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Sample records for fungus phanerochaete sordida

  1. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by manganese peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiao; Ogata, Makoto; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1) ) is a potent mycotoxin with mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic, and immunosuppressive properties. In order to develop a bioremediation system for AFB(1) -contaminated foods by white-rot fungi or ligninolytic enzymes, AFB(1) was treated with manganese peroxidase (MnP) from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. AFB(1) was eliminated by MnP. The maximum elimination (86.0%) of AFB(1) was observed after 48 h in a reaction mixture containing 5 nkat of MnP. The addition of Tween 80 enhanced AFB(1) elimination. The elimination of AFB(1) by MnP considerably reduced its mutagenic activity in an umu test, and the treatment of AFB(1) by 20 nkat MnP reduced the mutagenic activity by 69.2%. (1) H-NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis suggested that AFB(1) is first oxidized to AFB(1) -8,9-epoxide by MnP and then hydrolyzed to AFB(1) -8,9-dihydrodiol. This is the first report that MnP can effectively remove the mutagenic activity of AFB(1) by converting it into AFB(1) -8,9-dihydrodiol.

  2. Direct lactic acid production from beech wood by transgenic white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toshio; Kako, Hiroko; Sumiya, Tomoki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Hirai, Hirofumi

    2016-12-10

    A lactic acid (LA)-producing strain of the hyper-lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 with the lactate dehydrogenase-encoding gene from Bifidobacterium longum (Blldh) was constructed. When the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase gene-knocked down and Blldh-expressing transformant was cultured with beech wood meal, the transformant was able to successively delignify and ferment the substrate. Supplementation of calcium carbonate into the culture medium, significantly increased the level of LA accumulation. Direct LA production (at 0.29g/l) from wood was confirmed, and additional inclusion of exogenous cellulase in this fermentation yielded significant further improvement in LA accumulation (up to 1.44g/l). This study provides the first report of direct production of LA by fermentation from woody biomass by a single microorganism, and indicates that transgenic white-rot fungi have a potential use for development of simple/easy applications for wood biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE SORDIDA TO TREAT CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with creosote was performed at a wood-treating facility in south central Mississippi in the autumn of 1991. The effects of solid-phase bioremediation with Phanerochaete sordid...

  4. Improvement of manganese peroxidase production by the hyper lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 by recombinant expression of the 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hirofumi; Misumi, Kenta; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2013-12-01

    The manganese peroxidase (MnP) gene (mnp4) promoter of Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was used to drive expression of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (als), which is a key heme biosynthesis enzyme. The expression plasmid pMnP4pro-als was transformed into P. sordida YK-624 uracil auxotrophic mutant UV-64, and 14 recombinant als expressing-transformants were generated. Average cumulative MnP activities in the transformants were 1.18-fold higher than that of control transformants. In particular, transformants A-14 and A-61 showed significantly higher MnP activity (approximately 2.8-fold) than wild type. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the increased MnP activity was caused by elevated recombinant als expression. These results suggest that the production of MnP is improved by high expression of als.

  5. TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANERO- CHAETE SORDIDA: A FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of large-scale fungal bioaugmentation was evaluated by assessing the ability of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida to decrease the soil concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 13 priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic (PNA) creosote component...

  6. Decolorization of mixtures of different reactive textile dyes by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete sordida and inhibitory effect of polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazono, Koichi; Nakamura, Kazunori

    2005-03-01

    We tried to decolorize mixtures of four reactive textile dyes, including azo and anthraquinone dyes, by a white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete sordida. P. sordida decolorized dye mixtures (200 mg l-1 each) by 90% within 48 h in nitrogen-limited glucose-ammonium media. Decolorization of dye mixtures needed Mn2+ and Tween 80 in the media. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) played a major role in dye decolorization by P. sordida. Decolorization of dye mixtures by P. sordida was partially inhibited by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) that wastewaters from textile industries often contain. This was caused by an inhibitory effect of PVA on the decolorization of Reactive Red 120 (RR120) with MnP reaction system. Second addition of Tween 80 to the reaction mixtures in the presence of PVA improved the decolorization of RR120. These results suggest that PVA could interfere with lipid peroxidation or subsequent attack to the dye.

  7. Phanerochaete sordida YK-624胞外酶的特性及其对纸浆的漂白作用%Properties of Extracellular Enzymes from Phanerochaete Sordida YK-624 and Its Application in KP Bleaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧芳; 李忠正; 近藤隆一郎

    2004-01-01

    Phanerochaete sordida YK-624进行液体培养得到胞外酶液,从纸浆的生物漂白角度考察其酶学性质.对在漂白过程中可能涉及到的锰过氧化物酶(MnP)、过氧化物酶(LiP)、漆酶(Laccase)、木聚糖酶和纤维素酶的活性进行了测定.结果表明,其中主要表现为锰过氧化物酶的活性,未检测到纤维素酶和木聚糖酶的活性.这种酶液进行生物漂白不会造成纤维强度等性质的下降.本文对其中占主要活性成分的锰过氧化物酶的影响因素进行了探讨,发现温度、H2O2浓度、pH值对其活性影响较大,温度对酶液的稳定性也有较大影响.其发挥较佳活性的条件是:温度30℃、H2O2浓度1.0mmol/L、pH值4.5.Mn2+浓度对其活性影响较小.利用液体培养的胞外酶液对几种未漂浆进行了生物漂白,结果表明,在各自最佳条件下,硫酸盐阔叶木浆白度可提高30.4%ISO,碱法杨木/麦草(30/70)混合浆白度可提高17.9%SBD,碱法稻草浆白度可提高12.1%SBD.

  8. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  9. Biodegradation of colorants in refinery effluents : potential use of the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Carla; Bento, Luis San Miguel; Mota, M.

    1999-01-01

    The degradative ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium towards each of the four;main types of colorants present in regeneration effluents from ion exchange resins was investigated. The fungus was able to decolorise melanoidin, caramel and HADP (hexose alkaline degradation product) solutions by 74%, 87% and 80%,. respectively, and to reduce levels of phenolic compounds by 72%. Gel permeation chromatography studies showed that decolorisation was accompanied by effective degradation of the color...

  10. Effects of selenium oxyanions on the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    KAUST Repository

    Espinosa-Ortiz, Erika J.

    2014-10-24

    The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to reduce the oxidized forms of selenium, selenate and selenite, and their effects on the growth, substrate consumption rate, and pellet morphology of the fungus were assessed. The effect of different operational parameters (pH, glucose, and selenium concentration) on the response of P. chrysosporium to selenium oxyanions was explored as well. This fungal species showed a high sensitivity to selenium, particularly selenite, which inhibited the fungal growth and substrate consumption when supplied at 10 mg L−1 in the growth medium, whereas selenate did not have such a strong influence on the fungus. Biological removal of selenite was achieved under semi-acidic conditions (pH 4.5) with about 40 % removal efficiency, whereas less than 10 % selenium removal was achieved for incubations with selenate. P. chrysosporium was found to be a selenium-reducing organism, capable of synthesizing elemental selenium from selenite but not from selenate. Analysis with transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and a 3D reconstruction showed that elemental selenium was produced intracellularly as nanoparticles in the range of 30–400 nm. Furthermore, selenite influenced the pellet morphology of P. chrysosporium by reducing the size of the fungal pellets and inducing their compaction and smoothness.

  11. Biochemical characterization and transcriptional analysis of the epoxide hydrolase from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Li; Yizheng Zhang; Hong Feng

    2009-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a model fungus used to investigate the sec-ondary metabolism and lignin degradation. Genomic sequencing reveals the presence of at least 18 genes encoding putative epoxide hydrolases (EHs). One cDNA encoding EH (designated as PchEHA) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the transcripts of PchEHA could be detected under the ligninolytic and nonligninolytic con-ditions as well as amended with anthracene. The recom-binant enzyme exhibits broad hydrolytic activity toward several racemic epoxides including styrene oxide, epichlorohydrin, and 1,2-epoxybutane, but with different specificity. Using racemic styrene oxide as the substrate, the optimal pH and temperature are pH 9.0 and 40℃, respectively. The enzyme is not sensitive to EDTA, and is inhibited by H2O2, and several metal ions including Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+ at various extents. Several organic cosoivents including acetone, dimethylsulfoxide, formamide, glycerol and ethanol at 10% (v/v) cause slight or no inhibition of the hydrolytic reaction. More importantly, the recombinant enzyme displays distinct enantioselective preference to several chiral epoxides. The enzyme showed good enantioselec-tivity toward chiral styrene oxide with preferential hydrolysis of (R)-enantiomer. PchEHA is likely a novel soluble EH based on the sequence analysis and catalytic properties, and is a great potential biocatalyst for the preparation of enantiopure styrene oxide in racemic kinetic resolution.

  12. Biodegradation of Gaseous Chlorobenzene by White-rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAN WANG; JIN-YING XI; HONG-YING HU; XIANG-HUA WEN

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on removal of gaseous chlorobenzene.Methods Fungal mycelium mixed with a liquid medium was placed into airtight bottles.A certain amount of chlorobenzene was injected into the headspace of the bottles under different conditions.At a certain interval,the concentrations in the headspace were analyzed to evaluate the degradation of chlorohenzene by P.chtysosporium.Results The degradation effects of P chrysosporium on chlorobenzene under different conditions were investigated.The difference in the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi and chlorobenzene degradation was observed.The data indicated that a lower temperature (28℃) would promote the degradation of chlorobenzene than the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi (37℃).A low nitrogen source concentration (30 mg N/L) had a better effect on degrading chlorohenzene than a high nitrogen source concentration (higher than 100 mg N/L).A high initial concentration (over 1100 mg/m3) of chlorobenzene showed an inhibiting effect on degradation by P.chrysosporium.A maximum removal efficiency of 95% was achieved at the initial concentration of 550 mg/m3.Conclusion P.chrysosporium has a rather good ability to remove gaseous chlorobenzene.A low nitrogen source concentration and a low temperature promote the removal of chlorohenzene by P.chrysosporium.However,a high initial chlorobenzene concentration can inhibit chlorobenzene degradation.

  13. BIODEGRADATION OF DDT [1,1,1-TRICHLORO-2,2-BIS(4- CHLOROPHENYL) ETHANE] BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of [14C]DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the form...

  14. BIODEGRATION OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN LIQUID CULTURE AND IN SOIL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of [14C]-2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ([[14C]-2,4,5-T) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in nutrient nitrogen-limited aqueous cultures and in [14C]-2,4,5-T-contaminated soil inoculat...

  15. Evaluation of chicken manure, kenaf, and phanerochaete chrysosporium (white rot fungus) as enhancers of polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, K.; Borazjani, A.; Diehl, S.V. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this 150-day study, chicken manure, kenaf, and white rot fungus were added to soil microcosms in an attempt to enhance the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. The soil was contaminated with commercial PCB mixtures. Dishes were ammended with 5% dry weight chicken manure, 1% dry weight kenaf, and 1% dry weight kenaf plus Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculant. PCB concentrations were determined at 30 day intervals by soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography analyses. Preliminary results of microbial populations and PCB degradation are presented. At 90 days, the microcosms amended with chicken manure had significantly higher populations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. However, at 120 days, these soils underwent great reductions in actinomycete and bacterial populations. Through 60 days, the concentration of the PCBs Aroclor 1242 and 1248 had its greatest reduction in the kenaf amended soils. The concentration of Aroclor 1260 either increased or stayed at high levels for 30 days before stabilizing or decreasing by day 60.

  16. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from grass to bioethanol using materials pretreated with alkali and the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yee Liong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Grasses are abundant in many climatic regions of the world and have been regarded as weeds by many. This work investigated the use of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass in the production of bioethanol. Two pretreated grasses were compared as the initial substance in the hydrolysis process followed by bacteria fermentation. For the purpose of breaking down lignin, alkali pretreatment, where grass was soaked in 7% NaOH, was used. For biological pretreatment, grass was incubated for 3 weeks with the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both types of pretreated materials were subjected to Trichoderma reesei ATCC 26921 enzyme hydrolysis. Glucose content from alkali-pretreated samples was 1.6-fold higher than fungus-pretreated samples. Hydrolysates from the pretreatments were fermented using the ethanol insensitive strain Escherichia coli K011. After 24 hours of fermentation, the ethanol yield from alkali-pretreated material was 1.5 times higher than the biological-pretreated material. It can be concluded that NaOH-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had a better ethanol yield compared to biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate, but biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had better ethanol conversion efficiency, which was 18.5 g/g. These results indicated that wild grass is capable of becoming an important biomass for small local bioethanol production.

  17. Decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on synthetic dye bath effluent containing Amido black 10B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthilkumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic azo dyes are extensively used in textile industry and are not easily degraded into the environment due to their complex structure. Due to the low degree of fixation of these dyes to fabrics, more than 10–15% of the dye does not bind to fabrics during colour processing and release into water bodies as effluent cause serious environmental pollution. White-rot fungus is found to be capable of degrading lignin which has a complex structure similar to azo dyes. In this study, the decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which is capable of decolourizing synthetic dye bath effluent, was investigated. Maximum decolourization of 98% was achieved on the third day under normal conditions. The rate of decolourization carried out at different concentrations revealed that the increase in dye effluent concentration suppresses the percentage decolourization. The optimized amounts of nutrients were found to be 0.5%, 0.1% and 0.5% of glucose, manganese sulphate and ammonium salts, respectively. The addition of inducers such as starch and lignin increased enzyme production and the rate of decolourization.

  18. Mode of coniferous wood decay by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete carnosa as elucidated by FTIR and ToF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sonam; Jeremic, Dragica; Goacher, Robyn E; Master, Emma R

    2012-06-01

    The softwood degrading white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, was investigated for its ability to degrade two coniferous woods: balsam fir and lodgepole pine. P. carnosa grew similarly on these wood species, and like the hardwood-degrading white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, P. carnosa demonstrated selective degradation of lignin, as observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Lignin degradation across cell walls of decayed pine samples was also evaluated by ToF-SIMS and was shown to be uniform. This study illustrates softwood lignin utilization by a white-rot fungus and reveals the industrial potential of the lignocellulolytic activity elicited by this fungus.

  19. Cloning, expression and characterization of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain BKM-F-1767

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    Yang Dong-Dong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is among the small group of fungi that can degrade lignin to carbon dioxide while leaving the crystalline cellulose untouched. The efficient lignin oxidation system of this fungus requires cyclic redox reactions involving the reduction of aryl-aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols by aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase. However, the biochemical properties of this enzyme have not been extensively studied. These are of most interest for the design of metabolic engineering/synthetic biology strategies in the field of biotechnological applications of this enzyme. Results We report here the cloning of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase cDNA from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, its expression in Escherichia coli and the biochemical characterization of the encoded GST and His6 tagged protein. The purified recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 37°C and at pH 6.4 for the reduction of aryl- and linear aldehydes with NADPH as coenzyme. NADH could also be the electron donor, while having a higher Km (220 μM compared to that of NADPH (39 μM. The purified recombinant enzyme was found to be active in the reduction of more than 20 different aryl- and linear aldehydes showing highest specificity for mono- and dimethoxylated Benzaldehyde at positions 3, 4, 3,4 and 3,5. The enzyme was also capable of oxidizing aryl-alcohols with NADP + at 30°C and an optimum pH of 10.3 but with 15 to 100-fold lower catalytic efficiency than for the reduction reaction. Conclusions In this work, we have characterized the biochemical properties of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We show that this enzyme functions in the reductive sense under physiological conditions and that it displays relatively large substrate specificity with highest activity towards the natural compound Veratraldehyde.

  20. Enzyme activities during degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Li, Jieming; Li, Yimeng; Zhang, Qingmin

    2009-10-01

    The degradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in soils by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced during degradation, were analyzed. The results showed that the 19-d percentage degradation ranged from 72.77+/-1.39% to 25.50+/-3.41% for the three compounds, and the maximum LiP and MnP activities ranged from 0.16+/-0.005 to 0.05+/-0.002 U g(-1) and from 1.92+/-0.03 to 0.54+/-0.03 U g(-1), respectively. Degradation percentage and enzyme activities both exhibited inverse relationships with the octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) of the compounds, indicating that LiP and MnP from P. chrysosporium may be the primary enzymes responsible for PAH degradation in soil. As the soil organic matter (SOM) content increased from 0.3% for Soil 1 to 19% for Soil 4, the 19-d degradation percentage of pyrene decreased from 66.20+/-2.72% to 32.42+/-1.05%, and correspondingly, the maximum of LiP and MnP activities increased from 0.05+/-0.002 to 1.78+/-0.15 U g(-1) and from 0.34+/-0.03 to 1.78+/-0.15 U g(-1), respectively. Hence, it is plausible to conclude that the P. chrysosporium appeared to degrade not only the PAHs with small molecular size but also the macromolecular SOM. When SOM differences are large, as in this study, SOM has greater influence on enzyme activity than low-level exotic pollutants.

  1. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  2. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  3. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  4. A single mating-type locus composed of homeodomain genes promotes nuclear migration and heterokaryosis in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Timothy Y; Lee, Maria; van Diepen, Linda T A

    2011-02-01

    The white-rot basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Agaricomycetes) is a model species that produces potent wood-degrading enzymes. The mating system of the species has been difficult to characterize due to its cryptic fruiting habit and lack of clamp connections in the heterokaryotic phase. By exploiting the draft genome sequence, we reevaluated the mating system of P. chrysosporium by studying the inheritance and segregation of putative mating-type gene homologues, the homeodomain transcription factor genes (MAT-A) and the pheromone receptors (MAT-B). A pattern of mating incompatibility and fructification consistent with a bipolar system with a single MAT locus was observed, but the rejection response was much weaker than that seen in other agaricomycete species, leading to stable heterokaryons with identical MAT alleles. The homeodomain genes appear to comprise the single MAT locus because they are heterozygous in wild strains and hyperpolymorphic at the DNA sequence level and promote aspects of sexual reproduction, such as nuclear migration, heterokaryon stability, and basidiospore formation. The pheromone receptor loci that might constitute a MAT-B locus, as in many other Agaricomycetes, are not linked to the MAT-A locus and display low levels of polymorphism. This observation is inconsistent with a bipolar mating system that includes pheromones and pheromone receptors as mating-type determinants. The partial uncoupling of nuclear migration and mating incompatibility in this species may be predicted to lead to parasexual recombination and may have contributed to the homothallic behavior observed in previous studies.

  5. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  6. Influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzyme production of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiaoyan; WEN Xianghua; FENG Yan

    2007-01-01

    The present work studied the influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a nitrogen-limited(C/N ratio is 56/8.8 mmol/L)medium.Several sets of shaking flask experiments were conducted.The results showed that 2g/L glucose feeding on the first day of the culture(24 h after the inoculation)stimulated both fungal biomass growth and enzyme production.The manganese peroxidase(MnP)activity was 2.5 times greater than that produced in cultures without glucose feeding.Furthermore,the glucose feeding mode in fed-batch culture was also investigated.Compared to cultures with glucose feeding every 48 h,cultures with glucose feeding of 1.5 g/L(final concentration)every 24 h produced more enzymes.The peak and total yield of MnP activity were 2.7 and 3 times greater compared to the contrast culture,respectively,and the enzyme was kept stable for 4 days with an activity of over 200 U/L.

  7. The effect of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress on the enzymes in white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihua; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Yan, Min; Chen, Anwei; Du, Jianjian; Huang, Jian; Yi, Bin; Zhou, Ying; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Prevalence of heavy metals in the living environment causes chemical stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). However, the mechanisms involved in ROS defense are still under investigation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidative stress on the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP). A time-dependent change in all enzyme activities was observed following exposure to 50 μM cadmium and 25 μM lead. The lowest values were recorded at 4 h after exposure. Both cadmium and lead inhibited CAT and POD. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) levels increased under 50-100 μM cadmium or lead exposure and decreased when heavy metal concentration was under 50 μM; this suggested that ROS is not the only factor that alters the CYP450 levels. The cadmium removal rate in the sample containing 900 μM taxifolin (inhibitor of CYP450) and 100 μM cadmium was reduced to 12.34 %, 9.73 % lower than that of 100 μM cadmium-induced sample, indicating CYP450 may play an indirect but key role in the process of clearance of heavy metals. The pH of the substrate solution decreased steadily during the incubation process.

  8. A novel P450-initiated biphasic process for sustainable biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil under nutrient-sufficient conditions by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sukanta S; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Shann, Jodi; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2013-10-15

    High molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are resistant to biodegradation in soil. Conventionally, white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated for HMW-PAH degradation in soil primarily using nutrient-deficient (ligninolytic) conditions, albeit with limited and non-sustainable biodegradation outcomes. In this study, we report development of an alternative novel biphasic process initiated under nutrient-sufficient (non-ligninolytic) culture conditions, by employing an advanced experimental design strategy. During the initial nutrient-sufficient non-ligninolytic phase (16 days), the process showed upregulation (3.6- and 22.3-fold, respectively) of two key PAH-oxidizing P450 monooxygenases pc2 (CYP63A2) and pah4 (CYP5136A3) and formation of typical P450-hydroxylated metabolite. This along with abrogation (84.9%) of BaP degradation activity in response to a P450-specific inhibitor implied key role of these monooxygenases. The subsequent phase triggered on continued incubation (to 25 days) switched the process from non-ligninolytic to ligninolytic resulting in a significantly higher net degradation (91.6% as against 67.4% in the control nutrient-limited set) of BaP with concomitant de novo ligninolytic enzyme expression making it a biphasic process yielding improved sustainable bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. To our knowledge this is the first report on development of such biphasic process for bioremediation application of a white rot fungus.

  9. Comparative study of the kinetics and equilibrium of phenol biosorption on immobilized white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Viktor; Felinger, Attila; Hegedűsova, Alžbeta; Dékány, Imre; Pernyeszi, Tímea

    2013-03-01

    In this study the kinetics and equilibrium of phenol biosorption were studied from aqueous solution using batch technique at an initial pH of 5.5. The biosorption was studied on Ca-alginate beads, on non-living mycelial pellets of Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on Ca-alginate, and on free fungal biomass. Ph. chrysosporium was grown in a liquid medium containing mineral and vitamin materials with complex composition. The biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics on all bioadsorbents. The bioadsorption-equilibrium on blank Ca-alginate, free and immobilized fungal biomass can be described by Langmuir, anti-Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models using nonlinear least-squares estimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Notes on the occurrence of Chitoria sordida sordida (Moore, 1866 (Nymphalidae: Apaturinae in Tsirang District, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatishwor Singh Irungbam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the distribution of Nymphalid butterfly, Sordid Emperor (Chitoria sordida sordida (Moore, 1866 in southern Bhutan are presented in this paper.  The confirmation is based on four years of observation of species in the warm broadleaf forest of Tsirang during July to October.  The species is legally protected under Schedule II of the Indian (Wildlife Protection Act, 1997. 

  11. Biochemical and milk-clotting properties and mapping of catalytic subsites of an extracellular aspartic peptidase from basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; de Oliveira, Arthur H C; Rosa, Jose C; Cabral, Hamilton

    2017-06-15

    For a long time, proteolytic enzymes have been employed as key tools of industrial processes, especially in the dairy industry. In the present work, we used Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biochemical characterization and analysis of catalytic specificity of an aspartic peptidase. Our results revealed an aspartic peptidase with molecular mass ∼38kDa, maximal activity at pH 4.5 and 50°C, and stability above 80% in the pH range of 3-8 and temperature up to 55°C for 1h. In a milk-clotting assay, this peptidase showed maximal milk clotting activity at 60-65°C and maintenance of enzymatic activity above 80% in the presence of 20mM CaCl2. In a specificity assay, we observed stronger restriction of catalysis at the S1 subsite, with a preference for lysine, arginine, leucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine residues. The restricted proteolysis and milk-clotting potential are attractive properties for the use in cheese production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of some fungicides on catalase produced and purified from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakçıoğlu, Berna; Tarhan, Leman

    2014-10-01

    In this study, in vitro and in vivo effects of some commonly used fungicides, antibiotics, and various chemicals on isolated and purified catalase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated. The catalase was purified 129.10-fold by using 60% ammonium sulfate and 60% ethanol precipitations, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange and Sephacryl-S-200 gel filtration chromatographies from P. chrysosporium growth in carbon- and nitrogen-limited medium for 12 days. The molecular weight of native purified catalase from P. chrysosporium was found to be 290 ± 10 kDa, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE results indicated that enzyme consisted of four apparently identical subunits, with a molecular weight of 72.5 ± 2.5 kDa. Kinetic characterization studies showed that optimum pH and temperature, Km and Vmax values of the purified catalase which were stable in basic region and at comparatively high temperatures were 7.5, 30°C, 289.86 mM, and 250,000 U/mg, respectively. The activity of purified catalase from P. chrysosporium was significantly inhibited by dithiothreitol (DTT), 2-mercaptoethanol, iodoacetamide, EDTA, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). It was found that while antibiotics had no inhibitory effects, 45 ppm benomyl, 144 ppm captan, and 47.5 ppm chlorothalonil caused 14.52, 10.82, and 38.86% inhibition of purified catalase, respectively. The inhibition types of these three fungicides were found to be non-competitive inhibition with the Ki values of 1.158, 0.638, and 0.145 mM and IC50 values of 0.573, 0.158, 0.010 mM, respectively. The results of in vivo experiments also showed that benomyl, captan and chlorothalonil caused 15.25, 1.96, and 36.70% activity decreases after 24-h treatments compared to that of the control.

  13. Feeding and defaecation patterns in Triatoma sordida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LB Crocco

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma sordida is a peridomestic Triatominae that could play an important role in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, although its vectorial competence is not well known. The aim of this work was to evaluate two aspects of the vectorial competence: the feeding behaviour and defaecation patterns, and to compare them with T. infestans. The feeding and defaecation patterns were studied in adults and fifth instar nymphs of T. sordida fed ad libitum on a restrained pigeon. The results showed how the blood meal size controls excretion behaviour. Blood intake and time to first defaecation showed a significant negative correlation. Adults and nymphs frequently defaecated during the blood meal, reaching the maximum frequency within the first 10 minutes.

  14. Laccase production by Lepista sordida Produção de lacase por Lepista sordida

    OpenAIRE

    José Renato Pereira Cavallazzi; Maria Goreti de Almeida Oliveira; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2004-01-01

    A Lepista sordida laccase has been characterized. Laccase and manganese peroxidase were detected in liquid medium with ammonium phosphate, yeast extract and ammonium molybdidate as nitrogen sources after 3 days of cultivation. Laccase optimal temperature and pH were 45ºC and 3.5, respectively.Uma lacase de Lepista sordida foi caracterizada. O fungo produziu lacase e manganês peroxidase em meio líquido com fosfato de amônio, extrato de levedura e molibdato de amônio como fontes de nitrogênio 3...

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls fractioning assessment in aqueous bioremediation assy with phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to growing environmental concerns in public opinion, bioremediation processes are more and more used to decontaminate soils from organic compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be world wide spread persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade PCBs in water, and soil As POPs, PCBs can also be adsorbed onto organic matter, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium mycelium. This study aims at estimating the fractioni...

  16. Laccase production by Lepista sordida Produção de lacase por Lepista sordida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Pereira Cavallazzi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Lepista sordida laccase has been characterized. Laccase and manganese peroxidase were detected in liquid medium with ammonium phosphate, yeast extract and ammonium molybdidate as nitrogen sources after 3 days of cultivation. Laccase optimal temperature and pH were 45ºC and 3.5, respectively.Uma lacase de Lepista sordida foi caracterizada. O fungo produziu lacase e manganês peroxidase em meio líquido com fosfato de amônio, extrato de levedura e molibdato de amônio como fontes de nitrogênio 3 dias após a inoculação. Temperatura e pH ótimos para lacase foram 45ºC e 3,5, respectivamente.

  17. Heterologous expression of a lectin from Pleurocybella porrigens (PPL) in Phanerochaete sordida YK-624

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Omae, Saori; Takeshima, Yoshino; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Microbiological Methods. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Microbiological Methods, VOL100, May 2014. DOI...

  18. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  19. Morphometric variability among the species of the Sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): evidence for differentiation across the distribution range of Triatoma sordida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattero, Julieta; Piccinali, Romina Valeria; Macedo Lopes, Catarina; Hernández, María Laura; Abrahan, Luciana; Lobbia, Patricia Alejandra; Rodríguez, Claudia Susana; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura

    2017-09-06

    The Sordida subcomplex (Triatominae) comprises four species, Triatoma garciabesi, T. guasayana, T. patagonica and T. sordida, which differ in epidemiological importance and adaptations to human environments. Some morphological similarities among species make taxonomic identification, population differentiation and species delimitation controversial. Triatoma garciabesi and T. sordida are the most similar species, having been considered alternatively two and a single species until T. garciabesi was re-validated, mostly based on the morphology of male genitalia. More recently, T. sordida from Argentina has been proposed as a new cryptic species distinguishable from T. sordida from Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay by cytogenetics. We studied linear and geometric morphometry of the head, wings and pronotum in populations of these species aiming to find phenotypic markers for their discrimination, especially between T. sordida and T. garciabesi, and if any set of variables that validates T. sordida from Argentina as a new species. Head width and pronotum length were the linear variables that best differentiated species. Geometric morphometry revealed significant Mahalanobis distances in wing shape between all pairwise comparisons. Triatoma patagonica exhibited the best discrimination and T. garciabesi overlapped the distribution of the other species in the morphometric space of the first two DFA axes. Head shape showed differentiation between all pairs of species except for T. garciabesi and T. sordida. Pronotum shape did not differentiate T. garciabesi from T. guasayana. The comparison between T. garciabesi and T. sordida from Argentina and T. sordida from Brazil and Bolivia revealed low differentiation based on head and pronotum linear measurements. Pronotum and wing shape were different between T. garciabesi and T. sordida from Brazil and Bolivia and T. sordida from Argentina. Head shape did not differentiate T. garciabesi from T. sordida from Argentina. Wing shape best

  20. Enhanced production of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Raziye Ozturk Urek; Nurdan Kasikara Pazarlioglu

    2007-01-01

    Production of manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 (ATCC 24725) was monitored during growth in different media and growth conditions. The effect of some activators of MnP production, Mn2+, Tween 80, phenylmethylsulphonylfloride (PMSF), oxygen, temperature, pH, glycerol and nitrogen was studied. Supplementing the cultures with Tween 80 (0.05 %, v/v) and Mn2+ (174 µM) resulted a maximum MnP activity of 356 U/L which was approximatel...

  1. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyperproducers or supersectors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and [gamma]-ray mutagenesis, the authors have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0

  3. Biodegradation of Degradable Plastic Polyethylene by Phanerochaete and Streptomyces Species †

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The ability of lignin-degrading microorganisms to attack degradable plastics was investigated in pure shake flask culture studies. The degradable plastic used in this study was produced commercially by using the Archer-Daniels-Midland POLYCLEAN masterbatch and contained pro-oxidant and 6% starch. The known lignin-degrading bacteria Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii 75Vi2 and fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used. Pro-oxidant activity was accelerated by placin...

  4. Overproduction of lignin-degrading enzymes by an isolate of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Orth, A B; Denny, M.; Tien, M

    1991-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a white rot fungus which secretes a family of lignin-degrading enzymes under nutrient limitation. PSBL-1 is a mutant of this organism that generates the ligninolytic system under nonlimiting conditions during primary metabolism. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and glyoxal oxidase activities for PSBL-1 under nonlimiting conditions were 4- to 10-fold higher than those of the wild type (WT) under nitrogen-limiting conditions. PSBL-1 was still in the log ph...

  5. Systematics of Triatoma sordida, T. guasayana and T. patagonica (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Gorla

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the relative epidemiological significance of Triatoma sordida, T. guasayana and T. patagonica, and the need to resolve doubts about their taxonomic validity, we report here a detailed taxonomic comparison of the three species using multivariate analysis of morphometric measures combined with comparisons of their genitalia and antennal structures. From the 17 metric variables studied, the length of the second segment of the rostrum and the anteocular length provided a discrimination function able to separate without error T. sordida from T. guasayana and T. patagonica. The multivariate discriminant functions classified T. guasayana and T. patagonica with an error of 2.44%. Comparison of the male genitalia of T. guasayana and T. sordida showed that there are minor differences in the articulatory apparatus, the median process of the pygophore, the phallosome support and the vesica, with bigger differences in the endosomal process and the phallosome. However, the already described male genitalia of T. patagonica is very similar to that of T. sordida. Analysis of antennal structure by scanning electron microscope showed that sensilla distribution around the pedicel is slightly different in the three species and sensilla density is highest in T. sordida and lowest in T. patagonica. The study showed that the three species form a closely related group. The results confirm the earlier classification of sordida and guasayana as separate species, but they raise some doubts about the taxonomic status of T. patagonica.

  6. Enhanced production of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziye Ozturk Urek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 (ATCC 24725 was monitored during growth in different media and growth conditions. The effect of some activators of MnP production, Mn2+, Tween 80, phenylmethylsulphonylfloride (PMSF, oxygen, temperature, pH, glycerol and nitrogen was studied. Supplementing the cultures with Tween 80 (0.05 %, v/v and Mn2+ (174 µM resulted a maximum MnP activity of 356 U/L which was approximately two times higher than that obtained in the control culture (without Tween 80. Decolourisation of Direct Blue 15 and Direct Green 6 (50 mg/L was also achieved with MnP.

  7. EFFECTS OF CULTURE PARAMETERS ON DDT [1,1,1-TRICHLO- RO-2,2-BIS(4-CHLOROPHENYL) ETHANE] BIODEGRADATION BY PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lignin degrading system of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organopollutants to carbon dioxide. Current research is focused on ways to increase or optimize rates of biodegradation in order to a...

  8. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suzuki, H.; Macdonald, J.; Syed, K.; Salamov, A.; Hori, C.; Aerts, A.; Henrissat, B.; Wiebenga, A.; vanKuyk, P.A.; Barry, K.; Lindquist, E.; LaButti, K.; Lapidus, A.; Lucas, S.; Coutinho, P.; Gong, Y.; Samejima, M.; Mahadevan, R.; Abou-Zaid, M.; de Vries, R.P.; Igarashi, K.; Yadav, J.S.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Master, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known

  9. Interacción entre poblaciones de Triatoma infestans y Triatoma sordida Interação entre população de Triatoma infestans e Triatoma sordida Population interactions between Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esther Bar

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer si se producía algún tipo de interacción entre poblaciones de Triatoma infestans y Triatoma sordida que convivían en una unidad experimental y explotaban el mismo recurso alimentario (ave se las estudió desde setiembre/1988 a abril/1989. La composición etaria inicial para cada especie fue: 27 N1, 7 N2, 11 N3, 3 N4, 8 N5, 4 machos y 10 hembras. La dinámica de población, el estado nutricional, la predación y la conducta gregaria, utilizados como parámetros de comparación, fueron estimados mediante censos mensuales. Triatoma infestans logró mayor éxito colonizador que T. sordida dado los valores alcanzados en: fecundidad (146 huevos/hembra, longevidad (157,8 días y mortalidad (39,4%, en comparación a los obtenidos por T. sordida: 118 huevos/hembra, 81,1 días y 54,0% respectivamente. La población de T. infestans tuvo un crecimiento de tipo exponencial, con una alta tasa de renovación ninfal, en contraposición, la población de T. sordida se extinguió tempranamente. En general, el peso promedio de los ejemplares de T. infestans se mantuvo en valores próximos al inicial, mientras que en T. sordida se redujo. Los grupos gregarios se conformaron mayoritariamente en el sector inferior de la pared 1 (próximo al hospedador, observándose mayor nivel de contagio en T. infestans. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se formula la hipótesis de la superioridad competitiva en T. infestans.Para saber se algum tipo de interação se produzia entre populações de Triatoma infestans e T. sordida que conviviam em uma unidade experimental e compartilharam o mesmo recurso alimentar (ave, foi realizado estudo que abrangeu o período de setembro de 1988 a abril de 1989. A composição etária inicial para cada espécie foi: 27 N1, 7 N2, 11 N3, 3 N4, 8 N5, 4 machos e 10 fêmeas. A dinâmica da população, o estado nutricional, a predação e a conduta gregria foram estimados mediante censos mensais. T. infestans obteve maior êxito

  10. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  11. The genus Phanerochaete (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycotina) sensu lato in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinez; Karen K. Nakasone

    2005-01-01

    Eight species of Phanerochaete are reported from Uruguay for the first time, including a new species, P. vesiculosa. Phanerochaete vesiculosa is characterized by thin-walled, clavate to cylindrical vesicles embedded in the subiculum. A key to the known species of Phanerochaete from Uruguay is provided.

