH

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Steffen B; Fojan, Peter; Petersen, Evamaria I; Petersen, Maria Teresa Neves

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the thermal stability of the Fusarium solani pisi cutinase as a function of pH, in the range from pH 2–12. Its highest enzymatic activity coincides with the pH-range at which it displays its highest thermal stability. The unfolding of the enzyme as a function of pH was investigated by microcalorimetry. The ratio between the calorimetric enthalpy (ΔHcal) and the van′t Hoff enthalpy (ΔHv) obtained, is far from unity, indicating that cutinase does not exhibit a simple...

  12. Purification and characterization of a nitrilase from Fusarium solani O1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Kaplan, Ondřej; Bezouška, Karel; Pompach, Petr; Šulc, Miroslav; Cantarella, M.; Benada, Oldřich; Uhnáková, Bronislava; Rinágelová, Anna; Lutz-Wahl, S.; Fischer, L.; Křen, Vladimír; Martínková, Ludmila

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 50, 2-4 (2008), s. 99-106 ISSN 1381-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA ČR GA203/05/2267; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA MŠk OC D25.002 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) D10-CZ25/06-07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nitrilase * fusarium solani * nitrile hydrolysis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2008

  13. Atividade alelopática do filtrado de cultura produzido por Fusarium solani Allelopathic activity of culture filtrate produced by Fusarium solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas se constituem no principal problema a impor limitação à exploração da agropecuária nas áreas tropicais. Entretanto, o controle químico dessas plantas tem gerado insatisfações de ordem social, quer porque contaminam as fontes de recursos naturais ou por comprometerem a qualidade dos alimentos da dieta dos animais, em geral, e dos humanos, em particular. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática do filtrado de cultura produzido pelo fungo Fusarium solani f. sp. pipers. Foram avaliados os efeitos das toxinas, nas concentrações de 1,0 e 4,0%, sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Os resultados mostraram presença de atividade alelopática inibitória, com variações de acordo com a concentração e a planta receptora. A intensidade dos efeitos inibitórios induzidos pelo extrato esteve positivamente associada à concentração, com efeitos mais intensos verificados a 4,0%. Independentemente da concentração e do bioensaio, a espécie malícia se mostrou mais sensível aos efeitos do filtrado da cultura. O desenvolvimento da radícula foi o fator da planta mais intensamente inibido. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial de utilização da toxina produzida pelo fungo, como fonte alternativa no controle de plantas daninhas, o que justifica estudos mais avançados.Weeds are a major problem limiting agriculture and cattle raising activities in the tropics. Current chemical control measures have raised environmental concerns due to their potential of contaminating natural resources and compromising the quality of animal feed. The objective of this paper was to identify and characterize the potential allelopathic activity of Fusarium solani f. sp. pipers culture filtrate. The effects of the toxin were analyzed at 1% and 4% concentration, on seed

  14. Fusarium solani Infection Depressed Photosystem Performance by Inducing Foliage Wilting in Apple Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium fungi are soil-borne pathogens, and the pathological effects on plant photosystems remain unclear. This study aimed to deeply reveal pathological characterization in apple seedlings infected with Fusarium solani by investigating photosystems performance and interaction. Roots were immersed in conidial suspension for inoculation. Thereafter, prompt and delayed chlorophyll a fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection were simultaneously detected. After 30 days of infection, leaf relative water content and dry weight were remarkably decreased by 55.7 and 47.1%, suggesting that the infected seedlings were subjected to Fusarium-induced water deficit stress. PSI reaction center was more susceptible than PSII reaction center in infected seedlings due to greater decrease in the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSI than that of PSII, but PSI reaction center injury was aggravated slowly, as PSII injury could partly protect PSI by restricting electron donation. PSII donor and acceptor sides were also damaged after 20 days of infection, and the restricted electron donation induced PSII and PSI disconnection by blocking PSI re-reduction. In accordance with greater damage of PSI reaction center, PSI oxidation was also suppressed. Notably, significantly increased efficiency of electron transport from plastoquinone (PQ to PSI acceptors (REo/ETo after 20 days of infection suggested greater inhibition on PQ reduction than re-oxidation, and the protection for PSI acceptors might alleviate the reduction of electron transport efficiency beyond PQ upon damaged PSI reaction center. Lowered delayed fluorescence in microsecond domain verified PSII damage in infected seedlings, and elevated delayed fluorescence in sub-millisecond domain during PQ reduction process conformed to increased REo/ETo. In conclusion, F. solani infection depressed PSII and PSI performance and destroyed their coordination by inducing pathological wilting in apple seedlings. It may

  15. Photodynamic treatment with phenothiazinium photosensitizers kills both ungerminated and germinated microconidia of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Henrique Dantas; Tonani, Ludmilla; Bachmann, Luciano; Wainwright, Mark; Braga, Gilberto Úbida Leite; von Zeska Kress, Marcia Regina

    2016-11-01

    The search for alternatives to control microorganisms is necessary both in clinical and agricultural areas. Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising light-based approach that can be used to control both human and plant pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of photodynamic treatment with red light and four phenothiazinium photosensitizers (PS): methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue O (TBO), new methylene blue N (NMBN) and the phenothiazinium derivative S137 on ungerminated and germinated microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, and F. solani. APDT with each PS killed efficiently both the quiescent ungerminated microconidia and metabolically active germinated microconidia of the three Fusarium species. Washing away the unbound PS from the microconidia (both ungerminated and germinated) before red light exposure reduced but did not prevent the effect of APDT. Subcelullar localization of PS in ungerminated and germinated microconidia and the effects of photodynamic treatment on cell membranes were also evaluated in the three Fusarium species. APDT with MB, TBO, NMBN or S137 increased the membrane permeability in microconidia and APDT with NMBN or S137 increased the lipids peroxidation in microconidia of the three Fusarium species. These findings expand the understanding of photodynamic inactivation of filamentous fungi with phenothiazinium PS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of Fusarium solani Infection in Murine Keratocytes by Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius JCM1231 Culture Filtrate In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianzhang; Chen, Fang; Kan, Tong; Zhuang, Hua; Zhang, Jingjin; Han, Xiaoli

    2017-10-01

    To explore the inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius JCM1231 (L. salivarius JCM1231) culture filtrate against Fusarium solani (F. solani) and its effects on murine keratocytes (MKs) infected with F. solani. L. salivarius JCM1231 was cultured in an anaerobic incubator for 24 h, and the L. salivarius culture filtrate (LSCF) was prepared .The antifungal activity of L. salivarius JCM1231 against F. solani was determined with a plate overlay assay, agar diffusion assay, and conidial germination inhibition test. The effects of temperature, pH, and proteolytic enzymes on the antifungal activity of LSCF were detected with microtiter plate-well assay and conidial germination inhibition assay. Furthermore, the effects of LSCF on MKs infected with F. solani were detected. Cell activity and apoptosis were measured using methylthiazoletetrazolium assays and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) cytokines were measured using real-time polymerase chain reactions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and mycotoxin production was detected with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Conidial germination and mycelia growth of F. solani were significantly inhibited by LSCF. The antifungal substances produced by L. salivarius JCM1231 were heat unstable, proteinaceous, and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and were active within a narrow acidic pH range between 2.0 and 4.0. In the presence of 15 µg/ml of LSCF, cell activity was significantly increased, and cell apoptosis, the level of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions, and mycotoxin (zearalenone and fumonisin B1) productions were decreased significantly in MKs infected with F. solani. L. salivarius JCM1231 culture filtrate can effectively inhibit F. solani growth and protect MKs against F. solani infection.

  17. Optimization of Media for Enhanced Glucoamylase Production in Solid-State Fermentation by Fusarium solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Bhatti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state cultivation of Fusarium solani was carried out for enhanced production of glucoamylase (GA using different substrates like wheat bran, rice bran, green gram bran, black gram bran and maize bran. The SSF medium containing wheat bran as a substrate yielded the highest enzyme activity. The physical and chemical parameters were optimized. Maximum enzyme activity (61.35±3.69 U/g of dry wheat bran was achieved under optimum growth conditions. The optimum conditions were fructose as carbon and energy additive 1 % (by mass, urea as nitrogen additive 1 % (by mass, initial moisture content of solid substrate 70 % (by mass per volume, incubation period 96 h, inoculum size 15 % (by mass per volume having 10^6–10^7 spores/mL, incubation temperature (35±1 °C and pH=5.0. It was further observed that the addition of surfactants caused a decrease in enzyme biosynthesis by F. solani in SSF of wheat bran under optimum process conditions.

  18. Overexpression of Fusarium solani lipase in Pichia pastoris and its application in lipid degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium solani NAN103 lipase was successfully overexpressed in Pichia pastoris using inducible expression system and constitutive expression system under the control of alcohol oxidase 1 promoter (pAOX1 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (pGAP, respectively. Lipase obtained using the constitutive promoter showed the highest activity of 18.8 U/mg in 3 days of cultivation time. Optimal lipase activity was observed at pH 7.0 and 35 °C using p-nitrophenyl laurate as the substrate. Lipase activity was enhanced by Mn2+, Ba2+, Li+, Ca2+, Ni2+, CHAPS and Triton X-100 but was inhibited by Hg2+, Ag+ and SDS. The addition of 10% v/v of octanol, p-xylene, hexane and isopropanol increased lipase activity. Cultivation of lipase-expressing P. pastoris under pGAP in synthetic wastewater containing 1% w/v palm oil resulted in degradation of 87% of the oil within 72 h. P. pastoris expressing F. solani lipase from constitutive expression system has the potential to be used as an alternative microorganism for lipid degradation.

  19. Antifungal activity of Momordica charantia seed extracts toward the pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Yongliang; Xiang, Fu; Li, Shiming; Yang, Guliang

    2016-10-01

    Momordica charantia L., a vegetable crop with high nutritional value, has been used as an antimutagenic, antihelminthic, anticancer, antifertility, and antidiabetic agent in traditional folk medicine. In this study, the antifungal activity of M. charantia seed extract toward Fusarium solani L. was evaluated. Results showed that M. charantia seed extract effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of F. solani, with a 50% inhibitory rate (IC 50 ) value of 108.934 μg/mL. Further analysis with optical microscopy and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the seed extract led to deformation of cells with irregular budding, loss of integrity of cell wall, as well as disruption of the fungal cell membrane. In addition, genomic DNA was also severely affected, as small DNA fragments shorter than 50 bp appeared on agarose gel. These findings implied that M. charantia seed extract containing α-momorcharin, a typical ribosome-inactivating protein, could be an effective agent in the control of fungal pathogens, and such natural products would represent a sustainable alternative to the use of synthetic fungicides. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Changes in metabolic activities of Fusarium oxysporum f. fabae and Rhizoctonia solani in response to Dithan A-40 fungicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M M; Mahmoud, S A; Hamed, A S; Sahab, A F

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of Dithan A-40 fungicide on the metabolic activities of the wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. fabae and the root rot agent Rhizoctonia solani was studied. All toxicant concentrations reduced energy generation, total phosphorus and nitrogen content of both fungi. In addition, the toxicant caused a shift in free amino acids pool. As a result of these changes, the mycelium dry weight of both fungi was greatly reduced. R. solani was more sensitive to the toxic effect of Dithan A-40 than F. oxysporum.

  1. Effect of culture conditions on lipase production by Fusarium solani in batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M M; Heasley, A; Camargo de Morais, M M; Melo, E H; Morais, M A; Ledingham, W M; Lima Filho, J L

    2001-01-01

    Lipase (Glycerol ester hydrolase EC 3.1.1.3.) from a Brazilian strain of Fusarium solani FSI has been investigated. The effect of different carbon sources and trace elements added to basal medium was observed with the aim of improving enzyme production. Lipase specific activity was highest (0.45 U mg(-1)) for sesame oil. When this medium was supplemented with trace elements using olive oil, corn oil and sesame oil the lipase specific activity increased to 0.86, 1.89 and 1.64 U mg(-1), respectively, after 96 h cultivation without any considerable biomass increase. The Km of this lipase using pNPP (p-nitrophenylpalmitate) as substrate, was 1.8 mM with a Vmax of 1.7 micromol min(-1) mg protein(-1). Lipase activity increased in the presence of increasing concentrations of hexane and toluene. In contrast, incubation of this enzyme with water-soluble solvents decreased its activity after 10% concentration (v/v) of the solvent. The lipase activity was stable below 35 degrees C but above this temperature activity losses were observed.

  2. Analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris response to its association with Trichoderma harzianum (ALL-42) in the presence or absence of the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jackeline L; Queiroz, Rayner M L; Charneau, Sébastien O; Felix, Carlos R; Ricart, Carlos A O; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Ulhoa, Cirano J; Noronha, Eliane F

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma harzianum (ALL 42-isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil) to promote common bean growth and to modulate its metabolism and defense response in the presence or absence of the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani using a proteomic approach. T. harzianum was able to promote common bean plants growth as shown by the increase in root/foliar areas and by size in comparison to plants grown in its absence. The interaction was shown to modulate the expression of defense-related genes (Glu1, pod3 and lox1) in roots of P. vulgaris. Proteomic maps constructed using roots and leaves of plants challenged or unchallenged by T. harzianum and phytopathogenic fungi showed differences. Reference gels presented differences in spot distribution (absence/presence) and relative volumes of common spots (up or down-regulation). Differential spots were identified by peptide fingerprinting MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 48 identified spots (19 for leaves and 29 for roots) were grouped into protein functional classes. For leaves, 33%, 22% and 11% of the identified proteins were categorized as pertaining to the groups: metabolism, defense response and oxidative stress response, respectively. For roots, 17.2%, 24.1% and 10.3% of the identified proteins were categorized as pertaining to the groups: metabolism, defense response and oxidative stress response, respectively.

  3. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Boxi, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated •OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  4. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO 2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag–S and disulfide bonds (R–S–S–R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated • OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling. (paper)

  5. Natamycin and Azithromycin are Synergistic in vitro against Ocular Pathogenic Aspergillus flavus species complex and Fusarium solani species complex Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haoyi; Zhou, Lutan; He, Yi; Gao, Chuanwen; Han, Lei; Xu, Yan

    2018-05-07

    The interaction of natamycin-azithromycin combination against 60 ocular fungal isolates was tested in vitro The combination produced 100% synergistic interactions when natamycin added azithromycin at 20, 40, 50 μg/ml against Aspergillus flavus species complex (AFSC) isolates and added azithromycin at 50 μg/ml against Fusarium solani species complex isolates. The combination with 50 μg/ml azithromycin enhanced natamycin's effect against AFSC isolates by reducing natamycin MICs from MIC 90 64μg/ml to MIC 90 0.031μg/ml. No antagonism was observed. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Continuous hydrolysis of 4-cyanopyridine by nitrilases from Fusarium solani O1 and Aspergillus niger K10

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malandra, Anna; Cantarella, M.; Kaplan, Ondřej; Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Uhnáková, Bronislava; Štěpánková, B.; Kubáč, David; Martínková, Ludmila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2009), s. 277-284 ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA MPO FT-TA5/043; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA MŠk OC09046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nitrilase * aspergillus niger * fusarium solani Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2009

  7. Potencial de rizobactérias no controle de Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc. em pepino (Cucumis sativum L. Potential of rhizobacteria in the control of Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc. in cucumber (Cucumis sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I S. de Melo

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Rizobactérias, isoladas da rizosfera de diferentes hospedeiros foram selecionadas in vitro quanto ao antagonismo contra Fusarium solam agente causai da podridão radicular. In vitro, foram selecionadas 18 bactérias isoladas da rizosfera de plantas sadias de pepino e, destas, somente três foram eficientes em inibir consideravelmente o crescimento micelial do patógeno. Dois isolados de Bacillus subtilis e dois de Pseudomonas sp., antagônicos a outros fungos fitopatogênicos foram incluidos nos testes, os quais mostraram-se capazes de antagonizar F. solani. Em condições de casa-de-vegetação, B. subtilis, linhagem 0G, controlou totalmente o patógeno em todos os ensaios realizados. Promoção do crescimento de plantas foi verificada pela inoculação com linhagens 0G (B. subtilis, St. Barb. e CBPN (Pseudomonas sp.Rhizobacteria, isolated from the rhizosphere of different hosts were selected in vitro, based on the antagonism against Fusarium solani, agent of root rot. In vitro, 18 bacterias were selected from rhizosphere of healthy plants of cucumber and, from those, only three were efficient in inhibiting the micelial growth of the pathogen. In these tests two isolates of Bacillus subtilis (0G and 5G, and two of Pseudomonas (CBPN and St Barb., antagonistic to some pathogenic fungi, were included. These bolates also inhibited the growth of F solani. The bolate OG of B. subtilis reduced significantly the root rot of cucumber. Beneficial effects were obtained with the bolates St Barb., 0G and CBPN in relation to plant growth.

  8. Colonization of a Central Venous Catheter by the Hyaline Fungus Fusarium solani Species Complex: A Case Report and SEM Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Colombo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of opportunistic infections by filamentous fungi is increasing partly due to the widespread use of central venous catheters (CVC, indwelling medical devices, and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. The case of a 13-year-old boy under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. The boy was readmitted to the Pediatric Ward for intermittent fever of unknown origin. Results of blood cultures drawn from peripheral venous sites or through the CVC were compared. CVC-derived bottles (but not those from peripheral veins yielded hyaline fungi that, based on morphology, were identified as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Gene amplification and direct sequencing of the fungal ITS1 rRNA region and the EF-1alpha gene confirmed the isolate as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Portions of the CVC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Fungi mycelia with long protruding hyphae were seen into the lumen. The firm adhesion of the fungal formation to the inner surface of the catheter was evident. In the absence of systemic infection, catheter removal and prophylactic voriconazole therapy were followed by disappearance of febrile events and recovery. Thus, indwelling catheters are prone to contamination by environmental fungi.

  9. Biological control of strawberry soil-borne pathogens Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani, using Trichoderma asperellum and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María PASTRANA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In south-western Spain, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani were found to be associated in strawberry plants with, respectively, charcoal rot, and crown and root rot symptoms. For management of both fungal diseases, the antagonistic effects of two commercial formulations, one based on Trichoderma asperellum T18 strain (Prodigy® and the other on Bacillus megaterium and B. laterosporus (Fusbact®, were evaluated in vitro and under controlled environment and field conditions. Two inoculation methods (root-dipping and soil application and two application times (pre- and post-pathogen inoculation, as preventive and curative treatments, respectively were assessed. Dual plate confrontation experiments demonstrated the antagonistic effects of T. asperellum and Bacillus spp. by inhibiting radial growth of M. phaseolina and F. solani by more than 36%. Preventive application of T. asperellum by root-dipping reduced the incidence of charcoal rot (up to 44% in a growth chamber and up to 65% under field conditions and also reduced disease progression, the percentage of crown necrosis, as well as the level of infection measured as ng of pathogen DNA g-1 plant by quantitative real-time PCR. This treatment was also the most effective for reduction of crown and root rot caused by F. solani (up to 100% in a greenhouse and up to 81% under field conditions. These results were nearly comparable with the control achieved using chemical fungicides. The Bacillus spp.-based formulation was also effective for control of charcoal rot and showed variable results for control of F. solani, depending on the growth conditions.

  10. Identification of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase responsible for biosynthesis of the potential anti-cancer drug sansalvamide in Fusarium solani

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romans-Fuertes, Patricia; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sandmann, Manuela Ilse Helga

    2016-01-01

    Sansalvamide is a cyclic pentadepsipeptide produced by Fusarium solani and has shown promising results as potential anti-cancer drug. The biosynthetic pathway has until now remained unidentified, but here we used an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) approach to generate kno...... and Trichoderma virens, which suggests that the ability to produce compounds related to destruxin and sansalvamide is widespread....

  11. Non-pathogenic Fusarium solani represses the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds in vitro and reduces the biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica by Pseudomonas fluorescens in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of various Fusarium solani strains on the production of nematicidal agent(s) in vitro and biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains CHA0 and CHA0/pME3424. Culture filtrates (CF) of P. fluorescens strain CHA0 and its diacetylphloroglucinol-overproducing derivative CHA0/pME3424 caused substantial mortality of M. javanica juveniles in vitro. Bacterial growth medium amended with the growth medium of F. solani repressed the nematicidal activity of the bacteria. Methanol extract of F. solani CF resulting from Czapek's Dox liquid (CDL) medium without zinc amendment repressed the nematicidal activity of the bacteria while the CF obtained from CDL medium amended with zinc did not. Conidial suspension of F. solani strain Fs5 (repressor strain for the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds in P. fluorescens) reduced biocontrol potential of the bacterial inoculants against M. javanica in tomato while strain Fs3 (non-repressor) did not. Fusarium solani strains with increased nematicidal activity repress the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds by P. fluorescens strains in vitro and greatly alter its biocontrol efficacy against root-knot nematode under natural conditions. Fusarium solani strains are distributed worldwide and found in almost all the agricultural fields which suggest that some mycotoxin-producing strains will also be found in almost any soil sample taken. Besides the suppressive effect of these metabolite-producing strains on the production of nematicidal compound(s) critical in biocontrol, F. solani strains may also affect the performance of mycotoxin-sensitive biocontrol bacteria effective against plant-parasitic nematodes.

  12. Biological control of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli the causal agent of root rot of bean using Bacillus subtilis CA32 and Trichoderma harzianum RU01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Abeysinghe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, is one of the main root diseases impacting production of common bean in Sri Lanka. Rhizobacteria were screened in dual Petri plate assays to select antagonistic strains against F. solani f. sp. phaseoli. B. subtilis CA32 effectively antagonized the pathogen. T. harzianum RU01 also showed the antagonistic activity. The efficacy of the B. subtilis CA32 and the T. harzianum RU01 were tested in greenhouse pot experiments against F. solani f. sp. phaseoli. Seed bacterization with B. subtilis CA32 and T. harzianum RU01 significantly protected bean seedlings from F. solani f. sp. phaseoli compared to the untreated control plants. Plant protection was more pronounced in T. harzianum RU01 treated plants than bacterized plants. Enhanced root growth was observed only T. harzianum RU01 treated plants, suggesting that the biotic modifications of the mycorrhizosphere as a result of colonization with T. harzianum RU01.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Fusarium solani species complex in human infections and the descriptions of F. keratoplasticum sp. nov. and F. petroliphilum stat. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Short, Dylan P.G.; O’Donnell, Kerry; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium species are frequently associated with mycotic keratitis and, to a lesser extent, cases of localized and disseminated infections. The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is the most common group of fusaria associated with human infectious diseases. Several studies to date have revealed...... dozens of strongly supported phylogenetic species within this important evolutionary clade, though little work has been done to improve the taxonomy and understanding of the reproductive mode and phenotypes of the predominant clinically relevant species. Here we described Fusarium keratoplasticum sp. nov...

  14. Antagonismo in vitro de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai sobre Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc., asociado a la marchitez en maracuyá

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    Carol Libeth Suárez Meza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultivos de maracuyá de la región Caribe colombiana presentan problemas de marchitez y el hongo Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc., está asociado a esta patología. Plantas de maracuyá de la Estación Experimental (E.E Caribia de Corpoica poseen este problema y por tal razón se determinó el antagonismo in vitro de aislamientos de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, frente a F. solani, aislado de plantas enfermas de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis. Utilizando la técnica de cultivo dual en platos Petri con Agar Sabouraud, se evaluaron competencia por nutrientes y espacio, micoparasitismo y porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento radial (PICR, empleando un diseño estadístico factorial 2x6x1 con arreglo completamente aleatorio. Se obtuvieron tres aislamientos nativos de T. harzianum (TCN-009, TCN-010, TCN-014 de suelo de Palma de Aceite (Elaeis guineensis de la E.E Caribia, y se compararon con tres aislamientos comerciales (TCC-001, TCC-005, TCC-006. TCC-001 y TCN-014, reportaron ser más competentes por nutrientes y espacio, con el mayor radio de crecimiento de 7,50 y 7,32 cm el día 10, comparado a FSM-011 en el cual solo fue de 2,30 cm. Aunque, TCN-014 mostró micoparasitismo grado 4 con ambos aislamientos de F. solani y TCC-005 únicamente con FSM-012, el cual fue más susceptible a ser micoparasitado. En cuanto al PICR, los tratamientos con mejores porcentajes de inhibición fueron TA-9, TA-12 y TA-6 con valores de 70,56, 68,52 y 65,32% respectivamente. El aislamiento del patógeno mayormente inhibido fue FSM-011. Todos estos resultados demuestran que hubo antagonismo in vitro al utilizar los aislamientos nativos y comerciales de T. harzianum sobre F. solani.  Palabras clave: Passiflora, competencia, micoparasitismo, inhibición, antagonismo.

  15. Secondary Metabolic Profiles of Two Cultivars of Piper nigrum (Black Pepper) Resulting from Infection by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Shirlley F M; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Kato, Massuo J; de Lemos, Oriel F; Xavier, Luciana P; Maia, José Guilherme S; Ramos, Alessandra de R; Setzer, William N; da Silva, Joyce Kelly do R

    2017-12-07

    Bragantina and Cingapura are the main black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) cultivars and the Pará state is the largest producer in Brazil with about 90% of national production, representing the third largest production in the world. The infection of Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis , the causal agent of Fusarium disease in black pepper, was monitored on the cultivars Bragantina (susceptible) and Cingapura (tolerant), during 45 days' post infection (dpi). Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the volatile concentrates of both cultivars showed that the Bragantina responded with the production of higher contents of α-bisabolol at 21 dpi and a decrease of elemol, mostly at 30 dpi; while Cingapura displayed an decrease of δ-elemene production, except at 15 dpi. The phenolic content determined by the Folin Ciocalteu method showed an increase in the leaves of plants inoculated at 7 dpi (Bragantina) and 7-15 dpi (Cingapura); in the roots, the infection caused a phenolic content decrease in Bragantina cultivar at 45 dpi and an increase in the Cingapura cultivar at 15, 30 and 45 dpi. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis of the root extracts showed a qualitative variation of alkamides during infection. The results indicated that there is a possible relationship between secondary metabolites and tolerance against phytopathogens.

  16. Sporulation and mycelial growth of Fusarium solani in different culture media and steady bright = Esporulação e crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani em diferentes meios de cultura e regimes de luminosidade

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    Jhonata Lemos da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the physiological characterization of Fusarium solani isolated from cassava roots, the objective of this study was to evaluate mycelial growth and sporulation of F. solani in different culture media and lighting regimes. The fungus was grown using five culture media (potato dextrose agar, potato sucrose agar, cassava, agar-agar, and water micophil under three light regimes (continuous darkness, a photoperiod of 12 h, and continuous light during the incubation period of seven day, temperature 25 °C ± 2 °C. The trial was done in completely randomized design with three replications. Discs of 5 mm diameter taken from the edge of the colony grown on PDA medium were transferred to the center of Petri dishes containing 20 mL of each medium. Mycelial growth was determined by measuring the diameter of the colonies in two diametrically opposite directions while sporulation by quantifying conidia by drop method. No significant changes in the production of conidia and mycelial mass in different culture media and lighting regimes tested, and BDA and BSA under the regime of continuous light best sporulation and conidial production were observed. While in the midst AA under continuous darkness was the lowest rates of mycelial growth and sporulation. = Visando a caracterização fisiológica de Fusarium solani isolado de raízes de mandioca, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a esporulação e o crescimento micelial de F. solani em diferentes meios de cultura e regimes de luminosidade. O fungo foi cultivado utilizando cinco meios de cultura (batata dextrose ágar, batata sacarose ágar, mandioca ágar, micophil e ágar-água sob três regimes de luminosidade (escuro contínuo, fotoperíodo de 12 h e luz contínua durante o período de incubação de sete dias, a temperatura de 25 °C ± 2 o C. O ensaio foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial (5x3, com três repetições. Discos de 5 mm de di

  17. Successful treatment of fusarium solani ecthyma gangrenosum in a patient affected by leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 with granulocytes transfusions

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    Hassen Assia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG manifests as a skin lesion affecting patients suffering extreme neutropenia and is commonly associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in immunocompromised patients. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency I (LAD I which count among primary immunodeficiency syndromes of the innate immunity, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized in its severe phenotype by a complete defect in CD18 expression on neutrophils, delayed cord separation, chronic skin ulcers mainly due to recurrent bacterial and fungal infections, leucocytosis with high numbers of circulating neutrophils and an accumulation of abnormally low number of neutrophils at sites of infection. Case Presentation We report at our knowledge the first case of a child affected by LAD-1, who experienced during her disease course a multi-bacterial and fungal EG lesion caused by fusarium solani. Despite targeted antibiotics and anti-fungi therapy, the lesion extended for as long as 18 months and only massive granulocytes pockets transfusions in association with G-CSF had the capacity to cure this lesion. Conclusion We propose that granulocytes pockets transfusions will be beneficial to heal EG especially in severely immunocompromised patients.

  18. Selection and differentiation of Bacillus spp. Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani infecting Tomato.

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    Shanmugam, Veerubommu; Atri, Kamini; Gupta, Samriti; Kanoujia, Nandina; Naruka, Digvijay Singh

    2011-03-01

    Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays. In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4). The low disease incidence corroborated with tomato growth promotion with high vigor index (8,041.2) and fresh plant weight (82.5 g) on challenge inoculation with FOL. Analysis of root and leaf samples in rhizobacterial treatment challenged with FOL and AS revealed maximum induction of chitinase (1.9 and 1.7 U/mg of protein, respectively) and β-1,3-glucanase (23.5 and 19.2 U/mg of protein, respectively). In native gel activity assays, the rhizobacterial treatment on challenge inoculation strongly expressed three high intensity PO isoforms along with one low intensity isoform. In studies on genetic diversity of the Bacillus strains by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) patterns, ARDRA was more highly discriminant than REP-PCR and allowed grouping of the strains and differentiation of the antagonistic strains from other isolates.

  19. Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Studies of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Endophytic Fusarium solani Isolated from Withania somnifera (L.

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    Smitha Vijayan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study establish extracellular production of silver nanoparticles (AgNP using Fusarium solani, from medicinal plant Withania somnifera (L. (ashwagandha and it’s antibacterial and cytotoxicity effects. Biological- AgNP (Bio- AgNP were synthesized by using fungal cell free extract and characterized by SEM, TEM, UV spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR and AFM analysis.  Antibacterial properties were assayed by well diffusion and cytotoxicity by RBC lysis test and MTT assay respectively. X- ray diffraction and microscopic analysis revealed the well dispersed and crystalline nature of spherical nanoparticles with a calculated size ranging from 10 - 50 nm. The Bio-AgNP exhibited significant antibacterial properties in a range of 50-100 µgml-1 against the selected clinical pathogens Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The observed hemolysis of 3.906 % at 50 µg ml-1   suggested the safe therapeutic application of Bio - AgNP. MTT assay revealed that at the suggeseted concentration 69 % of cells are viable. These outcomes are extremely encouraging to utilize Bio-AgNP as a medication. Exploiting the endophytic organisms from therapeutic plants for improvement of nanomaterial is a uninvestigated and relatively novel territory. This may improve the likelihood in future to push the limit ahead in nanomedicine.

  20. Fungus mediated biosynthesis of WO3 nanoparticles using Fusarium solani extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, N. S.; Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Ilangovan, R.

    2017-05-01

    Currently nanoparticles were synthesized by emphasis bioremediation process due to less hazardous, eco-friendly and imperative applications on biogenic process. Fungus mediated biosynthesis strategy has been developed to prepare tungsten oxide nanoflakes (WO3, NFs) using the plant pathogenic fungus F.solani. The powder XRD pattern revealed the monoclinic crystal structure with improved crystalline nature of the synthesized WO3 nanoparticles. FESEM images showed the flake-like morphology of WO3, with average thickness and length around 40 nm and 300 nm respectively. The Raman spectrum of WO3 NFs showed their characteristic vibration modes that revealed the defect free nature of the WO3 NFs. Further, the elemental analysis indicated the stoichiometric composition of WO3 phase.

  1. INOCULAÇÃO DE Fusarium oxysporum E Fusarium solani E NÍVEIS DE SOMBREAMENTO NA ERVA-MATE: INFLUÊNCIA NA SEVERIDADE DA PODRIDÃO-DE-RAÍZES

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    Igor Poletto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill is a broadly cultivated species in the South of Brazil. With the increasing planted area, mainly in the last decade, fitosanitary problems caused by pest and diseases have increased in this crop, and the root-rot is becoming one of the main problems. Among the pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc are the main ones. These fungi provoke severe damages resulting in the destruction of the root system and, in the most serious cases, they cause the death of the plant. It is suspected that the incidence and severity of disease are influenced by cultivation of Ilex paraguariensis in different levels of shading or full sun. Therefore, experiments were conducted in the Forest Nursery area belonging to Forest Sciences Department/CCR/UFSM with the objective of confirming this assumption. The experiment was conducted in a factorial design (2 x 5, composed by Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani inoculation and by shading levels. It was verified that the plants submitted to lower shading levels or full sun had their predisposed to the disease.

  2. Fungal Peritonitis Due to Fusarium solani Species Complex Sequential Isolates Identified with DNA Sequencing in a Kidney Transplant Recipient in Brazil.

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    da Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; Zuza-Alves, Diana Luzia; Melo, Analy Salles de Azevedo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2015-12-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare serious complication most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients under peritoneal dialysis. Nevertheless, this clinical condition is more difficult to treat than bacterial peritonitis. Bacterial peritonitis followed by the use of antibiotics is the main risk factor for developing fungal peritonitis. Candida spp. are more frequently isolated, and the isolation of filamentous fungi is only occasional. Here we describe a case of Fusarium solani species complex peritonitis associated with bacterial peritonitis in a female kidney transplant recipient with previous history of nephrotic syndrome. The patient has had Enterobacter sp. endocarditis and was hypertensive and diabetic. Two sequential isolates of F. solani were recovered from cultures and identified with different molecular techniques. She was successfully treated with 50 mg daily amphotericin B for 4 weeks.

  3. Biodegradation of benzo[α]pyrene, toluene, and formaldehyde from the gas phase by a consortium of Rhodococcus erythropolis and Fusarium solani.

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    Morales, Paulina; Cáceres, Manuel; Scott, Felipe; Díaz-Robles, Luis; Aroca, Germán; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important indoor contaminants. Their hydrophobic nature hinders the possibility of biological abatement using biofiltration. Our aim was to establish whether the use of a consortium of Fusarium solani and Rhodococcus erythropolis shows an improved performance (in terms of mineralization rate and extent) towards the degradation of formaldehyde, as a slightly polar VOC; toluene, as hydrophobic VOC; and benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) as PAH at low concentrations compared to a single-species biofilm in serum bottles with vermiculite as solid support to mimic a biofilter and to relate the possible improvements with the surface hydrophobicity and partition coefficient of the biomass at three different temperatures. Results showed that the hydrophobicity of the surface of the biofilms was affected by the hydrophobicity of the carbon source in F. solani but it did not change in R. erythropolis. Similarly, the partition coefficients of toluene and BaP in F. solani biomass (both as pure culture and consortium) show a reduction of up to 38 times compared to its value in water, whereas this reduction was only 1.5 times in presence of R. erythropolis. Despite that increments in the accumulated CO 2 and its production rate were found when F. solani or the consortium was used, the mineralization extent of toluene was below 25%. Regarding BaP degradation, the higher CO 2 production rates and percent yields were obtained when a consortium of F. solani and R. erythropolis was used, despite a pure culture of R. erythropolis exhibits poor mineralization of BaP.

  4. In-Vitro Inhibition of Pythium ultimum, Fusarium graminearum, and Rhizoctonia solani by a Stabilized Lactoperoxidase System alone and in Combination with Synthetic Fungicides

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    Zachariah R. Hansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in enzyme stabilization and immobilization make the use of enzymes for industrial applications increasingly feasible. The lactoperoxidase (LPO system is a naturally occurring enzyme system with known antimicrobial activity. Stabilized LPO and glucose oxidase (GOx enzymes were combined with glucose, potassium iodide, and ammonium thiocyanate to create an anti-fungal formulation, which inhibited in-vitro growth of the plant pathogenic oomycete Pythium ultimum, and the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia solani. Pythium ultimum was more sensitive than F. graminearum and R. solani, and was killed at LPO and GOx concentrations of 20 nM and 26 nM, respectively. Rhizoctonia solani and F. graminearum were 70% to 80% inhibited by LPO and GOx concentrations of 242 nM and 315 nM, respectively. The enzyme system was tested for compatibility with five commercial fungicides as co-treatments. The majority of enzyme + fungicide co-treatments resulted in additive activity. Synergism ranging from 7% to 36% above the expected additive activity was observed when P. ultimum was exposed to the enzyme system combined with Daconil® (active ingredient (AI: chlorothalonil 29.6%, GardenTech, Lexington, KY, USA, tea tree oil, and mancozeb at select fungicide concentrations. Antagonism was observed when the enzyme system was combined with Tilt® (AI: propiconazole 41.8%, Syngenta, Basel, Switzerland at one fungicide concentration, resulting in activity 24% below the expected additive activity at that concentration.

  5. Multi-locus sequence typing provides epidemiological insights for diseased sharks infected with fungi belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex.

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    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Debourgogne, Anne; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Zaffino, Marie; Sutton, Deanna; Burns, Rachel E; Frasca, Salvatore; Hyatt, Michael W; Cray, Carolyn

    2018-07-01

    Fusarium spp. are saprobic moulds that are responsible for severe opportunistic infections in humans and animals. However, we need epidemiological tools to reliably trace the circulation of such fungal strains within medical or veterinary facilities, to recognize environmental contaminations that might lead to infection and to improve our understanding of factors responsible for the onset of outbreaks. In this study, we used molecular genotyping to investigate clustered cases of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) infection that occurred in eight Sphyrnidae sharks under managed care at a public aquarium. Genetic relationships between fungal strains were determined by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis based on DNA sequencing at five loci, followed by comparison with sequences of 50 epidemiologically unrelated FSSC strains. Our genotyping approach revealed that F. keratoplasticum and F. solani haplotype 9x were most commonly isolated. In one case, the infection proved to be with another Hypocrealian rare opportunistic pathogen Metarhizium robertsii. Twice, sharks proved to be infected with FSSC strains with the same MLST sequence type, supporting the hypothesis the hypothesis that common environmental populations of fungi existed for these sharks and would suggest the longtime persistence of the two clonal strains within the environment, perhaps in holding pools and life support systems of the aquarium. This study highlights how molecular tools like MLST can be used to investigate outbreaks of microbiological disease. This work reinforces the need for regular controls of water quality to reduce microbiological contamination due to waterborne microorganisms.

  6. Preliminary evidence of the role of hydrogen peroxide in the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by a non-white rot fungus Fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veignie, Etienne; Rafin, Catherine; Woisel, Patrice; Cazier, Fabrice

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the enzymatic mechanisms involved in the successive steps of BaP degradation by a Deuteromycete fungus Fusarium solani, we developed an indirect approach by using inhibitors of enzymes. We used either specific inhibitors of peroxidases (i.e. salicylhydroxamic acid) and of cytochrome P-450 (i.e. piperonyl butoxyde) or inhibitors of both enzymes (i.e. potassium cyanide). Surprisingly, no expected decrease of BaP degradation was observed with most inhibitors tested. On the contrary, more BaP was degraded. Only butylated hydroxytoluene, which acts as a free radical scavenger, inhibited BaP degradation. The inhibition of these enzymes, which use H 2 O 2 as a cosubstrat, might have resulted in an increase of hydrogen peroxide availability in the fungal cultures. This enhancement could induce formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be the agents that initiate benzo[a]pyrene oxidation. This study proposed a hypothetic alternative metabolic pathway involved in PAH metabolism by Fusarium solani. - An alternative metabolic pathway was demonstrated

  7. Ocorrência de Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis em Piper nigrum no estado de Alagoas Report of Fusariom solani f. sp. piperis in Piper nigrum in the state of Alagoas

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    Juliana Paiva Carnaúba

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L. é uma planta trepadeira, pertencente à família Piperaceae. Ela é originária do Sudeste Asiático, sendo a mais comum e importante das especiarias. A fusariose, também conhecida por podridão do pé e podridão das raízes é a principal doença da cultura, de ocorrência restrita ao Brasil. Um isolado de Fusarium sp., encontrado infectando plantas de pimenta-do-reino cv. bragantina no município de União dos Palmares em Alagoas, foi caracterizado morfologicamente e teve sua patogenicidade confirmada em mudas deste hospedeiro. Os macroconídios apresentaram-se falcados, hialinos com três a cinco septos, com dimensões de 30,5 - 26,5 x 6,3 - 4,9 ìm, enquanto os microconídios apresentaram-se hialinos, unicelulares, elípticos ou alantóides medindo 16,6 - 4,9 x 6,5 - 3,3 ìm. Os clamidósporos foram abundantes em meio batata-dextrose-ágar. O isolado foi identificado como Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis Alb. tratando-se do primeiro relato deste patógeno em pimenta-do-reino no estado de Alagoas.The pepper-of the-kingdom (Piper nigrum L. it is a climbing plant, pertaining plant to the Piperaceae family. It is originary the southeastern Asian, being most common and important of the spices. Seedling death, also known for rottenness of the foot and rottenness of the root is the main illness of the culture, restricted occurrence to Brazil. Isolated of Fusarium sp., found contamined plants of bragantina pepper-do-kingdom cv. in the city of União dos Palmares in Alagoas, was characterized morphologycament and had its pathogenicity confirmed in changes of this host. The macroconidia slightly curved, typically canoe-shaped, hyaline with three the five septate, measuring 30,5 - 26,5 x 6,3 - 4,9 ìm. Microconidia hyaline, unicellulars, ellipticals or allantoises measuring 16,6 - 4,9 x 6,5 - 3,3 ìm. The chlamydospores had been abundant in half potato-dextrose-agar. The isolated one was identified as to Fusarium

  8. Genetic variability within Fusarium solani specie as revealed by PCR-fingerprinting based on pcr markers Variabilidade genética em espécies de Fusarium solani revelada pela técnica de impressão genética baseada em marcadores PCR

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    Bereneuza Tavares Ramos Valente Brasileiro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium solani fungus (teleomorph Haematonectria haematococca is of relevance for agriculture, producing a disease that causes significant losses for many cultivars. Moreover, F. solani is an opportunistic pathogen to animals and humans. The complexity associated to its correct identification by traditional methods justifies the efforts of using molecular markers for isolates characterization. In this work, three PCR-based methods (one PCR-ribotyping and two PCR-fingerprinting were used to investigate the molecular variability of eighteen F. solani isolates from four Brazilian States, collected from different substrates. Genetic analysis revealed the intraspecific variability within the F. solani isolates, without any correlation to their geographical origin and substrate. Its polymorphism was observed even in the very conserved sequence of rDNA locus, and the SPAR marker (GTG5 showed the highest polymorphism. Together, those results may contribute to understand the relation between fungal genetic variability and cultivars resistance phenotypes to fungal-caused diseases, helping plant-breeding programs.O fungo Fusarium solani (teleomorfo Haematonectria haematococca apresenta uma expressiva importância na agricultura por ser considerado patógeno para várias culturas de interesse econômico causando doença conhecida por podridão das raízes, além de ser patógeno aos animais e ao homem, provocando nestes últimos, micoses superficiais e sistêmicas. A complexidade associada a sua identificação correta através de métodos tradicionais justifica os esforços de usar marcadores moleculares para caracterização dos isolados. Neste trabalho, três métodos baseados na tecnologia da PCR (um por ribotipagem por PCR e dois por impressão genética por PCR foram utilizados para investigar a variabilidade molecular de dezoito isolados de F. solani de quatro Estados brasileiros, coletados de diferentes substratos. A análise genética revelou a

  9. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

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    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  10. Effect of topical 0.5% povidone-iodine compared to 5% natamycin in fungal keratitis caused by Fusarium solani in a rabbit model: a pilot study Efeito tópico de iodo-povidona 0,5% comparado com natamicina 5% em ceratites fúngicas causadas por Fusarium solani em um modelo animal de coelhos: estudo piloto

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    Lauro Augusto de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of topical administration of 0.5% povidone-iodine in experimental Fusarium solani keratitis in rabbits. METHODS: Fungal keratitis caused by Fusarium solani was induced in the right eye of 24 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 different treatment groups: Group I (povidone-iodine - treated with topical 0.5% povidone-iodine; Group II (natamycin - treated with topical 5% natamycin; and Group III (control - treated with topical saline solution. In all groups the rabbits were treated for three days and then sacrificed. The corneas were excised, macerated and immersed in 10 mL BHI. Culture samples were plated daily on Sabouraud's agar for 7 days, and the number of colony-forming units (CFU was counted. The rabbits were clinically evaluated during the treatment period. RESULTS: The povidone-iodine and natamycin groups demonstrated better efficacy than the control group based on the number of rabbits with no colonies growing. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the three groups when the number of CFU was analyzed (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates important methodological considerations in the use of in vivo animal models for the testing of antifungal agents. Using this sample size and methodology of counting CFU, topical 0.5% povidone-iodine demonstrated no benefit in the treatment of experimental Fusarium solani when compared with topical 5% natamycin.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do uso tópico de iodo-povidona 0,5% em ceratite experimental por Fusarium solani em coelhos. MÉTODOS: Ceratite fúngica por Fusarium solani foi induzida no olho direito de 24 coelhos da raça New Zealand. Os coelhos foram divididos aleatoriamente em 3 diferentes grupos de tratamento: Grupo I (iodo-povidona - tratados com iodo-povidona 0,5%; Grupo II (natamicina - tratados com natamicina 5%; Grupo III (controle - tratados com solução salina. Os coelhos dos 3 grupos foram

  11. Effect of iron salt counter ion in dose-response curves for inactivation of Fusarium solani in water through solar driven Fenton-like processes

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    Aurioles-López, Verónica; Polo-López, M. Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; López-Malo, Aurelio; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    The inactivation of Fusarium solani in water was assessed by solar driven Fenton-like processes using three different iron salts: ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). The experimental conditions tested were [Fe] ≈ 5 mg L-1, [H2O2] ≈ 10 mg L-1 and [Fe] ≈ 10 mg L-1; [H2O2] ≈ 20 mg L-1 mild and high, respectively, and pH 3.0 and 5.0, under solar radiation. The highest inactivation rates were observed at high reaction conditions for the three iron salts tested at pH 5.0 with less than 3.0 kJ L-1 of accumulate energy (QUV) to achieve over 99.9% of F. solani inactivation. Fe(acac)3 was the best iron salt to accomplishing F. solani inactivation. The modified Fermi equation was used to fix the experimental inactivation, data showed it was helpful for modeling the process, adequately describing dose-response curves. Inactivation process using FeSO4 at pH 3.0 was modeled fairly with r2 = 0.98 and 0.99 (mild and high concentration, respectively). Fe(acac)3, FeCl3 and FeSO4 at high concentration (i.e. [Fe] ≈ 10 mg L-1; [H2O2] ≈ 20 mg L-1) and pH 5.0 showed the highest fitting values (r2 = 0.99). Iron salt type showed a remarkable influence on the Fenton-like inactivation process.

