WorldWideScience

Sample records for fungus penicillium sp

  1. Peniamidienone and penidilamine, plant growth regulators produced by the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Y; Mizuno, T; Kawano, T; Okada, K; Shimada, A

    2000-04-01

    Peniamidienone and penidilamine were isolated from cultures of the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13 as new plant growth regulators and their structures were established by NMR spectroscopic studies. Peniamidienone showed weak inhibition of lettuce seedling growth.

  2. Pretrichodermamides D–F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Anton N.; Smetanina, Olga F.; Ivanets, Elena V.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Khudyakova, Yuliya V.; Kirichuk, Natalya N.; Popov, Roman S.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Chingizova, Ekaterina A.; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D–F (1–3), together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4) and pretrichodermamide С (5), were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1–5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1) was established by a combination of modified Mosher′s method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5) showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies. PMID:27355960

  3. Pretrichodermamides D–F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton N. Yurchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D–F (1–3, together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4 and pretrichodermamide С (5, were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1–5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1 was established by a combination of modified Mosher′s method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5 showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies.

  4. Penicitroamide, an Antimicrobial Metabolite with High Carbonylization from the Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. (NO. 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Wei Feng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penicitroamide (1, a new metabolite with a new framework, was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth medium of Penicillium sp. (NO. 24. The endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. (NO. 24 was obtained from the healthy leaves of Tapiscia sinensis Oliv. The structure of penicitroamide (1 features a bicyclo[3.2.1]octane core unit with a high degree of carbonylization (four carbonyl groups and one enol group. The chemical structure of penicitroamide (1 was elucidated by analysis of 1D-, 2D-NMR and MS data. In bioassays, penicitroamide (1 displayed antibacterial potency against two plant pathogens, Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Jones Bersey, et al. and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. with MIC50 at 45 and 50 μg/mL. Compound 1 also showed 60% lethality against brine shrimp at 10 μg/mL. Penicitroamide (1 exhibited no significant activity against A549, Caski, HepG2 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 > 50 μg/mL. Finally, the possible biosynthetic pathway of penicitroamide (1 was discussed.

  5. Eremophilane sesquiterenes from the marine fungus Penicillium sp. BL27-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Fu Huang; Li Qiao; A.Li Lv; Yue Hu Pei; Li Tian

    2008-01-01

    Six eremophilane sesquiterpenes were obtained from a marine fungus Penicillium sp. BL27-2. Their structures were elucidatedas 3-acetyl-9, 7 (11)-dien-7ot-hydroxy-8-oxoeremophilane (1), 3-acetyl-13-deoxyphomenone (2), Sporogen-AO 1 (3), 7-hydro-xypetasol (4), 8α-hydroxy-13-deo -xyphomenone (5) and 6-dehydropetasol (6) based on detailed NMR analysis. 1 was a newcompound and 2 was obtained as a new natural compound. These compounds were assayed for their cytotoxic activity on P388,A549, HL60, BEL7402 and K562 cell lines by the MTT method. The assay results suggested the epoxide tings in eremophilanemolecules were essential for their activity, and acetylation could enhance their activity.2008 Yong Fu Huang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. An Unusual Conformational Isomer of Verrucosidin Backbone from a Hydrothermal Vent Fungus, Penicillium sp. Y-50-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqian Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new verrucosidin derivative, methyl isoverrucosidinol (1, was isolated from the marine fungus Penicillium sp. Y-50-10, dwelling in sulfur rich sediment in the Kueishantao hydrothermal vents off Taiwan. The structure was established by spectroscopic means including HRMS and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration was defined mainly by comparison of quantum chemical TDDFT calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Among hitherto known compounds with a verrucosidine backbone isolated from natural resource, compound 1 represents the first example of a new conformational isomer of its skeleton, exhibiting antibiotic activity against Bacillus subtilis with MIC value 32 μg/mL.

  7. Citrinal A, a novel tricyclic derivative of citrinin,from an algicolous fungus Penicillium sp. i-1-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jiao Zhu; Lin Du; Peng Fei Hao; Zhen Jian Lin; Qian Qun Gu

    2009-01-01

    Citrinal A (1), a novel tricyclic compound with a rare tetrahydro-2H-benzofuro[7-b] [1,4]dioxin-9(3H)-one skeleton, along with two known related compounds, citrinin (2) and 2,3,4-trimethyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (3) were isolated from an algicolous fungus Penicillium sp. i-1-1. The structure and stereochemistry of 1 were determined by comprehensive spectral and biogenic analysis. Its cytotoxic effects on the A-549 and HL-60 cell lines were evaluated.

  8. An antimicrobial alkaloid and other metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. An endophytic fungus isolated from Mauritia flexuosa L.f

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Soares, Elzalina Ribeiro; Silva, Felipe Moura Araujo da; Almeida, Richardson Alves de; Souza, Afonso Duarte Leao de, E-mail: hectorkoolen@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Medeiros, Livia Soman de; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonia Queiroz Lima de [Escola Superior de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The alkaloid glandicoline B (1) and six other compounds: ergosterol (2), brassicasterol (3), ergosterol peroxide (4), cerevisterol (5), mannitol (6) and 1-O-{alpha}-D-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from Penicillium sp. strain PBR.2.2.2, a fungus from Mauritia flexuosa roots. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by spectral analysis. MeOH extract of the fungal mycelium at 500 {mu}g mL{sup -1} exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the compound 1 at 100 {mu}g mL{sup -1} was active against S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The relationship between the bioactive properties of the fungus PBR.2.2.2 and those achieved for glandicoline B, as well the potential of this substance as bacteriide is discussed. (author)

  9. An antimicrobial alkaloid and other metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. An endophytic fungus isolated from Mauritia flexuosa L. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Henrique Ferreira Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkaloid glandicoline B (1 and six other compounds: ergosterol (2, brassicasterol (3, ergosterol peroxide (4, cerevisterol (5, mannitol (6 and 1-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (7 were isolated from Penicillium sp. strain PBR.2.2.2, a fungus from Mauritia flexuosa roots. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by spectral analysis. MeOH extract of the fungal mycelium at 500 µg mL-1 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the compound 1 at 100 µg mL-1 was active against S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The relationship between the bioactive properties of the fungus PBR.2.2.2 and those achieved for glandicoline B, as well the potential of this substance as bactericide is discussed.

  10. A new aurone glycoside with antifungal activity from marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FJ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-xia; Ma, Qiang; Li, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Endophytic fungi which reside in the tissue of mangrove plants seem to play an important role in the discovery of new biologically active substances. During the course of screening for the antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fugus Penicillium sp. FJ-1 of mangrove plant Avicennia marina, a new aurone glycoside (1) was isolated by repeated column chromatography on silica gel and recrystallization methods. The structure of 1 was elucidated as (Z)-7,4'-dimethoxy-6-hydroxy-aurone-4-O-β-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 exhibited antifungal activity against Candida sp., with the potency comparable to amphotericin B and much better than fluconazole. Compound 1 can also inhibit extracellular phospholipase secretion in a concentration-dependent manner.