  12. New substrates and activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium Omega glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meux, Edgar; Morel, Mélanie; Lamant, Tiphaine; Gérardin, Philippe; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Gelhaye, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Omega glutathione transferases (GSTO) constitute a family of proteins with variable distribution throughout living organisms. It is notably expanded in several fungi and particularly in the wood-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, raising questions concerning the function(s) and potential redundancy of these enzymes. Within the fungal families, GSTOs have been poorly studied and their functions remain rather sketchy. In this study, we have used fluorescent compounds as activity reporters to identify putative ligands. Experiments using 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate as a tool combined with mass analyses showed that GSTOs are able to cleave ester bonds. Using this property, we developed a specific activity-based profiling method for identifying ligands of PcGSTO3 and PcGSTO4. The results suggest that GSTOs could be involved in the catabolism of toxic compounds like tetralone derivatives. Biochemical investigations demonstrated that these enzymes are able to catalyze deglutathionylation reactions thanks to the presence of a catalytic cysteine residue. To access the physiological function of these enzymes and notably during the wood interaction, recombinant proteins have been immobilized on CNBr Sepharose and challenged with beech wood extracts. Coupled with GC-MS experiments this ligand fishing method allowed to identify terpenes as potential substrates of Omega GST suggesting a physiological role during the wood-fungus interactions.

  13. Lignin degradation and lignin peroxidase production in cultures of phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on porous ceramic supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, K.L.; Tinland-Butez, M.F.; Tardone, P.J.; Cabasso, I.; Hammel, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been proposed as a biocatalyst for the degradation of aromatic pollutants in wastewaters. Application of the organism for this purpose will benefit from improved methods for immobilization in culture. In the investigation, P. chrysosporium was grown in rotary-shaken immobilized culture on 1.3-cm diameter porous alumina spheres. These cultures degraded a synthetic (14)C-labeled guaiacyllignin at the same rate that conventional nonimmobilized cultures did, and produced ligninolytic peroxidases at levels comparable to those previously reported for nonimmobilized agitated cultures. Immobilization of the fungus greatly facilitated periodic replacement of the extracellular medium, and the porous supports were reusable after removal of the spent mycelium.

  14. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Chedid Nogared Rossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%. Only six (0.6% out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities.

  15. Dispersive flight and house invasion by Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma sordida in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Wisnivesky Colli

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Flight activity and invasion of houses by Triatoma sordida and T. guasayana were studied in the Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Spontaneous findings of both species in houses were recorded from 1982 to 1989. Light trap collections were performed in 1982, 1983 and 1984, at the woods surrounding the settlements of Amamá (43 houses and Trinidad (19 houses. Most of the 101 triatomines collected, were unfed and negative for Trypanosoma cruzi. T. guasayana predominated over T. sordida, and both appeared on the lighted screens between 19-31 min (mean 24 after dusk and the catch time was 30-45 min. Although entomological evaluation of 41 houses at Amamá performed in September 1985, just before insecticidal spraying, showed that Triatoma infestans predominated, adults of T. guasayana were collected in sleeping places, in 7 houses (17%. Most triatomines invading houses from then up to 1990 were flying T. guasayana (20/27 and females outnumbered males. Three non infected T. guasayana females were fed on man and two T. guasayana males positive for "T. cruzi like" trypanosomes were unfed. Therefore, visiting hungry adults could transmit T. cruzi to people and introduce wild parasites to the domestic cycle. T. guasayana stands as the main potential substitute of T. infestans in the studied area, and it might play there the same role as T. sordida in Brazil.

  16. Nail Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems, a weakened immune system or, in children, Down syndrome A severe case of nail fungus can be ... possibly effective in treating nail fungus, but more study is needed. ... and file down thickened areas. Wear socks that absorb sweat. Fabrics ...

  17. High-yield production of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Guzmán-Ortiz, Doralinda A; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2014-11-01

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes extracellular oxidative enzymes during secondary metabolism, but lacks versatile peroxidase, an enzyme important in ligninolysis and diverse biotechnology processes. In this study, we report the genetic modification of a P. chrysosporium strain capable of co-expressing two endogenous genes constitutively, manganese peroxidase (mnp1) and lignin peroxidase (lipH8), and the codon-optimized vpl2 gene from Pleurotus eryngii. For this purpose, we employed a highly efficient transformation method based on the use of shock waves developed by our group. The expression of recombinant genes was verified by PCR, Southern blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and assays of enzymatic activity. The production yield of ligninolytic enzymes was up to four times higher in comparison to previously published reports. These results may represent significant progress toward the stable production of ligninolytic enzymes and the development of an effective fungal strain with promising biotechnological applications.

  18. Factors involved in the regulation of a ligninase activity in Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faison, B.D.; Kikr, T.K.

    1985-02-01

    The regulation of an H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-dependent ligninolytic activity was examined in the wood decay fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The ligninase appears in cultures upon limitation of nitrogen or carbohydrate and is suppressed by excess nutrients, by cycloheximide, or by culture agitation. Activity is increased by idiophasic exposure of cultures to 100% O/sub 2/. Elevated levels of ligninase and in some cases, of extracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production are detected after brief incubation of cultures with lignins or lignin substructure models, with the secondary metabolite veratryl alcohol, or with other related compounds. It is concluded that lignin degradation (lignin to CO/sub 2/) by this organism is regulated in part at the level of the ligninase, which is apparently inducible by its substrates or their degradation products. 29 references.

  19. Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Ramu, Kamma; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation during drum composting of agricultural waste was performed at different composting stages. Three trials were carried out with (5:4:1) combination of vegetable waste, cattle manure, and sawdust along with 10 kg of dried leaves with a total mass of 100 kg in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Trial 1 was a control without inoculation of fungus, while trial 2 was inoculated during the initial day (0th day of composting), and trial 3 was inoculated after the thermophilic phase, i.e., on the 8th day of composting period. The inoculation of fungus increased the volatile solids reduction by 1.45-fold in trial 2 and 1.7-fold in trial 3 as compared to trial 1 without any fungal inoculation. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was observed with 2.31, 2.62, and 2.59% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at the end of 20 days of composting period. Hence, it can be concluded that inoculation of white-rot fungus increased the decomposition rate of agricultural waste within shorter time in drum composting. However, inoculation after the thermophilic phase was found more effective than inoculation during initial days of composting for producing more stabilized and nutrient-rich compost.

  20. A combined biological removal of Cd(2+) from aqueous solutions using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meihua; Zhang, Chaosheng; Zeng, Guangming; Cheng, Min; Liu, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The removal of Cd(2+) from aqueous solutions by agricultural residues rice straw combined with white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) was investigated. The results showed that over 99% of the total Cd(2+) (initial concentration of 150mgL(-1)) was removed at the optimal operating conditions (pH 5.0 at 35°C). We also found that P. chrysosporium could survive under Cd(2+) stress even with an initial Cd(2+) concentration of 250mgL(-1). But when Cd(2+) concentration increased to 250mgL(-1), fungus growth and reproduction were remarkably restrained, and as a result, Cd(2+) removal dropped to 59.2%. It was observed that the fungus biomass and activities of ligninolytic enzymes decreased at some degree under high concentration of Cd(2+) (above 100mgL(-1)). Also, we found that a moderate Cd(2+) stress (below 150mgL(-1)) could stimulate P. chrysosporium's production of the heavy metals chelator - oxalate. This study will provide useful information for the application of biological removal of heavy metal irons from wastewater.

  1. Comparative Meiotic Studies in Triatoma sordida (Stål and T. guasayana Wygodzinsky & Abalos (Reduviidae, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rebagliati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma sordida and T. guasayana are competent Trypanosoma cruzi vectors, with overlapping distribution areas in Argentina. Both species are morphologically similar, and their immature stages are hard to discriminate. Cytogenetic studies in the genus Triatoma reveal scarce karyotypic variations, being 2n= 20 + XY the most frequent diploid number in males. In the present work the meiotic behaviour of different Argentinian populations of T. sordida and T. guasayana has been analyzed; the meiotic karyotype of both species has also been compared. The species differ in total chromosome area and in the relative area of the sex chromosomes. These meiotic karyotypic differences constitute an additional tool for the taxonomic characterization of T. sordida and T. guasayana. The analysis of an interpopulation hybrid of T. sordida (Brazil x Argentina reveals a regular meiotic behaviour, despite the presence of heteromorphic bivalents. Our observations support the hypothesis that karyotype variations through the gain or loss of heterochromatin can not be considered as a primary mechanism of reproductive isolation in Triatoma.

  2. Impact of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on the Functional Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Decaying Wood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Hervé

    Full Text Available Bacteria and fungi naturally coexist in various environments including forest ecosystems. While the role of saprotrophic basidiomycetes in wood decomposition is well established, the influence of these fungi on the functional diversity of the wood-associated bacterial communities has received much less attention. Based on a microcosm experiment, we tested the hypothesis that both the presence of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood, as a growth substrate, impacted the functional diversity of these bacterial communities. Microcosms containing sterile sawdust were inoculated with a microbial inoculum extracted from a forest soil, in presence or in absence of P. chrysosporium and subsequently, three enrichment steps were performed. First, bacterial strains were isolated from different microcosms previously analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Strains isolated from P. chrysosporium mycosphere showed less antagonism against this fungus compared to the strains isolated from the initial forest soil inoculum, suggesting a selection by the fungus of less inhibitory bacterial communities. Moreover, the presence of the fungus in wood resulted in a selection of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains, highlighting the role of mycospheric bacteria in wood decomposition. Additionally, the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria increased along the enrichment steps, suggesting an important role of bacteria in iron mobilization in decaying-wood. Finally, taxonomic identification of 311 bacterial isolates revealed, at the family level, strong similarities with the high-throughput sequencing data as well as with other studies in terms of taxonomic composition of the wood-associated bacterial community, highlighting that the isolated strains are representative of the wood-associated bacterial communities.

  3. Impact of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on the Functional Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Decaying Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Vincent; Ketter, Elodie; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Gelhaye, Eric; Frey-Klett, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi naturally coexist in various environments including forest ecosystems. While the role of saprotrophic basidiomycetes in wood decomposition is well established, the influence of these fungi on the functional diversity of the wood-associated bacterial communities has received much less attention. Based on a microcosm experiment, we tested the hypothesis that both the presence of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood, as a growth substrate, impacted the functional diversity of these bacterial communities. Microcosms containing sterile sawdust were inoculated with a microbial inoculum extracted from a forest soil, in presence or in absence of P. chrysosporium and subsequently, three enrichment steps were performed. First, bacterial strains were isolated from different microcosms previously analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Strains isolated from P. chrysosporium mycosphere showed less antagonism against this fungus compared to the strains isolated from the initial forest soil inoculum, suggesting a selection by the fungus of less inhibitory bacterial communities. Moreover, the presence of the fungus in wood resulted in a selection of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains, highlighting the role of mycospheric bacteria in wood decomposition. Additionally, the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria increased along the enrichment steps, suggesting an important role of bacteria in iron mobilization in decaying-wood. Finally, taxonomic identification of 311 bacterial isolates revealed, at the family level, strong similarities with the high-throughput sequencing data as well as with other studies in terms of taxonomic composition of the wood-associated bacterial community, highlighting that the isolated strains are representative of the wood-associated bacterial communities.

  4. Continuous treatment of coloured industry wastewater using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kheria, Sumeet

    2012-06-30

    Coloured industry wastewaters often contain dyes and other toxic ingredients, and, therefore, pose serious threat to the receiving environment. Among the available methods the eco-friendly biological method has gained maximum attention due to its many advantages over the traditional methods. In the present study, continuous biological treatment of coloured wastewater from a textile dyeing industry was investigated using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor. The raw wastewater was diluted with an equal volume of either distilled water or media containing glucose at varying concentrations to study its effect on the decolourization process. Results revealed that the wastewater could be decolourized to an extent of more than 64% when diluted with media containing glucose; and, a maximum decolourization efficiency of 83% was obtained with 10 g/l glucose concentration. COD removal efficiencies were also found to be consistent with the decolourization efficiencies of the wastewaters. Further, the results were correlated with the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) by the fungus, which were found to play some significant role in decolourization of the wastewater. Results of replacing the costly carbon source glucose in the decolourization media with the more cheap molasses, however, revealed very high COD removal efficiency, but low decolourization efficiency of the industry wastewater.

  5. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. (Forstbotanisches Inst. der Univ. Gottingen (Germany)); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J (Univ. of Detroit Mercy, MI (United States))

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

  6. Use of steam explosion liquor from sugar cane bagasse for lignin peroxidase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; Bon, Elba P S; Araujo Neto, Julio Silva

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using two by-products of the sugar cane industry, molasses and bagasse steam explosion liquor (SEL), for lignin peroxidase (LiP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. For comparison, the fungus was initially cultivated in synthetic media containing either glucose, sucrose, xylose, or xylan as sole carbon sources. The effect of veratryl alcohol (VA) was also investigated in relation to the enzyme activity levels. Results showed that sucrose was not metabolized by this fungus, which precluded the use of molasses as a carbon source. Glucose, xylose, and xylan promoted equivalent cell growth. Enzyme levels in the absence of VA were lower than 28 UI/L and in the presence of VA reached 109 IU/L with glucose and 85 IU/L with xylose or xylan. SEL was adequate for P. chrysosporium LiP production as LiP activity reached 90 IU/L. When VA was added to this medium, enzyme concentration increased to 155 IU/L.

  7. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phaneroehatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated anduntreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  8. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Menghua Qin; Xuemei Lu; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phanerochatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated and untreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  9. Presencia de Triatoma sordida Stäl, 1859 en ecotopos urbanos de la ciudad de Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Bar

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de verificar la presencia de T. sordida Stäl 1859, en ecotopos urbanos de la ciudad de Corrientes, Argentina se tomaron como base un habitat extradomiciliario y la vivienda humana. En el palomar situado en el Parque Mitre fue realizado un censo completo de población de T. sordida para lo cual fueron disecados 400 nidos de paloma (Columbia livia. Los ejemplares de triatominos detectados en las viviendas fueron enviados por los pobladores al Laboratorio de Artrópodos. Los triatominos fueron determinados sistemáticamente y por clase de edad. La materia fecal de los mismos fue examinada al microscopio para la identificación del Trypanosoma cruzi. En el palomar se colectaron: 6 huevos, 45 ninfas de primer estadío, 110 ninfas de segundo estadío, 226 ninfas de tercer estadío, 303 ninfas de cuarto estadío, 1.103 ninfas de quinto estadío, 12 hembras y 11 machos. Se constató la presencia de esta especie en 27 viviendas localizadas en 8 barrios de la Ciudad. Se capturaron 13 huevos, 33 ninfas de diferentes estadíos, 27 hembras y 9 machos, totalizando 82 individuos. Ningún triatomino resultó infectado por T. cruzi. Los adultos de T. sordida se desplazaron hacia el domicilio en primavera y verano. Es de destacar que el 33% del material hallado en las viviendas correspondió a hembras. Se ha comprobado la adaptación de T. sordida a un habitat extradomiciliario y su tendencia a invadir la vivienda humana, hecho que se debería ser tenido en cuenta en los programas de control de vectores.

  10. Dinâmica da alimentação e dejeção do Triatoma sordida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liléia Diotaiuti

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, o Triatoma sordida é a espécie de triatomíneo mais capturada no Brasil. Para maior esclarecimento do seu potencial vetorial foi estudada a sua dinâmica de alimentação e dejeções, em comparação com o Triatoma infestans ou outras espécies de reconhecida importância na transmissão do Trypanosoma cruzi. O número de T. sordida e T. infestans alimentados em ratos anestesiados não foi significativamente diferente, nem a média de tempo gasta entre a liberação dos triatomíneos e o início do repasto sanguíneo. A média de tempo para eliminação da primeira dejeção foi significativamente menor em T. infestans que em T. sordida ; no entanto, o número de insetos que defecou durante ou imediatamente após o repasto foi semelhante nas duas espécies. Observações diárias ao longo de um mês indicam que o T. sordida realiza um maior número de picadas por dia do que o T. infestans ou o P. megistus. Estes dados sugerem alguma dificuldade desta espécie em concluir o seu repasto, fato provavelmente importante no seu processo de adaptação ao hospedeiro.

  11. Lignin-degrading enzyme from the hymenomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, M.; Kirk, T.K.

    1983-08-12

    The extracellular fluid of ligninolytic cultures of the wood-decomposing basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds contains an enzyme that degrades lignin substructure model compounds as well as spruce and birch lignins. It has a molecular size of 42,000 daltons and requires hydrogen peroxide for activity. (Refs. 24).

  12. Fungus Amongus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  13. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Transformation of low rank coal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P.; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1997-11-01

    There is evidence that the organic fraction of low rank coal (LRC) is chemically transformed by wood-rot fungi. These fungi and the oxidases they secrete have variously been shown to solubilise, polymerise, depolymerise and decolourise macromolecules derived from LRC. The white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is able to depolymerise and decolourise alkali-soluble acid-precipitable LRC macromolecules (AS-coal), converting them to a form not recoverable by alkali washing. Transformation of AS-coal is enhanced in N-limiting media under hyperbaric oxygen and is believed to be due, at least in part, to oxidation by manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP). The precise role these enzymes play is not yet clear but enzyme and mutant studies show AS-coal can be both polymerised and depolymerised by MnP and its mimetic Mn(III), without change to its absorbance at 400 nm. LiP decolourises AS-coal without apparently altering its molecular mass. Culture filtrates containing MnP and LiP acting on methylated AS-coal yield an array of low molecular mass moieties. Coal-derived monometers have not been recovered from cultures of P. chrysosporium, consistent with them being taken-up by the fungal cells. This suggests that cellular transformations may permit the diverse catabolic products derived from LRC to be converted to specific low molecular mass compounds in usable yield. 43 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Lignocellulose degradation during solid-state fermentation: Pleurotus ostreatus versus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerem, Z.; Friesem, D.; Hadar, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Rehovot (Israel))

    1992-04-01

    Lignocellulose degradation and activities related to lignin degradation were studied in the solid-state fermentation of cotton stalks by comparison two white rot fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium grew vigorously, resulting in rapid, nonselective degradation of 55% of the organic components of the cotton stalks within 15 days. In contrast, P. ostreatus grew more slowly with obvious selectivity for lignin degradation and resulting in the degradation of only 20% of the organic matter after 30 days of incubation. The kinetics of {sup 14}C-lignin mineralization exhibited similar differences. In cultures of P. chrysosporium, mineralization ceased after 18 days, resulting in the release of 12% of the total radioactivity as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. In P. ostreatus, on the other hand, 17% of the total radioactivity was released in a steady rate throughout a period of 60 days of incubation. Laccase activity was only detected in water extracts of the P. ostreatus fermentation. No lignin peroxidase activity was detected in either the water extract or liquid cultures of this fungus. 2-Keto-4-thiomethyl butyric acid cleavage to ethylene correlated to lignin degradation in both fungi. A study of fungal activity under solid-state conditions, in contrast to those done under defined liquid culture, may help to better understand the mechanism involved in lignocellulose degradation.

  16. Activity of a peptidase secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium depends on lysine to subsite S'1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Rosa, Jose C; Cabral, Hamilton

    2017-01-01

    Peptidases are enzymes that catalyze the rupture of peptide bonds. Catalytic specificity studies of these enzymes have illuminated their modes of action and preferred hydrolysis targets. We describe the biochemical characteristics and catalytic specificity of a lysine-dependent peptidase secreted by the basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We attained 5.7-fold purification of a ∼23-kDa neutral peptidase using size-exclusion (Sephadex G-50 resin) and ion-exchange (Source 15S resin) chromatography. Using the Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer substrate Abz-KLRSSKQ-EDDnp, we detected maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 45-55°C. The peptidase retained ∼80% of its enzymatic activity for a wide range of conditions (pH 4-9; temperatures up to 50°C for 1h). The peptidase activity was lowered by the ionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; the reducing agent, dithiothreitol; the chaotrope, guanidine; copper (II) ion; and the cysteine peptidase-specific inhibitors, iodoacetic acid and N-ethylmaleimide. The peptidase preferred the basic amino acids K and R and high selectivity on S'1 subsite, exhibiting a condition of lysine-dependence to catalysis on anchoring of this subsite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of agitation on ligninase activity and ligninase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatadri, R.; Irvine, R.L. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces extracellular ligninases as part of its idiophasic ligninolytic system. Agitation has been widely reported to suppress both ligninase production and lignin degradation. Results show that mechanical inactivation of ligninase is possibly the reason why ligninase accumulation is low or absent in agitated shake-flask cultures. Agitation seems to affect the catalytic activity of ligninase and has no apparent effect on either the rate of ligninase production or the physiology of P. chrysosporium. The detergents Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, Tween 80, and 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesuflonate (CHAPS) are able to protect both purified ligninase and extant ligninase in culture fluids (free of biomass) against mechanical inactivation due to agitation. Addition of Tween 80 at the end of primary growth to agitated shake flasks containing either pelleted or immobilized mycelial cultures results in production and maintenance of high levels of ligninase activity over several days under conditions of high agitation. Possible mechanisms by which the detergents could protect ligninase are discussed.

  18. Overproduction of lignin-degrading enzymes by an isolate of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, A.B.; Denny, M.; Ming Tien (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a white rot fungus which secretes a family of lignin-degrading enzymes under nutrient limitation. PSBL-1 is a mutant of this organism that generates the ligninolytic system under nonlimiting conditions during primary metabolism. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and glyoxal oxidase activities for PSBL-1 under nonlimiting conditions were 4- to 10-fold higher than those of the wild type (WT) under nitrogen-limiting conditions. PSBL-1 was still in the log phase of growth while secreting the enzymes, whereas the WT had ceased to grow by this time. As in the WT, manganese(II) increased manganese peroxidase activity in the mutant. However, manganese also caused in increase in lignin peroxidase and glyoxal oxidase activities in PSBL-1. Addition of veratryl alcohol to the culture medium stimulated lignin peroxidase activity, inhibited glyoxal oxidase activity, and had little effect on manganese peroxidase activity in PSBL-1, as in the WT. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) analysis shows production of larger amounts of isozyme H2 in PSBL-1 than in the WT. These properties make PSBL-1 very useful for isolation of large amounts of all ligninolytic enzymes for biochemical study, and they open the possibility of scale-up production for practical use.

  19. Degradation of Diuron by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Role of Ligninolytic Enzymes and Cytochrome P450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline da Silva Coelho-Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated for its capacity to degrade the herbicide diuron in liquid stationary cultures. The presence of diuron increased the production of lignin peroxidase in relation to control cultures but only barely affected the production of manganese peroxidase. The herbicide at the concentration of 7 μg/mL did not cause any reduction in the biomass production and it was almost completely removed after 10 days. Concomitantly with the removal of diuron, two metabolites, DCPMU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-3-methylurea] and DCPU [(3,4-dichlorophenylurea], were detected in the culture medium at the concentrations of 0.74 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. Crude extracellular ligninolytic enzymes were not efficient in the in vitro degradation of diuron. In addition, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, significantly inhibited both diuron degradation and metabolites production. Significant reduction in the toxicity evaluated by the Lactuca sativa L. bioassay was observed in the cultures after 10 days of cultivation. In conclusion, P. chrysosporium can efficiently metabolize diuron without the accumulation of toxic products.

  20. To enhance the reproduction of Phanerochaete chrysosporium by adding natural lixiviums in liquid medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gang; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2003-01-01

    Great promotion to the reproduction of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn by adding natural lixiviums such as from wood,maize core and potato in liquid medium was found in this research. Incubated in the liquid medium contained 10 mg/L glucose as carbon source with natural lixiviums for three days, the production of mycelium pellet reaches more than 80 g/L, which is 5 times more than that of without natural lixiviums. Incubated in the liquid medium contained 5 mg/L glucose as carbon source with natural lixiviums for three days, the production of mycelium pellet can reach 69.5 g/L, while the production in the medium without natural lixiviums is very low. When the liquid medium contained 1-20 g/L glucose as carbon source, the production of mycelium pellet in 3 d can only reach 12.5 g/L to 14.5 g/L. The fungus in the medium with potato lixiviums are easily contaminated by other microorganisms and in the medium with maize core lixiviums are easily bulking, while in the medium with wood lixiviums are neither easily contaminated nor bulking. Medium with wood lixiviums can produce more pellet than other medium, endure contamination and keep better sedimentation capacity. So that, wood lixivium is better additive to the culture of white rot fungi in liquid medium. Addition of the mixture of wood, maize core and potato lixiviums is of advantage to the production of mycelium pellet. The difference of the production in the medium with different amount of wood lixiviums showed little in the first 3 d, while it expanded after 3 d. Wood lixiviums stimulate the growth of P. chrysosporium instead of supply organics which fungi need.

  1. Manganese regulates expression of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J A; Glenn, J K; Gold, M H

    1990-01-01

    The appearance of manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity in nitrogen-limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is dependent on the presence of manganese. Cultures grown in the absence of Mn developed normally and produced normal levels of the secondary metabolite veratryl alcohol but produced no MnP activity. Immunoblot analysis indicated that appearance of MnP protein in the extracellular medium was also dependent on the presence of Mn. Intracellular MnP protein was detectable only in cel...

  2. Contribución al conocimiento de Salvia sordida. Benth. Historia natural y conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia sordida es una especie de labiada endémica de Colombia, que está constituida por arbustos que pueden llegar hasta los 4 m de altura, con indumentos densos en el envés de las hojas, en los ejes de la inflorescencia y en los cálices, con corolas moradas de 15 mm en promedio; presenta una variabilidad morfológica que se manifiesta en su hábito, en la forma, coloración e indumento de sus hojas y en la densidad de su inflorescencia, producida posiblemente como adaptación a diferentes condiciones de luz. Existen tres poblaciones de esta especie que indican que S. sordida se distribuye en el altiplano cundiboyacense en un rango altitudinal entre los 2.600 y los 2.800 msnm. De acuerdo con observaciones hechas en la población tipo, ubicada en la vereda Torca en jurisdicción de Bogotá, el hábitat de la salvia se caracteriza por presentar
    un clima con una temperatura promedio de 13º C, una humedad relativa media de 74% y una precipitación de 1.200 mm anuales; en áreas de piedemonte, con suelos originados de cenizas volcánicas poco evolucionados, con textura franco-arenosa en la superficie, muy fuertemente ácidos y con una baja fertilidad; el hábitat de S. sordida hace parte del bosque de Cordia-Oreopanax, se caracteriza por un estrato arbustivo predominante y un estrato herbáceo bien representado, compuesto por 101 especies tanto del bosque climácico como de ambientes alterados o cultivadas, lo que indicaría que la comunidad de S. sordida hace parte de las etapas de sucesión secundaria del bosque; por lo tanto el hábitat se caracteriza por ser inestable y está delimitado por las condiciones de alteración de la vegetación y la variación de los factores de humedad y luz en un rango altitudinal estrecho. Salvia sordida presenta una floración y fructificación constantes y en ella se han reconocido 14 visitantes florales tanto en campo como en cultivo, que incluyen especies de Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera y Aves. De

  3. Susceptibility of Triatoma sordida Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to alpha-cypermethrin under natural climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Caldas DÁvila Pessoa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:INTRODUCTION:Despite the recommendations by interpretation of resistance ratios obtained in laboratory bioassays, little is known about the actual impact of these results in the effectiveness of vector control activities in the field. In this context, our objective was to determine the mean value of different resistance ratios obtained by laboratory bioassays performed as part of the chemical control strategies of Triatoma sordida in the field.METHODS:Field bioassays were developed in Monte Azul and Coração de Jesus (Southeast, Brazil. In each location, samples were formed with three domestic units treated with alpha-cypermethrin 20.0% (Alfatek (r 200 SC. One day after spraying, 10 fifth-instar nymphs remained in contact with the surfaces treated (adobe with plaster, adobe without plaster, or wood with insecticide in plastic cones for 72h. Three cones were exposed inside the intradomicile and the peridomicile. The insects in the control group were exposed to an insecticide-free piece of cardboard. Mortality was measured 72h after removal of the insects from the treated surfaces. The tests were realized in triplicate.RESULTS:Mortality was 100.0% in all locations, except for Monte Azul; Landinho (96.6% and Coração de Jesus; Barriguda (96.6%.CONCLUSIONS:Although the resistant populations in laboratory tests proved to be susceptible in the field, this observation is not sufficient to suggest that the cut-off points used to justify the resistance ratio should be changed. In this sense, we recommend that laboratory and field bioassays are carried out with a greater number of Triatominae populations to allow more in-depth consideration of the subject.

  4. Removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and other selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater using a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Batisson, Isabelle; Fick, Jerker; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Grabic, Roman

    2010-09-01

    The capacity of the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of environmentally persistent xenobiotics has been largely reported in the literature. Beside other factors, one barrier to a wider use of this bioremediation fungus is the availability of effective formulations that ensure easy preparation, handling and application. In this series of laboratory experiments, we evaluated the efficiency of a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of P. chrysosporium for removal of four selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater samples. Addition of inoculated granules to samples of the wastewater treatment plant of Bologna significantly increased the removal of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu), and the antibiotics, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazol, and ciprofloxacin. Similar effects were also observed in effluent water. Oseltamivir was the most persistent of the four active substances. After 30d of incubation, approximately two times more oseltamivir was removed in bioremediated wastewater than controls. The highest removal efficiency of the bioplastic formulation was observed with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Microbiological DNA-based analysis showed that the bioplastic matrix supported the growth of P. chrysosporium, thus facilitating its adaptation to unusual environment such as wastewater.

  5. Ligninolytic System Formation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in Air

    OpenAIRE

    Rothschild, N.; Hadar, Y.; Dosoretz, C

    1995-01-01

    This study characterizes the effect of oxygen concentration on the synthesis of ligninolytic enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam cubes in a nonimmersed liquid culture system and maintained under different carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratios and levels. Lignin peroxidase (LIP) activity was obtained in cultures exposed to air when the C/N ratio was low (7.47), i.e., when nitrogen levels were high (C/N = 56/45 mM) or carbon levels were low (C/N = 5.6/4.5 mM). At t...

  6. Post-Control Surveillance of Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida with Chemically-Baited Sticky Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Nidia; López, Elsa; González, Nilsa; Zerba, Eduardo; Tarelli, Guillermo; Masuh, Héctor

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease prevention critically depends on keeping houses free of triatomine vectors. Insecticide spraying is very effective, but re-infestation of treated dwellings is commonplace. Early detection-elimination of re-infestation foci is key to long-term control; however, all available vector-detection methods have low sensitivity. Chemically-baited traps are widely used in vector and pest control-surveillance systems; here, we test this approach for Triatoma spp. detection under field conditions in the Gran Chaco. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a repeated-sampling approach and logistic models that explicitly take detection failures into account, we simultaneously estimate vector occurrence and detection probabilities. We then model detection probabilities (conditioned on vector occurrence) as a function of trapping system to measure the effect of chemical baits. We find a positive effect of baits after three (odds ratio [OR] 5.10; 95% confidence interval [CI95] 2.59–10.04) and six months (OR 2.20, CI95 1.04–4.65). Detection probabilities are estimated at p≈0.40–0.50 for baited and at just p≈0.15 for control traps. Bait effect is very strong on T. infestans (three-month assessment: OR 12.30, CI95 4.44–34.10; p≈0.64), whereas T. sordida is captured with similar frequency in baited and unbaited traps. Conclusions/Significance Chemically-baited traps hold promise for T. infestans surveillance; the sensitivity of the system at detecting small re-infestation foci rises from 12.5% to 63.6% when traps are baited with semiochemicals. Accounting for imperfect detection, infestation is estimated at 26% (CI95 16–40) after three and 20% (CI95 11–34) after six months. In the same assessments, traps detected infestation in 14% and 8.5% of dwellings, whereas timed manual searches (the standard approach) did so in just 1.4% of dwellings only in the first survey. Since infestation rates are the main indicator used for decision-making in control

  7. ADSORPTION OF CONGO RED DYE ON HAZELNUT SHELLS AND DEGRADATION WITH Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo A. Carletto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work concerns the experimental evaluation of hazelnut shells as a low cost natural biosorbent. Adsorption of the direct azo dye Congo Red was performed within a concentrations range of 50-5000 mg/L. Hazelnut shells were employed as organic support for Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures to study the best cultural medium composition for the MnP production. The capability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to take macronutrients as carbon and nitrogen from hazelnut shells was demonstrated. Cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were carried out with hazelnut shells coming from Congo Red adsorption tests, showing that 43% of the adsorbed dye was degraded.

  8. Biotransformation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: oxidation of alkyl side-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J S; Lawrence, D L; Nuck, B A; Federle, T W; Reddy, C A

    2001-01-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which generally mineralizes substituted aromatics to CO2, transformed linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) surfactants mainly at their alkyl side chain. Degradation of LAS was evidenced by a zone of clearing on LAS-containing agar plates and colorimetric analysis of liquid cultures. Disappearance of LAS was virtually complete within 10 days in low nitrogen (2.4 mM N), high nitrogen (24 mM N) and malt extract (ME) liquid media. After 5 days of incubation in ME medium, transformation of LAS was complete at concentrations < or = 4 mg l(-1), but decreased at higher concentrations. The LAS degradation was not dependent on lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs). Mineralization of 14C-ring-LAS to 14CO2 by P. chrysosporium was < 1% regardless of the culture conditions used. Thin layer chromatography and mass spectral analyses indicated that P. chrysosporium transformed LAS to sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPCs) through oxidative shortening of the alkyl side-chains. While LAS disappearance in the cultures was not dependent on LiPs and MnPs, transformation of the parent LAS moieties to SPCs was more extensive in low N medium that favors expression of these enzymes. The SPCs produced in LN cultures were shorter in chain- length than those produced in ME cultures. Also there was a notable shift in the relative abundance of odd and even chain length metabolites compared to the starting LAS particularly in the low N cultures suggesting the possible involvement of processes other than or in addition to beta-oxidation in the chain-shortening process.

  9. Relationship between lignin degradation and production of reduced oxygen species by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faison, B.D.; Kirk, T.K.

    1983-11-01

    The relationship between the production of reduced oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), superoxide (O/sub 2//sup -/), and hydroxyl radical (.OH), and the oxidation of synthetic lignin to CO/sub 2/ was studied in whole cultures of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. The kinetics of the synthesis of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ coincided with the appearance of the ligninolytic system; also, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production was markedly enhanced by growth under 100% O/sub 2/, mimicing the increase in ligninolytic activity characteristic of cultures grown under elevated oxygen tension. Lignin degradation by whole cultures was inhibited by a specific H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ scavenger, catalase, implying a role for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in the degradative process. Superoxide dismutase also inhibited lignin degradation, suggesting that O/sub 2//sup -/ is also involved in the breakdown of lignin. The production of .OH was assayed in whole cultures by a benzoate decarboxylation assay. Neither the kinetics of .OH synthesis nor the final activity of its producing system obtained under 100% O/sub 2/ correlated with that of the lignin-degrading system. However, lignin degradation was inhibited by compounds which react with .OH. It is concluded that H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, and perhaps O/sub 2//sup -/, are involved in lignin degradation; because these species are relatively unreactive per se, their role must be indirect. Conclusions about a role for .OH in ligninolysis could not be reached. (Refs. 28).

  10. The ecology of Triatoma sordida in natural environments in two different regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Ecologia do Triatoma sordida no ambiente silvestre de duas diferentes regiões do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Diotaiuti

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken about T. sordida in the natural environment in two different regions of the state of Minas Gerais: Itapagipe (Triângulo, an area of cerrado modified by the formation of fields of pasture and agriculture, and Mato Verde (north an area of transition between caatinga and cerrado with profound deforestation in the last years due to the expansion of cotton cultivation. In both regions the principal ecotopes identified were hollow trees and the bark of live or dead trees, where the occurrence of a food source is not frequent. In this environment, the triatomines utilize various food sources; opposums appear to represent an important source of infection. In the north of Minas, a greater concentration of reservoirs and vectors was observed than in the Triángulo which could explain the higher level of infection of the triatomines in the north. Close attention to the process of domiciliation of T. sordida in the north of Minas is recommended where an extensive intervention by man in the natural environment has occurred and where a rise in the population of triatomines in the peridomestic environment has been observed in recent years.Foi realizado um estudo sobre o T. sordida em ambiente silvestre em duas diferentes regiões do estado de Minas Gerais: Itapagipe (Triângulo, área de cerrado modificado para formação de campos de pastagem e agricultura, e Mato Verde (norte uma área de transição entre a caatinga e o cerrado, profundamente desmatada nos últimos anos com a finalidade de expansão do cultivo de algodão. Em ambas as regiões, os principais ecotopos identificados corresponderam a buracos e cascas de árvores vivas ou mortas, onde a ocorrência de fontes de alimentação não é frequente. Neste ambiente, os triatomíneos utilizam-se de variadas fontes de alimentação; gambás parecem representar urna importante fonte de infecção. No norte de Minas, observou-se urna maior concentração de reservatórios e vetores

  11. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  12. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effect of nitrogen concentration in culture mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2005-01-01

    Effect of different nitrogen concentration in the mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied when glucose concentration was 10 g/L. The results showed that the medium contained 0.8 g/L ammonium tartrate is the best. It not only supply abundant nutrients for the growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which make mycelia the best grow compared with the other medium, but also produce higher manganese-dependent peroxidase(Mnp) and laccase(Lac) activity. In addition, it is observed that the variation of mycelia surface is related to ligninolytic enzyme secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When the surface of mycelium pellets appeared burs, it predicts secondary metabolism begin. This experimentation demonstrated that when the ratio of carbon and nitrogen in nitrogen limited medium is equal to 100:8, growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is the best, it could achieve the maximum Mnp and Lac activity.