  12. Anatomy of a nonhost disease resistance response of pea to Fusarium solani: PR gene elicitation via DNase, chitosan and chromatin alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A Hadwiger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Of the multiplicity of plant pathogens in nature, only a few are virulent on a given plant species. Conversely, plants develop a rapid nonhost resistance response to the majority of the pathogens. The anatomy of the nonhost resistance of pea endocarp tissue against a pathogen of bean, Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli (Fsph and the susceptibility of pea to F. solani f sp. pisi (Fspi has been described cytologically, biochemically and molecular-biologically. Cytological changes have been followed by electron microscope and stain differentiation under white and UV light. The induction of changes in transcription, protein synthesis, expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes, and increases in metabolic pathways culminating in low molecular weight, antifungal compounds are described biochemically. Molecular changes initiated by fungal signals to host organelles, primarily to the chromatin within host nuclei, are identified according to source of the signal and the mechanisms utilized in activating defense genes. The functions of some PR genes are defined. A hypothesis based on this data is developed to explain both why fungal growth is suppressed in nonhost resistance and why growth can continue in a susceptible reaction.

  13. Anatomy of a nonhost disease resistance response of pea to Fusarium solani: PR gene elicitation via DNase, chitosan and chromatin alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwiger, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Of the multiplicity of plant pathogens in nature, only a few are virulent on a given plant species. Conversely, plants develop a rapid “nonhost” resistance response to the majority of the pathogens. The anatomy of the nonhost resistance of pea endocarp tissue against a pathogen of bean, Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli (Fsph) and the susceptibility of pea to F. solani f sp. pisi (Fspi) has been described cytologically, biochemically and molecular-biologically. Cytological changes have been followed by electron microscope and stain differentiation under white and UV light. The induction of changes in transcription, protein synthesis, expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, and increases in metabolic pathways culminating in low molecular weight, antifungal compounds are described biochemically. Molecular changes initiated by fungal signals to host organelles, primarily to chromatin within host nuclei, are identified according to source of the signal and the mechanisms utilized in activating defense genes. The functions of some PR genes are defined. A hypothesis based on this data is developed to explain both why fungal growth is suppressed in nonhost resistance and why growth can continue in a susceptible reaction. PMID:26124762

  14. Anatomy of a nonhost disease resistance response of pea to Fusarium solani: PR gene elicitation via DNase, chitosan and chromatin alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwiger, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Of the multiplicity of plant pathogens in nature, only a few are virulent on a given plant species. Conversely, plants develop a rapid "nonhost" resistance response to the majority of the pathogens. The anatomy of the nonhost resistance of pea endocarp tissue against a pathogen of bean, Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli (Fsph) and the susceptibility of pea to F. solani f sp. pisi (Fspi) has been described cytologically, biochemically and molecular-biologically. Cytological changes have been followed by electron microscope and stain differentiation under white and UV light. The induction of changes in transcription, protein synthesis, expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, and increases in metabolic pathways culminating in low molecular weight, antifungal compounds are described biochemically. Molecular changes initiated by fungal signals to host organelles, primarily to chromatin within host nuclei, are identified according to source of the signal and the mechanisms utilized in activating defense genes. The functions of some PR genes are defined. A hypothesis based on this data is developed to explain both why fungal growth is suppressed in nonhost resistance and why growth can continue in a susceptible reaction.

  15. Influence of He-Ne laser irradiation of soybean seeds on seed mycoflora, growth, nodulation, and resistance to Fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouf, S.A.; Abdel-Hady, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Laser irradiation of soybean seeds for 3 min caused a clear reduction in the number of seed-borne fungi which became more pronounced as the irradiation time was extended. Pretreatment of the seeds with methylene blue, methyl red and carmine enhanced the effect of laser. Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria tenuissima, Cercospora kikuchii and Colletotrichum truncatum were completely eliminated when the seeds were pretreated with a dye and irradiated for 10 min. Seed germination was stimulated on exposure of the seed to 1-min irradiation. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid content of developed plants differed, depending on the irradiation dose and dye treatment of the seeds. The number and dry mass of nodules were mostly greater (as compared to the corresponding control), when the seeds irradiated for 1 or 3 min were pretreated with methyl red, chlorophenol red, crystal violet and methylene blue. Irradiation of pre-sowing seeds greatly protected soybean stands against F. solani

  16. Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mardani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus,Aspergillus flavus and Fusarum solani exposed to the essential oils including Thyme, Agastache and Satureja were studied. Disc Diffusion Method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibitory effects of the essential oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of the oils were determined and compared with each other. The results showed that all three essential oils examined, had antifungal effects against three fungi species. The MIC data revealed that Thyme oil was the most effective essential oil with the MIC of 62.5 μl ml-1.

  17. Evaluation of microbial products for the control of zucchini foot and root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta ROBERTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial products containing bacteria (Cedomon [Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA342, PC-MA342], Mycostop [Streptomyces sp. K61, SG-K61], Proradix®Agro [Pseudomonas sp. DSMZ13134, PS-DSMZ13134] and fungi (Clonotry [Trichoderma harzianum and Clonostachys rosea, TH+CR], Remedier [T. asperellum ICC012 and T. gamsii ICC080, TA-ICC012+TG-ICC080], Rootshield WP [T. harzianum T22, TH-T22] were tested for efficacy against Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1 (FSC7 strain on zucchini. They were applied to seeds (S, plant growth substrate (PGS and both (S+PGS in a growth chamber experiment, and to PGS, transplantation soil mixture (TSM and both (PGS+TSM in a greenhouse experiment. FSC7 was inoculated in PGS at sowing time in the growth chamber and in TSM at transplant in the greenhouse. In the growth chamber, the most effective products were Cedomon (S and S+PGS treatments, Rootshield (PGS treatment and Proradix (S+PGS treatment, reducing the disease by 39.7, 43.1, 25.8 and 36.4%, respectively. In the greenhouse, all tested products applied to PGS reduced the disease severity and more markedly when applied to PGS+TSM. In the PGS and PGS+TSM treatments, Cedomon was the most effective product showing a disease decrease by 42.4 and 59.5%, respectively. The data obtained in vivo were consistent with the ability of the antagonists to colonize zucchini rhizosphere and with their inhibitory effects on the growth of the pathogen in in vitro assays. The bacteria caused the greatest growth inhibition of FSC7 showing abnormal morphology, while Trichoderma spp. parasitized FSC7 hyphae. Bacteria were the most active in reducing pathogen colony growth through antibiotic metabolites. All antagonists produced exo- and endochitinase enzymes. Trichoderma strains showed greater levels of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and endochitinase, whereas SG-K61 was the most active producer of chitin 1,4-β-chitobiosidase. These results indicate that the studied bioproducts have potential

  18. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE DE INÓCULO DE Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli NA SEVERIDADE DA PODRIDÃO RADICULAR SECA DO FEIJOEIRO EFFECT OF Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli INOCULUM DENSITY ON DRY ROOT ROT SEVERITY IN THE COMMON BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesimária Ribeiro Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram testadas quatro densidades de inóculo de Fusarium solani, em gramas por litro de solo (1,0; 2,0; 4,0 e 8,0 e um tratamento testemunha, em solo tipo Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, cultivado e não cultivado, com o objetivo de determinar a densidade mínima de inóculo no solo necessária para a ocorrência de podridão radicular seca do feijoeiro. Como variáveis respostas foram avaliadas: número de microorganismos totais do solo, número de propágulos de F. solani, atividade microbiológica total do solo e severidade da doença em plântulas. Os resultados indicaram que a densidade de inóculo do fungo variou com o tipo de solo. Para um solo não cultivado a densidade necessária para causar a doença esteve acima de 5.127 propágulos por grama de solo, enquanto para o solo cultivado a densidade de inóculo para causar doença foi de 3.701 propágulos por grama de solo. Os índices de doença em plântulas cultivadas sob o solo cultivado foram duas vezes superiores ao índice de doença de plântulas sob o solo não cultivado. A atividade microbiológica total nos solos, determinada pela desidrogenase de fluorescina diacetato, não se correlacionou com a população dos microorganismos, indicando que a simples presença desses não implica em que estejam ativos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Solo supressivo; solo conducivo; Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Four densities of Fusarium solani inoculum (1, 2, 4 and 8 g/L of soil were tested for determining the minimum inoculum density for the occurrence of bean dry root rot, in two soil types. The response variables evaluated were the total number of microorganisms in the soil, the number of F. solani f. sp. phaseoli propagules, total soil microbial activity and seedling disease severity

  19. Secretome analysis of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma harzianum ALL 42 cultivated in different media supplemented with Fusarium solani cell wall or glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramada, Marcelo Henrique Soller; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Bloch, Carlos; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2016-02-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus well known for its potential as a biocontrol agent against many fungal phytopathogens. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteins secreted by T. harzianum ALL42 when its spores were inoculated and incubated for 48 h in culture media supplemented with glucose (GLU) or with cell walls from Fusarium solani (FSCW), a phytopathogen that causes severe losses in common bean and soy crops in Brazil, as well as other crop diseases around the world. Trichoderma harzianum was able to grow in Trichoderma Liquid Enzyme Production medium (TLE) and Minimal medium (MM) supplemented with FSCW and in TLE+GLU, but was unable to grow in MM+GLU medium. Protein quantification showed that TLE+FSCW and MM+FSCW had 45- and 30- fold, respectively, higher protein concentration on supernatant when compared to TLE+GLU, and this difference was observable on 2D gel electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 94 out of 105 proteins excised from 2DE maps were identified. The only protein observed in all three conditions was epl1. In the media supplemented with FSCW, different hydrolases such as chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases, glucoamylases, α-1,3-glucanases and proteases were identified, along with other proteins with no known functions in mycoparasitism, such as npp1 and cys. Trichoderma harzianum showed a complex and diverse arsenal of proteins that are secreted in response to the presence of FSCW, with novel proteins not previously described in mycoparasitic-related studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fusarium is one of the most important mycotoxigenic fungal genera in food and feed. Nearly all species are able to produce mycotoxins of which many are under international regulation. Well-known Fusarium mycotoxins are fumonisins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and additional trichothecenes...

  1. Research on possibilities of utilization of chosen Brassicaceae plants in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium culmorum (W.G.SmithSacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Burgieł

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the usefulness of dried leaves of savoy cabbage, red cabbage, horse radish and fringed cabbage in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum. In the laboratory experiments, pathogens were grown on PDA containing dried leaves (3g·100 cm-3 and in atmosphere containing volatile substances evolved from plant material. The addition of radish horse leaves into PDA caused total inhibition of R. solani development. Remaining plants were also characterized by high fungistatic activity (% of growth inhibition about 85%. F. culmorum was less sensitive. The horse radish leaves showed the strongest activity (65 %, weakest in combination with fringed cabbage leaves (38,9%. The similar regularity in the case of fumigation activity was observed. The effectiveness of dried leaves in protection of cucumber against damping-off was confirmed in greenhouse experiment. The amendment of soil inoculated with R. solani in dose 2 g per 500 cm3 of soil significantly increased the number of cucumber sprouts compared to the control. In the experiment with F. culmorum only in combination with horse radish and red cabbage leaves significant action was observed.

  2. Characterization of Fusarium isolates from asparagus fields in southwestern Ontario and influence of soil organic amendments on Fusarium crown and root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego-Benjumea, Ana; Basallote-Ureba, María J; Melero-Vara, José M; Abbasi, Pervaiz A

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR) of asparagus has a complex etiology with several soilborne Fusarium spp. as causal agents. Ninety-three Fusarium isolates, obtained from plant and soil samples collected from commercial asparagus fields in southwestern Ontario with a history of FCRR, were identified as Fusarium oxysporum (65.5%), F. proliferatum (18.3%), F. solani (6.4%), F. acuminatum (6.4%), and F. redolens (3.2%) based on morphological or cultural characteristics and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with species-specific primers. The intersimple-sequence repeat PCR analysis of the field isolates revealed considerable variability among the isolates belonging to different Fusarium spp. In the in vitro pathogenicity screening tests, 50% of the field isolates were pathogenic to asparagus, and 22% of the isolates caused the most severe symptoms on asparagus. The management of FCRR with soil organic amendments of pelleted poultry manure (PPM), olive residue compost, and fish emulsion was evaluated in a greenhouse using three asparagus cultivars of different susceptibility in soils infested with two of the pathogenic isolates (F. oxysporum Fo-1.5 and F. solani Fs-1.12). Lower FCRR symptom severity and higher plant weights were observed for most treatments on 'Jersey Giant' and 'Grande' but not on 'Mary Washington'. On all three cultivars, 1% PPM consistently reduced FCRR severity by 42 to 96% and increased plant weights by 77 to 152% compared with the Fusarium control treatment. Populations of Fusarium and total bacteria were enumerated after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of soil amendment. In amended soils, the population of Fusarium spp. gradually decreased while the population of total culturable bacteria increased. These results indicate that soil organic amendments, especially PPM, can decrease disease severity and promote plant growth, possibly by decreasing pathogen population and enhancing bacterial activity in the soil.

  3. Effect of disruption of a cutinase gene (cutA) on virulence and tissue specificity of Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 2 toward Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, R N; Binnie, S J; Bowen, J K; Hawthorne, B T; Plummer, K M; Rees-George, J; Rikkerink, E H; Templeton, M D

    1997-04-01

    A 3.9-kb genomic DNA fragment from the cucurbit pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 2 was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 690 nucleotides interrupted by a single 51-bp intron. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences showed 92 and 98% identity, respectively, to those of the cutA gene of the pea pathogen F. solani f. sp. pisi. A gene replacement vector was constructed and used to generate cutA- mutants that were detected with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Seventy-one cutA- mutants were identified among the 416 transformants screened. Vector integration was assessed by Southern analysis in 23 of these mutants. PCR and Southern analysis data showed the level of homologous integration was 14%. Disruption of the cutA locus in mutants was confirmed by RNA gel blot hybridization. Neither virulence on Cucurbita maxima cv. Delica at any of six different inoculum concentrations, nor pathogenicity on intact fruit of four different species or cultivars of cucurbit or hypocotyl tissue of C. maxima cv. Crown, was found to be affected by disruption of the cutA gene.

  4. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  5. Identification of differentially expressed genes from Trichoderma harzianum during growth on cell wall of Fusarium solani as a tool for biotechnological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Pabline Marinho; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; de Siqueira, Saulo José Linhares; Silva, Roberto do Nascimento; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2013-03-15

    The species of T. harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. However, there is a lack of studies concerning its use as a biological control agent against F. solani, a pathogen involved in several crop diseases. In this study, we have used subtractive library hybridization (SSH) and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) techniques in order to explore changes in T. harzianum genes expression during growth on cell wall of F. solani (FSCW) or glucose. RT-qPCR was also used to examine the regulation of 18 genes, potentially involved in biocontrol, during confrontation between T. harzianum and F. solani. Data obtained from two subtractive libraries were compared after annotation using the Blast2GO suite. A total of 417 and 78 readable EST sequence were annotated in the FSCW and glucose libraries, respectively. Functional annotation of these genes identified diverse biological processes and molecular functions required during T. harzianum growth on FSCW or glucose. We identified various genes of biotechnological value encoding to proteins which function such as transporters, hydrolytic activity, adherence, appressorium development and pathogenesis. Fifteen genes were up-regulated and sixteen were down-regulated at least at one-time point during growth of T. harzianum in FSCW. During the confrontation assay most of the genes were up-regulated, mainly after contact, when the interaction has been established. This study demonstrates that T. harzianum expressed different genes when grown on FSCW compared to glucose. It provides insights into the mechanisms of gene expression involved in mycoparasitism of T. harzianum against F. solani. The identification and evaluation of these genes may contribute to the development of an efficient biological control agent.

  6. Endophytic Bacteria Improve Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Induce Suppression of Root Rot Caused by Fusarium solani under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non–rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated. Four bacterial isolates, namely Bacillus cereus NUU1, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NUU2, Bacillus thuringiensis NUU3, and Bacillus subtilis NUU4 colonizing root tissue demonstrated plant beneficial traits and/or antagonistic activity against F. solani and thus were characterized in more detail. The strain B. subtilis NUU4 proved significant plant growth promotion capabilities, improved symbiotic performance of host plant with rhizobia, and promoted yield under saline soil as compared to untreated control plants under field conditions. A combined inoculation of chickpea with M. ciceri IC53 and B. subtilis NUU4 decreased H2O2 concentrations and increased proline contents compared to the un-inoculated plants indicating an alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress. Furthermore, the bacterial isolate was capable to reduce the infection rate of root rot in chickpea caused by F. solani. This is the first report of F. solani causing root rot of chickpea in a salinated soil of Uzbekistan. Our findings demonstrated that the endophytic B. subtilis strain NUU4 provides high potentials as a stimulator for plant growth and as biological control agent of chickpea root rot under saline soil conditions. These multiple relationships could provide promising practical approaches to increase the productivity of legumes under salt stress.

  7. Studying of cellular interaction of hairpin-like peptide EcAMP1 from barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli L.) seeds with plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani using microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Yuryev, Mikhail; Ryazantsev, Dmitry Yu; Zavriev, Sergey K; Feofanov, Alexey V; Grishin, Eugene V; Rogozhin, Eugene A

    2016-11-01

    An interaction of recombinant hairpin-like cationic peptide EcAMP1 with conidia of plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani at the cellular level was studied by a combination of microscopic methods. EcAMP1 is from barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli L.), and obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli system. As a result, a direct relationship between hyphal growth inhibition and increasing active peptide concentration, time of incubation and fungal physiological condition has been determined. Dynamics of accumulation and redistribution of the peptide studied on fungal cellular cover and inside the conidia cells has been shown. The dynamics are dependent on time of coupling, as well as, a dissimilarity of EcAMP1 binding with cover of fungal conidia and its stepwise accumulation and diffuse localization in the cytoplasm. Correlation between structural disruption of fungal conidia and the presence of morphological changes has also been found. The correlation was found under the influence of peptide high concentrations at concentrations above 32 μM. The results indicate the presence of a binding of EcAMP1 with the surface of fungal conidia, thus, demonstrating a main specificity for its antifungal action at the cellular level. These results, however, cannot exclude the existence of attendant EcAMP1 action based on its intracellular localization on some specific targets. SCANNING 38:591-598, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Challenges in Fusarium, a Trans-Kingdom Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium species are emerging human pathogens, next to being plant pathogens. Problems with Fusarium are in their diagnostics and in their difficult treatment, but also in what are actual Fusarium species or rather Fusarium-like species. In this issue Guevara-Suarez et al. (Mycopathologia. doi: 10.1007/s11046-016-9983-9 , 2016) characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium from Colombia showing especially lineages within the Fusarium solani and oxysporum species complexes to be responsible for onychomycosis.

  9. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BENOMYL E PCNB SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO RADIAL DE Fusarium solani E Pythium sp., IN VITRO EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BENOMYL AND PCNB ON THE RADIAL GROWTH OF Fusarium solani AND Pythium sp. IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Peliz Machado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os experimentos foram realizado nas dependências do Laboratório de Fitopatologia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no ano de 1997. Os fungos Fusarium e Pythium sp. foram cultivados em meio de cultura artificial contendo benomyl e PCNB nas concentrações de 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. Os crescimentos radiais dos fungos demonstraram que o benomyl foi eficiente contra o Fusarium, mas não surtiu efeito contra o Pythium, fato este também observado em relação ao PCNB. Este produto, embora menos eficiente, reduziu em mais de 50% o crescimento radial de Fusarium, obtendo uma redução progressiva com o aumento da concentração.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; quintozene.

    The experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Escola de Agronomia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás, in the year of 1997. The fungi Fusarium moniliforme and Pythium sp. were treated in cultural medium with benomyl and PCNB in the concentrations of 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. The radial growth of the fungi demonstrated that benomyl was efficient against Fusarium, but not against Pythium sp. The same was also observed with PCNB. Although less efficient than benomyl, this product reduced radial growth of Fusarium in more than 50%. The increase of PCNB concentration reduced Fusarium growth progressively.

    KEY-WORDS: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; PCNB.

  10. Evaluating Genetic Association between Fusarium and Pythium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance to Fusarium root rot (Fusarium solani f.s.p phaseoli) has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sources and is usually associated with Pythium root rot resistance. Pythium root rot (Pythium ultimum var ultimum) resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene, marked by a SCAR marker ...

  11. Multidrug resistant Fusarium keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antequera, P; Garcia-Conca, V; Martín-González, C; Ortiz-de-la-Tabla, V

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of keratitis in a female contact lens wearer, who developed a deep corneal abscess. The culture of a corneal biopsy scraping was positive for multiresistant Fusarium solani. The patient has a complicated clinical course and failed to respond to local and systemic antifungal treatment, requiring eye enucleation. Fusarium keratitis may progress to severe endophthalmitis. Clinical suspicion is paramount in order to start antifungal therapy without delay. Therapy is complex due to the high resistance of this organism to usual antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Pentamidine Is Active In Vitro against Fusarium Species

    OpenAIRE

    Lionakis, Michail S.; Lewis, Russell E.; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2003-01-01

    Fusariosis is an emerging opportunistic mycosis against which currently used antifungals have limited activity. Here, we investigated the in vitro activities of pentamidine (PNT) against 10 clinical isolates of Fusarium species (five Fusarium solani isolates and five non-F. solani isolates) by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microdilution method in three different media (RPMI, RPMI-2, and a yeast nitrogen base medium), disk diffusion testing, and viability dye s...

  13. Fusarium Keratitis in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Serena; Kaerger, Kerstin; Hamprecht, Axel; Roth, Mathias; Cornely, Oliver A.; Geerling, Gerd; Mackenzie, Colin R.; Kurzai, Oliver; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium keratitis is a destructive eye infection that is difficult to treat and results in poor outcome. In tropical and subtropical areas, the infection is relatively common and associated with trauma or chronic eye diseases. However, in recent years, an increased incidence has been reported in temperate climate regions. At the German National Reference Center, we have observed a steady increase in case numbers since 2014. Here, we present the first German case series of eye infections with Fusarium species. We identified Fusarium isolates from the eye or eye-related material from 22 patients in 2014 and 2015. Thirteen isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), 6 isolates belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), and three isolates belonged to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). FSSC was isolated in 13 of 15 (85%) definite infections and FOSC in 3 of 4 (75%) definite contaminations. Furthermore, diagnosis from contact lens swabs or a culture of contact lens solution turned out to be highly unreliable. FSSC isolates differed from FOSC and FFSC by a distinctly higher MIC for terbinafine. Outcome was often adverse, with 10 patients requiring keratoplasty or enucleation. The use of natamycin as the most effective agent against keratitis caused by filamentous fungi was rare in Germany, possibly due to restricted availability. Keratitis caused by Fusarium spp. (usually FSSC) appears to be a relevant clinical problem in Germany, with the use of contact lenses as the predominant risk factor. Its outcome is often adverse. PMID:28747368

  14. Pentamidine is active in vitro against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S; Lewis, Russell E; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2003-10-01

    Fusariosis is an emerging opportunistic mycosis against which currently used antifungals have limited activity. Here, we investigated the in vitro activities of pentamidine (PNT) against 10 clinical isolates of Fusarium species (five Fusarium solani isolates and five non-F. solani isolates) by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microdilution method in three different media (RPMI, RPMI-2, and a yeast nitrogen base medium), disk diffusion testing, and viability dye staining. PNT had significant activities against all 10 Fusarium isolates. Non-F. solani isolates were more susceptible than F. solani isolates (P Fusarium isolates was confirmed microscopically after staining of PNT-treated Fusarium oxysporum hyphae with the fluorescent viability dyes 5,(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC). The MICs at which 50% of the isolates were inhibited (2 micro g/ml for non-F. solani isolates and 4 micro g/ml for F. solani isolates) and the minimum fungicidal concentration at which 50% of the isolates were killed (8 micro g/ml for non-F. solani isolates) were much lower than the PNT tissue concentrations previously reported in humans using conventional daily intravenous PNT dosing. Finally, PNT was more active against Fusarium isolates in a hypoxic environment of in vitro growth (P Fusarium, an angiotropic mold, causes tissue infarcts with resultant low tissue perfusion. Our findings suggest that PNT may have a role in the management of Fusarium infections. Future in vivo studies are needed to verify these in vitro findings.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  16. Improvement of resistance to Fusarium root rot through gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR), caused by Fusarium solani f.sp. , is one of the most serious root rot diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) throughout the world. Yield losses of up to 84% have been attributed to the disease. Development and deployment of resistant materials is the most feasible approach to managing ...

  17. Pretest analysis document for Semiscale Test S-FS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.H.

    1985-02-01

    This report documents the pretest analysis calculation completed with the RELAP5/MOD2/CY21 code for Semiscale Test S-FS-1. The test will simulate the double-ended offset shear of the main steam line at the exit of the broken loop steam generator (downstream of the flow restrictor) and the subsequent plant recovery. The recovery portion of the test consists of a plant stabilization phase and a plant cooldown phase. The recovery procedures involve normal charging/letdown operation, pressurizer heater operation, secondary steam and feed of the unaffected steam generator, and pressurizer auxiliary spray. The test will be terminated after the unaffected steam generator and pressurizer pressures and liquid levels are stable, and the average priamry fluid temperature is stable at about 480 K (405 0 F) for at least 10 minutes

  18. Screen for soil fungi highly resistant to dichloroaniline uncovers mostly Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Dairou, Julien; Bui, Linh-Chi; Bouillon, Julien; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Silar, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Arylamines are frequent pollutants in soils. Fungi have proven to be efficient in detoxifying these chemicals by acetylating them using arylamine N-acetyl transferase enzymes. Here, we selected from natural soils fungi highly resistant to 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA). Fusarium species were the most frequently isolated species, especially Fusarium solani. The sequenced strain of F. solani contains five NAT genes, as did all the DCA-resistant isolates. RT-PCR analysis showed that the five genes were expressed in F. solani. Expression of the F. solani genes in Podospora anserina and analysis of acetylation directly in F. solani showed that only the NhNAT2B gene conferred significant resistance to DCA and that F. solani likely uses pathways different from acetylation to resist high doses of DCA, as observed previously for Trichoderma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. QTL analysis of Fusarium root rot resistance in an Andean x Middle American common bean RIL population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims Fusarium root rot (FRR) is a soil-borne disease that constrains common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. FRR causal pathogens include clade 2 members of the Fusarium solani species complex. Here we characterize common bean reaction to four Fusarium species and identify genomic regions as...

  20. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, expressed as a slower inhibition of growth of the former, and faster of the latter pathogen. Antagonistic abilities of species from genus Trichoderma (T. asperellum are important, and have already been exploited in formulated biocontrol products in organic and conventional production, in order to prevent soil borne pathogens inducing fusarium wilt and rot. The importance of preventing onion infection by Fusarium spp., possible mycotoxin producers, has been underlined.

  1. Fusarium ershadii sp. nov., a Pathogen on Asparagus officinalis and Musa acuminata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papizadeh, Moslem; Diepeningen, van Anne D.; Zamanizadeh, Hamid Reza; Saba, Farkhondeh; Ramezani, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Two Fusarium strains, isolated from Asparagus in Italy and Musa in Vietnam respectively, proved to be members of an undescribed clade within the Fusarium solani species complex based on phylogenetic species recognition on ITS, partial RPB2 and EF-1α gene fragments. Macro- and micro-morphological

  2. Identification and diversity of Fusarium species isolated from tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Nur Baiti Abd

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit rot of tomato is a serious disease caused by Fusarium species. Sampling was conducted throughout Selangor, Malaysia and fungal species identification was conducted based on morphological and gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1-α sequence analysis. Five species of Fusarium were discovered namely F. oxysporum (including F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Our results provide additional information regarding the diversity of Fusarium species associated with fruit rot disease of tomato.

  3. Relationships between M. enterolobii and F. solani: spatial and temporal dynamics in the occurrence of guava decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martins Gomes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Guava decline, caused by the interaction between the phytonematode Meloidogyne enterolobii and the fungus Fusarium solani, has caused direct and indirect losses to the whole productive chain of guava. Aiming to understand the interaction mechanisms between M. enterolobii and F. solani, this study carried out a bioassay on guava plants with roots in two different treatments: inoculated separatelyor together with the fungus and/or nematode. The nematode parasitism not triggered an systemic effect on the plant become susceptible to root rot caused by the fungus.Therefore, it was concluded that there was a local effect of parasitism by M. enterolobii on the pathogenicity of F. solani in guava roots, making it necessary for the two pathogens to occupy the same space at the same time for occurrence of guava decline. Keywords: complex disease, Fusarium solani, guava root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne enterolobii, Psidium guajava. Cite as Gomes VM, Souza RM, Almeida AM, Dolinski C. Relationships between M. enterolobii and F. solani: spatial and temporal dynamics in the occurrence of guava decline.

  4. Isolation and characterization of two mitoviruses and a putative alphapartitivirus from Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Hideki; Sasaki, Atsuko; Nomiyama, Koji; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Tomioka, Keisuke; Takehara, Toshiaki

    2015-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium spp. includes several important plant pathogens. We attempted to reveal presence of double-stranded (ds) RNAs in the genus. Thirty-seven Fusarium spp. at the MAFF collection were analyzed. In the strains of Fusarium coeruleum, Fusarium globosum and Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, single dsRNA bands were detected. The strains of F. coeruleum and F. solani f. sp. pisi cause potato dry rot and mulberry twig blight, respectively. Sequence analyses revealed that dsRNAs in F. coeruleum and F. globosum consisted of 2423 and 2414 bp, respectively. Using the fungal mitochondrial translation table, the positive strands of these cDNAs were found to contain single open reading frames with the potential to encode a protein of putative 757 and 717 amino acids (molecular mass 88.5 and 84.0 kDa, respectively), similar to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of members of the genus Mitovirus. These dsRNAs in F. coeruleum and F. globosum were assigned to the genus Mitovirus (family Narnaviridae), and these two mitoviruses were designated as Fusarium coeruleum mitovirus 1 and Fusarium globosum mitovirus 1. On the other hand, a positive strand of cDNA (1950 bp) from dsRNA in F. solani f. sp. pisi contained an ORF potentially encoding a putative RdRp of 608 amino acids (72.0 kDa). The putative RdRp was shown to be related to those of members of the genus of Alphapartitivirus (family Partitiviridae). We coined the name Fusarium solani partitivirus 2 for dsRNA in F. solani f. sp. pisi.

  5. The antibiotic polymyxin B exhibits novel antifungal activity against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Hang; Wang, Hsuan-Fu; Sun, Pei-Lun; Hu, Fung-Rong; Chen, Ying-Lien

    2017-06-01

    The genus Fusarium comprises many species, including Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides, and causes severe infections in plants and humans. In clinical settings, Fusarium is the third most frequent mould to cause invasive fungal infections after Aspergillus and the Mucorales. F. solani and F. oxysporum are the most prevalent Fusarium spp. causing clinical disease. However, few effective antifungal drugs are available to treat human and plant Fusarium infections. The cationic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B (PMB) exhibits antifungal activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, but its efficacy against Fusarium spp. is unknown. In this study, the antifungal activity of PMB was tested against 12 Fusarium strains that infect humans and plants (banana, tomato, melon, pea, wheat and maize). PMB was fungicidal against all 12 Fusarium strains, with minimum fungicidal concentrations of 32 µg/mL or 64 µg/mL for most strains tested, as evidenced by broth dilution, methylene blue staining and XTT reduction assays. PMB can reduce the germination rates of conidia, but not chlamydospores, and can cause defects in cell membrane integrity in Fusarium strains. PMB exhibits synergistic activity with posaconazole and can potentiate the effect of fluconazole, voriconazole or amphotericin B against Fusarium spp. However, PMB does not show synergistic effects with fluconazole against Fusarium spp. as it does against Candida glabrata and C. neoformans, indicating evolutionary divergence of mechanisms between yeast pathogens and the filamentous fungus Fusarium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial agents against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hideaki; Inuzuka, Hiroko; Hori, Nobuhide; Takahashi, Nobumichi; Ishida, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Muraosa, Yasunori; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  7. Inoculation methods and aggressiveness of five Fusarium species against peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Miguel Jarek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fusarium wilt is a major disease which affects peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.var gasipaes Henderson. This study aimed to evaluate inoculation methods and aggressiveness of isolates of five Fusarium species on peach palm. Fusarium proliferatum can infect the leaves, stem, and roots of peach palm. F. proliferatum, F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC, F. verticillioides, F. solani species complex (FSSC, and Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC are pathogenic to peach palm. The use of Fusarium-colonized ground corn for root inoculation was effective and reduced the level of damage to plants.

  8. Genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Fusarium isolates in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Priscila D; Heidrich, Daiane; Corrêa, Carolina; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia; Vettorato, Gerson; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Goldani, Luciano Z

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium species have emerged as an important human pathogen in skin disease, onychomycosis, keratitis and invasive disease. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. The infection has been increasingly described in the immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Considering onychomycosis is a difficult to treat infection, and little is known about the genetic variability and susceptibility pattern of Fusarium spp., further studies are necessary to understand the pathogenesis and better to define the appropriate antifungal treatment for this infection. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to describe the in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents and the genetic diversity of 35 Fusarium isolated from patients with onychomycosis. Fusarium spp. were isolated predominantly from female Caucasians, and the most frequent anatomical location was the nail of the hallux. Results revealed that 25 (71.4%) of isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex, followed by 10 (28.5%) isolates from the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. Noteworthy, the authors report the first case of Neocosmospora rubicola isolated from a patient with onychomycosis. Amphotericin B was the most effective antifungal agent against the majority of isolates (60%, MIC ≤4 μg/mL), followed by voriconazole (34.2%, MIC ≤4 μg/mL). In general, Fusarium species presented MIC values >64 μg/mL for fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine. Accurate pathogen identification, characterisation and susceptibility testing provide a better understanding of pathogenesis of Fusarium in onychomycosis. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing Fusarium root disease on sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) in a forest container nursery in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; K. Otto; G. A. Cline; Kas Dumroese; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, specifically F. commune, F. proliferatum, and F. solani, can cause severe damping-off and root disease in container and bareroot forest nurseries throughout North America. Many conifer and hardwood species can be affected, but Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) are known to be...

  10. [Interdigital tinea pedis resulting from Fusarium spp. in Dakar, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Diallo, M A; Ndiaye, M; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, D

    2018-03-01

    Fungal interdigital tinea pedis (ITP) is a common pathology mainly due to dermatophytes and yeasts. Fusarium sp. is rarely incriminated in the genesis of intertrigo. In Dakar, a recent study conducted in 2016 on fungal ITP showed that Fusarium were more involved in the etiology of ITP than dermatophytes, coming just after yeasts dominated by Candida. Following this, we wanted to draw attention to the increasing incidence of ITP resulting from Fusarium spp., in Dakar, Senegal, and to analyze the epidemiological and mycological particularities of these ITP due to Fusarium spp. A retrospective study including all patients received at the laboratory for suspicion of ITP between January 1st, 2014 and June 30th, 2017 was conducted. Diagnosis was based on mycological examination, including direct examination and culture. Mycological analysis was considered positive when direct examination and culture were positive after at least one repeat. Twenty-nine cases of Fusarium ITP accounting for 44.6% of all ITP in the study period were diagnosed in 15 men and 14 women. The mean age of the patients was 48.4 years. Fusarium ITP were diagnosed in immunocompetent patients except in two diabetics. The mean duration of the lesions was 6.83 years. The most frequent species isolated belonged to the Fusarium solani complex with 19 cases. Fusarium ITP in a healthy subject requires regular monitoring because any subsequent decrease in immune defenses could lead to fatal hematogenous spread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Fusarium species associated with basal rot of garlic in North Central Mexico and its pathogenicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Ortiz, Juan C; Ochoa-Fuentes, Yisa M; Cerna-Chávez, Ernesto; Beltrán-Beache, Mariana; Rodríguez-Guerra, Raúl; Aguirre-Uribe, Luis A; Vázquez-Martínez, Otilio

    Garlic in Mexico is one of the most profitable vegetable crops, grown in almost 5,451ha; out of which more than 83% are located in Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Sonora, Puebla, Baja California and Aguascalientes. Blossom-end rot caused by Fusarium spp is widely distributed worldwide and has been a limiting factor in onion and garlic production regions, not only in Mexico but also in other countries. The presence of Fusarium oxysporum has been reported in Guanajuato and Aguascalientes. Fusarium culmorum has been reported in onion cultivars of Morelos; and Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium solani and Fusarium acuminatum have been previously reported in Aguascalientes. The goal of this work was identifying the Fusarium species found in Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes, to assess their pathogenicity. Plants with disease symptoms were collected from hereinabove mentioned States. The samples resulted in the identification of: F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. solani and F. acuminatum species; out of which Aguascalientes AGS1A (F. oxysporum), AGS1B (F. oxysporum) and AGSY-10 (F. acuminatum) strains showed higher severity under greenhouse conditions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of sexual development in a nematode-associated strain of Fusarium neocosmosporiellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium neocosmosporiellum (formerly Neocosmospora vasinfecta) is a ubiquitous saprobic fungus that has been isolated from plants, fungi, nematodes, dung and soil. This homothallic species is nested in a clade within the F. solani species complex near a lineage of fusaria farmed by ambrosia beetles...

  13. Real-time imaging of the growth-inhibitory effect of JS399-19 on Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Rasmus D; Donau, Søren S; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T; Sørensen, Jens L; Giese, Henriette; Wimmer, Reinhard; Søndergaard, Teis E

    2016-11-01

    Real-time imaging was used to study the effects of a novel Fusarium-specific cyanoacrylate fungicide (JS399-19) on growth and morphology of four Fusarium sp. This fungicide targets the motor domain of type I myosin. Fusarium graminearum PH-1, Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi 77-13-4, Fusarium avenaceum IBT8464, and Fusarium avenaceum 05001, which has a K216Q amino-acid substitution at the resistance-implicated site in its myosin type I motor domain, were analyzed. Real-time imaging shows that JS399-19 inhibits fungal growth but not to the extent previously reported. The fungicide causes the hypha to become entangled and unable to extend vertically. This implies that type I myosin in Fusarium is essential for hyphal and mycelia propagation. The K216Q substitution correlates with reduced susceptibility in F. avenaceum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quick guide to polyketide synthase and nonribosomal synthetase genes in Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen T.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Giese, Henriette

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium species produce a plethora of bioactive polyketides and nonribosomal peptides that give rise to health problems in animals and may have drug development potential. Using the genome sequences for Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. solani and F. verticillioides we developed a framework...... and NRPS genes in sequenced Fusarium species and their known products. With the rapid increase in the number of sequenced fungal genomes a systematic classification will greatly aid the scientific community in obtaining an overview of the number of different NRPS and PKS genes and their potential...

  15. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of the original drug FS-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Kalykova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in iodine complexes has increased significantly in recent years because of their wide spectrum of biological activity. The FS-1 is an ion nanostructured complex formed by proteins and/or polypeptides, carbohydrates, salts of alkali and alkaline earth metals with intercalated iodine. Patented in 2014, it is intended for the treatment of infectious diseases of bacterial origin including nosocomial infections and multidrug resistant tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to determine its acute and subchronic toxicity. The study of acute and subchronic toxicity was performed on adult Wistar rats according to OECD guidelines. The data on acute toxicity showed LD50 > 2,000 mg/kg after a single intragastric administration. Twenty-eight days of FS-1 administration at a dose of 500 mg/kg resulted in toxic effects. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, the toxic effects were temporary and a return to normal followed after the recovery period. Doses of 100 mg/kg had no adverse effects on the rats.

  16. Comparison of DNA Microarray, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and Real-Time PCR with DNA Sequencing for Identification of Fusarium spp. Obtained from Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marcela; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Sakai, Kanae; Muraosa, Yasunori; Lyra, Luzia; Busso-Lopes, Ariane Fidelis; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli; Mikami, Yuzuru; Gonoi, Tohoru; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Trabasso, Plínio

    2017-08-01

    The performance of three molecular biology techniques, i.e., DNA microarray, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and real-time PCR were compared with DNA sequencing for properly identification of 20 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from blood stream as etiologic agent of invasive infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR identified 16 (80%) out of 20 samples as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and four (20%) as Fusarium spp. The agreement among the techniques was 100%. LAMP exhibited 100% specificity, while DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR showed 100% sensitivity. The three techniques had 100% agreement with DNA sequencing. Sixteen isolates were identified as FSSC by sequencing, being five Fusarium keratoplasticum, nine Fusarium petroliphilum and two Fusarium solani. On the other hand, sequencing identified four isolates as Fusarium non-solani species complex (FNSSC), being three isolates as Fusarium napiforme and one isolate as Fusarium oxysporum. Finally, LAMP proved to be faster and more accessible than DNA microarray and real-time PCR, since it does not require a thermocycler. Therefore, LAMP signalizes as emerging and promising methodology to be used in routine identification of Fusarium spp. among cases of invasive fungal infections.

  17. Isolation of fusarium species from some food and feed and prevention their growth by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, K.A.; Abouzeid, M.A.; Hassan, A.A.; Abd-Elrahman, D.G.; Hammad, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy samples of different cereal grains, garlic, onion and animal feed were collected from the Egyptian markets to isolate associated moulds. Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus were the most common fungal genera isolated from the different samples. The genus Fusarium was the most dominant among the fungal genera and all isolates were identified as F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. oxysporum, F. dimerum, F. tabacinum and F. xylaroides. Fusarium verticillioides and F. solani were the most dominant comprising 58% of the total isolates. All Fusarium isolates were proved to produce one or more of zearalenone, diacetoxyscirpenol and fusaric acids in liquid medium. Irradiation at a dose of 5 KGy reduced the Fusarium growth greatly relative to non-irradiated controls. On the basis of the radiation survival data, the radiation decimal reduction doses (D 10 values) for F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. verticillioides and F. dimerum were 1.44, 1.66, 1.73 and 1.00 KGy in corn, respectively. Application of radiation at a dose of 12.5 KGy made corn samples free from mould throughout all the storage period (12 weeks) and there was no fungal growth and no mycotoxins have been produced

  18. In vitro sensitivity of medically significant Fusarium species to various antimycotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, A S; Padhye, A A; Garg, A K; Ahmad, H; Moledina, N

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen isolates belonging to Fusarium chlamydosporum (n = 4), Fusarium equiseti (n = 1), Fusarium moniliforme (n = 2), Fusarium oxysporum (n = 3), Fusarium proliferatum (n = 1), and Fusarium solani (n = 5) were tested against amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, JAI-amphotericin B (water-soluble compound), hamycin and amphotericin B combined with 5-fluorocytosine, using antibiotic medium M3, high-resolution broth (pH 7.1), Sabouraud's dextrose, and yeast-nitrogen broth media (1 ml/tube). The minimal inhibitory and minimal fungicidal concentrations of 5-fluorocytosine and fluconazole for all species were > 100 micrograms/ml. All Fusarium isolates, except F. equiseti (3.125 micrograms), gave minimal inhibitory concentrations of 12.5-100 micrograms/ml for hamycin. The values for amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole, JAI-amphotericin B, and amphotericin B combined with 5-fluorocytosine were 1.56-100, 0.78-50, 3.125-100,50-100, and 1.56 to > 100 micrograms/ml, respectively. Although a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentrations was recorded for most of the isolates studied, it appears that some--F. solani, F. oxysporum, F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, and F. moliniforme--were more susceptible to amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole, hamycin, and amphotericin B in the presence of 5-fluorocytosine. All isolates showed resistance to 5-fluorocytosine and fluconazole. The minimal fungicidal concentrations were either the same or several times higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations.

  19. Biofilm Formation and Resistance to Fungicides in Clinically Relevant Members of the Fungal Genus Fusarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Sav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinically relevant members of the fungal genus, Fusarium, exhibit an extraordinary genetic diversity and cause a wide spectrum of infections in both healthy individuals and immunocompromised patients. Generally, Fusarium species are intrinsically resistant to all systemic antifungals. We investigated whether the presence or absence of the ability to produce biofilms across and within Fusarium species complexes is linked to higher resistance against antifungals. A collection of 41 Fusarium strains, obtained from 38 patients with superficial and systemic infections, and three infected crops, were tested, including 25 species within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex, 14 from the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC, one Fusarium dimerum species complex, and one Fusarium oxysporum species complex isolate. Of all isolates tested, only seven strains from two species of FSSC, five F. petroliphilum and two F. keratoplasticum strains, recovered from blood, nail scrapings, and nasal biopsy samples, could produce biofilms under the tested conditions. In the liquid culture tested, sessile biofilm-forming Fusarium strains exhibited elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for amphotericin B, voriconazole, and posaconazole, compared to their planktonic counterparts, indicating that the ability to form biofilm may significantly increase resistance. Collectively, this suggests that once a surface adherent biofilm has been established, therapies designed to kill planktonic cells of Fusarium are ineffective.

  20. Effectiveness of composts and Trichoderma strains for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousra TAGHDI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL is a major limiting disease in tomato production in Morocco. Commercial and locally produced Moroccan composts and peat were found to reduce Fusarium wilt in tomato plants. We explored the presence of Trichoderma strains in these materials, and in six soils sampled in the North West of Morocco, where a low incidence of Fusarium wilt had been previously observed. The most abundant Trichoderma-like fungus was selected from each soil, compost or peat sample. Twelve Trichoderma strains were isolated and identified molecularly. Trichoderma asperellum CT9 and Trichoderma virens ST11 showed the greatest overall antagonistic activity against FOL, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Pythium ultimum. The three strains evaluated in in planta tests, CT9, ST11 and T. virens ST10, reduced tomato Fusarium wilt, and strain ST11  also promoted growth of tomato plants.

  1. Evaluation of two methods for direct detection of Fusarium spp. in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Mariana G; van der Heijden, Inneke M; Perdigão, Lauro; Taira, Cleison; Costa, Silvia F; Levin, Anna S

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium is a waterborne fungus that causes severe infections especially in patients with prolonged neutropenia. Traditionally, the detection of Fusarium in water is done by culturing which is difficult and time consuming. A faster method is necessary to prevent exposure of susceptible patients to contaminated water. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular technique for direct detection of Fusarium in water. A direct DNA extraction method from water was developed and coupled to a genus-specific PCR, to detect 3 species of Fusarium (verticillioides, oxysporum and solani). The detection limits were 10 cells/L and 1 cell/L for the molecular and culture methods, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first method developed to detect Fusarium directly from water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani on potato by Verticillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... V. biguttatum isolates affected R. solani by antibiosis and parasitism. All isolates of V. ... After the coiling around of R. solani hyphae, V. ... is an important fungal pathogen ... Gliocladium spp., Trichoderma spp. and Verticillium.