  11. Citrinin derivatives from the soil filamentous fungus Penicillium sp. H9318

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangmin, Yao [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Tongji Medical College. Hubei Key Lab. of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resources Evaluation; Sebisubi, Fred Musoke [Ministry of Health, Kampala (Uganda). Div. of Pharmaceutical Services; Voo, Lok Yung Christopher; Ho, Coy Choke [University Malaysia Sabah, Sabah (Malaysia). School of Science and Technology. Biotechnology Program; Tan, Ghee Teng; Chang, Leng Chee, E-mail: lengchee@hawaii.ed [University of Hawaii Hilo, Hilo (United States). College of Pharmacy. Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    2011-07-01

    Investigation of a microbial fermentation organic extract of Penicillium sp. H9318 led to the isolation of a new isoquinolinone alkaloid, (5S)-3,4,5,7-tetramethyl-5,8-dihydroxyl-6(5H)- isoquinolinone (1), along with four known citrinin derivatives (2-5). Citrinin (2) exhibited significant inhibitory activity against Streptomyces 85E in the hyphae formation inhibition (HFI) assay, while compounds 1, 3-5 were not active when tested at 20 {mu}g/disk in the HFI assay. Citrinin (2) further demonstrated a weak inhibitory activity against MCF-7 (IC{sub 50} 71.93 {mu}mol L{sup -1}), LNCaP (IC{sub 50} 77.92 {mu}mol L{sup -1}), LU-1 (147.85 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) and KB (IC{sub 50} 65.93 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) cell lines, respectively, in the cytotoxicity assay. (author)

  12. Isolation and phosphate-solubilizing ability of a fungus, Penicillium sp. from soil of an alum mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Bo; Wu, Yan; Liu, Pengming; Liu, Biao; Gao, Meiying

    2011-02-01

    The use of microorganisms to solubilize elemental phosphorus from insoluble rock phosphate is a promising method to greatly reduce not only environmental pollution but also production costs. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were isolated from soils in China, and a fungus strain (PSM11-5) from a soil sample from an alum mine, with the highest phosphate solubilization potential, was selected and identified as a Penicillium sp. Strain PSM11-5 could grow in buffered medium with pH values between 3.0 and 8.0 and showed phosphate solubilizing activity at pH values from 5.0 to 8.0. It also exhibited a degree of tolerance to the heavy metal ions, Cd(2+), Co(2+), and Cr(6+). PSM11-5 could rapidly solubilize tricalcium phosphate, and a high phosphate-solubilizing efficiency of 98% was achieved in an optimized medium. The strain could solubilize rock phosphate and aluminum phosphate with a solubilizing efficiency of approximately 74.5%, but did not solubilize iron phosphate. Solubilization of phosphate depended on acidification. Analysis of PSM11-5 culture supernatants by capillary electrophoresis showed that tricalcium phosphate was solubilized to PO(4) (3-) and Ca(2+) , and that the organic acid produced by the fungus was mainly gluconic acid at approximately ca. 13 g l(-1). In addition, PSM11-5 produced ca. 830 mg l(-1) of citric acid when it was used to solubilize rock phosphate. These excellent properties of strain PSM11-5 suggest that the fungus has potential for agricultural and industrial utilization.

  13. 海洋真菌Penicillium sp.中的环二肽类化合物%Cyclic Dipeptides Compounds from Marine Fungus Penicillium sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚遥; 李娟; 王妍; 闫乾顺; 曹家庆

    2012-01-01

    从南海采集的海泥中分离得到的海洋真菌Penicillium sp.中分离得到3种环二肽类化合物.通过理化性质和波谱数据分析鉴定了3种化合物的结构.它们分别是3-异丁基-6-异丙基哌嗪-2,5-二酮(1)、3-另丁基-6-异丁基哌嗪-2,5-二酮(2)、3-另丁基-6-异丙基哌嗪-2,5-二酮(3).

  14. Constituents Study of marine fungus Penicillium sp.%海洋真菌Penicillium sp.化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚遥; 李娟; 王妍; 闫乾顺; 曹家庆

    2010-01-01

    从南海采集的海泥中分离得到的海洋真菌Penicillium sp.中分离得到4个化合物.通过理化性质和波谱数据分析鉴定了这4个化合物的结构.它们分别是:3-苄基-6-异丙基哌嗪-2,5-二酮(1)、3-苄基-6-异丁基哌嗪-2,5-二酮(2)、3-苄基-6-另丁基哌嗪-2,5-二酮(3)、3,6-二苄基哌嗪-2,5-二酮(4).

  15. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178T = IBT 23262T), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171T = IBT 23253T...

  16. Cytotoxic metabolites from symbiotic fungus Penicillium sp.HK13-8 with Rhizophora stylosa%红海榄共生真菌Penicillium sp.HK13-8细胞毒活性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀丽; 林贞健; 陶洪文; 刘培培; 王父; 朱伟明

    2009-01-01

    To search for structurally novel and biologically active compounds from mangrove symbiotic fungi, a fungal strain HK13-8 identified as Penicillium sp. was obtained by integrated cytotoxic and chemical screening methods from the mangrove plant, Rhizophora stylosa Griff. The EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. HK13-8 showed obvious cytotoxicity against P388 cells, and showed pink and yellow spots on TLC plates after spraying with Legal reagent and 10% FeCl_3 solution, respectively. Through bioassay-guided fractionation, 5 compounds were isolated. By means of spectroscopic methods including 1D-, 2D-NMR, MS, and specific rotation, their structures were identified as Scurvularin (1, 40% yield), (22E,24R)-3β,5a, 9a-trihydroxyergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one(2),ergosterol (3), thymine (4) and uracil (5), respectively. S-curvularin that exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells with an IC_(50) value of 2. 56μM was the main active metabolite of Penicillium sp. HK13-8.%为了从红树植物共生真菌中获得抗肿瘤药物先导化合物,采用集成化学与细胞毒活性的筛选方法 ,从红海榄(Rhizophora stylosa Griff.)的共生真菌中筛选获得1株对小鼠白血病细胞株P388具有细胞毒活性的菌株Penicillium sp.HK13-8.采用色谱和波谱方法 ,从其发酵产物中分离鉴定了5个化合物:S-弯孢霉索(1)、(22E,24R)-3β,5a,9α-三羟基-7,22-麦角甾二烯-6-酮(2)、麦角甾醇(3)、胸腺嘧啶(4)和尿嘧啶(5).S-弯孢霉素对人早幼粒白血病细胞HL-60具有较强的增殖抑制作用(IC50值为2.56μM),其含量约占总产量的40%,是Penicillium sp.HK13-8的主要活性产物.

  17. Optimization of fermentation conditions of antarctica fungus Penicillium sp.S-3-88%南极真菌青霉(Penicillium sp.)S-3-88摇瓶发酵条件的初步优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方莎莎; 唐潮; 叶科元; 卢小玲; 刘小宇; 焦炳华

    2016-01-01

    目的 对南极来源的真菌青霉Penicillium sp.S-3-88进行细胞毒活性筛选及发酵条件优化.方法 对菌株进行小量发酵及代谢产物提取,检测其粗提物对6种肿瘤细胞株的抑制活性;通过对培养基、培养温度、摇床转速和发酵时间的筛选,以细胞毒活性和次级代谢产物产量为指标对该菌株的培养条件进行初步优化.结果 Penicillium sp.S-3-88对6种肿瘤细胞株具有不同程度的抑制活性,其中对MCF-7和SGC-7901细胞的抑制率最高,分别达到78.79%和74.66%(初提物浓度为50μg/mL).初步优化后,优选的发酵条件为:PDB培养基,温度20℃,发酵时间14d,转速180r/min.在此条件下进行发酵,Penicillium sp.S-3-88的次级代谢产物量和细胞毒活性分别比优化前高203.57%、48.32%(A549)和44.92%(SW-1990).结论 获得了一株具有强细胞毒活性的真菌Penicillium sp.S-3-88,优化了该菌株的发酵条件,有助于后期的活性次级代谢产物的分离纯化.

  18. 红树植物内生真菌Penicillium sp.中一个醌类化学成分的研究%Studies on the Chemical Structure of an Anthraquinone from Marine Fungus Penicillium sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 姚燕华; 孙光芝; 郑毅男; 林文翰; Isabel SATTLER

    2007-01-01

    利用各种层析手段(反相ODS健合硅胶、葡聚糖凝胶LH-20柱层析等),从红树植物内生真菌Penicillium sp.的发酵液中分离纯化了1个醌类化合物,通过各种波谱实验(1D-NMR,2D-NMR以及ESI MS)确定其结构为:5-甲氧基-11,12,18,19-四羟基蒽醌(1).