  14. Effect of nitrogen concentration in culture mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-wen; Wen, Xiang-hua; Qian, Yi

    2005-01-01

    Effect of different nitrogen concentration in the mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied when glucose concentration was 10 g/L. The results showed that the medium contained 0.8 g/L ammonium tartrate is the best. It not only supply abundant nutrients for the growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which make mycelia the best grow compared with the other medium, but also produce higher manganese-dependent peroxidase (Mnp) and laccase (Lac) activity. In addition, it is observed that the variation of mycelia surface is related to ligninolytic enzyme secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When the surface of mycelium pellets appeared burs, it predicts secondary metabolism begin. This experimentation demonstrated that when the ratio of carbon and nitrogen in nitrogen limited medium is equal to 100:8, growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is the best, it could achieve the maximum Mnp and Lac activity.

  15. Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Fueyo, E.; Ruiz-Duenas, F.J.; Ferreira, P.; Floudas, D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Canessa, P.; Larrondo, L.F.; James, T.Y.; Seelenfreund, D.; Lobos, S.; Polanco, R.; Tello, M.; Honda, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Ryu, J.S.; Kubicek, C.P.; Schmoll, M.; Gaskell, J.; Hammel, K.E.; St John, F.J.; Vanden Wymelenberg, A.; Sabat, G.; Splinter BonDurant, S.; Syed, K.; Yadav, J.S.; Doddapaneni, H.; Subramanian, V.; Lavin, J.L.; Oguiza, J.A.; Perez, G.; Pisabarro, A.G.; Ramirez, L.; Santoyo, F.; Master, E.; Coutinho, P.M.; Henrissat, B.; Lombard, V.; Magnuson, J.K.; Kues, U.; Hori, C.; Igarashi, K.; Samejima, M.; Held, B.W.; Barry, K.W.; LaButti, K.M.; Lapidus, A.; Lindquist, E.A.; Lucas, S.M.; Riley, R.; Salamov, A.A.; Hoffmeister, D.; Schwenk, D.; Hadar, Y.; Yarden, O.; de Vries, R.P.; Wiebenga, A.; Stenlid, J.; Eastwood, D.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Berka, R.M.; Blanchette, R.A.; Kersten, P.; Martinez, A.T.; Vicuna, R.; Cullen, D.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do

  16. Estadísticos poblacionales de Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera : Reduviidae en condiciones experimentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscherov Elena B.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el seguimiento longitudinal de cuatro cohortes de 100 huevos cada una. Los insectos fueron criados a 28°C ± 3°C y 63 % ± 10% de humedad relativa, y alimentados cada siete días sobre gallina (Gallus domesticus, durante 40 min. Las cohortes fueron controladas una vez por semana. Se observó un valor constante de supervivencia en las cuatro cohortes, sin picos importantes. La expectativa de vida de los machos, en promedio, fue de 37,4 semanas y la de las hembras 36,8. El tiempo generacional demandó 61,7 semanas. La tasa reproductiva neta indica que esta población se incrementará 143,3 veces con cada generación. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural fue de 0,082 por semana. El máximo valor reproductivo se verificó, en promedio, a la tercer semana del ingreso al estado adulto. La distribución estable de edades de T. sordida sería de 32% huevos, 26% ninfas de primer estadio, 19% ninfas de segundo estadio, 13% ninfas de tercer estadio, 6% ninfas de cuarto estadio, 3% ninfas de quinto estadio y 1% de adultos. Es la primera cita para Argentina sobre la tabla de vida de T. sordida. El análisis de estos parámetros permite considerar que esta especie se comporta como "K estratega", en condiciones experimentales.

  17. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  18. Record of orange-headed tanager Thlypopsis sordida (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 (Aves, Thraupidae in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsimar Silveira da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The orange-headed tanager Thlypopsis sordida (Aves; Thraupidae is a canopy bird that occurs in Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina and in the part of Brazil extending from the extreme south up to Paraná state. On days 8 and 20 of August 2005, individuals were observed in the Ponta da Divinéia (26º53’41”S and 48º39’38”W, city of Navegantes, to the banks of the Itajaí-Açu river, situated on the opposite side of the port of Itajaí. The sighting was registered in quaternary plain forest, surrounded by fields of pasture modified for the constant and intensive presence of cattle. This record of T. sordida is the first ever for the state of Santa Catarina. Apparently, the species is extending its distribution range due to the fragmentation of its habitat.

  19. A Simple Structure Model for Enzyme Production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑沛霖; 郑重鸣; FOOYinDin; JefferyPhilipObbard; 林建平

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the behavior of ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium, study on time courses and a mathematical model for the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) of the fungi was undertaken. Based on the Monod-Jacob operon model, the ligninolytic enzyme would be synthesized in the absence of a related repressor. The repressor is assumed to be active in the presence of ammonia nitrogen, and as combined as co-repressor, it causes the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. The model can explain the mechanism of extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi. The results,as predicted by the model, correspond closely to those observed in experimental studies. In addition, some light is also shed on unmeasured variables, such as the concentrations of repressor and mRNA that are related to the enzyme synthesis.

  20. Estadísticos poblacionales de Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera : Reduviidae en condiciones experimentales Population statistics of Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Oscherov

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el seguimiento longitudinal de cuatro cohortes de 100 huevos cada una. Los insectos fueron criados a 28°C ± 3°C y 63 % ± 10% de humedad relativa, y alimentados cada siete días sobre gallina (Gallus domesticus, durante 40 min. Las cohortes fueron controladas una vez por semana. Se observó un valor constante de supervivencia en las cuatro cohortes, sin picos importantes. La expectativa de vida de los machos, en promedio, fue de 37,4 semanas y la de las hembras 36,8. El tiempo generacional demandó 61,7 semanas. La tasa reproductiva neta indica que esta población se incrementará 143,3 veces con cada generación. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural fue de 0,082 por semana. El máximo valor reproductivo se verificó, en promedio, a la tercer semana del ingreso al estado adulto. La distribución estable de edades de T. sordida sería de 32% huevos, 26% ninfas de primer estadio, 19% ninfas de segundo estadio, 13% ninfas de tercer estadio, 6% ninfas de cuarto estadio, 3% ninfas de quinto estadio y 1% de adultos. Es la primera cita para Argentina sobre la tabla de vida de T. sordida. El análisis de estos parámetros permite considerar que esta especie se comporta como "K estratega", en condiciones experimentales.Foram estudados diferentes parâmetros populacionais de Triatoma sordida em condições de laboratório. Realizou-se um seguimento longitudinal de quatro coortes de 100 ovos cada uma; os insetos foram criados a 28°C ± 3°C e 63% ± 10% de umidade relativa, e alimentados cada sete dias sobre galinha (Gallus domesticus durante 40'. As coortes foram controladas uma vez por semana. A expectativa de vida média dos machos foi de 37,4 semanas e a das fêmeas de 36,8.O tempo médio de desenvolvimento foi de 61,7 semanas. A taxa reprodutiva líquida indica que esta população aumentará 143,2 vezes durante cada geração. A taxa intrínseca do crecimento natural foi de 0,082 por semana. A média do valor máximo reprodutivo

  1. Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03 secretes high titers of manganese peroxidase during decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL textile dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Razia; Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Batool, Shaheera; Asad, Muhammad Javaid

    2011-01-01

    A novel indigenous strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03, with high manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities was used for decolorization of a reactive textile dye, Drimarine Blue K2R, which is used extensively in textile units of Pakistan. The initial experiment was run for seven days with 0.01% (w/v) dye solution prepared in Kirk's basal nutrient medium. Samples were removed after every 24 h and the extent of dye decolorization was determined at lambda(max) of the dye. The study revealed that P. chrysosporium caused 65% decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL in seven days. By process optimization, 97% colour removal could be achieved in three days using 0.005% (w/v) Drimarine Blue K2RL solution at pH 4.0 and 30 degrees C in defined Kirk's medium with 0.9% (w/v) molasses and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium dihydrogen phosphate added as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Manganese peroxidase was found to be the major enzyme (560 IU/mL) involved in dye decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL by P. chrysosporium. The dye adsorption studies showed that the dye initially adsorbed on fungal mats disappeared later on, possibly by the action of MnP secreted by the fungus in secondary metabolism.

  2. Study of the degradation of dyes by MnP of Phanerochaete chrysosporium produced in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, D; Rodríguez Couto, S; Cameselle, C; Sanromán, M A

    2003-04-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes by the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a fixed-bed tubular bioreactor, filled with cubes of nylon sponge, operating in semi-solid-state conditions, was studied. Maximum individual manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) activities of 1293 and 225 U/l were detected. The in vitro decolourisation of two structurally different dyes (Poly R-478, crystal violet) by the extracellular liquid obtained in the above-mentioned bioreactor was monitored in order to determine its degrading capability. The concentration of some compounds (sodium malonate, manganese sulphate) from the reaction mixture was optimised in order to maximise the decolourisation levels. A percentage of Poly R-478 decolourisation of 24% after 15 min of dye incubation was achieved. On the other hand, a methodology for a long treatment of these dyes based on the continuous addition of MnP enzyme and H(2)O(2) was developed. Moreover, this enzymatic treatment was compared with a photochemical decolourisation process. The former allowed to maintain the degradation rate almost constant for a long time, resulting in a decolourisation percentage of 70% and 30% for crystal violet and Poly R-478, respectively, after 2 h of treatment. As for the latter, it was not able to degrade Poly R-478, whereas crystal violet reached a degradation of 40% in 2 h.

  3. Glutathione transferases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium: S-glutathionyl-p-hydroquinone reductase belongs to a new structural class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meux, Edgar; Prosper, Pascalita; Ngadin, Andrew; Didierjean, Claude; Morel, Mélanie; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Lamant, Tiphaine; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric

    2011-03-18

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a saprophytic basidiomycete, possesses a large number of cytosolic glutathione transferases, eight of them showing similarity to the Omega class. PcGSTO1 (subclass I, the bacterial homologs of which were recently proposed, based on their enzymatic function, to constitute a new class of glutathione transferase named S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductases) and PcGSTO3 (subclass II related to mammalian homologs) have been investigated in this study. Biochemical investigations demonstrate that both enzymes are able to catalyze deglutathionylation reactions thanks to the presence of a catalytic cysteinyl residue. This reaction leads to the formation of a disulfide bridge between the conserved cysteine and the removed glutathione from their substrate. The substrate specificity of each isoform differs. In particular PcGSTO1, in contrast to PcGSTO3, was found to catalyze deglutathionylation of S-glutathionyl-p-hydroquinone substrates. The three-dimensional structure of PcGSTO1 presented here confirms the hypothesis that it belongs not only to a new biological class but also to a new structural class that we propose to name GST xi. Indeed, it shows specific features, the most striking ones being a new dimerization mode and a catalytic site that is buried due to the presence of long loops and that contains the catalytic cysteine.

  4. Monitoramento da suscetibilidade de populações de Triatoma sordida Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae ao inseticida deltametrina, na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil Monitoring the susceptibility of Triatoma sordida Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to deltamethrin insecticide, in Central-Western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Takashi Obara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Populações de Triatoma sordida Stål, 1859 foram investigadas quanto à suscetibilidade à deltametrina. MÉTODOS: Análise por meio de bioensaios por aplicação tópica em 11 populações de T. sordida procedentes dos Estados de Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul. RESULTADOS: As estimativas de DL50 e RR50 demonstraram elevados níveis de suscetibilidade (DL50 INTRODUCTION: Triatoma sordida Stål, 1859 populations were investigated for susceptibility to deltamethrin. METHODS: This study aimed to analyze the resistance of 11 populations of insects from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul by topical application bioassays. RESULTS: The estimated LD50 and RR50 showed high levels of susceptibility (LD50 < 1 and RR50 < 2. However, analysis of the slope of the dose response curve showed that the populations of insects in the towns of Firminópolis/GO, Posse/GO, Poxoréu/MT, Douradina/MS and Aparecida do Taboado/MS present great probability of evolving resistance and, thus, are more likely to tolerate treatment with deltamethrin. CONCLUSIONS: Small changes in susceptibility and low levels of resistance were detected, but the temporal changes of susceptibility should be continuously monitored to adequately guide the actions of vector-control of DC.

  5. Biodegradation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: new insight into the degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-08-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a recalcitrant energetic chemical that tends to accumulate in soil, close to the surface. The present study describes the aerobic biodegradability of HMX using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When added to 7 day old static P. chrysosporium liquid cultures, HMX (600 nmol) degraded within 25 days of incubation. The removal of HMX was concomitant with the formation of transient amounts of its mono-nitroso derivative (1-NO-HMX). The latter apparently degraded via two potential routes: the first involved N-denitration followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage, and the second involved alpha-hydroxylation prior to ring cleavage. The degradation of 1-NO-HMX gave the ring-cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), nitrite (NO2 -), nitrous oxide (N2O), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Using [14C]-HMX, we obtained 14CO2 (70% in 50 days), representing three C atoms of HMX. Incubation of real soils, contaminated with either HMX (403 micromol kg(-1)) (military base soil) or HMX (3057 micromol kg(-1)), and RDX (342 micromol kg(-1)) (ammunition soil) with the fungus led to 75 and 19.8% mineralization of HMX (liberated 14CO2), respectively, also via the intermediary formation of 1-NO-HMX. Mineralization in the latter soil increased to 35% after the addition of glucose, indicating that a fungus-based remediation process for heavily contaminated soils is promising. The present findings improve our understanding about the degradation pathway of HMX and demonstrate the utility of using the robust and versatile fungus P. chrysosporium to develop effective remediation processes for the removal of HMX.

  6. White Fungus Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: two pieces of white fungus, a handful of Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts. Directions: 1. Soak the dried fungus in water, remove the roots and then cook. 2. Steep the Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts in water for a while.

  7. Novel promoter sequence required for manganese regulation of manganese peroxidase isozyme 1 gene expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Mayfield, Mary B; Godfrey, Bruce J; Gold, Michael H

    2004-06-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is a major, extracellular component of the lignin-degrading system produced by the wood-rotting basidiomycetous fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The transcription of MnP-encoding genes (mnps) in P. chrysosporium occurs as a secondary metabolic event, triggered by nutrient-nitrogen limitation. In addition, mnp expression occurs only under Mn2+ supplementation. Using a reporter system based on the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (egfp), we have characterized the P. chrysosporium mnp1 promoter by examining the effects of deletion, replacement, and translocation mutations on mnp1 promoter-directed egfp expression. The 1,528-bp mnp1 promoter fragment drives egfp expression only under Mn2+-sufficient, nitrogen-limiting conditions, as required for endogenous MnP production. However, deletion of a 48-bp fragment, residing 521 bp upstream of the translation start codon in the mnp1 promoter, or replacement of this fragment with an unrelated sequence resulted in egfp expression under nitrogen limitation, both in the absence and presence of exogenous Mn2+. Translocation of the 48-bp fragment to a site 120 bp downstream of its original location resulted in Mn2+-dependent egfp expression under conditions similar to those observed with the wild-type mnp1 promoter. These results suggest that the 48-bp fragment contains at least one Mn2+-responsive cis element. Additional promoter-deletion experiments suggested that the Mn2+ element(s) is located within the 33-bp sequence at the 3' end of the 48-bp fragment. This is the first promoter sequence containing a Mn2+-responsive element(s) to be characterized in any eukaryotic organism. Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology

  8. Biodegradation, biosorption of phenanthrene and its trans-membrane transport by Massilia sp. WF1 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping eGu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing phenanthrene (PHE in the environment is critical to ecosystem and human health. Biodegradation, biosorption and the trans-membrane transport mechanism of PHE by a novel strain, Massilia sp. WF1, and an extensively researched model fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium were investigated in aqueous solutions. Results showed that the PHE residual concentration decreased with incubation time and the data fitted well to a first-order kinetic equation, and the t1/2 of PHE degradation by WF1, spores and mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium were about 2 hours, 87 days, and 87 days, respectively. The biosorbed PHE was higher in P. Chrysosporium than that in WF1, and it increased after microorganisms were inactivated and inhibited, especially in mycelial pellets. The detected intracellular auto-fluorescence of PHE by two-photon excitation microscopy also proved that PHE indeed entered into the cells. Based on regression, the intracellular (Kdin and extracellular (Kdout dissipation rate constants of PHE by WF1 were higher than those by spores and mycelial pellets. In addition, the transport rate constant of PHE from outside solution into cells (KinS/Vout for WF1 were higher than the efflux rate constant of PHE from cells to outside solution (KoutS/Vin, while the opposite phenomena were observed for spores and mycelial pellets. The amount of PHE that transported from outside solution into cells was attributed to the rapid degradation and active PHE efflux in the cells of WF1 and P. Chrysosporium, respectively. Besides, the results under the inhibition treatments of 4 °C, and the presence of sodium azide, colchicine and cytochalasin B demonstrated that a passive trans-membrane transport mechanism was involved in PHE entering into the cells of WF1 and P. Chrysosporium.

  9. Pyranose 2-oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium : expression in E. coli and biochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines Pisanelli; Magdalena Kujawa; Oliver Spadiut; Roman Kittl; Petr Halada; Jindrich Volc; Michael D. Mozuch; Philip Kersten; Dietmar Haltrich; Clemens Peterbauer

    2009-01-01

    The presented work reports the isolation and heterologous expression of the p2ox gene encoding the flavoprotein pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The p2ox cDNA was inserted into the bacterial expression vector pET21a(+) and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. We obtained active, fully flavinylated recombinant P2Ox in...

  10. Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena Fernandez-Fueyo; Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas; Patricia Ferreira; Dimitrios Floudas; David S. Hibbett; Paulo Canessa; Luis F. Larrondo; Tim Y. James; Daniela Seelenfreund; Sergio Lobos; Rubén Polanco; Mario Tello; Yoichi Honda; Takahito Watanabe; Takashi Watanabe; Jae San Ryu; Christian P. Kubicek; Monika Schmoll; Jill Gaskell; Kenneth E. Hammel; Franz J. St. John; Amber Vanden Wymelenberg; Grzegorz Sabat; Sandra Splinter BonDurant; Khajamohiddin Syed; Jagjit S. Yadav; Harshavardhan Dodapaneni; Venkataramanan Subramanian; José L. Lavin; José A. Oguiza; Gumer Perez; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Lucia Ramirez; Francisco Santoyo; Emma Master; Pedro M. Coutinho; Bernard Henrissat; Vincent Lombard; Jon Karl Magnuson; Ursula Kües; Chiaki Hori; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Masahiro Samejima; Benjamin W. Held; Kerrie W. Barry; Kurt M. LaButti; Alla Lapidus; Erika A. Lindquist; Susan M. Lucas; Robert Riley; Asaf A. Salamov; Dirk Hoffmeister; Daniel Schwenk; Yitzhak Hadar; Oded Yarden; Ronald P. de Vries; Ad Wiebenga; Jan Stenlid; Daniel Eastwood; Igor V. Grigoriev; Randy M. Berka; Robert A. Blanchette; Phil Kersten; Angel T. Martinez; Rafael Vicuna; Daniel Cullen

    2012-01-01

    Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do so with relatively little...

  11. INSITU LOCALIZATION OF THE SECRETION OF LIGNIN PEROXIDASES IN COLONIES OF PHANEROCHAETE-CHRYSOSPORIUM USING A SANDWICHED MODE OF CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOUKHA, SM; WOSTEN, HAB; ASTHER, M; WESSELS, JGH

    1993-01-01

    Protein secretion and growth were investigated in Phanerochaete chrysosporium by using cultures sandwiched between perforated polycarbonate membranes. Labelling of colonies with radioactive N-acetylglucosamine and L-methionine indicated a close correlation between growth and general protein secretio

  12. Tremella with Edible Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (Meiwei Shuang’er)Remove the tremella and edible fungus roots, clean and drain. Slice green peppers and carrots.Heat some oil in a wok, add tremella, edible fungus, green peppers and carrots, and clear stock, salt and sugar. Simmer for two minutes. Add MSG and pepper, remove to a plate, and serve.Features: Attractively black and white.Taste: Crisp and savory.

  13. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py

  14. Enhanced oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts produced during interspecific fungal interaction of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo Qian; Baoliang Chen

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interspecific fungal interactions between Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium on laccase activity and enzymatic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated.A deadlock between the two mycelia rather than replacement of one fungus by another was observed on an agar medium.The laccase activity in crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached a maximum after a 5-day incubation,which was significantly higher than that from regions of T.versicolor or P.chrysosporium alone.The enhanced induction of laccase activity lasted longer in half nutrition than in normal nutrition.A higher potential to oxidize benzo[a]pyrene by a crude enzyme preparation extracted from the interaction zones was demonstrated.After a 48 hr incubation period,the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached 26.2%,while only 9.5% of benzo[a]pyrene was oxidized by crude extracts from T.versicolor.The oxidation was promoted by the co-oxidant 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate diammonium salt (ABTS).These findings indicate that the application of co-culturing of white-rot fungi in bioremediation is a potential ameliorating technique for the restoration of PAH-contaminated soil.

  15. Optimization of lignin peroxidase production and stability by Phanerochaete chrysosporium using sewage-treatment-plant sludge as substrate in a stirred-tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Mansor, Mariatul F; Jalal, K C A

    2009-05-01

    A laboratory-scale study was carried out to produce lignin peroxidase (ligninase) by white rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) using sewage-treatment-plant (STP) sludge as the major substrate. The optimization was done using full-factorial design (FFD) with agitation and aeration as the two parameters. Nine experiments indicated by the FFD were fermented in a stirred-tank bioreactor for 3 days. A second-order quadratic model was developed using the regression analysis of the experimental results with the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination (R (2)) value of 0.972, thus indicating a satisfactory fit of the quadratic model with the experimental data. Using statistical analysis, the optimum aeration and agitation rates were determined to be 2.0 vvm and 200 rpm, respectively, with a maximum activity of 225 U l(-1) in the first 3 days of fermentation. The validation experiment showed the maximum activity of lignin peroxidase was 744 U l(-1) after 5 days of fermentation. The results for the tests of the stability of lignin peroxidase showed that the activity was more than 80% of the maximum for the first 12 h of incubation at an optimum pH of 5 and temperature of 55 degrees C.

  16. A Ca-alginate particle co-immobilized with Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates from Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanchun; Wang, Zhi; Xu, Xudong; Jin, Liqiang

    2015-12-01

    For improving stability of immobilized white-rot fungus to treat various effluents, Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-link enzyme aggregates (combi-CLEAs) prepared from Trametes versicolor were co-immobilized into the Ca-alginate gel particles in this paper. The activity yields of obtained combi-CLEAs were 42.7% for lignin peroxidases (LiPs), 31.4% for manganese peroxidases (MnPs) and 40.4% for laccase (Lac), respectively. And their specific activities were 30.2U/g as combi-CLEAs-LiPs, 9.5 U/g as combi-CLEAs-MnPs and 28.4 U/g as combi-CLEAs-Lac. Further, the present of the combi-CLEAs in the particles extremely improved their ability to degrade the dyes. Compared to the immobilized Ph. chrysosporium without the combi-CLEAs, the co-immobilized particles enhanced the decolorized rate of Acid Violet 7 (from 45.2% to 93.4%) and Basic Fuchsin (from 12.1% to 67.9%). In addition, the addition of the combi-CLEAs improved the adaptability of the white-rot fungal particles to adverse environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transport, fate, and stimulating impact of silver nanoparticles on the removal of Cd(II) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Yanan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Guiqiu, E-mail: gqchen@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Zhongwu; Yan, Ming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Anwei [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Guo, Zhi; Huang, Zhenzhen; Tan, Qiong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Appropriate concentration of AgNPs can stimulate the biological removal of Cd(II). • Added AgNPs were oxidatively dissolved and transported to the surface of fungus. • AgNPs have undergone coarsening in the process of transport. • Amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and other reducing groups were involved in transportion. - Abstract: Despite the knowledge about increasing discharge of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into wastewater and its potential toxicity to microorganisms, the interaction of AgNPs with heavy metals in the biological removal process remains poorly understood. This study focused on the effect of AgNPs (hydrodynamic diameter about 24.3 ± 0.37 nm) on the removal of cadmium (Cd(II)) by using a model white rot fungus species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Results showed that the biological removal capacity of Cd(II) increased with the concentration of AgNPs increasing from 0.1 mg/L to 1 mg/L. The maximum removal capacity (4.67 mg/g) was located at 1 mg/L AgNPs, and then decreased with further increasing AgNPs concentration, suggesting that an appropriate concentration of AgNPs has a stimulating effect on the removal of Cd(II) by P. chrysosporium instead of an inhibitory effect. Results of Ag{sup +} and total Ag concentrations in the solutions together with those of SEM and XRD demonstrated that added AgNPs had undergone oxidative dissolution and transported from the solution to the surface of fungal mycelia (up to 94%). FTIR spectra confirmed that amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and other reducing functional groups were involved in Cd(II) removal, AgNPs transportation, and the reduction of Ag{sup +} to AgNPs.

  18. Lignin peroxidase-negative mutant of the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Boominathan, K; Dass, S B; Randall, T A; Kelley, R.L.; Reddy, C A

    1990-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces two classes of extracellular heme proteins, designated lignin peroxidases and manganese peroxidases, that play a key role in lignin degradation. In this study we isolated and characterized a lignin peroxidase-negative mutant (lip mutant) that showed 16% of the ligninolytic activity (14C-labeled synthetic lignin----14CO2) exhibited by the wild type. The lip mutant did not produce detectable levels of lignin peroxidase, whereas the wild type, under identical...

  19. Aspectos ecológicos da tripanossomíase americana: XVII - Desenvolvimento da domiciliação triatomínea regional, em centro de endemismo de Triatoma sordida Ecological aspects of South American trypanosomiasis: XVII - The domiciliation development of local triatominae populations in the Triatoma sordida endemic center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos mediante as observações sobre o processo de domiciliação triatomínea, após a desinsetização domiciliar, e levadas a efeito no período de janeiro de 1975 a janeiro de 1979. A região estudada inclui-se no domínio paisagístico dos cerrados do Brasil Central, considerado como centro de dispersão de Triatoma sordida. A domiciliação local, inicialmente encontrada, implicou a participação dessa espécie e de Triatoma infestans. Após a realização do expurgo, as pesquisas de vigilância trimestrais e os levantamentos finais evidenciaram a ocorrência de novo processo de domiciliação de triatomíneos, de decurso lento, e resultando em coeficientes de positividade de edifícios acentuadamente inferiores aos registrados por ocasião do levantamento inicial, durante todo o período de observação. Após o expurgo, o valor geral do coeficiente de edifícios (casas e anexos positivos variou do valor mínimo de 1,9 ao máximo de 5,7%, enquanto foi de 40,4% o observado quando do levantamento inicial. Essa situação perdurou pelo tempo mínimo de três anos e meio, o que permite recomendar que a vigilância e a possível aplicação do expurgo seletivo, subseqüentes à desinsetização geral, sejam iniciadas a partir de decorrido tal prazo. Nesse ínterim, recomenda-se a motivação dos habitantes locais, no sentido de obter-lhes a colaboração para a denúncia de novos focos intradomiciliares. Na transferência da infecção tripanossômica para o ambiente domiciliar evidenciou-se papel importante desempenhado por vertebrados domiciliados ou em domiciliação, em especial modo ratos (Rattus e gambás (Didelphis, de hábitos ubiquistas. No processo de evolução da nova domiciliação triatomínea, coube papel preponderante a T. sordida mediante a ocupação inicial do peridomicílio. O reaparecimento de T. infestans deveu-se principalmente à influência da atividade humana, em especial modo, a

  20. Biology of Triatominae (Reduviidae Hemiptera from North of Formosa County (Goiás-Brazil I. Length of life cycle of Triatoma sordida (Stal. 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the life cycle of Triatoma sordida was studied. The mean length from egg to adult was 213 days. The mean length in days from each stage was: 24.3 (± 1.30 for the first. 32.8 (± 1.45 (2nd, 36.1 (± 1.50 (3rd, 44.6 (± 1.85 (4th and 52.0 (± 1.92 (5th. The mean egg incubation períod was 23.2 (± 1.40. Overall mortality was 18.8% and egg viability was 82.5%.Foi estudado no presente trabalho o ciclo biológico do Triatoma sordida A média da duração do ciclo de ovo a adulto foi 213 dias. A média de duração em dias para cada estágio foi 24,3 (± 1,30 para o primeiro, 32,8 (± 1,45 para o segundo, 36,1 (± 1,50 para o terceiro, 44,6 (± 1,85 para o quarto e 52,0 (± 1,92 para o quinto. A média do período de incubação dos ovos foi 23,2 (± 1,40. A mortalidade em todos ps estágios foi 18,8% e a viabilidade dos ovos foi 82,5%.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  2. Aspectos ecológicos da Tripanossomíase americana: VI - Persistência do Triatoma sordida apósalteração ambiental e suas possíveis relações com a dispersão da espécie Ecological aspects of South American trypanosomiasis: VI. Permanence of Triatoma sordida after environmental alteration and its possibles relation to dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available São relatadas as observações sobre a persistência do Triatoma sordida em área onde foi procedida alteração temporária da cobertura vegetal. Os resultados obtidos demonstram a capacidade de resistência do triatomíneo a esse fator. Procurou-se relacionar esse aspecto à distribuição da espécie no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Existe certa semelhança entre os dados disponíveis a esse respeito e a evolução da atividade agrícola na região. Finalmente são considerados também os aspectos climáticos que podem influir na dispersão da espécie.Studies about permanence of Triatoma sordida after temporary alteration of the local vegetation are related. Results reached showed a bug resistence to the devastation of shrubby vegetation by fire. An attempt is made for to relate this particular aspect with species distribution in the S. Paulo State, Brazil. There are some analogies between the available data about this and the development of agrarian activities. Beside the climatic one, this factor may be considered as favorable to the Triatoma sordida dispersion, by the natural environmental alteration who if follows.

  3. Heat Shock Induction of Manganese Peroxidase Gene Transcription in Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Julie A.; Li, Dan; Alic, Margaret; Gold, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of manganese peroxidase (MnP) in nitrogen-limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is regulated by heat shock at the level of gene transcription. Nitrogen limitation and manganous ion [Mn(II)] previously have been shown to regulate mnp gene transcription. Northern (RNA) blot analysis demonstrates that 45°C heat shock results in the accumulation of mnp mRNA, even in cells grown in the absence of Mn. Heat shock induces mnp gene transcription in 4- or 5-day-old cells, and m...

  4. Application of Phanerochaete chrysosporium 1038 - Enzyme Complex and Laccase in Biobleaching of Flax Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching processes in textile industry require to keep fibers tenacity, partially to preserve the pectin and reducing the lignin content, that gives color to row flax fibers. The use of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium 1038 strain and pure Laccase from Biocatalyst in flax fibers treatment was studied. The whiteness of enzymatically-processed fibers was significantly improved and the residual quantity of nondegraded lignin was less than obtained with chemical processing. The structural changes in the flax fibers during enzyme treatment were determined with IR spectroscopy, which confirmed the lignin degradation.

  5. [Effect of pH on suppressing the growth of other bacteria and fungi in culturing Phanerochaete chrysosporium in liquid medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-wen; Wen, Xiang-hua; Zhou, Xiao-yan; Zeng, Yong-gang; Qian, Yi

    2005-11-01

    Effect of different pH value on suppressing the growth of other bacteria and fungi in culturing Phanerochaete chrysosporium in liquid medium under non-sterile were investigated in agitated Erlenmeyer flasks. Results showed that nitrogen-limited liquid medium with pH3.6 and pH4.4 were contaminated only by yeast fungi when the Phanerochaete chrysosporium was incubated with spore inoculation under non-sterile condition for one day; however, nitrogen-limited liquid medium with pH5.6 was contaminated not only by yeast, but also by bacteria. These contaminated yeast and bacteria reduced the dye decolorizing ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium . If after the Phanerochaete chrysosporium was incubated under sterile condition for 5 days, it can decolorize over 70% of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP within 45 hours under non-sterile condition, and this removal rate was close to or even higher than that under sterile condition. Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultured in the liquid medium with pH4.4 have the best decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition, and can decolorize up to 80% of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP in 24 hours. In additions, it was observed that by using the Phanerochaete chrysosporium incubated in above nitrogen-limited liquid medium with different pH under sterile condition for 5 days, the system were also contaminated by the other bacteria and yeast during decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under non-sterile condition, but the amount of these bacteria and yeast in liquid medium were too little to influence the Phanerochaete chrysosporium decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP. So that, when Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to decolorize reactive dyes under non-sterile condition, the incubation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium must be operated under sterile condition in order to achieve the higher decolorization.

  6. Aspectos ecológicos da tripanossomíase americana: VII. Permanência e mobilidade do Triatoma sordida em relação aos ecótopos artificiais Ecological aspects of South American Tripanosomiasis: VII. Permanence and mobility of Triatoma sordida with relation to artificial ecotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas colônias desenvolvidas espontaneamente em ecótopos artificiais, representados por galinheiros experimentais, procurou-se observar a permanência e a mobilidade de Triatoma sordida. Para tanto, procedeu-se à marcação individual de adultos e ninfas de 4.° e 5.° estádios, bem como à instalação de abrigos ao redor daqueles biótopos. Os dados obtidos permitiram observar a curta permanência dos primeiros na colônia, não ultrapassando o período de dois meses para a maioria dessas formas. A mobilidade evidenciou-se pela presença de ovos e ninfas de 1.° estádio, nos esconderijos instalados, e as evidências sugeriram ser devidas à passagem dos adultos por esses ecótopos. Concluiu-se que esta espécie é dotada de elevada capacidade de disseminação, em concordância com sua apreciável valência ecológica.Spontaneous colonies of Triatoma sordida developed in experimental fowlhouses were submitted to observations as regards permanence and mobility of this bug. During thirteen months, adults and nymphs of fourth and fifth in stars were tagged for recapture. Resting traps for atracting bugs were placed around the fowlhouses. Adults showed no more than two months of permanence inside these artificial ecotopes. Eggs and first nymphs found in the resting traps suggested activity of adults coming from the fowlhouses. It was evident that this triatomid has a dispersal capacity and an adult tendency towards leaving the colonies as soon as the first egg batches are layed. After this the female will continue the oviposition inside other ecotopes attempting to develop new colonies. This aspect agress with the high characteristic ecological valence of this bug.

  7. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ACCUMULATION OF MESSENGER-RNAS ENCODING 2 COMMON LIGNIN PEROXIDASES IN PHANEROCHAETE-CHRYSOSPORIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOUKHA, SM; WOSTEN, HAB; MYLIUS, EJ; ASTHER, M; WESSELS, JGH

    Accumulation of peroxidases and their mRNAs was localized in colonies of Phanerochaete chrysosporium sandwiched between perforated polycarbonate membranes. Northern (RNA) blot analyses of colonial rings and in situ hybridizations with specific probes for manganese(II)-dependent peroxidase (MnP-1)

  8. EFECTO DEL COBRE Y HIERRO SOBRE LA EXPRESION Y ACTIVIDAD ENZIMATICA DE LAS OXIDASAS MULTICOBRE DEL HONGO BASIDIOMICETE PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM.

    OpenAIRE

    CANESSA AGUILA, PAULO FRANCISCO

    2009-01-01

    Los basidiomicetes como Phanerochaete chrysosporium son un grupo de hongos filamentosos capaces de degradar la lignina, un biopolimero de estructura y composición altamente compleja, presente en la pared celular de las plantas leñosas. Durante la degradac 125p.

  9. Pemanfaatan Serbuk Kayu untuk Produksi Etanol dengan Perlakuan Pendahuluan Delignifikasi Menggunakan Jamur Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Irawati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of Sawdust to Produce Ethanol Using Delignification Pre-treatment with White Rot Fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium Currently, Indonesia is in the middle ofpetroleum crisis. One ofthe alternative fuels which can be used as a petroleum substitute is ethanol. Ethanol can be produced from timber waste (sawdust. Indonesia in 2003 had timber waste potency of about 3-4 millions m3. However, ethanol production from sawdust has problems due to its lignin content. Therefore, research on bio-delignification treatment of sawdust prior to ethanol making process is required. In the present study ethanol was produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF using crude cellulose from Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The raw materials for ethanol production are sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen syn., meranti (Shorea sp. and teak (Tectona grandis LIIVN.f. sawdust after pretreatment with white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium for 10, 20 and 30 days incubation time. The yield of ethanol was between 1.65-44.83 g/1. The best combination treatment is sengon sawdust with 30 day incubation time.