  3. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-11-04

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

  4. In vitro susceptibility and multilocus sequence typing of Fusarium isolates causing keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallé da Rosa, P; Nunes, A; Borges, R; Batista, B; Meneghello Fuentefria, A; Goldani, L Z

    2018-05-17

    Fungal keratitis is recognized as a significant cause of ocular morbidity and blindness especially in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to present the molecular identification and susceptibility of Fusarium isolates causing fungal keratitis in a university hospital in southern Brazil. The samples were identified using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), while the antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methodology. The majority of the isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (F. solani, F. keratoplasticum and F. falciforme) and Fusarium oxysporum species complex. Antifungal susceptibility has shown that amphotericin B and natamycin were the most effective antifungals across all isolates, followed by voriconazole. Variation among Fusarium complexes in their antifungal sensitivities was observed in our study. The identification of Fusarium species from human samples is important not only from an epidemiological viewpoint, but also for choosing the appropriate antifungal agent for difficult-to-treat Fusarium infections such as keratitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogenetic diversity of human pathogenic Fusarium and emergence of uncommon virulent species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Husam; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Theelen, Bart; Abukamar, Mohammed; Hashim, Samar; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Lass-Florl, Cornelia; Boekhout, Teun; Almaslamani, Muna; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium species cause a broad spectrum of infections. However, little is known about the etiological agents to the species level. We identified Fusarium species isolated from clinical specimens including those of high risk patients to better understand the species involved in the pathogenesis. A set of 44 Fusarium isolates were identified by two-locus sequence typing using partial sequences of the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase (RPB2) and translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF-1α). The identified species belonged to four species complexes (SC); the most common SC was Fusarium solani (FSSC) (75%), followed by Fusarium oxysporum (FOSC) (4.5%), Fusarium fujikuroi (FFSC) (13.6%), and Fusarium dimerum (FDSC) (6.8%). Sites of infections were nails (n = 19, 43.2%), skin (n = 7, 15.9%), cornea (n = 6, 13.6%), blood (n = 3, 9%), wound (n = 4, 6.8%), burn (n = 2, 4.5%), tissue (n = 2, 4.5%), and urine (n = 1, 2.27%). Fusarium acutatum was rare and seem restricted to the Middle East. Comorbidities associated with invasive infections were hematological malignancy and autoimmune disorders. Members of the FSSC predominantly caused cornea, nail and bloodstream infections. Less frequently encountered were the FOSC, FFSC and FDSC. More accurate molecular identification of Fusarium species is important to predict therapeutic outcome and the emergence of these species. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fusarium diversity in soil using a specific molecular approach and a cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Mounier, Arnaud; Steinberg, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in soil. They cause plant and human diseases and can produce mycotoxins. Surveys of Fusarium species diversity in environmental samples usually rely on laborious culture-based methods. In the present study, we have developed a molecular method to analyze Fusarium diversity directly from soil DNA. We designed primers targeting the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) gene and demonstrated their specificity toward Fusarium using a large collection of fungi. We used the specific primers to construct a clone library from three contrasting soils. Sequence analysis confirmed the specificity of the assay, with 750 clones identified as Fusarium and distributed among eight species or species complexes. The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) was the most abundant one in the three soils, followed by the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). We then compared our molecular approach results with those obtained by isolating Fusarium colonies on two culture media and identifying species by sequencing part of the EF-1α gene. The 750 isolates were distributed into eight species or species complexes, with the same dominant species as with the cloning method. Sequence diversity was much higher in the clone library than in the isolate collection. The molecular approach proved to be a valuable tool to assess Fusarium diversity in environmental samples. Combined with high throughput sequencing, it will allow for in-depth analysis of large numbers of samples. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Molecular characterization, biofilm analysis and experimental biofouling study of Fusarium isolates from recent cases of fungal keratitis in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonoff William A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize Fusarium isolates from recent cases of fungal keratitis in contact lens wearers, and to investigate fungal association with MoistureLoc solution. Methods We studied six fungal isolates from recent cases of keratitis in New York State. The isolates were characterized by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, and then typed using minisatellite and microsatellite probes. Experimental fungal biofilm formation was tested by standard methods. MoistureLoc solutions were tested in biofouling studies for their efficacy in elimination of Fusarium contamination. Results Fusarium solani – corneal ulcers (2 isolates, lens case (1 isolate, and F. oxysporum – corneal ulcer (1 isolate, eye (1 isolate, were recovered from five patients. An opened bottle of MoistureLoc solution provided by a patient also yielded F. solani. Two distinct genotypes of F. solani as well as of F. oxysporum were present in the isolated strains. Remarkably, F. solani strains from the lens case and lens solution in one instance were similar, based on phylogenetic analyses and molecular typing. The solution isolate of F. solani formed biofilm on contact lenses in control conditions, but not when co-incubated with MoistureLoc solution. Both freshly opened and 3-month old MoistureLoc solutions effectively killed F. solani and F. oxysporum, when fungal contamination was simulated under recommended lens treatment regimen (4-hr. However, simulation of inappropriate use (15 – 60 min led to the recovery of less than 1% of original inoculum of F. solani or F. oxysporum. Conclusion Temporary survival of F. solani and F. oxysporum in MoistureLoc suggested that improper lens cleaning regimen could be a possible contributing factor in recent infections.

  8. Fusarium spp. recovered from waste peanuts associated with sandhill crane mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.E.; Cole, R.J.; Tousson, T.A.; Dorner, J.W.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 5000 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis ) died from undetermined causes in Gains County, Texas, 1985, and an additional 200 died in 1986. Prominent clinical signs were the inability of many sick cranes to hold their necks horizontal and the neck, head, and legs sometimes drooped perpendicularly during flight. Approximately 95% of the dead cranes' gizzards contained peanuts. Culturing of peanuts, shells, soil and soil debris from fields in which sandhill cranes died showed that Fusarium species were the fungi most frequently isolated and eight species were recovered from these substrates. Fusarium compactum, F. solani , and F. equiseti were the only species recovered from all substrates cultured from both fields.

  9. Fusarium species causing eumycetoma: Report of two cases and comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren; Ahmed, Sarah A

    2017-03-01

    Recently, mycetoma was added to the World Health Organization's list of neglected tropical disease priorities. Fusarium as a genus has been reported to cause eumycetoma, but little is known about the species involved in this infection and their identification. In this study, molecular tools were applied to identify Fusarium agents from human eumycetoma cases. The partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene was used as diagnostic parameter. Two additional cases of eumycetoma, due to F. keratoplasticum and F. pseudensiforme, respectively, are presented. A systematic literature review was performed to assess general features, identification, treatment and outcome of eumycetoma infections due to Fusarium species. Of the 20 reviewed patients, the majority (75%) were male. Most agents belonged to the F. solani species complex, ie F. keratoplasticum, F. pseudensiforme, and an undescribed lineage of F. solani. In addition, F. thapsinum, a member of Fusarium fujikuroi species complex was encountered. The main antifungal drugs used were itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B, but cure rates were low (15%). Partial response or relapse was observed in some cases, and a case ended in amputation. Clinical management of eumycetoma due to Fusarium is complex and combination therapy might be required to increase cure rates. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Biotic and abiotic factors associated with soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani Fatores bióticos e abióticos associados à supressividade de solos a Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ghini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop management may modify soil characteristics, and as a consequence, alter incidence of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. This study evaluated the suppressiveness to R. solani in 59 soil samples from a microbasin. Soil sampling areas included undisturbed forest, pasture and fallow ground areas, annual crops, perennial crops, and ploughed soil. The soil samples were characterized according to abiotic variables (pH; electrical conductivity; organic matter content; N total; P; K; Ca; Mg; Al; H; S; Na; Fe; Mn; Cu; Zn; B; cation exchange capacity; sum of bases and base saturation and biotic variables (total microbial activity evaluated by the CO2 evolution and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis; culturable bacterial, fungal, actinomycetes, protozoa, fluorescent Pseudomonas and Fusarium spp. communities. The contribution and relationships of these variables to suppression to R. solani were assessed by path analysis. When all samples were analyzed together, only abiotic variables correlated with suppression of R. solani, but the entire set of variables explained only 51% of the total variation. However, when samples were grouped and analyzed by vegetation cover, the set of evaluated variables in all cases accounted for more than 90% of the variation in suppression of the pathogen. In highly suppressive soils of forest and pasture/fallow ground areas, several abiotic variables and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis correlated with suppression of R. solani and the set of variables explained more than 98% of suppressiveness.As atividades agrícolas podem modificar as características do solo e, como conseqüência, alterar a incidência de patógenos veiculados pelo solo. Este trabalho avaliou a supressividade a R. solani em 59 amostras de solos de uma microbacia. As áreas amostradas foram selecionadas quanto à vegetação, incluindo mata, pasto/pousio, culturas anuais, culturas perenes e solo arado. As amostras de solo foram caracterizadas quanto

  11. Effect of Fusarium isolates and their filtrates on respiratory rate and chemical analysis of squash plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shenawy, Z; Mansour, M A; El-Behrawi, S

    1978-01-01

    The highly pathogenic isolate stimulated the emergence of the squash seedlings first, caused, however, the highest death rate of the seedlings finally. Fusarium isolates and their culture filtrates inhibited the respiratory rate of squash plants significantly. However, F. oxysporum isolates inhibited respiration more than F. solani isolates. Seasonal changes of respiration decline show that the respiratory rate decreased with plant growth in the case of infested soil and of plants injected with culture filtrates. However, spraying Fusarium culture filtrates on the foliage gave opposite results when the plants grew older. Fusarium solani isolates decreased nitrogen content of squash stems and leaves, while F. oxysporum isolates gave reverse results. Injecting Fusarium culture filtrate into the plant decreased nitrogen content of both stems and leaves, while spraying the foliage with the filtrates increased nitrogen content more than that of the control. Phosphorus content of the stems of squash plants, sown in infested soil, was less than in the control when the plants were treated with F. solani and higher when they were treated with F. oxysporum isolates. On the other hand, the phosphorus content of squash leaves was higher than in the control. In the case of injected plants, however, the phosphorus content in stems and leaves was equal to that of the control or less, and with sprayed plants it was higher than in the control. Infesting the soil with Fusarium isolates and spraying the foliage with their culture filtrates increased potassium content of squash stems and leaves, while injecting the filtrates into the plants decreased potassium content of both stems and leaves.

  12. Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Baker, Scott E.; Proctor, Robert H.

    2012-02-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based food and feed is more often associated with a variety of diseases in plants and in animals. Many of these structurally diverse metabolites are derived from a family of related enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). A search of genomic sequence of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and Nectria haematococca (anamorph F. solani) identified a total of 58 PKS genes. To gain insight into how this gene family evolved and to guide future studies, we conducted a phylogenomic and functional domain analysis. The resulting genealogy suggested that Fusarium PKSs represent 34 different groups responsible for synthesis of different core metabolites. The analyses indicate that variation in the Fusarium PKS gene family is due to gene duplication and loss events as well as enzyme gain-of-function due to the acquisition of new domains or of loss-of-function due to nucleotide mutations. Transcriptional analysis indicate that the 16 F. verticillioides PKS genes are expressed under a range of conditions, further evidence that they are functional genes that confer the ability to produce secondary metabolites.

  13. Biological control of Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca using Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ghannam

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The broomrape (Orobanche spp. is an obligate holoparasitic weed that causes severe damage to many important vegetable crops. Many broomrape control strategies have been tested over the years. In this investigation, 125 Fusarium spp. isolates were recovered from diseased broomrape spikes collected from fields in agricultural areas near Hebron. The pathogenicity of isolates on broomrape was evaluated using an inoculum suspension containing mycelia and conidia. The most effective Fusarium isolates significantly increased the dead spikes of broomrape by 33.6–72.7% compared to the control; there was no obvious pathogenic effect on the tomato plants. Fusarium spp. isolates Fu 20, 25 and 119 were identified as F. solani, while Fu 30, 52, 59, 87 and 12-04 were F. oxysporum. In addition, the two previously known Fusarium strains, F. oxysporum strain EId (CNCM-I-1622 (Foxy and F. arthrosporioides strain E4a (CNCM-I-1621 (Farth were equally effective in controlling broomrape parasitizing tomato plants grown in pots, where the dead spikes of broomrape increased by 50.0 and 51.6%, respectively.

  14. Characterization and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with leaf spot of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nurul Husna; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Mohamed Nor, Nik Mohd Izham; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2018-01-01

    Leaf spot diseases are mainly caused by fungi including Fusarium. In the present study several species of Fusarium were isolated from the leaf spot lesion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) Based on morphological characteristics, TEF-1α sequences and phylogenetic analysis, five species were identified as F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. mangiferae, F. solani and F. chlamydosporum. Pathogenicity test indicated that representative isolates of F. proliferatum, F. semitectum and F. chlamydosporum were pathogenic on mango leaves causing leaf spot with low to moderate virulence. Nevertheless, abundance of spots on the leaf can disrupt photosynthesis which in turn reduced growth, and lead to susceptibility to infection by opportunistic pathogens due to weakening of the plant. Fusarium solani and F. mangiferae were non-pathogenic and it is possible that both species are saprophyte which associated with nutrient availability on the surface of the leaf through decaying leave tissues. The occurrence of Fusarium spp. on the leaf spot lesion and the effect from the disease needs to be considered when developing disease management method of mango cultivation as numerous spot on the leaves could effect the photosynthesis process and finally giving low yield and less quality of mango. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Isolated endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent adult after a thorn prick to the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Alice L; Gruener, Anna M; Milligan, Iain D; O'Hara, Geraldine A; Stanford, Miles R

    2017-06-01

    To report the case of an immunocompetent adult presenting with endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis. A woman in her thirties presented with symptoms and signs of a unilateral anterior uveitis. After initial improvement with topical corticosteroids, she continued to develop a panuveitis with an associated drop in vision to counting fingers. A vitreous biopsy confirmed Fusarium solani by 18S rRNA fungal gene detection and PCR sequencing. Despite treatment with pars plana vitrectomy, intravitreal amphotericin B and systemic voriconazole her visual outcome was poor. Detailed review of her antecedent history revealed the route of acquisition to be a thorn prick to the hand two weeks prior to presentation. This patient's endophthalmitis most likely resulted from cutaneous inoculation of Fusarium solani with subsequent hematogenous spread. Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is well recognized in the immunocompromised but is very rarely seen in the immunocompetent. This case highlights the importance of thorough history-taking and consideration of fungal endophthalmitis in the differential diagnosis of a treatment-refractory uveitis.

  16. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  17. Diversity in metabolite production by Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, and Fusarium sporotrichioides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Adler, A.; Clasen, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other metabolites by 109 strains of Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and F. kyushuense was investigated independently in four laboratories by liquid or gas chromatography analyses of cultural extracts with UV diode array, electron...

  18. Zoneamento e identificação de Fusarium spp. causadores de podridão de raízes em plantios de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. na região do vale do Taquarí, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, symptoms of root rot disease were observed in erva-mate plantings in high areas of Region Taquari Valley, RS. With the help of EMATER, the municipal districts presenting plantings with symptoms were surveyed. In 10% of the affected plantings, root samples were collected and sent for analysis at the Plant Disease Laboratory at the Department of Plant Protection/CCR/UFSM. Five different species of at fungus Fusarium associated with the disease were isolated and identified: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium decemcellulare, Fusarium tabacinum and Fusarium tricinctum. All species were pathogenic when inoculated in erva-mate plants (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.. At the moment of sampling, information about the management of the erva-mate plantings was obtained and the similarity between the symptoms presented in erva-mate and in agronomic crops discussed, as well as hypotheses on the origin of the inoculum of Fusarium spp. that infected the erva-mate plantings.

  19. Identifikasi Fusarium dan Nematoda Parasitik yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Kuning Lada di Kalimantan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanti Suryanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Piper nigrum, known as the “King of Spices” is one of the most important spices. In the international market, Indonesian pepper has high selling value, due to its flavor characteristics. Pepper yellowing disease is one of the most important disease that caused the decrease of pepper production and become the main problem in the cultivation of pepper in West Kalimantan. This research was conducted to determine the major causal agent of leaf yellowing disease of pepper. The Fusarium associated with diseased plant were isolated from the symptomatic plant and nematodes were isolated from the root with leaf yellowing symptom. The Fusarium isolates were cultured on agar medium, and the nematode was cultured on tomato plant. From diseased pepper in West Kalimantan, it was isolated 4 Fusarium isolates and plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne. The result showed that H isolate of Fusarium was the most virulent isolate and identified asFusarium solani. The Meloidogyne was identified by the female perenial patern.The nematode was identified as Meloidogyne incognita. INTISARI Lada (Piper nigrum L. merupakan salah satu jenis rempah penting yang telah dikenal sebagai “King of Spices”. Di pasar internasional, lada Indonesia mempunyai daya jual tinggi karena cita rasanya yang khas. Salah satu kendala dalam budidaya lada adalah adanya penyakit kuning lada dan sampai saat ini menjadi masalah utama pada pertanaman lada di Kalimantan Barat. Informasi tentang patogen utama yang berinteraksi dengan penyakit kuning lada masih sangat terbatas, sehingga penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi patogen utama yang berasosiasi dengan penyakit kuning lada. Isolasi Fusarium dilakukan dari batang lada dan isolasi nematoda dilakukan dari akar lada yang bergejala penyakit kuning di Kalimantan Barat. Fusarium hasil isolasi dikulturkan dalam medium agar, sedangkan nematoda hasil isolasi dikulturkan dalam akar tomat. Dari hasil isolasi berhasil didapatkan

  20. Induction of chlamydospore formation in fusarium by cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics from Bacillus subtilis C2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Ma, Mingchuan; Huang, Rong; Qu, Qing; Li, Guohong; Zhou, Jinwei; Zhang, Keqin; Lu, Kaiping; Niu, Xuemei; Luo, Jun

    2012-08-01

    The culture filtrate of Bacillus subtilis strain C2 showed strong activity against the pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. radicicola. A partially purified fraction (PPF) from the extract induced chlamydospore formation in Fusarium. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography yielded 8 different fractions, six of which had chlamydospore-inducing activity. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses identified the main active constituent as C(17) fengycin A (FA17), a cyclic lipopeptide. The effect of FA17 on morphology and physiology of two Fusarium species was dependent on the lipopeptide concentration. When challenged with FA17 at concentrations (0.5, 8, 64 μg ml(-1)) below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (128 μg ml(-1)), two species of Fusarium formed chlamydospores from hyphae, germ tubes, or inside the conidia within 2 days. At concentrations close to the MIC, FA17 caused Fusarium to form sparse and swollen hyphae or lysed conidia. The other five fractions were identified as fengycin A homologues. The homologues could also induce chlamydospore-like structures in 17 species of filamentous fungi including some specimens that do not normally produce chlamydospores, according to their taxonomic descriptions. Like other chlamydospores, these structures contained nuclei and lipid bodies as revealed by DAPI and Nile Red staining, and could germinate. This is the first study to demonstrate that under laboratory conditions fengycin, an antifungal lipopeptide produced by B. subtilis, can induce chlamydospore formation in Fusarium and chlamydospore-like structures in many filamentous fungi.

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp. associated with olive trees dieback in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Rahma; Sellami, Hanen; Gharbi, Yâakoub; Krid, Samira; Cheffi, Manel; Kammoun, Sonia; Dammak, Mariem; Mseddi, Aymen; Gdoura, Radhouane; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2017-05-01

    Dieback and wilting symptoms caused by complex soilborne fungi are nowadays the most serious threatening disease affecting olive trees (Olea europaea) in Tunisia and presumably in many Mediterranean basin countries. Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera associated with dieback symptoms of olive trees. The objective of the present study was to confirm the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from several olive-growing areas in Tunisia. According to the pathogenic test done on young olive trees (cv. Chemlali), 23 out of 104 isolates of Fusarium spp. were found to be pathogenic and the others were weakly or not pathogenic. The pathogenic Fusarium spp. isolates were characterized using molecular methods based on ITS PCR. Isolation results revealed the predominance of Fusarium solani (56.5%) and F. oxysporum species (21.7%) compared to F. chalmydosporum (8.7%), F. brachygibbosum (8.7%) and F. acuminatum (4.34%). Based on pathogenicity test, disease severity was highly variable among the 23 pathogenic isolates tested (P Fusarium spp. might be a major agent causing dieback disease of olive trees in Tunisia.

  2. Endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium: An emerging problem in patients with corneal trauma. A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Andrés, José Luis; López-Soria, Leyre Mónica; Alastruey Izquierdo, Ana; Echevarría Ecenarro, Jaime; Feijoó Lera, Raquel; Garrido Fierro, Jesus; Cabrerizo Nuñez, Francisco Javier; Canut Blasco, Andrés

    Although fortunately very rare in countries with a temperate climate, certain factors, such as clinical or pharmacological immunosuppression, may cause Fusarium-related fungal infections to become an emerging problem. Moreover, Fusarium is one of the most important etiological agents in exogenous endophthalmitis, which is often favored by the disruption of the epithelial barriers. The aim of this series of clinical cases is to identify characteristic clinical findings that may allow an early diagnosis and more efficient management of this ophthalmologic emergency. Three cases of endophthalmitis due to Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum, diagnosed in 2009, 2010, and 2014 in patients from two different health regions belonging to the same health system and separated by around 43 miles, are presented. The Fusarium isolates were initially identified microscopically and the species subsequently confirmed by sequencing the elongation factor alpha (EFα) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Susceptibility to antifungal agents was determined using the EUCAST broth dilution method. Evolution was poor as two of the three patients progressed to phthisis bulbi despite surgical measures and broad-spectrum antifungal antibiotic therapy. It is essential to rapidly instigate multidisciplinary measures to combat suspected endophthalmitis due to Fusarium given the poor prognosis of this type of infection. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctoni solani K ü h n of sugar beet in province Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet root rot appears regularly each year, but its intensity depends on agro ecological conditions. The predominant causers of root rot in Vojvodina are fungi from Fusarium genus and species Macrophomina phaseolina. Over the last couple of years, more intense occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot has been observed. Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot is present in sugar beet fields. During 2000-2005, on the territory of Vojvodina, the frequency of Rhizoctonia solani in phytopathological isolations from rotted sugar beet roots was between 0,0-18,2%. The intensity of the disease depends on localities, agro ecological conditions and genotypes. Symptoms of Rhizoctonia root rot were registered at some localities in all regions of Vojvodina: Srem, Banat and Bačka. The disease appearance is above all local. It occurs in small patches, on heavy, non-structured soil and on depressed wet parts of plots. Individual diseased plants can be found during July. Brown rot appears on sugar beet roots, with dried tissue on surface, which is present on the tail as well as on the middle part and the head of root. Tissues with described symptoms are deeper regarding the healthy part of root. On vertical root section, the necrotic changes are clearly visible comparing to tissue section without symptoms. The heavily infected tissue forms fissures on roots in most cases. Besides the above-mentioned symptoms on roots, the plant wilting and leaf handle necrosis as well as leaf dying are also observed. When rot spreads to the whole root head, plants quickly die.

  4. Parasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by strains of Trichoderma spp. Parasitismo de Rhizoctonia solani por linhagens de Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Soares de Melo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani causes serious diseases in a wide range of plant species. The fungus Trichoderma has been shown to be particularly effective in the control of the pathogen. Thus, this research was carried out to screen fourteen Trichoderma strains against R. solani in vitro. All strains tested inhibited the growth of R. solani. Three T. koningii strains produced toxic metabolites with strong activity against R. solani, inhibiting the mycelial growth by 79%. T. harzianum, Th-9 reduced the viability of sclerotia of R. solani by 81.8% and T. koningii, TK-5 reduced by 53%. Electron microscopic observations revealed that all T. harzianum strains interacted with R. solani. Th-9 grew toward and coiled around the host cells, penetrating and destroying the hyphae. Penetration of host cells was apparently accomplished by mechanical activity.Rhizoctonia solani é um dos mais destrutivos patógenos de plantas cultivadas. Métodos alternativos de controle têm sido empregados com sucesso, particularmente, utilizando-se o fungo Trichoderma. Este trabalho visou, portanto, selecionar linhagens efetivas desse micoparasita contra o patógeno. Onze linhagens de T. harzianum e três de T. koningii foram testadas in vitro com relação ao parasitismo de hifas e de escleródios e produção de metabólitos tóxicos. Todas as linhagens de Trichoderma spp. inibiram o crescimento miceliano de R. solani e as três linhagens de T. koningii produziram potentes antibióticos, que inibiram mais de 79% o crescimento do patógeno. Uma linhagem de T. harzianum, Th-9, reduziu a viabilidade dos escleródios em 81,8% e uma de T. koningii em 53%. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelou que todas as linhagens de T. harzianum parasitaram R. solani enquanto nenhuma linhagem de T. koningii interagiu com R. solani, possivelmente, devido à forte inibição causada pelos metabólitos que impediu o contato entre os dois fungos. T. harzianum, Th-9, cresceu ao redor, penetrou e

  5. Fusarium spp. is able to grow and invade healthy human nails as a single source of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletti, J; Negri, M; Grassi, F L; Kioshima-Cotica, É S; Svidzinski, T I E

    2015-09-01

    Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. is emerging, but some factors associated with its development remain unclear, such as whether this genus is keratinolytic. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of Fusarium to use the human nail as a single source of nutrients. We also performed an epidemiological study and antifungal susceptibility testing of Fusarium spp. that were isolated from patients with onychomycosis. The epidemiological study showed that Fusarium species accounted for 12.4 % of onychomycosis cases, and it was the most common among nondermatophyte molds. The most frequent species identified were F. oxysporum (36.5 %), F. solani (31.8 %), and F. subglutinans (8.3 %). Fluconazole was not active against Fusarium spp., and the response to terbinafine varied according to species. Fusarium was able to grow in vitro without the addition of nutrients and invade healthy nails. Thus, we found that Fusarium uses keratin as a single source of nutrients, and the model proposed herein may be useful for future studies on the pathogenesis of onychomycosis.

  6. Fusarium canker of bitternut hickory caused by Fusarium solani in the North-Central and Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-H. Park; J. Juzwik

    2012-01-01

    Multiple annual cankers were observed on the upper main stems of bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis) exhibiting top dieback in Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin during a 2006 to 2008 survey of declining hickory. The top-killed trees had normal-sized, green leaves below and the cankers were oval, sunken, and bounded by heavy...

  7. Occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium species under wheat crop in zero tillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestro, L. B.; Stenglein, S. A.; Forjan, H.; Dinolfo, M. I.; Aramburri, A. M.; Manso, L.; Moreno, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    The presence of Fusarium species in cultivated soils is commonly associated with plant debris and plant roots. Fusarium species are also soil saprophytes. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium spp. at different soil depths in a zero tillage system after the wheat was harvested. Soil samples were obtained at three depths (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm) from five crop rotations: I, conservationist agriculture (wheat-sorghum-soybean); II, mixed agriculture/livestock with pastures, without using winter or summer forages (wheat-sorghum-soybean-canola-pastures); III, winter agriculture in depth limited soils (wheat-canola-barley-late soybean); IV, mixed with annual forage (wheat-oat/Vicia-sunflower); V, intensive agriculture (wheat-barley-canola, with alternation of soybean or late soybean). One hundred twenty two isolates of Fusarium were obtained and identified as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. oxysporum, F. scirpi and F. solani. The most prevalent species was F. oxysporum, which was observed in all sequences and depths. The Tukey's test showed that the relative frequency of F. oxysporum under intensive agricultural management was higher than in mixed traditional ones. The first 5 cm of soil showed statistically significant differences (p=0.05) with respect to 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths. The ANOVA test for the relative frequency of the other species as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. scirpi and F. solani, did not show statistically significant differences (p<0.05). We did not find significant differences (p<0.05) in the effect of crop rotations and depth on Shannon, Simpson indexes and species richness. Therefore we conclude that the different sequences and the sampling depth did not affect the alpha diversity of Fusarium community in this system. (Author) 51 refs.

  8. Polyketide synthase from Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvesel, Kasper; Wimmer, Reinhard; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    described, even fewer from fungi and none from Fusarium species. Multidomain proteins can be quite challenging to work with, which is why the project intends to solve the 3D-structures of single domains of PKS’s. In this project, the plan is to clone, express and purify the Acyl-carrier protein (ACP) domain...... from PKS6 in Fusarium graminearum for structural analysis....

  9. Sensivity of Jordanian Isolates of Alternaria solani to Manchotane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.I. Al-Mughrabi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of potato, caused by Alternaria solani, poses a significant risk to potato crops worldwide. Fifty A. solani isolates representing a population were collected from the Jordan Valley, purified, and tested for their sensitivity to the fungicide mancothane. The isolates were tested against a series of concentrations of 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 mg mancothane ml-1 in 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. Some A. solani isolates tolerated up to 1000 mg mancothane ml-1. Isolates treated with the various concentrations were divided into 5 groups based on the percentage of A. solani growth achieved despite treatment: group 1 comprised isolates with mycelial growth of 0.1– 20.9%; group 2, 21–40.9%; group 3, 41–60.9%; group 4, 61–80.9%; and group 5, 81–100%. Ninety-seven percent of all isolates grew at 0.1 mg mancothane ml-1, 94% at 1 mg ml-1, 86% at 10 mg ml-1, 66% at 100 mg ml-1, and 16% at 1000 mg ml-1. Isolates appeared to be distributed normally at 10 mg mancothane ml-1. Eight isolates were highly resistant to mancothane and grew even at the highest test concentration. An A. solani population collected from potato fields in the Jordan Valley exhibited a moderate level of resistance to mancothane. Growers should be careful and vigilant when using this fungicide to control early blight.

  10. Influence of selected Rhizoctonia solani isolates on sugar beet seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skonieczek Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2010 the levels of sugar beet seedlings infection caused by Rhizoctonia solani were compared in laboratory tests. Seven sugar beet lines were tested: H56, H66, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 as well as three control cultivars: Carlos, Esperanza and Janosik. Sugar beet lines with tolerance to rhizoctoniosis and cultivars without tolerance were infected artificially by R. solani isolates: R1, R28a and R28b. These isolates belong to the second anastomosis group (AG, which is usually highly pathogenic to beet roots. The aim of the experiment was to test whether the tolerance of sugar beet genotypes to R. solani AG 2 prevents both root rot, and damping-off of seedlings, induced by the pathogen. Sugar beet lines tolerant to brown root rot in laboratory tests were significantly less sensitive to infection of the seedlings by R. solani AG 2 isolates in comparison to control cultivars. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2 isolates demonstrated considerable differences in pathogenicity against seedlings of sugar beet lines and cultivars. The strongest infection of sugar beet seedlings occurred with the isolate R28b. The greatest tolerance to infection by AG 2 isolates was found for the S5 and S3 breeding lines.

  11. A synthetic combination of mutations, including fs(1)pyrSu(b), rSu(b) and b, causes female sterility and reduces embryonic viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Gojkovic, Zoran; Bahn, E.

    1999-01-01

    A Drosophila melangaster mutant, fs(1)pyr(Su(b)), carrying a mutation that maps to the tip of the X chromosome, has been isolated. The mutation, when present alone, does not confer a detectable phenotype. However, this mutation causes female sterility and reduces embryonic viability when combined...

  12. Analysis of Kenyan isolates of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the isolates showed high variability in aerial mycelial growth, mycelia texture, pigmentation (mycelia colour) when cultured on potato dextrose agar medium, and conidial measurements on Spezieller Nahrstoffarmer agar medium. Colonies were grouped into luxuriant, moderately luxuriant and scanty on aerial mycelial ...

  13. Analysis of Kenyan isolates of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... ... reported worldwide, including Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Chile,. Venezuela, Costa Rica and Malawi (Kraft et al., 1981). ... growth, mycelial texture and pigments (colour) produced on the mycelia. The nature of ...

  14. The Thermal Stability of the Fusarium solani pisi Cutinase as a Function of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen B. Petersen

    2001-01-01

    microcalorimetry. The ratio between the calorimetric enthalpy (ΔHcal and the van′t Hoff enthalpy (ΔHv obtained, is far from unity, indicating that cutinase does not exhibit a simple two state unfolding behaviour. The role of pH on the electrostatic contribution to the thermal stability was assessed using TITRA. We propose a molecular interpretation for the pH-variation in enzymatic activity.

  15. Biocatalytic application of nitrilases from Fusarium solani O1 and Aspergillus niger K10

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winkler, M.; Kaplan, Ondřej; Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Klempier, N.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2009), s. 243-247 ISSN 1381-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Amino nitriles * Nitrilase * Substrate specificity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.400, year: 2009

  16. Research work to obtain pepper (Piper negrum l.) mutants resistant to Fusarium disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, A.; Menten, J.O.M.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Albuquerque, F.C. de

    1984-01-01

    Cuttings of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) variety Singapore were irradiated at different doses (from 3.0-7.0 kR) of gamma radiation in the 60 Co source. After two successive prunings of surviving M 1 plants (from the irradiated cuttings), hundreds of vM 3 cuttings were planted separately in pots and artificially inoculated with Fusarium solani f. piperi. The surviving vM 3 plantlets were transplanted to an experimental field highly infested with this patogen. After two years in the infested field, only three UM 3 plants continue to grow. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Genetic mapping reveals a candidate gene (ClFS1) for fruit shape in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Junling; Zhao, Shengjie; Lu, Xuqiang; He, Nan; Zhang, Lei; Ali, Aslam; Kuang, Hanhui; Liu, Wenge

    2018-04-01

    A 159 bp deletion in ClFS1 gene encoding IQD protein is responsible for fruit shape in watermelon. Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is known for its rich diversity in fruit size and shape. Fruit shape has been one of the major objectives of watermelon breeding. However, the candidate genes and the underlying genetic mechanism for such an important trait in watermelon are unknown. In this study, we identified a locus on chromosome 3 of watermelon genome controlling fruit shape. Segregation analysis in F 2 and BC 1 populations derived from a cross between two inbred lines "Duan125" (elongate fruit) and "Zhengzhouzigua" (spherical fruit) suggests that fruit shape of watermelon is controlled by a single locus and elongate fruit (OO) is incompletely dominant to spherical fruit (oo) with the heterozygote (Oo) being oval fruit. GWAS profiles among 315 accessions identified a major locus designated on watermelon chromosome 3, which was confirmed by BSA-seq mapping in the F 2 population. The candidate gene was mapped to a region 46 kb on chromosome 3. There were only four genes present in the corresponding region in the reference genome. Four candidate genes were sequenced in this region, revealing that the CDS of Cla011257 had a 159 bp deletion which resulted in the omission of 53 amino acids in elongate watermelon. An indel marker was derived from the 159 bp deletion to test the F 2 population and 105 watermelon accessions. The results showed that Cla011257 cosegregated with watermelon fruit shape. In addition, the Cla011257 expression was the highest at ovary formation stage. The predicted protein of the Cla011257 gene fitted in IQD protein family which was reported to have association with cell arrays and Ca 2+ -CaM signaling modules. Clear understanding of the genes facilitating the fruit shape along with marker association selection will be an effective way to develop new cultivars.

  18. Outbreak of Fusarium oxysporum infections in children with cancer: an experience with 7 episodes of catheter-related fungemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesse, Fabianne; Amaral, Anna-Paula C; Gonçalves, Sarah S; Xafranski, Hemilio; Lee, Maria-Lucia M; Zecchin, Victor; Petrilli, Antonio S; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium species are widely spread in nature as plant pathogens but are also able to cause opportunistic fungal infections in humans. We report a cluster of Fusarium oxysporum bloodstream infections in a single pediatric cancer center. All clinical and epidemiological data related to an outbreak involving seven cases of fungemia by Fusarium oxysporum during October 2013 and February 2014 were analysed. All cultured isolates ( n  = 14) were identified to species level by sequencing of the TEF1 and RPB2 genes. Genotyping of the outbreak isolates was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting. In a 5-month period 7 febrile pediatric cancer patients were diagnosed with catheter-related Fusarium oxysporum bloodstream infections. In a time span of 11 years, only 6 other infections due to Fusarium were documented and all were caused by a different species, Fusarium solani . None of the pediatric cancer patients had neutropenia at the time of diagnosis and all became febrile within two days after catheter manipulation in a specially designed room. Extensive environmental sampling in this room and the hospital did not gave a clue to the source. The outbreak was terminated after implementation of a multidisciplinary central line insertion care bundle. All Fusarium strains from blood and catheter tips were genetically related by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting. All patients survived the infection after prompt catheter removal and antifungal therapy. A cluster with, genotypical identical, Fusarium oxysporum strains infecting 7 children with cancer, was most probably catheter-related. The environmental source was not discovered but strict infection control measures and catheter care terminated the outbreak.

  19. Outbreak of Fusarium oxysporum infections in children with cancer: an experience with 7 episodes of catheter-related fungemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Carlesse

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium species are widely spread in nature as plant pathogens but are also able to cause opportunistic fungal infections in humans. We report a cluster of Fusarium oxysporum bloodstream infections in a single pediatric cancer center. Methods All clinical and epidemiological data related to an outbreak involving seven cases of fungemia by Fusarium oxysporum during October 2013 and February 2014 were analysed. All cultured isolates (n = 14 were identified to species level by sequencing of the TEF1 and RPB2 genes. Genotyping of the outbreak isolates was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting. Results In a 5-month period 7 febrile pediatric cancer patients were diagnosed with catheter-related Fusarium oxysporum bloodstream infections. In a time span of 11 years, only 6 other infections due to Fusarium were documented and all were caused by a different species, Fusarium solani. None of the pediatric cancer patients had neutropenia at the time of diagnosis and all became febrile within two days after catheter manipulation in a specially designed room. Extensive environmental sampling in this room and the hospital did not gave a clue to the source. The outbreak was terminated after implementation of a multidisciplinary central line insertion care bundle. All Fusarium strains from blood and catheter tips were genetically related by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting. All patients survived the infection after prompt catheter removal and antifungal therapy. Conclusion A cluster with, genotypical identical, Fusarium oxysporum strains infecting 7 children with cancer, was most probably catheter-related. The environmental source was not discovered but strict infection control measures and catheter care terminated the outbreak.

  20. Biodiversity of Fusarium species in Mexico associated with ear rot in maize, and their identification using a phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rodríguez, Irma; Yañez-Morales, María de J; Silva-Rojas, Hilda V; García-de-Los-Santos, Gabino; Guzmán-de-Peña, Doralinda A

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides are known causes of ear and kernel rot in maize worldwide. In Mexico, only F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans, have been reported previously as causal agents of this disease. However, Fusarium isolates with different morphological characteristics to the species that are known to cause this disease were obtained in the Highland-Valley region of this country from symptomatic and symptomless ears of native and commercial maize genotypes. Moreover, while the morphological studies were not sufficient to identify the correct taxonomic position at the species level, analyses based in the Internal Transcribed Spacer region and the Nuclear Large Subunit Ribosomal partial sequences allowed for the identification of F. subglutinans, F. solani, and F. verticillioides, as well as four species (F. chlamydosporum, F. napiforme, F. poae, and F. pseudonygamai) that had not previously been reported to be associated with ear rot. In addition, F. napiforme and F. solani were absent from symptomless kernels. Phylogenetic analysis showed genetic changes in F. napiforme, and F. pseudonygamai isolates because they were not true clones, and probably constitute separate sibling species. The results of this study suggest that the biodiversity of Fusarium species involved in ear rot in Mexico is greater than that reported previously in other places in the world. This new knowledge will permit a better understanding of the relationship between all the species involved in ear rot disease and their relationship with maize.

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Fusarium SPECIES AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY FOR WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Poštić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From the root and lower stem parts of weeds and plant debris of maize, wheat, oat and sunflower we isolated 300 isolates of Fusarium spp. and performed morphological and molecular identification. With molecular identification using AFLP method we determined 14 Fusarium species: F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. concolor, F. crookwellense, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. sporotrichioides, F. subglutinans, F. venenatum and F. verticillioides.By comparing results of morphological and molecular identification we found out that determination of 16,7% isolates was incorrect. Out of 300 isolates identified with molecular methods, 50 did not belong to the species determined with morphological determination.With pathogenicity tests of 30 chosen Fusarium isolates we determined that many of them were pathogenic to wheat and maize seedlings and to wheat heads. The most pathogenic were isolates of F. graminearum from A. retroflexus, A. theophrasti and C. album, F. venenatum from maize debris and and A. theophrasti, F. crookwellense from A. lappa. Antifungal influence of 11 essential oils on mycelia growth and sporulation of chosen Fusarium isolates determined that essential oils of T. vulgaris, P. anisum and E. caryophyllus had the strongest effect on mycelial growth. Influence of essential oils on sporulation was not statistically significant.

  2. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  3. Fusarium oxysporum and the Fusarium Wilt Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Thomas R

    2017-08-04

    The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) comprises a multitude of strains that cause vascular wilt diseases of economically important crops throughout the world. Although sexual reproduction is unknown in the FOSC, horizontal gene transfer may contribute to the observed diversity in pathogenic strains. Development of disease in a susceptible crop requires F. oxysporum to advance through a series of transitions, beginning with spore germination and culminating with establishment of a systemic infection. In principle, each transition presents an opportunity to influence the risk of disease. This includes modifications of the microbial community in soil, which can affect the ability of pathogen propagules to survive, germinate, and infect plant roots. In addition, many host attributes, including the composition of root exudates, the structure of the root cortex, and the capacity to recognize and respond quickly to invasive growth of a pathogen, can impede development of F. oxysporum.

  4. Organic amendments conditions on the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus caused by three Fusarium spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego-Benjumea, A.I.; Melero-Vara, J.M.; Basallote-Ureba, M.J.

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), F. proliferatum (Fp) and F. solani (Fs) are causal agents associated with roots of asparagus affected by crown and root rot, a disease inflicting serious losses worldwide. The propagule viability of Fusarium spp. was determined on substrate artificially infested with Fo5, Fp3 or Fs2 isolates, amended with either poultry manure (PM), its pellet (PPM), or olive residue compost (ORC) and, thereafter, incubated at 30 or 35°C for different periods. Inoculum viability was significantly affected by these organic amendments (OAs) in combination with temperature and incubation period. The greatest reduction in viability of Fo5 and Fs2 occurred with PPM and loss of viability achieved was higher at 35°C than at 30ºC, and longer incubation period (45 days). However, the viability of Fp3 did not decrease greatly in most of the treatments, as compared to the infested and un-amended control, when incubated at 30ºC. After incubation, seedlings of asparagus Grande´ were transplanted into pots containing substrates infested with the different species of Fusarium. After three months in greenhouse, symptoms severity in roots showed highly significant decreases, but Fp3 caused lower severity than Fo5 and Fs2. Severity reduction was particularly high at 30ºC (by 15 days incubation for Fs2 and by 30-45 days for Fo5), after PPM treatment, as well as PM-2% for Fo5 and Fs2 incubated during 30 and 45 days at both temperatures, and with ORC (15-30 days incubation). Moreover, assessment of plants fresh weight showed significantly high increases in Fo5 and Fs2, with some rates of the three OAs tested, depending on incubat. (Author)

  5. Organic amendments conditions on the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus caused by three Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Borrego-Benjumea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum (Fo, F. proliferatum (Fp and F. solani (Fs are causal agents associated with roots of asparagus affected by crown and root rot, a disease inflicting serious losses worldwide. The propagule viability of Fusarium spp. was determined on substrate artificially infested with Fo5, Fp3 or Fs2 isolates, amended with either poultry manure (PM, its pellet (PPM, or olive residue compost (ORC and, thereafter, incubated at 30 or 35°C for different periods. Inoculum viability was significantly affected by these organic amendments (OAs in combination with temperature and incubation period. The greatest reduction in viability of Fo5 and Fs2 occurred with PPM and loss of viability achieved was higher at 35°C than at 30ºC, and longer incubation period (45 days. However, the viability of Fp3 did not decrease greatly in most of the treatments, as compared to the infested and un-amended control, when incubated at 30ºC. After incubation, seedlings of asparagus `Grande´ were transplanted into pots containing substrates infested with the different species of Fusarium. After three months in greenhouse, symptoms severity in roots showed highly significant decreases, but Fp3 caused lower severity than Fo5 and Fs2. Severity reduction was particularly high at 30ºC (by 15 days incubation for Fs2 and by 30-45 days for Fo5, after PPM treatment, as well as PM-2% for Fo5 and Fs2 incubated during 30 and 45 days at both temperatures, and with ORC (15-30 days incubation. Moreover, assessment of plants fresh weight showed significantly high increases in Fo5 and Fs2, with some rates of the three OAs tested, depending on incubation period and temperature.

  6. Sensivity of Jordanian Isolates of Alternaria solani to Manchotane

    OpenAIRE

    K.I. Al-Mughrabi

    2004-01-01

    Early blight of potato, caused by Alternaria solani, poses a significant risk to potato crops worldwide. Fifty A. solani isolates representing a population were collected from the Jordan Valley, purified, and tested for their sensitivity to the fungicide mancothane. The isolates were tested against a series of concentrations of 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 mg mancothane ml-1 in 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Some A. solani isolates tolerated up to 1000 mg mancothane ml-1. Isolat...

  7. In vitro antagonistic activity of fungi isolated from sclerotia on potato tubers against Rhizoctonia solani

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRCİ, Erkol; DANE, Elif; EKEN, Cafer

    2011-01-01

    Forty-five fungal isolates were obtained from sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani on potato tubers in Erzurum, Turkey. The interaction between fungal isolates and R. solani was studied in dual culture technique. Some fungal isolates affected R. solani by antibiosis and/or parasitism. Results of the antagonism tests showed that Acremonium sp., Gliocladium viride, Paecilomyces marquandii, Paecilomyces sulphurellus, Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium frequentans (ME-50), Penic...

  8. Dipeptide transporters in Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Giese, Henriette; Søndergaard, Teis

    Fungi have evolved different transport mechanisms in order to utilize both inorganic and organic nitrogen sources because nitrogen availability often is one of the limiting factors in pathogenic processes. In this study we have characterized four di/tripeptide transporters in the necrotrophic plant...... pathogen Fusarium graminearum Fusarium that causes head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley....

  9. In-Vitro Evaluation of Fungicides and Fungicide Combinations Against Fusarium Root-Rot Fungal Pathogens of French Beans(Phaseolus Vulgaris L. c v. Monel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagichunge, A.G.R; Owino, P.O; Waudo, S.W; Seif, A.A

    1999-01-01

    Laboratories studies were undertaken to evaluate In-vitro efficacy of captan, thiram, pyrazophos, triforine and metalaxyl + mancozeb fungicides against Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel and Wollenw fsp. phaseoli (Burk) Synder and Hansen Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht fsp. phaseoli kend and Synder root-rot fungal pathogens of French beans. Five fungicides and four combinations were tested for their antifungal activity. Fungicides treatments significantly (P=0.05) inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination. Fungicides suppressed the growth of F. oxysporum fsp. Phaseoli more than that of F. solani fsp. phaseoli. All fungicides except metalaxyl + mancozeb failed to suppress sporulation of the two fungi In-vitro. In the case of thiram the sporulation capacity of F. oxysporum fsp. phaseoli 3.43 times higher than in the control. Although, no fungicides treatment was seen to inhibitor of all the three measures of fungitoxicity, the ranking of the best three fungicide treatments would be, thiram 50 + captan so > triforine > metalaxyl + mancozeb. The relatively higher inhibitory effect of fungicides on the growth of F. oxysporum Ssp. Phaseoli than that of F. solani fsp. Phaseoli suggested that F. oxysporum Esp. Phaseoli was more sensible to fungicide treatments. Such differences may reflect inherent variations in accessibility of the active toxicants within the fungal systems. The ability attributed to the low growth rate, N depletion temperature and oxygen

  10. PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPP. ISOLATED FROM WEEDS AND PLANT DEBRIS IN EASTERN CROATIA TO WHEAT AND MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of thirty isolates representing 14 Fusarium species isolated from weeds and plant debris in eastern Croatia was investigated in the laboratory. Pathogenicity tests were performed on wheat and maize seedlings. The most pathogenic Fusarium spp. was F. graminearum isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album. There was a noticeable inter- and intraspecies variability in pathogenicity towards wheat and maize. Isolates of F. solani from Sonchus arvensis and F. verticillioides from C. album were highly pathogenic to wheat seedlings and apathogenic to maize seedlings. Isolates of F. venenatum were very pathogenic to wheat and maize being the first report about pathogenicity of this species. This experiment proves that weeds and plant debris can serve as alternate hosts and source of inoculum of plant pathogens.