  19. PTP1B Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Chul Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B plays a major role in the negative regulation of insulin signaling, and is thus considered as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. Bioassay-guided investigation of the methylethylketone extract of marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55 cultures afforded a new PTP1B inhibitory styrylpyrone-type metabolite named penstyrylpyrone (1, and two known metabolites, anhydrofulvic acid (2 and citromycetin (3. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and kinetic analyses of PTP1B inhibition suggested that these compounds inhibited PTP1B activity in a competitive manner. In an effort to gain more biological potential of the isolated compounds, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1–3 were also evaluated. Among the tested compounds, only compound 1 inhibited the production of NO and PGE2, due to the inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penstyrylpyrone (1 also reduced TNF-α and IL-1β production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, an inhibitor of HO-1, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of penstyrylpyrone (1 on the pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA binding activity were associated with the HO-1 expression. Therefore, these results suggest that penstyrylpyrone (1 suppresses PTP1B activity, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-κB pathway, through expression of anti-inflammatory HO-1.

  20. 一株红树内生真菌Penicillium sp.(ZZF29#)次级代谢产物的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Secondary Metabolites from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp.(ZZF29#)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李尚德; 魏美燕; 李志华; 佘志刚; 林永成

    2012-01-01

    研究了一株药用红树内生真菌Penicillium sp.(ZZF29#)的次级代谢产物.用硅胶柱层析、制备薄层层析和重结晶等方法,从该菌发酵液的乙酸乙酯相中分离获得8种单体化合物,运用现代波谱技术并与文献数据对照,鉴定其结构分别为:环(苯丙-丙)二肽(1)、环(苯丙-甘)二肽(2)、环(苯丙-苯丙)二肽(3)、环(苯丙-酪)二肽(4)、大黄素(5)、大黄素甲醚(6)、麦角甾醇(7)和过氧化麦角甾醇(8).%The secondary metabolites of the medicinal mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. ( ZZF29#) were firstly studied. Eight compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation using silica gel column chromatography, preparative thin-layer chromatography and recryslallization. The structures of the compounds were identified as cyclo-( Phe-Ala) (1), cyclo-( Phe-Gly ) (2), cyclo-( Phe-Phe ) (3), cyclo-(Phe-Tyr)(4) , emodin(5) , physcion(6) , ergosterol(7) and peroxide ergosterol(8), by comprehensive spectroscopic characterizations as well as comparison with reported data.

  1. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    a polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular (ITS and partial β-tubulin sequences) and extrolite data. Phylogenetic analyses showed that each novel species formed a unique clade for both loci analysed and that they were most closely related to Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium janthinellum...

  2. Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, S D; Savitha, J

    2014-03-01

    Bioremediation is an effective method for the treatment of major metal contaminated sites. Fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from different arsenate contaminated areas across India. An isolate, Penicillium coffeae, exhibited resistance to arsenate up to 500 mM. Results indicated that pretreatment of biomass with alkali (NaOH) enhanced the percentage of adsorption to 66.8% as compared to that of live and untreated dead biomass whose adsorption was 22.9% and 60.2% respectively. The physiological parameters evaluated in this study may help pilot studies aimed at bioremediation of arsenate contaminated effluents using arsenate resistant fungus P. coffeae.

  3. Tanzawaic acids I–L: Four new polyketides from Penicillium sp. IBWF104-06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis P. Sandjo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new polyketides have been identified in culture filtrates of the fungal strain Penicillium sp. IBWF104-06 isolated from a soil sample. They are structurally based on the same trans-decalinpentanoic acid skeleton as tanzawaic acids A–H. One of the new compounds was found to inhibit the conidial germination in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae at concentrations of 25 μg/mL.

  4. Antimicrobial Aromatic Polyketides from Gorgonian- Associated Fungus, Penicillium commune 518

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊锋; 刘培培; 王义; 王慧; 李静; 庄以彬; 朱伟明

    2012-01-01

    Seven new aromatic polyketides, communols A-G (1-7), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of Penicillium commune 518, a marine-derived fungus associated with the Gorgonian, Muricella abnormalis. The new structures of 1-7 were determined by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Among them, communol D (4) was the first example of a naturally occurring aromatic polyketide with a sulfoxide group from marine thngi. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 all showed moderate antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes with MIC values of 4.1/16.4, 6.4/25.8, and 23.8/23.8μmoloL^-1, respectively.

  5. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  6. Isolation and characterization of antibacterial compound from a mangrove-endophytic fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 5108

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.

    ). Quimica Nova 28: 991-995 21. Marinho AMR, Rodrigues-Filho E, Moitinho MDLR, Santos LS (2005) Biologically active polyketides produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach. J Brazilian Chem Soc 16...

  7. Meroterpenes from Penicillium sp found in association with Melia azedarach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris dos Santos, Regina M; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2002-12-01

    A Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach and cultivated over sterilized rice. After chromatographic procedures, two meroterpenes, named preaustinoid A and B, were obtained in addition to the known alkaloid verruculogen. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic studies, and they exhibited moderate bacteriostatic effects on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp.

  8. Penicillium simile sp. nov. revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolos, Domenico; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria; Persiani, Anna Maria; Maggi, Oriana

    2012-02-01

    The morphology of three phenetically identical Penicillium isolates, collected from the bioaerosol in a restoration laboratory in Italy, displayed macro- and microscopic characteristics that were similar though not completely ascribable to Penicillium raistrickii. For this reason, a phylogenetic approach based on DNA sequencing analysis was performed to establish both the taxonomic status and the evolutionary relationships of these three peculiar isolates in relation to previously described species of the genus Penicillium. We used four nuclear loci (both rRNA and protein coding genes) that have previously proved useful for the molecular investigation of taxa belonging to the genus Penicillium at various evolutionary levels. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), domains D1 and D2 of the 28S rDNA, a region of the tubulin beta chain gene (benA) and part of the calmodulin gene (cmd) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Analysis of the rRNA genes and of the benA and cmd sequence data indicates the presence of three isogenic isolates belonging to a genetically distinct species of the genus Penicillium, here described and named Penicillium simile sp. nov. (ATCC MYA-4591(T)  = CBS 129191(T)). This novel species is phylogenetically different from P. raistrickii and other related species of the genus Penicillium (e.g. Penicillium scabrosum), from which it can be distinguished on the basis of morphological trait analysis.

  9. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1 with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2, along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9 were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs = 11.79–23.66 μM, and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM, showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM, and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM.

  10. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng; Zhu, Xinwei; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1) with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2), along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9) were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) = 11.79–23.66 μM), and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM), showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM), and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM). PMID:27690061

  11. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein

  12. Copper and Manganese Cations Alter Secondary Metabolism in the Fungus Penicillium brasilianum

    OpenAIRE

    Fill,Taícia Pacheco; Pallini,Heloisa Fassina; Amaral,Luciana da Silva; Silva,José Vinicius da; Bidóia,Danielle Lazarin; Peron,Francieli; Garcia,Francielle Pelegrin; Nakamura,Celso Vataru; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2016-01-01

    The fungus Penicillium brasilianum LaBioMMi 136 was isolated as an endophyte from Melia azedarach and has shown to be a prominent producer of great diversity of secondary metabolites, although it does not express some biosynthetic routes to other natural compounds found in Penicillium genera. The present study aimed at the diversification of P. brasilianum secondary metabolism by varying the chemical composition used for its growth. Medium composition supplemented with CuSO4 and MnSO4 locked ...