  10. [Function of nitric oxide in initiating production of lignin degrading peroxidases by Phanerochaete chrysosporium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaotong; Qiu, Ailian; Li, Wenyan; Zheng, Feng; Zhang, Li; Shi, Yaqing; Zheng, Gang; Zou, Yanqiong

    2013-03-04

    By analyzing the function and mechanism of nitric oxide in initiating producing lignin peroxidases by phanerochaete chrysosporium, we studied the regulation mechanism triggering the secondary metabolism of white-rot fungi. Mutant (pcR5305) and wild-type (pc530) strains of phanerochaete chrysosporium were respectively cultured under both the conditions of nitrogen limitation and nitrogen sufficiency. To compare their lignin peroxidases (LiP)-production and nitric oxide(NO)-production kinetics and their different influences on producing LiP after the NO donor Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) and scavenger cPTIO were respectively added to the nitrogen limitation or sufficiency culture medium to show the function and mechanism of nitric oxide in initiating production of lignin peroxidases by white-rot fungi. Both strains produced nitric oxide (NO) under the two opposite nutritional conditions, but the levels of NO produced were related with the type of strain and the nutritional conditions. Strain pc530 produced NO requiring nutrition depletion and producing of NO was strongly delayed and reduced when it was cultured under nitrogen sufficiency condition. On the contrary, pcR5305 did not require nitrogen depletion to trigger and the levels of NO were higher than that of pc530. The results indicate that LiP content had positive correlation with NO value except the occurrence time of LiP peak value was later than that of NO. The ability of producing LiP was promoted after the NO donor SNP added, but SNP affected more on pc530 than pcR5305 in promoting producing LiP. 15mM cPTIO would greatly repress producing LiP, but could not completely restrain the synthesis of LiP for both strains. By producing NO, Phanerochaete chrysosporium triggers LiP synthesis. However, the evidences do not indicate that NO participates or effect directly in LiP synthesis. It is more likely that NO is reacting as an upstream signal molecule. Besides NO, there are other signal molecules that have a

  11. [Breeding and characterization of laccase-producing Phanerochaete chrysosporium mutant resistant to nutritional repression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ailian; Li, Wenyan; Zheng, Yaotong; Fan, Xiaojing; Ye, Youxian; Meng, Yan

    2011-03-01

    To screen Phanerochaete chrysosporium mutants resisting nutritional repression and to characterize laccase produced by the mutants. We used repeated UV mutagenesis and screened the mutant strains by using the guaiacol nitrogen sufficient differential medium. We characterized enzymes production mechanism of the nutritional regulation through comparing the differences of cell growth and enzyme-production kinetics under different nutritional conditions; We validated production of laccase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium through measurements of the heat treatment, removal of manganese ion and addition of the catalase. Three different methods were validated that both strains of pcR5305 and pcR5324 can produce laccase under the nitrogen limitation (N-L) and nitrogen sufficient (N-S) conditions. Under the N-L conditions, pcR5305 can produce 203.5 U/L laccase and pcR5324 can produce 187.6 U/L laccase; Under the N-S conditions, pcR5305 can produce 220.6 U/L laccase and pcR5324 can produce 183.9 U/L laccase. The original strain pc530 only can produce very little laccase under either conditions. The laccase-production regulation mechanisms of the two strains are different: Production of laccase and the cell growth by pcR5305 are in synchronism. However production of the laccase by pcR5324 is repressed by nutrition. Both strains have the capacity of resisting nutritional repression and produce lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase with high yield. (LiP 1343.2, MnP 252.2 U/L and LiP 1169.5, MnP 172.4 U/L respectively). The mutants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium can produce laccase. At same time they showed the capacity of resisting nutritional repression and production of laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase. Our results possess high value for production, application and fundamental research. We provided new strains and established a very good foundation for the further research of metabolic regulation of ligninolytic enzymes production.

  12. Comparison of the heavy metal biosorption capacity of active, heat-inactivated and NaOH-treated Phanerochaete chrysosporium biosorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerisik, E.; Bektas, S.; Genc, Oe. [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Arica, M.Y. [Kirikkale University, Department of Biology, Yahsihan, Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2004-02-05

    Three different kinds of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (NaOH-treated, heat-inactivated and active) biosorbent were used for the removal of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions from aquatic systems. The biosorption of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions on three different forms of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied in aqueous solutions in the concentration range of 50-700 mg/L. Maximum biosorption capacities of NaOH-treated, heat-inactivated and active Phanerochaete chrysosporium biomass were found to be 148.37 mg/g, 78.68 mg/g and 68.56 mg/g for Cd(II) as well as 224.67 mg/g, 122.37 mg/g and 88.26 mg/g for Hg(II), respectively. For Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions, the order of affinity of the biosorbents was arranged as NaOH-treated > heat-inactivated > active. The order of the amount of metal ions adsorbed was established as Hg(II) > Cd(II) on a weight basis, and as Cd(II) > Hg(II) on a molar basis. Biosorption equilibriums were established in about 60 min. The effect of the pH was also investigated, and maximum rates of biosorption of metal ions on the three different forms of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were observed at pH 6.0. The reusability experiments and synthetic wastewater studies were carried out with the most effective form, i.e., the NaOH-treated Phanerochaete chrysosporium biomass. It was observed that the biosorbent could be regenerated using 10 mM HCl solution, with a recovery of up to 98%, and it could be reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles without any considerable loss in biosorption capacity. The alkali-treated Phanerochaete chrysosporium removed 73% of Cd(II) and 81% of Hg(II) ions from synthetic wastewater. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Atypical features of a Ure2p glutathione transferase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Anne; Roret, Thomas; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Didierjean, Claude; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie

    2013-07-11

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are known to transfer glutathione onto small hydrophobic molecules in detoxification reactions. The GST Ure2pB1 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium exhibits atypical features, i.e. the presence of two glutathione binding sites and a high affinity towards oxidized glutathione. Moreover, PcUre2pB1 is able to efficiently deglutathionylate GS-phenacylacetophenone. Catalysis is not mediated by the cysteines of the protein but rather by the one of glutathione and an asparagine residue plays a key role in glutathione stabilization. Interestingly PcUre2pB1 interacts in vitro with a GST of the omega class. These properties are discussed in the physiological context of wood degrading fungi.

  14. Effects of Pluronic F68 on Manganese peroxidase production by pelletized Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Min; Liu, Yan; Chi, Zhan-You; Chen, Shu-lin

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a new process was developed for manganese peroxidase (MnP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium under an agitated and aerated cultivation condition. It was found that change of the inoculum from spore suspension to pellets resulted in enhanced MnP production of 200 U/L in rotated shake flasks. Several additives, including Pluronic F68, Tween 80, and PEG8000, significantly increased the enzyme production. With an optimal concentration in 125 mL flasks, Pluronic F68 increased MnP productivity by 180%. Moreover, successful enzyme production was achieved in a 5-L fermentor at an agitation speed of 300 rpm with the addition of 0.1% Pluronic F68.

  15. Organization and Differential Regulation of a Cluster of Lignin Peroxidase Genes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip; Cullen, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The lignin peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium are encoded by a minimum of 10 closely related genes. Physical and genetic mapping of a cluster of eight lip genes revealed six genes occurring in pairs and transcriptionally convergent, suggesting that portions of the lip family arose by gene duplication events. The completed sequence of lipG and lipJ, together with previously published sequences, allowed phylogenetic and intron/exon classifications, indicating two main branches within the lip family. Competitive reverse transcription-PCR was used to assess lip transcript levels in both carbon- and nitrogen-limited media. Transcript patterns showed differential regulation of lip genes in response to medium composition. No apparent correlation was observed between genomic organization and transcript levels. Both constitutive and upregulated transcripts, structurally unrelated to peroxidases, were identified within the lip cluster. PMID:10348854

  16. Purification of major lignin peroxidase isoenzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollikka, P; Leppänen, V M; Anttila, T; Suominen, I

    1995-06-01

    The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces several isoforms of lignin peroxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative depolymerization of lignin To date, ion-exchange chromatography and preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF) have been commonly used for isolation of lignin peroxidase isoenzymes. In this work we have purified major lignin peroxidases to high purity by a one-step chromatographic method, chromatofocusing. The purified isoenzymes were identified by analytical IEF using isoenzymes purified by preparative IEF as standards. The specific activities and spectral properties of the isoenzymes were comparable with the previously published data. The predominant isoenzyme under the growth conditions used was LiP 4.65. Almost 50% of the lignin peroxidase activity applied into the column was recovered in the LiP 4.65 fraction. The total recovery of the lignin peroxidase activity was over 80%.

  17. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in anthracene metabolism by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigu, Nomathemba Loice; Hirosue, Sinji; Nakamura, Chie; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) involved in anthracene metabolism by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium were identified by comprehensive screening of both catalytic potentials and transcriptomic profiling. Functional screening of P. chrysosporium P450s (PcCYPs) revealed that 14 PcCYP species catalyze stepwise conversion of anthracene to anthraquinone via intermediate formation of anthrone. Moreover, transcriptomic profiling explored using a complementary DNA microarray system demonstrated that 12 PcCYPs are up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of anthracene. Among the up-regulated PcCYPs, five species showed catalytic activity against anthracene. Based upon both catalytic and transcriptional properties, these five species are most likely to play major roles in anthracene metabolic processes in vivo. Thus, the combination of functional screening and a microarray system may provide a novel strategy for obtaining a thorough understanding of the catalytic functions and biological impacts of PcCYPs.

  18. Biosorption of lead by phanerochaete chrysosporium in the form of pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725) in pellets was influenced by culture time, medium pH, C/N, surfactant concentration, spore number in inoculum, and shaking rate. The removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution by this kind of mycelial pellets was studied. The results indicated that many factors affected biosorption. These factors included pH, Pb2+ concentration, co-ion, adsorption time, and chemical pretreatments of biomass. Under optimum biosorption conditions (pH 4.5, 27℃, 16h), the highest lead uptake of 108 mg/g, was observed with mycelial pellets of 1.5-1.7 mm in diameter which were treated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution before adsorption. Pretreatment of biomass with NaOH further increased its biosorption capacity.

  19. Effects of lignin modification on wheat straw cell wall deconstruction by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao; Singh, Deepak; Gao, Difeng; Chen, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    A key focus in sustainable biofuel research is to develop cost-effective and energy-saving approaches to increase saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. Numerous efforts have been made to identify critical issues in cellulose hydrolysis. Aerobic fungal species are an integral part of the carbon cycle, equip the hydrolytic enzyme consortium, and provide a gateway for understanding the systematic degradation of lignin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose. This study attempts to reveal the complex biological degradation process of lignocellulosic biomass by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in order to provide new knowledge for the development of energy-efficient biorefineries. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a fungal biodegradation model, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, in wheat straw through comprehensive analysis. We isolated milled straw lignin and cellulase enzyme-treated lignin from fungal-spent wheat straw to determine structural integrity and cellulase absorption isotherms. The results indicated that P. chrysosporium increased the total lignin content in residual biomass and also increased the cellulase adsorption kinetics in the resulting lignin. The binding strength increased from 117.4 mL/g to 208.7 mL/g in milled wood lignin and from 65.3 mL/g to 102.4 mL/g in cellulase enzyme lignin. A detailed structural dissection showed a reduction in the syringyl lignin/guaiacyl lignin ratio and the hydroxycinnamate/lignin ratio as predominant changes in fungi-spent lignin by heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy. P. chrysosporium shows a preference for degradation of phenolic terminals without significantly destroying other lignin components to unzip carbohydrate polymers. This is an important step in fungal growth on wheat straw. The phenolics presumably locate at the terminal region of the lignin moiety and/or link with hemicellulose to form the lignin-carbohydrate complex. Findings may inform the development of a biomass hydrolytic enzyme

  20. Treatment of landfill leachate by white rot fungus in combination with zeolite filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Kwan; Park, Se-Kun; Kim, Seung-Do

    2003-04-01

    This article presents the experimental work for the treatment of landfill leachate in a combined process using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the natural zeolite Clinoptilolite. Clinoptilolite was used in a pretreatment step as a sink for ammonia nitrogen and, on average it reduced the levels of ammonia nitrogen, soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color by 72, 4.7, and 25%, respectively. The reductions by fungal treatment alone were 16.6, 21.5, and 31.2%, respectively. However, a reduction in nitrogen loading greatly enhanced fungal treatment efficiency. A high C/N ratio in the leachate was found preferable for the fungal treatment. With the synergy created by pretreatment and fungal growth that was stimulated by the addition of a growth medium, the process could remove ammonia nitrogen, soluble COD (SCOD) and color at levels as high as 81.5, 65, and 59%, respectively. The ratio of SBOD5/SCOD increased from 0.1 to 0.17 upon treatment, indicating that the process rendered the leachate more amenable to the biological process. This result suggested that the preliminary reduction of ammonia nitrogen was essential in making the fungal process practicable for landfill leachate treatment.

  1. Lignin degradation by a white-rot fungus lacking lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, C.B.; Eriksson, K.E.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been the organism of choice for studies of lignin degradation and much of this work has focused on two phenol oxidases, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), secreted by the fungus under ligninolytic conditions. However, many white-rot fungi, including a number of aggressive lignin degraders, seem to operate without expressing LiP activity. Laccase is another phenol oxidase that white-rot fungi often produce. However, the role played by laccase in lignin degradation has remained obscured since its low redox potential appeared to make it incapable of oxidizing non-phenolic lignin constituents. We have identified, Pychnoporus cinnabarinus lacking both LiP and MnP, but a high producer of laccase, to degrade lignin as efficiently as UP producing fungi. We have found that P. cinnabarinus, to overcome the redox potential barrier for laccase, produces a mediator for oxidation of non-phenolic lignin structures. This is the first description of how laccase may be used in a biological system for the degradation of lignin.

  2. Fungal pretreatment by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for enhancement of biogas production from corn stover silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Li, Xin; Wu, Shubiao; He, Jing; Pang, Changle; Deng, Yu; Dong, Renjie

    2014-11-01

    Corn stover silage (CSS) was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid-state fermentation (SSF), to enhance methane production via subsequent anaerobic digestion (AD). Effects of washing of corn stover silage (WCSS) on the lignocellulosic biodegradability in the fungal pretreatment step and on methane production in the AD step were investigated with comparison to the CSS. It was found that P. chrysosporium had the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of CSS up to 19.9, 32.4, and 22.6 %, respectively. Consequently, CSS pretreated by 25 days achieved the highest methane yield of 265.1 mL/g volatile solid (VS), which was 23.0 % higher than the untreated CSS. However, the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in WCSS after 30 days of SSF increased to 45.9, 48.4, and 39.0 %, respectively. Surface morphology and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses also demonstrated that the WCSS improved degradation of cell wall components during SSF. Correspondingly, the pretreatment of WCSS improved methane production by 19.6 to 32.6 %, as compared with untreated CSS. Hence, washing and reducing organic acids (such as lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) present in CSS has been proven to further improve biodegradability in SSF and methane production in the AD step.

  3. Microbial pretreatment of corn stovers by solid-state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Wu, Shubiao; Pang, Changle; Li, Wei; Dong, Renjie

    2014-02-01

    The microbial pretreatment of corn stover and corn stover silage was achieved via the solid-state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium; pretreatment effects on the biodegradability and subsequent anaerobic production of biogas were investigated. The peak levels of daily biogas production and CH₄ yield from corn stover silage were approximately twice that of corn stover. Results suggested that ensiling was a potential pretreatment method to stimulate biogas production from corn stover. Surface morphology and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the microbial pretreatment of corn stover silage improved biogas production by 10.5 to 19.7% and CH4 yield by 11.7 to 21.2% because pretreatment could decrease dry mass loss (14.2%) and increase substrate biodegradability (19.9% cellulose, 32.4% hemicellulose, and 22.6% lignin). By contrast, the higher dry mass loss in corn stover (55.3%) after microbial pretreatment was accompanied by 54.7% cellulose, 64.0% hemicellulose, and 61.1% lignin degradation but did not significantly influence biogas production.

  4. Biodegradation pathway and detoxification of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayatizamir, Naeimeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana; Yakhchali, Bagher; Alikhani, Hossein A; Mohammadi, Leila

    2011-11-01

    The in vivo biodegradation of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilised on cubes of nylon sponge and on sunflower-seed shells (SS) in laboratory-scale bioreactors was investigated. The SS cultivation led to the best results with a decolouration percentage of 90.3% in 72 h for an initial RB5 concentration of 100 mg/L. It was found that the addition of 0.4 mM veratryl alcohol (VA) into the medium considerably increased the decolouration rate in SS cultivation. However, the addition of VA had no effect in the nylon cultivation. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that RB5 was transformed into one metabolite after 24 h. UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) also confirmed the biodegradation of RB5. Toxicity of RB5 solutions before and after fungal treatment was assayed using Sinorhizobium meliloti as a sensitive soil microorganism. P. chrysosporium transformed the toxic dye RB5 into a non-toxic product.

  5. Electrochemical evidence of self-substrate inhibition as functions regulation for cellobiose dehydrogenase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Leonard; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Gorton, Lo

    2009-09-01

    The reaction mechanism of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, adsorbed on graphite electrodes, was investigated by following its catalytic reaction with cellobiose registered in both direct and mediated electron transfer modes between the enzyme and the electrode. A wall-jet flow through amperometric cell housing the CDH-modified graphite electrode was connected to a single line flow injection system. In the present study, it is proven that cellobiose, at concentrations higher than 200 microM, competes for the reduced state of the FAD cofactor and it slows down the transfer of electrons to any 2e(-)/H(+) acceptors or further to the heme cofactor, via the internal electron transfer pathway. Based on and proven by electrochemical results, a kinetic model of substrate inhibition is proposed and supported by the agreement between simulation of plots and experimental data. The implications of this kinetic model, called pseudo-ping-pong mechanism, on the possible functions CDH are also discussed. The enzyme exhibits catalytic activity also for lactose, but in contrast to cellobiose, this sugar does not inhibit the enzyme. This suggests that even if some other substrates are coincidentally oxidized by CDH, however, they do not trigger all the possible natural functions of the enzyme. In this respect, cellobiose is regarded as the natural substrate of CDH.

  6. Transcriptional effect of a calmodulin inhibitor, W-7, on the ligninolytic enzyme genes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takaiku; Kitaura, Hironori; Minami, Masahiko; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takashi; Ueda, Akio; Suzuki, Kazumi; Irie, Toshikazu

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the effects of a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor, W-7, on the expression of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium to consider the role of cam gene, which was upregulated in parallel with the total activities of LiP and MnP in our previous transcriptomic analysis. The addition of 100 μM W-7 to the fungal cultures repressed the total activities of LiP and MnP, whereas the addition of 100 μM W-5, which is a control drug of W-7, retained approximately half of them, indicating that the effect of W-7 was attributable to CaM inhibition. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that most of lip and mnp isozyme genes predicted from whole-genome data were significantly inhibited by W-7 at the transcription level (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that CaM has an important role for the expression of isozyme genes of LiP and MnP at the transcription level.

  7. Effects of culture conditions on ligninolytic enzymes and protease production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes and protease by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated under different culture conditions. Different amounts of medium were employed in free and immobilized culture, together with two kinds of medium with different C/N ratios. Little lignin peroxidase (LiP) (< 2 U/L) was detected in free culture with nitrogen-limited medium (C/N ratio: 56/2.2 mmol/L), while manganese peroxidase (MnP) maximum activity was 231 and 240 U/L in 50 and 100 ml medium culture, respectively. Immobilized culture with 50 ml nitrogen-limited medium gave the highest MnP and LiP production with the maximum values of 410 and 721 U/L separately on day 5; however, flasks containing 100 ml nitrogen-limited medium only produced less MnP with a peak value of 290 U/L. Comparatively, carbon-limited medium (C/N ratio: 28/44 mmol/L) was adopted in culture but produced little MnP and LiP. Medium type had the greatest impact on protease production. Large amount of protease was produced due to glucose limitation. Culture type and medium volume influence protease activity corporately by affecting oxygen supply. The results implied shallow immobilized culture was a possible way to gain high production of ligninolytic enzymes.

  8. Effects of culture conditions on ligninolytic enzymes and protease production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoping; Wen, Xianghua; Bai, Yanan; Qian, Yi

    2008-01-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes and protease by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated under different culture conditions. Different amounts of medium were employed in free and immobilized culture, together with two kinds of medium with different C/N ratios. Little lignin peroxidase (LiP) (nitrogen-limited medium (C/N ratio: 56/2.2, in mmol/L), while manganese peroxidase (MnP) maximum activity was 231 and 240 U/L in 50 and 100 ml medium culture, respectively. Immobilized culture with 50 ml nitrogen-limited medium gave the highest MnP and LiP production with the maximum values of 410 and 721 U/L separately on the day 5; however, flasks containing 100 ml nitrogen-limited medium only produced less MnP with a peak value of 290 U/L. Comparatively, carbon-limited medium (C/N ratio: 28/44, in mmol/L) was adopted in culture but produced little MnP and LiP. Medium type had the greatest impact on protease production. Large amount of protease was produced due to glucose limitation. Culture type and medium volume influence protease activity corporately by affecting oxygen supply. The results implied shallow immobilized culture was a possible way to gain high production of ligninolytic enzymes.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation and extracellular enzyme secretion in agitated and stationary cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular enzyme secretion and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in agitated and shallow stationary liquid cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Veratryl alcohol and Tween80 were added to cultures as lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) inducer, respectively. Shallow stationary cultures were suitable for the production of enzyme, whereas agitated cultures enhanced overall biodegradation by facilitating interphase mass transfer of PAH into aqueous phases. The use of a LiP stimulator, veratryl alcohol, did not increase PAH degradation but significantly enhanced LiP activity. In contrast, Tween80 increased both MnP secretion and PAH degradation in shallow stationary cultures. On the other hand, high PAH degradation was observed in agitated cultures in the absence of detectable LiP and MnP activities. The results suggested that extracellular peroxidase activities are not directly related to the PAH degradation, and the increased solubility rather than enzyme activity may be more important in the promotion of PAH degradation.

  10. Expression of lignin peroxidase H2 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by multi-copy recombinant Pichia strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WEN Xianghua

    2009-01-01

    The lipH2 gene, encoding the expression of lignin peroxidase, was cloned from Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33, a yeast.The cDNA of LiPH2 was generated from total RNA extracted from P.chrysosporium by PCR with primers that do not contain a P.chrysosporium lignin peroxidase secretion signal.The gene was then successfully inserted into the expression vector pPICZα, resulting in the recombinant vector pPICZα-lipH2.The transformation was conducted in two ways.One was using the wild Pichia pastoris as the recipients, which results in the recombinant P.pastoris with single or low lipH2 gene copy.The second was using P.pastoris and single or low lipH2 gene copy as the recipients, which results in the recombinant P.pastoris with multi-copies of lipH2 genes.This study first expressed the gene lipH2 in P.pastoris and achieved the successful expression of the LiPH2 depending upon the generation of a recombinant strain that contains multiple copies.The lignin peroxidase activity reached a maximum of 15 U/L after 12 h induction.

  11. The RT-PCR Analysis of Lignocellulytic Biodegradation-related Gene Expression of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Mingfeng(江明锋); Zhang Yizheng

    2004-01-01

    Expression of lignocellulytic biodegradation-related genes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown in 10 kinds of defined media for 5 days and on fir wood chip for 2 to 8 weeks is analyzed by using the RT-PCR method. The result shows that an individual gene of lip gene family responds differently to different nutrient factors. The expression of lipD gene can be promoted by molecular O2 but suppressed by Mn2+. The influence of nitorgen is not the controlling factor for lipD gene expression. No clear relationship is found between nutrient factors and the expression of lipA gene which may be regulated by several nutrient factors through a complex system. Mnp3 gene is not strongly regulated by Mn2+ and other nutrient factors. It can be expressed in different media. CBHI gene family can not be expressed in the presence of glucose as the sole carbon source. Glx expression is regulated by Mn2+ and molecular O2, and depressed when Mn2+ concerntration goes up to 300 mg/L. The transcription patterns of lip gene family grown on fir wood chip are shown to be markedly different from those patterns in defined media. The expression of single lip gene changes with colonized time. No difference is observed between the expression pattern of mnp, cbh, glx gene in defined media and fir wood chips.

  12. Simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation from aqueous solutions by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Anwei; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Fan, Jiaqi; Zou, Zhengjun; Li, Hui; Hu, Xinjiang; Long, Fei [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering; Ministry of Education, Changsha (CN). Key Lab. of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan Univ.)

    2011-08-15

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been recognised as an effective bioremediation agent due to its unique degradation to xenobiotic and biosorption ability to heavy metals. However, few studies have focused on the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in P. chrysosporium liquid cultures. The removal efficiencies were pH dependent and the maximum removal efficiencies were observed at pH 6.5 under an initial cadmium concentration of 5 mg/L and an initial 2,4-DCP concentration of 20 mg/L. The removal efficiencies for cadmium and 2,4-DCP reached 63.62% and 83.90%, respectively, under the optimum conditions. The high production levels of lignin peroxidase (7.35 U/mL) and manganese peroxidase (8.30 U/mL) resulted in an increase in 2,4-DCP degradation. The protein content decreased with increasing cadmium concentration. The surface characteristics and functional groups of the biomass were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometer. The results showed that the use of P. chrysosporium is promising for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and 2,4-DCP from liquid media. (orig.)

  13. Oxygen mass transfer for an immobilised biofilm of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a membrane gradostat reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. O. Ntwampe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel system, the membrane gradostat reactor (MGR, designed for the continuous production of secondary metabolites, has been shown to have higher production per reactor volume than batch culture systems. The MGR system mimics the natural environment in which wild occurring microorganism biofilms flourish. The biofilms are immobilised on the external surface of an ultrafiltration membrane where substrate distribution gradients are established across the biofilm. The hypothesis that, dissolved oxygen (DO mass transfer parameters obtained in submerged pellets can be used to describe and model DO mass transfer parameters in the MGR, was refuted. Phanerochaete chrysosporium biofilms, immobilised on ultrafiltration capillary membranes in the MGR systems were used to quantify DO distribution using a Clark-type microsensor. The DO penetration depth decreased with increasing biofilm thickness, which resulted in the formation of anaerobic zones in the biofilms. Oxygen flux values of 0.27 to 0.7 g/(m².h were obtained during the MGR operation. The consumption of oxygen and the Monod saturation constants used in the modelling of oxygen distribution in immobilised biofilms were in the range of 894.53 to 2739.70 g/(m³.h and 0.041 to 0.999 g/m³, respectively.

  14. Lignin peroxidase-negative mutant of the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boominathan, K.; Dass, S.B.; Randall, T.A.; Kelley, R.L.; Reddy, C.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces two classes of extracellular heme proteins, designated lignin peroxidases and manganese peroxidases, that play a key role in lignin degradation. In this study the authors isolated and characterized a lignin peroxidase-negative mutant (lip mutant) that showed 16% of the ligninolytic activity ({sup 14}C-labeled synthetic lignin {yields}{sup 14}CO{sub 2}) exhibited by the wild type. The lip mutant did not produce detectable levels of lignin peroxidase, whereas the wild type, under identical conditions, produced 96 U of lignin peroxidase per liter. Both the wild type and the mutant produced comparable levels of manganese peroxidase and glucose oxidases, a key H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-generating secondary metabolic enzyme in P. chrysosporium. Fast protein liquid chromatographic analysis of the concentrated extracellular fluid of the lip mutant confirmed that it produced only heme proteins with manganese peroxidase activities were produced by the wild type. The lip mutant appears to be a regulatory mutant that is defective in the production of all the lignin peroxidases.

  15. 华北地区杨树烂皮病发生发展气象适宜度预报模型%Forecasting Model of Meteorological Suitability for Occurrence and Development of Valsa sordida Nits in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王纯枝; 郭安红; 王玉玲; 周玉江; 毛留喜

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data of meteorology and monitoring on Valsa sordida Nits during 2002 - 2008 in 18 observation stations of Hebei province, the relationship between the occurrence and development of Valsa sordida Nits and meteorological conditions was analyzed applying correlation and regression analysis method. The results showed that the precipitation, rain day, relative humidity and temperature-humidity coefficient were positively related to the incidence of Valsa sordida Nits. It was favorable to the development of Valsa sordida Nits as the precipitation, rain day, relative humidity and temperature-humidity coefficient increased, while it was not favorable to the development of Valsa sordida Nits as the sunshine duration, extreme air temperature increased. The key meteorological factors which affected the occurrence and development of Valsa sordida Nits in Hebei province were temperature-humidity coefficients in March and April,the sunshine hours in the third ten days of March and April, air temperature in the first and third ten days of April, the extremely minimum air temperature in the first ten days of March and April and also last December respectively. The meteorological suitability forecasting model was established based on the normalized key meteorological factors. The validation results by the historical return test showed that forecasting accuracy for meteorological suitability models was 91% by comparing meteorological grade with actual grade. The meteorological grade of the occurrence fastigium during May to June in 2009 was forecasted with forecasting accuracy by 78% by trial forecast. The meteorological conditions in March and April were the key environmental factors affecting the occurrence and development of this disease in North China. The model could be put into the operational application in North China.%利用河北省18个代表站点2002-2008年杨树烂皮病病情资料和相应气象资料,通过相关、回归分析等方法,分析河

  16. Heterologous expression of fungal cytochromes P450 (CYP5136A1 and CYP5136A3) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Functionalization with cytochrome b5 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Mayumi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Ichinose, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    Cytochromes P450 from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium, CYP5136A1 and CYP5136A3, are capable of catalyzing oxygenation reactions of a wide variety of exogenous compounds, implying their significant roles in the metabolism of xenobiotics by the fungus. It is therefore interesting to explore their biochemistry to better understand fungal biology and to enable the use of fungal enzymes in the biotechnology sector. In the present study, we developed heterologous expression systems for CYP5136A1 and CYP5136A3 using the T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system in Escherichia coli. Expression levels of recombinant P450s were dramatically improved by modifications and optimization of their N-terminal amino acid sequences. A CYP5136A1 reaction system was reconstructed in E. coli whole cells by coexpression of CYP5136A1 and a redox partner, NADPH-dependent P450 reductase (CPR). The catalytic activity of CYP5136A1 was significantly increased when cytochrome b5 (Cyt-b5) was further coexpressed with CPR, indicating that Cyt-b5 supports electron transfer reactions from NAD(P)H to CYP5136A1. Notably, P450 reaction occurred in E. coli cells that harbored CYP5136A1 and Cyt-b5 but not CPR, implying that the reducing equivalents required for the P450 catalytic cycle were transferred via a CPR-independent pathway. Such an "alternative" electron transfer system in CYP5136A1 reaction was also demonstrated using purified enzymes in vitro. The fungal P450 reaction system may be associated with sophisticated electron transfer pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Strains and Veratryl Alcohol on Degradation of Two Kinds of Dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium%菌种品系及VA对黄孢原毛平革菌降解两种染料的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧蓉

    2001-01-01

    The shallow static cultures of methylene blue and Biebrich scarlet with different strains of Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed: to methylene blue, degradation efficiency of ME-446 was best, that of OGC101 was similar to BKM-F-1767; to Biebrich scarlet, the first was OGC101, the second M-446, and the last BKM-F-1767. The extraneous supply of VA was advantaged to decolorization and degradation of dyes during early stages, but a week later, there was no significant difference in the samples with addition of VA and without VA. The results showed that various strains had different abilities of decolorization and degradation; the VA that the intact fungus culture self-synthesized was enough to support the normal operation of degradative culture system.%黄孢原毛平革菌的不同品系与染料亚甲基蓝和比布列希猩红的浅层静培养表明,对于亚甲基蓝而言,ME-446降解能力最强,OGC101和BKM-F-1767相似;以比布列希猩红为底物,则OGC101最好,ME-446其次,最后为BKM-F-1767。虽然外源藜芦醇(vA)的补充在培养初期有利于染料脱色降解率的提高;但一周后,与不添加VA的样品比较,脱色降解率接近或相等。这说明菌的品系存在降解能力的差异;完整菌体自身合成的VA足以维持降解培养体系的正常运作。

  18. Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Fueyo, Elena; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Ferreira, Patrica; Floudas, Dimitrios; HIbbett, David S.; Canessa, Paulo; Larrondo, Luis F.; James, Tim Y.; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Lobos, Sergio; Polanco, Ruben; Tello, Mario; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takahito; Watanabe, Takashi; Ryu, Jae San; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika; Gaskell, Jill; Hammel, Kenneth E.; John, Franz J.; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Sabat, Grzegorz; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Yadav, Jagjit S.; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Lavin, Jose L.; Oguiza, Jose A.; Perez, Gumer; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramirez, Lucia; Santoyo, Francisco; Master, Emma; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Lombard, Vincent; Magnuson, Jon Karl; Kues, Ursula; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Held, Benjamin W.; Barry, Kerrie W.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Schwenk, Daniel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Yarden, Oded; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Stenlid, Jan; Eastwood, Daniel; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Berka, Randy M.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Kersten, Phil; Martinez, Angel T.; Vicuna, Rafael; Cullen, Dan

    2011-12-06

    Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do so with relatively little cellulose degradation. To investigate the basis for selective ligninolysis, we conducted comparative genome analysis of C. subvermispora and P. chrysosporium. Genes encoding manganese peroxidase numbered 13 and five in C. subvermispora and P. chrysosporium, respectively. In addition, the C. subvermispora genome contains at least seven genes predicted to encode laccases, whereas the P. chrysosporium genome contains none. We also observed expansion of the number of C. subvermispora desaturase-encoding genes putatively involved in lipid metabolism. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis showed substantial up-regulation of several desaturase and MnP genes in wood-containing medium. MS identified MnP proteins in C. subvermispora culture filtrates, but none in P. chrysosporium cultures. These results support the importance of MnP and a lignin degradation mechanism whereby cleavage of the dominant nonphenolic structures is mediated by lipid peroxidation products. Two C. subvermispora genes were predicted to encode peroxidases structurally similar to P. chrysosporium lignin peroxidase and, following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, the enzymes were shown to oxidize high redox potential substrates, but not Mn2. Apart from oxidative lignin degradation, we also examined cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic systems in both fungi. In summary, the C. subvermispora genetic inventory and expression patterns exhibit increased oxidoreductase potential and diminished cellulolytic capability relative to P. chrysosporium.

  19. Effect of inducers and culturing processes on laccase synthesis in Phanerochaete chrysosporium NCIM 1197 and the constitutive expression of laccase isozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manavalan, Arulmani

    2006-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium NCIM 1197 constitutively secretes considerable level of extracellular enzyme laccase in defined growth medium. Effect of several inducers on laccase production was attempted and found that copper sulphate alone at 30 mM concentration accelerate the laccase production...

  20. ABILITY OF Phanerochaete chrysosporium AND Trametes versicolor TO REMOVE Zn2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Solís Pacheco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of fungal biomass as an alternative for removing heavy metals has become increasingly important in recent years, replacing conventional methods based on chemical physical processes. In this study, we evaluated the biosorption of Zn2+, Cr3+ and Pb2+, which were analyzed to determine their effect on growth kinetic parameters of Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 1267. Growth kinetics were performed in four liquid culture media: 1 Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB used as control, 2 YNB medium plus Pb2+ (0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1, 3 YNB medium plus Zn2+ (5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 and 4 YNB medium plus Cr3+ (0.5, 1 and 2 mg L-1. The flasks were incubated at 25 °C with shaking at 150 rpm. Metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES with prior acid digestion of the sample. The results demonstrated that Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 12679 are able to grow in the culture medium with Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+ ions at different concentrations. However, P. chrysosporium ATCC 32629 showed greater adaptability and ability to adsorb Cr3+ in the culture medium at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg L-1, whereas T. versicolor ATCC 12679 was capable of Pb2+ biosorption at concentrations of 0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1.

  1. Ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide treated corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol was produced via the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of dilute sodium hydroxide treated corn stover. Saccharification was achieved by cultivating either Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Gloeophyllum trabeum on the treated stover, and fermentation was then performed by using either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli K011. Ethanol production was highest on day 3 for the combination of G. trabeum and E. coli K011 at 6.68 g/100g stover, followed by the combination of P. chrysosporium and E. coli K011 at 5.00 g/100g stover. SSF with S. cerevisiae had lower ethanol yields, ranging between 2.88 g/100g stover at day 3 (P. chrysosporium treated stover) and 3.09 g/100g stover at day 4 (G. trabeum treated stover). The results indicated that mild alkaline pretreatment coupled with fungal saccharification offers a promising bioprocess for ethanol production from corn stover without the addition of commercial enzymes.

  2. Screening of static culture and comparison of batch and continuous culture for the textile dye biological decolorization by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Urra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the level of decolorization of 13 dyes were evaluated using static and agitated batch cultures and continuous cultures. A screening carried out under static conditions showed that the oxidative system has a certain affinity for azoic structures. For concentrations of 100 mg l-1 of Acid Black 1, Reactive Black 5, Reactive Orange 16 and Acid Red 27, decolorization percentages higher than 90% were obtained. In batch cultures with Acid Black 1 and Reactive Black 5 a significant increment in primary post-metabolism biomass was observed. For these last two dyes, it was possible to explore the response of the continuous system during 32 to 47 days, with concentrations between 25 to 400 mg l-1, obtaining decolorization percentages greater than 70% for 400 mg l-1.

  3. Production of the Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase in Aspergillus niger for synthetic dyes decolorization and biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghazi, Lamiae; Record, Eric; Suárez, Antonio; Gomez-Vidal, José A; Martínez, José; de la Rubia, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the expression of Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase gene in Aspergillus niger and the physical and biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme (rLac-LPFA) in order to test it for synthetic dye biotransformation. A. niger was able to produce high levels of active recombinant enzyme (30 mgL(-1)), whose identity was further confirmed by immunodetection using Western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Interestingly, rLac-LPFA exhibited an improved stability at pH (2-9) and organic solvents tested. Furthermore, the percentage of decoloration and biotransformation of synthetic textile dyes, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Acid Red 299 (NY1), was higher than for the native enzyme. Its high production, simple purification, high activity, stability and ability to transform textile dyes make rLac-LPFA a good candidate for industrial applications.