  11. TAXONOMY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CULTIVATED PLANTS, WEEDS AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY FOR WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species are wide-spread and known to be pathogenic agents to cultivated plants in various agroclimatic areas. During a four year investigation 10 Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale were isolated from wheat, barley, maize and soybean as well as from 10 weeds collected from 10 locations in Slavonia and Baranya. Fusarium graminearum was dominant on wheat and barley, F. moniliforme on maize and F. oxysporum on soybean. Regarding weeds, the presence of the following Fusarium species was established: F. graminearum on Amaranthus hybridus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Lamium purpureum, Sorghum halepense and Urtica dioica, F. moniliforme on Abutilon theophrasti, F. subglutinans on Polygonum aviculare, F. avenaceum on Capsella bursa-pastoris, Rumex crispus and Matricaria sp., F. culmorum on Abutilon theophrasti, F. sporotrichioides on Polygonum aviculare, F. proliferatum and F. poae on Artemisia vulgaris. Pathogenicity test to wheat seedlings was done in our laboratory on winter wheat cultivars Slavonija and Demetra (totally 146 isolates. The most pathogenic species to wheat seedilings were F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides and the least pathogenic F. moniliforme, F. solani, F. oxysporum and F. poae. Pathogenicity test for wheat ears was done on genotypes Osk.8c9/3-94 and Osk.6.11/2 (totally 25 isolates. The results obtained by our investigation showed that there were no significant differences in pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from both cultivated plants and weeds. Weeds represent a constant source of inoculum of F. species for cultivated plants and they serve as epidemiologic bridges among vegetations.

  12. Metabolism and resistance of Fusarium spp. to the manzamine alkaloids via a putative retro pictet-spengler reaction and utility of the rational design of antimalarial and antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanah, Noer; Farr, Lorelei Lucas; Gholipour, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Hamann, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    As a part of our continuing investigation of the manzamine alkaloids we studied the in vitro activity of the β-carboline containing manzamine alkaloids against Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporium, and Fusarium proliferatum by employing several bioassay techniques including one-dimensional direct bioautography, dilution, and plate susceptibility, and microtiter broth assays. In addition, we also studied the metabolism of the manzamine alkaloids by Fusarium spp. in order to facilitate the redesign of the compounds to prevent resistance of Fusarium spp. through metabolism. The present research reveals that the manzamine alkaloids are inactive against Fusarium spp. and the fungi transform manzamines via hydrolysis, reduction, and a retro Pictet-Spengler reaction. This is the first report to demonstrate an enzymatically retro Pictet-Spengler reaction. The results of this study reveal the utility of the rational design of metabolically stable antifungal agents from this class and the development of manzamine alkaloids as antimalarial drugs through the utilization of Fusarium's metabolic products to reconstruct the molecule.

  13. ZONEAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE Fusarium spp. CAUSADORES DE PODRIDÃO DE RAÍZES EM PLANTIOS DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. NA REGIÃO DO VALE DO TAQUARÍ, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Blume

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Em 2004, foram constatados sintomas da doença podridão-de-raízes em ervais nos municípios da região alta do Vale do Taquari, RS. Com o auxílio de técnicos da EMATER, fez-se um levantamento dos municípios que possuíam ervais com sintomas. Em 10% dos ervais afetados, coletaram-se amostras de raízes que foram enviadas para análise no Laboratório de Fitopatologia pertencente ao Departamento de Defesa Sanitária/CCR/UFSM. Foram isoladas e identificadas cinco diferentes espécies do fungo Fusarium associadas à doença: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium decemcellulare, Fusarium tabacinum e Fusarium tricinctum. Todas as espécies se mostraram patogênicas quando inoculadas em plantas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.. No momento da coleta das amostras, levantaram-se informações sobre o manejo do erval e discutiu-se a similaridade entre os sintomas apresentados na erva-mate e em culturas agronômicas bem como hipóteses sobre a origem do inóculo de Fusarium spp. que proporcionou a contaminação dos ervais.

  14. Metabolome profiling to understand the defense response to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG 2-2 IIIB, is an important disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular processes that mediate sugar beet resistance to R. solani are largely unknown and identifying the metabolites associated with R. solani infection ma...

  15. Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen; Tan, Yanglan; Wang, Shuangxia; Gardiner, Donald M.; De Saeger, Sarah; Liao, Yucai; Wang, Cheng; Fan, Yingying; Wang, Zhouping; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the mycotoxin profiles for the twenty fungi, suggesting that these fungi species could be discriminated and divided into three groups as follows. Group I, the fusaric acid producers, were defined into two subgroups, namely subgroup I as producers of fusaric acid and fumonisins, comprising of F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi and F. solani, and subgroup II considered to only produce fusaric acid, including F. temperatum, F. subglutinans, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first time, and thus from an application point of view, provides key information to explore mycotoxigenic potentials of Fusarium species and forecast the Fusarium infestation/mycotoxins contamination. PMID:28035973

  16. Badania nad patogenicznością grzyba Rhizoctonia solani Kühn na lnie [Investigations of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn pathogenicity to flax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Sadowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the pathogenicity of four Rhizoctonia solani isolates were carried out in relation to three varieties of flax; LCSD - 210, LCSD - 200 and Wiera. Variety LCSD - 210 was found to be the most resistant. Isolates obtaind from flax and potatoes were especially pathogenic. Rhizoctonia solani was parasitic during the whole vegetation season, but particularly in the course of emergence. Parasitism of this fungus is of great economical significance.

  17. New dereplication method applied to NMR-Based metabolomics on different fusarium species isolated from Rhizosphere of Senna spectabilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selegato, Denise M.; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Freire, Rafael T.; Tannús, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The search for new sources of natural products steadily increased the use of bioinformatics tools that enabled efficient analysis of complex matrices. In this context, dereplication methods emerged as a fast way of identifying known compounds, accelerating the identification of bioactive chemotypes. Although 1 H NMR is widely used as an analytical technique, few studies have been reported using it as a dereplication tool, primarily because of the spectral complexity. This work aims to create a new computational method that analyses 1 H NMR data from Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum isolated from Senna spectabilis' srhizosphere through principal component analysis (PCA). The algorithm uses loading values to select important peaks that distinguish both species in PCA, allowing compound dereplication, even in highly similar profiles. As a result, the method, associated with other NMR experiments and information from an in-house Fusarium's metabolite library was able to distinguish different mycotoxins produced by both fungi, identifying fusaric acid and beauvericin for F. oxysporum and the depsipeptide HA23 from F. solani. (author)

  18. New dereplication method applied to NMR-Based metabolomics on different fusarium species isolated from Rhizosphere of Senna spectabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selegato, Denise M.; Castro-Gamboa, Ian, E-mail: ian.castro@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (NuBBE/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Núcleo de Bioensaios, Biossíntese e Ecofisiologia de Produtos Naturais; Freire, Rafael T.; Tannús, Alberto [Universidade de São Paulo (CIERMag/USP), São Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Imagens e Espectroscopia in Vivo por Ressonância Magnética

    2016-07-01

    The search for new sources of natural products steadily increased the use of bioinformatics tools that enabled efficient analysis of complex matrices. In this context, dereplication methods emerged as a fast way of identifying known compounds, accelerating the identification of bioactive chemotypes. Although {sup 1}H NMR is widely used as an analytical technique, few studies have been reported using it as a dereplication tool, primarily because of the spectral complexity. This work aims to create a new computational method that analyses {sup 1}H NMR data from Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum isolated from Senna spectabilis' srhizosphere through principal component analysis (PCA). The algorithm uses loading values to select important peaks that distinguish both species in PCA, allowing compound dereplication, even in highly similar profiles. As a result, the method, associated with other NMR experiments and information from an in-house Fusarium's metabolite library was able to distinguish different mycotoxins produced by both fungi, identifying fusaric acid and beauvericin for F. oxysporum and the depsipeptide HA23 from F. solani. (author)

  19. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.

  20. Rhizoctonia solani infection reduced by bacterial and fungal combination of biofertilizer inoculums on organic potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Orsolya; Biro, Borbala; Abod, Eva; Jung, Timea; Tirczka, Imre; Drexler, Dora

    2017-04-01

    Soil biological functioning and proper agrotechnical management are of key importance in organic agriculture. Beneficial microbial inoculums are used either as plant strengthening products (psp) or also as plant protecting products (ppp). Question is, which type of microbes should be applied to certain soil-plant systems to improve yield or reduce the damage of soil-born plant pathogens? Objective of present study was to compare the effect of inoculums 1 (PPS) with plant growth promoting bacterium strains (PGPR) and inoculums 2 (TPB) with potential biocontrol-agents, including both fungi and bacteria in organic potato production. Field experiment was conducted at the Organic Research Station of the Szent István University (Babatpuszta, Hungary). Growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Demon) was studied in the two microbial treatments and control, in four replicates. The PPS inoculums included Pseudomonas protegens, Ps. jessenii and Strenotrophomonas maltophylia, with plant growth promoting (PGPR) effect. TPB inoculums consisted of Trichoderma hartianum, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis strains with main biocontrol effects of fungal and bacterium combination. Strains were incubated for 24 hours at 28 oC in a rotary shaker (140 rpm/min) up till cell-number about 1010 cell.ml-1 in Nutrient broth substrate, and mixed to prepare combined inoculums. Each potato tuber was treated by 10 ml inoculums that was added to 100 ml water respectively with only water at the controls. Yield of potato (10 plants/plot) and tuber quality, i.e. the percentage ratio of scabbiness (Streptomyces scabies), Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium sp. infection was estimated. Abundance of total aerob and anaerob heterotrophs, total microscopic fungi, pseudomonads bacteria and some sporeforming microorganisms was assessed by the most probable number (MPN) method in soil samples, collected four times during vegetation. Soil enzyme, dehydrogenase (DH) and fluorescein diacetate

  1. Successful treatment of Fusarium keratitis after photo refractive keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Cavallini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a history of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK, performed two weeks prior; slit-lamp examination revealed diffuse conjunctival congestion, corneal ulcer and stromal infiltration. After 5 days of antifungal and antibacteric treatment, the infiltrate progressively increased so that a therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was necessary. The microbiological analyses revealed the presence of fungal filaments. Twenty days after surgery the patient had recurrent fungal infiltrate in the donor cornea with wound dehiscence. We performed a second penetrating keratoplasty. With the matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight analysis (MALDI-TOF we identified a Fusarium solani.Intravenous amphothericine B, a combination of intracameral and intrastromal voriconazole and intracameral amphotericine B were administered. After 6 months from the last surgery the infection was eradicated. The management of fungal keratitis after PRK depends on many factors: In our experience, a prompt keratoplasty and the use of intracameral antifungal medication proved to be very effective.

  2. Pathogenic ability and saline stress tolerance of two Fusarium isolates from Odontesthes bonariensis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Marino, Suani G; Cabello, Marta N; Dinolfo, María I; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N; Salibián, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Several fungal species represent a potential risk to embryos of Odontesthes bonariensis (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1835), a euryhaline freshwater fish that lives in the Pampean inland waters and has potential economic relevance. To identify two fungi isolated from O. bonariensis eggs exposed to saline conditions and to characterize their pathogenicity and tolerance to sodium chloride solutions. The isolates were identified by morphological features, and a preliminar phylogenetic analysis using sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CAM) was performed. Koch's postulates were tested to identify the causative agent of fungal infection. The influence of NaCl on the fungal growth was evaluated in in vitro assays. The isolates LPSC 1001 and 1002 were identified as representatives of the genus Fusarium, and belonging to the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex (FIESC) and the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), respectively. Histological observations on eggs exposed in vitro to both isolates in infectivity assays confirmed the ability of the fungal isolates to penetrate to egg's chorionic membrane, leading to the death of embryos. Increasing NaCl concentration in the culture medium reduced the growth of the isolates LPSC 1001 and 1002, being completely inhibited at 160 and 120g/l NaCl respectively. The isolates LPSC 1001 (FIESC) and 1002 (FSSC) were identified as fungal pathogens to O. bonariensis eggs. The use of NaCl solutions as antifungal treatment was not effective to control the infection with these strains. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved Diagnoses and Quantification of Fusarium virguliforme, Causal Agent of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Jacobs, Janette L; Byrne, Jan M; Chilvers, Martin I

    2015-03-01

    Fusarium virguliforme (syn. F. solani f. sp. glycines) is the primary causal pathogen responsible for soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) in North America. Diagnosis of SDS is difficult because symptoms can be inconsistent or similar to several soybean diseases and disorders. Additionally, quantification and identification of F. virguliforme by traditional dilution plating of soil or ground plant tissue is problematic due to the slow growth rate and plastic morphology of F. virguliforme. Although several real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assays have been developed for F. virguliforme, the performance of those assays does not allow for accurate quantification of F. virguliforme due to the reclassification of the F. solani species complex. In this study, we developed a TaqMan qPCR assay based on the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) region of F. virguliforme. Specificity of the assay was demonstrated by challenging it with genomic DNA of closely related Fusarium spp. and commonly encountered soilborne fungal pathogens. The detection limit of this assay was determined to be 100 fg of pure F. virguliforme genomic DNA or 100 macroconidia in 0.5 g of soil. An exogenous control was multiplexed with the assay to evaluate for PCR inhibition. Target locus copy number variation had minimal impact, with a range of rDNA copy number from 138 to 233 copies per haploid genome, resulting in a minor variation of up to 0.76 cycle threshold values between strains. The qPCR assay is transferable across platforms, as validated on the primary real-time PCR platform used in the Northcentral region of the National Plant Diagnostic Network. A conventional PCR assay for F. virguliforme detection was also developed and validated for use in situations where qPCR is not possible.

  4. Two novel Fusarium species that cause canker disease of prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) in northern China form a novel clade with Fusarium torreyae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; O'Donnell, Kerry; Aoki, Takayuki; Smith, Jason A; Kasson, Matthew T; Cao, Zhi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Canker disease of prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) has caused a decline in the production of this economically important spice in northern China in the past 25 y. To identify the etiological agent, 38 fungal isolates were recovered from symptomatic tissues from trees in five provinces in China. These isolates were identified by conducting BLASTN queries of NCBI GenBank and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA), a portion of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) gene, and genes encoding RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest (RPB2) subunits. Results of these analyses suggested that 30/38 isolates belonged to two novel fusaria most closely related to the Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia Arn.) pathogen, Fusarium torreyae in Florida and Georgia. These three canker-inducing tree pathogens form a novel clade within Fusarium here designated the F. torreyae species complex (FTOSC). BLASTN queries of GenBank also revealed that 5/38 isolates recovered from cankers represented an undescribed phylogenetic species within the F. solani species complex (FSSC) designated FSSC 6. Stem inoculations of three fusaria on Z. bungeanum resulted in consistent canker symptoms from which these three fusaria were recovered. The two novel fusaria, however, induced significantly larger lesions than FSSC 6. Herein, the two novel prickly ash pathogens are formally described as F. zanthoxyli and F. continuum. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  6. Ultrastructural analysis of anastomosis group 9 of Rhizoctonia solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedeno, L; Palacios Pru, E

    1996-01-01

    The ultrastructure of R. solani AG-9 (S-21, ATCC 62804) was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The most important characteristics were those related with cell wall thickness, cytoplasmic matrix composition, number of nuclei and nucleoli and secretory material production. The majority of examined hyphae showed lateral cell walls thinner than those recorded before. The cytoplasmic matrix consistently appeared differentiated into two classes, one formed by a highly electron dense granular fine material and the other one showing a coloidal substance of very low density which give these cells a 'tiger-like' aspect. The granular dense matrix always had abundant free ribosomes and usually surrounded the cytoplasmic organelles and the septal pore apparatus. The somatic cells showed up to 5 nuclei, some of which with three nucleoli. Masses of secretory material surrounded by membrane were regularly seen in the cytoplasm, with sizes similar to those of nuclei

  7. Secondary metabolite profiling of Alternaria dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Dongo, Anita; Pryor, Barry M

    2008-02-01

    Chemotaxonomy (secondary metabolite profiling) has been shown to be of great value in the classification and differentiation in Ascomycota. However, few studies have investigated the use of metabolite production for classification and identification purposes of plant pathogenic Alternaria species. The purpose of the present study was to describe the methodology behind metabolite profiling in chemotaxonomy using A. dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila strains as examples of the group. The results confirmed that A. dauci, A. solani, and A. tomatophila are three distinct species each with their own specific metabolite profiles, and that A. solani and A. tomatophila both produce altersolanol A, altertoxin I, and macrosporin. By using automated chemical image analysis and other multivariate statistic analyses, three sets of species-specific metabolites could be selected, one each for A. dauci, A. solani, and A. tomatophila.

  8. Comparison of the growth and some morphological and anatomical features of Rhizoctonia cerealis and R. solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Weber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In laboratory experiments were observed diameter of hyphae as well as the influence of temperature and kind of medium on mycelium growth, colour of colony and forming of sclerotia by R. cerealis and R. solani.

  9. Real-time pcr (qpcr) assay for rhizoctonia solani anastomoses group ag2-2 iiib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.J.; Ahmad, B.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group AG2-2 IIIB is a severe sugar beet and maize pathogen. It causes crown and root rot disease which leads to yield losses world-wide. The soil-borne pathogen is difficult to detect and quantify by conventional methods. We developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the quantification of genomic DNA of Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 IIIB based on the ITS region of rDNA genes. The limit of quantification of the assay is 1.8 pg genomic DNA. The amplification efficiency was 96.4. The assay will be helpful in the diagnoses of Rhizoctonia solani infection of sugar beet and maize roots and in the quantification of R. solani AG2-2 IIIB inoculum in plant debris and soil. (author)

  10. Molecular identification and characterization of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 isolates causing black scurf of potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidy, M.E.; Othman, M.R.; Mahmoud, M.

    2018-01-01

    Twenty-six isolates of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 were collected from four potato growing area of Saudi Arabia. Yield damages due to this infection is reported to range from 7-64% (average of 35%), depending on many factors. Molecular identification of R. solani AG-3 isolates by ITS-regions and characterization was done by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Twenty-six isolates of R. solani used in the current study were isolated from potato fields in four major potato-producing regions of Saudi Arabia. All isolates were inoculated on potato and observations on the percentage of disease incidence were recorded. Genomic DNA extraction of R. solani AG-3 isolates was used by A specific and sensitive PCR and ISSR primers. A single splinter of nearly 500 bp was only amplified once genomic DNA from R. solani AG-3 isolates. Amplicon size of three ISSR primers ranged from 0.3 to 2.8 Kb in isolates. Using the three primers, the tested isolates were separated on the basis of genetic similarity coefficients (GSC). The range of the GSC was beginning at 0.62 and ending at 1.00. In unweighted pair-group method arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis, the R. solani isolates grouped into five clusters. The present method provided rapid and reliable detection of R. solani AG-3 isolates. Molecular characterization have great genetic variation in the R. solani AG-3 population, without any correlation between aggressiveness, geographical regions and genetic variation based on ISSR markers. (author)

  11. Fusarium proliferatum and fumonisin B1 co-occur with Fusarium species causing Fusarium Head Blight in durum wheat in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Barbara; Pfohl, Katharina; Tonti, Stefano; Nipoti, Paola; Dastjerdi, Raana; Pisi, Annamaria; Karlovsky, Petr; Prodi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. with Fusarium graminearum as main causal agent is a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Mycotoxins in wheat are dominated by trichothecenes B. Fumonisins have only occasionally been reported from wheat; their occurrence was attributed to Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides. We investigated kernels of durum wheat grown in Italy in 2008 - 2010 for colonization with Fusarium spp. and for the content o...

  12. Regulators Involved in Dickeya solani Virulence, Genetic Conservation and Functional Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Marta; Golanowska, Małgorzata; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Dickeya (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) are plant pathogens causing severe diseases in many economically important crops. A majority of the strains responsible for potato disease in Europe belong to a newly identified Dickeya solani species. Although some ecological and epidemiological studies have been carried out, little is known about the regulation of D. solani virulence. The characterization of four D. solani strains indicates significant differences in their virulence on potato although they are genetically similar based on genomic fingerprinting profiles. A phenotypic examination included an analysis of virulence on potato, growth rate in culture, motility, Fe 3+ chelation, and pectate lyase, cellulase, protease, biosurfactant and blue pigment production. Mutants of four D. solani strains were constructed by inactivating the genes coding either for one of the main negative regulators of D. dadantii virulence (kdgR, pecS and pecT) or for the synthesis and perception of signaling molecules (expI and expR). Analysis of these mutants indicated that PecS, PecT and KdgR play a similar role in both species, repressing to different degrees the synthesis of virulence factors. The thermoregulator PecT seems to be a major regulator of D. solani virulence. This work also reveals the role of quorum sensing mediated by ExpI and ExpR in D. solani virulence on potato.

  13. Zoneamento e identificação de Fusarium spp. causadores de podridão de raízes em plantios de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. na região do vale do Taquarí, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Em 2004, foram constatados sintomas da doença podridão-de-raízes em ervais nos municípios da região alta do Vale do Taquari, RS. Com o auxílio de técnicos da EMATER, fez-se um levantamento dos municípios que possuíam ervais com sintomas. Em 10% dos ervais afetados, coletaram-se amostras de raízes que foram enviadas para análise no Laboratório de Fitopatologia pertencente ao Departamento de Defesa Sanitária/CCR/UFSM. Foram isoladas e identificadas cinco diferentes espécies do fungo Fusarium associadas à doença: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium decemcellulare, Fusarium tabacinum e Fusarium tricinctum. Todas as espécies se mostraram patogênicas quando inoculadas em plantas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.. No momento da coleta das amostras, levantaram-se informações sobre o manejo do erval e discutiu-se a similaridade entre os sintomas apresentados na erva-mate e em culturas agronômicas bem como hipóteses sobre a origem do inóculo de Fusarium spp. que proporcionou a contaminação dos ervais.

  14. Fusarium dimerum Species Complex (Fusarium penzigii) Keratitis After Corneal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Anália; Costa, Esmeralda; Marques, Marco; Quadrado, Maria João; Tomé, Rui

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a keratitis associated with a Fusarium penzigii-a Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC)-in a 81-year-old woman after a corneal trauma with a tree branch. At patient admittance, slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed an exuberant chemosis, an inferior corneal ulcer with an associated inflammatory infiltrate, a central corneal abscess, bullous keratopathy and posterior synechiae. Corneal scrapes were obtained for identification of bacteria and fungi, and the patient started antibiotic treatment on empirical basis. Few days later, the situation worsened with the development of hypopyon. By that time, Fusarium was identified in cultures obtained from corneal scrapes and the patient started topical amphotericin B 0.15 %. Upon the morphological identification of the Fusarium as a FDSC, and since there was no clinical improvement, the treatment with amphotericin B was suspended and the patient started voriconazole 10 mg/ml, eye drops, hourly and voriconazole 200 mg iv, every 12 h for 1 month. The hypopyon resolved and the inflammatory infiltrate improved, but the abscess persisted at the last follow-up visit. The molecular identification revealed that the FDSC was a F. penzigii.

  15. Dermatitis and systemic mycosis in lined seahorses Hippocampus erectus associated with a marine-adapted Fusarium solani species complex pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a 4 month epizootic, 100% of 152 lined seahorses Hippocampus erectus in three separate groups died while in quarantine following shipment to a public aquarium. Twelve animals with skin depigmentation and ulceration were received by the Aquatic Pathology Service, University of Georgia, College...

  16. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and

  17. Reactive Oxygen Species Play a Role in the Infection of the Necrotrophic Fungi, Rhizoctonia solani in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Rhonda C; Kidd, Brendan N; Hane, James K; Anderson, Jonathan P; Singh, Karam B

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a nectrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes billions of dollars of damage to agriculture worldwide and infects a broad host range including wheat, rice, potato and legumes. In this study we identify wheat genes that are differentially expressed in response to the R. solani isolate, AG8, using microarray technology. A significant number of wheat genes identified in this screen were involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and redox regulation. Levels of ROS species were increased in wheat root tissue following R. solani infection as determined by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT), 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and titanium sulphate measurements. Pathogen/ROS related genes from R. solani were also tested for expression patterns upon wheat infection. TmpL, a R. solani gene homologous to a gene associated with ROS regulation in Alternaria brassicicola, and OAH, a R. solani gene homologous to oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase which has been shown to produce oxalic acid in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were highly induced in R. solani when infecting wheat. We speculate that the interplay between the wheat and R. solani ROS generating proteins may be important for determining the outcome of the wheat/R. solani interaction.

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species Play a Role in the Infection of the Necrotrophic Fungi, Rhizoctonia solani in Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda C Foley

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is a nectrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes billions of dollars of damage to agriculture worldwide and infects a broad host range including wheat, rice, potato and legumes. In this study we identify wheat genes that are differentially expressed in response to the R. solani isolate, AG8, using microarray technology. A significant number of wheat genes identified in this screen were involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS production and redox regulation. Levels of ROS species were increased in wheat root tissue following R. solani infection as determined by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT, 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB and titanium sulphate measurements. Pathogen/ROS related genes from R. solani were also tested for expression patterns upon wheat infection. TmpL, a R. solani gene homologous to a gene associated with ROS regulation in Alternaria brassicicola, and OAH, a R. solani gene homologous to oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase which has been shown to produce oxalic acid in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were highly induced in R. solani when infecting wheat. We speculate that the interplay between the wheat and R. solani ROS generating proteins may be important for determining the outcome of the wheat/R. solani interaction.

  19. Structural dynamics of Fusarium genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, H.C.; Rep, M.; Ma, L.-J.; Brown, D.W.; Proctor, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Fusarium have a great negative impact on the world economy, yet also hold great potential for answering many fundamental biological questions. The advance of sequencing technologies has made possible the connection between phenotypes and genetic mechanisms underlying the

  20. Host specificity in Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, P.

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a fungal pathogen that can cause severe wilt disease and root rot in various plant species. Every individual strain is restricted to causing disease in only one or a few plant species. In this thesis, we focused on identifying novel virulence factors (‘effectors’) secreted by

  1. A Novel Population of Fusarium fujikuroi Isolated from Southeastern U.S. Winegrapes Reveals the Need to Re-Evaluate the Species' Fumonisin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Stephanie L; Brannen, Phillip M; Glenn, Anthony E

    2016-08-31

    Mycotoxins pose a challenge to a safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is expected to worsen with our changing climate. The need for diligence is exemplified by the discovery of fumonisin B2 in wine, which joins ochratoxin A as a mycotoxin of concern in the grape-wine chain. To elucidate the mycotoxin risk in southeastern American wine, grape samples were collected from vineyards during harvest in 2013 and potentially mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium and Aspergillus) were isolated from the samples. Numerous Fusarium isolates were recovered and identified to the species level by comparison of translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences to verified strains. Fusarium fujikuroi was the most abundant species recovered (239 isolates), followed by F. proliferatum (52), F. incarnatum-equiseti (14), F. oxysporum (7), F. concentricum (1), and F. solani (1). In vitro assays quantified fumonisin production for representative isolates via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, nearly all F. fujikuroi isolates produced fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 at levels comparable to both the F. proliferatum isolates and the positive control, Fusarium verticillioides. Such capacity for fumonisin production refutes the generally accepted notion that F. fujikuroi produces undetectable or low levels of fumonisins and provides evidence to reconsider this species as a mycotoxigenic threat to economically significant crops.

  2. A Novel Population of Fusarium fujikuroi Isolated from Southeastern U.S. Winegrapes Reveals the Need to Re-Evaluate the Species’ Fumonisin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Bolton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins pose a challenge to a safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is expected to worsen with our changing climate. The need for diligence is exemplified by the discovery of fumonisin B2 in wine, which joins ochratoxin A as a mycotoxin of concern in the grape-wine chain. To elucidate the mycotoxin risk in southeastern American wine, grape samples were collected from vineyards during harvest in 2013 and potentially mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium and Aspergillus were isolated from the samples. Numerous Fusarium isolates were recovered and identified to the species level by comparison of translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences to verified strains. Fusarium fujikuroi was the most abundant species recovered (239 isolates, followed by F. proliferatum (52, F. incarnatum-equiseti (14, F. oxysporum (7, F. concentricum (1, and F. solani (1. In vitro assays quantified fumonisin production for representative isolates via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, nearly all F. fujikuroi isolates produced fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 at levels comparable to both the F. proliferatum isolates and the positive control, Fusarium verticillioides. Such capacity for fumonisin production refutes the generally accepted notion that F. fujikuroi produces undetectable or low levels of fumonisins and provides evidence to reconsider this species as a mycotoxigenic threat to economically significant crops.

  3. Co-occurrence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolates in cushion galls disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Daynet Sosa del

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowery cushion gall of cacao is a disease complex with six types. Fusarium decemcellulare have been isolated from both flowery and green point galls and recognized as the etiological agent of the disease. In the present work we: i identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing and/or taxonomy the cultivable fungal species or Operative Taxonomic Units (OTUs associated with the five symptoms of cushion galls in cacao from Venezuela, and ii determined the gall inducing capacity on cacao peeled seeds after 45 days of inoculation with suspensions of mycelia/ spores from distinct isolate types. The whole isolate collection rendered an abundance of 113 isolates with a richness of 39 OTUs (27 and eight identified at the species or genera levels, respectively, and in unidentified fungi. The dominant recovered species (≈36% were F. decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Some isolates of F. decemcellulare, L. theobromae, F. equiseti, Fusarium spp., F. solani, F. incarnatum, Rhizocthonia solani and Penicillium sp. were pathogenic. Some other isolates of the first six mentioned taxa behave as non-pathogenic. Furthermore, pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates can also co-occur within a single plant and gall type. Moreover, 2-5 species within a single gall symptom in a single tree were identified (not necessarily at the same point in the tree, indicating a broad diversity of co-occurring taxa.

  4. Fusarium oxysporum protects Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings from root disease caused by Fusarium commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mee-Sook Kim; Robert L. James

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium root disease can be a serious problem in forest and conservation nurseries in the western United States. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Fusarium spp. within the F. oxysporum species complex have been recognized as pathogens for more than a...

  5. Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and fusarium commune isolates from a conifer nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane E. Stewart; Mee-Sook Kim; Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Isolates of Fusarium spp. can differ in virulence; however, virulence and...

  6. First report of Fusarium wilt of alfalfa caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis, is an economically important vascular disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) throughout the world. Alfalfa plants with foliar wilt symptoms and reddish-brown arcs in roots consistent with Fusarium wilt were observed in disease assessment ...

  7. Incidence of Fusarium spp. and Levels of Fumonisin B1 in Maize in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedera, C. J.; Plattner, R. D.; Desjardins, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    Maize kernel samples were collected in 1996 from smallholder farm storages in the districts of Bomet, Bungoma, Kakamega, Kericho, Kisii, Nandi, Siaya, Trans Nzoia, and Vihiga in the tropical highlands of western Kenya. Two-thirds of the samples were good-quality maize, and one-third were poor-quality maize with a high incidence of visibly diseased kernels. One hundred fifty-three maize samples were assessed for Fusarium infection by culturing kernels on a selective medium. The isolates obtained were identified to the species level based on morphology and on formation of the sexual stage in Gibberella fujikuroi mating population tests. Fusarium moniliforme (G. fujikuroi mating population A) was isolated most frequently, but F. subglutinans (G. fujikuroi mating population E), F. graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. solani, and other Fusarium species were also isolated. The high incidence of kernel infection with the fumonisin-producing species F. moniliforme indicated a potential for fumonisin contamination of Kenyan maize. However, analysis of 197 maize kernel samples by high-performance liquid chromatography found little fumonisin B1 in most of the samples. Forty-seven percent of the samples contained fumonisin B1 at levels above the detection limit (100 ng/g), but only 5% were above 1,000 ng/g, a proposed level of concern for human consumption. The four most-contaminated samples, with fumonisin B1 levels ranging from 3,600 to 11,600 ng/g, were from poor-quality maize collected in the Kisii district. Many samples with a high incidence of visibly diseased kernels contained little or no fumonisin B1, despite the presence of F. moniliforme. This result may be attributable to the inability of F. moniliforme isolates present in Kenyan maize to produce fumonisins, to the presence of other ear rot fungi, and/or to environmental conditions unfavorable for fumonisin production. PMID:9872757

  8. In silico comparison of transcript abundances during Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max resistance to Fusarium virguliforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal M Javed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. is an economically important disease, caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, recently renamed Fusarium virguliforme (Fv. Due to the complexity and length of the soybean-Fusarium interaction, the molecular mechanisms underlying plant resistance and susceptibility to the pathogen are not fully understood. F. virguliforme has a very wide host range for the ability to cause root rot and a very narrow host range for the ability to cause a leaf scorch. Arabidopsis thaliana is a host for many types of phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes. Deciphering the variations among transcript abundances (TAs of functional orthologous genes of soybean and A. thaliana involved in the interaction will provide insights into plant resistance to F. viguliforme. Results In this study, we reported the analyses of microarrays measuring TA in whole plants after A. thaliana cv 'Columbia' was challenged with fungal pathogen F. virguliforme. Infection caused significant variations in TAs. The total number of increased transcripts was nearly four times more than that of decreased transcripts in abundance. A putative resistance pathway involved in responding to the pathogen infection in A. thaliana was identified and compared to that reported in soybean. Conclusion Microarray experiments allow the interrogation of tens of thousands of transcripts simultaneously and thus, the identification of plant pathways is likely to be involved in plant resistance to Fusarial pathogens. Dissection of the set functional orthologous genes between soybean and A. thaliana enabled a broad view of the functional relationships and molecular interactions among plant genes involved in F. virguliforme resistance.

  9. Population genetic structure of Rhizoctonia solani AG 3-PT from potatoes in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhinji, Norman; Woodhall, James W; Truter, Mariette; van der Waals, Jacquie E

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 3-PT is an important potato pathogen causing significant yield and quality losses in potato production. However, little is known about the levels of genetic diversity and structure of this pathogen in South Africa. A total of 114 R. solani AG 3-PT isolates collected from four geographic regions were analysed for genetic diversity and structure using eight microsatellite loci. Microsatellite analysis found high intra-population genetic diversity, population differentiation and evidence of recombination. A total of 78 multilocus genotypes were identified with few shared among populations. Low levels of clonality (13-39 %) and high levels of population differentiation were observed among populations. Most of the loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and all four populations showed evidence of a mixed reproductive mode of both clonality and recombination. The PCoA clustering method revealed genetically distinct geographic populations of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa. This study showed that populations of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa are genetically differentiated and disease management strategies should be applied accordingly. This is the first study of the population genetics of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa and results may help to develop knowledge-based disease management strategies. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani on potato by using indigenous Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Emre Demirer

    2016-04-01

    At this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of Trichoderma isolates that was isolated from the soil samples taken from the different regions on black scurf and stem canker disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn that has been one of the biggest problems of the potato cultivation. At the end of the soil isolations, totally 81 Trichoderma isolates were obtained and their species were identified. Of these isolates, T. harzianum (42%), T. virens (31%), T. asperellum (15%) and T. viride (12%). All of the isolates were tested in vitro for their antagonistic activity against the R. solani isolate. The isolates that show high inhibition rate was selected and tested against R. solani in vitro. Potato plants were grown in a greenhouse for about 10 weeks. Then the plants were evaluated according to the scale, plant height, shoot fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights were noted. The experiment was conducted two times in three replications. At the in vitro tests, generally, it was determined that Trichoderma isolates have inhibited to R. solani and in vivo, they were reduced the effects of the disease and they were raised the development of the plant. In particular, it was determined that some isolates of the T. harzianum and T. virens have reduced the severity of the disease. It was determined that both in vitro and in vivo isolates have shown different efficiency against R. solani.

  11. Discovering novel Alternaria solani succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors by in silico modeling and virtual screening strategies to combat early blight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iftikhar, Sehrish; Shahid, Ahmad A.; Halim, Sobia A.; Wolters, Pieter J.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Khan, Ajmal; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Shahbaz

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blight is an important foliage disease caused by Alternaria solani. The enzyme Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a potential drug target because of its role in tricarboxylic acid cycle. Hence targeting Alternaria solani SDH enzyme could be efficient tool to design novel fungicides against

  12. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidimitriou, Evangelia; Simonato, Mauro; Watson, Gillian W; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Zhao, Jing; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-03-24

    Among the Nearctic species of Phenacoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris are morphologically similar and it can be difficult to separate them on the basis of microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the COI and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n.

  13. Biocontrol efficacy of different isolates of Trichoderma against soil borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Ali, Naeem; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bilal, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Tabassum, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the biocontrol abilities of water-soluble and volatile metabolites of three different isolates of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. harzianum and Trichoderma spp.) against soil borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed for the first time that mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen was 74.4-67.8% with water-soluble metabolites as compared to 15.3-10.6% with volatile metabolites in vitro. In vivo antagonistic activity of Trichoderma isolates against R. solani was evaluated on bean plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. We observed that T. asperellum was more effective and consistent, lowering disease incidence up to 19.3% in laboratory and 30.5% in green house conditions. These results showed that three isolates of Trichoderma could be used as effective biocontrol agents against R. solani.

  14. Secondary metabolite profiling of Alternaria dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Dongo, Anita; Pryor, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Chemotaxonomy (secondary metabolite profiling) has been shown to be of great value in the classification and differentiation in Ascomycota. However, few studies have investigated the use of metabolite production for classification and identification purposes of plant pathogenic Alternaria species....... The purpose of the present study was to describe the methodology behind metabolite profiling in chemotaxonomy using A. dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila strains as examples of the group. The results confirmed that A. dauci, A. solani, and A. tomatophila are three distinct species each...

  15. Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100 ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The

  16. Sorne aspects of Fusarium genus and the Fusarium oxysporum species Algunos aspectos de los hongos del genero Fusarium y de la especie Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeláez Torres Germán

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the proposal of the utilization of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum for biological control of coca plants in Colombia, there is a serious discussion on different Colombian meetings about the advantages and disadvantages of its application. However in these discussions there was not enough knowledge of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This paper presents sorne biological and pathological aspects ofthe genus Fusarium and the species Fusarium oxysporum.Ante la propuesta de utilizar el hongo Fusarium oxysporum
    f.sp. erythoxyli para el control biológico de las plantas de
    coca en Colombia, se ha abierto una amplia discusión en distintos ámbitos nacionales sobre las bondades y los aspectos
    negativos de su aplicación. Sin embargo, en dicha discusión
    se ha notado un gran desconocimiento sobre el hongo
    Fusarium oxysporum. En este artículo se presentan diversos
    aspectos biológicos y patológicos del género Fusarium y de
    la especie Fusarium oxysporum.

  17. The complete mitogenome of Fusarium gerlachii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulik, Tomasz; Brankovics, Balázs; Sawicki, Jakub; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The structure of the Fusarium gerlachii mitogenome is similar to that of closely related Fusarium graminearum; it has a total length of 93,428 bp, the base composition of the genome is: A (35.3%), T (32.8%), C (14.7%) and G (17.2%). The mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2

  18. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, Katharina; Geissinger, Cajetan; Hofer, Katharina; Schüler, Jan; Moghari, Sarah; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2017-01-11

    Some information is available about the fate of Fusarium toxins during the brewing process, but only little is known about the single processing steps in detail. In our study we produced beer from two different barley cultivars inoculated with three different Fusarium species, namely, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium avenaceum, producing a wide range of mycotoxins such as type B trichothecenes, type A trichothecenes, and enniatins. By the use of multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution methods we were able to follow the fate of Fusarium toxins during the entire brewing process. In particular, the type B trichothecenes deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol showed similar behaviors. Between 35 and 52% of those toxins remained in the beer after filtration. The contents of the potentially hazardous deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and the type A trichothecenes increased during mashing, but a rapid decrease of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside content was found during the following steps of lautering and wort boiling. The concentration of enniatins greatly decreased with the discarding of spent grains or finally with the hot break. The results of our study show the retention of diverse Fusarium toxins during the brewing process and allow for assessing the food safety of beer regarding the monitored Fusarium mycotoxins.

  19. The complete mitogenome of Fusarium culmorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulik, Tomasz; Brankovics, Balázs; Sawicki, Jakub; van Diepeningen, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the Fusarium culmorum mitogenome is similar to that of closely related Fusarium spp.: it has a total length of 103,844 bp, the base composition of the genome is the following: A (35.4%), T (32.9%), C (14.6%), and G (17.1%). The mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2

  20. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  1. Challenges in Fusarium, a Trans-Kingdom Pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Hoog, G Sybren

    Fusarium species are emerging human pathogens, next to being plant pathogens. Problems with Fusarium are in their diagnostics and in their difficult treatment, but also in what are actual Fusarium species or rather Fusarium-like species. In this issue Guevara-Suarez et al. (Mycopathologia. doi:

  2. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćanović-Šišić, Jelena; Karlovsky, Petr; Wittwer, Raphaël; Walder, Florian; Campiglia, Enio; Radicetti, Emanuele; Friberg, Hanna; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R.

    2018-01-01

    Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI) of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea. PMID:29444142

  3. Accurate and Practical Identification of 20 Fusarium Species by Seven-Locus Sequence Analysis and Reverse Line Blot Hybridization, and an In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Study▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon; Dou, Hong-Tao; Sorrell, Tania; Li, Ruo-Yu; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Eleven reference and 25 clinical isolates of Fusarium were subject to multilocus DNA sequence analysis to determine the species and haplotypes of the fusarial isolates from Beijing and Shandong, China. Seven loci were analyzed: the translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF-1α); the nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit (LSU), and intergenic spacer (IGS) regions; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2); the calmodulin gene (CAM); and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rRNA gene. We also evaluated an IGS-targeted PCR/reverse line blot (RLB) assay for species/haplotype identification of Fusarium. Twenty Fusarium species and seven species complexes were identified. Of 25 clinical isolates (10 species), the Gibberella (Fusarium) fujikuroi species complex was the commonest (40%) and was followed by the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) (36%) and the F. incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex (12%). Six FSSC isolates were identified to the species level as FSSC-3+4, and three as FSSC-5. Twenty-nine IGS, 27 EF-1α, 26 RPB2, 24 CAM, 18 ITS, 19 LSU, and 18 mtSSU haplotypes were identified; 29 were unique, and haplotypes for 24 clinical strains were novel. By parsimony informative character analysis, the IGS locus was the most phylogenetically informative, and the rRNA gene regions were the least. Results by RLB were concordant with multilocus sequence analysis for all isolates. Amphotericin B was the most active drug against all species. Voriconazole MICs were high (>8 μg/ml) for 15 (42%) isolates, including FSSC. Analysis of larger numbers of isolates is required to determine the clinical utility of the seven-locus sequence analysis and RLB assay in species classification of fusaria. PMID:21389150

  4. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šišić, Adnan; Baćanović-Šišić, Jelena; Karlovsky, Petr; Wittwer, Raphaël; Walder, Florian; Campiglia, Enio; Radicetti, Emanuele; Friberg, Hanna; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R

    2018-01-01

    Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI) of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea.

  5. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Šišić

    Full Text Available Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea.

  6. Development and survival of Aulacorthum solani, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Uroleucon ambrosiae at six temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, de B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important factors in determining the survival and developmental rate of aphids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental time and survival of the aphid species Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Uroleucon ambrosiae

  7. ROS and trehalose regulate sclerotial development in Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenjiaozi; Pi, Lei; Jiang, Shaofeng; Yang, Mei; Shu, Canwei; Zhou, Erxun

    2018-05-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA is the causal agent of rice sheath blight (RSB) and causes severe economic losses in rice-growing regions around the world. The sclerotia play an important role in the disease cycle of RSB. In this study, we report the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and trehalose on the sclerotial development of R. solani AG-1 IA. Correlation was found between the level of ROS in R. solani AG-1 IA and sclerotial development. Moreover, we have shown the change of ROS-related enzymatic activities and oxidative burst occurs at the sclerotial initial stage. Six genes related to the ROS scavenging system were quantified in different sclerotial development stages by using quantitative RT-PCR technique, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of ROS content in mycelia revealed that ROS were predominantly produced at the hyphal branches during the sclerotial initial stage. Furthermore, exogenous trehalose had a significant inhibitory effect on the activities of ROS-related enzymes and oxidative burst and led to a reduction in sclerotial dry weight. Taken together, the findings suggest that ROS has a promoting effect on the development of sclerotia, whereas trehalose serves as an inhibiting factor to sclerotial development in R. solani AG-1 IA. Copyright © 2018 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular and morphological identification of the mealybug pest species, Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer and autumn of 2016, heavy infestations of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were observed on pumpkins, Cucurbita spp. (Cucurbitaceae). This was the first record of the species in Egypt. Several populations have been collected in various pumpkin fr...

  9. Efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains for biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven bacterial isolates from faba bean (Vicia faba L. root-nodules were screened for their antagonistic activity against eight Rhizoctonia solani strains isolated from infected potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers. Two bacterial strains (designated as Kl.Fb14 and S8.Fb11 gave 50% in vitro inhibition of R. solani mycelial growth. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain Kl.Fb14 exhibited 99.5% identity with Pseudomonas moraviensis, and that S8.Fb11 exhibited 99.8% identity with Pseudomonas reinekei. Greenhouse trials in soil showed that strain S8.Fb11 reduced the percentage of sclerotia on potato tubers and amounts of tuber infection for the potato cultivars Spunta and Nicola. In a field trial conducted in South Tunisia, infection with R. solani reduced potato yield by approximately 40% for ‘Spunta’ and 17% for ‘Nicola’; about 20% of the total tuber production was severely infected. However, when potato tubers were treated with strain S8.Fb11 prior to sowing, disease incidence was reduced to 6% of total production with low infection levels; potato yield was enhanced by about 6 kg per 10 m row in comparison to R. solani infected plants. The second selected Pseudomonas sp. (strain Kl.Fb14 did not affect either the levels of sclerotia on tubers or potato yield.

  10. Compatible biological and chemical control systems for Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Luttikholt, A.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    A series of chemical and biological control agents were tested for compatibility with the Rhizoctonia-specific biocontrol fungus Verticillium biguttatum aimed at designing novel control strategies for black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and other tuber diseases in potato. The efficacy of chemicals,

  11. QTL identification for early blight resistance (Alternaria solani) in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. arcanum cross.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaerani, R.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Linden, van der C.G.; Vosman, B.; Stam, P.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer, the causal agent of early blight (EB) disease, infects aerial parts of tomato at both seedling and adult plant stages. Resistant cultivars would facilitate a sustainable EB management. EB resistance is a quantitatively expressed character, a fact that

  12. Aspectos biológicos y poblacionales de Nasonovia ribisnigri y Aulacorthum solani sobre lechuga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicek Araceli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la influencia de los cultivares Criolla Blanca, Cuatro Estaciones y Gallega, sobre la biología y los parámetros poblacionales de Nasonovia ribisnigri y Aulacorthum solani (Homoptera: Aphidoidea a 10±1ºC y HR de 90%. Los períodos ninfal, pre-reproductivo y post-reproductivo de N. ribisnigri fueron más largos sobre Cuatro Estaciones, no así el reproductivo. En A. solani el período ninfal fue más largo sobre Criolla Blanca y Cuatro Estaciones resultando el reproductivo mayor sobre Cuatro Estaciones. Las tasas intrínsecas de crecimiento natural (r m de N. ribisnigri y A. solani fueron mayores sobre Criolla Blanca y Gallega, respectivamente. De acuerdo a la especie predominante convendría utilizar Cuatro Estaciones para N. ribisnigri y Criolla Blanca para A. solani, en épocas frías.