  13. Lead Biosorption by a Moderately Halophile Penicillium sp. Isolated from Çamalti Saltern in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN KURÇ, MİNE; GÜVEN, KIYMET; KORCAN, ELİF; GÜVEN, Alaettin; MALKOC, Semra

    2016-01-01

    Owing the importance of biosorption of heavy metals by different organisms, a moderately halophilic fungus isolated from Çamalti saltern was first time investigated for its potential for biosorption. Different heavy metals namely, lead [(Pb(NO3)2], nickel (NiCl2), chromium (K2CrO4), zinc (ZnCl2), cadmium (CdCl2.H2O), copper (CuSO4) and cobalt (CoCl2.6H2O) were screened for resistance and the most tolerated heavy metal by Penicillium sp. was chosen in biosorption assay.The heavy metal toleranc...

  14. Effects of different culture media on biodegradation of triclosan by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertit Taştan, Burcu; Özdemir, Caner; Tekinay, Turgay

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent and a persistent pollutant. The biodegradation of triclosan is dependent on many variables including the biodegradation organism and the environmental conditions. Here, we evaluated the triclosan degradation potential of two fungi strains, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Penicillium sp., and the rate of its turnover to 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). Both of these strains showed less susceptibility to triclosan when grown in minimal salt medium. In order to further evaluate the effects of environmental conditions on triclosan degradation, three different culture conditions including original thermal power plant wastewater, T6 nutrimedia and ammonium mineral salts medium were used. The maximum triclosan degradation yield was 48% for R. mucilaginosa and 82% for Penicillium sp. at 2.7 mg/L triclosan concentration. Biodegradation experiments revealed that Penicillium sp. was more tolerant to triclosan. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs also showed the morphological changes of fungus when cells were treated with triclosan. Overall, these fungi strains could be used as effective microorganisms in active uptake (degradation) and passive uptake (sorption) of triclosan and their efficiency can be increased by optimizing the culture conditions.

  15. Penicillium koreense sp. nov., isolated from various soils in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Young-Hyun; Cho, Hye Sun; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Dae-Ho; Houbraken, Jos; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2014-12-28

    During an investigation of the fungal diversity of Korean soils, four Penicillium strains could not be assigned to any described species. The strains formed monoverticillate conidiophores with occasionally a divaricate branch. The conidia were smooth or finely rough-walled, globose to broadly ellipsoidal and 2.5-3.5 × 2.0-3.0 μm in size. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using partial β-tubulin gene sequences and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates belonged to section Lanata- Divaricata and were most closely related to Penicillium raperi. Phenotypically, the strains differed from P. raperi in having longer and thicker stipes and thicker phialides. Strain KACC 47721(T) from bamboo field soil was designated as the type strain of the new species, and the species was named Penicillium koreense sp. nov., as it was isolated from various regions in Korea.

  16. A New Cytotoxic Compound from Penicillium auratiogriseum, Symbiotic or Epiphytic Fungus of Sponge Mycale plumose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new compound, (S)-2, 4-dihydroxy-1-butyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate (1), and a known compound, fructigenines A (2), were isolated from fungus Penicillium auratiogriseum derived from sponge Mycale plumose, by bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Both compounds showed cytotoxic activity against tsFT210 cells.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the acid-tolerant fungus Penicillium ShG4C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Mardanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complete mitochondrial genome of the acid-tolerant fungus Penicillium ShG4C, isolated from oxidized sediments of an abandoned polymetallic mine site, has been sequenced using high-throughput sequencing approach. The mitochondrial genome represents a circular DNA molecule with size of 26,725 bp. It encodes a usual set of mitochondrial genes, including 15 protein coding genes, large and small ribosomal RNAs and 27 tRNA genes. All genes are located on H-strand DNA and transcribed in one direction. Taxonomic analysis based on concatenated sequences of mitochondrial proteins confirmed taxonomic position of this fungus within the genus Penicillium. The sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome of Penicillium ShG4C was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KX931017.

  18. Antimicrobial constituents from endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of fraction of the fungus Fusarium sp. and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: Six compounds were purified from an fraction of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. using column chromatography and their structures have been confirmed based on 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, 2D COSY, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation experiments. The six isolated compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion method. Results: Phytochemical investigation of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. lead to the isolation and identification of the following compounds viz., colletorin B, colletochlorin B, LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B, 4,5-dihydroascochlorin, ascochlorin, and 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin. Colletorin B and colletochlorin B displayed moderate herbicidal, antifungal and antibacterial activities towards Chlorella fusca, Ustilago violacea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Bacillus megaterium. On the other hand LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B showed moderate antifungal activity towards Ustilago violacea and Fusarium oxysporum while 4,5-dihydroascochlorin showed strong antibacterial activity towards Bacillus megaterium. Furthermore, 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin showed very strong antifungal activity towards Eurotium repens. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities demonstrated by five of the six isolated compounds clearly demonstrate that these fungi extracts and active compounds present a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Isolation and properties of xyloglucanases of Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyna, O A; Fedorova, E A; Pravilnikov, A G; Rozhkova, A M; Skomarovsky, A A; Matys, V Yu; Bubnova, T M; Okunev, O N; Vinetsky, Yu P; Sinitsyn, A P

    2010-01-01

    Using chromatographic technique, xyloglucanase (XG) A (25 kDa, pI 3.5, 12th glycosyl hydrolase family) was isolated from the enzyme complex secreted by the mycelial fungus Penicillium canescens, and xyloglucanases XG 25 (25 kDa, pI 4.1, 12th glycosyl hydrolase family) and XG 70 (70 kDa, pI 3.5, 74th glycosyl hydrolase family) were isolated from the enzyme complex of Penicillium verruculosum. Properties of the isolated enzymes (substrate specificity, optimal ranges of pH and temperature for enzyme activity and stability, effect of metal ions on catalytic activity) were compared with the properties of xyloglucanases XG 32 of Aspergillus japonicus, XG 78 of Chrysosporium lucknowense, and XG of Trichoderma reesei. The gene xegA encoding XG A of P. canescens was isolated, and the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein was determined.

  20. IAA-producing Penicillium sp. NICS01 triggers plant growth and suppresses Fusarium sp.-induced oxidative stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Shim, Kang-Bo; Lee, Byeong-Won; Hwang, Chung-Dong; Pae, Suk-Bok; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Up; Lee, Choon-Ki; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-06-28

    Application of rhizospheric fungi is an effective and environmentally friendly method of improving plant growth and controlling many plant diseases. The current study was aimed to identify phytohormone-producing fungi from soil, to understand their roles in sesame plant growth, and to control Fusarium disease. Three predominant fungi (PNF1, PNF2, and PNF3) isolated from the rhizospheric soil of peanut plants were screened for their growth-promoting efficiency on sesame seedlings. Among these isolates, PNF2 significantly increased the shoot length and fresh weight of seedlings compared with controls. Analysis of the fungal culture filtrate showed a higher concentration of indole acetic acid in PNF2 than in the other isolates. PNF2 was identified as Penicillium sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. The in vitro biocontrol activity of Penicillium sp. against Fusarium sp. was exhibited by a 49% inhibition of mycelial growth in a dual culture bioassay and by hyphal injuries as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, greenhouse experiments revealed that Fusarium inhibited growth in sesame plants by damaging lipid membranes and reducing protein content. Co-cultivation with Penicillium sp. mitigated Fusarium-induced oxidative stress in sesame plants by limiting membrane lipid peroxidation, and by increasing the protein concentration, levels of antioxidants such as total polyphenols, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. Thus, our findings suggest that Penicillium sp. is a potent plant growthpromoting fungus that has the ability to ameliorate damage caused by Fusarium infection in sesame cultivation.