  4. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgenstern, Ingo [CLARK UNIV; Hibbett, David [CLARK UNIV.; Schmoll, Monika [UNIV WIEN; Kubicek, Christian P [UNIV WIEN; Ferreira, Patricia [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Martinez, Angel T [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Kersten, Phil [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Hammel, Kenneth E [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber [U. WISCONSIN; Gaskell, Jill [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Lindquist, Erika [DOE JGI; Sabati, Grzegorz [U. WISCONSIN; Bondurant, Sandra S [U. WISCONSIN; Larrondo, Luis F [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Canessa, Paulo [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Vicunna, Rafael [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Yadavk, Jagiit [U. CINCINATTI; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan [U. CINCINATTI; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan [U. CINCINATTI; Pisabarro, Antonio G [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Lavin, Jose L [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Oguiza, Jose A [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Master, Emma [U. TORONTO; Henrissat, Bernard [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Coutinho, Pedro M [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Harris, Paul [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Magnuson, Jon K [PNNL; Baker, Scott [PNNL; Bruno, Kenneth [PNNL; Kenealy, William [MASCOMA, INC.; Hoegger, Patrik J [GEORG-AUGUST-U.; Kues, Ursula [GEORG-AUGUST-U; Ramaiva, Preethi [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Lucas, Susan [DOE JGI; Salamov, Asaf [DOE JGI; Shapiro, Harris [DOE JGI; Tuh, Hank [DOE JGI; Chee, Christine L [UNM; Teter, Sarah [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Yaver, Debbie [NOVOZYMES, INC.; James, Tim [MCMASTER U.; Mokrejs, Martin [CHARLES U.; Pospisek, Martin [CHARLES U.; Grigoriev, Igor [DOE JGI; Rokhsar, Dan [DOE JGI; Berka, Randy [NOVOZYMES; Cullen, Dan [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium and its application in the bioremediation of composite-polluted wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenzhen [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Guiqiu, E-mail: gqchen@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Anwei [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Zuo, Yanan; Guo, Zhi; Tan, Qiong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Song, Zhongxian [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Niu, Qiuya [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-05-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of polyvinyl alcohol-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium beads (PPBs) for Cd(II) removal and 2,4-DCP degradation. - Highlights: • PVA-immobilized P. chrysosporium beads (PPBs) were fit for wastewater treatment. • Removal rates of Cd(II) and 2,4-DCP at optimum conditions were up to 78% and 95.4%. • 2,4-DCP removal rates were beyond 90% with varying initial 2,4-DCP concentrations. • PVA was vital to Cd(II) removal besides the function groups in P. chrysosporium. • Maximum recovery of the Cd(II)-laden PPBs after reuse three times was 98.9%. - Abstract: A novel biosorbent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was applied to the bioremediation of composite-polluted wastewater, containing both cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The optimum removal efficiency achieved was 78% for Cd(II) and 95.4% for 2,4-DCP at initial concentrations of 20 mg/L Cd(II) and 40 mg/L 2,4-DCP. PPBs had significantly enhanced the resistance of P. chrysosporium to 2,4-DCP, leading to the degradation rates of 2,4-DCP beyond 90% with varying initial 2,4-DCP concentrations. This research demonstrated that 2,4-DCP and secreted proteins might be used as carbon and nitrogen sources by PVA-immobilized P. chrysosporium beads (PPBs) for Cd(II) removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of PPBs were dominant in Cd(II) binding. The mechanism underlying the degradation of 2,4-DCP into fumaric acid and 1-hexanol was investigated. The adsorption–desorption studies indicated that PPBs kept up to 98.9% of desorption efficiency over three cycles.

  6. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  7. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  8. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  9. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  10. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been recognized as a widespread, potentially low cost renewable source of mixed sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol. Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol, remains one of the main barriers to technical and commercial success of the processing technology. Existing pretreatment methods have largely been developed on the basis of physiochemical technologies which are considered relatively expensive and usually involve adverse environmental impacts. In this study, an environmentally benign alternative, microbial pretreatment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was explored to degrade lignin in cotton stalks and facilitate their conversion into ethanol. Two submerged liquid pretreatment techniques (SmC), shallow stationary and agitated cultivation, at three inorganic salt concentrations (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+, modified salts with Mn2+) were compared by evaluating their pretreatment efficiencies. Shallow stationary cultivation with no salt was superior to other pretreatment conditions and gave 20.7% lignin degradation along with 76.3% solids recovery and 29.0% carbohydrate availability over a 14 day period. The influence of substrate moisture content (65%, 75% and 80% M.C. wet-basis), inorganic salt concentration (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+ , modified salts with Mn2+) and culture time (0-14 days) on pretreatment effectiveness in solid state (SSC) systems was also examined. It was shown that solid state cultivation at 75% M.C. without salts was the most preferable pretreatment resulting in 27.6% lignin degradation, 71.1% solids recovery and 41.6% carbohydrate availability over a period of 14 days. A study on hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks treated microbially using the most promising SmC (shallow stationary, no salts) and SSC (75% moisture content, no salts) methods resulted in no increase in cellulose conversion with direct enzyme application (10.98% and 3

  11. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  12. U.S. National Fungus Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — The U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) are the “Smithsonian for fungi” and are the repository for over one million fungal specimens worldwide - the largest such...

  13. A new macrocyclic trichochecene from soil fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province,a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated.The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  14. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  15. A New Macrocyclic Trichochecene from Soil Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoWANG; YiZHANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province, a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated. The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopie evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  16. Purification and characteristics of a low-molecular-weight peptide possessing oxidative capacity for phenol from Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Ming; ZHANG; Weican; LU; Xuemei; GAO; Peiji

    2006-01-01

    A new low-molecular-weight peptide with phenol oxidase activity, named Pc factor, was isolated and purified from liquid culture of a white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Its molecular weight was about 600 Da estimated by gel-filtration. Three amino acids Glu, Gly and Val were detected in hydrolysate. Absorption peaks corresponding to amino acids and peptide were observed by UV and IR spectra analysis. And the signal of Cα of amino acid was also detected by 13C-NMR method. Pc factor had high thermostability and remained active in weakly alkalescent pH range. It could chelate Fe3+ and reduce it to Fe2+, but no hydroxyl radical HO` could be detected during the reaction process. It could oxidize phenolic lignin-model compounds such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP), 2,2(-azinobis (3-ethylbenzathiazoline-6-sulfinic acid) (ABTS) and syringaldazine in the absence of Mn2+ and H2O2. These characteristics differed greatly from those of manganese peroxidases. The oxidative catalysis of Pc factor can be enhanced by certain metal ions such as Cu2+ and Mn2+ etc., and O2 molecule was necessary for this reaction. In summary, Pc factor may function as an electron carrier in this novel oxidation-reduction system.

  17. Direct determination of lignin peroxidase released from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by in-capillary enzyme assay using micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Airi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kaneta, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Here we describe the application of an in-capillary enzyme assay using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in the determination of enzyme activity in a crude culture medium containing lignin peroxidase released from Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). The method consists of a plug-plug reaction between lignin peroxidase and its substrate, veratryl alcohol, the separation of the product, veratraldehyde, from the other components including the enzyme and the culture medium, and the determination of the enzyme activity from the peak area of veratraldehyde produced by the plug-plug reaction. This method is more sensitive than conventional spectrophotometry since the background originates from the enzyme and the culture medium can be removed via MEKC separation. Veratraldehyde was separated at -10kV in a background electrolyte containing 50mM tartrate buffer (pH 2.5) and 50mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) after a plug-plug reaction in the capillary for 5min. The calibration curve of veratraldehyde was linear up to 4pmol (500μM) with a limit to quantification of 0.026pmol (3.2μM) (SN=10). The activity of lignin peroxidase was directly measured from the peak area of veratraldehyde. The activity of lignin peroxidase released from P. chrysosporium into the medium for 7 days was successfully determined to be 3.40UL(-1).

  18. In vitro degradation of natural insoluble lignin in aqueous media by the extracellular peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.N.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Hames, B.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Biomass Analysis Group; Grethlein, H.E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    1998-03-20

    The lignin peroxidases (LIP) and manganese peroxidases (MNP) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium catalyze a wide range of lignin depolymerization reactions with lignin models and synthetic lignins in solution. However, their ability to degrade insoluble natural lignin in aqueous media has not been demonstrated. Insoluble isolated poplar lignin similar to natural lignin was treated in vitro in aqueous media for 12 h with LIP, MNP, and both. Treatment with MNP alone slightly increased the solid mass and produced measurable amounts of lignin-derived 2,6-dimethoxyhydroquinone and 2-methoxyhydroquinone but did not appreciably decrease the total lignin content. Treatment with LIP alone did not decrease the mass but produced measurable amounts of lignin-derived p-hydroxybenzoic acid and slightly decreased the lignin content. Finally, treatment with LIP and MNP together decreased the solid mass by 11%, decreased the lignin content by 5%, and released low-concentration compounds with mass spectra containing the typical lignin-derived electron-impact fragments of mass 107, 137, 151, 167, and 181. These results suggest that MNP increases the effectiveness of LIP-mediated lignin degradation.

  19. Biodegradation of pyrene by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and enzyme activities in soils: effect of SOM, sterilization and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Liu, Haibin; Wang, Baolin

    2014-05-01

    The impacts of soil organic matter (SOM), aging and sterilization on the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium during the biodegradation of pyrene in soils were investigated. The biodegradation of pyrene by P. chrysosporium decreased with increasing SOM content, whereas the maximum activities of LiP and MnP increased, which indicates that SOM outweighed pyrene in controlling enzyme production. Sterilization enhanced the degradation of pyrene due to the elimination of competition from indigenous microbes, whereas aging led to a reduction in the degradation of pyrene primarily through changes in its sorbed forms. Both sterilization and aging could reduce SOM content and alter its structure, which also influenced the bioavailability of pyrene and the enzyme activity. The sterilization and aging processes caused changes in the degradation of pyrene, and the enzyme activities were greater in soils with high SOM contents. MnP was related to the degradation of pyrene to a greater extent, whereas LiP was more related to the decomposition of SOM.

  20. Metabolism of cellulose by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in continuously agitated culture is associated with enhanced production of lignin peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchi, L; Burla, G; Zuolong, D; Harvey, P J

    2000-03-10

    Production of the extracellular heme protein lignin peroxidase (LiP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium is currently associated with a number of requirements, namely exposure of the cultures to oxygen; limiting nutrient nitrogen or carbon and static or semi-static culture conditions. To obtain LiP activity in continuously agitated liquid culture requires the inclusion of a surfactant. However, using cellulose as the carbon source, we obtained high titres (0.2-0.4 U ml(-1)) of LiP in submerged liquid cultures under conditions of continuous agitation, without substrate limitation or the need to add oxygen or surfactant. Comparison of the morphological and physiological traits of hyphae maintained on either cellulose or free glucose supports observations that the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide in the cultures grown on glucose, restricts oxygen diffusion into the hyphae, which is necessary for LiP induction. They also suggest that isozymes of LiP synthesised under these conditions may be triggered in response to oxidant stress.

  1. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, 39 Mukaizano, Dazaifu-shi, Fukuoka 818-0135 (Japan); Ichinose, Hirofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Wariishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hirowari@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Bio-Architecture Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  2. Removal of phenol in phenolic resin wastewater by a novel biomaterial: the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet containing chlamydospore-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailei, Wang; Ping, Li; Yu, Qin; Hui, Yang

    2016-06-01

    A novel biomaterial, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet (CP) composed of chlamydospore-like cells (CLCs), was prepared and its potential in treating phenolic resin wastewater was evaluated. CP possesses higher phenol removal ability in contrast with mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium, and CLC can be seen as the naturally immobilized enzymes. At shake-flask level, the ideal pH value, temperature, and inoculation quantity of CP for treatment of 1430 mg/l phenol wastewater were pH 4-6, 30 °C, and 5.0 g/l, respectively, and the maximum specific removal rate, 41.1 mg phenol/g CP/h, was obtained in fixed bed reactor (FBR) when the flow rate of wastewater was 3.4 l/h. During the treatment, FBR harbored amounts of bacteria (135 genera) and eukaryotes, as analyzed by metagenomic sequencing. Bacterial pollution not only decreased reactor performance but also had a negative impact on reusability of CP. Hot water treatment (80-85 °C) is effective to inhibit bacterial pollution, and heat resistance of CLC makes the repeated regrowing of CP be feasible. This work presents an innovative and low-cost biomaterial for phenol removal and will be helpful for the practical application of P. chrysosporium in wastewater treatment.

  3. Manganese peroxidase production from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation and its decolorization of indigo carmine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huixing Li; Ruijing Zhang; Lei Tang; Jianhua Zhang; Zhonggui Mao

    2015-01-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes to higher value products through fungal fermentation has economic and ecological benefits. In this study, to develop an effective strategy for production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation, the stimulators of MnP produc-tion were screened and their concentrations were optimized by one-at-a-time experiment and Box–Behnken design. The maximum MnP activity of 186.38 nkat·g−1 dry mass of the sample was achieved after 6 days of fer-mentation with the supplement of 79.5 mmol·L−1·kg−1 acetic acid, 3.21 ml·kg−1 soybean oil, and 28.5 g·kg−1 alkaline lignin, indicating that cassava residue is a promising substrate for MnP production in solid state fermen-tation. Meanwhile, in vitro decolorization of indigo carmine by the crude MnP was also carried out, attaining the ratio of 90.18%after 6 h of incubation. An oxidative mechanism of indigo carmine decolorization by MnP was pro-posed based on the analysis of intermediate metabolites with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Using the crude MnP produced from cassava residue for indigo carmine decolorization gives an effective approach to treat dyeing effluents.

  4. Ligninolytic enzyme system of Phanerochaete chrysosporium: synthesized in the absence of lignin in response to nitrogen starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, P.; Kirk, T.K.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1978-09-01

    The relationship between growth, nutrient nitrogen assimilation, and the appearance of ligninolytic activity was examined in stationary batch cultures of the wood-destroying hymenomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. grown under conditions optimized for lignin metabolism. A reproducible sequence of events followed inoculation: 0 to 24 h, germination, linear growth, and depletion of nutrient nitrogen; 24 to 48 h, cessation of linear growth and derepression of ammonium permease activity (demonstrating nitrogen starvation); 72 to 96 h, appearance of ligninolytic activity (synthetic /sup 14/C-lignin ..-->.. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/). Experiments with cycloheximide demonstrated that appearance of ligninolytic activity occurs irrespective of the presence of lignin; lignin did not induce additional activity. Addition of NH/sub 4//sup +/ to cultures immediately prior to the time of appearance of the ligninolytic system delayed its appearance, suggesting that the NH/sub 4//sup +/ led to interference with synthesis of the enzyme system. Addition of NH/sub 4//sup +/ to ligninolytic cultures resulted in an eventual, temporary decrease in ligninolytic activity. The results suggest that all or essential protein components of the ligniolytic enzyme system are synthesized as part of a series of physiological (secondary metabolic) events that are initiated by nutrient nitrogen starvation.

  5. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  6. Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

    This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

  7. The Bio-degradation of Atrazine by Chlamydospore of Phanerochaete chrysosporium%黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)厚垣孢子降解阿特拉津的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 秦雨; 李慧; 王海磊

    2016-01-01

    阿特拉津(atrazine)是一类普遍存在于环境中且难降解的污染物.本文探究了黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)厚垣孢子对阿特拉津降解的最佳条件,包括温度、摇床转速、初始培养基pH及接种量.并在大田土壤盆栽实验中,研究P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子和土壤土著微生物对土壤中阿特拉津的降解情况.结果表明:P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子可以有效去除阿特拉津,在33℃、转速为180 r· min-1、pH值为7.0、接种量是4 g·L-1时,去除效果最好,去除率达90.77%.土壤盆栽实验结果表明:施用P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子28 d后,非灭菌土壤中阿特拉津去除率为97.8%,其中P.chrysosporium的降解贡献最为突出,去除能力为59.3%.而土著土壤微生物的去除率仅为20.7%,表明P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子对AT降解效果明显.

  8. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  9. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  10. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  11. Renal fungus ball: a challenging clinical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Phin; Turba, Ulku C; Deane, Leslie A

    2017-04-28

    We describe a case of renal pelvi-ureteric fungus ball managed with placement of two nephrostomy tubes and amphotericin B irrigation through a nephrostomy tube with the other to free drain. A 46-year-old man with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes mellitus was referred to the urology clinic for workup of recurrent urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew Candida albicans. The patient was started on oral fluconazole therapy. Cystoscopy and cystogram revealed a grade 3 left vesicoureteral reflux and right retrograde pyelogram revealed a filling defect in the right renal pelvis extending into the proximal ureter with severe hydroureteronephrosis. Two nephrostomy tubes were placed (mid-pole and lower pole) to ensure that the system was not obstructed. Amphotericin B (50 mg/1000 ml normal saline) irrigation was then instilled through the mid-pole nephrostomy tube at a rate of 30 ml/h with the lower pole nephrostomy tube to free drain. An antegrade nephrostogram was performed after 5 days of amphotericin B instillation, showing complete resolution of the fungus ball. The patient is awaiting definitive minimally invasive management of the distal ureteral narrowing. Renal and pelvi-ureteric fungus ball is a challenging clinical entity. It must be addressed promptly and efficiently to be successful. We describe a minimally invasive approach that was tolerated well and resulted in complete clearance of the fungus ball in a relatively short time frame.

  12. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... Despite this, a large proportion (75 to 90%) of fertilizer P .... nitrogen salts such as Urea, KNO3, NaNO3, NH4Cl, NaNO2 (Figure. 2). Phospholytic activity of fungus along with MHB strains without any carbon and nitrogen sources acted as control and .... complexity of CaP chemistry, release of microbial.

  13. 载体吸附培养黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)和云芝(Trametes versicolor) 对染料的脱色%Decolorization of dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor growing on adsorptive carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊; 李学梅; 张文黎; 花清信; 苌道松; 徐颖; 李雪玲; 任四伟; 陈宣宇; 杨清香

    2012-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were cultured on different carriers for continuous decolorization, the performance of different Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were researched and compared. In this paper, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were cultured in liquid containing spherical sawdust, corncob and peanut shells under oscillation conditions. During few days of cultivation, large amount of bacteria was grew and attached on the carrier surface in membranous and lump state. After consecutive 4 rounds of decolorization, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor growing on sawdust carrier had significant advantage both in continuous decolorization and producing enzymes, so the optimal adsorptive carrier was sawdust. After consecutive 2 rounds and 12 d of reactive black RB5 decolorization, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium culture with sawdust as adsorptive carrier could achieve the decolorization of 97 %; after three rounds of dye supplemented, the cultures also could remove nearly 96% of M-3BE and the maximum production of manganese dependant pcroxidase enzyme (MnP) and lignin peroxidase enzyme (LiP) was 611, 1 477 U/L. In the actual application, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor culture with sawdust as carriers should be added to dye wastewater treatment system to strengthen the biological treatment effect.%比较研究了不同载体吸附培养的黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)和云芝(Trametes versicolor)对染料连续脱色的效果.结果表明:(1)白腐真菌黄孢原毛平革菌和云芝分别在含有球形的木屑、玉米芯和花生壳载体的液体环境中振荡培养,菌体以膜状或团状形式大量附着生长在载体表面.(2)连续4轮脱色过程中,不论黄孢原毛平革菌还是云芝,都是木屑为载体的培养液的持续脱色和产酶能力最好,宜选择木屑为载体.其中,木屑为载体的黄孢

  14. Characterization of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium glutathione transferase reveals a novel structural and functional class with ligandin properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Prosper, Pascalita; Buée, Marc; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Gérardin, Philippe; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Lamant, Tiphaine; Meux, Edgar; Mathiot, Sandrine; Didierjean, Claude; Morel, Mélanie

    2012-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes. A new fungal specific class of GST has been highlighted by genomic approaches. The biochemical and structural characterization of one isoform of this class in Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed original properties. The three-dimensional structure showed a new dimerization mode and specific features by comparison with the canonical GST structure. An additional β-hairpin motif in the N-terminal domain prevents the formation of the regular GST dimer and acts as a lid, which closes upon glutathione binding. Moreover, this isoform is the first described GST that contains all secondary structural elements, including helix α4' in the C-terminal domain, of the presumed common ancestor of cytosolic GSTs (i.e. glutaredoxin 2). A sulfate binding site has been identified close to the glutathione binding site and allows the binding of 8-anilino-1-naphtalene sulfonic acid. Competition experiments between 8-anilino-1-naphtalene sulfonic acid, which has fluorescent properties, and various molecules showed that this GST binds glutathionylated and sulfated compounds but also wood extractive molecules, such as vanillin, chloronitrobenzoic acid, hydroxyacetophenone, catechins, and aldehydes, in the glutathione pocket. This enzyme could thus function as a classical GST through the addition of glutathione mainly to phenethyl isothiocyanate, but alternatively and in a competitive way, it could also act as a ligandin of wood extractive compounds. These new structural and functional properties lead us to propose that this GST belongs to a new class that we name GSTFuA, for fungal specific GST class A.

  15. KUALITAS KERTAS SENI DARI PELEPAH TANAMAN SALAK MELALUI “BIOCHEMICAL” JAMUR Phanerochaete crysosporium DAN Pleurotus ostreatus DENGAN VARIASI LAMA PEMASAKAN DALAM NaOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triastuti Rahayu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kertas seni atau biasa disebut kertas daur ulang merupakan kertas yang biasa digunakan sebagai bahan pembuatan kerajinan tangan. Biasanya terbuat dari limbah tanaman yang mengandung serat tinggi. Limbah pelepah tanaman salak yangtidak termanfaatkan mengandung serat tinggi yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan kertas seni. Bahan baku tersebut diproses melalui biopulping jamur Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Pleurotus ostreatus. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kualitas kertas seni dari pelepah tanaman salak melalui biokraft jamur Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Pleurotus ostreatus dengan variasi lama pemasakan dalam NaOH dengan parameter penelitian uji daya tarik, daya sobek dan uji sensoris (tekstur, warna, kenampakan serat dan daya terima masyarakat. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan dua faktor, faktor 1 yaitu lama pemasakan dalam NaOH 15% (P1=1 jam, P2= 2 jam dan faktor 2 yaitu lama inkubasi (L1= 30 hari, L2= 45 hari dengan 4 perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas kertas seni terbaik adalah pada perlakuan P2L1 (lama pemasakan 2 jam dan lama inkubasi 30 hari yaitu 0,243 N/mm2 yang merupakan hasil uji daya tarik dan 18,711 N yang merupakan daya sobek tertinggi, tekstur halus, warna coklat muda, kenampakan serat kurang jelas dan panelis suka terhadap kertas ini.

  16. Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

    2014-07-15

    Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the

  17. Enzymatic Strategies and Carbon Use Efficiency of a Litter-Decomposing Fungus Grown on Maize Leaves, Stems, and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Gainvors-Claisse, Angélique; Recous, Sylvie; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms can control the soil cycles of carbon (C), and depending on their C-use efficiency (CUE), these microorganisms either contribute to C stabilization in soil or produce CO2 when decomposing organic matter. However, little is known regarding the enzyme investment of microbial decomposers and the effects on their CUE. Our objective was to elucidate the strategies of litter-decomposing fungi as a function of litter quality. Fungal biosynthesis and respiration were accounted for by quantifying the investment in enzyme synthesis and enzyme efficiency. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown on the leaves, stems, and roots of maize over 126 days in controlled conditions. We periodically measured the fungal biomass, enzyme activity, and chemical composition of the remaining litter and continuously measured the evolved C-CO2. The CUE observed for the maize litter was highest in the leaves (0.63), intermediate in the roots (0.40), and lowest in the stems (0.38). However, the enzyme efficiency and investment in enzyme synthesis did not follow the same pattern. The amount of litter C decomposed per mole of C-acquiring hydrolase activity was 354 μg C in the leaves, 246 μg C in the roots, and 1541 μg C in the stems (enzyme efficiency: stems > leaves > roots). The fungus exhibited the highest investment in C-acquiring enzyme when grown on the roots and produced 40-80% less enzyme activity when grown on the stems and leaves (investment in enzymes: roots > leaves > stems). The CUE was dependent on the initial availability and replenishment of the soluble substrate fraction with the degradation products. The production of these compounds was either limited because of the low enzyme efficiency, which occurred in the roots, or because of the low investments in enzyme synthesis, which occurred in the stems. Fungal biosynthesis relied on the ability of the fungus to invest in enzyme synthesis and the efficient interactions between the enzymes and

  18. Pulmonary infections by the fungus aspergillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of respiratory infection by Aspergillus fumigates are described. Species of aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature. Therefore, repeated demonstration of fungus, serological evidence tend radiological findings are essential for diagnosis. Potassium iodide is a useful drug in aspergillus infection of the lung when other drugs are not available. Injection Emetine hydrochloride is promising as a therapeutic agent in pulmonary aspergillosis, where the lung parenchyma is involved.

  19. Antimicrobial constituents from endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of fraction of the fungus Fusarium sp. and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: Six compounds were purified from an fraction of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. using column chromatography and their structures have been confirmed based on 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, 2D COSY, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation experiments. The six isolated compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion method. Results: Phytochemical investigation of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. lead to the isolation and identification of the following compounds viz., colletorin B, colletochlorin B, LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B, 4,5-dihydroascochlorin, ascochlorin, and 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin. Colletorin B and colletochlorin B displayed moderate herbicidal, antifungal and antibacterial activities towards Chlorella fusca, Ustilago violacea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Bacillus megaterium. On the other hand LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B showed moderate antifungal activity towards Ustilago violacea and Fusarium oxysporum while 4,5-dihydroascochlorin showed strong antibacterial activity towards Bacillus megaterium. Furthermore, 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin showed very strong antifungal activity towards Eurotium repens. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities demonstrated by five of the six isolated compounds clearly demonstrate that these fungi extracts and active compounds present a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Decomposition of Plant Debris by the Nematophagous Fungus ARF

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kening; Riggs, R. D.; Crippen, Devany

    2004-01-01

    In the study of the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes, knowledge of the saprophytic ability of a nematophagous fungus is necessary to understand its establishment and survival in the soil. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the nematophagous fungus ARF (Arkansas Fungus) shows differential use of plant residues; and (ii) to determine if ARF still existed in the soil of a field in which ARF was found originally and in which the population level of Heterodera gly...

  1. Symbiotic fungi produce laccases potentially involved in phenol degradation in fungus combs of fungus-growing termites in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-12-01

    Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase activity was detected in all the fungus combs examined as well as in the culture supernatants of isolated symbiotic fungi. Conversely, no peroxidase activity was detected in any of the fungus combs or the symbiotic fungal cultures. The laccase cDNA fragments were amplified directly from RNA extracted from fungus combs of five termite species and a fungal isolate using degenerate primers targeting conserved copper binding domains of basidiomycete laccases, resulting in a total of 13 putative laccase cDNA sequences being identified. The full-length sequences of the laccase cDNA and the corresponding gene, lcc1-2, were identified from the fungus comb of Macrotermes gilvus and a Termitomyces strain isolated from the same fungus comb, respectively. Partial purification of laccase from the fungus comb showed that the lcc1-2 gene product was a dominant laccase in the fungus comb. These findings indicate that the symbiotic fungus secretes laccase to the fungus comb. In addition to laccase, we report novel genes that showed a significant similarity with fungal laccases, but the gene product lacked laccase activity. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in symbiotic fungi of all the termite hosts examined.

  2. A novel knotted cotton-thread carrier:Its potential use in achieving the biomass renewal of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve an innovative strategy to renew the biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system which can maintain white-rot fungi biomass, a novel knotted cotton-thread carrier was designed and made. By using a high-speed stirring apparatus under the conditions of 1400 r/min stirring speed for 6 min, mycelia immobilized on the knotted cotton-thread carriers were exfoliated completely and homogenized to a proper size. Furthermore, the homogenized mycelia from the immobilized mycelia can resume their growth on the knotted cotton-thread carriers in agitated flask cultures. The average regrowth biomass on the new carriers and the reused carriers was 0.0171 g/carrier and 0.0314 g/carrier, respectively. It proves that the knotted cotton-thread carrier performs perfectly in homogening the immobilized mycelia to achieve the biomass renewal of P. chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system.

  3. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  4. Sterols from the Fungus Catathelasma imperiale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG, Sheng-Ping; XU, Jun; YUE, Jian-Min

    2003-01-01

    Eight ergostane-type sterols and three their derivatives (one mono-linoleate and two mono-glucosides) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the fungus Catathelasma imperiale. Two of them are novel compounds, namely 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β, 5α-diol-6β-linoleate (1) and 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5β,6α-triol (5) with an uncommon cisfused A/B ring. Structures of these compounds were demonstrated on the basis of their chemical evidences and spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques.

  5. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai;

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal cul...

  6. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, Wietse de; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study,

  7. Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Fungus Sporothrix schenckii (ATCC 58251).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Christina A; Rodriguez-Del Valle, Nuri; Perez-Sanchez, Lizaida; Abouelleil, Amr; Goldberg, Jonathan; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W

    2014-05-22

    Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus that grows as a yeast and as mycelia. This species is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, typically a skin infection. We report the genome sequence of S. schenckii, which will facilitate the study of this fungus and of the Sporothrix schenckii group.

  8. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  9. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  10. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai;

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  11. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, Wietse de; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study,

  12. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, de Wietse; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study, we descri

  13. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leave...

  14. Medical image of the week: fungus ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 69 year-old Asian woman living in Arizona with a past medical history of nephrotic syndrome on high-dose steroids had worsening pulmonary symptoms. A computed tomography (CT of the chest (Figure 1 showed a 4.7 cm thin walled cavitary lesion in the right middle lobe compatible with mycetoma. She underwent thoracotomy for mycetoma resection. Surgical pathology confirmed an epithelial-lined cavity containing dense mycelia (Figure 2. Given the patient lived in an endemic area; the cavity was thought to be likely due to coccidioidomycosis. However, the mycetoma was of unclear etiology. No spherules were noted on GMS stain and tissue culture was negative. While of unclear clinical significance which fungus colonizes a pre-existing cavity, a Coccidioides PCR was performed and no Coccidioides genes were amplified making a Coccidioides mycetoma very unlikely. Pulmonary mycetoma or “fungus ball” consists of dense fungal elements and amorphous cellular material within a pre-existing pulmonary cavity. Classically ...

  15. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  17. Assembly of complex plant–fungus networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.; Thompson, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Species in ecological communities build complex webs of interaction. Although revealing the architecture of these networks is fundamental to understanding ecological and evolutionary dynamics in nature, it has been difficult to characterize the structure of most species-rich ecological systems. By overcoming this limitation through next-generation sequencing technology, we herein uncover the network architecture of below-ground plant–fungus symbioses, which are ubiquitous to terrestrial ecosystems. The examined symbiotic network of a temperate forest in Japan includes 33 plant species and 387 functionally and phylogenetically diverse fungal taxa, and the overall network architecture differs fundamentally from that of other ecological networks. In contrast to results for other ecological networks and theoretical predictions for symbiotic networks, the plant–fungus network shows moderate or relatively low levels of interaction specialization and modularity and an unusual pattern of ‘nested’ network architecture. These results suggest that species-rich ecological networks are more architecturally diverse than previously recognized. PMID:25327887

  18. New Development Trend of Edible Fungus Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We elaborate support system of edible fungus industry from outlook on ecological economic development, legislation and standardization of variety approval, multiple-function innovation platform of industrial development research, and perfect talent cultivation and education system. Besides, we analyze the development trend of edible fungus industry from competitive advantages, position and role in national food security, industrial development trend driven by internal demand, diversified industrial development model, division of labor within the industry, and expansion of industrial chain. Then, from the point of zoning and planning of edible fungus industry, we put forward suggestions that it should start from modern industrial system and take the industrial cluster development and optimization as guidance. In addition, we present technical innovation direction of industrial development. It is proposed to strengthen propaganda, build industrial cultural atmosphere, and expand social cognition degree of edible fungus industry to promote its redevelopment. Finally, it is expected to promote international influence of edible fungus industry through experts appealing for policy support.

  19. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  20. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  1. SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

  2. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  3. Specificity in the interaction between an epibiotic clavicipitalean fungus and its convolvulaceous host in a fungus/plant symbiotum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Hellwig, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa (Convolvulaceae) are associated with epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi responsible for the presence of ergoline alkaloids in these plants. Experimentally generated plants devoid of these fungi were inoculated with different epibiotic and endophytic fungi resulting in a necrotic or commensal situation. A symbiotum of host plant and its respective fungus was best established by integration of the fungus into the morphological differentiation of the host plant. This led us to suppose that secretory glands on the leaf surface of the host plant may play an essential role in ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis which takes place in the epibiotic fungus. PMID:19704834

  4. Effect of the Extract of Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica CL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : The ... After 12 h treatment, interaction of extract with MRSA cells resulted in the formation of pit ... Keywords: Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica, Antimicrobial activity, Cellular structure ... human population, veterinary and aquaculture.

  5. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  6. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...... of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles...

  7. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, R W; Moser, J C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on fungi for nutrients, and fungi benefit from them with regard to spore dispersal, habitat provision, or nutrient resources. Mites have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity within many insect-fungus systems. Given that mites are understudied but highly abundant, they likely have bigger, more important, and more widespread impacts on communities than previously recognized. We describe mutualistic and antagonistic effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, explore the processes that underpin ecological and evolutionary patterns of these multipartite communities, review well-researched examples of the effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, and discuss approaches for studying mites within insect-fungus communities.

  8. Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PALL

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

  9. Survey reveals the situation of Chinese caterpillar fungus resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Following its investigation of aweto (or Chinese caterpillar fungus) resources carried out from May to July 2007 on the Tibetan(or Qinghai-Tibet) Plateau,the central producing area of this precious ingredient for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG)under CAS conducted a further survey from May to July 2008 in the marginal habitats of this fungus.

  10. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  11. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  12. Study on the effect of metal ions towards biodegradation pathway of decabrominated diphenyl ether by white rot fungus%金属离子影响白腐菌降解十溴联苯醚的途径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宝燕; 尹华; 彭辉; 叶锦韶; 龙焰; 彭素芬

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to find the influence approaches of metal ions on the degradation of organic pollutants by microorganisms. An aerobic strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium which is capable of decomposing many kinds of aromatic compounds, was selected for the biodegradation of decabrominated diphenyl ether ( BDE209). The effects of metal ions (Cu2+ , Fe2 + , Zn2+ , Mn2 + ) on the biodegradation of BDE209 were investigated. An orthogonal experiment including four factors (Fe2+ , Mn2+ , Cu2+ , Zn2+ ) and five levels (0, 0.01 mmol/L, 0.05 mmol/L, 0.1 mmol/L, 0.2 mmol/L) was designed to optimize the reaction system. The results showed that the optimum combination of the factors was Cu2+ (0.05 mmol/L) , Fe2+ (0.2 mmol/L), Zn2+ (0.01 mmol/L), Mn2+ (0.1 mmol/L). For the treatment of 1 mg/L BDE209, 86.76% degradation efficiency was obtained with 1.74 g biomass. The effect curves of metal ions on the fungus growth and BDE209 degradation were plotted and then compared with one another. Under the condition of low concentration metal ions, BDE209 degradation had a significantly positive correlation with the fungus growth, but at higher levels the relation was different . In other words, high concentration biomass could not produce maximum biodegradation efficiency. The effect of metal ions on degrading process was further explored in the terras of pH value, extracellular enzymes and metals concentration of the fungus. Metal ions altered the pH value of degrading system to which promoted the growth of fungus and accelerated the activity of extracellular enzymes, and thus improved the degradation efficiency of BDE209. Main extracellular enzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium including Iignin Peroxidase (LdP), Manganese Peroxidase (MnP) and Laccase (Lac) were analyzed in relation to BDE209 degrading efficiency. The results showed that the breakage of BDE209 had stronger dependence on Lac than the others and Cu had great influence on production and activity of Lac. A large portion

  13. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Es...

  14. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ground corn stover for the production of fuel ethanol using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Escherichia coli K011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum and subsequent fermentation of the saccharification products to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli K011 were achieved. Prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production, solid-state fermentation was performed for four days on ground corn stover using either P. chrysosporium or G. trabeum to induce in situ cellulase production. During SSF with S. cerevisiae or E. coli, ethanol production was the highest on day 4 for all samples. For corn stover treated with P. chrysosporium, the conversion to ethanol was 2.29 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae as the fermenting organism, whereas for the sample inoculated with E. coli K011, the ethanol production was 4.14 g/100 g corn stover. Corn stover treated with G. trabeum showed a conversion 1.90 and 4.79 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 as the fermenting organisms, respectively. Other fermentation co-products, such as acetic acid and lactic acid, were also monitored. Acetic acid production ranged between 0.45 and 0.78 g/100 g corn stover, while no lactic acid production was detected throughout the 5 days of SSF. The results of our experiment suggest that it is possible to perform SSF of corn stover using P. chrysosporium, G. trabeum, S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 for the production of fuel ethanol.