  13. Rhizoctonia solani as a component in the bottom rot complex of glasshouse lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, T.

    1983-01-01

    The basal parts of maturing glasshouse lettuce can be attacked by several soil fungi, which cause bottom rot. Until recently quintozene was generally applied against this disease complex. The study of the causal fungi - especially Rhizoctonia solani - and their control was

  14. Identification and validation of microsatellite markers for SSR genotyping of Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) AG2-2 is an important, soilborne pathogen of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) as well as a number of other crops. An improved understanding of the diversity and population structure of this pathogen could benefit management practices. Microsatellites have become an invaluable tool...

  15. Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum on Passionfruit in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Ho Joa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available From 2014 to 2016, Fusarium wilt disease was found on fassionfruit in Iksan and Jeju, Korea. Symptoms included wilting of foliage, drying and withering of leaves, and stunting of the plants. The infected plants eventually died during growth. Colonies on potato dextrose agar were pinkish white, and felted with cottony and aerial mycelia with 35 mm after one week. Macroconidia were falcate to almost straight, thin-walled and usually 2-3 septate. Microconidia were usually formed on monophialides of the hyphae and were hyaline, smooth, oval to ellipsoidal, aseptate or medianly 1-septate, very occasionally 2-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 3-12 x 2.5-6 μm. On the basis of the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of two molecular markers, internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1α, the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was proved by artificial inoculation, fulfilling Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of F. oxysporum on fassionfruit in Korea.

  16. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infection on maize seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Portes Ramos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The previous knowledge of the infection process and pathogens behavior, for evaluating the physiological potential of maize seeds, is essential for decision making on the final destination of lots that can endanger sowing. This research was carried out in order to study the minimum period required for maize seeds contamination by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe and Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg, as well as these pathogens influence on seed germination and vigor, by using the cold test. Three maize seeds hybrids, kept in contact with the pathogens for different periods, were evaluated with and without surface disinfection. After determining the most suitable period, new samples were contaminated by F. graminearum and F. verticillioides, under different infection levels, and subjected to germination tests in sand. The cold test was conducted with healthy and contaminated seeds, at different periods, in a cold chamber. The contact of maize seeds with F. graminearum and F. verticillioides for 16 hours was enough to cause infection. F. graminearum and F. verticillioides did not affect the maize seeds germination, however, F. graminearum reduced the vigor of seeds lots.

  17. Comparison between chemical and biological control of Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... College of Education, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that treatment with the fungicide carbomar or T. harzianum as well as with B. subtilis, in presence of F. solani increased the % of healthy seedlings as well as their length , fresh and dry weight than in presence of F. solani alone but still less than the control.

  18. Immunological detection of Fusarium species in cornmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, M S; Cousin, M A

    2003-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect Fusarium species in foods. Antibodies to proteins extracted from the mycelia of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium moniliforme (verticillioides) were produced in New Zealand white rabbits. These antibodies detected 13 Fusarium species in addition to the producer strains. Levels of Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium tricinctum strains were below the detection threshold. The specificity of the assay was tested against 70 molds and yeasts belonging to 23 genera. One strain of Monascus species and one strain of Phoma exigua were detected; however, these two molds are not common contaminants of cereal grains or foods and should not interfere with the assay. The indirect ELISA's detection limits for F. graminearum and F. moniliforme were 0.1 and 1 microg of mold mycelium per ml of a cornmeal mixture, respectively. When spores of each mold were added individually to cornmeal mixtures (at ca. 10 spores per g) and incubated at 25 degrees C, these spores were detected by the indirect ELISA when they reached levels of 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/ml after 24 to 36 h. The indirect ELISA developed here shows promise for the detection of Fusarium species in grains or foods.

  19. Candida and Fusarium species known as opportunistic human pathogens from customer-accessible parts of residential washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babič, Monika Novak; Zalar, Polona; Ženko, Bernard; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Džeroski, Sašo; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2015-03-01

    Energy constraints have altered consumer practice regarding the use of household washing machines. Washing machines were developed that use lower washing temperatures, smaller amounts of water and biodegradable detergents. These conditions may favour the enrichment of opportunistic human pathogenic fungi. We focused on the isolation of fungi from two user-accessible parts of washing machines that often contain microbial biofilms: drawers for detergents and rubber door seals. Out of 70 residential washing machines sampled in Slovenia, 79% were positive for fungi. In total, 72 strains belonging to 12 genera and 26 species were isolated. Among these, members of the Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani species complexes, Candida parapsilosis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis represented 44% of fungi detected. These species are known as opportunistic human pathogens and can cause skin, nail or eye infections also in healthy humans. A machine learning analysis revealed that presence of detergents and softeners followed by washing temperature, represent most critical factors for fungal colonization. Three washing machines with persisting malodour that resulted in bad smelling laundry were analysed for the presence of fungi and bacteria. In these cases, fungi were isolated in low numbers (7.5 %), while bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sphingomonas species prevailed. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB Specific Gene Model Enables Comparative Genome Analyses between Phytopathogenic R. solani AG1-IA, AG1-IB, AG3 and AG8 Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wibberg

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani, a soil-born plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus, affects various economically important agricultural and horticultural crops. The draft genome sequence for the R. solani AG1-IB isolate 7/3/14 as well as a corresponding transcriptome dataset (Expressed Sequence Tags--ESTs were established previously. Development of a specific R. solani AG1-IB gene model based on GMAP transcript mapping within the eukaryotic gene prediction platform AUGUSTUS allowed detection of new genes and provided insights into the gene structure of this fungus. In total, 12,616 genes were recognized in the genome of the AG1-IB isolate. Analysis of predicted genes by means of different bioinformatics tools revealed new genes whose products potentially are involved in degradation of plant cell wall components, melanin formation and synthesis of secondary metabolites. Comparative genome analyses between members of different R. solani anastomosis groups, namely AG1-IA, AG3 and AG8 and the newly annotated R. solani AG1-IB genome were performed within the comparative genomics platform EDGAR. It appeared that only 21 to 28% of all genes encoded in the draft genomes of the different strains were identified as core genes. Based on Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI and Average Amino-acid Identity (AAI analyses, considerable sequence differences between isolates representing different anastomosis groups were identified. However, R. solani isolates form a distinct cluster in relation to other fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota. The isolate representing AG1-IB encodes significant more genes featuring predictable functions in secondary metabolite production compared to other completely sequenced R. solani strains. The newly established R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 gene layout now provides a reliable basis for post-genomics studies.

  1. Discovering Novel Alternaria solani Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors by in Silico Modeling and Virtual Screening Strategies to Combat Early Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrish Iftikhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria blight is an important foliage disease caused by Alternaria solani. The enzyme Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH is a potential drug target because of its role in tricarboxylic acid cycle. Hence targeting Alternaria solani SDH enzyme could be efficient tool to design novel fungicides against A. solani. We employed computational methodologies to design new SDH inhibitors using homology modeling; pharmacophore modeling and structure based virtual screening. The three dimensional SDH model showed good stereo-chemical and structural properties. Based on virtual screening results twelve commercially available compounds were purchased and tested in vitro and in vivo. The compounds were found to inhibit mycelial growth of A. solani. Moreover in vitro trials showed that inhibitory effects were enhanced with increase in concentrations. Similarly increased disease control was observed in pre-treated potato tubers. Hence the applied in silico strategy led us to identify novel fungicides.

  2. Morphological and molecular detection of Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Fusarium has a cosmopolitan distribution, with some species able to cause diseases ... packaged potato dextrose agar (PDA), accurate micro- ..... the probability of nucleotide substitutions per site, based on the .... Processing.

  3. Fusarium head blight of cereals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Nielsen, Linda; Jensen, Jens Due; Nielsen, Ghita Cordsen

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction differentiating 10 Fusarium spp. and Microdochium nivale or M. majus was applied to a total of 396 grain samples of wheat, barley, triticale, oat, and rye sampled across Denmark from 2003 to 2007, along with selected samples of wheat and barley from...... 1957 to 2000, to determine incidence and abundance of individual Fusarium spp. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 were quantified using liquid chromatography–double mass spectrometry. Major differences in the Fusarium species complex among the five cereals...... as well as great yearly variation were seen. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in wheat, with DON as the dominant mycotoxin. F. langsethiae, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in barley and oat, leading to relatively high levels of the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2. F...

  4. Biosynthesis of fusarielins in Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saei, Wagma; Søndergaard, Teis; Giese, Henriette

    Polyketide synthase 9 (PKS9) is one of the 15 identified polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in Fusarium graminearum. The gene is coregulated along with five neighboring genes by a single transcription factor (TF). An overexpression of the transcription factor led to production of three novel...... by this cluster in Fusarium graminearum., deletion mutant of each gene was created in the overexpressed mutant by targeted gene replacemen...

  5. Genetic diversity and occurrence of the F129L substitutions among isolates of Alternaria solani in south-eastern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odilbekov, Firuz; Edin, Eva; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Hovmalm, Helena Persson; Liljeroth, Erland

    2016-01-01

    Early blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, occurs on potato mainly in the south-eastern part of Sweden, but also in other parts of the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of A. solani populations from different potato growing regions in south-eastern Sweden using AFLP marker analysis. In addition, the cultured isolates were examined for substitutions in the gene encoding cytochrome b , associated with loss of sensitivity against QoI fungicides. Nei's gene diversity index for the Swedish populations of A. solani revealed a gene diversity of up to 0.20. Also genetic differentiation was observed among populations of A. solani from different locations in south-eastern Sweden. The mitochondrial genotype of the isolates of A. solani was determined and both known genotypes, GI (genotype 1) and GII (genotype 2), were found among the isolates. The occurrence of the F129L substitution associated with a loss of sensitivity to strobilurins was confirmed among the GII isolates. In vitro conidial germination tests verified that isolates containing the F129L substitution had reduced sensitivity to azoxystrobin and, at a lower extent, to pyraclostrobin. Genetic diversity was relatively high among isolates of A. solani in south-eastern part of Sweden. F129L substitutions, leading to reduced sensitivity to strobilurins, have been established in field populations, which may have implications for the future efficacy of QoI fungicides.

  6. Aspects of resistance to fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium culmorum in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.H.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Fusarium head blight of wheat is predominantly caused by Fusarium culmorum . A low infection level leads to important yield losses and contaminates the grain with mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol. This mycotoxin is suggested to have toxic

  7. Seed disinfection effect of atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma on Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Terumi; Takai, Yuichiro; Kawaradani, Mitsuo; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Tanimoto, Hideo; Misawa, Tatsuya; Kusakari, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Gas plasma generated and applied under two different systems, atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma, was used to investigate the inactivation efficacy on the seedborne pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, which had been artificially introduced to brassicaceous seeds. Treatment with atmospheric plasma for 10 min markedly reduced the R. solani survival rate from 100% to 3% but delayed seed germination. The low pressure plasma treatment reduced the fungal survival rate from 83% to 1.7% after 10 min and the inactivation effect was dependent on the treatment time. The seed germination rate after treatment with the low pressure plasma was not significantly different from that of untreated seeds. The air temperature around the seeds in the low pressure system was lower than that of the atmospheric system. These results suggested that gas plasma treatment under low pressure could be effective in disinfecting the seeds without damaging them.

  8. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum on Capsicum by Trichoderma koningii in potting medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1999-09-01

    Two isolates of Trichoderma koningii were evaluated for efficacy in control of damping-off diseases in seedlings of Capsicum annuum grown in pasteurized potting medium in a glasshouse. A selected isolate of binucleate Rhizoctonia and two fungicides were also included as standards for control of Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum. Both isolates of T. koningii reduced seedling death caused by R. solani in one of two experiments, and by P. u. sporangii-ferum in two of three experiments. Neither isolate of T. koningii suppressed damping-off caused by either pathogen as consistently as the binucleate Rhizoctonia or fungicides. The implications of these results for commercial disease management are discussed.

  9. Activity of alkanediol alkanoates against pathogenic plant fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Paraj; Walia, Suresh; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Parmar, Balraj S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2012-09-01

    Thirty known dialkanoates of ethylene, propylene and diethylene glycols were synthesized by reacting the glycols with acyl chlorides and their structures confirmed by IR, NMR and mass spectral analyses. They exhibited significant antifungal activity against two phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc in a dose dependent manner. Propylene glycol dipentanoate was the most active against R. solani. followed by diethylene glycol dibutanoate and ethylene glycol dibutanoate. Against S. rolfsii ethylene glycol diheptanoate was found to be most active followed by diethylene glycol diisobutanoate As compared to the standard reference benomyl (EC50 5.16 microg/mL), the potential alkanediol dialkanoates showed EC50 in the range of 33 - 60 microg/mL.

  10. Use of AFLPs to differentiate between Fusarium species causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Fusarium spp. and. Helmintosporium sativum) diseases are common. The aim of this study was to use the AFLP technique to determine variation and genetic relationships between Syrian Fusarium isolates; and compare them.

  11. Monitoring the efficacy of mutated Allium sativum leaf lectin in transgenic rice against Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Sen, Senjuti; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa

    2016-03-01

    Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most devastating diseases of rice. It is associated with significant reduction in rice productivity worldwide. A mutant variant of mannose binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL) was previously reported to exhibit strong antifungal activity against R. solani. In this study, the mASAL gene has been evaluated for its in planta antifungal activity in rice plants. mASAL was cloned into pCAMBIA1301 binary vector under the control of CaMV35S promoter. It was expressed in an elite indica rice cv. IR64 by employing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Molecular analyses of transgenic plants confirmed the presence and stable integration of mASAL gene. Immunohistofluorescence analysis of various tissue sections of plant parts clearly indicated the constitutive expression of mASAL. The segregation pattern of mASAL transgene was observed in T1 progenies in a 3:1 Mendelian ratio. The expression of mASAL was confirmed in T0 and T1 plants through western blot analysis followed by ELISA. In planta bioassay of transgenic lines against R. solani exhibited an average of 55 % reduction in sheath blight percentage disease index (PDI). The present study opens up the possibility of engineering rice plants with the antifungal gene mASAL, conferring resistance to sheath blight.

  12. Mass-spectrometry data for Rhizoctonia solani proteins produced during infection of wheat and vegetative growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato, legumes and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about how R. solani causes disease. The data described in this article is derived from applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Comparisons of the data for sample types in this set will be useful to identify metabolic pathway changes as the fungus switches from saprophytic to a pathogenic lifestyle or pathogenicity related proteins contributing to the ability to cause disease on wheat. The data set is deposited in the PRIDE archive under identifier PRIDE: PXD002806. Keywords: Fungal pathogenesis, Wheat, Rhizoctonia solani, Basidiomycete

  13. The Role of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins in the Tomato-Rhizoctonia solani Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Taheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most destructive pathogens causing foot rot disease on tomato. In this study, the molecular and cellular changes of a partially resistant (Sunny 6066 and a susceptible (Rio Grande tomato cultivar after infection with necrotrophic soil-borne fungus R. solani were compared. The expression of defense-related genes such as chitinase (LOC544149 and peroxidase (CEVI-1 in infected tomato cultivars was investigated using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. This method revealed elevated levels of expression for both genes in the partially resistant cultivar compared to the susceptible cultivar. One of the most prominent facets of basal plant defense responses is the formation of physical barriers at sites of attempted fungal penetration. These structures are produced around the sites of potential pathogen ingress to prevent pathogen progress in plant tissues. We investigated formation of lignin, as one of the most important structural barriers affecting plant resistance, using thioglycolic acid assay. A correlation was found between lignification and higher level of resistance in Sunny 6066 compared to Rio Grande cultivar. These findings suggest the involvement of chitinase, peroxidase, and lignin formation in defense responses of tomato plants against R. solani as a destructive pathogen.

  14. Fusarium Infection in Lung Transplant Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Herman A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Restrepo, Alejandro; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium is a fungal pathogen of immunosuppressed lung transplant patients associated with a high mortality in those with severe and persistent neutropenia. The principle portal of entry for Fusarium species is the airways, and lung involvement almost always occurs among lung transplant patients with disseminated infection. In these patients, the immunoprotective mechanisms of the transplanted lungs are impaired, and they are, therefore, more vulnerable to Fusarium infection. As a result, fusariosis occurs in up to 32% of lung transplant patients. We studied fusariosis in 6 patients following lung transplantation who were treated at Massachusetts General Hospital during an 8-year period and reviewed 3 published cases in the literature. Cases were identified by the microbiology laboratory and through discharge summaries. Patients presented with dyspnea, fever, nonproductive cough, hemoptysis, and headache. Blood tests showed elevated white blood cell counts with granulocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Cultures of Fusarium were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, and sputum specimens. Treatments included amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, voriconazole, and posaconazole, either alone or in combination. Lung involvement occurred in all patients with disseminated disease and it was associated with a poor outcome. The mortality rate in this group of patients was high (67%), and of those who survived, 1 patient was treated with a combination of amphotericin B and voriconazole, 1 patient with amphotericin B, and 1 patient with posaconazole. Recommended empirical treatment includes voriconazole, amphotericin B or liposomal amphotericin B first-line, and posaconazole for refractory disease. High-dose amphotericin B is recommended for treatment of most cases of fusariosis. The echinocandins (for example, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) are generally avoided because Fusarium species have intrinsic resistance to them. Treatment

  15. Wheat Intercropping Enhances the Resistance of Watermelon to Fusarium Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Huifang Lv; Huifang Lv; Haishun Cao; Muhammad A. Nawaz; Hamza Sohail; Yuan Huang; Fei Cheng; Qiusheng Kong; Zhilong Bie

    2018-01-01

    A fungus Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. niveum (FON) is the causal organism of Fusarium wilt in watermelon. In this study, we evaluated the effect of wheat intercropping on the Fusarium wilt of watermelon. Our results showed that wheat intercropping decreases the incidence of Fusarium wilt of watermelon, likely due to the secretion of coumaric acid from the roots of wheat that dramatically inhibits FON spore germination, sporulation, and growth. The secretion of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid...

  16. Pasinler İlçesi (Erzurum’nde Şeker Pancarı (Beta vulgaris Bitkilerinden İzole Edilen Fusarium spp. ve Patojeniteleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk KARYAĞDI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma Pasinler ilçesi (Erzurum’nde şeker pancarı (Beta vulgaris L. bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerini ve patojenitelerini belirlemek amacıyla 2009 yılında yürütülmüştür. Şeker pancarı bitkisinden yapılan izolasyon çalışmaları sonucunda 194 Fusarium izolatı elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen izolatların %37,63’ü F. equiseti, %31,44’ü F. oxysporum, %13,92’i F. acuminatum, %10,82’si F. solani, %4,12’si F. heterosporum, %1,55’i F. avenaceum ve %0,52’si F. graminearum olarak saptanmıştır. Yapılan patojenite testlerinde F. acuminatum (P2-8A1, F. equiseti (P1-6, F. heterosporum (P10-30, F. oxysporum (P8-24, P9-36 ve F. solani (P8-2 izolatları en yüksek hastalık şiddeti oluşturmuştur. F. acuminatum ve F. graminearum için şeker pancarı bitkisi, Türkiye’de yeni konukçu kaydı olarak belirlenmiştir.

  17. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIHEGIKO KANAYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant’s organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had

  18. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHANI CINTA BADIA GINTING

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant's organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had significantly

  19. PCR identification of Fusarium genus based on nuclear ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have developed two taxon-selective primers for quick identification of the Fusarium genus. These primers, ITS-Fu-f and ITS-Fu-r were designed by comparing the aligned sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of a range of Fusarium species. The primers showed good specificity for the genus Fusarium, ...

  20. Fusarium species as pathogen on orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shikha; Kadooka, Chris; Uchida, Janice Y

    2018-03-01

    The recent surge in demand for exotic ornamental crops such as orchids has led to a rise in international production, and a sharp increase in the number of plant and plant products moving between countries. Along with the plants, diseases are also being transported and introduced into new areas. Fusarium is one of the major diseases causing pathogens infecting orchids that is spreading through international trade. Studies have identified several species of Fusarium associated with orchids, some are pathogenic and cause symptoms such as leaf and flower spots, leaf or sheath blights, pseudostem or root rots, and wilts. Infection and damage caused by Fusarium reduces the quality of plants and flowers, and can cause severe economic losses. This review documents the current status of the Fusarium-orchid interaction, and illustrates challenges and future perspectives based on the available literature. This review is the first of Fusarium and orchid interactions, and integrates diverse results that both furthers the understanding and knowledge of this disease complex, and will enable the development of effective disease management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. causing wilt of chickpea and the first report of Fusarium redolens in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food legume crop and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the most important diseases of chickpea in Turkey. Fusarium redolens is known to cause wilt-like disease of chickpea in other countries, but has not been reported fr...

  2. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-01-01

    involved in primary metabolism and detoxification whereas the majority of down-regulated proteins were plant protease inhibitors. The results suggest that there is a link between increased energy metabolism and oxidative stress in the germinating barley seeds in response to F. graminearum infection, which......Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first...

  3. Survival of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leplat , Johann; Friberg , Hanna; Abid , Muhammad; Steinberg , Christian

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Wheat is one of the most cultivated crops worldwide. In 2010, 20 % of wheat and durum wheat were cultivated in Europe, 17 % in China and 9 % in Russia and in North America. Wheat yield can be highly decreased by several factors. In particular Fusarium graminearum Schwabe is a worldwide fungal pest impacting wheat production. F. graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight, root and stem-base rot of cereals. Losses caused by Fusarium head blight in Northern a...

  4. Genomic analysis of Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D W; Butchko, R A E; Proctor, R H

    2008-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) can be either an endophyte of maize, causing no visible disease, or a pathogen-causing disease of ears, stalks, roots and seedlings. At any stage, this fungus can synthesize fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins structurally similar to the sphingolipid sphinganine. Ingestion of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been associated with a number of animal diseases, including cancer in rodents, and exposure has been correlated with human oesophageal cancer in some regions of the world, and some evidence suggests that fumonisins are a risk factor for neural tube defects. A primary goal of the authors' laboratory is to eliminate fumonisin contamination of maize and maize products. Understanding how and why these toxins are made and the F. verticillioides-maize disease process will allow one to develop novel strategies to limit tissue destruction (rot) and fumonisin production. To meet this goal, genomic sequence data, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microarrays are being used to identify F. verticillioides genes involved in the biosynthesis of toxins and plant pathogenesis. This paper describes the current status of F. verticillioides genomic resources and three approaches being used to mine microarray data from a wild-type strain cultured in liquid fumonisin production medium for 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120h. Taken together, these approaches demonstrate the power of microarray technology to provide information on different biological processes.

  5. Within-plant distribution of Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on various greenhouse plants with implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandricic, S E; Mattson, N S; Wraight, S P; Sanderson, J P

    2014-04-01

    Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has recently undergone a status change from an occasional pest to a serious pest in greenhouses of North America and the United Kingdom. Little nonanecdotal information exists on the ecology of this insect in greenhouse crops. To help improve integrated pest management decisions for A. solani, the within-plant distribution of this pest was explored on a variety of common greenhouse plants in both the vegetative and flowering stage. This aphid generally was found on lower leaves of vegetative plants, but was found higher in the canopy on reproductive plants (on flowers, flower buds, or upper leaves). Aphid numbers were not consistently positively correlated with total leaf surface areas within plant strata across plant species. Thus, the observed differences in preferred feeding sites on vegetative versus flowering plants are possibly a response to differences in nutritional quality of the various host-plant tissues. Despite being anecdotally described as a "stem-feeding aphid," A. solani was rarely found feeding on stems at the population densities established in our tests, with the exception of racemes of scarlet sage (Salvia splendans). Although some previous reports suggested that A. solani prefers to feed on new growth of plants, our results indicate that mature leaves are preferred over growing tips and young leaves. The implications of the within-plant feeding preferences of A. solani populations with respect to both biological and chemical control are discussed.

  6. Arthrobotrys oligospora-mediated biological control of diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U B; Sahu, A; Sahu, N; Singh, R K; Renu, S; Singh, D P; Manna, M C; Sarma, B K; Singh, H B; Singh, K P

    2013-01-01

    To study the biocontrol potential of nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora in protecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse and field conditions. Five isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora isolated from different parts of India were tested against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown under greenhouse and field conditions. Arthrobotrys oligospora-treated plants showed enhanced growth in terms of shoot and root length and biomass, chlorophyll and total phenolic content and high phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in comparison with M. incognita- and R. solani-inoculated plants. Biochemical profiling when correlated with disease severity and intensity in A. oligospora-treated and untreated plants indicate that A. oligospora VNS-1 offered significant disease reduction in terms of number of root galls, seedling mortality, lesion length, disease index, better plant growth and fruit yield as compared to M. incognita- and R. solani-challenged plants. The result established that A. oligospora VNS-1 has the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita and R. solani. Arthrobotrys oligospora can be a better environment friendly option and can be incorporated in the integrated disease management module of crop protection. Application of A. oligospora not only helps in the control of nematodes but also increases plant growth and enhances nutritional value of tomato fruits. Thus, it proves to be an excellent biocontrol as well as plant growth promoting agent. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. RESISTÊNCIA DE TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicon esculentum AO PATÓGENO Alternaria solani RESISTANCE OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum TO Alternaria solani PATHOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar níveis de resistência de variedades comerciais de tomateiro ao patógeno Alternaria solani. Os genótipos são pertencentes ao banco de germoplasma do CNPH-Embrapa, compreendendo híbridos F1, que foram avaliados em condições de campo. Os ensaios foram conduzidos nos campos experimentais da Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia-GO, a uma altitude de 730 m, latitude de 16° 41'S e longitude de 49° 17'W. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 e 85 dias após o transplantio, combinando-se escala diagramática e de notas. As variedades Ohio 4013 e CNPH 738 foram as mais resistentes entre os materiais tutorados. Entre os materiais rasteiros os mais resistentes foram o híbrido F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense e Rotam 4. O genótipo Ohio 4013 e híbrido F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense foram os que mais se destacaram para resistência a este patógeno, podendo ser indicados para futuros programas de melhoramento.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tomateiro; resistência; Alternaria solani.

    The main objective of this study was to test levels of resistance of commercial varieties, genotypes belonging to the germoplasm bank of CNPH-Embrapa and hibrids F1 of tomat to Alternaria solani, in field condition. The trials were conduced at the experimental fields of the Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia-GO, Brasil. It is located at an altitude of 730 m, latitude of 16° 41'S and longitude of 49° 17'W. The evaluations were accomplished at the 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 and 85 days after the seedlings planting, combining diagramatic scale and grades. Among indeterminate cultivars Ohio 4013 and CNPH 738 were the most resistants. Among determined ones the most

  8. Fusarium verwelkingsziekte in tomaat geen probleem meer dankzij resistentie: Speciale vormen Fusarium oxysporum veroorzaken ziekten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is een algemeen voorkomende bodemschimmel. Speciale vormen kunnen problemen veroorzaken zoals verwelkingsziekte en voet- en wortelrot in verschillende vruchtgroentegewassen, potplanten en snijbloemen en zuur in bolgewassen. Per gewas kan de schade variëren van minimaal, doordat

  9. Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Jayasena, Kithsiri; Barbetti, Martin J

    2012-05-01

    An isolated occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat was detected in the south-west region of Western Australia during the 2003 harvest season. The molecular identity of 23 isolates of Fusarium spp. collected from this region during the FHB outbreak confirmed the associated pathogens to be F. graminearum, F. acuminatum or F. tricinctum. Moreover, the toxicity of their crude extracts from Czapek-Dox liquid broth and millet seed cultures to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was associated with high mortality levels. The main mycotoxins detected were type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), enniatins, chlamydosporol and zearalenone. This study is the first report on the mycotoxin profiles of Fusarium spp. associated with FHB of wheat in Western Australia. This study highlights the need for monitoring not just for the presence of the specific Fusarium spp. present in any affected grain but also for their potential mycotoxin and other toxic secondary metabolites.

  10. Light affects fumonisin production in strains of Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides isolated from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Slavica; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2013-09-16

    Three Fusarium species associated with bakanae disease of rice (Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides) were investigated for their ability to produce fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) under different light conditions, and for pathogenicity. Compared to darkness, the conditions that highly stimulated fumonisin production were yellow and green light in F. verticillioides strains; white and blue light, and light/dark alternation in F. fujikuroi and F. proliferatum strains. In general, all light conditions positively influenced fumonisin production with respect to the dark. Expression of the FUM1 gene, which is necessary for the initiation of fumonisin production, was in accordance with the fumonisin biosynthetic profile. High and low fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi strains showed typical symptoms of bakanae disease, abundant fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides strains exhibited chlorosis and stunting of rice plants, while fumonisin-producing F. proliferatum strains were asymptomatic on rice. We report that F. fujikuroi might be an abundant fumonisin producer with levels comparable to that of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, highlighting the need of deeper mycotoxicological analyses on rice isolates of F. fujikuroi. Our results showed for the first time the influence of light on fumonisin production in isolates of F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides from rice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense) dengan Trichoderma SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second...

  12. High-resolution mapping of Rsn1, a locus controlling sensitivity of rice to a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin from Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes disease on all major crop-plant species. Anastomosis group 1-IA is the causal agent of sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa), one of the most important rice diseases worldwide. R. solani AG-IA produces a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin a...

  13. Peran Sklerotium dan Bentuk Lain Patogen Rhizoctonia solani sebagai Sumber Inokulum Awal Penyakit Hawar Pelepah Padi

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    Suparyono Suparyono

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in Sukamandi Experimental Station of the Research Institute for Rice (RIR, to evaluate the importance of sclerotia and other propagules as the primary inoculum of rice sheath blight. The trials were conducted during the growing season of 1996/1997. Two elite varieties, namely IR64 and Cisadane, were planted in plots of 2×2 m in size. Subplots were three different ways of crop establishment, i.e. transplanting with 20×20 cm distance, transplanting in-row with 10×40 cm, and direct seeding in row. Sub-sub plots were 6 different form of inoculum of R. solani, namely sclerotia, sclerotia+mycelium, fresh infected rice straw, decomposed infected rice straw, fresh infected weeds, and decomposed infected weeds. Checks were plots with no additional inoculum of R. solani. Disease incidence of sheath blight was observed once a week started at 2 week after planting. Data indicated that in both season, form of inoculum significantly affect the development of rice sheath blight. Highest disease incidence was observed in plots receiving fresh infected rice straw as the primary inoculum, indicating that this form of inoculum was the most efficient for rice sheath blight development. The other form appeared to be effective as primary source of inoculum, were decomposed infected rice straw and fresh infected weeds. In tropical rice ecosystem such as in Indonesia, sclerotia appeared to be not as an important primary inoculum for rice sheath blight. Such information would be of important as the basic of sheath blight management in Indonesia, since incorporation of fresh rice straw into the paddy field prior to planting is a common practice in Indonesian rice ecosystem. Key words: R. solani, sclerotia, primary inoculum, rice sheath blight

  14. Identifikasi dan Kuantifikasi Metabolit Bakteri Pelarut Fosfat dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Aktivitas Rhizoctonia solani pada Tanaman Kedelai

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    Tri Candra Setiawati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB metabolites are organic acids, phosphomonoesterase enzyme (alkaline phosphatase and antibiotic, which is able to dissolve insoluble phosphate. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study was expected to suppress Rhizoctonia solani attacks. This experiment was aimed at (1 identifiying and quantifying PSB metabolites, and (2 examining their capability as biocontrol agent for Rhizoctonia solani in vitro and hydroponics soybean. This study was conducted in three stages. The first stage of this study was culturing two PSB isolates (Pseudomonas putida 27.4B and Pseudomonas diminuta in the Pikovskaya medium to analyze their metabolites. The second and third stage of this study was testing the antagonist of two bacteria to suppressed R. solani activity, which was conducted in vitro, and in hydroponics medium soybean as indicator plant. The results showed that P. putida 27.4B and P. diminuta produced organic acids i.e.: citrate, formic, succinic, acetic, propionate, butyrate, and oxalate. The totals of organic acids from each bacterium were 70,3 mg.kg-1 and 61,9 mg.kg-1. Production of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in Pikovskaya medium of P. Putida 27.4B was 11,71 ìg pNP .mL-1.h-1 and P. diminuta was 24,04 ìg pNP.mL-1.h-1. Concentration of this enzyme in soil medium was higher than that in Pikovskaya medium with 26,27 ìg pNP.g-1.h-1 and 39,03 ìg pNP.g-1.h-1 respectively. This study also showed that total concentration of antibiotics (tetracycline, oxitetracycline and penicillin produced by the PSB, were 3,2 ìg.mL-1 (P. putida 27.4B and 10,96 ìg.m1-1 (P. diminuta, respectively. The results from second stage of this study showed that by using in vitro, the reduced growth of R. solani was observed 58,35% with P. putida 27.4B and 41,96% with P. diminuta. In addition, inoculations of PSB in hydroponics medium reduced the fungal pathogenesis from 10,71% to 21,42% of pre and post emergence damping-off. Visually

  15. Biochemical changes in the mycelium of two Rhizoctonia solani isolates during autolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some biochemical changes occurring in the mycelium of two isolates (one pathogenic FR and another non-pathogenic GD2 of R. solani during autolytic phase of their growth were studied, by growing the fungi for periods longer than 210 days. During autolysis a decrease of 76.4% and 78.5% in mycelial dry weight occurred in pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates respectively, compared to that at the beginning of autolysis. The mycelium of non-pathogenic isolate was more affected during autolytic phase of growth than that of the pathogenic isolate.

  16. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglino, Fabio; Zhao, Yan; Casati, Paola; Bulgari, Daniela; Bianco, Piero Attilio; Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert Edward

    2013-08-01

    Phytoplasmas classified in group 16SrXII infect a wide range of plants and are transmitted by polyphagous planthoppers of the family Cixiidae. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and biological properties, group 16SrXII encompasses several species, including 'Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense', 'Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae'. Other group 16SrXII phytoplasma strains are associated with stolbur disease in wild and cultivated herbaceous and woody plants and with bois noir disease in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). Such latter strains have been informally proposed to represent a separate species, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', but a formal description of this taxon has not previously been published. In the present work, stolbur disease strain STOL11 (STOL) was distinguished from reference strains of previously described species of the 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' genus based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and a unique signature sequence in the 16S rRNA gene. Other stolbur- and bois noir-associated ('Ca. Phytoplasma solani') strains shared >99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain STOL11 and contained the signature sequence. 'Ca. Phytoplasma solani' is the only phytoplasma known to be transmitted by Hyalesthes obsoletus. Insect vectorship and molecular characteristics are consistent with the concept that diverse 'Ca. Phytoplasma solani' strains share common properties and represent an ecologically distinct gene pool. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, tuf, secY and rplV-rpsC gene sequences supported this view and yielded congruent trees in which 'Ca. Phytoplasma solani' strains formed, within the group 16SrXII clade, a monophyletic subclade that was most closely related to, but distinct from, that of 'Ca. Phytoplasma australiense'-related strains. Based on distinct molecular and biological properties, stolbur- and bois noir-associated strains are proposed to represent a novel species level taxon, 'Ca

  17. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BANDED LEAF AND SHEATH BLIGHT DISEASE (Rhizoctonia solani KUHN IN CORN WITH FORMULATED Bacillus subtilis BR23

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    Amran Muis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. causing banded leaf and sheath blight diseases is one of the important fungi of corn world wide. The fungus is commonly controlled by using fungicide because no resistant variety available. The objective of the study was to develop a seed treatment formulation of the selected Bacillus subtilis to control R. solani in corn. The study was conducted in the Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Bañòs, College, Laguna from May 2004 to August 2005, using sweet corn var. IPB Supersweet as test plant. Corn seeds were surface sterilized for 10 minutes in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and 5% ethanol, washed thrice with sterile distilled water and air-dried. The seeds were coated with formulated B. subtilis BR23 and used for several experiments, such as evaluation for their germination and growth in the laboratory, effectively on R. solani in the baked and nonbaked field soil under greenhouse condition, and in the microplots artificially infested with R. solani. The treatment was compared with other standard seed treatment of synthetic fungicides such as captan (10 g per kg seeds and metalaxyl (10 g per kg seeds. The experiments were designed in a completely random design with three replications. Parameters observed were seed germination, plant height, disease scores, and plant yield. Laboratory formulated B. subtilis BR23 used as seed treatment had no detrimental effects on seed germination and seedling vigor. In microplots artificially infested with a selected highly virulent R. solani, seed treatment with the same formulation increased grain yield by 27% compared to that of the control captan seed treatment with 14.4%. The studies showed the potential of B. subtilis BR23 for commercialization as a seed treatment for the control of banded leaf and sheath blight disease (R. solani in corn.

  18. Elucidating the role of the phenylacetic acid metabolic complex in the pathogenic activity of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Faith E; Glassbrook, Norman J; Danehower, David A; Cubeta, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani produces phytotoxic phenylacetic acid (PAA) and hydroxy (OH-) and methoxy (MeO-) derivatives of PAA. However, limited information is available on the specific role that these compounds play in the development of Rhizoctonia disease symptoms and concentration(s) required to induce a host response. Reports that PAA inhibits the growth of R. solani conflict with the established ability of the fungus to produce and metabolize PAA. Experiments were conducted to clarify the role of the PAA metabolic complex in Rhizoctonia disease. In this study the concentration of PAA and derivatives required to induce tomato root necrosis and stem canker, in the absence of the fungus, and the concentration that inhibits mycelial growth of R. solani were determined. The effect of exogenous PAA and derivatives of PAA on tomato seedling growth also was investigated. Growth of tomato seedlings in medium containing 0.1-7.5 mM PAA and derivatives induced necrosis of up to 85% of root system. Canker development resulted from injection of tomato seedling stems with 7.5 mM PAA, 3-OH-PAA, or 3-MeO-PAA. PAA in the growth medium reduced R. solani biomass, with 50% reduction observed at 7.5 mM. PAA, and derivatives were quantified from the culture medium of 14 isolates of R. solani belonging to three distinct anastomosis groups by GC-MS. The quantities ranged from below the limit of detection to 678 nM, below the concentrations experimentally determined to be phytotoxic. Correlation analyses revealed that isolates of R. solani that produced high PAA and derivatives in vitro also caused high mortality on tomato seedlings. The results of this investigation add to the body of evidence that the PAA metabolic complex is involved in Rhizoctonia disease development but do not indicate that production of these compounds is the primary or the only determinant of pathogenicity.

  19. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  20. Fusarium mycotoxins: a trans-disciplinary overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to health risks and economic losses associated with mycotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Fusarium species, there is a compelling need for improved understanding of these fungi from across diverse perspectives and disciplinary approaches. Phylogenetic studies have made tremendous progress in d...

  1. IGS-RFLP analysis and development of molecular markers for identification of Fusarium poae, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium kyushuense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinova, P.S.; Yli-Mattila, T.

    2004-01-01

    The intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of the rDNA of several Fusarium spp. strains obtained from the collaborative researchers (Int. J. Food Microbiol. (2003)) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and an IGS¿RFLP analysis was performed. Restriction digestion with AluI, MspI and PstI

  2. Fusarium Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, Gary P

    2017-01-01

    The genus Fusarium includes numerous toxigenic species that are pathogenic to plants or humans, and are able to colonize a wide range of environments on earth. The genus comprises around 70 well-known species, identified by using a polyphasic approach, and as many as 300 putative species, according to phylogenetic species concepts; many putative species do not yet have formal names. Fusarium is one of the most economically important fungal genera because of yield loss due to plant pathogenic activity; mycotoxin contamination of food and feed products which often render them unaccep for marketing; and health impacts to humans and livestock, due to consumption of mycotoxins. Among the most important mycotoxins produced by species of Fusarium are the trichothecenes and the fumonisins. Fumonisins cause fatal livestock diseases and are considered potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins for humans, while trichothecenes are potent inhibitors of protein synthesis. This chapter summarizes the main aspects of morphology, pathology, and toxigenicity of the main Fusarium species that colonize different agricultural crops and environments worldwide, and cause mycotoxin contamination of food and feed.

  3. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  4. The cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelmeer, EAM; Klis, FM; Sietsma, JH; Cornelissen, BJC

    1999-01-01

    Sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (N-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. Cell wall glycoproteins accounted for

  5. Characterization and intraspecific variation of Fusarium semitectum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 79 isolates of Fusarium semitectum were characterized by morphological and IGS-RFLP analysis to assess its intraspecific variation. Based on morphological characteristics, the isolates of F. semitectum were classified into 2 distinct groups, morphotypes I and II. Morphotype I was characterized by longer ...

  6. Agricultural factors affecting Fusarium communities in wheat kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2017-07-03

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of cereals caused by Fusarium fungi. The disease is of great economic importance especially owing to reduced grain quality due to contamination by a range of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. Disease control and prediction is difficult because of the many Fusarium species associated with FHB. Different species may respond differently to control methods and can have both competitive and synergistic interactions. Therefore, it is important to understand how agricultural practices affect Fusarium at the community level. Lower levels of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of organically produced cereals compared with conventionally produced have been reported, but the causes of these differences are not well understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of agricultural factors on Fusarium abundance and community composition in different cropping systems. Winter wheat kernels were collected from 18 organically and conventionally cultivated fields in Sweden, paired based on their geographical distance and the wheat cultivar grown. We characterised the Fusarium community in harvested wheat kernels using 454 sequencing of translation elongation factor 1-α amplicons. In addition, we quantified Fusarium spp. using real-time PCR to reveal differences in biomass between fields. We identified 12 Fusarium operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with a median of 4.5 OTUs per field. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant species, while F. avenaceum had the highest occurrence. The abundance of Fusarium spp. ranged two orders of magnitude between fields. Two pairs of Fusarium species co-occurred between fields: F. poae with F. tricinctum and F. culmorum with F. sporotrichoides. We could not detect any difference in Fusarium communities between the organic and conventional systems. However, agricultural intensity, measured as the number of pesticide applications and the amount of nitrogen fertiliser applied, had an

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Rhizoctonia solani [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Rhizoctonia solani 名詞 一般 * * * * ...Rhizoctonia solani Rhizoctonia solani アールエイチアイズィーオーシーティーオーエヌアイエイ エスオーエルエイエヌアイ Thesaurus2015 200906022356151321 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Rhizoctonia solani

  8. Identification of Spanish isolates of Rhizoctonia solani from potato by anastomosis grouping, ITS-RFLP and RAMS-fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Elbakali

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Anastomosis grouping, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the ITS regions including the 5.85 rDNA, and random amplified microsatellites (RAMS were used to characterize isolates of Rhizoctonia solani collected from Spain and Finland. There was a high similarity between the results obtained with the three techniques. RAMS markers revealed more genetic variation among isolates of R. solani than RFLP. The anastomosis group (AG–3 isolates were clearly separated from isolates belonging to other AGs by RAMS, RFLPs and anastomosis grouping. Almost all the isolates sampled from potato belonged to AG–3. No differences were observed between Spanish and Finnish AG–3 isolates.

  9. UPLC-QTOF-MS metabolomics analysis revealed the contributions of metabolites to the pathogenesis of Rhizoctonia solani strain AG-1-IA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Hu

    Full Text Available To explore the pathogenesis of Rhizoctonia solani and its phytotoxin phenylacetic acid (PAA on maize leaves and sheaths, treated leaf and sheath tissues were analyzed and interpreted by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics. The PAA treatment had similar effects to those of R. solani on maize leaves regarding the metabolism of traumatin, phytosphingosine, vitexin 2'' O-beta-D-glucoside, rutin and DIBOA-glucoside, which were up-regulated, while the synthesis of OPC-8:0 and 12-OPDA, precursors for the synthesis of jasmonic acid, a plant defense signaling molecule, was down-regulated under both treatments. However, there were also discrepancies in the influences exhibited by R. solani and PAA as the metabolic concentration of zeaxanthin diglucoside in the R. solani infected leaf group decreased. Conversely, in the PAA-treated leaf group, the synthesis of zeaxanthin diglucoside was enhanced. Moreover, although the synthesis of 12 metabolites were suppressed in both the R. solani- and PAA-treated leaf tissues, the inhibitory effect of R. solani was stronger than that of PAA. An increased expression of quercitrin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside was observed in maize sheaths treated by R. solani, while their concentrations were not changed significantly in the PAA-treated sheaths. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the concentration of L-Glutamate, which plays important roles in plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens, only occurred in the R. solani-treated sheath tissues. The differentiated metabolite levels may be the partial reason of why maize sheaths were more susceptible to R. solani than leaves and may explain the underlying mechanisms of R. solani pathogenesis.

  10. Identification of Ina proteins from Fusarium acuminatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of water above -36° C is based on ice nucleation activity (INA) mediated by ice nucleators (IN) which can be of various origins. Beside mineral IN, biological particles are a potentially important source of atmospheric IN. The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is induced by a surface protein on the outer cell membrane, which is fully characterized. In contrast, much less is known about the nature of fungal IN. The fungal genus Fusarium is widely spread throughout the earth. It belongs to the Ascomycota and is one of the most severe fungal pathogens. It can affect a variety of organisms from plants to animals including humans. INA of Fusarium was already described about 30 years ago and INA of Fusarium as well as other fungal genera is assumed to be mediated by proteins or at least to contain a proteinaceous compound. Although many efforts were made the precise INA machinery of Fusarium and other fungal species including the proteins and their corresponding genes remain unidentified. In this study preparations from living fungal samples of F. acuminatum were fractionated by liquid chromatography and IN active fractions were identified by freezing assays. SDS-page and de novo sequencing by mass spectrometry were used to identify the primary structure of the protein. Preliminary results show that the INA protein of F. acuminatum is contained in the early size exclusion chromatography fractions indicating a high molecular size. Moreover we could identify a single protein band from IN active fractions at 130-145 kDa corresponding to sizes of IN proteins from bacterial species. To our knowledge this is for the first time an isolation of a single protein from in vivo samples, which can be assigned as IN active from Fusarium.

  11. Mycological survey of Korean cereals and production of mycotoxins by Fusarium isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, U S; Jang, H S; Tanaka, T; Toyasaki, N; Sugiura, Y; Oh, Y J; Cho, C M; Ueno, Y

    1986-01-01

    The fungal species isolated from Korean cereals (barley, polished barley, wheat, rye, and malt) were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Chaetomium spp., Drechslera spp., Epicoccum sp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp., etc. The number of Fusarium strains isolated was 36, and their ability to produce Fusarium mycotoxins on rice was tested. Nivalenol (NIV) was produced by Fusarium graminearum (7 of 9 isolates), Fusarium oxysporum (3 of 10 isolates), and Fusarium spp. (7 of 15 isolates). Of 1...

  12. Efecto inhibitorio in vitro de cinco isotiocianatos sobre Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Federico Molina-Vargas

    2019-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluamos el efecto de cinco isotiocianatos (ITC para controlar a Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-3, un hongo causante de enfermedades en plantas de importancia agrícola, como estudio preliminar para la implementación de la técnica de biofumigación en Colombia. Realizamos pruebas in vitro con diluciones de cinco ITC, con metanol como solvente, en cajas de Petri con medio PDA y calculamos las áreas de crecimiento micelial, el porcentaje de inhibición y la concentración efectiva media (CE50. La respuesta del patógeno fue dependiente de la concentración y del tipo de ITC aplicado. Todos los ITC en concentraciones al 10% presentaron efecto inhibitorio total. PEITC y BITC tuvieron un efecto fungistático hasta los seis y 27 días después de aplicados los tratamientos, respectivamente. PITC, AITC y MITC mantuvieron el efecto inhibitorio por más de un año después de aplicados los tratamientos. PITC fue más eficaz en controlar R. solani Kühn AG-3 que los otros ITC, mostrando el valor más bajo de la CE50 para la inhibición del crecimiento micelial.