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATION OF PROTEASE AND ANTIBIOTICS IN PENICILLIUM SP. USING SUBMERGED AND SOLID STATE FERMENTATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAIDER M. HAMZAH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A fungal strain belonging to the genus Penicillium was isolated from soil sample and has been diagnosed as Penicillium sp. according to its morphological characteristics of the colonies on solid media and also microscopical examination of the fungal parts. Antibiotics, protease activity and pH values were determined after cultivation of the fungus using submerged fermentation (SF and solid state fermentation (SSF. The two different patterns of fermentation processes seem to influence the physiological behavior of the fungus differently. Experiments were made using nutrient broth medium (N.B for SF and wheat bran in SSF. The pH values were adjacent to 5.5. Wheat bran was enriched with fish scales and egg shale in a ratio of (1:2:0.005 w/w and the mixture was moistened by adding (30 ml whey solution. After 7 days of incubation, the pH value of SF was increased to 8.0 at 30ºC. The SF was appeared efficient for antibiotics production. Using well diffusion technique the extracted antibiotics solution was active against some pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Proteus sp., Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus sp. In SSF relative proteases concentrations were found to be highly reactive than SF. This was proved by the appearance of the zone (20 mm and 32 mm due to the hydrolysis of milk and blood proteins respectively using pH 5.5 at 30ºC for 24 hrs. The activity of proteases was (10.4 U/ml.

  2. A novel penicillium sp. causes rot in stored sugar beet roots in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillium vulpinum along with a number of other fungi can lead to the rot of stored sugar beet roots. However, Penicillium isolates associated with necrotic lesions on roots from a recent sugar beet storage study were determined to be different from P. vulpinum and other recognized Penicillium sp...

  3. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  4. Penicillosides A and B: new cerebrosides from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar S.A. Murshid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of our ongoing effort to identify bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi, the marine fungus, Penicillium species was isolated from the Red Sea tunicate, Didemnum species. Two new cerebrosides, penicillosides A and B were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium species using different chromatographic methods. Their structures were established by different spectroscopic data including 1D (1H NMR and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC studies as well as high-resolution mass spectral data. Penicilloside A displayed antifungal activity against Candida albicans while penicilloside B illustrated antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the agar diffusion assay. Additionally, both compounds showed weak activity against HeLa cells.

  5. Cyclohexanone derivatives with cytotoxicity from the fungus Penicillium commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-zhi; Ren, Jin-wei; Tang, Jin-shan; Liu, Xing-zhong; Che, Yong-sheng; Yao, Xin-sheng

    2013-06-01

    Four new cyclohexanone derivatives (2-5) and one known analog, (-)-Palitantin (1) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Penicillium commune, a fungal strain of low-temperature habitats. The structures of 2-5 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of 2 was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, whereas that 3-5 were deduced via the CD data. Cytotoxicities of 2-5 against five human carcinoma cell lines (Hela, A549, MCF7, HCT116, T24) were evaluated.

  6. Effect of biofertilizers in the biocontrol of Penicillium sp. in Orange Pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ferrari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the potential for control of Penicillium sp. using biofertilizers based in swine and cattle manure in fruit orange 'Pera' in different concentrations. We used a completely randomized design with nine treatments and these are the control (sterile water and 2 biofertilizers each at 2,5; 5,0; 10,0 and 20,0%, with 3 repetitions (3 fruits per repetition. Were made in each fruit 2 wounds immediately after was inoculated with pathogen and after 5 hours were applied the treatments by spraying onto the fruits. Evaluations were made when the fruits of the witness were totally taken by the fungus, applying notes percentage of injury in fruit. The values were subjected to analysis of variance by F test, using the statistical software ESTAT, and differences between means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. All treatments were statistically different from the control, while the lowest values of percentage of injuries were found in treating swine biofertilizer concentration 20,0 %. Thus, it proved that the biofertilizers can inhibit the growth of Penicillium sp. Keywords: concentrations, inhibition, postharvest, alternative control.Keywords: concentrations, inhibition, postharvest, alternative control

  7. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  8. Penicillium sp. — PRODUCER OF EXTRACELLULAR α-L-RHAMNOSIDASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudzenko E. V

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate α-L-rhamnosidase that hydrolytically cleaves the terminal unreduced α-1,2-, α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked rhamnose residues in both synthetic and natural glycosides, oligo-, and polysaccharides, various glycoconjugates: flavonoid derivatives such es rutin, neohesperidin, hesperidin, naringin, quercitrin, saponins, terpene glycosides. These properties of the enzyme could be used for the needs of food industry, pharmaceutical and chemical industry: to improve the quality of beverages (reduction of bitterness, flavor enhancing wines, for production of food additives, medicine preparations and rhamnose. As a result of screening conducted among 9 strains of micromycetes, ability to synthesize α–Lrhamnosidase was revealed only in Penicillium sp. 2918. Complex enzyme preparation was obtained from culture supernatant of this micromycete by fractionation with ammonium sulfate (90% saturation and its physico-chemical properties such as pH- and thermooptimum, pH- and thermal stability and substrate specificity were studied as well. It is shown that enzyme has pH optimum is about 6.0 and thermooptimum is about 60 оC. Preparation of Penicillium sp. 2918 with α-L-rhamnosidase reveals α-D-glucosidase, α-D-galactosidase and α D-glucosaminidase activity.

  9. Chemical constituents of the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioso, Roberto; Marante, Francisco Javier Toledo; Laguna, Irma Herrera Bravo de

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti is a well-known multifunctional cell factory of high added-value biomolecules. The objective of this work was to carry out a detailed analysis of the metabolites present in the culture broth of a new marine-derived Penicillium roqueforti strain isolated in the Canary Islands, Spain. The fungal biomass production was carried out in liquid-state fermentation, and after 10-12 days of incubation at 22-25°C, the supernatant mycelia was separated by filtration, and the culture broth (12l) was stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for a subsequent liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane (3×), in accordance with the modified Kupchan method. The volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds were separated by chromatography and analyzed using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses. Several volatile organic compounds involved in the fatty acid pathway were identified: a terpenoid, a cyclic dipeptide, phthalates, and an alkyl adipate. In addition, three categories of non-volatile compounds (alkanes, fatty acids and 1-alkanols) were identified by spectroscopy. The results show that the fermented broth of this fungal strain has no mycotoxins under the culture conditions applied. It is hoped that this chemo-specific information will offer critical input for improving the biotechnological applications of this filamentous fungus. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming's lucky fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henk, D A; Eagle, C E; Brown, K; Van Den Berg, M A; Dyer, P S; Peterson, S W; Fisher, M C

    2011-10-01

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a putatively globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been shown to be genetically diverse, and possess mating-type genes. Here, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses show that this apparently ubiquitous fungus is actually composed of at least two genetically distinct species with only slight differences detected in physiology. We found each species in air and dust samples collected in and around St Mary's Hospital where Fleming worked. Genotyping of 30 markers across the genome showed that preserved fungal material from Fleming's laboratory was nearly identical to derived strains currently in culture collections and in the same distinct species as a wild progenitor strain of current penicillin producing industrial strains rather than the type species P. chrysogenum. Global samples of the two most common species were found to possess mating-type genes in a near 1:1 ratio, and show evidence of recombination with little geographic population subdivision evident. However, no hybridization was detected between the species despite an estimated time of divergence of less than 1MYA. Growth studies showed significant interspecific inhibition by P. chrysogenum of the other common species, suggesting that competition may facilitate species maintenance despite globally overlapping distributions. Results highlight under-recognized diversity even among the best-known fungal groups and the potential for speciation despite overlapping distribution.

  11. Penicillium donkii sp. nov. and some observations on sclerotial strains of Penicillium funiculosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Amelia C.