  15. Effects of different wavelengths of light on lignin peroxidase production by the white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown in submerged cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, David A; Muñoz, Sandra V; Atehortua, Lucia; Michel, Frederick C

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the effects of different wavelengths of light (UV, blue, green, yellow, red) and white light on lignin peroxidase (LiP), protein, biomass and exo-polysaccharide production and glucose uptake by Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 were determined. The experiments were conducted under aerated (CS) and oxygenated (RS) culture conditions. The results showed that only green light significantly increased maximum LiP production (by 20% and 27% in CS and RS cultures respectively). Green light also increased biomass production in oxygenated cultures (RS). Blue and UV light both significantly reduced maximum LiP activity. Yellow, red and white lights had mixed effects on culture properties. This is the first time that the effects of different wavelengths of light on lignin peroxidase production and other culture properties have been investigated. The novel findings may be important in improving the yield of lignin modifying enzymes for biomass conversion processes and understanding their regulation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Involvement of a new enzyme, glyoxal oxidase, in extracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, P.J.; Kirk, K.

    1987-05-01

    The importance of extracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in lignin degradation has become increasingly apparent with the recent discovery of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-requiring ligninases produced by white-rot fungi. Here the authors describe a new H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-producing activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium that involves extracellular oxidases able to use simple aldehyde, ..cap alpha..-hydroxycarbonyl, or..cap alpha..-dicarbonyl compounds as substrates. The activity is expressed during secondary metabolism, when the ligninases are also expressed. Analytical isoelectric focusing of the extracellular proteins, followed by activity staining, indicated that minor proteins with broad substrate specificities are responsible for the oxidase activity. Two of the oxidase substrates, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, were also identified, as their quinoxaline derivatives, in the culture fluid as secondary metabolites. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to lignin degradation and other proposed systems for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production in P. chrysosporium.

  17. Study of the degradation of methylene blue by semi-solid-state fermentation of agricultural residues with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and reutilization of fermented residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangming; Cheng, Min; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Xu, Piao; Wei, Zhen; Li, Ningjie; Zhang, Chen; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of methylene blue (MB) by semi-solid-state fermentation of agricultural residues rice straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the reutilization of fermented residues was investigated. A maximum decolorization of 84.8% for an initial dye concentration of 0.4 g/L was observed at the optimal operating conditions (temperature 35 °C, pH 5). As compared to the previous results obtained using synthetic materials as substrate, the results in the present study revealed an excellent performance of the bioreactor in decolorizing the wastewater containing MB, which is due to this type of cultivation reproducing the natural living conditions of the white rot fungi. Among the two ligninolytic enzymes that are responsible to the decolorization, manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was found better correlated with decoloration percentage. Our results also provide a first step to recycling the fermented residues for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions, the maximum adsorption capacity of the fermented residues reached 51.4 mg/g.

  18. The putative endoglucanase PcGH61D from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a metal-dependent oxidative enzyme that cleaves cellulose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørge Westereng

    Full Text Available Many fungi growing on plant biomass produce proteins currently classified as glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61, some of which are known to act synergistically with cellulases. In this study we show that PcGH61D, the gene product of an open reading frame in the genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is an enzyme that cleaves cellulose using a metal-dependent oxidative mechanism that leads to generation of aldonic acids. The activity of this enzyme and its beneficial effect on the efficiency of classical cellulases are stimulated by the presence of electron donors. Experiments with reduced cellulose confirmed the oxidative nature of the reaction catalyzed by PcGH61D and indicated that the enzyme may be capable of penetrating into the substrate. Considering the abundance of GH61-encoding genes in fungi and genes encoding their functional bacterial homologues currently classified as carbohydrate binding modules family 33 (CBM33, this enzyme activity is likely to turn out as a major determinant of microbial biomass-degrading efficiency.

  19. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  20. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  1. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Sapountzis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N, some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites.

  2. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...

  3. Rock Phosphate Solubilization Mechanisms of One Fungus and One Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong; ZHAO Zi-juan; LI Bao-guo

    2002-01-01

    Many microorganisms can dissolve the insoluble phosphates like apatite. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study was an attempt to investigate the mechanisms of rock phosphate solubilization by an Aspergillus 2TCiF2 and an Arthrobacter1TCRi7. The results indicated that the fungus produced a large amount of organic acids, mainly oxalic acid. The total quantity of the organic acids produced by the fungus was 550 times higher than that by the bacterium. Different organic acids had completely different capacities to solubilize the rock. Oxalic acid and citric acid had stronger capacity to dissolve the rock than malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid. The fungus solubilized the rock through excreting both proton and organic acids. The rock solubilization of the bacterium depended on only proton.

  4. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  5. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  6. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  7. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Debets, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway...... that practices a sit-and-wait strategy to survive in the termite nest. Using isolates from three different termite genera to test our hypothesis, we compared Pseudoxylaria’s growth on 40 carbon sources with that of Termitomyces and tested its interaction with Termitomyces. The C-source use of both fungi largely...

  8. Variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and biofilm of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in continuous membrane bioreactor for Reactive Brilliant Red X3-B treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shang; CHEN Cheng; TAO Fang; HUANG Minsheng; MA Lihua; WANG Zhonghua; WU Linhui

    2009-01-01

    The influence of a Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B (RBR X-3B) dye on the peroxidase isoenzyme of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was determined, and the biofilm structure in a white rot fungal continuous membrane bioreactor (MBR) was also investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and the decolorization rate in the continuous MBR were evaluated. The results showed that the 100 mg/L RBR X-3B could stimulate the production of the peroxidase isoenzyme in the shaking-flask culture. In addition, two new peroxidase isoenzyme bands with relative mobility (Rf) value of 0.27 and 0.28 appeared, but the activity was lower than the blank control of 11 d. In the continuous MBR, the system worked stably during the first 60 d, the main peroxidase isoenzyme bands existed and three new bands with Rf value of 0.10, 0.27, and 0.28 appeared. Meanwhile, the biofilm grew well and the average decolorization rate could reach 90.6%. But the bands of peroxidase isoenzyme decreased rapidly at day 65, only two bands with Rf value 0.24 and 0.26 existed, and the decolorization rate decreased to 78.3%. Therefore, 5 bottles of P. chrysosporium mycelial pellet were added into the MBR, and then the activity of the peroxidase isoenzyme and the decolorization rate had a slight recovery. Finally, the decolorization rate finally decreased to 75.2%. These results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and biofilm in continuous MBR by white rot fungi.

  9. [Study of water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dejun; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Min; Xie, Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2005-10-01

    To study water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus. The chemical constituents of fungus garden were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. 28 compounds were separated and 11 chemical constituents were identified. The main constituents in water-solubles from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus are palmitic acid, linolei acid and oleic aid.

  10. Current Situations of Edible Fungus Production in Lianyungang City and Development Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guan-xi; GE Xiong-can; WEI Liang-zhi

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of characteristics of edible fungus production in Lianyungang City, we analyzed its advantages and disadvantages and put forward suggestions and countermeasures for development of edible fungus industry, mainly including strengthening guidance and leadership of government, introducing professional personnel, and developing the edible fungus industry through science and technology.

  11. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne Gj; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad El; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. RESULTS: We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed

  12. Carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nitsche, Benjamin Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation in bioreactor batch cultures. The work described in this thesis can be discussed as follows: (I) Establishment of computational resources for omics data analysis and interpretation in c

  13. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    extant savanna species are found in most genera, this moreover suggests that the savanna has repeatedly been colonized by fungus-growing termites. Furthermore, at least four independent "out-of-Africa" migrations into Asia, and at least one independent migration to Madagascar, have occurred. Although...

  14. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2010-01-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an associa......Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained...... an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...

  15. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  16. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  17. The development and endophytic nature of the fungus Heteroconium chaetospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2005-11-15

    The root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira was isolated from roots of Chinese cabbage grown in field soil in Japan. This fungus penetrates through the outer epidermal cells of its host, passes into the inner cortex, and grows throughout the cortical cells, including those of the root tip region, without causing apparent pathogenic symptoms. There are no ultrastructural signs of host resistance responses. H. chaetospira has been recovered from 19 plant species in which there was no disruption of host growth. H. chaetospira has a symbiotic association with Chinese cabbage. The fungus provides nitrogen in exchange for carbon. These associations are beneficial for the inoculated plants, as demonstrated by increased growth rate. When used as a preinoculum, H. chaetospira suppresses the incidence of clubroot and Verticillium yellows when the test plant is post-inoculated with the causal agents of these diseases. H. chaetospira is an effective biocontrol agent against clubroot in Chinese cabbage at a low to moderate soil moisture range and a pathogen resting spore density of 10(5) resting spores per gram of soil in situ. Disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. macricola and Alternaria brassicae on leaves can be suppressed by treatment with H. chaetospira. The fungus persists in the roots and induces systemic resistance to the foliar disease.

  18. Directed Evolution of a Filamentous Fungus for Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filamentous fungi represent the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. One of the most p...

  19. DNA dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunnenberg, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was the isolation and characterization of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which was a part of a project concerning the regulation of gene expression in this lower eukaryote.The transcription of a genome and the regulation mec

  20. Rethinking crop-disease management in fungus-growing ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ant fungus farming has become a prominent model for studying the evolution of mutualistic cooperation, with recent advances in reconstructing the evolutionary origin and elaborations of the symbiosis (1, 2), discovering additional partners and clarifying their interactions (3, 4), and analyzing host

  1. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  2. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  3. An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.N.; Kihonda, J.; Takken, W.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Abdulla, S.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biological control of malaria mosquitoes in Africa has rarely been used in vector control programs. Recent developments in this field show that certain fungi are virulent to adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Practical delivery of an entomopathogenic fungus that infected and killed adult Anopheles gambiae,

  4. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  5. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-02

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee.

  6. An Abietane Diterpene and a Sterol from Fungus Phellinus igniarius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new abietane diterpene 12-hydroxy-7-oxo-5, 8, 11, 13-tetraene-18, 6-abietanolide,together with a new natural sterol stigmasta-7, 22-diene-3β, 5α, 6α-triol have been isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Phellinus igniarius. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques.

  7. Analysis of a Functional Lactate Permease in the Fungus Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  8. DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunnenberg, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was the isolation and characterization of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which was a part of a project concerning the regulation of gene expression in this lower eukaryote.

    The transcription of

  9. Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

    2012-06-01

    Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic

  10. Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non–Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non–fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites. PMID:22927993

  11. Morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non-fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites.

  12. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Benjamin H; Mitchell, Jannette; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Carøe, Christian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Poulsen, Michael; de Fine Licht, Henrik H

    2017-04-01

    This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001-FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2).

  13. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Conlon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001–FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2.

  14. Gaeumannomyces graminis, the take-all fungus and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jacqueline; Ward, Elaine

    2004-07-01

    SUMMARY Take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most important root disease of wheat worldwide. Many years of intensive research, reflected by the large volume of literature on take-all, has led to a considerable degree of understanding of many aspects of the disease. However, effective and economic control of the disease remains difficult. The application of molecular techniques to study G. graminis and related fungi has resulted in some significant advances, particularly in the development of improved methods for identification and in elucidating the role of the enzyme avenacinase as a pathogenicity determinant in the closely related oat take-all fungus (G. graminis var. avenae). Some progress in identifying other factors that may be involved in determining host range and pathogenicity has been made, despite the difficulties of performing genetic analyses and the lack of a reliable transformation system.

  15. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix...... atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge...... this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues...

  16. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  17. Secondary metabolite arsenal of an opportunistic pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignell, Elaine; Cairns, Timothy C; Throckmorton, Kurt; Nierman, William C; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-12-05

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen. Furthermore, we find extensive evidence for the presence of many of these BGCs, or similar BGCs, in distantly related genera including the emerging pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, and suggest such BGCs may be predictive of pathogenic potential in other fungi.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  18. Synthetic dye decolorization capacity of white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Nerud, Frantisek

    2006-11-01

    The ability to decolorize eight chemically different synthetic dyes (Orange G, Amaranth, Orange I, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Cu-phthalocyanin, Poly R-478, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet) by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens was evaluated on agar plates. The fungus showed high decolorization capacity and was able to decolorize all dyes tested, but not to the same extent. Some of the dyes did not limit the decolorization capacity of the strain tested even at a concentration of 2g/l. The presence of the dyes in solid media reduced the mycelial growth rate of D. squalens; a positive correlation was found between the growth rate and the decolorization ability. Decolorization of Orange G and RBBR was studied also in liquid culture, where both dyes caused an enhancement of ligninolytic enzyme and overall hydrogen peroxide production and a decrease of biomass production. RBBR was removed to a higher extent than Orange G.

  19. Fungus-associated asthma: overcoming challenges in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-05-01

    With regard to fungal colonization and fungal sensitization, the goals of fungus-associated asthma management are as follows: 1) to survey fungi colonizing the airways of patients repeatedly; 2) to evaluate the tendency of the colonizing fungi to sensitize patients and the influence on clinical manifestations of asthma; 3) to follow disease development to allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis or sinobronchial allergic mycosis; and 4) to determine whether fungal eradication from the airway of patients is beneficial from the viewpoints of future risk factors. Recent developments in molecular biological analyses have facilitated the identification of basidiomycetous fungi that were not previously thought to be of concern in fungal allergy. The total control of fungus-associated asthma will be accomplished by environmental management established from the viewpoint of both the ecology and life cycle of the responsible fungi.

  20. Four Novel Hydropyranoindeno- Derivatives from Marine Fungus Aspergillus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the cultured filtrates of fungus Aspergillus versicolor,isolated from marine sponge Xestospongia exigua,four novel secondary metabolites,namely aspergillone 1,aspergillodiol 2, aspergillol 3 and 12-acetyl-aspergillol 4,have been isolated by column chromatographic separation.The structures of all the new compounds are established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy in conjugation with MS,UV spectral analysis.The basic structure pattern of those compounds possessed an hydroindenoisopyran nucleus.

  1. Biotransformation of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothuluri, J.V.; Freeman, J.P.; Evans, F.E.; Cerniglia, C.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Fluorene, a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is formed during the combustion of fossil fuels and is an important pollutant of aquatic ecosystems where it is highly toxic to fish and algae. Few studies on microbial biodegradation of fluorene have been reported. This investigation describes the metabolism of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 and the identification of major metabolites. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids from the fungus ganodermalucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tagata, Masaaki; Ukiya, Motohiko; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Takashi; Kimura, Yumiko

    2005-04-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 20(21)-dehydrolucidenic acid A (1) and methyl 20(21)-dehydrolucidenate A (2), and five new 20-hydroxylucidenic acids, 20-hydroxylucidenic acid D(2) (3), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid F (4), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid E(2) (5), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid N (6), and 20-hydroxylucidenic acid P (7), were isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Ganoderma ludicum, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

  3. a -Difluoromethylornithine Inhibits the Growth of Fungus Macrophomina phaseoli

    OpenAIRE

    PALAVAN-ÜNSAL, Narçin

    2014-01-01

    a -Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific enzyme activated inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus Macrophomina phaseoli (Tassi) Goidanich. Putrescine (Put), when added to the nutrient medium at a concentration of 0.25 mM, decreased the inhibitory effect of DFMO. These results suggest that polyamines (PAs) are essential for the growth of fungi and that DFMO is applicable to the alleviation or prevention of crop losses due to ph...

  4. Identification and characterization of glucoamylase from the fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Johnsen, Anders; Josefsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The glucoamylase from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus has a molecular weight of 66 kDa and was characterized with isoelectric point, pH and temperature optimum of 3.8-4.0, 5.0 and 70 °C, respectively. In addition, the activation energy is 60.4 kJ/mol, Km is 3.5 mM and kcat is 25.3...

  5. A New Pyrone Derivative from Fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel pyrone derivative was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a culture broth of a strain of the fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031. Its structure was characterized as 7-hydroxy-9-methoxyl-10-methyl-2H, 4aH, 6H, 10bH-pyrano[5, 6-c][2]benzopyran-2, 6-dione by spectroscopic analysis including IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra.

  6. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116).

  7. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  8. Biodegradation of polyethylene microplastics by the marine fungus Zalerion maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Ana; Duarte, Kátia; da Costa, João P; Santos, Patrícia S M; Pereira, R; Pereira, M E; Freitas, Ana C; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2017-05-15

    Plastic yearly production has surpassed the 300milliontons mark and recycling has all but failed in constituting a viable solution for the disposal of plastic waste. As these materials continue to accumulate in the environment, namely, in rivers and oceans, in the form of macro-, meso-, micro- and nanoplastics, it becomes of the utmost urgency to find new ways to curtail this environmental threat. Multiple efforts have been made to identify and isolate microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers and recent results point towards the viability of a solution for this problem based on the biodegradation of plastics resorting to selected microbial strains. Herein, the response of the fungus Zalerion maritimum to different times of exposition to polyethylene (PE) pellets, in a minimum growth medium, was evaluated, based on the quantified mass differences in both the fungus and the microplastic pellets used. Additionally, molecular changes were assessed through attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Results showed that, under the tested conditions, Z. maritimum is capable of utilizing PE, resulting in the decrease, in both mass and size, of the pellets. These results indicate that this naturally occurring fungus may actively contribute to the biodegradation of microplastics, requiring minimum nutrients.

  9. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  10. Decomposition of Plant Debris by the Nematophagous Fungus ARF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Riggs, R D; Crippen, Devany

    2004-09-01

    In the study of the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes, knowledge of the saprophytic ability of a nematophagous fungus is necessary to understand its establishment and survival in the soil. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the nematophagous fungus ARF (Arkansas Fungus) shows differential use of plant residues; and (ii) to determine if ARF still existed in the soil of a field in which ARF was found originally and in which the population level of Heterodera glycines had remained very low, despite 15 years of continuous, susceptible soybean. Laboratory studies of the decomposition of wheat straw or soybean root by ARF were conducted in two separate experiments, using a CO collection apparatus, where CO-free air was passed through sterilized cotton to remove the microorganisms in the air and then was passed over the samples, and evolved CO was trapped by KOH. Milligrams of C as CO was used to calculate the percentage decomposition of the plant debris by ARF. Data indicated ARF decomposed 11.7% of total organic carbon of the wheat straw and 20.1% of the soybean roots in 6 weeks. In the field soil study, 21 soil samples were taken randomly from the field. Only 3 months after the infestation of the soil with H. glycines, the percentage of parasitized eggs of H. glycines reached 64 +/- 19%, and ARF was isolated from most parasitized eggs of H. glycines. Research results indicated ARF could use plant residues to survive.

  11. Comparison and Selection of Organization Modes in Edible Fungus Industry of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiang; GE; Jilian; HU; Zhijian; GUO

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest producer and exporter of edible fungus in the world,and Shandong is the largest producer of edible fungus in China.This study is intended to select suitable organization mode for edible fungus industry of Shandong Province.On the basis of types and characteristics of existing edible fungus production modes in China,it is concluded that Shandong Province should take following measures:(1)giving priority to development of integrated organization mode;(2)steadily promoting park and factory mode in economically developed regions;(3)developing circular agriculture in regions with solid foundation of agriculture and animal husbandry.Finally,it puts forward following recommendations:(1)speeding up construction of standardization and information platform for edible fungus industry;(2)improving quality of personnel engaged in edible fungus industry;(3)bringing into play driving effect of leading enterprises;(4)developing and introducing deep processing enterprises.

  12. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  13. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  14. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  15. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  16. Carbon dioxide sensing in an obligate insect-fungus symbiosis: CO2 preferences of leaf-cutting ants to rear their mutualistic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen) and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide) conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO2 concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO2 concentrations. We also evaluated whether levels preferred by workers for fungus-rearing differ from those selected for themselves. In the laboratory, CO2 preferences were assessed in binary choices between chambers with different CO2 concentrations, by quantifying number of workers in each chamber and amount of relocated fungus. Leaf-cutting ants used the CO2 concentration as a spatial cue when selecting places for fungus-rearing. A. lundii preferred intermediate CO2 levels, between 1 and 3%, as they would encounter at soil depths where their nest chambers are located. In addition, workers avoided both atmospheric and high CO2 levels as they would occur outside the nest and at deeper soil layers, respectively. In order to prevent fungus desiccation, however, workers relocated fungus to high CO2 levels, which were otherwise avoided. Workers' CO2 preferences for themselves showed no clear-cut pattern. We suggest that workers avoid both atmospheric and high CO2 concentrations not because they are detrimental for themselves, but because of their consequences for the symbiotic partner. Whether the preferred CO2 concentrations are beneficial for symbiont growth remains to be investigated, as well as whether the observed preferences for fungus-rearing influences the ants

  17. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  18. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  19. Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, S D; Savitha, J

    2014-03-01

    Bioremediation is an effective method for the treatment of major metal contaminated sites. Fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from different arsenate contaminated areas across India. An isolate, Penicillium coffeae, exhibited resistance to arsenate up to 500 mM. Results indicated that pretreatment of biomass with alkali (NaOH) enhanced the percentage of adsorption to 66.8% as compared to that of live and untreated dead biomass whose adsorption was 22.9% and 60.2% respectively. The physiological parameters evaluated in this study may help pilot studies aimed at bioremediation of arsenate contaminated effluents using arsenate resistant fungus P. coffeae.

  20. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard E; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Xinwang; Johnson, Denita H; Rinehart, Timothy A; Abbas, Hamed K; Shier, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N

    2009-05-01

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed, and of these, 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 55 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in Mississippi. Twelve of the optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 22. These microsatellites will be useful in population and pathogenicity studies to correspond with development of potential disease-resistant soybean and other susceptible crops. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  1. Exploitation Strategies in Social Parasites of Fungus Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Janni Dolby

    . Inquilines are usually close relatives of their host and so share ancestral characteristics (Emery’s rule). They are dependent on being fully integrated into their host’s colony throughout their lives in order to reproduce. Most inquiline ants have completely lost their sterile worker caste. Exceptions...... to this are Acromyrmex insinuator and Acromyrmex ameliae, parasites of fungus-growing ants. By still producing a worker caste both species offers a rare opportunity to study adaptive features in parasite worker behaviour. Furthermore can closely related inquiline-host combinations give us an insight in the trade...

  2. A New Cerebroside, Asperiamide A, from Marine Fungus Asperillus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Ming-An; CHEN,Bi-E; KUO,Yueh-Hsiung

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cerebrosides and ceramides[1] have been isolated from a number of marine organisms such as sea stars, sea anemones, gorgonians, sponges, tunicates, dinoflagellates, and green algae. Some cerebroside and ceramides exhibited cytotoxic, antitumor,[2,3] immunostimulatory,[4] antifungal,[5] and antiviral[6] activites. In the search for bioactive components,two water soluble constituents, asperiamide A and adenosine, were isolated from the marine fungus Asperillus sp. The current report describes the structural elucidation of a new compound, aspefiamide A (1) and a known one, adenosine (2).

  3. Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M.

  4. SACCHARIFICATION WITH Phanerochaete chrysosporium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cantocanche

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... form of charcoal, hydrogen, ethanol and biogas; the last three requiring ... To efficiently process lignocellulosic wastes, the lignin structure must first be ... treatment, steam and pressure are applied (Sreenath et al., 2001 ...

  5. First unusual case of keratitis in Europe due to the rare fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Josephine; Debourgogne, Anne; Zaïdi, Mohamed; Bazard, Marie-Christine; Machouart, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungus utilized worldwide for insect-pest biocontrol. Few M. anisopliae infections have been reported previously. Here, M. anisopliae was isolated from a corneal ulcer in a healthy man. It is the first ocular case in France and Europe of this extremely rare fungus in humans.

  6. Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data.

  7. Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobre, T.; Eggleton, P.; Aanen, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance col

  8. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging beh...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ant-Associated Fungus Phialophora attae (CBS 131958).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leandro F; Stielow, J Benjamin; de Vries, Michel; Weiss, Vinicius A; Vicente, Vania A; de Hoog, Sybren

    2015-11-19

    The black yeast Phialophora attae was isolated from the cuticle of tropical ant gynes. The ant-fungus association is sustained due to symbiotic evolutionary adaptations that allow fungal assimilation and tolerance of toxic compounds produced by the ant. The genome sequence of the first ant-associated fungus, P. attae, is presented here. Copyright © 2015 Moreno et al.

  10. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  11. Mating and Progeny Isolation in The Corn Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis (U. maydis) (DC.) Corda, is a semi-obligate plant pathogenic fungus in the phylum Basidiomycota (Alexopoulos, Mims and Blackwell, 1996). The fungus can be easily cultured in its haploid yeast phase on common laboratory media. However, to complete its sexual cy...

  12. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  13. BIO-DEINKING OF ONP AND ITS EFFLUENT TREATMENT BY WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Lin; Chunsheng Pang; Deqing Zhao; Liping Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Deinking of secondary fiber of ONP and effluent treatment with white rot fungus were studied in this paper. Results showed that white rot fungus exerted significant effect on deinking of ONP and CODcr decrease and degradation of pollutants of deinking effluent.

  14. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  15. Screening of Fungus Antagonists against Six Main Disease Pathogens in Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    28 soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of 16 plant species in six different districts in Hunan. As a result of isolation and purification, 122 fungus strains were obtained of which the antagonistic activity was tested against six fungus pathogens in tomato, cotton, cucumber, chilli, rice and rape, and 17 strains were found antagonistic to one or more pathogenic fungi.

  16. Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Luciana S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson, E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data. (author)

  17. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines.

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF NEMATOPHAGOUS FUNGUS NEMATOCTONUS ROBUSTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh babu S,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant parasitic nematodes infect the root tissues of the plant causing root galls that lead to reduced water and mineral uptake in the plant root system. Nematophagous fungus are used as biocontrol for the nematodes. Among those Nematoctonus are one of the species used as bioagent. Nematoctonus species produces an extensive mycelium and capture many nematodes with hour glass shaped adhesive knobs on the hyphae. Nematodes become attached to these adhesive knobs and the cuticle of nematode is penetrated by the infective hyphae. This isolate of Nematoctonus robustus is characterized by hyaline mycelium, dikaryotic in nature containing genetically two different nuclei in each cell, having distinct clamp connection. The fungus has better colonizing ability on natural solid substrates like wheat straw and rice straw. It also show good ability to colonize on different cereal grains and various other waste products like coconut coir and FYM etc. This species is one of the best used for mass production and effective for control of plant parasitic nematodes.

  19. Isolation and Identification of Glucoamylase Producer Fungus from Sago Hampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Asben

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste of sago processing, notably hampas (ela still contains sago starch is waste that has not been utilized optimally yet  and causing pollution. Isolation and identification of glucoamylase producer fungus of sago hampas waste  were aims to obtain isolates that have gluco-amylolytic properties, and to know glucoamylase activity of selected fungus isolates after grown on artificial medium.  Indegeneous isolates that can produced glucoamylase will be use to get sugar hidrolysate from starch of sago hampas waste for bioetanol production. The study was conducted with the following stages: 1Take the sample from the tennis, 2 Isolation and Identification, 3 Characterization (clear zone, and 4 The production of glucoamylase from selected isolates, The results obtained are: 1 Isolation of fungi gluco-amylolytic from 2 sources sago hampas were produced 10 isolates. Ten isolates were divided into 4 genuses: Gliocladium (as dominant isolate, Aspergilus, Rizhopus and Geotrichum. Isolates of Gliocladium KE gaves the largest degradation of starch on PDA-Starch medium (clear zone, and followed by isolates of Aspergillus GA; 2 Production of glucoamylase on sago hampas with modificated Danial medium (1992 gave the highest activity of Gliocladium KE   on the fifth day of incubation, namely: 10.72 U / mL of crude enzyme   from the supernatant of fermentation substrate (S, and 17.16 U / mL for crude enzyme from the extract of isopropanol isolation (E.

  20. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahrén, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils.

  1. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himler, Anna G; Caldera, Eric J; Baer, Boris C; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2009-07-22

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent-offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant-fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii.

  2. Transformation of Metalaxyl by the Fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Shu-Yen; Freyer, Alan J.; Bollag, Jean-Marc

    1989-01-01

    The fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn) Schroeter was found to transform the fungicide metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester] in pure culture. After 21 days of incubation in a basal medium amended with 5 μg of metalaxyl per ml, more than 80% of the compound was transformed by the fungus. The transformation rates decreased as the concentrations of metalaxyl increased from 5 to 100 μg/ml. No transformation was observed when the concentration of metalaxyl was higher than 200 μg/ml. Two isomeric metabolites and a mixture of two other isomeric metabolites were isolated from the organic extract of the growth medium and identified as N-(2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylphenyl)-N- and N-(2-hydroxymethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester and N-(3-hydroxy- and N-(5-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester according to their mass-spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance-spectral characteristics. Benzylic hydroxylation of the methyl side chains and/or aromatic hydroxylation appeared to be the major reactions involved in the metabolism of metalaxyl. PMID:16347836

  3. A novel thermophilic endoglucanase from a mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuyan; DUAN Xinyuan; LU Xuemei; GAO Peiji

    2006-01-01

    A novel thermophilic endoglucanase (EGt) was extracted from a mesophilic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum L19). We invoked conventional kinetic enzyme reactions using the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as substrate. EGt displayed optimal activity at 75℃ when kept running 30 min in the temperature range of 30―85℃. Thermal stability curve measured at 70℃ suggested that its half-life time is 15.1 min. The activity was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ or Mg2+ but inhibited by Pb2+ and Fe3+. Moreover, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) modification resulted in a complete loss of EGt activity, suggesting that tryptophan residues 5 be involved in the enzyme active site. Amino acid composition analysis demonstrated that EGt contains more proline residues. EGt lacks activity towards p-nitrophenyl cellobiose (pNPC). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of EGt is SYRVPAANGFPNP- DASQEKQ, and the gene of EGt was sequenced and analyzed. Extensive sequence alignments failed to show any homology between EGt and any known endoglucanases. This is the first report addressing the thermal adaptation of a cellulolytic enzyme from the mesophilic fungus F. oxysporum. 5be the expression of multiple isoenzyme in an organism helps it adapt to complex living environments.

  4. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A.P. Bracarense

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 2² full factorial planning (ANOVA and on a 2³ factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC.

  5. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The response of filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans to flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, Marko; Zigon, Dušan; Makovec, Tomaž; Lenasi, Helena

    2011-08-01

    The saprophytic fungus Rhizopus nigricans constitutes a serious problem when thriving on gathered crops. The identification of any compounds, especially natural ones, that inhibit fungal growth, may therefore be important. During its life cycle, Rhizopus nigricans encounters many compounds, among them the flavonoids, plant secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Although not being a plant pathogen, Rhizopus nigricans may interact with these compounds in the same way as plant pathogens--in response to the fungitoxic effect of flavonoids the fungi transform them into less toxic metabolites. We have studied the interaction of R. nigricans with some flavonoids. Inhibition of hyphal spreading (from 3% to 100%) was observed by 300 μM flavones, flavanones and isoflavones, irrespective of their basic structure, oxidized or reduced C-ring, and orientation of the B-ring. However, a hydrophobic A-ring was important for the toxicity. R. nigricans transformed some of the flavonoids into glucosylated products. Recognition of substrates for glucosylating enzyme(s) did not correlate with their fungitoxic effect but depended exclusively on the presence of a free -OH group in the flavonoid A-ring and of a hydrophobic B-ring. Although the fungus produced glucosyltransferase constitutively, an additional amount of the enzyme was induced by the substrate flavonoid. Moreover, effective detoxification was shown to require the presence of glucose.

  7. Effect and influence factors of sulfur removal in coal with fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE De-wen; JIN Yan; CHAI Li-yuan; HUANG Rui; PENG Bing; WANG Yun-yan

    2005-01-01

    The influence of coal desulfurization by fungus was experimentally studied. The results suggest that fungus can effectively remove inorganic and organic sulfur in coal, and main influences of desulfurization by fungus of pH value, temperature, coal slurry concentration and coal granularity were studied by orthodox experiment and the optimal experimental conditions are′as follows: pH value 6, temperature 45 ℃, coal slurry concentration 10% and coal granularity 100 μm. Under above conditions, fungus car remove up to 44.96% total sulfur and 54. 87% inorganic sulfur within two days, and their desulfurization rates will increase along with time. Compared with sulfolobas, desulphurization by fungus is steady and more effective, and has advantage of high speed.

  8. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  9. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1992-01-01

    This communication demonstrates unequivocally that the fungi associated with house dust mites do not contribute to mite allergenicity. The evidence is twofold: first, larval mites which lack fungi have allergen profiles indistinguishable from fungus-bearing adult mites. Second, the allergen profile of experimentally-derived fungus-free adult mites and mites re-fed the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides are identical.

  10. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the func......Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some...... of the functional implications of this shift have recently been established. I review reports on the composition of the Macrotermitinae gut microbiota, evidence for a subfamily core gut microbiota, and the first insight into functional complementarity between fungal and gut symbionts. In addition, I argue that we...... need to explore the capacities of all members of the symbiotic communities, including better solidifying Termitomyces role(s) in order to understand putative complementary gut bacterial contributions. Approaches that integrate natural history and sequencing data to elucidate symbiont functions...

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the response of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, to the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujor, V C; Peiris, D G; Monti, M; Kang, A S; Clements, M O; Hedger, J N

    2012-04-01

    Investigation of changes in the protein profile of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, when paired against the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride, for 48 h. Variations in protein profile resulting from contact with T. viride were assessed by spot separation using 2 dimensional protein gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS protein identification. Contact with T. viride elicited a systematic response in S. commune, characterized by marked increases in proteins involved for transcription and translation (61%) and cell wall/hyphal biogenesis and stabilization (17%), whereas metabolism-associated proteins decreased in amounts (64%). Trichoderma viride, however, exhibited typical mycoparasitic behaviour with increases in the amounts of proteins involved in proteolysis and carbohydrate metabolism. The protein profile of S. commune confronted by T. viride indicates the up-regulation of mechanisms specifically targeted at the mycoparasitic machinery of T. viride, particularly cell wall lysis and antibiosis. The proteomic responses observed in S. commune may occur in natural environments, providing an insight to the mechanism involved in conferring resistance to mycoparasitic attack. This study, therefore, warrants further investigation for the targeted design of more robust biocontrol agents. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays

  13. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

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    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein

  14. A role for antioxidants in acclimation of marine derived pathogenic fungus (NIOCC 1) to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Chinnarajan; Varatharajan, Govindaswamy R; Rajasabapathy, Raju; Vijayakanth, S; Kumar, Alagu Harish; Meena, Ram M

    2012-09-01

    Salinity tolerance a key factor helps in understanding the ionic homeostasis in general, which is a fundamental cellular phenomenon in all living cells. Here, a marine derived pathogenic fungus was examined for its adaptation under salt stress using antioxidant properties. The aqueous extracts of halophilic fungus exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all the in vitro tests such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)), Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Assay (HRSA), Metal chelating assay and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant capacity of marine fungus exposed to high salt condition showed an increase in activity. In addition, the production of intra and extracellular antioxidant enzymes of the fungus at various salt stresses were analyzed and discussed for their possible role in the stress mechanism. The marine derived fungus was identified as Phialosimplex genus, which is associated with infections in dogs. Thus the present study elucidates that the scavenging activity is one of the protective mechanisms developed in the fungus to avoid the deleterious effect of salt stress. In addition, the study also helps in understanding how the pathogenic fungus tackles the oxidative burst i.e. hypersensitivity reaction performed by host to kill the pathogens.

  15. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Barros Júnior

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

  16. Two new triterpenoids from fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Zhu; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, He-Ping; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Cui, Bao-Kai; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids, (24E)-9α,11α-epoxy-3β-hydroxylanosta-7,24-dien-26-al (1) and (22Z,24Z)-13-hydroxy-3-oxo-14(13 → 12)abeo-lanosta-8,22,24-trien-26,23-olide (2) were isolated from dried fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of these two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 possessed a lanostane skeleton, while compound 2 was based on a rare 14 (13 → 12)abeo-lanostane skeleton with a 26,23-olide moiety. Both of them were evaluated for their antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Neither of them displayed obvious inhibition on Candida albicans and five human cancer cell lines.

  17. Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Padgett-Flohr, Gretchen E; Field, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Amphibian population declines in Honduras have long been attributed to habitat degradation and pollution, but an increasing number of declines are now being observed from within the boundaries of national parks in pristine montane environments. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in these declines and was recently documented in Honduras from samples collected in Pico Bonito National Park in 2003. This report now confirms Cusuco National Park, a protected cloud forest reserve with reported amphibian declines, to be the second known site of infection for Honduras. B. dendrobatidis infection was detected in 5 amphibian species: Craugastor rostralis, Duellmanohyla soralia, Lithobates maculata, Plectrohyla dasypus, and Ptychohyla hypomykter. D. soralia, P. dasypus, and P. hypomykter are listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have severely fragmented or restricted distributions. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether observed infection levels indicate an active B. dendrobatidis epizootic with the potential to cause further population declines and extinction.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually reproduc......Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually......, which is regulated by the pheromone response pathway. Most ascomycetes have been reported to produce meiotic spores, however, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. The main focus of my doctoral thesis has therefore been to understand the mechanisms behind...