  13. Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, María Soledad; Decundo, Julieta; Martinez, Mauro; Dieguez, Susana Nelly; Moreyra, Federico; Moreno, Maria Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum, 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g); 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae, those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina. PMID:29439459

  14. Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Nogueira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON and nivalenol (NIV, respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum, 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g; 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae, those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina.

  15. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during the Malting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, Katharina; Hofer, Katharina; Geißinger, Cajetan; Schüler, Jan; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Little is known about the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins during the barley malting process. To determine the fungal DNA and mycotoxin concentrations during malting, we used barley grain harvested from field plots that we had inoculated with Fusarium species that produce type A or type B trichothecenes or enniatins. Using a recently developed multimycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass stable isotope dilution method, we identified Fusarium-species-specific behaviors of mycotoxins in grain and malt extracts and compared toxin concentrations to amounts of fungal DNA in the same samples. In particular, the type B trichothecenes and Fusarium culmorum DNA contents were increased dramatically up to 5400% after kilning. By contrast, the concentrations of type A trichothecenes and Fusarium sporotrichioides DNA decreased during the malting process. These data suggest that specific Fusarium species that contaminate the raw grain material might have different impacts on malt quality.

  16. Antibody-mediated Prevention of Fusarium Mycotoxins in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cai Liao

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed.

  17. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fen; Finnie, Christine; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D...

  18. Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo.

  19. Proteomic response of the biological control fungus Trichoderma atroviride to growth on the cell walls of Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyer, Jasmine; Hunt, Sybille; McKay, Matthew; Herbert, Ben R; Nevalainen, Helena

    2005-06-01

    Trichoderma atroviride has a natural ability to parasitise phytopathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea, therefore providing an environmentally sound alternative to chemical fungicides in the management of these pathogens. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to display cellular protein patterns of T. atroviride (T. harzianum P1) grown on media containing either glucose or R. solani cell walls. Protein profiles were compared to identify T. atroviride proteins up-regulated in the presence of the R. solani cell walls. Twenty-four protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Identified up-regulated proteins include known fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes such as N-acetyl-beta-D: -glucosaminidase and 42-kDa endochitinase. Three novel proteases of T. atroviride were identified, containing sequence similarity to vacuolar serine protease, vacuolar protease A and a trypsin-like protease from known fungal proteins. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4a, superoxide dismutase and a hypothetical protein from Neurospora crassa were also up-regulated as a response to R. solani cell walls. Several cell wall-degrading enzymes were identified from the T. atroviride culture supernatant, providing further evidence that a cellular response indicative of biological control had occurred.

  20. Fusarium verticillioides from finger millet in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Esele, J P; Logrieco, Antonio; Ritieni, Alberto; Leslie, John F

    2012-01-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a subsistence crop grown in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Sub-continent. Fusarium species occurring on this crop have not been reported. Approximately 13% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from finger millet growing at three different locations in eastern Uganda belong to Fusarium verticillioides, and could produce up to 18,600 µg/g of total fumonisins when cultured under laboratory conditions. These strains are all genetically unique, based on AFLP analyses, and form fertile perithecia when crossed with the standard mating type tester strains for this species. All but one of the strains is female-fertile and mating-type segregates 13:20 Mat-1:Mat-2. Three new sequences of the gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α were found within the population. These results indicate a potential health risk for infants who consume finger millet gruel as a weaning food, and are consistent with the hypothesis that F. verticillioides originated in Africa and not in the Americas, despite its widespread association with maize grown almost anywhere worldwide.

  1. Tipe Mating pada Empat Isolat Thanatephorus Cucumeris Anamorf: Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group (AG 1-IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmadi Priyatmojo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Four parent isolates (189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IC were induced to produce basidiospores using soil-over culture method. All of four parent isolates could produce basidiospores. Colonies obtained from single basidiospore isolate of each parent isolate were paired on charcoal potato dextrose agar. Single basidiospore isolate having different mating type produced tuft at area of the junction of paired colonies. On the based of tuft formation, single basidiospore isolates of each parent isolate could be divided into two different mating types, therefore it is concluded that each of 189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 isolate of T. cucumeris AG I-IC has bipolar mating type.

  2. Fatores envolvidos na supressividade a Rhizoctonia solani em alguns solos tropicais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Rodrigues

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em condições de casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, no período de março a agosto de 1995, visando determinar, em sete classes de solo, a supressividade ao fungo Rhizoctonia solani e estudar o possível relacionamento dessa característica com a mineralogia, propriedades físicas e químicas e populações de fungos do solo. Após proceder à inoculação dos solos com R. solani, multiplicada em grãos de sorgo autoclavados, observou-se que o índice de doença em plântulas de soja aumentou em todos eles. Tal índice foi sempre maior na camada de 0-20 cm, associando-se com o maior teor de matéria orgânica, com exceção do Solo Orgânico eutrófico (SOe, o qual apresentou um índice de doença similar nas duas profundidades (0-20 e 20-40 cm. O efeito supressivo a R. solani, observado no material do Plintossolo distrófico (PTd e no Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro álico (LEa, relacionou-se com a textura muito argilosa, com a alta saturação por alumínio e com a vegetação (fase cerrado, mesmo com a ausência de Trichoderma spp. Os materiais do Solo Orgânico eutrófico (SOe, do Latossolo Roxo distrófico (LRd e da Terra Roxa Estruturada eutrófica (TRe apresentaram maior conducividade a R. solani , possivelmente relacionada com o caráter eutrófico e com o teor da matéria orgânica, decorrente do tipo de cobertura vegetal (fase vegetação. O material do Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro álico textura média (LEam e o do Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico (LVa mostraram comportamento intermediário. O índice de doença correlacionou-se negativamente com a saturação por alumínio e teor de argila e positivamente com a saturação de bases (V e com o pH. A mineralogia parece não ter influência direta na supressividade ou conducividade dos solos estudados, provavelmente por variar apenas no que se refere às formas de óxidos de ferro.

  3. In vitro attachment of phylloplane yeasts to Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tom W; Burpee, Leon L; Buck, James W

    2004-12-01

    The ability of yeasts to attach to hyphae or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi has been speculated to contribute to biocontrol activity on plant surfaces. Attachment of phylloplane yeasts to Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa was determined using in vitro attachment assays. Yeasts were incubated for 2 d on potato dextrose agar (PDA) prior to experimentation. A total of 292 yeasts cultured on PDA were screened for their ability to attach to conidia of B. cinerea; 260 isolates (89.1%) attached to conidia forming large aggregates of cells, and 22 isolates (7.5%) weakly attached to conidia with 1 or 2 yeast cells attached to a few conidia. Ten yeasts (3.4%), including 8 isolates of Cryptococcus laurentii, 1 isolate of Cryptococcus flavescens, and an unidentified species of Cryptococcus, failed to attach to conidia. All non-attaching yeasts produced copious extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) on PDA. Seventeen yeast isolates did not attach to hyphal fragments of B. cinerea, R. solani, and S. homoeocarpa after a 1 h incubation, but attachment was observed after 24 h. Culture medium, but not culture age, significantly affected the attachment of yeast cells to conidia of B. cinerea. The 10 yeast isolates that did not attach to conidia when grown on agar did attach to conidia (20%-57% of conidia with attached yeast cells) when cultured in liquid medium. Attachment of the biocontrol yeast Rhodotorula glutinis PM4 to conidia of B. cinerea was significantly greater at 1 x 10(7) yeast cells x mL(-1) than at lower concentrations of yeast cells. The ability of yeast cells to attach to fungal conidia or hyphae appears to be a common phenotype among phylloplane yeasts.

  4. Trichoderma harzianum elicits induced resistance in sunflower challenged by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B N; Singh, A; Singh, B R; Singh, H B

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum NBRI-1055 (denoted as 'T-1055') in suppression of seedling blight of sunflower caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and their impact on host defence responses. T-1055 was applied as seed treatment, soil application and combined application (seed treatment + soil application). Higher protection afforded by combined application of T-1055 was associated with the marked induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (PO) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) activities. The activities of PAL and PPO reached maximum at 10 days after sowing (DAS), while PO and CAD levels reached maximum at 12 DAS. This was further supported by the accumulation of total phenolic content that showed an increase up to threefold at 14 DAS. In addition, HPLC analysis revealed that the contents of ferulic and p-coumaric acids increased by 6·3 and 4·6 times, respectively, at 14 DAS. Amount of gallic acid was also little more than double. Lignin deposition in sunflower root increased by 2·7, 3·4 and 3·7 times through combined application of T-1055 at 16, 18 and 20 DAS, respectively. Combined application also increased the accumulation of PR-2 and PR-3 proteins by 3·3 and 3·9 times, respectively, at 12 DAS in followed by seed treatment alone. The combined application of T-1055 triggered defence responses in an enhanced level in sunflower than the soil and seed alone and provided better protection against Rhizoctonia seedling blight. Rhizospheric fungal bioagent 'T-1055' can enhance protection in sunflower against the R. solani pathogen through augmented elicitation of host defence responses. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Antifungal activity of various essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina as major bean pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaledi, N; Taheri, P; Tarighi, S

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various essential oils (EOs) to decrease the activity of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) produced by fungal phytopathogens, which are associated with disease progress. Also, effect of seed treatment and foliar application of peppermint EO and its main constituent, menthol, on diseases caused by two necrotrophic pathogens on bean was investigated. Antifungal activity of EOs on Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina, as bean pathogens, was evaluated. The EOs of Mentha piperita, Bunium persicum and Thymus vulgaris revealed the highest antifungal activity against fungi. The EO of M. piperita had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for R. solani among the three EOs tested. This pathogen did not grow in the presence of M. piperita, B. persicum and T. vulgaris EOs at 850, 1200 and 1100 ppm concentrations, respectively. The B. persicum EO had the lowest MIC for M. phaseolina as this fungus did not grow in the presence of M. piperita, B. persicum and T. vulgaris EOs at concentrations of 975, 950 and 1150 ppm, respectively. Hyphae exposed to EOs showed structural changes. Activities of cellulase and pectinase, as main CWDEs of pathogens, decreased by EOs at low concentration without effect on fungal growth. Seed treatment and foliar application of peppermint EO and/or menthol significantly reduced the development of bean diseases caused by both fungi. Higher capability of menthol than peppermint EO in decreasing diseases on bean was observed. Reducing CDWEs activity is a mechanism of EOs' effect on fungi. Higher antifungal activity of menthol compared to peppermint EO was observed not only in vitro but also in vivo. Effect of EOs on CWDEs involved in pathogenesis is described in this study for the first time. Menthol can be used as a botanical fungicide to control destructive fungal diseases on bean. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium oxysporum schl. F. sp phaseoli. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Crude plant extracts from Azadirachta indica, Tagetes minuta, Nicotiana tobacum and Vinca rosea were tested against Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F. sp. phaseoli.

  7. How to conquer a tomato plant? Fusarium oxysporum effector targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens secrete small proteins, called effectors, to alter the environment in their host to facilitate infection. The causal agent of Fusarium wilt on tomato, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), secretes these proteins in the xylem sap of infected plants and hence they have been called

  8. Harnessing the microbiome to reduce Fusarium head blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium graminearum (Fg), the primary fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB), reduces crop yield and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that are deleterious to plant, human and animal health. In this presentation, we will discuss two different research projects tha...

  9. Distribution of mycotoxin biosynthetic genes in 200 Fusarium genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium is a species-rich genus of fungi that causes disease on most crop plants and produces diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety. To determine the potential SM diversity within Fusarium as well as the distribution and ev...

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Fusarium species by AFLP fingerprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high-resolution genotyping method of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to study the genetic relationships within and between natural populations of five Fusarium spp. AFLP templates were prepared by the digestion of Fusarium DNA with EcoRI and MseI restriction endonucleases and ...

  11. The fungal myosin I is essential for Fusarium toxisome formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most frequently detected secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium spp. To date, relatively few studies have addressed how mycotoxin biosynthesis occurs in fungal cells. Here we found that myosin I governs translation of DON bi...

  12. Screening fusarium resistant rootstocks for plant parasitic nematode resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phase out of methyl bromide has directed research toward alternative methods of managing soil-borne pathogens. A limiting factor in many watermelon producing regions is Fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungi Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (FON). There is no varietal resistance to FON depl...

  13. Integrated management of Fusarium wilt of chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-17

    Jul 17, 2013 ... Key words: Integrated management, Fusarium wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), antagonists, botanicals, fungicides. INTRODUCTION. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a vital source of plant- derived edible protein in many countries. Chickpea also has advantages in the ...

  14. Action and reaction of host and pathogen during Fusarium head blight disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Nicholson, Paul; Doohan, Fiona M

    2010-01-01

    The Fusarium species Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, Which are responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, reduced world-wide cereal crop yield and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in cereal grain, impact on both human and animal health. Their study is greatly p...

  15. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  16. Adventitious sporulation in Fusarium: The yeast that were not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Lockwood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In immunocompromised patients, Fusarium species cause infections that lead to high mortality. Our case report describes a case of disseminated fusariosis in a neutropenic patient with AML after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and a neutropenic multiple myeloma patient with Fusarium fungemia awaiting stem cell collection. Both cases highlight the fact that Fusarium can grow as yeast-like structures in the blood causing a delay in diagnosis, and that Fusarium has a tendency to be a resistant organism. Fusarium was only susceptible to amphotericin B in both cases, but we chose to continue treatment with voriconazole in the first case with disseminated infection, despite culture results, in view of his good clinical response. Despite high mortality rates in disseminated infection, our two patients had good outcomes.

  17. Comparative Metatranscriptomics of Wheat Rhizosphere Microbiomes in Disease Suppressive and Non-suppressive Soils for Rhizoctonia solani AG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Hayden

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R. solani AG8. Analysis of 12 rhizosphere metatranscriptomes (six per field was undertaken using two bioinformatic approaches involving unassembled and assembled reads. Differential expression analysis showed the dominant taxa in the rhizosphere based on mRNA annotation were Arthrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. for non-suppressive samples and Stenotrophomonas spp. and Buttiauxella spp. for the suppressive samples. The assembled metatranscriptome analysis identified more differentially expressed genes than the unassembled analysis in the comparison of suppressive and non-suppressive samples. Suppressive samples showed greater expression of a polyketide cyclase, a terpenoid biosynthesis backbone gene (dxs and many cold shock proteins (csp. Non-suppressive samples were characterised by greater expression of antibiotic genes such as non-heme chloroperoxidase (cpo which is involved in pyrrolnitrin synthesis, and phenazine biosynthesis family protein F (phzF and its transcriptional activator protein (phzR. A large number of genes involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS and superoxide radicals (sod, cat, ahp, bcp, gpx1, trx were also expressed in the non-suppressive rhizosphere samples most likely in response to the infection of wheat

  18. A simple culture method inducing sexual reproduction by Fusarium graminearum, the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    The homothallic ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of wheat and barley worldwide. The fungus undergoes both asexual and sexual stages in its life cycle. The asexual stage produces conidiospores, whereas the sexual s...

  19. Suppressive Effect of Trichoderma spp. on toxigenic Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Basińska-Barczak, Aneta; Ćwiek-Kupczyńska, Hanna; Gromadzka, Karolina; Popiel, Delfina; Stępień, Łukasz

    2017-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to examine the abilities of twenty-four isolates belonging to ten different Trichoderma species (i.e., Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Trichoderma cremeum, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningiopsis, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma longipile, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma viridescens) to inhibit the mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by five Fusarium strains (i.e., Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium temperatum). Dual-culture bioassay on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium clearly documented that all of the Trichoderma strains used in the study were capable of influencing the mycelial growth of at least four of all five Fusarium species on the fourth day after co-inoculation, when there was the first apparent physical contact between antagonist and pathogen. The qualitative evaluation of the interaction between the colonies after 14 days of co-culturing on PDA medium showed that ten Trichoderma strains completely overgrew and sporulated on the colony at least one of the tested Fusarium species. Whereas, the microscopic assay provided evidence that only T. atroviride AN240 and T. viride AN255 formed dense coils around the hyphae of the pathogen from where penetration took place. Of all screened Trichoderma strains, T. atroviride AN240 was also found to be the most efficient (69-100% toxin reduction) suppressors of mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin, moniliformin) production by all five Fusarium species on solid substrates. This research suggests that T. atroviride AN240 can be a promising candidate for the biological control of toxigenic Fusarium species.

  20. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense dengan Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Sudirman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag, second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation. Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag. Faktor kedua

  1. Cloning of phenazine carboxylic acid genes of Fusarium fujikuroi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... genetic modification can improve the efficacy of biological control agents (Van Loon, 1998). Bacterial secondary ... WCS358r was modified to produce the antifungal com- pound phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) ( ..... control of Rhizoctonia solani in tomato. J. Biotechnol. 6: 115-127. Raaijmakers JM ...

  2. The Possibility of Inducing Resistance in Tomato against Rhizoctonia solani and some of its Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nikraftar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is one of the most important crops worldwide, which suffers from several destructive diseases. Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungus which is known as the causal agent of tomato damping-off, seed rot, root and crown rot diseases. Control of this phytopathogenic fungus is very difficult due to its long-term survival in the soil, high level of genetic diversity in R. solani populations and the lake of complete resistance in plants to the pathogen. Although partial genetic resistance to Rhizoctonia diseases has been reported, no major gene responsible for resistance has been found so far. Most of the traditional cultivars, planted in tomato-growing areas, are susceptible to Rhizoctonia diseases. Therefore, an intensive use of other crop protection methods such as an application of chemicals or biological agent which are capable of activating plant defense responses seems to be necessary to suppress the disease damage in tomato fields. The growing concern on negative environmental effects of fungicides and the appearance of fungicide- resistant pathogens led to increased research interest in the alternative protection methods. Among these novel disease management strategies, induced resistance (IR has emerged as a potential supplement in plant protection trials. Materials and Methods: The cultivar CH Falat was used as a susceptible tomato genotype to R. solani. The seeds were surface sterilized with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 1min, rinsed 3 times with sterile distilled water and incubated for 5 days on a wet sterile filter paper in Petri dishes. Germinated seeds were each sown in plastic pots filled with autoclaved commercial potting soil and kept in greenhouse conditions. The tomato leaves were treated with various concentrations of thiamine, pyridoxine, and homoserine lactones and inoculated with the pathogen. Disease symptoms were evaluated at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi and the most effective

  3. Tricholin, a new antifungal agent from Trichoderma viride, and its action in biological control of Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A; Lee, T M; Rern, J C

    1994-07-01

    Tricholin, a ribosome-inactivating protein isolated from the culture broth of Trichoderma viride, has been shown to exert fungicidal effects on Rhizoctonia solani through a multi-hit kinetic interaction. Tricholin causes a parallel cessation of growth, uptake of amino acids, and protein biosynthesis. The in vivo mode of action of tricholin on protein synthesis and cell growth appears to be attributed to the diminishing of the polysome formation in R. solani through damage to large ribosomal subunits. These results concur with previous data and prove that tricholin is an effective inhibitor of protein synthesis. The efficacy of tricholin as an antibiotic agent was estimated to have a duration of approximately 42 hours.

  4. In vitro sensitivity of Alternaria solani to conventional fungicides and a biofungicide based on tea tree essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Stepanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of in vitro sensitivity of five Alternaria solani isolates to cooper-oxychloride, chlorothalonil, difenoconazole, pyraclostrobin and a biofungicide based on tea tree essential oil was carried out. The isolates were obtained from infected tomato leaves collected from five different locations in Serbia. The tested isolates showed the highest sensitivity to pyraclostrobin with EC50 values ranging from 0.0014 to 0.0041 μg ml-1. The EC50 values of difenoconazole were 0.018-0.037 μg ml-1, chlorothalonil 2.99-4.54 μg ml-1, and cooper-oxychloride 13.27-15.63 μg ml-1. All tested A. solani isolates were the least sensitive to tea tree oil (1323.97-3307.08 μg l-1.

  5. T4-related bacteriophage LIMEstone isolates for the control of soft rot on potato caused by 'Dickeya solani'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien M Adriaenssens

    Full Text Available The bacterium 'Dickeya solani', an aggressive biovar 3 variant of Dickeya dianthicola, causes rotting and blackleg in potato. To control this pathogen using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized two closely related and specific bacteriophages, vB_DsoM_LIMEstone1 and vB_DsoM_LIMEstone2. The LIMEstone phages have a T4-related genome organization and share DNA similarity with Salmonella phage ViI. Microbiological and molecular characterization of the phages deemed them suitable and promising for use in phage therapy. The phages reduced disease incidence and severity on potato tubers in laboratory assays. In addition, in a field trial of potato tubers, when infected with 'Dickeya solani', the experimental phage treatment resulted in a higher yield. These results form the basis for the development of a bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato plants and tubers as an alternative for the use of antibiotics.

  6. Comparative genomics and prediction of conditionally dispensable sequences in legume-infecting Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales facilitates identification of candidate effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angela H; Sharma, Mamta; Thatcher, Louise F; Azam, Sarwar; Hane, James K; Sperschneider, Jana; Kidd, Brendan N; Anderson, Jonathan P; Ghosh, Raju; Garg, Gagan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Kistler, H Corby; Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Kamphuis, Lars G; Saxena, Rachit; Pande, Suresh; Ma, Li-Jun; Varshney, Rajeev K; Singh, Karam B

    2016-03-05

    Soil-borne fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex cause devastating wilt disease on many crops including legumes that supply human dietary protein needs across many parts of the globe. We present and compare draft genome assemblies for three legume-infecting formae speciales (ff. spp.): F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc-38-1) and f. sp. pisi (Fop-37622), significant pathogens of chickpea and pea respectively, the world's second and third most important grain legumes, and lastly f. sp. medicaginis (Fom-5190a) for which we developed a model legume pathosystem utilising Medicago truncatula. Focusing on the identification of pathogenicity gene content, we leveraged the reference genomes of Fusarium pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (tomato-infecting) and F. solani (pea-infecting) and their well-characterised core and dispensable chromosomes to predict genomic organisation in the newly sequenced legume-infecting isolates. Dispensable chromosomes are not essential for growth and in Fusarium species are known to be enriched in host-specificity and pathogenicity-associated genes. Comparative genomics of the publicly available Fusarium species revealed differential patterns of sequence conservation across F. oxysporum formae speciales, with legume-pathogenic formae speciales not exhibiting greater sequence conservation between them relative to non-legume-infecting formae speciales, possibly indicating the lack of a common ancestral source for legume pathogenicity. Combining predicted dispensable gene content with in planta expression in the model legume-infecting isolate, we identified small conserved regions and candidate effectors, four of which shared greatest similarity to proteins from another legume-infecting ff. spp. We demonstrate that distinction of core and potential dispensable genomic regions of novel F. oxysporum genomes is an effective tool to facilitate effector discovery and the identification of gene content possibly linked to host

  7. Plant diversity and plant identity influence Fusarium communities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Nicholas; Kinkel, Linda; Kistler, H Corby

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium communities play important functional roles in soil and in plants as pathogens, endophytes, and saprotrophs. This study tests how rhizosphere Fusarium communities may vary with plant species, changes in the diversity of the surrounding plant community, and soil physiochemical characteristics. Fusarium communities in soil associated with the roots of two perennial prairie plant species maintained as monocultures or growing within polyculture plant communities were characterized using targeted metagenomics. Amplicon libraries targeting the RPB2 locus were generated from rhizosphere soil DNAs and sequenced using pyrosequencing. Sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and assigned a taxonomy using the Evolutionary Placement Algorithm. Fusarium community composition was differentiated between monoculture and polyculture plant communities, and by plant species in monoculture, but not in polyculture. Taxonomic classification of the Fusarium OTUs showed a predominance of F. tricinctum and F. oxysporum as well of the presence of a clade previously only found in the Southern Hemisphere. Total Fusarium richness was not affected by changes in plant community richness or correlated with soil physiochemical characteristics. However, OTU richness within two predominant phylogenetic lineages within the genus was positively or negatively correlated with soil physiochemical characteristics among samples within each lineage. This work shows that plant species, plant community richness, and soil physiochemical characteristics may all influence the composition and richness of Fusarium communities in soil.

  8. Fusarium pathogenesis investigated using Galleria mellonella as a heterologous host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Muhammed, Maged; Kasperkovitz, Pia V.; Vyas, Jatin M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Members of the fungal genus Fusarium are capable of manifesting in a multitude of clinical infections, most commonly in immunocompromised patients. In order to better understand the interaction between the fungus and host, we have developed the larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, as a heterologous host for fusaria. When conidia are injected into the hemocoel of this Lepidopteran system, both clinical and environmental isolates of the fungus are able to kill the larvae at 37°C, although killing occurs more rapidly when incubated at 30°C. This killing was dependent on several other factors besides temperature, including the Fusarium strain, the number of conidia injected, and the conidia morphology, where macroconidia are more virulent than their microconidia counterpart. There was a correlation in the killing rate of Fusarium spp. when evaluated in G. mellonella and a murine model. In vivo studies indicated G. mellonella hemocytes were capable of initially phagocytosing both conidial morphologies. The G. mellonella system was also used to evaluate antifungal agents, and amphotericin B was able to confer a significant increase in survival to Fusarium infected-larvae. The G. mellonella-Fusarium pathogenicity system revealed that virulence of Fusarium spp. is similar, regardless of the origin of the isolate, and that mammalian endothermy is a major deterrent for Fusarium infection and therefore provides a suitable alternative to mammalian models to investigate the interaction between the host and this increasingly important fungal pathogen. PMID:22115447

  9. A novel L-amino acid oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 associated with antagonism of Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Ann; Cheng, Chi-Hua; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Liu, Shu-Ying; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Peng, Kou-Cheng

    2011-05-11

    Trichoderma spp. are used as biocontrol agents against phytopathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani, but their biocontrol mechanisms are poorly understood. A novel L-amino oxidase (Th-LAAO) was identified from the extracellular proteins of Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323. Here, we show a FAD-binding glycoprotein with the best substrate specificity constant for L-phenylalanine. Although the amino acid sequence of Th-LAAO revealed limited homology (16-24%) to other LAAO members, a highly conserved FAD-binding motif was identified in the N-terminus. Th-LAAO was shown to be a homodimeric protein, but the monomeric form was predominant when grown in the presence of deactivated Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that Th-LAAO had an antagonistic effect against Rhizoctonia solani and a stimulatory one on hyphal density and sporulation in T. harzianum ETS 323. These findings further our understanding of T. harzianum as a biocontrol agent and provide insight into the biological function of l-amino acid oxidase.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Identifies Infection-specific, Redox Associated Proteins and Insight into Adaptation to Different Plant Hosts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hane, James K.; Stoll, Thomas; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L.; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J.; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about how R. solani causes disease. This study capitalizes on recent genomic studies by applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Many of the proteins found in the culture filtrate had predicted functions relating to modification of the plant cell wall, a major activity required for pathogenesis on the plant host, including a number found only under infection conditions. Other infection related proteins included a high proportion of proteins with redox associated functions and many novel proteins without functional classification. The majority of infection only proteins tested were confirmed to show transcript up-regulation during infection including a thaumatin which increased susceptibility to R. solani when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. In addition, analysis of expression during infection of different plant hosts highlighted how the infection strategy of this broad host range pathogen can be adapted to the particular host being encountered. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002806. PMID:26811357

  11. Caractérisation de souches de Dickeya solani et identification de signaux bactériens ou végétaux impliqués dans l'induction de gènes de virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Golanowska , Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Dickeya solani is a species consisting of newly emerged plant pathogenic bacteria that cause blackleg and soft rot diseases. They are responsible for great damages to potato plantations in most of European countries. D. solani strains produce a wide range of plant cell-wall degrading enzymes which are the main virulence factors. The aims of the study were: 1) phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of the D. solani strains isolated in countries with different climatic conditions: Poland, F...

  12. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani disease and biostimulant effect by microbial products on bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial products containing a mixture of fungi and bacteria (EM Bokashi® 2-fi and EM-5 Sutociu® characterised by plant biostimulant activity, Trichoderma harzianum T22 (biofungicide and the antagonist fungus Trichoderma sp. TJ40 were tested for efficacy against R. solani disease and for their biostimulant effects on bean plants, in growth chamber experiments, and for their direct effect on the pathogen growth, through in vitro experiments. In growth chamber experiments, EM-5 Sutociu was applied to seed (Sut/Se, substrate (Sut/S and leaf (Sut/L many times, EM Bokashi 2-fi to substrare (Bok/S once and combined with Sut, T22 and TJ40 were applied once to substrate. The pathogen was inoculated to substrate at seeding time (first experiment or at seedling phase (second experiment. Under our experimental conditions, Bok/S+Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/Se+Sut/S+Sut/L and T22, in the first experiment, and all treatments, with the exception of Bok/S applied alone in the second experiment, gave significantly disease severity reduction and increase of dry weight and leaf area with respect to the infected control. The TJ40 treatment reduced both disease incidence and disease severity only in the second experiment. In the experiment on the biostimulant effect, T22, Bok/S+Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/S+Sut/L and Sut/Se+Sut/S+Sut/L showed significantly increases of both dry weight and leaf area. The direct effect of the treatment with T22, TJ40, Bok and Sut on R. solani growth in vitro was studied with two methods, submerged colony (SC and well diffusion (WD assays. The pathogen growth was completely inhibited by Trichoderma T22 in both assays, by Trichoderma TJ40 in a range of 80-50 % in SD assay, and 50-30 % in WD assay and slightly inhibited or not inhibited by Bok and Sut.

  13. Présence en Tunisie d'isolats de Fusarium sambucinum résistants aux benzimidazoles : développement in vitro et agressivité sur tubercules de pomme de terre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mahjoub M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence in Tunisia of Fusarium sambucinum isolates resistant to benzimidazoles: in vitro growth and aggressiveness on potato tubers. The behaviour of 55 isolates of Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of the potato tubers, is studied against some enzimidazoles fungicides. Tunisian isolates of F. solani (12, F. oxysporum (23 and F. graminearum (10 are sensitive in vitro to carbendazime and benomyl at 5 mg.l-1. Their interaction with thiophanate-methyl is different; a complete inhibition of their mycelial growth is observed at doses higher than 500 mg.l-1. Tunisian isolates of F. sambucinum collected during 2002, 2003 and 2004 are resistant to these benzimidazoles showing existence of a cross-resistance. In fact, these isolates tolerated carbendazime (and benomyl at 200 mg.l-1 and thiophanate-methyl at 1000 mg.l-1. This is the first study in Tunisia indicating emergence of this type of F. sambucinum resistance. Control isolates of F. sambucinum and those treated with carbendazime at 100 mg.l-1 showed a similar aggressiveness on potato tubers of the Spunta cultivar.

  14. Adjunctive Oral Voriconazole Treatment of Fusarium Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Rajaraman, Revathi; Patel, Sushila; Shah, Ranjeet; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Devi, Lumbini; Das, Manoranjan; Ray, Kathryn J.; O'Brien, Kieran S.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Zegans, Michael E.; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Fusarium keratitis is common and often results in poor outcomes. No new treatments since natamycin have become available. Objective To explore the role of adjuvant oral voriconazole on clinical outcomes in Fusarium keratitis. Design, Setting, and Participants In this prespecified subgroup analysis of a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 240 patients from the Aravind Eye Care System in India, the Lumbini Eye Hospital and Bharatpur Eye Hospital in Nepal, and the University of California, San Francisco, who had culture-positive fungal ulcer and baseline visual acuity of 20/400 or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs placebo. Enrollment started May 24, 2010, and the last patient study visit was November 23, 2015. All patients received topical voriconazole, 1%, and after the results of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial (MUTT) II became available, topical natamycin, 5%, was added for all patients. Data analysis was performed from September 2 to October 28, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome of the trial was the rate of corneal perforation or the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Secondary outcomes included rate of reepithelialization, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, and infiltrate or scar size at 3 months. Results Of the 240 study participants, 72 (30.4%) were culture positive for Fusarium species (41 [56.9%] male and 31 [43.1%] female; median [interquartile range] age, 50 [45-57] years). Of these, 33 (45.8%) were randomized to oral voriconazole and 39 (54.2%) to placebo. Fusarium ulcers randomized to oral voriconazole had a 0.43-fold decreased hazard of perforation or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty compared with placebo after controlling for baseline infiltrate depth (95% CI, 0.22-fold to 0.84-fold; P = .01). Multiple linear regression revealed a 1.89-mm decreased infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks (95% CI, −2.69 to −1.09 mm; P < .001) and a 0

  15. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sara; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Malmierca, Monica G.; Lorenzana, Alicia; Campelo, M. Piedad; Hermosa, Rosa; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen. PMID:26442006

  16. Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250 ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All

  17. A p-coumaroyl esterase from Rhizoctonia solani with a pronounced chlorogenic acid esterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2017-07-25

    Extracellular esterase activity was detected in submerged cultures of Rhizoctonia solani grown in the presence of sugar beet pectin or Tween 80. Putative type B feruloyl esterase (FAE) coding sequences found in the genome data of the basidiomycete were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant enzyme production on the 5-L bioreactor scale (Rs pCAE: 3245UL -1 ) exceeded the productivity of the wild type strain by a factor of 800. Based on substrate specificity profiling, the purified recombinant Rs pCAE was classified as a p-coumaroyl esterase (pCAE) with a pronounced chlorogenic acid esterase side activity. The Rs pCAE was also active on methyl cinnamate, caffeate and ferulate and on feruloylated saccharides. The unprecedented substrate profile of Rs pCAE together with the lack of sequence similarity to known FAEs or pCAEs suggested that the Rs pCAE represents a new type of enzyme. Hydroxycinnamic acids were released from agro-industrial side-streams, such as destarched wheat bran (DSWB), sugar beet pectin (SBP) and coffee pulp (CP). Overnight incubation of coffee pulp with the Rs pCAE resulted in the efficient release of p-coumaric (100%), caffeic (100%) and ferulic acid (85%) indicating possible applications for the valorization of food processing wastes and for the enhanced degradation of lignified biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unraveling aspects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens mediated enhanced production of rice under biotic stress of Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchi eSrivastava

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani (RS is a necrotrophic fungi causing sheath blight in rice leading to substantial loss in yield. Excessive and persistent use of preventive chemicals raises human health and environment safety concerns. As an alternative, use of biocontrol agents is highly recommended. In the present study an abiotic stress tolerant, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SN13 is demonstrated to act as a biocontrol agent and enhance immune response against RS in rice by modulating various physiological, metabolic and molecular functions. A sustained tolerance by SN13 primed plant over a longer period of time, post RS infection may be attributed to several unconventional aspects of the plants’ physiological status. The prolonged stress tolerance observed in presence of SN13 is characterized by (a involvement of bacterial mycolytic enzymes, (b sustained maintenance of elicitors to keep the immune system induced involving non-metabolizable sugars such as turanose besides the known elicitors, (c a delicate balance of ROS and ROS scavengers through production of proline, mannitol and arabitol and rare sugars like fructopyranose, β-d glucopyranose and myoinositol and expression of ferric reductases and hypoxia induced proteins, (d production of metabolites like quinozoline and expression of terpene synthase and (e hormonal cross talk. As the novel aspect of biological control this study highlights the role of rare sugars, maintenance of hypoxic conditions, and sucrose and starch metabolism in Bacillus amyloliquifaciens (SN13 mediated sustained biotic stress tolerance in rice.

  19. Activation of Recombinantly Expressed l-Amino Acid Oxidase from Rhizoctonia solani by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Hahn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available l-Amino acid oxidases (l-AAO catalyze the oxidative deamination of l-amino acids to the corresponding α-keto acids. The non-covalently bound cofactor FAD is reoxidized by oxygen under formation of hydrogen peroxide. We expressed an active l-AAO from the fungus Rhizoctonia solani as a fusion protein in E. coli. Treatment with small amounts of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS stimulated the activity of the enzyme strongly. Here, we investigated whether other detergents and amphiphilic molecules activate 9His-rsLAAO1. We found that 9His-rsLAAO1 was also activated by sodium tetradecyl sulfate. Other detergents and fatty acids were not effective. Moreover, effects of SDS on the oligomerization state and the protein structure were analyzed. Native and SDS-activated 9His-rsLAAO1 behaved as dimers by size-exclusion chromatography. SDS treatment induced an increase in hydrodynamic radius as observed by size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering. The activated enzyme showed accelerated thermal inactivation and an exposure of additional protease sites. Changes in tryptophan fluorescence point to a more hydrophilic environment. Moreover, FAD fluorescence increased and a lower concentration of sulfites was sufficient to form adducts with FAD. Taken together, these data point towards a more open conformation of SDS-activated l-amino acid oxidase facilitating access to the active site.

  20. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  1. Systematic discovery of regulatory motifs in Fusarium graminearum by comparing four Fusarium genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kistler Corby

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum (Fg, a major fungal pathogen of cultivated cereals, is responsible for billions of dollars in agriculture losses. There is a growing interest in understanding the transcriptional regulation of this organism, especially the regulation of genes underlying its pathogenicity. The generation of whole genome sequence assemblies for Fg and three closely related Fusarium species provides a unique opportunity for such a study. Results Applying comparative genomics approaches, we developed a computational pipeline to systematically discover evolutionarily conserved regulatory motifs in the promoter, downstream and the intronic regions of Fg genes, based on the multiple alignments of sequenced Fusarium genomes. Using this method, we discovered 73 candidate regulatory motifs in the promoter regions. Nearly 30% of these motifs are highly enriched in promoter regions of Fg genes that are associated with a specific functional category. Through comparison to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp, we observed conservation of transcription factors (TFs, their binding sites and the target genes regulated by these TFs related to pathways known to respond to stress conditions or phosphate metabolism. In addition, this study revealed 69 and 39 conserved motifs in the downstream regions and the intronic regions, respectively, of Fg genes. The top intronic motif is the splice donor site. For the downstream regions, we noticed an intriguing absence of the mammalian and Sc poly-adenylation signals among the list of conserved motifs. Conclusion This study provides the first comprehensive list of candidate regulatory motifs in Fg, and underscores the power of comparative genomics in revealing functional elements among related genomes. The conservation of regulatory pathways among the Fusarium genomes and the two yeast species reveals their functional significance, and provides new insights in their

  2. MICOTOXINAS DO FUSARIUM spp NA AVICULTURA COMERCIAL MYCOTOXIN OF FUSARIUM spp IN COMMERCIAL POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Santin

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Micotoxinas são metabólitos tóxicos produzidos por fungos, de natureza heterogênea e com variados princípios farmacológicos, que podem atuar sobre o organismo animal prejudicando o seu desempenho e desenvolvendo alterações patológicas graves. Nos últimos anos, as micotoxicoses têm recebido especial atenção devido às enormes perdas que vem causando na avicultura mundial. Fungos do gênero Fusarium são descritos como produtores de diversos tipos de toxinas. Assim sendo, as intoxicações causadas por essas micotoxinas, dificilmente ocorrerão devido a uma substância isolada, de forma que se faz necessário obter maiores informações sobre o efeito interativo dessas toxinas.Mycotoxins are fungi toxic metabolites, heterogeneous in their nature and with varied pharmacological actions. They can cause injuries to animals, resulting in decreased performance and serious pathologic lesion. In the last years, the mycotoxicosis has received special attention worldwide due to losses in poultry industry. Fusarium fungi are reported as producers of diverse mycotoxin. Therefore, intoxication caused by Fusarium mycotoxins will hardly be due to one separate substance and more information is needed about the interaction effect of these.

  3. Mode of action of Fusarium moniliforme endopolygalacturonase towards acetylated pectin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnin, E.; Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Thibault, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium moniliforme was used to degrade acetylated homogalacturonan previously prepared from sugar beet pulp. The initial velocity and the final percentage of hydrolysis decreased-very rapidly with increasing degree of acetylation, showing that acetyl substitution

  4. Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with grass hosts in commercial pine production areas of South Africa. Cassandra L Swett, Bernice Porter, Gerda Fourie, Emma T Steenkamp, Thomas R Gordon, Michael J Wingfield ...

  5. Management of Fusarium Wilt using mycolytic enzymes produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    Trichoderma strain to manage the Fusarium wilt disease of Cicer aritenum under in vitro conditions. We also studied ... antibiosis, competition, parasitism and cell lysis can ideally be ... hydrolytic enzymes associated with fungal cell wall lysis,.

  6. Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association with asymptomatic Pinus patula planting stock. Andrew R Morris, Gerda Fourie, Izette Greyling, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicoletta B Jones ...

  7. Cloning of phenazine carboxylic acid genes of Fusarium ... - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... Bakanae disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi is an important diseases on rice. ... Rice bakanae disease was collected from infected farming in different areas as ..... The prevalence of Candida albicans in candidiasis has.

  8. Isolation of Ascomycetous Fungi from a Tertiary Institution Campus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The predominant Ascomycetous fungi isolated include among others; Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium italicum, Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium culmorum, Candida albicans, Botrytis cinerea, Geotrichum candidum, Trichoderma viride, Verticillium lateritum, Curvularia palescens ...

  9. Onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum probably acquired in utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania O. Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum has been described as a pathogen causing onychomycosis, its incidence has been increasing in immunocompetent and disseminated infection can occur in immunosuppressed individuals. We describe the first case of congenital onychomycosis in a child caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The infection being acquired in utero was proven by molecular methods with the identification of the fungus both in the nail and placenta, most probably as an ascending contamination/infection in a HIV-positive, immunosuppressed mother.

  10. The Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14 transcriptome during interaction with the host plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Verwaaijen

    Full Text Available The necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most economically important soil-borne pathogens of crop plants. Isolates of R. solani AG1-IB are the major pathogens responsible for bottom-rot of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and are also responsible for diseases in other plant species. Currently, there is lack of information regarding the molecular responses in R. solani during the pathogenic interaction between the necrotrophic soil-borne pathogen and its host plant. The genome of R. solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14 was recently established to obtain insights into its putative pathogenicity determinants. In this study, the transcriptional activity of R. solani AG1-IB was followed during the course of its pathogenic interaction with the host plant lettuce under controlled conditions. Based on visual observations, three distinct pathogen-host interaction zones on lettuce leaves were defined which covered different phases of disease progression on tissue inoculated with the AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14. The zones were defined as: Zone 1-symptomless, Zone 2-light brown discoloration, and Zone 3-dark brown, necrotic lesions. Differences in R. solani hyphae structure in these three zones were investigated by microscopic observation. Transcriptional activity within these three interaction zones was used to represent the course of R. solani disease progression applying high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis of samples collected from each Zone. The resulting three transcriptome data sets were analyzed for their highest expressed genes and for differentially transcribed genes between the respective interaction zones. Among the highest expressed genes was a group of not previously described genes which were transcribed exclusively during early stages of interaction, in Zones 1 and 2. Previously described importance of up-regulation in R. solani agglutinin genes during disease progression could be further confirmed; here, the corresponding genes

  11. The Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14) transcriptome during interaction with the host plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Kröber, Magdalena; Winkler, Anika; Zrenner, Rita; Bednarz, Hanna; Niehaus, Karsten; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most economically important soil-borne pathogens of crop plants. Isolates of R. solani AG1-IB are the major pathogens responsible for bottom-rot of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and are also responsible for diseases in other plant species. Currently, there is lack of information regarding the molecular responses in R. solani during the pathogenic interaction between the necrotrophic soil-borne pathogen and its host plant. The genome of R. solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14) was recently established to obtain insights into its putative pathogenicity determinants. In this study, the transcriptional activity of R. solani AG1-IB was followed during the course of its pathogenic interaction with the host plant lettuce under controlled conditions. Based on visual observations, three distinct pathogen-host interaction zones on lettuce leaves were defined which covered different phases of disease progression on tissue inoculated with the AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14). The zones were defined as: Zone 1-symptomless, Zone 2-light brown discoloration, and Zone 3-dark brown, necrotic lesions. Differences in R. solani hyphae structure in these three zones were investigated by microscopic observation. Transcriptional activity within these three interaction zones was used to represent the course of R. solani disease progression applying high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of samples collected from each Zone. The resulting three transcriptome data sets were analyzed for their highest expressed genes and for differentially transcribed genes between the respective interaction zones. Among the highest expressed genes was a group of not previously described genes which were transcribed exclusively during early stages of interaction, in Zones 1 and 2. Previously described importance of up-regulation in R. solani agglutinin genes during disease progression could be further confirmed; here, the corresponding genes exhibited

  12. A Three-Way Transcriptomic Interaction Study of a Biocontrol Agent (Clonostachys rosea), a Fungal Pathogen (Helminthosporium solani), and a Potato Host (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysøe, Erik; Dees, Merete W; Brurberg, May Bente

    2017-08-01

    Helminthosporium solani causes silver scurf, which affects the quality of potato. The biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea greatly limited the severity of silver scurf symptoms and amount of H. solani genomic DNA in laboratory experiments. Transcriptomic analysis during interaction showed that H. solani gene expression was highly reduced when coinoculated with the biocontrol agent C. rosea, whereas gene expression of C. rosea was clearly boosted as a response to the pathogen. The most notable upregulated C. rosea genes were those encoding proteins involved in cellular response to oxidative stress, proteases, G-protein signaling, and the methyltransferase LaeA. The most notable potato response to both fungi was downregulation of defense-related genes and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. At a later stage, this shifted, and most potato defense genes were turned on, especially those involved in terpenoid biosynthesis when H. solani was present. Some biocontrol-activated defense-related genes in potato were upregulated during early interaction with C. rosea alone that were not triggered by H. solani alone. Our results indicate that the reductions of silver scurf using C. rosea are probably due to a combination of mechanisms, including mycoparasitism, biocontrol-activated stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, microbial competition for nutrients, space, and antibiosis.

  13. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology. PMID:26519387

  14. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-10-18

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain.

  15. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  16. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Renan; Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Yoshida, Fernanda; Silva-Abud, Lidianne Lemes; Lobo, Murillo

    2017-01-01

    Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen's optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen's density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%). Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070) was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans.

  17. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Macedo

    Full Text Available Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen's optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen's density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%. Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070 was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans.