    1973-01-01

    A description and drawings of a new species of Penicillium, P. donkii, are presented. Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll var. rubri-sclerotium Thom is considered a synonym of P. funiculosum Thom. Some observations are recorded, especially in connection with the cultural appearance of sclerotial strains

  12. Structural investigation of endoglucanase 2 from the filamentous fungus Penicillium verruculosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrusheva, A. V.; Nemashkalov, V. A.; Kravchenko, O. V.; Tishchenko, S. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Kljashtorny, V. G.; Korotkova, O. G.; Gusakov, A. V.; Sinitsyn, A. P.

    2017-03-01

    Enzyme additives capable of degrading non-starch polysaccharides of cereal cell walls, which are major ingredients used in animal feed, can improve the efficiency of livestock production. Non-starch polysaccharides have antinutritional properties that interfere with efficient digestion and assimilation of nutrients by animals. Therefore, the improvement of the properties and characteristics of enzyme additive is an important issue. The three-dimensional structure of one of the key industrial enzymes involved in the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides — endoglucanase 2 from the filamentous fungus Penicillium verruculosum — was determined (PDB ID: 5I6S). The catalytic site of this enzyme was established. Based on the enzyme structure, it was suggested that the pH optimum of the enzyme activity can be shifted from acidic to neutral or alkaline pH values.

  13. Alkaloids with Cardiovascular Effects from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium expansum Y32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qin Fan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new alkaloids (1, 4 and 8, together with nine known analogues (2, 3, 5–7, and 9–12, were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium expansum Y32. Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic and Mosher’s and Marfey’s methods, along with quantum electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculations. Each of the compounds was evaluated for cardiovascular effects in a live zebrafish model. All of the compounds showed a significant mitigative effect on bradycardia caused by astemizole (ASM in the heart rate experiments. Compounds 4–6 and 8–12 exhibited potent vasculogenetic activity in vasculogenesis experiments. This is the first study to report that these types of compounds show cardiovascular effects in zebrafish. The results suggest that these compounds could be promising candidates for cardiovascular disease lead compounds.

  14. Six New Polyketide Decalin Compounds from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum 328#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Six new compounds with polyketide decalin ring, peaurantiogriseols A–F (1–6, along with two known compounds, aspermytin A (7, 1-propanone,3-hydroxy-1- (1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-2,5-dihydroxy-1,2,6-trimethyl-1-naphthalenyl (8, were isolated from the fermentation products of mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum 328#. Their structures were elucidated based on their structure analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by 1H NMR analysis of their Mosher esters; the absolute configurations of 3–6 were determined by using theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD. Compounds 1–8 showed low inhibitory activity against human aldose reductase, no activity of inducing neurite outgrowth, nor antimicrobial activity.

  15. Alkaloids with Cardiovascular Effects from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium expansum Y32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ya-Qin; Li, Pei-Hai; Chao, Ya-Xi; Chen, Hao; Du, Ning; He, Qiu-Xia; Liu, Ke-Chun

    2015-10-22

    Three new alkaloids (1, 4 and 8), together with nine known analogues (2, 3, 5-7, and 9-12), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium expansum Y32. Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic and Mosher's and Marfey's methods, along with quantum electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Each of the compounds was evaluated for cardiovascular effects in a live zebrafish model. All of the compounds showed a significant mitigative effect on bradycardia caused by astemizole (ASM) in the heart rate experiments. Compounds 4-6 and 8-12 exhibited potent vasculogenetic activity in vasculogenesis experiments. This is the first study to report that these types of compounds show cardiovascular effects in zebrafish. The results suggest that these compounds could be promising candidates for cardiovascular disease lead compounds.

  16. Bergamotane Sesquiterpenes with Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity from the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, You-Min; Fang, Cheng-An; Yao, Feng-Qi; Yu, Yuan; Shen, Ying; Hou, Zhuo-Ni; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Shan, Wei-Guang; Zhan, Zha-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Two new bergamotane sesquiterpene lactones, named expansolides C and D (1 and 2), together with two known compounds expansolides A and B (3 and 4), were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum ACCC37275. The structures of the new compounds were established by detailed analyses of the spectroscopic data, especially 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. In an in vitro bioassay, the epimeric mixture of expansolides C and D (1 and 2) (in a ratio of 2:1 at the temprature of the bioassay) exhibited more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 =0.50 ± 0.02 mm) as compared with the positive control acarbose (IC50 = 1.90 ± 0.05 mm). To the best of our knowledge, it was the first report on the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of bergamotane sesquiterpenes.

  17. Proteomics Insights into the Biomass Hydrolysis Potentials of a Hypercellulolytic Fungus Penicillium funiculosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmolu, Funso Emmanuel; Kaur, Inderjeet; Gupta, Mayank; Bashir, Zeenat; Pasari, Nandita; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2015-10-01

    The quest for cheaper and better enzymes needed for the efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass has placed filamentous fungi in the limelight for bioprospecting research. In our search for efficient biomass degraders, we identified a strain of Penicillium funiculosum whose secretome demonstrates high saccharification capabilities. Our probe into the secretome of the fungus through qualitative and label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics studies revealed a high abundance of inducible CAZymes and several nonhydrolytic accessory proteins. The preferential association of these proteins and the attending differential biomass hydrolysis gives an insight into their interactions and clues about possible roles of novel hydrolytic and nonhydrolytic proteins in the synergistic deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Our study thus provides the first comprehensive insight into the repertoire of proteins present in a high-performing secretome of a hypercellulolytic Penicillium funiculosum, their relative abundance in the secretome, and the interaction dynamics of the various protein groups in the secretome. The gleanings from the stoichiometry of these interactions hold a prospect as templates in the design of cost-effective synthetic cocktails for the optimal hydrolysis of biomass.

  18. Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont:Citrinin,a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh; Subramani; Rohitesh; Kumar; Pritesh; Prasad; William; Aalbersberg

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To Isolate,purify,characterize,and evaluate the bioaclive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp.FF001 and to elucidate its structure.Methods:The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp.Based on conidiophores aggregation,conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics,the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp.The bioactive compound was identified using various spectral analysis of UV,high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra,1H and 13C NMR spectral data.Further minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs)assay and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay were also carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the purified compound.Results:Bioassay guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of a static culture of this Penicillium sp.by different chromatographic methods led the isolation of an antibacterial,anticryptococcal and cytotoxic active compound,which was identified as citrinin(1).Further,citrinin(1)is reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus),rifampicin-resistant 5.aureus,wild type S.aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium showed MICs of 3.90,0.97,1.95 and7.81μg/mL,respectively.Further citrinin(1)displayed significant activity against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans(MIC 3.90μg/mL),and exhibited cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae LD50of 96μg/mL.Conclusions:Citrinin(1)is reported from sponge associated Penicillium sp.from this study and for its strong antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens including cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae,which indicated that sponge associated Penicillium spp.are promising sources of natural bioactive metabolites.

  19. Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont:Citrinin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh Subramani; Rohitesh Kumar; Pritesh Prasad; William Aalbersberg

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To Isolate, purify, characterize, and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FF001 and to elucidate its structure. Methods: The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp. Based on conidiophores aggregation, conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics, the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp. The bioactive compound was identified using various spectral analysis of UV, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Further minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay were also carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the purified compound. Results: Bioassay guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of a static culture of this Penicillium sp. by different chromatographic methods led the isolation of an antibacterial, anticryptococcal and cytotoxic active compound, which was identified as citrinin (1). Further, citrinin (1) is reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), rifampicin-resistant S. aureus, wild type S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium showed MICs of 3.90, 0.97, 1.95 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively. Further citrinin (1) displayed significant activity against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 3.90 µg/mL), and exhibited cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae LD50 of 96 µg/mL. Conclusions: Citrinin (1) is reported from sponge associated Penicillium sp. from this study and for its strong antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens including cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae, which indicated that sponge associated Penicillium spp. are promising sources of natural bioactive metabolites.