  19. Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  20. New Bergamotane Sesquiterpenoids from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brasilamides K-N (1–4, four new bergamotane sesquiterpenoids; with 4-oxatricyclo (3.3.1.0 2,7nonane (1and 9-oxatricyclo(4.3.0.0 4,7nonane (2–4 skeletons; were isolated from the scale-up fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Paraconiothynium brasiliense Verkley. The previously identified sesquiterpenoids brasilamides A and C (5 and 6 were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 1–4 were elucidated primarily by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1–3 were deduced by analogy to the co-isolated metabolites 5 and 6; whereas that of C-12 in 4 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. The cytotoxicity of all compounds against a panel of eight human tumor cell lines were assayed.

  1. Molecular Karyotype of the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gumer; Peñas, María M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    1999-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic constitution of P. ostreatus by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis optimized for the separation of its chromosomes. We have determined that it contains 11 pairs of chromosomes with sizes ranging from 1.4 to 4.7 Mbp. In addition to chromosome separation, the use of single-copy DNA probes allowed us to resolve the ambiguities caused by chromosome comigration. When the two nuclei present in the dikaryon were separated by protoplasting, analysis of their karyotypes revealed length polymorphisms affecting various chromosomes. This is, to our knowledge, the clearest chromosome separation available for this species. PMID:10427028

  2. The invasive chytrid fungus of amphibians paralyzes lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fites, J Scott; Ramsey, Jeremy P; Holden, Whitney M; Collier, Sarah P; Sutherland, Danica M; Reinert, Laura K; Gayek, A Sophia; Dermody, Terence S; Aune, Thomas M; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2013-10-18

    The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, causes chytridiomycosis and is a major contributor to global amphibian declines. Although amphibians have robust immune defenses, clearance of this pathogen is impaired. Because inhibition of host immunity is a common survival strategy of pathogenic fungi, we hypothesized that B. dendrobatidis evades clearance by inhibiting immune functions. We found that B. dendrobatidis cells and supernatants impaired lymphocyte proliferation and induced apoptosis; however, fungal recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils was not impaired. Fungal inhibitory factors were resistant to heat, acid, and protease. Their production was absent in zoospores and reduced by nikkomycin Z, suggesting that they may be components of the cell wall. Evasion of host immunity may explain why this pathogen has devastated amphibian populations worldwide.

  3. Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune: an emerging pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashok Kumar; Ashok, Rangaiahgari; Majety, Madhavi; Chitta, Megharaj; Narayen, Nitesh

    2016-07-12

    Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune is very rare. In this study, we report the clinical and microbiological profile of five patients with fungal keratitis due to S. commune. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings from all five patients showed septate branching hyaline fungal filaments. Similarly, in all five patients Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) plates inoculated with corneal scrapings showed white, cottony colonies on the second day of incubation. Lactophenol cotton blue stained wet preparation of 7-day-old colonies on SDA revealed clamp connections and no spores. The fungus was identified by its characteristic clamp connections, fan-shaped bracket fruiting body with pinkish-grey longitudinally split-radiating gills. The phenotypic identification of one of the five isolates further conformed by ITS sequencing. Treatment outcome was available for two of the five patients; in these two patients, the keratitis resolved with topical natamycin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Mueller, U. G.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Green, Abigail M.; Narozniak, Joanie

    Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes.

  5. Antimicrobial Aromatic Polyketides from Gorgonian- Associated Fungus, Penicillium commune 518

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊锋; 刘培培; 王义; 王慧; 李静; 庄以彬; 朱伟明

    2012-01-01

    Seven new aromatic polyketides, communols A-G (1-7), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of Penicillium commune 518, a marine-derived fungus associated with the Gorgonian, Muricella abnormalis. The new structures of 1-7 were determined by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Among them, communol D (4) was the first example of a naturally occurring aromatic polyketide with a sulfoxide group from marine thngi. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 all showed moderate antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes with MIC values of 4.1/16.4, 6.4/25.8, and 23.8/23.8μmoloL^-1, respectively.

  6. Callistosporium pinicola (Basidiomycota, a fungus species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomata of Callistosporium pinicola were collected in years 2012–2013, on strongly decayed fallen trunks of Picea abies and Abies alba on two remote sites, localized in North-eastern and southern Poland. These localities represent the first records of this fungus in Poland. A full description and illustration of C. pinicola based on Polish specimens are provided and the distinguishing features and delimitation of the species are briefly discussed. The ecology of C. pinicola, its general distribution and threat are also presented. As all specimens of C. pinicola were collected only in recent years we suggest that this species is increasing its distribution in Poland. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that, because of its cryptic nature, C. pinicola has been much overlooked in the past.

  7. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale.

  8. A new diketopiperazine heterodimer from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yue-Lan; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    One new diketopiperazine heterodimer, asperazine A (1), and eight known compounds, asperazine (2), cyclo(d-Phe-l-Trp) (3), cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (4), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (5), walterolactone A (6), and campyrones A-C (7-9), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger. Their structures were determined unequivocally on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. This is the first report of the presence of compound 3 as a natural product. Cytotoxicity test against human cancer cell lines PC3, A2780, K562, MBA-MD-231, and NCI-H1688 revealed that compounds 1 and 2 had weak activities.

  9. Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

    2011-08-01

    This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources.

  10. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  11. Patient satisfaction and treatment outcome of fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jui-Chung; Lee, Hong-Shen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Tsai, Yao-Lung

    2011-02-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis is an important clinical problem with diverse manifestations. Although many literatures had found low recurrence rate after surgical treatment of fungus ball rhinosinusitis, patient satisfaction and treatment outcomes (symptom-free and symptom improvement rate, etc.) for fungus ball sinusitis are not yet well established. The purpose of this study is to estimate the patient satisfaction and treatment outcome in patients with fungus ball rhinosinusitis undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Medical records of consecutive patients with diagnosed fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated by FESS between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. The post-operative improvement in individual symptom was assessed by chart review and telephone visiting. Ninety consecutive patients (21 men and 69 women) were eligible for the study. Six patients (7%) presented bilateral fungus ball rhinosinusitis. Multiple paranasal sinus fungus ball involvements were found in 48 patients (53%). Complete resolution of complaints with respect to nasal discharge, postnasal drip, cough with sputum, nasal bleeding, fetid odor of nose, olfactory dysfunction, nasal obstruction, headache, and facial pain or pressure were described in 74 patients (82%). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 96%. The estimated recurrence rate of fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated with FESS was 3%, with a mean follow-up of 81 months. Treatment protocol of fungus ball rhinosinusitis with FESS and without postoperative antifungal drugs is efficient because of very low recurrence rate, high patient satisfaction, and very high symptom-free rate. Furthermore, the obvious difference of symptom-free rate between fungus ball rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis highlights the need of further studies to discover the pathophysiology of fungal sinusitis.

  12. Radiologic characteristics of sinonasal fungus ball: an analysis of 119 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Kyubo (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Kim, Jinna (Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Kim, Chang-Hoon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: entman@yuhs.ac; Yoon, Joo-Heon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Human Natural Defense System, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-09-15

    Background. It is important to differentiate sinonasal fungus ball from non-fungal sinusitis and other forms of fungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment. In particular, a sinonasal fungus ball, a non-invasive fungal sinusitis, can be characterized by radiologic findings before surgery. Purpose. To differentiate a sinonasal fungus ball from other types of sinusitis and determine optimal treatment on the basis of radiologic findings before surgery. Material and Methods. We studied 119 patients with clinically and pathologically proven sinonasal fungus balls. Their condition was evaluated radiologically with contrast-enhanced CT (99 patients), non-contrast CT (18 patients) and/or MRI (17 patients) prior to sinonasal surgery. Results. Calcifications were found in 78 of 116 (67.2%) patients who underwent CT scans for fungus ball. As opposed to non-contrast CT scans, contrast CT scans revealed hyper attenuating fungal ball in 82.8% and enhanced inflamed mucosa in 65.5% of the patients, respectively. On MRI, most sinonasal fungal balls showed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Inflamed mucosal membranes were noted and appeared as hypointense on T1-weighted images (64.7%) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (88.2%). Conclusion. When there are no calcifications visible on the CT scan, a hyper attenuating fungal ball located in the central area of the sinus with mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scans is an important feature of a non-invasive sinonasal fungus ball. On MRI, a sinonasal fungus ball has typical features of a marked hypointense fungus ball with a hyperintense mucosal membrane in T2-weighted images. A contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI provides sufficient information for the preoperative differentiation of a sinonasal fungus ball from other forms of sinusitis

  13. Maxillary reconstruction and placement of dental implants after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Giacomo; Felisati, Giovanni; Biglioli, Federico; Tintinelli, Roberto; Valassina, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A fungus ball is one of the fungal diseases that can affect the paranasal sinuses. It requires surgical treatment. Because there is only one previously reported case of dental implant placement after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball, the authors here report on a case of a maxillary sinus fungus ball with bone erosion that was treated surgically with a combined endoscopic endonasal and endoral (Caldwell-Luc) approach. One year later, a graft from the ilium was obtained and a sinus elevation was performed to allow the placement of dental implants. Three months later, the dental implants were placed, and they were all osseointegrated at the 9-month follow-up.

  14. Releasing nitrogen from ammoniated lignin by white rot fungus cometabolizes environmental pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Lu; ZHAO De-qing; ZHOU Xian-tao; QIU Yu-gui; ZHANG Gan

    2003-01-01

    The nitrogen-modified lignocelluloses(NML) produced under oxic ammoniation was metabolized by white rot fungus, NH4+-N was released, NO3--N concentration was decreased and total nitrogen loss was blocked within incubation period. During releasing nitrogen from the metabolism of NML, white rot fungus cometabolized recalcitrant environmental pollutants and showed higher degradation capability. Results indicated that this NML complex colonized by white rot fungus might be effective with economic feasibility when they are applied into the vast field ecosystem, it might stabilize NH4+ nitrogen flux and bioremediate the polluted environmental sites.

  15. The response of the grape berry moth (Lobesia botrana) to a dietary phytopathogenic fungus (Botrytis cinerea): the significance of fungus sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy; Corio-Costet

    2000-12-01

    A Tortricidae (Lobesia botrana) has a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, we investigated the growth, survival, fecundity and amount of sterols and steroids in larvae of this vineyard pest reared on artificial diets containing mycelium (3%) or purified sterols (0.01%) of the phytopathogenic fungus. Two principal questions related to the physiological and biochemical basis of this mutualistic relationship were addressed: (1) how the fungus influences growth, survival, fecundity, sterol and steroid contents of the insect and (2) are fungal sterols involved in the biochemical basis of mutualism? The presence of fungus in the diet led to a decrease of total duration of larval development (mean gain 5.1-9.4 days compared to the total duration in control of 42.9 days), an increase in survival (mean gain 50-76.3%) and fecundity (gain of 94-102%). These positive effects of the fungus on the biology and physiology of the insect were directly correlated to the presence of fungal sterols in the diet. Fungal sterols are one of the biochemical basis of the mutualistic relationship between L. botrana and B. cinerea.

  16. Effect of cyclodextrin on PAHs degradation by MnP enzymes produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium%三株白腐菌产锰过氧化物酶活性及其对多环芳烃的降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁娟; 罗坤; 周娟; 高士祥

    2007-01-01

    比较研究了β-环糊精(β-CD)对3株黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)CGMCC5.776、GIM3.383和GIM3.393产锰过氧化物酶(MnP)和降解多环芳烃(PAHs)的影响.结果表明:3株菌都能分泌出高活性的MnP,β-CD能显著提高MnP的活性.加入2.0 g/Lβ-CD的体系培养到第12天时.酶活性最高达到2 912.5 U/L;而且β-CD能显著提高PAHs的降解率,两者之间存在较好的相关性.加入1.0 g/L β-CD的体系对比不加β-CD的体系,PAHs的降解率提高了1~2倍.PAHs的降解同时受到MnP活性、PAHs表观溶解度和分子结构稳定性等因素的影响.

  17. (Physiology and molecular biology of extracellular peroxidases, H sub 2 O sub 2 -generating system and deregulated mutants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    We have expanded the work on the LIP genes to Trametes versicolor, the second most studied white-rot fungus after P. chrysosporium. Six LIP genes have been cloned from this organism and one of these has been completely sequenced and compared to the known LIP genes that have been described to date. Our studies gave us further insights into the novel non-integrative transformation system of P. chrysosporium. Our recombinant plasmid pUGLGl-kan, which contains a LIP gene disrupted by the insertion of kan{sup r} determinant, also failed to integrate into the chromosome. Instead, it was maintained as a circular extrachromosomal element and was recoverable as a plasmid both from the meiotic and mitotic progeny. Basic characterization of the lignin peroxidase-negative mutant (lip mutant) and nitrogen-deregulated mutant has been completed. We also investigated the question whether carbon, nitrogen, and Mn(II) regulate LIP expression coordinately or independently. Results indicate that these three environmental controls independently regulate LIP and MNP gene expression. Furthermore, an idiophasic protease has been shown to be responsible for the sharp decline in LIP activity after day 6 of incubation in low nitrogen cultures and addition of glucose to these day 6 cultures has been shown to suppress the protease levels and maintain high levels of LIP. The results further indicated that this protease is synthesized de novo during the idiophase. Additional studies showed that MNPs play a dominant role in the decolorization of chlorolignols in bleached kraft pulp effluents and that LIPs play a relatively minor role in this process. These studies have since been confirmed independently by an Austrian group.

  18. [Physiology and molecular biology of extracellular peroxidases, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-generating system and deregulated mutants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    We have expanded the work on the LIP genes to Trametes versicolor, the second most studied white-rot fungus after P. chrysosporium. Six LIP genes have been cloned from this organism and one of these has been completely sequenced and compared to the known LIP genes that have been described to date. Our studies gave us further insights into the novel non-integrative transformation system of P. chrysosporium. Our recombinant plasmid pUGLGl-kan, which contains a LIP gene disrupted by the insertion of kan{sup r} determinant, also failed to integrate into the chromosome. Instead, it was maintained as a circular extrachromosomal element and was recoverable as a plasmid both from the meiotic and mitotic progeny. Basic characterization of the lignin peroxidase-negative mutant (lip mutant) and nitrogen-deregulated mutant has been completed. We also investigated the question whether carbon, nitrogen, and Mn(II) regulate LIP expression coordinately or independently. Results indicate that these three environmental controls independently regulate LIP and MNP gene expression. Furthermore, an idiophasic protease has been shown to be responsible for the sharp decline in LIP activity after day 6 of incubation in low nitrogen cultures and addition of glucose to these day 6 cultures has been shown to suppress the protease levels and maintain high levels of LIP. The results further indicated that this protease is synthesized de novo during the idiophase. Additional studies showed that MNPs play a dominant role in the decolorization of chlorolignols in bleached kraft pulp effluents and that LIPs play a relatively minor role in this process. These studies have since been confirmed independently by an Austrian group.

  19. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol;

    2005-01-01

    wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward copper components, a soil block test was undertaken to clarify the effect of two copper based preservatives, copper citrate and ACQ......Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based......-D, on the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans compared to an alternative non-copper containing wood preservative. The extensive use of copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. The copper tolerance of S. lacrymans and other brown...

  20. Peniamidienone and penidilamine, plant growth regulators produced by the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Y; Mizuno, T; Kawano, T; Okada, K; Shimada, A

    2000-04-01

    Peniamidienone and penidilamine were isolated from cultures of the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13 as new plant growth regulators and their structures were established by NMR spectroscopic studies. Peniamidienone showed weak inhibition of lettuce seedling growth.

  1. Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Ryder, Lauren S; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This is largely due to its amenability to both classical and molecular genetics, coupled with the efforts of a very large international research community. This review, which is based on a plenary presentation at the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference in Asilomar, California in March 2015, describes recent progress in understanding how M. oryzae uses specialised cell called appressoria to bring about plant infection and the underlying biology of this developmental process. We also review how the fungus is then able to proliferate within rice tissue, deploying effector proteins to facilitate its spread by suppressing plant immunity and promoting growth and development of the fungus.

  2. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play...... a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets......-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed...

  3. Isolation and characterization of antibacterial compound from a mangrove-endophytic fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 5108

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.

    ). Quimica Nova 28: 991-995 21. Marinho AMR, Rodrigues-Filho E, Moitinho MDLR, Santos LS (2005) Biologically active polyketides produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach. J Brazilian Chem Soc 16...

  4. Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Tiwari, R.; Sah, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    -degrading enzymes are reported to be the most efficient in decolorizing such effluents. We report here decolorization of all the three effluents by a marine fungal isolate, NIOCC # 2a cultured from decaying mangrove wood. The fungus also decolorized several...

  5. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia...

  6. Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    Introduction: Fungus-growing ants cultivate specialized fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae (Lepiotaceae: Basidiomycota) inside their nests. The conspicuous leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex...... have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect...... feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey...

  7. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species

  8. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...... material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial...

  9. Biosorption of copper(II and chromium(VI by modified tea fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II and Cr(VI ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investigated in the batch mode. The largest quantity of adsorbed Cu(II, of about 55 mg/g, was achieved by tea fungus modified with NaOH at 100°C. For Cr(VI, the largest quantity of adsorbed anions, of about 58 mg/g, was achieved by the adsorbent modified with NaOH at 20°C. It was shown that acid modification of tea fungus biomass was not effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005 i br. TR 31002

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLES : Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyung Hoan Im; ; Trung Kien Nguyen; Jaehyuk Choi; Tae Soo Lee

    2016-01-01

    .... It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07...

  11. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-01-01

    .... It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07...

  12. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (specie

  13. Characterization of salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from the mangrove fungus Pestalotiopsis sp

    OpenAIRE

    Chevret, Didier; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Levasseur, Anthony; Record, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are important for biomass degradation processes in mangrove forests. Given the presence of sea water in these ecosystems, mangrove fungi are adapted to high salinity. Here we isolate Pestalotiopsis sp. NCi6, a halotolerant and lignocellulolytic mangrove fungus of the order Xylariales. We study its lignocellulolytic enzymes and analyse the effects of salinity on its secretomes. De novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly indicate that this fungus possesses of over 400 putative lignocel...

  14. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus

  15. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it

  16. Deciphering the salinity adaptation mechanism in Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus from mangrove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Anuradha; Singh, Ruchi; Chakdar, Hillol; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus reported for the first time from India was identified through polyphasic taxonomy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus has unique features such as biverticillate penicilli bearing masses of oval to ellipsoidal conidia. The fungus has been characterized for salt tolerance and to understand the relevance of central carbon metabolism in salt stress adaptation. It showed optimal growth at 24 °C and able to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. To understand the mechanism of adaptation to high salinity, activities of the key enzymes regulating glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were investigated under normal (0% NaCl) and saline stress environment (10% NaCl). The results revealed a re-routing of carbon metabolism away from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), served as a cellular stress-resistance mechanism in fungi under saline environment. The detection and significant expression of fungus genes (Hsp98, Hsp60, HTB, and RHO) under saline stress suggest that these halotolerance conferring genes from the fungus could have a role in fungus protection and adaptation under saline environment. Overall, the present findings indicate that the rearrangement of the metabolic fluxes distribution and stress related genes play an important role in cell survival and adaptation under saline environment.

  17. Starch metabolism in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Bacci, M; Pagnocca, F C; Bueno, O C; Hebling, M J A

    2006-01-01

    Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ants, degrades starch, this degradation being supposed to occur in the plant material which leafcutters forage to the nests, generating most of the glucose which the ants utilize for food. In the present investigation, we show that laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus produce extracellular alpha-amylase and maltase which degrade starch to glucose, reinforcing that the ants can obtain glucose from starch through the symbiotic fungus. Glucose was found to repress alpha-amylase and, more severely, maltase activity, thus repressing starch degradation by L. gongylophorus, so that we hypothesize that: (1) glucose down-regulation of starch degradation also occurs in the Atta sexdens fungus garden; (2) glucose consumption from the fungus garden by A. sexdens stimulates degradation of starch from plant material by L. gongylophorus, which may represent a mechanism by which leafcutters can control enzyme production by the symbiotic fungus. Since glucose is found in the fungus garden inside the nests, down-regulation of starch degradation by glucose is supposed to occur in the nest and play a part in the control of fungal enzyme production by leafcutters.

  18. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel E Moller

    Full Text Available The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

  19. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism.

  20. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism.

  1. Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Mario X; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

    2011-06-23

    Ant-fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant-fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries.

  2. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  3. Biotransformation of indomethacin by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Li-hong LIN; Hai-hua HUANG; Hai-yan XU; Da-fang ZHONG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biotransformation of indomethacin, the first of the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, by filamentous fungus and to compare the similarities between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism of indomethacin. Methods: Five strains of Cunninghamella (C elegans AS 3.156, C elegans AS 3.2028, C blakesleeana AS 3.153, C blakesleeana AS 3.910 and C echinulata AS 3.2004) were screened for their ability to catalyze the biotransformation of indomethacin. Indomethacin was partially metabolized by five strains of Cunninghamella, and C blakesleeana AS 3.910 was selected for further investigation. Three metabolites produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.910 were isolated using semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were identified by a combination analysis of LC/MSn and NMR spectra. These three metabolites were separated and quantitatively assayed by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Results: After 120 h of incubation with C blakesleeana AS 3.910, approximately 87.4% of indomethacin was metabolized to three metabolites: O-desmethylindomethacin (DMI, M1, 67.2%), Af-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DBI, M2,13.3%) and O-desmethyl-AT-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DMBI, M3, 6.9%). Three phase I metabolites of indomethacin produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.910 were identical to those obtained in humans. Conclusion: C blakesleeana could be a useful tool for generating the mammalian phase I metabolites of indomethacin.

  4. Pulmonary echinococcal cyst with a filamentous fungus co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, P; Dixit, A K; Tanwar, A; Mahajan, N C

    2013-09-01

    Fungal infections are known to colonize the pre-existing lung cavities formed as a result of diseases like tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis and cavitatary neoplasia, mostly encountered in immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary echinococcal cysts have been reported coexistent with cryptococcosis and other saprophytic mycosis, but the coexistence of aspergillosis and echinococcal cyst is extremely rare and occasionally been reported in English literature. Active invasion and proliferation of the fungi in the laminated ectocyst of the echinococcal cyst is very unusual. We report a case of 60 years old immunocompetent female, presented with cough, chest pain and shortness of breath. The chest X-ray showed a large thick walled cavity in the lower and mid zone of right lung with positive water lily sign. Surgical enucleation of the echinococcal cyst revealed aspergilloma involving the cavity with massive invasion of laminated ectocyst by filamentous fungus, morphologically resembling an Aspergillus species and was further treated with Itraconazole for 3 months. This unique coexistence of active pulmonary echinococcosis and aspergillosis is being reported because of its rarity and clinical importance for its management.

  5. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount.

  6. Biotransformation of metoprolol by the fungus Cunninghamella blakes-leeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin MA; Hai-hua HUANG; Xiao-yan CHEN; Yu-ming SUN; Li-hong LIN; Da-fang ZHONG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biotransformation of metoprolol, a β1-cardioselective adrenoceptor antagonist, by filamentous fungus, and to compare the parallels between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism. Methods: Five strains of Cunninghamella (C elegans AS 3.156, C elegans AS 3.2028, C echinulata AS 3.2004, C blakesleeana AS 3.153 and AS 3.910) were screened for the ability to transform metoprolol. The metabolites of metoprolol produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.153 were separated and assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSn). The major metabolites were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and the structures were identified by a combination of LC/MSn and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Results: Metoprolol was transformed to 7 metabolites; 2 were identified as new metabolites and 5 were known metabolites in mammals. Conclusion: The microbial transformation of metoprolol was similar to the metabolism in mammals. The fungi belonging to Cunninghamella species could be used as complementary models for predicting in vivo metabolism and producing quantities of metabolite references for drugs like metoprolol.

  7. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards.

  8. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1, 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4, deacetylsesquiterpene (7, 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9 and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E-penta-1,3-dien-1-ylisochroman-1-one (10, together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2 and C (3, pyripyropene A (5, 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6, (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8, isochaetominine C (11, trichodermamide A (12, indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13, 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15 and fumiquinazoline F (16, were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1–11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda.

  9. Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit eGhosh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

  10. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  11. Characterization of transposable elements in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Labbé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TE-specific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS, long terminal repeats (LTRs and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis 1 represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2 contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3 provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  12. Adhesion of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana to Substrata†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Diane J.; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2005-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana produces at least three distinct single-cell propagules, aerial conidia, vegetative cells termed blastospores, and submerged conidia, which can be isolated from agar plates, from rich broth liquid cultures, and under nutrient limitation conditions in submerged cultures, respectively. Fluorescently labeled fungal cells were used to quantify the kinetics of adhesion of these cell types to surfaces having various hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties. Aerial conidia adhered poorly to weakly polar surfaces and rapidly to both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces but could be readily washed off the latter surfaces. In contrast, blastospores bound poorly to hydrophobic surfaces, forming small aggregates, bound rapidly to hydrophilic surfaces, and required a longer incubation time to bind to weakly polar surfaces than to hydrophilic surfaces. Submerged conidia displayed the broadest binding specificity, adhering to hydrophobic, weakly polar, and hydrophilic surfaces. The adhesion of the B. bassiana cell types also differed in sensitivity to glycosidase and protease treatments, pH, and addition of various carbohydrate competitors and detergents. The outer cell wall layer of aerial conidia contained sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble, trifluoroacetic acid-soluble proteins (presumably hydrophobins) that were not present on either blastospores or submerged conidia. The variations in the cell surface properties leading to the different adhesion qualities of B. bassiana aerial conidia, blastospores, and submerged conidia could lead to rational design decisions for improving the efficacy and possibly the specificity of entomopathogenic fungi for host targets. PMID:16151112

  13. Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

  14. Biodegradation of ciprofloxacin by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka; Kaur, Loveleen

    2017-05-01

    Unrestricted and reckless use of antibiotics has resulted in their accumulation in environment. This, in turn, has led to the emergence of multiple drug-resistant microbes. The present study focuses on degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) by an edible white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Effect of CIP was determined on radial growth and biomass of P. ostreatus. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assays were carried out to assess the degrading potential of P. ostreatus towards CIP. It was found that CIP has a stimulatory effect on growth and enzyme activity of P. ostreatus. Maximum enzyme (glucanase, ligninases, laccase) production was observed at the highest concentration of CIP (500 ppm). Antibiotic degradation of about 68.8, 94.25 and 91.34% was estimated after 14 days of incubation at 500 ppm CIP using Titrimetric, Indigo carmine and Methyl orange assay, respectively. Degradation of CIP was further validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological analysis. HPLC analysis revealed 95.07% degradation while microbiological test also exhibited a decreased antimicrobial activity of degraded products against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study wherein P. ostreatus was used for the degradation of ciprofloxacin.

  15. Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2θ = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

  16. Cytotoxic effects of Oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi

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    Rmaesha eA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to MDCK kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in-vitro. Also to know the possible in-vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 uM to 200 µM. After 24 hrs of post exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of ROS generation and high levels of MDA, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induced glutathione hydroxylase production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosprin concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (SOD1 and CAT expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress

  17. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

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    Song Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1 with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2, along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9 were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs = 11.79–23.66 μM, and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM, showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM, and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM.

  18. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng; Zhu, Xinwei; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1) with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2), along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9) were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) = 11.79–23.66 μM), and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM), showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM), and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM). PMID:27690061

  19. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop.

  20. Structural analysis of fungus-derived FAD glucose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakai, Genki; Mori, Kazushige; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-08-27

    We report the first three-dimensional structure of fungus-derived glucose dehydrogenase using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as the cofactor. This is currently the most advanced and popular enzyme used in glucose sensor strips manufactured for glycemic control by diabetic patients. We prepared recombinant nonglycosylated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) derived from Aspergillus flavus (AfGDH) and obtained the X-ray structures of the binary complex of enzyme and reduced FAD at a resolution of 1.78 Å and the ternary complex with reduced FAD and D-glucono-1,5-lactone (LGC) at a resolution of 1.57 Å. The overall structure is similar to that of fungal glucose oxidases (GOxs) reported till date. The ternary complex with reduced FAD and LGC revealed the residues recognizing the substrate. His505 and His548 were subjected for site-directed mutagenesis studies, and these two residues were revealed to form the catalytic pair, as those conserved in GOxs. The absence of residues that recognize the sixth hydroxyl group of the glucose of AfGDH, and the presence of significant cavity around the active site may account for this enzyme activity toward xylose. The structural information will contribute to the further engineering of FADGDH for use in more reliable and economical biosensing technology for diabetes management.

  1. Analysis on blast fungus-responsive characters of a flavonoid phytoalexin sakuranetin; accumulation in infected rice leaves, antifungal activity and detoxification by fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Morifumi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Seo, Shigemi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Iwai, Takayoshi; Ohashi, Yuko

    2014-08-04

    To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA) sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR) within 3 days post inoculation (dpi) of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus.

  2. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

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    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  3. The effectiveness of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi and Aspergillus niger or Phanerochaete chrysosporium treated organic amendments from olive residues upon plant growth in a semi-arid degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2010-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and a residue from dry olive cake (DOC) supplemented with rock phosphate (RP) and treated with either Aspergillus niger (DOC-A) or Phanerochaete chrysosporium (DOC-P), were assayed in a natural, semi-arid soil using Trifolium repens or Dorycnium pentaphyllum plants. The effects of the AM fungi and/or DOC-A were compared with P-fertilisation (P) over eleven successive harvests to evaluate the persistence of the effectiveness of the treatments. The biomass of dually-treated plants after four successive harvests was greater than that obtained for non-treated plants or those receiving the AM inoculum or DOC-A treatments after eleven yields. The AM inoculation was critical for obtaining plant growth benefit from the application of fermented DOC-A residue. The abilities of the treatments to prevent plant drought stress were also assayed. Drought-alleviating effects were evaluated in terms of plant growth, proline and total sugars concentration under alternative drought and re-watering conditions (8th and 9th harvests). The concentrations of both compounds in plant biomass increased under drought when DOC-A amendment and AM inoculation were employed together: they reinforced the plant drought-avoidance capabilities and anti-oxidative defence. Water stress was less compensated in P-fertilised than in DOC-A-treated plants. DOC-P increased D. pentaphyllum biomass, shoot P content, nodule number and AM colonisation, indicating the greater DOC-transforming ability of P. chrysosporium compared to A. niger. The lack of AM colonisation and nodulation in this soil was compensated by the application of DOC-P, particularly with AM inoculum. The management of natural resources (organic amendments and soil microorganisms) represents an important strategy that assured the growth, nutrition and plant establishment in arid, degraded soils, preventing the damage that arises from limited water and nutrient supply.

  4. Slope aspect influences arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Rong; Bai, Shulan; Bai, Yv E; Wang, Jugang

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis plays an important role in ecosystem functioning, particularly in fragile environments. Little is known, however, about how AM fungus community composition responds to slope aspect. Our objective was to compare the AM fungus communities between sunny and shady slopes and to detect factors that influenced the distributions of AM fungi in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China. AM fungus communities were evaluated based on small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSUs) using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. AM fungus community composition differed significantly between slope aspects, and sunny slopes had significantly higher AM fungus diversity and richness as well as spore density, total root colonization, arbuscule abundance, vesicle abundance, and hyphal colonization than shady slopes. Structural equation modeling (SEM) illustrated that the effects of slope aspect on AM fungus richness likely were mediated by available phosphorus, soil organic carbon, plant cover, and plant diversity. Available phosphorus was the principal factor that influenced AM fungus species richness, and soil organic carbon was the principal factor influencing spore density and total root colonization, suggesting that these factors especially might be responsible for differences between the AM fungus communities of different slope aspects. These findings elucidate the influence of slope aspect on AM fungus communities and may inform use of AM fungi in protection and restoration of vegetation with different slope aspects in arid ecosystems.

  5. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Hong Keat; Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Chong, Pei-Sin; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2017-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008). The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp) genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10) CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591. PMID:28149676

  6. Host Specialization in the Charcoal Rot Fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G; Suh, S O; Schneider, R W; Russin, J S

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate host specialization in Macrophomina phaseolina, the fungus was isolated from soybean, corn, sorghum, and cotton root tissue and soil from fields cropped continuously to these species for 15 years in St. Joseph, LA. Chlorate phenotype of each isolate was determined after growing on a minimal medium containing 120 mM potassium chlorate. Consistent differences in chlorate sensitivity were detected among isolates from different hosts and from soil versus root. To further explore genetic differentiation among fungal isolates from each host, these isolates were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. No variations were observed among isolates in restriction patterns of DNA fragments amplified by polymerase chain reaction covering the internal transcribed spacer region, 5.8S rRNA and part of 25S rRNA, suggesting that M. phaseolina constitutes a single species. Ten random primers were used to amplify the total DNA of 45 isolates, and banding patterns resulting from RAPD analysis were compared with the neighbor-joining method. Isolates from a given host were genetically similar to each other but distinctly different from those from other hosts. Chlorate-sensitive isolates were distinct from chlorate-resistant isolates within a given host. In greenhouse tests, soybean, sorghum, corn, and cotton were grown separately in soil infested with individual isolates of M. phaseolina that were chosen based on their host of origin and chlorate phenotype. Root colonization and plant weight were measured after harvesting. More colonization of corn roots occurred when corn was grown in soil containing corn isolates compared with isolates from other hosts. However, there was no host specialization in isolates from soybean, sorghum, or cotton. More root colonization in soybean occurred with chlorate-sensitive than with chlorate-resistant isolates.

  7. Infection of Psoroptes mites with the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A J; Wall, R

    2001-01-01

    The astigmatid mite, Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae), is an obligatory ectoparasite that causes psoroptic mange in a range of domesticated animals, particularly sheep, where the clinical disease is known as sheep scab. A series of laboratory assays were used to assess the use of the fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) as a biocontrol agent for P. ovis derived from rabbits (syn. P. cuniculi). The immersion of mites in a suspension of conidia of M. anisopliae resulted in the acquisition of fatal infections. The number of mites which developed infections increased significantly with the increasing concentration of the conidial suspension to which they were exposed; 77% of mites developed infections when exposed to the highest concentration used (1 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1)). Controls developed no fungal infections. Mites allowed simply to walk across a surface which had been treated with a suspension of conidia also acquired fungal infections; the number infected was again related to the concentration of conidia present. After contact for 24 h with a surface treated with 1 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1), 73% of the mites became infected. To determine whether dead infected mites could act as sources of infection, infected cadavers were placed in chambers with live uninfected mites. The uninfected mites acquired fatal infections from the cadavers; a higher ratio of infected cadavers to uninfected mites resulted in greater transmission of infection. The time after death of the infected cadaver was also an important factor influencing the number infected, 5-day-old cadavers were the most infective and 18-day-old cadavers the least infective. The results indicate that M. anisopliae is a good candidate control agent for Psoroptes mites.

  8. Trade-offs in an ant-plant-fungus mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orivel, Jérôme; Malé, Pierre-Jean; Lauth, Jérémie; Roux, Olivier; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2017-03-15

    Species engaged in multiple, simultaneous mutualisms are subject to trade-offs in their mutualistic investment if the traits involved in each interaction are overlapping, which can lead to conflicts and affect the longevity of these associations. We investigate this issue via a tripartite mutualism involving an ant plant, two competing ant species and a fungus the ants cultivate to build galleries under the stems of their host plant to capture insect prey. The use of the galleries represents an innovative prey capture strategy compared with the more typical strategy of foraging on leaves. However, because of a limited worker force in their colonies, the prey capture behaviour of the ants results in a trade-off between plant protection (i.e. the ants patrol the foliage and attack intruders including herbivores) and ambushing prey in the galleries, which has a cascading effect on the fitness of all of the partners. The quantification of partners' traits and effects showed that the two ant species differed in their mutualistic investment. Less investment in the galleries (i.e. in fungal cultivation) translated into more benefits for the plant in terms of less herbivory and higher growth rates and vice versa. However, the greater vegetative growth of the plants did not produce a positive fitness effect for the better mutualistic ant species in terms of colony size and production of sexuals nor was the mutualist compensated by the wider dispersal of its queens. As a consequence, although the better ant mutualist is the one that provides more benefits to its host plant, its lower host-plant exploitation does not give this ant species a competitive advantage. The local coexistence of the ant species is thus fleeting and should eventually lead to the exclusion of the less competitive species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Keat Looi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008. The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10 CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591.

  10. Genome characterization of the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which can produce lipids accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight in the form of triacylglycerols. It is used commercially for the production of arachidonic acid. Using a combination of high throughput sequencing and lipid profiling, we have assembled the M. alpina genome, mapped its lipogenesis pathway and determined its major lipid species. The 38.38 Mb M. alpina genome shows a high degree of gene duplications. Approximately 50% of its 12,796 gene models, and 60% of genes in the predicted lipogenesis pathway, belong to multigene families. Notably, M. alpina has 18 lipase genes, of which 11 contain the class 2 lipase domain and may share a similar function. M. alpina's fatty acid synthase is a single polypeptide containing all of the catalytic domains required for fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, whereas in many fungi this enzyme is comprised of two polypeptides. Major lipids were profiled to confirm the products predicted in the lipogenesis pathway. M. alpina produces a complex mixture of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. In contrast, only two major sterol lipids, desmosterol and 24(28-methylene-cholesterol, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on genes involved in lipid metabolism suggests that oleaginous fungi may have acquired their lipogenic capacity during evolution after the divergence of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Our study provides the first draft genome and comprehensive lipid profile for M. alpina, and lays the foundation for possible genetic engineering of M. alpina to produce higher levels and diverse contents of dietary lipids.