  18. Fusarium ründab igast asendist / Elina Akk, Heino Lõiveke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Akk, Elina, 1968-

    2012-01-01

    Seeneperekond Fusarium spp. toodab toksilisi mükotoksiine ja põhjustab üle maailma suuri saagikadusid. Uute ning ohtlikumate Fusarium'i liikide levik teraviljakasvatuses üha laieneb, ka Põhja- ja Baltimaades

  19. An abundant 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' tuf b strain is associated with grapevine, stinging nettle and Hyalesthes obsoletus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, A; Brader, G; Mörtel, J; Pastar, M; Riedle-Bauer, M

    2014-10-01

    Bois noir (BN) associated with ' Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (Stolbur) is regularly found in Austrian vine growing regions. Investigations between 2003 and 2008 indicated sporadic presence of the confirmed disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus and frequent infections of bindweed and grapevine. Infections of nettles were rare. In contrast present investigations revealed a mass occurrence of H. obsoletus almost exclusively on stinging nettle. The high population densities of H. obsoletus on Urtica dioica were accompanied by frequent occurrence of ' Ca. P. solani' in nettles and planthoppers. Sequence analysis of the molecular markers secY, stamp, tuf and vmp1 of stolbur revealed a single genotype named CPsM4_At1 in stinging nettles and more than 64 and 90 % abundance in grapevine and H. obsoletus , respectively. Interestingly, this genotype showed tuf b type restriction pattern previously attributed to bindweed associated ' Ca. P. solani' strains, but a different sequence assigned as tuf b2 compared to reference tuf b strains. All other marker genes of CPsM4_At1 clustered with tuf a and nettle derived genotypes verifying distinct nettle phytoplasma genotypes. Transmission experiments with H. obsoletus and Anaceratagallia ribauti resulted in successful transmission of five different strains including the major genotype to Catharanthus roseus and in transmission of the major genotype to U. dioica . Altogether, five nettle and nine bindweed associated genotypes were described. Bindweed types were verified in 34 % of grapevine samples, in few positive Reptalus panzeri , rarely in bindweeds and occasionally in Catharanthus roseus infected by H. obsoletus or A. ribauti . ' Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli' (bindweed yellows) was ascertained in nettle and bindweed samples.

  20. Proteomic Investigation of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 Identifies Secretome and Mycelial Proteins with roles in Plant Cell Wall Degradation and Virulence

    KAUST Repository

    Lakshman, Dilip; Roberts, Daniel P.; Garrett, Wesley M.; Natarajan, Savithiry S.; Darwish, Omar; Alkharouf, Nadim; Pain, Arnab; Khan, Farooq; Jambhulkar, Prashant P.; Mitra, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 is a soilborne necrotrophic fungal plant pathogen that causes economically important diseases on agronomic crops worldwide. Here we used a proteomics approach to characterize both intracellular proteins and the secretome of R. solani AG 4 isolate Rs23A under several growth conditions; the secretome being highly important in pathogenesis. From over 500 total secretome and soluble intracellular protein spots from 2-D gels, 457 protein spots were analyzed and 318 proteins positively matched with fungal proteins of known function by comparison with available R. solani genome databases specific for anastomosis groups 1-IA, 1-IB, and 3. These proteins were categorized to possible cellular locations and functional groups; and for some proteins their putative roles in plant cell wall degradation and virulence. The majority of the secreted proteins were grouped to extracellular regions and contain hydrolase activity.

  1. Proteomic Investigation of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 Identifies Secretome and Mycelial Proteins with roles in Plant Cell Wall Degradation and Virulence

    KAUST Repository

    Lakshman, Dilip

    2016-03-28

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 is a soilborne necrotrophic fungal plant pathogen that causes economically important diseases on agronomic crops worldwide. Here we used a proteomics approach to characterize both intracellular proteins and the secretome of R. solani AG 4 isolate Rs23A under several growth conditions; the secretome being highly important in pathogenesis. From over 500 total secretome and soluble intracellular protein spots from 2-D gels, 457 protein spots were analyzed and 318 proteins positively matched with fungal proteins of known function by comparison with available R. solani genome databases specific for anastomosis groups 1-IA, 1-IB, and 3. These proteins were categorized to possible cellular locations and functional groups; and for some proteins their putative roles in plant cell wall degradation and virulence. The majority of the secreted proteins were grouped to extracellular regions and contain hydrolase activity.

  2. Deciphering the mode of action of a mutant Allium sativum Leaf Agglutinin (mASAL), a potent antifungal protein on Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Roy, Amit; Hess, Daniel; Ghosh, Anupama; Das, Sampa

    2015-10-26

    Mutant Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL) is a potent, biosafe, antifungal protein that exhibits fungicidal activity against different phytopathogenic fungi, including Rhizoctonia solani. The effect of mASAL on the morphology of R.solani was monitored primarily by scanning electron and light microscopic techniques. Besides different fluorescent probes were used for monitoring various intracellular changes associated with mASAL treatment like change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In addition ligand blot followed by LC-MS/MS analyses were performed to detect the putative interactors of mASAL. Knowledge on the mode of function for any new protein is a prerequisite for its biotechnological application. Detailed morphological analysis of mASAL treated R. solani hyphae using different microscopic techniques revealed a detrimental effect of mASAL on both the cell wall and the plasma membrane. Moreover, exposure to mASAL caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the subsequent intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the target organism. In conjunction with this observation, evidence of the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) was also noted in the mASAL treated R. solani hyphae. Furthermore, we investigated its interacting partners from R. solani. Using ligand blots followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses, we identified different binding partners including Actin, HSP70, ATPase and 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, the present study provides insight into the probable mode of action of the antifungal protein, mASAL on R. solani which could be exploited in future biotechnological applications.

  3. Effect of two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of micropropagated potato plantlets and on the extent of disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M K; Tweddell, R J; Désilets, H

    2002-10-01

    Two micropropagated potato cultivars, Goldrush and LP89221, were inoculated into sowing trays with either Glomus etunicatum or G. intraradices in a greenhouse. After 2 weeks, plantlets were transplanted into pots and roots were challenged 7 days later with Rhizoctonia solani. At different times after R. solani infection, disease severity, mortality rate, root colonization levels, various growth parameters, and shoot mineral content were evaluated. In Goldrush, only inoculation with G. etunicatum led to a significant reduction in disease severity, ranging between 60.2% and 71.2%, on both shoot and crown. This decrease was not observed in LP89221. Compared with the control plantlets, inoculation of Goldrush with G. etunicatum or G. intraradices reduced significantly the mortality rate by 77% and 26%, respectively, whereas vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi did not significantly influence the mortality rate in LP89221. In Goldrush, inoculation with G. etunicatum significantly increased shoot fresh weight, root dry weight and the number of tubers produced per plant, whereas G. intraradices only significantly increased the number of tubers. Tuber and root fresh weights of both potato cultivars were significantly reduced by R. solani infection. However, R. solani-infected plantlets of both Goldrush and LP89221, inoculated with G. etunicatum, produced significantly greater tuber fresh weight than non-VAM plantlets. In R. solani-infected plantlets of Goldrush but not LP89221, G. etunicatum and G. intraradices increased root fresh weight by approximately 140.3% and 76.5%, respectively, compared with non-VAM plants. The potato cultivars Goldrush and LP89221 responded differently to VAM fungal inoculation and to R. solani infection in terms of shoot mineral content.

  4. Evolution and Diversity of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Fusarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Hoogendoorn

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi in the Fusarium genus cause severe damage to crops, resulting in great financial losses and health hazards. Specialized metabolites synthesized by these fungi are known to play key roles in the infection process, and to provide survival advantages inside and outside the host. However, systematic studies of the evolution of specialized metabolite-coding potential across Fusarium have been scarce. Here, we apply a combination of bioinformatic approaches to identify biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs across publicly available genomes from Fusarium, to group them into annotated families and to study gain/loss events of BGC families throughout the history of the genus. Comparison with MIBiG reference BGCs allowed assignment of 29 gene cluster families (GCFs to pathways responsible for the production of known compounds, while for 57 GCFs, the molecular products remain unknown. Comparative analysis of BGC repertoires using ancestral state reconstruction raised several new hypotheses on how BGCs contribute to Fusarium pathogenicity or host specificity, sometimes surprisingly so: for example, a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of hexadehydro-astechrome was identified in the genome of the biocontrol strain Fusarium oxysporum Fo47, while being absent in that of the tomato pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Several BGCs were also identified on supernumerary chromosomes; heterologous expression of genes for three terpene synthases encoded on the Fusarium poae supernumerary chromosome and subsequent GC/MS analysis showed that these genes are functional and encode enzymes that each are able to synthesize koraiol; this observed functional redundancy supports the hypothesis that localization of copies of BGCs on supernumerary chromosomes provides freedom for evolutionary innovations to occur, while the original function remains conserved. Altogether, this systematic overview of biosynthetic diversity in Fusarium paves the way for

  5. The Interaction Pattern between a Homology Model of 40S Ribosomal S9 Protein of Rhizoctonia solani and 1-Hydroxyphenaize by Docking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dharni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-Hydroxyphenazine (1-OH-PHZ, a natural product from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SD12, was earlier reported to have potent antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In the present work, the antifungal activity of 1-OH-PHZ on 40S ribosomal S9 protein was validated by molecular docking approach. 1-OH-PHZ showed interaction with two polar contacts with residues, Arg69 and Phe19, which inhibits the synthesis of fungal protein. Our study reveals that 1-OH-PHZ can be a potent inhibitor of 40S ribosomal S9 protein of R. solani that may be a promising approach for the management of fungal diseases.

  6. MICOTOXINAS DO FUSARIUM spp NA AVICULTURA COMERCIAL MYCOTOXIN OF FUSARIUM spp IN COMMERCIAL POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Santin; Alex Maiorka; Irineo Zanella; Leandro Magon

    2001-01-01

    Micotoxinas são metabólitos tóxicos produzidos por fungos, de natureza heterogênea e com variados princípios farmacológicos, que podem atuar sobre o organismo animal prejudicando o seu desempenho e desenvolvendo alterações patológicas graves. Nos últimos anos, as micotoxicoses têm recebido especial atenção devido às enormes perdas que vem causando na avicultura mundial. Fungos do gênero Fusarium são descritos como produtores de diversos tipos de toxinas. Assim sendo, as intoxicações causadas ...

  7. Virulence of Fusarium oxysporum and F. commune to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; Z. Abdo; R. K. Dumroese; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium species can cause damping-off and root rot of young conifer seedlings, resulting in severe crop and economic losses in forest nurseries. Disease control within tree nurseries is difficult because of the inability to characterize and quantify Fusarium spp. populations with regard to disease potential because of high variability in isolate virulence. Fusarium...

  8. Root rot symptoms in sugar beet lines caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum may cause both Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot diseases with severe yield losses in cultivated sugar beet worldwide. These two diseases cause similar foliar symptoms but different root response and have been proposed to be due to two distinct F. oxyspo...

  9. Identification of the infection route of a Fusarium seed pathogen into nondormant Bromus tectorum seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    JanaLynn Franke; Brad Geary; Susan E. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fusarium has a wide host range and causes many different forms of plant disease. These include seed rot and seedling blight diseases of cultivated plants. The diseases caused by Fusarium on wild plants are less well-known. In this study, we examined disease development caused by Fusarium sp. n on nondormant seeds of the important rangeland weed Bromus...

  10. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  11. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as

  12. Combining fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. strains to enhance suppression of fusarium wilt of radish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Marjan de; Sluis, Ientse van der; Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fusarium wilt diseases, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, lead to significant yield losses of crops. One strategy to control fusarium wilt is the use of antagonistic, root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. It has been demonstrated that different strains of these bacteria suppress disease by

  13. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  14. Effect of soil biochar amendment on grain crop resistance to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium spp. cause serious diseases in cereal crops reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins that can be deleterious to human and animal health. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infect whe...

  15. First report of Fusarium redolens causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  16. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  17. Fusarium Wilt Affecting Chickpea Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda Jendoubi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. contributes 18% of the global production of grain legume and serves as an important source of dietary protein. An important decrease in cropping area and production has been recorded during the last two decades. Several biotic and abiotic constraints underlie this decrease. Despite the efforts deployed in breeding and selection of several chickpea varieties with high yield potential that are tolerant to diseases, the situation has remained the same for the last decade. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc is the major soilborne fungus affecting chickpeas globally. Fusarium wilt epidemics can devastate crops and cause up to 100% loss in highly infested fields and under favorable conditions. To date, eight pathogenic races of Foc (races 0, 1A, 1B/C, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 have been reported worldwide. The development of resistant cultivars is the most effective method to manage this disease and to contribute to stabilizing chickpea yields. Development of resistant varieties to fusarium wilt in different breeding programs is mainly based on conventional selection. This method is time‐consuming and depends on inoculum load and specific environmental factors that influence disease development. The use of molecular tools offers great potential for chickpea improvement, specifically by identifying molecular markers closely linked to genes/QTLs controlling fusarium wilt.

  18. Molecular and biochemical characterization of soil isolates of Aspergillus niger aggregate and an assessment of their antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Khan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen Aspergillus niger aggregate isolates collected from different crop fi elds were subjected to RAPDPCR using 20 Operon primers and 8 synthetic primers. Twenty-two primers led to the amplifi cation of 727 fragments ranging from 3500 bp (OPA 11 to 200 bp (primer 06. Two bands were monomorphic, while the rest were polymorphic. Three amplicons produced by OPA 16 were recorded as isolate-specifi c as 2300 bp by AnC2 and AnR3, and as 2800 bp by AnC2 only. The highest genetic similarity (0.79 was measured between AnC2 and AnR3, and the lowest (0.17 between AnC2 and AnR2. Multivariate analysis of genetic similarity revealed three major clusters, named group I, group II and group III. All isolates were ochratoxin A negative (<1 ng g-1. Isolates AnC2 and AnR3, which produced HCN and solubilized the greatest amount of phosphorus, belonged to group I. These isolates also signifi cantly increased eggplant yield and caused the greatest inhibition of colonization by R. solani in dual culture. They also suppressed the root rot on eggplant and the soil population of R. solani in pot soil.

  19. Investigating the roles of MicroRNAs in biotic stress response induced by Rhizoctonia solani in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, O. Nurfarahana; Kalaivani, N. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Sheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani 1802/KB was screened on two rice varieties, Oryza sativaindica cultivar MR219 and Oryza sativa indica cultivar UKMRC9. The disease symptom was severe in MR219 compared to UKMRC9. Total RNA from R. solani 1802/KB, infected rice leaves of MR219 and infected rice leaves of UKMRC9 were extracted using TRIzol reagent, purified and sent for small RNA sequencing. Three miRNA libraries were generated and analyzed. The libraries generated 65 805, 78 512 and 81 325 known miRNAs respectively. The structure of miRNA of these samples was predicted. The up-regulated and down-regulated of miRNAs target gene prediction and its target functions were discovered and were mainly related to the growth and development of metabolism, protein transport, transcriptional regulation, stress response, and hormone signaling and electron transfer. Sheath blight-induced differential expression of known miRNAs tends to targetMYB transcription factor, F-box proteins, NBS-LRR, leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinases and zinc finger proteins. Detecting new miRNAs and measuring the expression profiles of known miRNAs is an important tasks required for a better understanding of various biological conditions. Therefore, further analysis using Gene Ontology Slim will be conducted to deduce some biological information from the datasets obtained.

  20. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISA Z. TOMAZONI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae. Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae, which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani.

  1. Potato black scurf, production practices and fungitoxic efficacy of rhizoctonia solani isolates in hilly areas of gilgit-biltistan pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ali, S.; Ali, Z.; Khan, S. W.; Abbas, Q.; Awan, M. S.; Ali, S.

    2017-01-01

    Potato is the main cash crop of Gilgit-Baltistan in particular of buffer zone of Central Karakorum National Park (CKNP). There are many biotic and abiotic threats to its production. Amongst them the black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the major constraint. In order to assess black scurf of potato a comprehensive survey was carried out in four main valleys of the region consisting of 24 villages. The survey revealed that valley wise mean disease prevalence was high in Bagrote (63.85+-9.06) and low in Haramosh (45.4+- 14.62). Maximum mean disease incidence and severity were recorded in Hoper valley while least disease incidence appeared in Haramosh and severity in Bagrote valley. Production practices as risk factor were assessed through a questionnaire. The majority of farmers performed activities in field that were supportive to the black scurf epidemics, such as, use of pits for storage of late harvested potato tuber for growing in next season, table potato, lack of general awareness about black scurf, not maintaining proper depth of sowing, irrigation, harvesting time and crop rotation. In vitro efficacy of three fungicides at different concentrations i.e. 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm were tested against Rhizoctonia solani isolates. Results indicated that increase of fungicide concentration significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of respective isolates. However, sensitivity reaction of each of isolates against each fungicide was also differential. Fungicide ridomil gold and mencozeb showed more toxic effect against the fungus compared to vitavax. (author)

  2. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae) isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazoni, Elisa Z; Pansera, Márcia R; Pauletti, Gabriel F; Moura, Sidnei; Ribeiro, Rute T S; Schwambach, Joséli

    2016-05-31

    Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae). Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae), which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani.

  3. Genetic Divergence and Chemotype Diversity in the Fusarium Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium poae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Adriaan; De Boevre, Marthe; Moretti, Antonio; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Munaut, Françoise; De Saeger, Sarah; Bekaert, Boris; Haesaert, Geert; Waalwijk, Cees; van der Lee, Theo; Audenaert, Kris

    2017-08-23

    Fusarium head blight is a disease caused by a complex of Fusarium species. F. poae is omnipresent throughout Europe in spite of its low virulence. In this study, we assessed a geographically diverse collection of F. poae isolates for its genetic diversity using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). Furthermore, studying the mating type locus and chromosomal insertions, we identified hallmarks of both sexual recombination and clonal spread of successful genotypes in the population. Despite the large genetic variation found, all F. poae isolates possess the nivalenol chemotype based on Tri7 sequence analysis. Nevertheless, Tri gene clusters showed two layers of genetic variability. Firstly, the Tri1 locus was highly variable with mostly synonymous mutations and mutations in introns pointing to a strong purifying selection pressure. Secondly, in a subset of isolates, the main trichothecene gene cluster was invaded by a transposable element between Tri5 and Tri6 . To investigate the impact of these variations on the phenotypic chemotype, mycotoxin production was assessed on artificial medium. Complex blends of type A and type B trichothecenes were produced but neither genetic variability in the Tri genes nor variability in the genome or geography accounted for the divergence in trichothecene production. In view of its complex chemotype, it will be of utmost interest to uncover the role of trichothecenes in virulence, spread and survival of F. poae .

  4. Antifungal Screening of Bioprotective Isolates against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Fusarium moniliforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette de Senna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum, and Fusarium moniliforme are the causative agents of several plant diseases and can cause significant crop loss both before and after harvest. Fungicides are employed to control these phytopathogens, but fungicide use has led to an increase in resistance and may negatively affect the environment and human health. Hence, more environmentally sustainable solutions such as biological control methods are needed. The purpose of this study was to screen 22 bacterial isolates for inhibitory activity against fungal phytopathogens. To evaluate antifungal activity, the bacterial isolates were individually spot-inoculated onto Tryptic Soy Agar or de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar, and then a plug of fungal-colonized agar was placed onto the center of the isolate-inoculated plate. Plates were incubated at 24 °C for 10 days and fungal growth was evaluated. Nine of the 22 isolates screened inhibited all three fungi; inhibition by these isolates ranged from 51–62%, 60–68%, and 40–61% for B. cinerea, F. pallidoroseum, and F. moniliforme, respectively. Isolates were also screened for biosurfactant activity using the drop-collapse test. Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus thuringiensis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolates demonstrated strong biosurfactant activity and suppression of all three fungi, and therefore are recommended for further study.

  5. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-05-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage.

  6. Prospects of molecular markers in Fusarium species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayaka, S. Chandra; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Udayashankar, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    focuses of various molecular-based techniques employed to study the diversity of Fusarium species causing diseases in major food crops. An introduction of fusarial diseases and their mycotoxins and molecular-marker-based methods for detection introduce the concept of marker application. Various well...... for generation of probes and their use in phylogeny of Fusarium spp. are also presented. The concluding part emphasizes the value of molecular markers for assessing genetic variability and reveals that molecular tools are indispensable for providing information not only of one Fusarium species but on whole......-known molecular techniques such as random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplification fragment length polymorphism, etc. to more modern ones such as DNA microarrays, DNA barcoding, and pyrosequencing and their application form the core of the review. Target regions in the genome which can be potential candidates...

  7. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    in plants under low N and iv) proteomes of uninfected plants were similar under two N levels. Correlation of level of proteolysis induced by the fungus with measurement of Fusarium-damaged kernels, fungal biomass and mycotoxin levels indicated that FHB was more severe in barley with low N. In Chapter 3......, the molecular mechanisms of barley defense to Fusarium graminearum at the early infection stage were studied. Antibodies against barley β-amylases were shown to be the markers for infection at proteome level and for selection of the time for proteome analysis before extensive degradation caused by the fungus...... the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different...

  8. Uji Antagonis Trichoderma harzianum Terhadap Fusarium spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum annum) Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mukarlina; Khotimah, Siti; Rianti, Reny

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium spp., the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease, infect sweet pepper inflicting damages on the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Infection of Fusarium spp. on some crops can be controlled by using Trichoderma harzianum as a biological control agent. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the species of Fusarium infecting sweet pepper; and 2) the in vitro antagonistic potential of T. harzianum in controlling Fusarium spp. in vitro. The study was conducted fr...

  9. Effect of successive cauliflower plantings and Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 inoculations on disease suppressiveness of a suppressive and a conducive soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Scheper, R.W.A.; Schilder, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Disease suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in cauliflower was studied in two marine clay soils with a sandy loam texture. The soils had a different cropping history. One soil had a long-term (40 years) cauliflower history and was suppressive, the other soil was conducive and came from

  10. Nondermatophytic onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S R; Dalal, B D; Modak, M S

    2016-03-01

    Fusarium onychomycosis is not uncommon in tropical countries but is worth reporting. We report a case of nondermatophytic onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent woman from Buldhana district of Maharashtra (India). Bilateral involvement of great toe nail, chronic duration and acquisition of infection due to peculiar practice of daily pasting floors with mud and dung, is interesting. The case was successfully treated with topical and oral terbinafine with a dose of 250 mg daily for 3 weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN Trichoderma sp UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN PENYAKIT LAYU FUSARIUM (Fusarium oxysporium DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT TANAMAN PISANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhari Bukhari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available             Penelitian ini dilakukan di Pante Cermin  Kecamatan Padang Tiji Kabupaten Pidie.  pada bulan Maret  sampai dengan bulan Agustus 2015, dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui efisiensi penggunaan Trichoderma sp terhadap pertumbuhan beberapa jenis bibit Pisang (Musa Paracica L.  Penelitian ini mengunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK pola faktorial dengan faktor yang diteliti  adalah Jenis pisang  dan dosis trichoderma.  Kedua faktor terdiri dari 4 taraf yaitu: Pisang Barangan (J1,pisang Ambon (J2, pisang Raja (G3 dan pisang Geupok (J4.  Sedangkan dosis  Tricoderma sp  yaitu :TO = 0 g/ bibit T1 = 15 g/ bibit  T2 = 30 g/ bibit  dan T3 = 45 g/ bibit.  Sehingga terdapat 16 kombinasi perlakuan dan diulang 3 kali,  yang menghasilkan 48 satuan percobaan.            Untuk mengetahui pengaruh masing-masing perlakuan serta interaksinya terhadap pertumbuhan bibit pisang, dilakukan analisis ragam (Uji F dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Beda Nyata Jujur (BNJ pada taraf 5%.            Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara fisul pertumbuhan bibit pisang yang baik diantara 4 jenis yang diteliti ditunjukkkan oleh pisang Barangan namun secara statistika tidak berbeda dengan pisang 3 jenis pisang lainnya.  Namun pemberian trichoderma sampai umur 4 bulan belum memeperlihatkan pertumbuhan dan intensitas serangan yang berbeda nyata, sehingga harus diperpanjang masa penelitian menjadi 6 Bulan.   Setelah 6 bulan  penelitian ternyata telah ada perbedaan pertumbuhan dan    intensitas serangan,  dimana intensitas serangan yang paling besar diperlihatkan oleh T0 (tanpa pemberian trichoderma . Sedang intensitas serangan terkecil diperlihatkan oleh T3 (Dosis trichoderma sp 45 gr/bibit pisang. Jenis pisang tidak berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan Intensitas serangan layu fusarium. serta  interaksi   kedua faktor tersebut berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap pertumbuhan bibit pisang dan intensitas serangan penyakit layu

  12. Oxygen Availability Influences Expression of Dickeya solani Genes Associated With Virulence in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. and Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Lisicka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dickeya solani is a Gram-negative necrotrophic, plant pathogenic bacterium able to cause symptoms in a variety of plant species worldwide. As a facultative anaerobe, D. solani is able to infect hosts under a broad range of oxygen concentrations found in plant environments. However, little is known about oxygen-dependent gene expression in Dickeya spp. that might contribute to its success as a pathogen. Using a Tn5 transposon, harboring a promoterless gusA reporter gene, 146 mutants of D. solani IPO2222 were identified that exhibited oxygen-regulated expression of the gene into which the insertion had occurred. Of these mutants 114 exhibited higher expression under normal oxygen conditions than hypoxic conditions while 32 were more highly expressed under hypoxic conditions. The plant host colonization potential and pathogenicity as well as phenotypes likely to contribute to the ecological fitness of D. solani, including growth rate, carbon and nitrogen source utilization, production of pectinolytic enzymes, proteases, cellulases and siderophores, swimming and swarming motility and the ability to form biofilm were assessed for 37 strains exhibiting the greatest oxygen-dependent change in gene expression. Eight mutants expressed decreased ability to cause disease symptoms when inoculated into potato tubers or chicory leaves and three of these also exhibited delayed colonization of potato plants and exhibited tissue specific differences in gene expression in these various host tissues. The genes interrupted in these eight mutants encoded proteins involved in fundamental bacterial metabolism, virulence, bacteriocin and proline transport, while three encoded hypothetical or unknown proteins. The implications of environmental oxygen concentration on the ability of D. solani to cause disease symptoms in potato are discussed.

  13. Development of a qPCR strategy to select bean genes involved in plant defence response and regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defence response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defence-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from From the 48 bean genes initially analysed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34 or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected.As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defence, which respond to the presence of a biocontrol agent or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defence genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani.

  14. Silício alterando compostos derivados da pirólise de bainhas foliares de plantas de arroz infectadas por Rhizoctonia solani Silicon altering compounds derived from the pyrolyses of leaf sheaths of rice plants infected with Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Augusto Schurt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo elucidar, por meio da pirólise analítica acoplada à cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massa, alterações na composição química da lignina nas bainhas de plantas de arroz das cultivares BR-Irga 409 e Labelle supridas ou não com silício (Si e infectadas por Rhizoctonia solani. A concentração de Si nas bainhas das plantas supridas com esse elemento foi significativamente maior (2,7 dag kg-1 em comparação com as plantas não supridas (0,45 dag kg-1. Na presença de Si, a área abaixo da curva do progresso da queima das bainhas foi significativamente reduzida em 19 e 25%, respectivamente, para as plantas das cultivares BR-Irga-409 e Labelle em relação à ausência desse elemento na solução nutritiva. Com base nos espectros de massas obtidos, foram identificados 33 compostos, dos quais 10 foram produtos da degradação de carboidratos e 23 derivados da lignina. Dentre os derivados da lignina, oito compostos eram do tipo p-hidroxifenila, 11 compostos do tipo guaiacila e quatro compostos do tipo siringila. Nas bainhas das plantas das duas cultivares de arroz, supridas ou não com Si, a concentração de lignina (p-hidroxifenila, siringila (S e guaiacila (G foi de, aproximadamente, 15%. Houve aumento na relação S/G apenas nas bainhas das plantas da cultivar BR-Irga 409 supridas com Si e infectadas por R. solani. A maior concentração de Si nas bainhas das plantas de arroz das duas cultivares, que por sua vez resultou em aumento na relação S/G, contribuiu para reduzir os sintomas da queima das bainhas.This study elucidated, through analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, changes in the chemical composition of lignin on leaf sheaths of rice plants of cultivars BR-Irga 409 and Labelle supplied or non-supplied with silicon (Si and infected with Rhizoctonia solani. The Si concentration on leaf sheaths of plants supplied with this element was significatively higher

  15. Differentiation inside multicelled macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum during early germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, Gilma S; Breeuwer, Pieter; Rombouts, Frans M; Abee, Tjakko; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    Multicelled conidia are formed by many fungal species, but germination of these spores is scarcely studied. Here, the germination and the effects of antimicrobials on multicompartment macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum were investigated. Germ-tube formation was mostly from apical compartments. The

  16. Differentiation inside multicelled macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum during early germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, G.S.; Breeuwer, P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multicelled conidia are formed by many fungal species, but germination of these spores is scarcely studied. Here, the germination and the effects of antimicrobials on multicompartment macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum were investigated. Germ-tube formation was mostly from apical compartments. The

  17. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose ...

  18. The depudecin cluster – a genetic curiosity in Fusarium langsethiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium langsethiae is a consistent fungal contaminant on oat cereals in the Nordic region, the UK, as well as other parts of Europe. Leaving few symptoms of disease on the plant, the fungus is, however, the main producer of T-2 and HT-2 mycotoxins which can be found contaminating food and feed der...

  19. Studies on the Fusarium-lily interaction : a breeding approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp . lilii Imle causes bulb and scale rot of lilies ( Lilium L.) , annually resulting in a considerable economical damage in bulb and flower cultivation. Presently,

  20. Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the compost effectiveness on Zea mays and Hibiscus sabdarriffa under Fusarium wilt disease. Compost physical, chemical and biological characters were monitored weekly during the ripening process. Both coliform and nematode were tested. Finally, the effect of compost ...

  1. Cytotoxicity assays for mycotoxins produced by Fusarium strains: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, A.C.; Morrison, E.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that may be present in food and feed. Several of these mycotoxins have been associated with human and animal diseases. Fusarium species, found worldwide in cereals and other food types for human and animal consumption, are the

  2. Analysis of Fusarium causing dermal toxicosis in marram grass planters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, CHA; Samson, RA; Hoekstra, ES; Ouellet, T; Miller, JD; deRooijvanderGoes, PCEM; Baar, AJM; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    1996-01-01

    In the European coastal dunes, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) is planted in order to control sand erosion. In the years 1986 to 1991, workers on the Wadden islands in the Netherlands planting marram grass showed lesions of skin and mucous membranes, suggesting a toxic reaction. Fusarium culmorum

  3. Effect of endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on paralysis and mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three bioassays were conducted to investigate the antagonistic effect of secondary metabolites produced by 5 endophytic Fusarium oxysporum isolates from banana (Musa spp.) plants in Kenya, against Pratylenchus goodeyi. Percentage paralyses were recorded 3, 6 and 24 h after exposure to culture filtrates. Percentage ...

  4. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm is caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zulfiqar-Ali

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Key words: Fusarium proliferatum, ITS1, ITS4, pathogenecity, PCR, isolates, phylogeny. INTRODUCTION. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of. Iraq, Iran and North Africa. Date palm trees are infected by several pathogens like fungi, ...

  5. Investigations of Fusarium diseases within Inland Pacific Northwest forest nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium spp. cause important diseases that limit production of seedlings in forest nurseries worldwide. Several aspects of these diseases have been investigated for many years within Inland Pacific Northwest nurseries to better understand disease etiology, pathogen inoculum sources, and epidemiology. Investigations have also involved improving...

  6. Purification and characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Fusarium oxysporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Kekos, D.; Macris, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    An NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Fusarium oxysporum, a key enzyme in the conversion of xylose to ethanol, was purified to homogeneity and characterised. It was homodimeric with a subunit of M-r 48 000, and pI 3.6. It was optimally active at 45degreesC and pH 9-10. It was fully...

  7. Teeltomstandigheden en Fusarium als oorzaak van uitval bij komkommer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, Pim; Janse, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium in komkommer is al vele jaren een probleem in de glastuinbouw. In 2006 was de aantasting op sommige bedrijven binnen een aantal maanden na het planten al zeer ernstig. Het leek er op dat de belangrijkste oorzaak gezocht moest worden in een mindere plantconditie als gevolg van minder

  8. Redirection of pigment biosynthesis to isocoumarins in Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

    2012-01-01

    Colonies of Fusarium species often appear red due to production of pigments, such as aurofusarin or bikaverin. The primary compounds in these biosynthetic pathways are YWA1 and pre-bikaverin, respectively, catalyzed by two multidomain polyketide synthases (PKSs), which both have a claisen...

  9. Anaerobic soil disinfestation for controlling Fusarium wilt in strawberies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A strategy to apply a high rate of carbon resource in the conduct of a fall bed anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) treatment did not provide effective control of Fusarium wilt in California strawberries. The lack of disease control efficacy resulted from an increase in soil populations of the caus...

  10. Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

  11. Effects of Fusarium verticilloides , its metabolites and neem leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    41.18%), Fusarium spp. (29.41%) and Rhizopus spp. (23.53%). F. verticilloides metabolite was extracted using dichloromethane and phosphoric acid (10:1) while powdered neem leaf was extracted with ethanol for 72 h. The experiment, which ...

  12. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  13. Effects of Fusarium verticilloides, its metabolites and neem leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... from the seeds samples were Aspergillus spp. (41.18%), Fusarium spp. (29.41%) and Rhizopus spp. (23.53%). F. verticilloides metabolite was extracted using dichloromethane and phosphoric acid (10:1) while powdered neem leaf was extracted with ethanol for 72 h. The experiment, which was made up of.

  14. 'Unicorn' among rats exposed to mycotoxins from Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoental, R

    1983-05-01

    A horn-like nodule developed in the middle of the forehead of a white rat, exposed perinatally to T-2 toxin and to zearalenone, the secondary metabolites of Fusarium. The hard nodule consisted mainly of keratine, derived from a squamous carcinoma spreading through the nasal turbinals and invading the brain.

  15. The arms race between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, F.; Rep, M.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has become a model system for the study of the molecular basis of disease resistance and susceptibility. Gene-for-gene interactions in this system have provided the basis for the development of tomato cultivars resistant to

  16. Detection of Fusarium in single wheat kernels using spectral Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Waalwijk, C.; Young, I.T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a harmful fungal disease that occurs in small grains. Non-destructive detection of this disease is traditionally done using spectroscopy or image processing. In this paper the combination of these two in the form of spectral imaging is evaluated. Transmission spectral

  17. In vitro production of trichothecenes and zearalenone by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the spent grain from the brewing industry is used as feed and presence of mycotoxins can lead to harmful effects on domestic animals and also find a way into the human food chain. Studies carried out in Kenya have revealed presence of various Fusarium species with ability to produce mycotoxins and presence ...

  18. Integrated management of Fusarium wilt of chickpea ( Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy of an integrated management strategy for Fusarium wilt of chickpea that combined the use of microbial antagonist, botanical extract and fungicide. Before setting the experiment in field micro plots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a ...

  19. Combating Fusarium Infection Using Bacillus-Based Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to control toxigenic Fusarium species, wilt and head-blight infections are destructive and economically damaging diseases that have global effects. The utilization of biological control agents in disease management programs has provided an effective, safe, and sustainable means to control Fusarium-induced plant diseases. Among the most widely used microbes for biocontrol agents are members of the genus Bacillus. These species influence plant and fungal pathogen interactions by a number of mechanisms such as competing for essential nutrients, antagonizing pathogens by producing fungitoxic metabolites, or inducing systemic resistance in plants. The multivariate interactions among plant-biocontrol agent-pathogen are the subject of this study, in which we survey the advances made regarding the research on the Bacillus-Fusarium interaction and focus on the principles and mechanisms of action among plant-growth promoting Bacillus species. In particular, we highlight their use in limiting and controlling Fusarium spread and infestations of economically important crops. This knowledge will be useful to define strategies for exploiting this group of beneficial bacteria for use as inoculants by themselves or in combination with other microbes for enhanced crop protection.

  20. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  1. Overexpression of a tea flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene confers tolerance to salt stress and Alternaria solani in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Monika; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Flavan-3-ols are the major flavonoids present in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves. These are known to have antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties in vitro. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase is considered to be an important enzyme of flavonoid pathway leading to accumulation of flavan-3-ols in tea. Expression analysis revealed the upregulation in transcript levels of C. sinensis flavanone 3-hydroxylase (CsF3H) encoding gene under salt stress. In this study, the biotechnological potential of CsF3H was evaluated by gene overexpression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). Overexpression of CsF3H cDNA increased the content of flavan-3-ols in tobacco and conferred tolerance to salt stress and fungus Alternaria solani infection. Transgenic tobaccos were observed for increase in primary root length, number of lateral roots, chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme expression and their activities. Also, they showed lesser malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage compared to control tobacco plants. Further, transgenic plants produced higher degree of pectin methyl esterification via decreasing pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity in roots and leaves under unstressed and salt stressed conditions. The effect of flavan-3-ols on pectin methyl esterification under salt stressed conditions was further validated through in vitro experiments in which non-transgenic (wild) tobacco seedlings were exposed to salt stress in presence of flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and epigallocatechin. The in vitro exposed seedlings showed similar trend of increase in pectin methyl esterification through decreasing PME activity as observed in CsF3H transgenic lines. Taken together, overexpression of CsF3H provided tolerance to salt stress and fungus A. solani infection to transgenic tobacco through improved antioxidant system and enhanced pectin methyl esterification.

  2. Fungal endophytes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and their biocontrol potential against pathogens Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayarani, G; Prakash, H S

    2018-03-14

    Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays. The endophyte T. harzianum TharDOB-31 showed significant in vitro mycelial growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum (76.0%) and R. solani (76.9%) when tested by dual culture method. The SEM studies of interaction zone showed morphological abnormalities like parasitism, shriveling, breakage and lysis of hyphae of the pathogens by endophyte TharDOB-31. Selected endophytic isolates recorded multiple plant growth promoting traits in in vitro studies. The rhizome bacterization followed by soil application of endophyte TharDOB-31 showed lowest Percent Disease Incidence of rhizome rot and leaf blight, 13.8 and 11.6% respectively. The treatment of TharDOB-31 exhibited significant increase in plant height (85 cm) and fresh rhizome yield/plant (425 g) in comparison with untreated control under greenhouse condition. The confocal microscopy validates the colonization of the TharDOB-31 in turmeric rhizomes. The secondary metabolites in ethyl acetate extract of TharDOB-31 were found to contain higher number of antifungal compounds by high resolution liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis. Thereby, endophyte T. harzianum isolate can be exploited as a potential biocontrol agent for suppressing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric.

  3. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Bechan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz, against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100% of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

  4. Characterization of antagonistic-potential of two Bacillus strains and their biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, Supriya; Kumar, Sudheer; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Srivastava, Alok K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the biocontrol mechanism of two antagonistic Bacillus strains (Bacillus subtilis MB14 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MB101), three in vitro antagonism assays were screened and the results were concluded that both strains inhibited Rhizoctonia solani growth in a similar manner by dual culture assay, but the maximum percent of inhibition only resulted with MB101 by volatile and diffusible metabolite assays. Moreover, cell free supernatant (CFS) of MB101 also showed significant (p > 0.05) growth inhibition as compared to MB14, when 10 and 20% CFS mix with the growth medium of R. solani. After in vitro-validation, both strains were evaluated under greenhouse and the results concluded that strain MB101 had significant biocontrol potential as compared to MB14. Strain MB101 was enhanced the plant height, biomass and chlorophyll content of tomato plant through a higher degree of root colonization. In field trials, strain MB101 showed higher lessening in root rot symptoms with significant fruit yield as compare to strain MB14 and infected control. Next to the field study, the presence of four antibiotic genes (srfAA, fenD, ituC, and bmyB) also concluded the antifungal nature of both Bacillus strains. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed a close relatedness of three genes (srfAA, fenD, and ituC) with earlier reported sequences of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. However, bmyB showed heterogeneity in among both strains (MB14 and MB101) and it may be concluded that higher degree of antagonism, root colonization and different antibiotic producing genes may play an important role in biocontrol mechanism of strain MB101. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. 3-Methylthiopropionic Acid of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 and Its Role in the Pathogenicity of the Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Kankam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine the role of 3-methylthioproprionic acid (MTPA in the pathogenicity of potato stem canker, Rhizoctonia solani, and the concentrations required to inhibit growth of R. solani under laboratory and plant house-based conditions. The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM concentrations of MTPA. The purified toxin exhibited maximal activity at pH 2.5 and 30°C. MTPA at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM levels reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, haulm fresh weight, number of stolons, canopy development, and tuber weight of potato plants, as compared to the control. MTPA significantly affected mycelial growth with 8 mM causing the highest infection. The potato seedlings treated with MTPA concentrations of 1.0–8.0 mM induced necrosis of up to 80% of root system area. Cankers were resulted from the injection of potato seedling stems with 8.0 mM MTPA. The results showed the disappearance of cell membrane, rough mitochondrial and cell walls, change of the shape of chloroplasts, and swollen endoplasmic reticulum. Seventy-six (76 hours after toxin treatment, cell contents were completely broken, cytoplasm dissolved, and more chromatin were seen in the nucleus. The results suggested that high levels of the toxin concentration caused cell membrane and cytoplasm fracture. The integrity of cellular structure was destroyed by the phytotoxin. The concentrations of the phytotoxin were significantly correlated with pathogenicity and caused damage to the cell membrane of potato stem base tissue.

  6. [Evaluation of Fusarium spp. pathogenicity in plant and murine models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Reyes, Consuelo M; Alvarado-Fernández, Angela M; Ceballos-Rojas, Ana M; González-Carmona, Lady C; Linares-Linares, Melva Y; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana; Góngora-Medina, Manuel E; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Rodríguez-Bocanegra, María X

    The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Pathogenicity tests in plants did not show all the symptoms associated with vascular wilt in the three plant models; however, colonization and necrosis of the vascular bundles, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates, showed the infective potential of Fusarium spp. in different plant species. Moreover, the pathogenicity tests in the murine model revealed behavioral changes. It was noteworthy that only five isolates (different origin and species) caused mortality. Additionally, it was observed that all isolates infected and colonized different organs, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates or host immune status. In contrast, the superficial inoculation test showed no evidence of epidermal injury or colonization. The observed results in plant and murine models suggest the pathogenic potential of Fusarium spp. isolates in different types of hosts. However, further studies on pathogenicity are needed to confirm the multihost capacity of this genus. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL.

  8. Biological control of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat, using formulated antagonists under field conditions in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palazzini, Juan M.; Alberione, Enrique; Torres, Adriana; Donat, Christina; Kohl, Jurgen; Chulze, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat in humid and semi-humid regions of the world. The biocontrol effect of two bacterial strains on FHB incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol (DON)

  9. Control of fusarium moulds and fumonisin B1 in grains by gamma Irradiation * Key words: Irradiated grains, Mycotoxins, Fusarium moulds, Fumonisins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, N H; Shahin, A A.M.; Mahrous, S R [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); El-Far, F M [Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring Fusarium moulds producing fumonisin B1 in seeds was determined. Fusarium infection of grain samples ranged from 10 to 60% and F.moniliforme was the predominant species. Fusarium counts in wheat grains were 8.1 x 10{sup 4} cfu/g, 6.3 x 10{sup 6} cfu/g in maize and 4.8 x 10{sup 3} cfu/g in barley. Wheat, maize and barley grains naturally contaminated with varying levels of fumonisin B1 (1.4 - 5.8, 8.0 - 13.8 and 0.1 - 0.5 {mu}g/g, respectively). Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum were the major Fusarium contaminants producing fumonisin B1 . The effect of gamma irradiation on Fusarium moulds and levels of fumonisin B1 were also determined. The viable counts of Fusarium in grains was decreased by increasing the radiation dose levels, and the growth of Fusarium spp was inhibited at 4.0 KGy for barley and 6.0 KGy for wheat and maize. Application of gamma radiation dose at 5 KGy inactivated fumonisin B1 by 96.6, 87.1 and 100% for wheat, maize and barley, respectively, and a dose of 7 KGy was sufficient for complete destruction of fumonisin B1 in wheat and maize.

  10. Control of fusarium moulds and fumonisin B1 in grains by gamma Irradiation * Key words: Irradiated grains, Mycotoxins, Fusarium moulds, Fumonisins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Mahrous, S.R.; El-Far, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring Fusarium moulds producing fumonisin B1 in seeds was determined. Fusarium infection of grain samples ranged from 10 to 60% and F.moniliforme was the predominant species. Fusarium counts in wheat grains were 8.1 x 10 4 cfu/g, 6.3 x 10 6 cfu/g in maize and 4.8 x 10 3 cfu/g in barley. Wheat, maize and barley grains naturally contaminated with varying levels of fumonisin B1 (1.4 - 5.8, 8.0 - 13.8 and 0.1 - 0.5 μg/g, respectively). Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum were the major Fusarium contaminants producing fumonisin B1 . The effect of gamma irradiation on Fusarium moulds and levels of fumonisin B1 were also determined. The viable counts of Fusarium in grains was decreased by increasing the radiation dose levels, and the growth of Fusarium spp was inhibited at 4.0 KGy for barley and 6.0 KGy for wheat and maize. Application of gamma radiation dose at 5 KGy inactivated fumonisin B1 by 96.6, 87.1 and 100% for wheat, maize and barley, respectively, and a dose of 7 KGy was sufficient for complete destruction of fumonisin B1 in wheat and maize

  11. Verspreiding van aantasting van Fusarium foetens in recirculerende teeltsystemen van begonia : onderzoek naar ontwikkeling en bestrijding/beheersing van Fusarium foetens in Begonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, J.P.; Bosker, A.I.; Lanser, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sinds twee jaar wordt in de begoniateelt uitval gevonden veroorzaakt door een nieuwe Fusarium vaatschimmel welke recentelijk de naam Fusarium foetens gekregen heeft. Uitval op verschillende bedrijven is aanzienlijk en aantasting is moeilijk te beheersen en te bestrijden. In dit korte verslag worden

  12. Effect van temperatuur op groei en sporulatie van Fusarium foetens : onderzoek naar ontwikkeling en bestrijding/beheersing Fusarium foetens in Begonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, J.P.; Bosker, I.; Lanser, C.

    2002-01-01

    Sinds twee jaar wordt in de begoniateelt uitval gevonden veroorzaakt door een nieuwe Fusarium vaatschimmel welke recentelijk de naam Fusarium foetens gekregen heeft. Uitval op verschillende bedrijven is aanzienlijk en aantasting is moeilijk te beheersen en te bestrijden. In dit verslag worden de

  13. Cyclic Lipopeptides of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum Colonizing the Lettuce Rhizosphere Enhance Plant Defense Responses Toward the Bottom Rot Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Uhl, Jenny; Grosch, Rita; Alquéres, Sylvia; Pittroff, Sabrina; Dietel, Kristin; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Borriss, Rainer; Hartmann, Anton

    2015-09-01

    The commercially available inoculant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is able to considerably reduce lettuce bottom rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani. To understand the interaction between FZB42 and R. solani in the rhizosphere of lettuce, we used an axenic system with lettuce bacterized with FZB42 and inoculated with R. solani. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that FZB42 could delay the initial establishment of R. solani on the plants. To show which secondary metabolites of FZB42 are produced under these in-situ conditions, we developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry-based method and identified surfactin, fengycin, and bacillomycin D in the lettuce rhizosphere. We hypothesized that lipopeptides and polyketides play a role in enhancing the plant defense responses in addition to the direct antagonistic effect toward R. solani and used a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay for marker genes involved in defense signaling pathways in lettuce. A significant higher expression of PDF 1.2 observed in the bacterized plants in response to subsequent pathogen challenge showed that FZB42 could enhance the lettuce defense response toward the fungal pathogen. To identify if surfactin or other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites could elicit the observed enhanced defense gene expression, we examined two mutants of FZB42 deficient in production of surfactin and the lipopetides and polyketides, by expression analysis and pot experiments. In the absence of surfactin and other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites, there was no enhanced PDF 1.2-mediated response to the pathogen challenge. Pot experiment results showed that the mutants failed to reduce disease incidence in lettuce as compared with the FZB42 wild type, indicating, that surfactin as well as other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites play a role in the actual disease suppression and on lettuce

  14. Comparative studies with regard to the influence of carbon and nitrogen ratio on sporulation in Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme v. subglutinans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M

    1979-01-01

    Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a factor for sporulation, expressed in terms of magnitude of population variation of macroconidia and microconidia in the cultures of Eusarium oxysporum Schlecht ex. Fr., Fusarium moniliforme v. subglutinans Wr. and Rg., and of chlamydospores (only in Fusarium oxysporum) was investigated. It has been found that the amount of carbon source shapes the course of macro- and micro. conidial production in a linear fashion, being enhanced parallel to the increase in its amount-Nitrogen level, limiting proliferation and effectively diminishing the macro- and micro-conidial population, varies for the two species, namely Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme v-subglutinans. For chlamydomspore production, higher carbon and still higher nitrogen concentration favours profuse proliferation in case of Fusarium oxysporum.