  20. Improvement of strain Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH190 for tannase production by induced mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakipour-Molkabadi, E; Hamidi-Esfahani, Z; Sahari, M A; Azizi, M H

    2013-11-01

    In the search for an efficient producer of tannase, Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH190 was subjected to mutagenesis using heat treatment and strain EZ-ZH290 was isolated. The maximum tannase in this mutant strain was 4.32 U/mL with an incubation period of 84 h as compared to wild strain EZ-ZH190 where the incubation period was 96 h with a maximum enzyme activity of 4.33 U/mL. Also, the Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH290 tannase had a maximum activity at 40 °C and pH 5.5. Then, the spores of strain EZ-ZH290 were subjected to γ irradiation mutagenesis and strain EZ-ZH390 was isolated. Strain EZ-ZH390 exhibited higher tannase activity (7.66 U/mL) than the parent strain EZ-ZH290. It was also found that Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH390 tannase had an optimum activity at 35 °C and a broad pH profile with an optimum at pH 5.5. The tannase pH stability of Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH390 and its maximum production of tannase followed the same trend for five generations confirming the occurrence of stable mutant. This paper is shown that γ irradiation can mutate the Penicillium sp. leading to increase the tannase production.

  1. [Construction of Producers of Cellulolytic and Pectinolytic Enzymes Based on the Fungus Penicillium verruculosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushina, E V; Rubtsova, E A; Rozhkova, A M; Sinitsyna, O A; Koshelev, A V; Matys, V Yu; Nemashkalov, V A; Sinitsyn, A P

    2015-01-01

    Based on the fungus Penicillium verruculosum, we created strains with a complex of extracellular enzymes that contains both cellulolytic enzymes of the fungus and heterologous pectin lyase A from P. canescens and endo- 1,4-α-polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger. The endopolygalacturonase and pectin lyase activities of enzyme preparations obtained from culture media of the producer strains reached 46-53 U/mg of protein and 1.3-2.3 U/mg of protein, respectively. The optimal temperature and pH values for recombinant pectin lyase and endopolygalacturonase corresponded to those described in the literature for these enzymes. The content of heterologous endopolygalacturonase and pectin lyase in the studied enzyme preparations was 4-5% and 23% of the total protein content, respectively. The yield of reducing sugars upon the hydrolysis of sugar beet and apple processing wastes with the most efficient preparation was 41 and 71 g/L, respectively, which corresponded to a polysaccharide conversion of 49% and 65%. Glucose was the main product of the hydrolysis of sugar beet and apple processing wastes.

  2. Characterization of sakA gene from pathogenic dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmanee, Panjaphorn; Woo, Patrick C Y; Kummasook, Aksarakorn; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotes utilize stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways to adapt to environmental stress, including heat, osmotic, oxidative or nutrient stresses. Penicillium marneffei (Talaromyces marneffei), the dimorphic pathogenic fungus that can cause disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected patients, has to encounter various types of stresses both outside and inside host cells. However, the strategies used by this fungus in response to these stresses are still unclear. In this report, the stress-activated kinase (sakA) gene of P. marneffei was characterized and the roles of this gene on various stress conditions were studied. The sakA gene deletion mutant was constructed using the split marker method. The phenotypes and sensitivities to varieties of stresses, including osmotic, oxidative, heat and cell wall stresses of the deletion mutant were compared with the wild type and the sakA complemented strains. Results demonstrated that the P. marneffei sakA gene encoded a putative protein containing TXY phosphorylation lip found in the stress high osmolarity glycerol 1 (Hog1)/Spc1/p38 MAPK family, and that this gene was involved not only in tolerance against oxidative and heat stresses, but also played a role in asexual development, chitin deposition, yeast cell generation in vitro and survival inside mouse and human macrophages.

  3. [Use of Endoglucanase IV from Trichoderma reesei to Enhance the Hydrolytic Activity of a Cellulase Complex from the Fungus Penicillium verruculosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurina, O V; Korotkova, O G; Rozhkova, A M; Kondrat'eva, E G; Matys, V Yu; Zorov, I N; Koshelev, A V; Okunev, O N; Nemashkalov, V A; Bubnova, T V; Sinitsyn, A P

    2015-01-01

    The effect of polysaccharide monooxygenase (endoglucanase IV) from the fungus Trichoderma reesei on the hydrolysis of polysaccharide substrates by cellulases secreted by the fungus Penicillium verruculosum has been investigated. Supplementation of the enzyme complex from P. verruculosum by endoglucanase IV from T. reesei has been shown to elevate the efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis by 45%.

  4. A New Pyrone Derivative from Fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel pyrone derivative was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a culture broth of a strain of the fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031. Its structure was characterized as 7-hydroxy-9-methoxyl-10-methyl-2H, 4aH, 6H, 10bH-pyrano[5, 6-c][2]benzopyran-2, 6-dione by spectroscopic analysis including IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra.

  5. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116).

  6. Cytotoxic dihydrothiophene-condensed chromones from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium oxalicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Lin; Bao, Jie; Liu, Kai-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; He, Fei; Wang, Yi-Fei; Nong, Xu-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Two new dihydrothiophene-condensed chromones and a new natural chromone, namely oxalicumones A-C (1-3), respectively, were isolated from a culture broth of a marine-derived fungus, Penicillium oxalicum. The structures of 1-3 and acetylated derivatives of 1 (4-7) were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and chemical reactions. The absolute configuration of 1 and 2 were established by using the modified Mosher ester method and circular dichroism data of an in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] and [Mo2(OAc)4] complex. (R)-MTPA ester of 1 showed cytotoxicity against A375, SW-620, and HeLa carcinoma cell lines with IC50 values of 8.9, 7.8, and 18.4 µM, respectively. Compound 1 displayed cytotoxicity against A375 and SW-620 cell lines with IC50 values of 11.7 and 22.6 µM, respectively. The structure-biological activity relationship of 1 was discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Preparation and structural elucidation of a glucomannogalactan from marine fungus Penicillium commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanli; Mao, Wenjun; Wang, Junfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Zhao, Chunqi; Li, Na; Wang, Chunyan; Yan, Mengxia; Guo, Tao; Liu, Xue

    2013-09-12

    The coral-associated fungus Penicillium commune produces an extracellular polysaccharide, FP2-1, when grown in potato dextrose-agar medium. FP2-1 was isolated from the fermented broth using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography, and its structure was elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including detailed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that FP2-1 was a glucomannogalactan with a molar ratio of galactose, mannose and glucose of 3.9:1.9:1.0. Structure of FP2-1 may be represented, at an average, as a backbone of (1→2)-linked α-mannopyranose with the every second residue substituted at position 6 by a pentasaccharide branch. The branches consist of four (1→6)-linked β-galactofuranose residues with terminal α-glucopyranose residue attached to the last galactofuranose residue at position 2. FP2-1 was a novel galactofuranose-containing extracellular polysaccharide differing from previously described extracellular polysaccharides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel small molecule 11β-HSD1 inhibitor from the endophytic fungus Penicillium commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiguang; Chen, Xintao; Tong, Qingyi; Zhu, Hucheng; He, Yan; Lei, Liang; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Wang, Jianping; Li, Hua; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-05-19

    Two new phenone derivatives penicophenones A (1) and B (2), a new cyclic tetrapeptide penicopeptide A (3), and five known compounds were isolated from the culture broth of Penicillium commune, an endophytic fungus derived from Vitis vinifera. Compounds 1-3 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were determined by comparing its ECD with related molecules and modified Marfey's analysis, respectively. Penicophenone A (1) possesses a rare benzannulated 6,6-spiroketal moiety, which is a new member of the unusual structural class with peniphenone A as the representative. Compound 3 exhibited significant inhibition activities against 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in vitro and showed strong binding affinity to 11β-HSD1. Moreover, compound 3 treatments decreased the lipid droplet accumulation associate with the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 expression in differentiate-induced 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the molecular docking demonstrated that compound 3 coordinated in the active site of 11β-HSD1 is essential for the ability of diminishing the enzyme activity.