  11. Effect of Electric Field on Cell Growth, Permeability and Extracellular Enzymatic Reactions of Phanerochaete chrysosporium%电场对黄孢原毛平革菌生长、细胞通透性及其胞外酶反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福远; 苗长春; 韩慧龙; 金文标; 刘铮

    2007-01-01

    研究了交、直流电场对黄孢原毛平革菌Phanerochaete chrysosporuim的生长、细胞通透性及其所分泌的漆酶、木质素过氧化物酶及锰型过氧化物酶活力的影响. 结果表明,施加50 Hz, 50 mA交流电可显著地促进Phanerochaete chrysosporium的生长,经过10 d的培养,其干菌重为对照组的1.72倍;施加交、直流电都能够使细胞的通透性增强;施加交、直流电场在短时间内可显著提高3种胞外酶的活力,而时间过长则导致活力降低,电流强度为10 mA时的适宜加电时间为10 h.

  12. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  13. Combining microtomy and confocal laser scanning microscopy for structural analyses of plant-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Magnus; Grolig, Franz; Haueisen, Janine; Imhof, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    The serious problem of extended tissue thickness in the analysis of plant-fungus associations was overcome using a new method that combines physical and optical sectioning of the resin-embedded sample by microtomy and confocal microscopy. Improved tissue infiltration of the fungal-specific, high molecular weight fluorescent probe wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 633 resulted in high fungus-specific fluorescence even in deeper tissue sections. If autofluorescence was insufficient, additional counterstaining with Calcofluor White M2R or propidium iodide was applied in order to visualise the host plant tissues. Alternatively, the non-specific fluorochrome acid fuchsine was used for rapid staining of both, the plant and the fungal cells. The intricate spatial arrangements of the plant and fungal cells were preserved by immobilization in the hydrophilic resin Unicryl™. Microtomy was used to section the resin-embedded roots or leaves until the desired plane was reached. The data sets generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the remaining resin stubs allowed the precise spatial reconstruction of complex structures in the plant-fungus associations of interest. This approach was successfully tested on tissues from ectomycorrhiza (Betula pendula), arbuscular mycorrhiza (Galium aparine; Polygala paniculata, Polygala rupestris), ericoid mycorrhiza (Calluna vulgaris), orchid mycorrhiza (Limodorum abortivum, Serapias parviflora) and on one leaf-fungus association (Zymoseptoria tritici on Triticum aestivum). The method provides an efficient visualisation protocol applicable with a wide range of plant-fungus symbioses.

  14. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  15. Appressorium formation in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis requires a G2 cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Sónia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2015-01-01

    Many of the most important plant diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that form specialized cell structures to breach the leaf surface as well as to proliferate inside the plant. To initiate pathogenic development, the fungus responds to a set of inductive cues. Some of them are of extracellular nature (environmental signals) while others respond to intracellular conditions (developmental signals). These signals have to be integrated into a single response that has as a major outcome changes in the morphogenesis of the fungus. The cell cycle regulation is pivotal during these cellular differentiations, and we hypothesized that cell cycle regulation would be likely to provide control points for infection development by fungal pathogens. Although efforts have been done in various fungal systems, there is still limited information available regarding the relationship of these processes with the induction of the virulence programs. Hence, the role of fungal cell cycle regulators -which are wide conserved elements- as true virulence factors, has yet to be defined. Here we discuss the recent finding that the formation of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis seems to be incompatible with an active cell cycle and, therefore genetic circuits evolved in this fungus to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on plant surface, before the appressorium-mediated penetration into the plant tissue.

  16. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quesada-Moraga

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae, endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing. The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  17. The nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its nematicidal activity on Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Lima, Walter dos Santos; de Queiroz, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    The dog acts as a reservoir and environmental disseminator of potentially zoonotic parasites. The objective of this work was to study the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium regarding its nematicidal potential in laboratory trials and its proteolytic profile. The in vitro test was carried out through two assays (A and B). In assay A, conidia of the fungus N34a were added in positive coprocultures for Angiostrongylus vasorum. In assay B, crude extract (treated group) and distilled water (control group) were added to coprocultures. Next, the proteolytic profile of crude extract of the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium (NF34a) was revealed by performing a zymogram. There was a reduction (p<0.01) in the averages of larvae recovered from the treated groups (conidia and crude extract) in relation to control groups. The zymogram suggested that the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium produces a protease of approximately 40 kDa. The results of this work confirm that the conidia as well as the crude extract of the fungus M. thaumasium may be used to control A. vasorum L1. The proteolytic profile suggested the presence of one protease (Mt1) of approximately 40 kDa that in the future may be used in biological control of L1 of this nematode. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of growing media and their constituents on fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Lintner) adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAYMOND A. CLOYD; AMY DICKINSON; RICHARD A. LARSON; KAREN A.MARLEY

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attractiveness of two growing media,commonly utilized in greenhouses, to fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila adults. The constituents of the most attractive growing medium tested were determined by gas chromatography analysis using a steam-distillation procedure. We found that fungus gnat adults were more attracted to the growing medium, SB300 Universal Professional Growing Mix,which contains composted bark, than to another growing medium (Sunshine LC1 Mix) and their components when tested in a series of laboratory experiments using multiple-choice experimental arenas. A higher percentage of fungus gnat adults were attracted to moist SB300(92%)than SB300 growing medium that had been oven dried (8%). In addition,fungus gnat adults preferred SB300 although they had been reared on Sunshine LC1 Mix.When comparing the SB300 fresh from the bag to growing medium that had been pasteurized and moistened with water, gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic data showed there were declines in several terpenoid constituents as well as an increase in fatty acids and cyclosulfur.The results of this study indicate that B. sp. nr. coprophila adults prefer certain growing media, which may assist greenhouse producers in managing fungus gnats in crop production systems.

  19. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Eric L; Aylward, Frank O; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Nicora, Carrie D; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D; Currie, Cameron R; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics that feed on fungus gardens cultivated on fresh foliar biomass. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metabolomic and metaproteomic techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous characterization of lignocellulases produced by the fungal cultivar of the ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metabolomic experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in fungus gardens. These results provide new insights into microbial community-level processes that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  20. Production of secondary metabolite E2.2 from Phaleria macrocarpa endophytic fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong; Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate new endophytic fungus from Phaleria macrocarpa (P. macrocarpa) that is able to produce E2.2 compound. Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated from P. macrocarpa. Morphological and molecular identification was done to determine the species of the endophytic fungus. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the ability of this fungus to produce E2.2 compound and to quantify the total yield of E2.2 from fungal fermen-tation. Fermentation process was optimized by observing suitable medium, pH and length of fermentation process. Phloroglucinol and gallic acid addition were examined to determine the effect of each compound on E2.2 production. Results: One endophytic fungus was successfully isolated from P. macrocarpa plant. Morphological and molecular identification showed that it was a Colletotrichum gloeo-sporioides which belonged to Glomerellaceae family. This fungus showed highest pro-duction of E2.2 when incubated in potato dextrose broth with initial pH value of the medium at 5, and was incubated for 15 days. Phloroglucinol was found to better enhance E2.2 production. Conclusions: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides found in P. macrocarpa plant is prom-ising as a potential alternative source of E2.2.

  1. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  2. Transgenic assessment of CFP-mediated cercosporin export and resistance in a cercosporin-sensitive fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Robert G; Rose, Mark S; Eweida, Mohamed; Callahan, Terrence M

    2002-04-01

    Cercosporin is a toxic polyketide produced by many phytopathogenic members of the fungal genus Cercospora. Cercospora species, themselves, exhibit the highest level of self-resistance to this almost universally toxic photosensitizer. Although the mechanism of cercosporin self-resistance is multi-faceted, partial resistance does appear to be provided by the encoded product of CFP ( cercosporin facilitator protein), a gene recently isolated from the pathogen of soybean, C. kikuchii. CFP has significant similarity to the major facilitator superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. We expressed CFP in the cercosporin non-producing, cercosporin-sensitive fungus, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, in order to assess the transport activity of CFP and the contribution of CFP to cercosporin resistance in a fungal species free of endogenous toxin production. Expression of the CFP transgene in this fungus results in increased resistance to cercosporin due, apparently, to its export out of the fungus.

  3. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated......The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...

  4. Potential for Nitrogen Fixation in the Fungus-Growing Termite Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin; Cilliers, Magdeleen; Vorster, Barend J; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites.

  5. Interactions between hyphosphere-associated bacteria and the fungus Cladosporium herbarum on aquatic leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschien, Christiane; Rode, Georg; Böckelmann, Uta; Götz, Peter; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2009-10-01

    We investigated microbial interactions of aquatic bacteria associated with hyphae (the hyphosphere) of freshwater fungi on leaf litter. Bacteria were isolated directly from the hyphae of fungi from sedimented leaves of a small stream in the National Park "Lower Oder," Germany. To investigate interactions, bacteria and fungi were pairwise co-cultivated on leaf-extract medium and in microcosms loaded with leaves. The performance of fungi and bacteria was monitored by measuring growth, enzyme production, and respiration of mono- and co-cultures. Growth inhibition of the fungus Cladosporium herbarum by Ralstonia pickettii was detected on leaf extract agar plates. In microcosms, the presence of Chryseobacterium sp. lowered the exocellulase, endocellulase, and cellobiase activity of the fungus. Additionally, the conversion of leaf material into microbial biomass was retarded in co-cultures. The respiration of the fungus was uninfluenced by the presence of the bacterium.

  6. Antifungal Depsidone Metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an Endophytic Fungus Antagonistic to the Phytopathogen Gibberella fujikuroi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Titto; Riosa, Nivia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla Rios, L.

    2012-01-01

    Among thirty four endophytic fungal strains screened for in vitro antagonism, the endophytic fungus Cordyceps dipterigena was found to strongly inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Two new depsidone metabolites, cordycepsidone A (1) and cordycepsidone B (2), were isolated from the PDA culture extract of C. dipterigena and identified as being responsible for the antifungal activity. Elucidation of their chemical structures was carried out using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in combination with IR and MS spectroscopic data. Cordycepsidone A displayed strong and dose-dependent antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. The isolates were inactive in bioassays for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), Chagas’s disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), and cytotoxicity at 10 μg/mL. The compounds were also found to be inactive against several bacterial strains at 50 μg/mL. PMID:22707798

  7. Comparative mitochondrial genomics toward exploring molecular markers in the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Hao, Ai-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie

    2017-01-10

    Cordyceps militaris is a fungus used for developing health food, but knowledge about its intraspecific differentiation is limited due to lack of efficient markers. Herein, we assembled the mitochondrial genomes of eight C. militaris strains and performed a comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis together with three previously reported mitochondrial genomes of the fungus. Sizes of the 11 mitochondrial genomes varied from 26.5 to 33.9 kb mainly due to variable intron contents (from two to eight introns per strain). Nucleotide variability varied according to different regions with non-coding regions showing higher variation frequency than coding regions. Recombination events were identified between some locus pairs but seemed not to contribute greatly to genetic variations of the fungus. Based on nucleotide diversity fluctuations across the alignment of all mitochondrial genomes, molecular markers with the potential to be used for future typing studies were determined.

  8. A case of fungus ball type pansinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Mehdi; Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Moazeni, Maryam; Jamal Hashemi, Seyed; Fallahi, Ali Akbar; Ehteram, Hassan; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Schizophillum commune has been increasingly reported from allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) as well as fungus ball, brain abscess and several cases of maxillary or allergic fungal sinusitis. In the present study, we reported a case of fungus ball type pansinusitis from a 32-year-old woman in Iran. According to computed tomography (CT) scan, fungus ball type pan-sinusitis was likely to be the first diagnosis. Mycological examination revealed hyaline hyphae with small projection and also clamp connection structures on PDA medium. To identify the obtained isolate properly, molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region was performed and indicated that the causing agent of the infection is surely Schizophillum commune. The patient completely recovered after surgical endoscopic operation and consequent post-operation MRI revealed clearance of sinuses.

  9. 浅析菌袋出口对食用菌产业的影响%Analysis on the Influence of Edible Fungus Bag Expo~ation on Edible Fungus Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡美玲

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The increasing of edible fungus bag exportation promoted the standardized production of edible fungus industry in China, anti avoided the trade barrier in edible fungus exportation. However, the problems it brought also should not be ignored, such as the material shortage of edible fungus, the, species barrier and the obsh'uetion of edible fungus product expurtation.%菌袋出口量的增加不仅提升了中国食用菌产业的标准化生产,而且规避了各国对食用菌出口的贸易壁垒;但其所带来的问题也是不容忽视的,如食用菌原料的短缺、物种壁垒、食用菌制品出口受阻等。

  10. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  11. Biological control of cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) with nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2011-01-10

    Horses are hosts to a wide variety of helminthes; the most important are the cyathostomin, or small strongyles. The viability of a fungal formulation (pellets) using the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium was assessed in biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control) consisted of six mares in each group, crossbred (ages of 2.5 and 3.5 years), were placed in pastures of Cynodon sp. naturally infected with horse cyathostomin larvae. In the treated group, each animal received 1g/10 kg body weight (0.2g/10 kg live weight of fungus) of pellets of sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus M. thaumasium orally, twice a week for 6 months. In the control group, animals received (1g/10 kg body weight) of pellets without fungus. The egg count per gram of feces showed difference (pcontrol animals during all months of the experiment. The EPG percentage decrease were 87.5%, 89.7%, 68.3%, 58.7%, 52.5% and 35.2% during June, July, August, September, October and November, respectively. In faecal cultures, there was difference (pcontrol animals during all the experiment month, with percentage reduction of 67.5%, 61.4% and 31.8% in September, October and November, respectively. Difference (pcontrol group with a reduction of 60.9% and between 0-20 and 0-40 cm from the faecal pat reduction (pcontrol group pasture. There was no difference (p>0.05) between the average weight gains in both animal groups. The treatment of horses with pellets containing the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium can be effective in controlling cyathostomin in the tropical region of southeastern Brazil.

  12. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt

  13. Temperature modulates the secretome of the phytopathogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Félix

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental alterations modulate host-microorganism interactions. Little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. Current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures.The exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. The impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can induce different levels of virulence in new hosts, allowing massive losses in agricultural and health fields.Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for a number of diseases in various plants. It has also been described as an opportunist pathogen in humans, causing infections with different levels of severity. Lasiodiplodia theobromae has a high capacity of adaptation to different environments, such as woody plants, moist argillaceous soils or even humans, being able to grow and infect hosts in a wide range of temperatures (9ºC-39ºC. Nonetheless, the effect of an increase of temperature, as predicted in climate change models, on L. theobromae is unknown.Here we explore the effect of temperature on two strains of L. theobromae – an environmental strain CAA019, and a clinical strain, CBS339.90.We show that both strains are cytotoxic to mammalian cells but while the environmental strain is cytotoxic mainly at 25ºC, the clinical strain is cytotoxic mainly at 30ºC and 37ºC.Extracellular gelatinolytic, xylanolytic, amylolytic and cellulolytic activities at 25ºC and 37ºC were characterized by zymography and the secretome of both strains grown at 25ºC, 30ºC and 37ºC were characterized by electrophoresis and by Orbitrap LC-MS/MS. More than 75% of the proteins were identified, mostly enzymes (glycosyl hydrolases and proteases. The strains showed different protein profiles, which were affected by growth temperature. Also, strain

  14. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest: Interaction asymmetry between Pseudoxylaria, Termitomyces and free-living relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Kooij, P.W.; Debets, A.J.M.; Kuyper, T.W.; Aanen, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway that prac

  15. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Małagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten N.; Lange, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death an...

  16. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes;

    2016-01-01

    time. These shifts did not appear to be due to changes in the taxa present, but rather due to differences in the relative abundances of primarily gut-derived bacteria within fungus combs. This indicates that fungus comb microbiotas are largely termite species-specific due to major contributions from...

  17. Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Tremmel, Daniel M; Bruce, David C; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.

  18. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  19. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  20. Molecular characterization of a saline-soluble lectin from a parasitic fungus: Extensive sequence similarities between fungal lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, S.; Kata, M.; Persson, Y.; Lipniunas, P.H.; Wikström, M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Brink, J.M. van den; Rask, L.; Hedén, L.O.; Tunlid, A.

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the interactions between several parasite and pathogenic fungi and their hosts are mediated by soluble lectins present in the fungus. We have cloned and analyzed a gene encoding such a lectin (AOL) from the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (deuteromycete). The d

  1. The most relictual fungus-farming ant species cultivates the most recently evolved and highly domesticated fungal symbiont species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ted R; Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey; Brady, Seán G; Lopes, Cauê T; Mueller, Ulrich G; Bacci, Mauricio; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L

    2015-05-01

    Fungus-farming (attine) ant agriculture is made up of five known agricultural systems characterized by remarkable symbiont fidelity in which five phylogenetic groups of ants faithfully cultivate five phylogenetic groups of fungi. Here we describe the first case of a lower-attine ant cultivating a higher-attine fungus based on our discovery of a Brazilian population of the relictual fungus-farming ant Apterostigma megacephala, known previously from four stray specimens from Peru and Colombia. We find that A. megacephala is the sole surviving representative of an ancient lineage that diverged ∼39 million years ago, very early in the ∼55-million-year evolution of fungus-farming ants. Contrary to all previously known patterns of ant-fungus symbiont fidelity, A. megacephala cultivates Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a highly domesticated fungal cultivar that originated only 2-8 million years ago in the gardens of the highly derived and recently evolved (∼12 million years ago) leaf-cutting ants. Because no other lower fungus-farming ant is known to cultivate any of the higher-attine fungi, let alone the leaf-cutter fungus, A. megacephala may provide important clues about the biological mechanisms constraining the otherwise seemingly obligate ant-fungus associations that characterize attine ant agriculture.

  2. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  3. Molecular characterization of a saline-soluble lectin from a parasitic fungus: Extensive sequence similarities between fungal lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, S.; Kata, M.; Persson, Y.; Lipniunas, P.H.; Wikström, M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Brink, J.M. van den; Rask, L.; Hedén, L.O.; Tunlid, A.

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the interactions between several parasite and pathogenic fungi and their hosts are mediated by soluble lectins present in the fungus. We have cloned and analyzed a gene encoding such a lectin (AOL) from the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (deuteromycete). The

  4. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  5. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49. 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol

  6. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49. 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol pr

  7. Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin-degrading fungus Phaerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, J.T.; Gold, M.H.; Renganathan, V. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Under nitrogen-limiting, secondary metabolic conditions, the white rat basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium extensively mineralized the specifically [sup 14]C-ring-labeled azo dyes 4-phenylazophenol, 4-phenylazo-2-methoxyphenol, Disperse Yellow 3 [2-(4[prime]-acetamidophenylaso)-4-methylphenol], 4-phenylazoaniline, N,N-dimethyl-4-phenylazoaniline, Disperse Orange 3 [4-(4[prime]-nitrophenylazo)-aniline], and Solvent Yellow 14 (1-phenylazo-2-naphthol). Twelve days after addition to cultures, the dyes had been mineralized 23.1 to 48.1%. Aromatic rings with substituents such as hydroxyl, amino, acetamido, or nitro functions were mineralized to a greater extent than unsubstituted rings. Most of the dyes were degraded extensively only under nitrogen-limiting, ligninolytic conditions. However, 4-phenylazo-[U-[sup 14]C] phenol and 4-phenylazo-[U-[sup 14]C] 2-methoxyphenol were mineralized to a lesser extent under nitrogen-sufficient, nonligninolytic conditions as well. These results suggest that P. chrysosporium has potential applications for the cleanup of textile mill effluents and for the bioremediation of dye-contaminated soil.

  8. The research of using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 γ ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

  9. Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

    1992-08-01

    The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

  10. Degradation of the plant defence hormone salicylic acid by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Franziska; Ajami-Rashidi, Ziba; Doehlemann, Gunther; Kahmann, Regine; Djamei, Armin

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant defence hormone which plays an important role in local and systemic defence responses against biotrophic pathogens like the smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Here we identified Shy1, a cytoplasmic U. maydis salicylate hydroxylase which has orthologues in the closely related smuts Ustilago hordei and Sporisorium reilianum. shy1 is transcriptionally induced during the biotrophic stages of development but not required for virulence during seedling infection. Shy1 activity is needed for growth on plates with SA as a sole carbon source. The trigger for shy1 transcriptional induction is SA, suggesting the possibility of a SA sensing mechanism in this fungus.

  11. A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

  12. Laboratory evaluation of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, M; Ownag, A; Pourseyed, S H; Mardani, K

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenicity of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on different life stages of Dermanyssus gallinae was evaluated in the laboratory. All the strains tested were virulent to D. gallinae but pathogenicity varied among the strains. Strain V245 induced a higher mortality rate using different concentrations than other two strains. The estimated median lethal concentration of different strains of M. anisopliae against D. gallinae varied depending on the exposure time of D. gallinae to M. anisopliae. It was concluded that the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae on different life stages of D. gallinae was concentration and time dependent.

  13. A comparative study of exocrine gland chemistry in Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Jones, Tappey H.; Jeter, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Ants possess many exocrine glands that produce a variety of compounds important for chemical communication. Fungus-growing ants, a tribe of over 230 species within the subfamily Myrmicinae, are unique among ants because they cultivate fungus gardens inside their nests as food. Here the chemistry...... possess many derived characteristics such as extensive leaf-cutting behavior and massive colony sizes, effectively making them major herbivores in many Neotropical habitats. This is the first comparison of the chemistry of eight Trachymyrmex and one Sericomyrmex species in a phylogenetic context. Most...

  14. Biscogniauxone, a New Isopyrrolonaphthoquinone Compound from the Fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The properties and the production of new metabolites from the fungal strain LF657 isolated from the Herodotes Deep (2800 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea are reported in this study. The new isolate was identified as Biscogniauxia mediterranea based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. A new isopyrrolonaphthoquinone with inhibitory activity against glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β was isolated from this fungus. This is the first report of this class of compounds from a fungus isolated from a deep-sea sediment, as well as from a Biscogniauxia species.

  15. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing...... and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major...

  16. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing...... and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major...

  17. Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association...... questions of (co)adaptation and evolutionary history. Using the same scheme, we identify future research questions that are likely to be particularly illuminating for understanding the ecology and evolution of Escovopsis parasitism of the cultivar maintained by fungus-growing ants...

  18. A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Afonso D.L.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Henrique-Silva, Flavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao; Pereira, Jose O. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias

    2008-07-01

    A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

  19. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp. in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A. Cloyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp. are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  20. Nothing special in the specialist? Draft genome sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the most extremophilic fungus from Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Sterflinger

    Full Text Available The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes.

  1. Nothing special in the specialist? Draft genome sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the most extremophilic fungus from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Lopandic, Ksenija; Pandey, Ram Vinay; Blasi, Barbara; Kriegner, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes.

  2. Modification of Prenylated Stilbenoids in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seedlings by the Same Fungi That Elicited Them: The Fungus Strikes Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Slager, Mathijs; Helmink, Bianca; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-28

    Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were compared for inducing the production of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. The fungus was applied at two different time points: directly after soaking (day 1) or after 2 days of germination (day 3). Aspergillus- and Rhizopus-elicited peanut seedlings accumulated an array of prenylated stilbenoids, with overlap in compounds induced, but also with compounds specific to the fungal treatment. The differences were confirmed to be due to modification of prenylated stilbenoids by the fungus itself. Each fungus appeared to deploy different strategies for modification. The content of prenylated stilbenoids modified by fungi accounted for around 8% to 49% (w/w) of total stilbenoids. The contents of modified prenylated stilbenoids were higher when the fungus was applied on day 1 instead of day 3. Altogether, type of fungus and time point of inoculation appeared to be crucial parameters for optimizing accumulation of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings.

  3. Nest Enlargement in Leaf-Cutting Ants: Relocated Brood and Fungus Trigger the Excavation of New Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior

  4. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior

  5. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density

  6. Co-evolutionary patterns and diversification of ant-fungus associations in the asexual fungus-farming ant Mycocepurus smithii in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, K; Fernández-Marín, H; Ishak, H D; Sen, R; Linksvayer, T A; Mueller, U G

    2013-06-01

    Partner fidelity through vertical symbiont transmission is thought to be the primary mechanism stabilizing cooperation in the mutualism between fungus-farming (attine) ants and their cultivated fungal symbionts. An alternate or additional mechanism could be adaptive partner or symbiont choice mediating horizontal cultivar transmission or de novo domestication of free-living fungi. Using microsatellite genotyping for the attine ant Mycocepurus smithii and ITS rDNA sequencing for fungal cultivars, we provide the first detailed population genetic analysis of local ant-fungus associations to test for the relative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission in a single attine species. M. smithii is the only known asexual attine ant, and it is furthermore exceptional because it cultivates a far greater cultivar diversity than any other attine ant. Cultivar switching could permit the ants to re-acquire cultivars after garden loss, to purge inferior cultivars that are locally mal-adapted or that accumulated deleterious mutations under long-term asexuality. Compared to other attine ants, symbiont choice and local adaptation of ant-fungus combinations may play a more important role than partner-fidelity feedback in the co-evolutionary process of M. smithii and its fungal symbionts.

  7. Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the production of lignocellulase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium%铜绿假单胞菌对白腐菌产木质纤维素降解酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪萍萍; 袁兴中; 梁运姗; 曾光明; 黄华军; 祝慧娜; 晁阳; 孙婷

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the production of lignin peroxidase,manganese peroxidase and CMCase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a solid substrate fermentation process were studied.Effects of different concentrations of Ps.aeruginosa on other parameters,such as pH,surface tension of crude enzyme liquid,volatile organic matter concentration were also evaluated.The results showed that Ps.aeruginosa AB93066 at 5.72% increased the production of LiP,MnP and CMCase by 67.8%,57.9% and 17.8%,respectively while strain Ps.aeruginosa ATCC9027 at 2.86% increased the production of LiP,MnP and CMCase by 86.3%,49.3% and 43.7%,respectively.The surface tension of crude enzyme liquid from P.aeruginosa ATCC9027 was lower than that from Ps.aeruginosa AB93066.The addition of Ps.aeruginosa had no significant influence on the pH value.The volatile organic matter concentration was positively correlated with the enzymatic activity.%采用固态发酵的方法,考察了两株不同型号的铜绿假单胞菌(AB93066和ATCC9027)对白腐菌(黄孢原毛平革菌)产木质纤维素降解酶(木素过氧化物酶LiP、锰过氧化物酶MnP和羧甲基纤维素酶CMCase)的影响,并对酶提取液的pH值、表面张力及稻草降解残渣中挥发性有机质含量的变化进行了分析.结果表明,添加5.72%的AB93066可使LiP、MnP和CMCase酶活分别提高67.8%、57.9%和17.8%;而添加2.86%的ATCC9027时可使LiP、MnP和CMCase酶活分别提高86.3%、49.3%和43.7%.发酵过程中,添加ATCC9027的酶提取液的表面张力明显低于添加AB93066,添加铜绿假单胞菌对酶提取液的pH值无明显影响,而挥发性有机质含量的变化与酶活变化呈正相关关系.

  8. Biosorption and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in aqueous solution%黄孢原毛平革菌菌球对多环芳烃的生物吸附和生物降解作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洁; 陈宝梁; 朱利中

    2012-01-01

    以黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium,Pc)为代表,研究了死体和活体Pc菌球对水中菲、芘等多环芳烃(PAHs)的生物吸附和生物降解作用及其相对贡献,探讨了碳源、氮源浓度和共存Cu2+的影响,考察了连续多次输入下菲的生物吸附和生物降解作用,试图为准确掌握微生物作用下PAHs的迁移转化行为及其调控作用提供理论指导.结果表明,死体Pc菌球对水中菲、芘的去除机制为生物吸附,分配系数分别为4040和17500 L/kg.活体Pc菌球的去除机制包括生物吸附和生物降解,3d时生物吸附对水中菲、芘的去除率分别为19.71%和52.21%;随着作用时间延长(3~40 d),生物降解对菲、芘的去除作用逐渐增大(20.40%~60.62%和15.55%~49.21%),且菌体中PAHs残留量不断下降.富碳限氮营养条件下,活体Pc菌球对PAHs的去除作用和降解效果最优,在60 d时分别为99.55%和92.77%(菲),99.47%和83.97%(芘),主要源于富碳增加Pc菌体生物量而增强生物吸附、限氮则触发Pc对PAHs的生物降解作用.活体Pc菌球在富碳限氮强化条件下可连续多次去除和降解新输入的PAHs,其中单次生物降解率随循环次数(6 d/次)增加而增大,循环3次后菲的生物降解率高达90%.

  9. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for improved enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal pretreatment can cause carbohydrate loss and it is, th...

  10. Light-mediated control of gene expression in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xiang-Yu; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2014-08-01

    We developed a light-mediated system based on synthetic light-switchable transactivators. The transactivators bind promoter upon blue-light exposure and rapidly initiate transcription of target transgenes in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Light is inexpensive to apply, easily delivered, and instantly removed, and thus has significant advantages over chemical inducers.

  11. Greater taxol yield of fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from dermatitic scurf of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 μg/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale.

  12. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes versicolor (Tv fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1 of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3. High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04 for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  13. Two New Cerebrosides and Anthraquinone Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zu-Jian; OUYANG Ming-An; SU Ren-Kuan; KUO Yueh-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    Two new cerebrosides, asperiamide B (1) and C (2), and two known aflatoxins, averufin and nidurufin, have been isolated from a Quanzhou marine fungus Aspergillus niger (MF-16), and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical means. Among the compounds 5 and 6 showed moderate activities in inhibiting multiplication of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).

  14. Extracellular biosynthesis of functionalized silver nanoparticles by strains of Cladosporium cladosporioides fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaji, D. S.; Basavaraja, S.; Deshpande, R.; Mahesh, D. Bedre; Prabhakar, B. K.; Venkataraman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, we report the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) employing the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides. The extracellular solution of C. cladosporioides was used for the reduction of AgNO(3) solution to AgNP. The present study includes time dependent

  15. The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of detergent and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was in the focus of this study. The fungus was isolated from wastewater samples of the Rasina River, downstream where the industrial wastewaters of factory Henkel (Krusevac, Serbia discharge into river. The fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at a concentration of 0.3% during 16 days. Analysis of fermentation broth evaluated the chemical and biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, activity of alkaline and acid invertase as well as activity of alkaline protease. In addition, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.3% influenced significant decrease of pH value and increase of redox potential. The detergent showed inhibitory effect on acid invertase activity and stimulatory effect on alkaline invertase and protease activity. The fungus decomposed about 74.24% of tested detergent during 16 days, but total dry weight biomass reduced about 20% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  16. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent.

  17. Plasticizers increase adhesion of the deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to polyvinyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, JS; Van der Mei, HC; Nixon, M; Eastwood, IM; Greenhalgh, M; Read, SJ; Robson, GD; Handley, PS

    1999-01-01

    Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing

  18. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  19. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  20. Phellinstatin, a new inhibitor of enoyl-ACP reductase produced by the medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun-Young; Kwon, Yun-Ju; Sohn, Mi-Jin; Seok, Soon-Ja; Kim, Won-Gon

    2011-03-15

    A new trimeric hispidin derivative, phellinstatin, was isolated from a culture broth of the medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus and its structure was established by various spectral analysis. Phellinstatin strongly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus enoyl-ACP reductase with an IC(50) of 6 μM and also showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and MRSA.

  1. The glutathione response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg Jepsen, Helene; Posci, Istvan; Jensen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of glutathione in response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, the biomass and the intracellular pool of protein and the glutathione + glutathione disulphid (GSH + GSSG) was measured for four days in a medium with NaCl or KCl added ...

  2. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Ros, V.I.D.; Fine Licht, de H.H.; Mitchell, J.; Beer, de Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Rouland-Lefevre, C.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divide

  3. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fine Licht, de H.H.; Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be com

  4. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Ros, V.I.D.; Licht, H.H.D.; Mitchel, J.; de Beer, Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Rouland-LeFevre, C.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divid

  5. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Ros, V.I.D.; Beer, de Z.W.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hartog, E.; Kuyper, T.W.; Laessoe, T.; Slippers, B.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the

  6. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  7. The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to degrade high concentration of detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to decompose high concentration of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was investigated in this study. Fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at concentration 0.5% during 16 days. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, amount of free and total organic acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by analysis of fermentation broth. Simultaneously, biodegradation percentage of anionic surfactant of tested detergent was confirmed by MBAS assay. At the same time, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. Detergent at concentration 0.5% influenced on decreasing of pH value and increasing of redox potential as well as increasing of free and total organic acids. Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was reduced by detergent at concentration 0.5%. The fungus was decomposed about 62% of anionic surfactant during 16 day. Due to fungus was produced higher dry weight biomass (53% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  8. Identifying the Transition between Single and Multiple Mating of Queens in Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R.

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...

  9. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  10. Antimicrobial defense shows an abrupt evolutionary transition in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, William O H; Pagliarini, Roberta; Madsen, Henning Bang

    2008-01-01

    exception to this rule because they are a key first-line defense that are fixed in size in adults. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the size of the gland reservoir across the fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini). Most attines have singly mated queens, but in two derived genera, the leaf-cutting ants...

  11. Aspiperidine oxide, a piperidine N-oxide from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus indologenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Kildgaard, Sara; Jaspars, Marcel;

    2015-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare...

  12. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otan, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite, and higher non...

  13. Two New Alkaloids from a Marine-derived Fungus Neosartorya fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of EtOAc extract from the fermentation broth of the fungus Neosartorya fischeri led to the isolation of two novel alkaloids and one known compound with antitumor activity against HL-60 cell lines. Their structures were elucidated mainly by NMR and HR-TOF-MS, as well as on comparison with the reported data.

  14. Unintentional ingestion of Cordyceps fungus-infected cicada nymphs causing ibotenic acid poisoning in Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Uyen Vy; Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Kirby, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    Cordyceps fungus found in infected cicada nymphs ("cicada flowers") is utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps fungus toxicity in humans has not been previously reported. We report 60 cases of apparent Cordyceps poisoning in Southern Vietnam. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data from the medical records (21 cases) and by telephone interview (39 cases) of patients admitted to seven hospitals in Southern Vietnam following ingestion of cicada flowers between 2008 and 2015. We also determined the species of Cordyceps present in the cicada flowers and performed a partial chemical analysis of the fungus. Sixty cases of toxic effects following ingestion of cicada flowers were documented. Symptom onset occurred within 60 minutes following ingestion. Symptoms included dizziness, vomiting, salivation, mydriasis, jaw stiffness, urinary retention, seizures, agitated delirium, hallucinations, somnolence and coma. None of the patients suffered liver or kidney injury. There was one fatality. The Cordyceps fungus involved in these poisoning was identified as Ophiocordyceps heteropoda. The presence of ibotenic acid was confirmed, but musimol and muscarine were absent. Cicada infected with Ophiocordyceps heteropoda in Vietnam contain ibotenic acid and are associated with a clinical syndrome consistent with its effects.

  15. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik; Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-01-01

    on the leaf pulp that the ants add to their gardens. This accurate deposition ensures that laccase activity is highest where new leaf material enters the fungus garden, but where fungal mycelium is too sparse to produce extracellular enzymes in sufficient quantities to detoxify phenolic compounds...

  16. Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Claudia C; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Nietzsche, Sandor; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-05-27

    Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors.

  17. A Rare Case of Intracavitary Fungus Ball (Aspergilloma in the Old Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majzoobi MM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary fungus ball is a rare complication in pre-existing pulmonary cavitary lesions, due to some chronic pulmonary diseases including tuberculosis, lung abscess and sarcoidosis. Fungus ball is mostly caused by aspergillus. In many patients, fungus ball is asymptomatic, but in a significant number of them it can develop cough and hemoptysis, which may be massive and fatal. The cornerstone of assessment is chest imaging, along with sputum culture or aspergillus antibody in patient's serum. The purpose of this report is increment in attention to this complication in patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. Case Presentation: The patient was a 23-year-old woman with chief complaint of fever, cough and hemoptysis, who was hospitalized in the Infectious Diseases Ward of Farshchian Sina hospital in March 2016. She had a history of anti-TB therapy from two years before. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL were negative for cytology and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but cultures of both samples were positive for Aspergillus niger. Her lung contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CECT scan revealed the presence of a fungus ball inside the upper lobe cavity of right lung. After lobectomy, fungal mass was confirmed by histopathology. Conclusions: In patients with pulmonary complaints (especially hemoptysis and history of cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis, the differential diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, lung abscess, reactivation of tuberculosis and lung cancer as well as fungal infections should be considered.

  18. Growth characteristics of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in relation to production of mushroom compost.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegant, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor

  19. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  20. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, T.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which produc