  15. Screening for resistance to Fusarium head blight in spring wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Dr. Olga E.; Steenhuis-Broers, Greet; Osman, Aart; Bremer, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium fungi cause Fusarium head blight in wheat. This disease is a problem that occurs both in organic and conventional farming systems. As Fusarium fungi produce mycotoxins in wheat kernels they are a threat to human and animal health. Breeding for disease resistance is the only way to prevent or reduce the occurrence of the disease. The aim of the current research project is to identify different mechanisms of resistance in cultivars and breeding lines to be used in further breeding pro...

  16. Evaluation of biological control of fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum

    OpenAIRE

    Daiani Brandler; Luan Junior Divensi; Rodrigo José Tonin; Thalita Pedrozo Pilla; Ines Rezendes; Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2017-01-01

    The increase in flower cultivation in recent years has been reflecting the higher incidence of soil pathogens that can cause serious problems. This study aimed to evaluate the biological control of Fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum. The evaluated treatments were: T1) Control, only sterile substrate; T2) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum; T3) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum + Trichoderma asperellum; and T4) Substrate + Trichoderma asperellum. For this, the pathogen was isolated ...

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

    2014-11-11

    The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1α sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1α genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1α region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study.

  18. Infection of corn ears by Fusarium spp. induces the emission of volatile sesquiterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Irmisch, Sandra; Köllner, Tobias G; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

    2014-06-04

    Infection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus might result in yield losses and in the accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether volatile profiles could be used to identify Fusarium-infected corn ears. The volatiles released by corn ears infected by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium subglutinans were studied. Volatile emission was recorded at 24 days postinoculation (dpi) and in a time series (from 4 to 24 dpi). Twenty-two volatiles were differentially emitted from Fusarium-infected versus healthy corn ears. These included C6-C8 compounds and sesquiterpenoids. All volatiles indicative of Fusarium infection were detectable as early as 4-8 dpi and continued to be produced to the final sampling time (early milk maturity stage). The induced emission of β-macrocarpene and β-bisabolene correlated with an increased transcript accumulation of corn terpene synthase 6/11 (tps6/11). Additionally, the modification of volatile profiles after Fusarium infection was accompanied by the induction of plant defense compounds such as zealexins and oxylipins. Together, these results reveal a broad metabolic response of the plant to pathogen attack. Volatile biomarkers of Fusarium infection are promising indicators for the early detection of fungal infection before disease symptoms become visible.

  19. Penicillium sp. mitigates Fusarium-induced biotic stress in sesame plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Pae, Suk-Bok; Shim, Kang-Bo; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-07-01

    Fusarium-infected sesame plants have significantly higher contents of amino acids (Asp, Thr, Ser, Asn, Glu, Gly, Ala, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Lys, His, Try, Arg, and Pro), compared with their respective levels in the healthy control. These higher levels of amino acids induced by Fusarium infection were decreased when Penicillium was co-inoculated with Fusarium. Compared with the control, Fusarium-infected plants showed higher contents of palmitic (8%), stearic (8%), oleic (7%), and linolenic acids (4%), and lower contents of oil (4%) and linoleic acid (11%). Co-inoculation with Penicillium mitigated the Fusarium-induced changes in fatty acids. The total chlorophyll content was lower in Fusarium- and Penicillium-infected plants than in the healthy control. The accumulation of carotenoids and γ-amino butyric acid in Fusarium-infected plants was slightly decreased by co-inoculation with Penicillium. Sesamin and sesamolin contents were higher in Penicillium- and Fusarium- infected plants than in the control. To clarify the mechanism of the biocontrol effect of Penicillium against Fusarium by evaluating changes in primary and secondary metabolite contents in sesame plants.

  20. TOR signaling downregulation increases resistance to the cereal killer Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Néstor R; Consolo, V Fabiana; Salerno, Graciela L; Martínez-Noël, Giselle M A

    2018-02-01

    TOR is the master regulator of growth and development that senses energy availability. Biotic stress perturbs metabolic and energy homeostasis, making TOR a good candidate to participate in the plant response. Fusarium graminearum (Fusarium) produces important losses in many crops all over the world. To date, the role of TOR in Fusarium infection has remained unexplored. Here, we show that the resistance to the pathogen increases in different Arabidopsis mutants impaired in TOR complex or in wild-type plants treated with a TOR inhibitor. We conclude that TOR signaling is involved in plant defense against Fusarium.

  1. Reduction of Fusarium wilt in watermelon by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and P. fluorescens WCS365

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Tziros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a devastatine soil-borne disease that causes extensive losses throughout the world. Two known Pseudomonas biocontrol strains were used separately and in combination to assess their antagonistic effectiveness against F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum in pot experiments. P. chlororaphis PCL1391 signifi cantly reduced disease severity. P. fl uorescens WCS365 was less effective in disease suppression, while a combination of the two bacteria had intermediate effects. The biological control of Fusarium wilt with P. chlororaphis offers a potentially useful tool in an integrated pest management program to control Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

  2. SUPRESSIVIDADE NATURAL DE SOLOS DA REGIÃO CENTRO-OESTE A Rhizoctonia solani KÜHN NATURAL SUPPRESSIVENESS OF SOILS FROM WEST CENTRAL BRAZIL TO Rhizoctonia solani Kühn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Andrade Botelho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Rhizoctonia solani é um fungo cosmopolita que habita o solo, com vasto número de hospedeiros, e causa importantes doenças na maioria das plantas cultivadas em todo o mundo. É uma espécie complexa, com muitos biotipos que diferem quanto à patogenicidade, aos hospedeiros, à distribuição na natureza e à aparência em meio de cultura. O feijoeiro comum é suscetível a este patógeno e a sua suscetibilidade é inversamente proporcional ao desenvolvimento da planta. A atividade microbiana de alguns solos pode prevenir o estabelecimento de fungos fitopatogênicos. Solos com esta propriedade são denominados antagônicos, de longa vida, resistentes ou supressivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de supressividade natural a R. solani de alguns solos classificados como latossolo roxo, latossolo vermelho-escuro, areia quartzoza e latossolo roxo, respectivamente, coletados nos municípios de Itumbiara, Silvânia, Jussara e Santa Helena de Goiás, no Estado de Goiás, em três áreas contíguas com os seguintes históricos de uso: a solo cultivado com feijão irrigado via pivô central por mais de quatro anos consecutivos; b solo sob vegetação nativa; e c solo sob pastagem de Brachiaria decubens. Os solos foram coletados na camada de 0-20 cm e armazenados em casa de vegetação. Para a inoculação dos solos foram utilizados grãos de sorgo, inoculados com Rhizoctonia solani, em seis densidades – 0, 100, 500, 1.000, 5.000 e 10.000 propágulos/g de solo – e triturados. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação, em um delineamento de blocos completos casualizados e esquema fatorial 6 x 4 x 3. A unidade experimental foi constituída de bandejas plásticas com 4 kg de solo e 40 plantas. Quinze dias após a emergência, as plantas foram arrancadas e avaliadas

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis during colonisation of resistant and susceptible Medicago truncatula hosts identifies differential pathogenicity profiles and novel candidate effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Louise F; Williams, Angela H; Garg, Gagan; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Singh, Karam B

    2016-11-03

    Pathogenic members of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex are responsible for vascular wilt disease on many important crops including legumes, where they can be one of the most destructive disease causing necrotrophic fungi. We previously developed a model legume-infecting pathosystem based on the reference legume Medicago truncatula and a pathogenic F. oxysporum forma specialis (f. sp.) medicaginis (Fom). To dissect the molecular pathogenicity arsenal used by this root-infecting pathogen, we sequenced its transcriptome during infection of a susceptible and resistant host accession. High coverage RNA-Seq of Fom infected root samples harvested from susceptible (DZA315) or resistant (A17) M. truncatula seedlings at early or later stages of infection (2 or 7 days post infection (dpi)) and from vegetative (in vitro) samples facilitated the identification of unique and overlapping sets of in planta differentially expressed genes. This included enrichment, particularly in DZA315 in planta up-regulated datasets, for proteins associated with sugar, protein and plant cell wall metabolism, membrane transport, nutrient uptake and oxidative processes. Genes encoding effector-like proteins were identified, including homologues of the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Secreted In Xylem (SIX) proteins, and several novel candidate effectors based on predicted secretion, small protein size and high in-planta induced expression. The majority of the effector candidates contain no known protein domains but do share high similarity to predicted proteins predominantly from other F. oxysporum ff. spp. as well as other Fusaria (F. solani, F. fujikori, F. verticilloides, F. graminearum and F. pseudograminearum), and from another wilt pathogen of the same class, a Verticillium species. Overall, this suggests these novel effector candidates may play important roles in Fusaria and wilt pathogen virulence. Combining high coverage in planta RNA-Seq with knowledge of fungal pathogenicity

  4. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM SCHW. AND FUSARIUM CULMORUM (W.G. SMITH SACC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species from section Discolor are widespread and well-known and play an important role in disease etiology of wheat, barley and maize. F. graminearum and F. culmorum were isolated during a four-year period at several locations in Eastern Croatia and from different hosts. The mycelium development of 236isolates of F. graminearum and 2 isolates of F. culmorum was cultered during an eight day period on water agar, PDA, Bilai, Czapek's and CLA agar at temperatures 5°, 15°, 20°, 25° and 30°C and a 12 hour dark/light regime. The results show that agar medium does not influence colony diameter significantly. The agar medium influences the richness and density of the aerial mycelium significantly, although the shape and compactness of the mycelium is not only the result of the medium on which the fungus is developed, but also of the characteristics of the species itself. The sporulation of F. culmorum was abundant on all investigated medium, whereas the sporulation of F. graminearum was very weak on PDA and Bilai agar and it was medium on CLA.

  5. Resistance to Fusarium dry root rot disease in cassava accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alves Santos de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify sources of resistance to dry root rot induced by Fusarium sp. in cassava accessions. A macroconidial suspension (20 µL of 11 Fusarium sp. isolates was inoculated in cassava roots, from 353 acessions plus seven commercial varieties. Ten days after inoculation, the total area colonized by the pathogen on the root pulp was evaluated by digital image analysis. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five groups regarding resistance. The root lesion areas ranged from 18.28 to 1,096.07 mm² for the accessions BGM 1518 and BGM 556, respectively. The genotypes BGM 1042, BGM 1552, BGM 1586, BGM 1598, and BGM 1692 present the best agronomical traits.

  6. Fusarium-induced diseases of tropical, perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT The world's oldest ecosystems are found in the tropics. They are diverse, highly evolved, but barely understood. This and subsequent papers describe diseases of tropical, perennial plants that are caused by Fusarium spp. Many of these are economically significant, difficult to manage, and of scientific interest. Some represent coevolved patho-systems (e.g., Panama disease, tracheomycosis of coffee, fusariosis of pineapple, and Fusarium wilt of oil palm), whereas others may be new-encounter diseases or are caused by generalist pathogens (cushion gall of cacao). New vector relationships are evident in other pathosystems (e.g., mango malformation), and two or more pathogens have been shown to cause some of the diseases (Panama disease and tracheomycosis of coffee). More work on these pathosystems is warranted as they could reveal much about the evolution of plant pathogens and the important diseases they cause.

  7. The arms race between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takken, Frank; Rep, Martijn

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has become a model system for the study of the molecular basis of disease resistance and susceptibility. Gene-for-gene interactions in this system have provided the basis for the development of tomato cultivars resistant to Fusarium wilt disease. Over the last 6 years, new insights into the molecular basis of these gene-for-gene interactions have been obtained. Highlights are the identification of three avirulence genes in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and the development of a molecular switch model for I-2, a nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat-type resistance protein which mediates the recognition of the Avr2 protein. We summarize these findings here and present possible scenarios for the ongoing molecular arms race between tomato and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both nature and agriculture.

  8. [Invasive fungal disease due to Scedosporium, Fusarium and mucorales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemán, Javier; Salavert, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The number of emerging organisms causing invasive fungal infections has increased in the last decades. These etiological agents include Scedosporium, Fusarium and mucorales. All of them can cause disseminated, virulent, and difficult-to treat infections in immunosuppressed patients, the most affected, due to their resistance to most available antifungal agents. Current trends in transplantation including the use of new immunosuppressive treatments, the common prescription of antifungal agents for prophylaxis, and new ecological niches could explain the emergence of these fungal pathogens. These pathogens can also affect immunocompetent individuals, especially after natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, tsunamis), combat wounds or near drowning. All the invasive infections caused by Scedosporium, Fusarium, and mucorales are potentially lethal and a favourable outcome is associated with rapid diagnosis by direct microscopic examination of the involved tissue, wide debridement of infected material, early use of antifungal agents including combination therapy, and an improvement in host defenses, especially neutropenia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  9. Novel Chitinase Gene LOC_Os11g47510 from Indica Rice Tetep Provides Enhanced Resistance against Sheath Blight Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilak R. Sharma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheath blight disease (ShB, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most destructive diseases of rice (Oryza sativa L., causing substantial yield loss in rice. In the present study, a novel rice chitinase gene, LOC_Os11g47510 was cloned from QTL region of R. solani tolerant rice line Tetep and used for functional validation by genetic transformation of ShB susceptible japonica rice line Taipei 309 (TP309. The transformants were characterized using molecular and functional approaches. Molecular analysis by PCR using a set of primers specific to CaMv 35S promoter, chitinase and HptII genes confirmed the presence of transgene in transgenic plants which was further validated by Southern hybridization. Further, qRT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants showed good correlation between transgene expression and the level of sheath blight resistance among transformants. Functional complementation assays confirmed the effectiveness of the chitinase mediated resistance in all the transgenic TP309 plants with varying levels of enhanced resistance against R. solani. Therefore, the novel chitinase gene cloned and characterized in the present study from the QTL region of rice will be of significant use in molecular plant breeding program for developing sheath blight resistance in rice.

  10. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum biomass and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain NC 92 to control leaf blight disease of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea caused by Rhizoctonia solani in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana Kanjanamaneesathian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and sixty two strains of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from 23 soil samples in which groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. and bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. had been planted in Songkhla, Phattalung, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Narathiwat and Yala provinces. These fungi were tested against Rhizoctonia solani, a causal agent of leaf blight of bambara groundnut, using dual culture technique on PDA medium. Among 462 isolates tested, 226 isolates had an ability to overgrow R. solani completely. Further testing found 13 isolates having the ability to parasitize mycelia of R. solani. Among these isolates, ThB-1-54 produced a cellulolytic enzyme on congo-red agar. This isolate was later identified as T. harzianum Rifai. In the field test, applying biomass of the isolate ThB-1-54 cultured on ground mesocarp fiber of oil palm, the combination of the isolate ThB-1-54 on ground mesocarp fiber of oil palm and Bradyrhizobium sp. (strain NC 92, or fungicide (iprodione had no effect on disease severity, yield, or the amount of total nitrogen content in stems or seeds of bambara groundnut plant.

  11. Environmental Bacteriophages of the Emerging Enterobacterial Phytopathogen, Dickeya solani, Show Genomic Conservation and Capacity for Horizontal Gene Transfer between Their Bacterial Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Day

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dickeya solani is an economically important phytopathogen widespread in mainland Europe that can reduce potato crop yields by 25%. There are no effective environmentally-acceptable chemical systems available for diseases caused by Dickeya. Bacteriophages have been suggested for use in biocontrol of this pathogen in the field, and limited field trials have been conducted. To date only a small number of bacteriophages capable of infecting D. solani have been isolated and characterized, and so there is a need to expand the repertoire of phages that may have potential utility in phage therapy strategies. Here we describe 67 bacteriophages from environmental sources, the majority of which are members of the viral family Myoviridae. Full genomic sequencing of two isolates revealed a high degree of DNA identity with D. solani bacteriophages isolated in Europe in the past 5 years, suggesting a wide ecological distribution of this phage family. Transduction experiments showed that the majority of the new environmental bacteriophages are capable of facilitating efficient horizontal gene transfer. The possible risk of unintentional transfer of virulence or antibiotic resistance genes between hosts susceptible to transducing phages cautions against their environmental use for biocontrol, until specific phages are fully tested for transduction capabilities.

  12. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bras H. de; Leal, Paulo C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: bho@ufpr.br; Souza Filho, Jose Dias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-04-01

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11{beta},13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16{beta}-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  13. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bras H. de; Leal, Paulo C.; Souza Filho, Jose Dias

    2005-01-01

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11β,13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16β-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  14. Trichoderma sp. dalam Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    OpenAIRE

    Novita, Trias

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Trichoderma sp dalam pengendalianpenyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca FakultasPertanian Universitas Jambi, perlakuannya terdiri dari : t0 = tanpa Trichoderma sp; t1 = 25 gTrichoderma sp/8 kg media; t2 = 50 g Trichoderma sp/8 kg media; t3 = 75 g Trichoderma sp/8 kgmedia; dan t4 = 100 g Trichoderma sp /8 kg media. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichodermasp berperan dalam mengendalikan penyakit layu...

  15. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  17. Influence of Carbohydrates on Secondary Metabolism in Fusarium avenaceum

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Laurids Sørensen; Henriette Giese

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium avenaceum is a widespread pathogen of important crops in the temperate climate zones that can produce many bioactive secondary metabolites, including moniliformin, fusarin C, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), chlamydosporol, aurofusarin and enniatins. Here, we examine the production of these secondary metabolites in response to cultivation on different carbon sources in order to gain insight into the regulation and production of secondary metabolites in...

  18. Fungemia Due to Fusarium sacchari in an Immunosuppressed Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Josep; Nucci, Marcio; Akiti, Tiyomi; Gené, Josepa; Barreiro, M. Da Gloria C.; Gonçalves, Renato T.

    2000-01-01

    The fungus Fusarium sacchari was isolated repeatedly from the blood of an immunosuppressed host. The infection was treated successfully with a small dose of amphotericin B. The strain was resistant to this antifungal in vitro. MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations of six antifungals for the clinical isolate are provided. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving this fungus in a case of fungemia. PMID:10618130

  19. A RALDH-like enzyme involved in Fusarium verticillioides development

    KAUST Repository

    Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta

    2015-12-11

    Retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) convert retinal to retinoic acid, an important chordate morphogen. Retinal also occurs in some fungi, such as Fusarium and Ustilago spp., evidenced by the presence of rhodopsins and β–carotene cleaving, retinal-forming dioxygenases. Based on the assumption that retinoic acid may also be formed in fungi, we searched the Fusarium protein databases for RALDHs homologs, focusing on Fusarium verticillioides. Using crude lysates of Escherichia coli cells expressing the corresponding cDNAs, we checked the capability of best matches to convert retinal into retinoic acid in vitro. Thereby, we identified an aldehyde dehydrogenase, termed CarY, as a retinoic acid-forming enzyme, an activity that was also exerted by purified CarY. Targeted mutation of the carY gene in F. verticillioides resulted in alterations of mycelia development and conidia morphology in agar cultures, and reduced capacity to produce perithecia as a female in sexual crosses. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type carY allele demonstrated that these alterations are caused by the lack of CarY. However, retinoic acid could not be detected by LC-MS analysis either in the wild type or the complemented carY strain in vivo, making elusive the connection between CarY enzymatic activity and retinoic acid formation in the fungus.

  20. A RALDH-like enzyme involved in Fusarium verticillioides development

    KAUST Repository

    Dí az-Sá nchez, Violeta; Carmen Limó n, M.; Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) convert retinal to retinoic acid, an important chordate morphogen. Retinal also occurs in some fungi, such as Fusarium and Ustilago spp., evidenced by the presence of rhodopsins and β–carotene cleaving, retinal-forming dioxygenases. Based on the assumption that retinoic acid may also be formed in fungi, we searched the Fusarium protein databases for RALDHs homologs, focusing on Fusarium verticillioides. Using crude lysates of Escherichia coli cells expressing the corresponding cDNAs, we checked the capability of best matches to convert retinal into retinoic acid in vitro. Thereby, we identified an aldehyde dehydrogenase, termed CarY, as a retinoic acid-forming enzyme, an activity that was also exerted by purified CarY. Targeted mutation of the carY gene in F. verticillioides resulted in alterations of mycelia development and conidia morphology in agar cultures, and reduced capacity to produce perithecia as a female in sexual crosses. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type carY allele demonstrated that these alterations are caused by the lack of CarY. However, retinoic acid could not be detected by LC-MS analysis either in the wild type or the complemented carY strain in vivo, making elusive the connection between CarY enzymatic activity and retinoic acid formation in the fungus.

  1. Control of Fusarium Wilt of Chili With Chitinolytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI SURYANTO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of plant disease using antagonistic microorganism has been obtaining much attention and implemented for decades. One of the potential microorganisms used in this strategy is chitinolytic bacteria. Utilization of this bacteria ranges from cell life, enzymes, genes, or other metabolites. In this study, we examined the ability of chitinolytic bacteria as a biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt of red chili (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings. The ability of chitinolytic bacteria to suppress the disease was evaluated by soaking red chili seeds in the bacterial isolates solution for 30 minutes prior seedling. Percentage of seedling of treated chili seed at end of study (4-weeks ranging from 46 to 82.14%. Relative reduction of the seedling damping-off was observed in all bacterial treatment ranged from 28.57 to 60.71%. Furthermore, manifestation of bacterial suppression to Fusarium wilt was also exhibited by increasing of seedling height (ranged from 7.33 to 7.87 cm compared to 6.88 cm and dry-weight (ranged from 2.7 to 4.3 mg compared to 2.3 mg. However, no significant effect was observed in leaf number. Then, from all chitinolytic isolates tested, BK08 was the most potential candidate for biological control agent of Fusarium wilt in chili seedling.

  2. Bioinformatic as a tool to highlight and characterize extragenomic sequences within Fusarium verticillioides strains isolated from Italian Zea mays kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium Link is a genus including ubiquitous plant-pathogenic fungi that may cause severe crop losses. The Fusarium genus is divided in species complexes; the species are grouped by physiological, biological, ecological and genetic similarity. The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of...

  3. Grain Yield and Fusarium Ear Rot of Maize Hybrids Developed From Lines With Varying Levels of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusarium spp. is found in all U.S. maize growing regions. Affected grain often contains carcinogenic mycotoxins called fumonisins. We tested the hypothesis that inbred lines with greater resistance to fumonisin contamination would pro...

  4. Fusarium sacchari, a cause of mycotic keratitis among sugarcane farmers - a series of four cases from North India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, Yashik; Chander, Jagdish; Kaistha, Neelam; Singla, Nidhi; Sood, Sunandan; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2016-01-01

    The two most common filamentous fungi causing mycotic keratitis are Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. Around 70 Fusarium spp. are involved in causing human infections. In this study, four cases of keratitis in sugarcane farmers in India are being reported, caused by the sugar cane pathogen Fusarium

  5. Efecto de algunos fungicidas sobre la interacción Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn-Micorriza vesículo arbuscular en soya, Glycine max Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Prager Marina

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available En el campo se dispuso de dos preparaciones de suelo: natural y desinfectado químicamente (Ditrapex-CE y en el invernadero de suelo esterilizado con vapor. Se utilizaron los fungicidas Propamocarb, SN-84364, PCNB y Vitavax-300. Se contó con la flora micorrizógena natural y una cepa introducida, Glomus manihotis. R. solani disminuyó en un 50 % la emergencia de la soya, comportándose más agresivo en suelo desinfectado. En los primeros 15 días su ataque se incrementó y redujo el desarrollo de MVA en suelo natural. Al avanzar la edad de la planta decreció su infección. Con relación a la MVA la tendencia es contraria. La presencia de la MVA, incluyendo G. manihotis no incrementó significativamente la materia seca y el rendimiento de la soya. Al desinfectar el suelo los fungicidas afectaron negativamente la infección micorrizógena, mientras que en suelo natural no sucedió este fenómeno, al contrario SN-84364 incrementó su presencia. Este producto es el que menos afecta la simbiosis en el suelo desinfectado. Los fungicidas SN-84364 y PCNB mostraron gran especificidad contra R. solani y Vitavax-300 mayor espectro de acción.With the object to evaluate in the soybeans crop behavior in the interaction of Rhizoctonia solani, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM and fungicides used to treatment of seed, two different soil preparations were used in the field trials: natural and chemically disinfected (Ditrapex-CE and under greenhouse: using vapor- sterilized. Was utilized the fungicides Propamocarb, SN-84364, PCNB y Vitavax- 300. Be had into account the natural mycorrhizal flora and a source of Glomus manihotis introduced. R. solani reduced the emergence of soybean by 50%, the above-metioned pathogen was more agressive in disinfected soil. In the 15 days first the attack increased and reduced the VAM development in the natural soil. With the age of the plant the pathogen infection decreased. With relation by VAM is contrary the tendency

  6. Quantification of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum by real-time PCR system and zearalenone assessment in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; El Khoury, A.; Kallassy, M.; Lebrihi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some species of Fusarium, especially by Fusarium grami- nearum and F. culmorum. ZEA induces hyperoestrogenic responses in mammals and can result in reproductive disorders in farm animals. In the present study, a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay has been successfully developed for the detection and quantification of Fusarium graminearum based on primers targeting the gene PKS13 involved in ZEA biosynthesis. A standard curve was developed by plotting the logarithm of known concentrations of F. graminearum DNA against the cycle threshold (Ct) value. The developed real time PCR system was also used to analyze the occurrence of zearalenone producing F. graminearum strains on maize. In this context, DNA extractions were performed from thirty-two maize samples, and subjected to real time PCR. Maize samples also were analyzed for zearalenone content by HPLC. F. graminearum DNA content (pg DNA/ mg of maize) was then plotted against ZEA content (ppb) in maize samples. The regression curve showed a positive and good correlation (R2 = 0.760) allowing for the estimation of the potential risk from ZEA contamination. Consequently, this work offers a quick alternative to conventional methods of ZEA quantification and mycological detection and quantification of F. graminearum in maize. (author)

  7. Comparative studies about fungal colonization and deoxynivalenol translocation in barley plants inoculated at the base with Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium pseudograminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pecoraro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium crown rot (FCR, an important disease of wheat and barley, is mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum and F. pseudograminearum, which are also responsible for mycotoxin production. This is the first comparative investigation of their colonization on barley plants after stem base inoculation. At plant maturity, FCR symptoms were visually evaluated, fungal biomass was quantified by Real-Time quantitative PCR and deoxynivalenol (DON was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the inoculated strains caused the typical FCR necrotic symptoms. Real-Time PCR analysis showed that F. graminearum and F. culmorum were present in the head tissues, while F. pseudograminearum colonized only up to the area including the second node of the stem. Conversely, DON was detected up to the head for all the three species. This study shows that, as already demonstrated in previous research for wheat, DON may be detected up to the head as a consequence of stem base infection by the three FCR agents

  8. The Stingless Bee Melipona solani Deposits a Signature Mixture and Methyl Oleate to Mark Valuable Food Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavez-Rosas, David; Malo, Edi A; Guzmán, Miguel A; Sánchez-Guillén, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Rogel; Cruz-López, Leopoldo

    2017-10-01

    Stingless bees foraging for food improve recruitment by depositing chemical cues on valuable food sites or pheromone marks on vegetation. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and bioassays, we showed that Melipona solani foragers leave a mixture composed mostly of long chain hydrocarbons from their abdominal cuticle plus methyl oleate from the labial gland as a scent mark on rich food sites. The composition of hydrocarbons was highly variable among individuals and varied in proportions, depending on the body part. A wide ratio of compounds present in different body parts of the bees elicited electroantennogram responses from foragers and these responses were dose dependent. Generally, in bioassays, these bees prefer to visit previously visited feeders and feeders marked with extracts from any body part of conspecifics. The mean number of visits to a feeder was enhanced when synthetic methyl oleate was added. We propose that this could be a case of multi-source odor marking, in which hydrocarbons, found in large abundance, act as a signature mixture with attraction enhanced through deposition of methyl oleate, which may indicate a rich food source.

  9. Rhizoctonia solani and Bacterial Inoculants Stimulate Root Exudation of Antifungal Compounds in Lettuce in a Soil-Type Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Windisch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies conducted on a unique field site comprising three contrasting soils (diluvial sand DS, alluvial loam AL, loess loam LL under identical cropping history, demonstrated soil type-dependent differences in biocontrol efficiency against Rhizoctonia solani-induced bottom rot disease in lettuce by two bacterial inoculants (Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re-4-18. Disease severity declined in the order DS > AL > LL. These differences were confirmed under controlled conditions, using the same soils in minirhizotron experiments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS profiling of rhizosphere soil solutions revealed benzoic and lauric acids as antifungal compounds; previously identified in root exudates of lettuce. Pathogen inoculation and pre-inoculation with bacterial inoculants significantly increased the release of antifungal root exudates in a soil type-specific manner; with the highest absolute levels detected on the least-affected LL soil. Soil type-dependent differences were also recorded for the biocontrol effects of the two bacterial inoculants; showing the highest efficiency after double-inoculation on the AL soil. However, this was associated with a reduction of shoot growth and root hair development and a limited micronutrient status of the host plants. Obviously, disease severity and the expression of biocontrol effects are influenced by soil properties with potential impact on reproducibility of practical applications.

  10. Interplay between parasitism and host ontogenic resistance in the epidemiology of the soil-borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Simon

    Full Text Available Spread of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens is mainly driven by the amount of resources the pathogen is able to capture and exploit should it behave either as a saprotroph or a parasite. Despite their importance in understanding the fungal spread in agricultural ecosystems, experimental data related to exploitation of infected host plants by the pathogen remain scarce. Using Rhizoctonia solani / Raphanus sativus as a model pathosystem, we have obtained evidence on the link between ontogenic resistance of a tuberizing host and (i its susceptibility to the pathogen and (ii after infection, the ability of the fungus to spread in soil. Based on a highly replicable experimental system, we first show that infection success strongly depends on the host phenological stage. The nature of the disease symptoms abruptly changes depending on whether infection occurred before or after host tuberization, switching from damping-off to necrosis respectively. Our investigations also demonstrate that fungal spread in soil still depends on the host phenological stage at the moment of infection. High, medium, or low spread occurred when infection was respectively before, during, or after the tuberization process. Implications for crop protection are discussed.

  11. Genetic transformation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli with Agrobacterium to study pathogenesis in Gladiolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Fog) is one of the most serious diseases of Gladiolus, both in the field and in stored bulbs. In order to study the pathogenesis of this fungus, we have transformed Fog with Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vectors containing the hygromycin B...

  12. Defining the genus Fusarium in a scientifically robust way that best preserves longstanding use

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this talk I will present the argument of a diverse group of scientists advocating a phylogenetic circumscription of the genus Fusarium, that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine, and basic research. This will free scientists from any o...

  13. Fusarium infection and trichothecenes in barley and its comparison with wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Esmee; Liu, C.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Barley is a small-grain cereal that can be infected by Fusarium spp. resulting in reduced quality and safety of harvested barley (products). Barley and other small-grain cereals are commonly studied together for Fusarium infection and related mycotoxin contamination, since the infection and its

  14. Microbial correlates of Fusarium biomass and deoxynivalenol content in individual wheat seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manipulating the microbiome of wheat seeds and heads may contribute to control of Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin accumulation in grain, which creates a food safety hazard. With the aim of identifying novel management targets, we looked for correlations between Fusarium biomass or deoxynivalenol ...

  15. Rapid identification of clinical members of Fusarium fujikuroi complex using MALDI-TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah Ms; Normand, Anne-Cécile; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Hendrickx, Marijke; de Hoog, G Sybren; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To develop the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method for identification of Fusarium species within Fusarium fujikuroi complex for use in clinical microbiology laboratories. MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 24 reference and 60 clinical and

  16. Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato – A Review | Monda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium wilt of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici leads to high losses of tomatoes in many countries. Increasing restraints on the use of pesticides encourages adoption of use of alternative strategies of controlling the disease. Alternative strategies include use of biocontrol ...

  17. Linkage mapping in a watermelon population segregating for fusarium wilt resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh K. Hawkins; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Billy B. Rhodes; Robert L. Jarret

    2001-01-01

    Isozyme, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were used to generate a linkage map in an F2 and F3 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.) Matsum. & Nakai) population derived from a cross between the fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f....

  18. Public health aspects of Fusarium mycotoxins in food in The Netherlands : a risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de M.

    1998-01-01

    Plant pathogenic Fusarium moulds occur world-wide and cereals can become infected during the growing period. Fusarium was detected in 83 % of 69 cereal samples of batches intended for food or feed production and harvested in The Netherlands in 1993.

  19. Aerial remote sensing survey of Fusarium wilt of cotton in New Mexico and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt of cotton, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV), is a widespread cotton disease, but the more virulent FOV race 4 (FOV4) has recently been identified in the New Mexico-Texas border area near El Paso, Texas. A preliminary aerial remote sensing survey was cond...

  20. Evaluation of two novel barcodes for species recognition of opportunistic pathogens in Fusarium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, S.; van Diepeningen, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Fusarium includes more than 200 species of which 73 have been isolated from human infections. Fusarium species are opportunistic human pathogens with variable aetiology. Species determination is best made with the combined phylogeny of protein-coding genes such as elongation factor (TEF1),

  1. Evaluation of methods to detect the cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is an important disease of cotton. Fov race 4, identified in the San Joaquin Valley of California, has caused serious losses and is a potential threat to US cotton production. Tests have been developed to rapidly identify race 4 i...

  2. Genetic diversity, virulence, and Meloidogyne incognita interactions of Fusarium oxysporum isolates causing cotton wilt in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locally severe outbreaks of Fusarium wilt of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in South Georgia raised concerns about the genotypes of the causal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Vegetative complementation tests and DNA sequence analysis were used to determine genetic diversity among 492 F. ox...

  3. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum reveals signatures of divergent evolution within a major cereal pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and a significant threat to food safety and crop production. To elucidate population structure and identify genomic targets of selection within major FHB pathogen populations in North America we sequenced the...

  4. Occurrence of the root-rot pathogen, Fusarium commune, in midwestern and western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; R. K. Dumroese; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium commune can cause damping-off and root rot of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries. The pathogen is only reported in Oregon, Idaho, and Washington within United States. Fusarium isolates were collected from midwestern and western United States to determine occurrence of this pathogen. DNA sequences of mitochondrial small subunit gene were used to identify F....

  5. Presence of Fusarium spp. in air and soil associated with sorghum fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum grain, valuable for feed, food and bioenergy, can be colonized by several Fusarium species; therefore, it was of interest to identify possible sources of conidia. Analysis of air and soil samples provided evidence for the presence of propagules from Fusarium genotypes that may cause grain in...

  6. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  7. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  8. Immunodiagnostic potential of a 27 kDa protein of Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several Fusarium species infect Robusta coffee; these Fusarium xylarioides Steyaert (Gibberella xylarioides Heim and Saccas) are the most virulent and responsible for the destructive Robusta coffee wilt disease in Uganda. To date, F. xylarioides has not been isolated directly from soil, though the pathogen can persist in ...

  9. Relationships between Fusarium population structure, soil nutrient status and disease incidence in field-grown asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yergeau, E.; Sommerville, D.W.; Maheux, E.; Vujanovic, V.; Hamel, C.; Whalen, J.K.; St-Arnaud, M.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium species cause important diseases in many crops. Lack of knowledge on how Fusarium species and strains interact with their environment hampers growth management strategies to control root diseases. A field experiment involving asparagus as host plant and three phosphorus fertilization levels

  10. A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach to assess Fusarium diversity in asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yergeau, E.; Filion, M.; Vujanovic, V.; St-Arnaud, M.

    2005-01-01

    In North America, asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) production suffers from a crown and root rot disease mainly caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum. Many other Fusarium species are also found in asparagus fields, whereas accurate detection and identification of these

  11. Influence of Bacillus polymyxa on the growth and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic effect of Bacillus polymyxa, strain S13, toward Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae was evaluated iii vitro and in vivo. The growth of the pathogen was greatly inhibited in dual cultures with Bacillus polymyxa on potato dextrose agar. Suspension of B. polymyxa and its filtrate substantially inhibited spore germination and development of Fusarium oxysporuum f. sp. tulipae on tulip bulbs.

  12. Pathological and rhizospherical studies on root-rot disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations from diseased squash roots revealed the presence of Alternaria tenuis, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Rhizoctonia solani. The last two fungi were more frequent than any of the other fungi. Pathogenicity tests proved that squash plants were highly vulnerable to attack by Fusarium solani and ...

  13. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  14. Potensi Ekstrak Kangkung sebagai Biofungisida untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Busuk Buah Fusarium pada Tomat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Poernomo Wahyu Soekarno

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the important pathogens on tomato is Fusarium sp. causing wilt and fruit rot. This study aims to investigate the potency of water spinach (Ipomea aquatica as a biofungicide for inhibiting growth and development of tomato fruit rot caused by Fusarium sp. This study showed inhibiting ability of  I. aquatica stem extract to Fusarium sp. growth ranges from 3.40% to 8.67%, while inhibiting ability of leaves extract can reach 3.40% to 45.55%. Resistance induction test showed that in vitro treatment of I. aquatica leaves extract 20% can lengthen incubation time of Fusarium fruit rot compared to positive and negative control. Leaves extract of I. aquatica 20% is potential as biofungicide.Key words: biofungicide, Fusarium sp., Ipomea aquatica

  15. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.

    2003-01-01

    the regions. A total of 695 grain samples were analysed. The amount of Fusarium infection varied with cereal species and region of origin. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. culmorum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. were F......In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within...... and F. culmorum demonstrated in this study , corresponded to previously reported DON-distribution, although DON seems to be produced by different species in different regions. Distribution of the isolated Fusarium species and comparison between cereals and locations are discussed....

  16. Efeitos de materiais orgânicos e da umidade do solo na patogenicidade de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn GA-4 HGI ao feijoeiro The role of the organic material amended and the soil moisture on the pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-4 HGI in snap bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Chela Fenille

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados, em casa de vegetação, os efeitos das seguintes variáveis sobre a patogenicidade de Rhizoctonia solani GA-4 HGI a plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em solo artificialmente infestado: presença de materiais orgânicos com diferentes relações C:N (torta de mamona e bagaço de cana; níveis de decomposição da matéria orgânica, e condições de umidade do solo incorporado. A umidade do solo até o momento da semeadura foi mantida sob duas condições: 20% ou acima de 80% da capacidade de campo. Foram realizadas semeaduras aos 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias após inoculação e incorporação. As avaliações foram realizadas 14 dias após cada semeadura. O material com baixa relação C:N propiciou o aumento da incidência de R. solani no feijoeiro, enquanto o material com alta relação C:N não interferiu na incidência do patógeno. A incidência de R. solani no feijoeiro, em solo incorporado, foi independente da condição de umidade.The pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 HGI on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants was evaluated, in artificially infested soil under greenhouse conditions, when submitted to the following treatments: amendments with different C:N ratios (castor-oil cake and sugar-cane bagasse; different organic matter decomposition levels; different moisture contents of the amended soil. Until the moment of sowing the soil moisture was maintained at 20% of the moisture-holding capacity or above 80%. The sowings were made at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after the inoculation and amendments incorporation. Evaluations were carried out 14 days after each sowing date. The amendment with low C:N ratio increased the incidence of R. solani on bean plants, in any decomposition level, whereas the amendment with high C:N ratio did not interfere on the incidence of the pathogen. The incidence of R. solani on bean plants, in a soil amended with both castor-oil cake or sugar-cane bagasse, was independent of the

  17. Comparative Microbiome Analysis of a Fusarium Wilt Suppressive Soil and a Fusarium Wilt Conducive Soil From the Châteaurenard Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Siegel-Hertz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease-suppressive soils are soils in which specific soil-borne plant pathogens cause only limited disease although the pathogen and susceptible host plants are both present. Suppressiveness is in most cases of microbial origin. We conducted a comparative metabarcoding analysis of the taxonomic diversity of fungal and bacterial communities from suppressive and non-suppressive (conducive soils as regards Fusarium wilts sampled from the Châteaurenard region (France. Bioassays based on Fusarium wilt of flax confirmed that disease incidence was significantly lower in the suppressive soil than in the conducive soil. Furthermore, we succeeded in partly transferring Fusarium wilt-suppressiveness to the conducive soil by mixing 10% (w/w of the suppressive soil into the conducive soil. Fungal diversity differed significantly between the suppressive and conducive soils. Among dominant fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs affiliated to known genera, 17 OTUs were detected exclusively in the suppressive soil. These OTUs were assigned to the Acremonium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Ceratobasidium, Mortierella, Penicillium, Scytalidium, and Verticillium genera. Additionally, the relative abundance of specific members of the bacterial community was significantly higher in the suppressive and mixed soils than in the conducive soil. OTUs found more abundant in Fusarium wilt-suppressive soils were affiliated to the bacterial genera Adhaeribacter, Massilia, Microvirga, Rhizobium, Rhizobacter, Arthrobacter, Amycolatopsis, Rubrobacter, Paenibacillus, Stenotrophomonas, and Geobacter. Several of the fungal and bacterial genera detected exclusively or more abundantly in the Fusarium wilt-suppressive soil included genera known for their activity against F. oxysporum. Overall, this study supports the potential role of known fungal and bacterial genera in Fusarium wilt suppressive soils from Châteaurenard and pinpoints new bacterial and fungal

  18. Bioprospecção de isolados de Trichoderma spp. para o controle de Rhizoctonia solani na produção de mudas de pepino Bioprospection of Trichoderma spp. isolates to control Rhizoctonia solani on cucumber seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleusa Maria Mantovanello Lucon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e identificar isolados de Trichoderma spp. para o controle do tombamento causado por Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4 em plântulas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L., além de avaliar o efeito de concentrações crescentes e de combinações dos isolados mais eficientes no controle da doença. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, com 490 isolados. O tombamento das mudas foi avaliado uma semana após a aplicação à base das plântulas de substrato infestado com antagonista (1% e patógeno (1%. Os doze isolados que proporcionaram mais de 85% de redução da doença foram testados em concentrações crescentes para o controle do patógeno (1%: 0,5, 1, 2, 3 e 4%. Também foi avaliado o efeito das combinações dos cinco isolados mais promissores. Os isolados mais efetivos foram identificados pelo sequenciamento da região espaçadores internos transcritos (ITS do DNA ribossômico. Dos 490 isolados testados 44 (9% reduziram o tombamento. As concentrações de antagonistas superiores a 2% foram as mais efetivas no controle da doença. Apenas duas combinações resultaram no aumento do controle da doença. Os isolados mais efetivos foram identificados como T. hamatum (IB08, IB30, IB60, T. harzianum (IB34, IB35, T. atroviride (IB13, T. spirale (IB16, IB24 e T. asperellum (IB44. Não foi possível a identificação da espécie de três isolados.The objective of this work was to select and identify Trichoderma spp. isolates for the control of Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4 damping-off on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings, as well as to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations and different combinations of the most efficient isolates in the disease control. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse with 490 isolates. The disease on cucumber seedlings was evaluated one week after the application of a commercial substrate infested with both antagonist (1% and pathogen (1% to the seedlings

  19. Respuesta al glifosato de un aislamiento de Rhizoctonia solani agente causal del anublo de la vaina del arroz, y de cuatro aislamientos de Trichoderma, bajo condiciones in vitro In vitro response of one isolate of Rhizoctonia solani, the pathogen of the rice sheath blight and four isolates of Trichoderma to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas de Álvarez Amparo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El añublo de la vaina del arroz (Orysa saliva L., cuyo agente causal es Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, es una de las enfermedades más importantes en el cultivo del arroz en Colombia. En los cultivos de arroz con frecuencia se aplica glifosato ((ácido N-(fosfonometil glicina para controlar las malezas, particularmente el arroz rojo (O. saliva, antes de la siembra del arroz. Observaciones de campo anteriores parecían indicar relación entre el uso intensivo del glifosato y el incremento en la incidencia del añublo de la vaina del arroz. Por tanto, se propuso el presente trabajo con el fin de dilucidar los posibles efectos del glifosato sobre R. solani y Trichoderma sp., conocido éste como antagonista de R. solani. Se determinó, bajo condiciones de laboratorio, el efecto del glifosato en el crecimiento, en medio líquido y sólido PDA, de R. solani y de Trichoderma. Se encontró que la dosis más alta de glifosato sin efecto detrimental sobre R. solani, fue de 300 mg/L y la dosis más baja del herbicida que
    causó la mayor inhibición del crecimiento del hongo fue
    de 2500 mg/L. Por otra parte, no se encontró que el glifosato
    estimulara el crecimiento de R. solani. En teoría, en una aplicación comercial de glifosato de 1,5 Kg ia/ha y asperjando directamente al suelo sin vegetación, el glifosato en el suelo estaría a una concentración de 0,75 mg/Kg de suelo (suponiendo que la capa arable de una hectárea de suelo pesa 2.000.000 de Kg; por tanto, la concentración de glifosato después de una aplicación comercial, está muy por debajo de la concentración a la cual se inicia la reducción del crecimiento de R. solani. Por su parte, la respuesta de Trichoderma al glifosato fue similar a la de R. solani; además, se encontró que el glifosato no afecta la capacidad antagonista de Trichoderma sobre R. sotaní. Estos resultados no apoyan la hipótesis que el glifosato, bajo las condiciones de uso en cultivos de arroz para el control

  20. Effect Of Salinization On Fusarium Wilt Disease In Tomato Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; Fath El-Bab, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Salinization of soils or waters is one of the serious environmental problems in agriculture. It is necessary to determine the environmental factors under which the plants give higher yields and better quality to solve this problem. The problem of salinity is characterized by disruption in the physiological processes in plant which lead to shorting in growth and decrease in yield. The study was carried out to control fusarium disease in tomato plant irrigated with salt water (500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm). These treatments lead to excess in malic and citric acids i.e. from 21 mmol/g fresh weight in control to 38.8 mmol/g fresh weight at 100000 ppm for citric acid while for malic acid, the value was increased from 1.4 mmol/g fresh weight for control to 2.1 mmol/g fresh weight. The excess of malic and citric acids lead to increase in acidity and vitamin C in tomato fruits. On the other side, the plant may adapt to this stress by increasing its proline content from 0.59 µmol/g fresh weight to 6.56 µmol/g fresh weight at 100000 and abscisic acid from 0.49 µmol/g fresh weight to 20.7 µmol/g fresh weight. The results showed that the fusarium fungal growth was observed till 100000 ppm but did not form sclerotia spores at 45000 ppm. On the other hand, the electrical conductivity was found to be 0.46, 2.3, 23.1, 69.2 and 153.8 dS/m for salinity levels of 500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm, respectively. This study aimed to control the fusarium wilt disease by irrigating the plant with water has high salinity