  9. Secondary metabolites from a marine-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum QEN-24S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-Shan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Chun-Shun; Proksch, Peter; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2010-12-27

    Penicillium chrysogenum QEN-24S, an endophytic fungus isolated from an unidentified marine red algal species of the genus Laurencia, displayed inhibitory activity against the growth of pathogen Alternaria brassicae in dual culture test. Chemical investigation of this fungal strain resulted in the isolation of four new (1-3 and 5) and one known (4) secondary metabolites. Their structures were identified as two polyketide derivatives penicitides A and B (1 and 2), two glycerol derivatives 2-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoyl)-glycerol (3) and 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoyl)- glycerol (4), and one monoterpene derivative penicimonoterpene (5). Penicitides A and B (1 and 2) feature a unique 10-hydroxy- or 7,10-dihydroxy-5,7-dimethylundecyl moiety substituting at C-5 of the α-tetrahydropyrone ring, which is not reported previously among natural products. Compound 5 displayed potent activity against the pathogen A. brassicae, while compound 1 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line.

  10. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

    2014-07-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of β-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species.

  11. Di-(2-ethylhexylphthalate and Pyranon Derivated from Endophytic fungi Penicillium sp the Leave of Kunyit Putih (Curcuma zedoaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharni Muharni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds from cultivation of the endophytic fungi Penicillium sp of leaves of kunyit putih (Curcuma zedoaria have been isolated. The endophytic fungus was cultivated on 5 L of Potatos Dextrose Broth (PDB medium at room temperature (no shaking for 3 weeks. The cultures were extracted with ethyl acetate to afford 3.0 g of residue after removal of the solvent under reduced pressure. The extract was separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography (CC and afforded two pure compounds as colorless oily liquid (compound 1 and yellow crystal (compound 2. The structure of these compounds were characterized by detailed UV, IR, and NMR spectroscopic analysis and compound 1 as well as comparison with the reported data. Base on spectra analysis the compound 1 was determined as Di-(2-ethylhexylphthalate and compound 2 as 5-(4’-ethoxy-2’-hydroxy-5’-methyl-2’,3’-dihydrofuran-3’-il (hydroxy methyl-4-isopropyl-3-methyl-2-pyran-2-on. Compound 1 is not new compound, but it is new for endophytic fungus from C. zeodoria and compound 2 is new compound.

  12. Sex in cheese: evidence for sexuality in the fungus Penicillium roqueforti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Ropars

    Full Text Available Although most eukaryotes reproduce sexually at some moment of their life cycle, as much as a fifth of fungal species were thought to reproduce exclusively asexually. Nevertheless, recent studies have revealed the occurrence of sex in some of these supposedly asexual species. For industrially relevant fungi, for which inoculums are produced by clonal-subcultures since decades, the potentiality for sex is of great interest for strain improvement strategies. Here, we investigated the sexual capability of the fungus Penicillium roqueforti, used as starter for blue cheese production. We present indirect evidence suggesting that recombination could be occurring in this species. The screening of a large sample of strains isolated from diverse substrates throughout the world revealed the existence of individuals of both mating types, even in the very same cheese. The MAT genes, involved in fungal sexual compatibility, appeared to evolve under purifying selection, suggesting that they are still functional. The examination of the recently sequenced genome of the FM 164 cheese strain enabled the identification of the most important genes known to be involved in meiosis, which were found to be highly conserved. Linkage disequilibria were not significant among three of the six marker pairs and 11 out of the 16 possible allelic combinations were found in the dataset. Finally, the detection of signatures of repeat induced point mutations (RIP in repeated sequences and transposable elements reinforces the conclusion that P. roqueforti underwent more or less recent sex events. In this species of high industrial importance, the induction of a sexual cycle would open the possibility of generating new genotypes that would be extremely useful to diversify cheese products.

  13. Prenylated Indolediketopiperazine Peroxides and Related Homologues from the Marine Sediment-Derived Fungus Penicillium brefeldianum SD-273

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan An

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new indolediketopiperazine peroxides, namely, 24-hydroxyverruculogen (1, 26-hydroxyverruculogen (2, and 13-O-prenyl-26-hydroxyverruculogen (3, along with four known homologues (4–7, were isolated and identified from the culture extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium brefeldianum SD-273. Their structures were determined based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis and compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The absolute configuration of compounds 1–3 was determined using chiral HPLC analysis of their acidic hydrolysates. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality.

  14. Drimane Sesquiterpene-Conjugated Amino Acids from a Marine Isolate of the Fungus Talaromyces minioluteus (Penicillium Minioluteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthatip Ngokpol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four new sesquiterpene lactones (3, 4, 6 and 7 and three known compounds, purpuride (1, berkedrimane B (2 and purpuride B (5, were isolated from the marine fungus, Talaromyces minioluteus (Penicillium minioluteum. New compounds were drimane sesquiterpenes conjugated with N-acetyl-l-valine, and their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, as well as by single crystal X-ray analysis. The isolated compounds could not inhibit the apoptosis-regulating enzyme, caspase-3, while three of the compounds (2, 3 and 7 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity.

  15. Alkaloid (Meleagrine and Chrysogine) from endophytic fungi (Penicillium sp.) of Annona squamosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunianto, Prasetyawan; Rusman, Yudi; Saepudin, Endang; Suwarso, Wahyudi Priyono; Sumaryono, Wahono

    2014-05-01

    Several endophytic fungal strains from Srikaya plants (Annona squamosa L.) have been isolated and one of them was identified as Penicillium sp. Penicillium has been proven as an established source for a wide array of unique bioactive secondary metabolites that exhibit a variety of biological activities. The aim of this study is isolation of secondary metabolite from Penicillium, an endophytic of A. squamosa L. Penicillium sp. from endophytic of A. squamosa L. was fermented in Wicherham media. The whole extract from both liquid media and mycelium was partitioned by ethyl acetate and evaporated to obtain crude ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract was then brokedown using column chromatography with silica as stationary phase and mixture of ethyl acetate/methanol (98%:2%) as mobile phase and then was separated by sephadex column. Structure elucidation of isolated compounds were mainly done by analysis of one and two dimensional NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) data and supported by HPLC (High performance Liquid Chromatography) and MS-TOF (Mass Spectrometer-Time of Flight). Isolated secondary metabolites were tested using in vitro assays for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. For anticancer activity, the metabolites were tested against breast cancer cells (MCF-7) using MTT assay, while for antimicrobial activity was performed using disk diffusion assays. From these physical, chemical and spectral evidences that the secondary metabolites were confirmed as Chrysogine and Meleagrine. Chrysogine and Meleagrine have no activity as anticancer and antimicrobial.

  16. A New Cerebroside, Asperiamide A, from Marine Fungus Asperillus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Ming-An; CHEN,Bi-E; KUO,Yueh-Hsiung

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cerebrosides and ceramides[1] have been isolated from a number of marine organisms such as sea stars, sea anemones, gorgonians, sponges, tunicates, dinoflagellates, and green algae. Some cerebroside and ceramides exhibited cytotoxic, antitumor,[2,3] immunostimulatory,[4] antifungal,[5] and antiviral[6] activites. In the search for bioactive components,two water soluble constituents, asperiamide A and adenosine, were isolated from the marine fungus Asperillus sp. The current report describes the structural elucidation of a new compound, aspefiamide A (1) and a known one, adenosine (2).

  17. Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M.

  18. Chemical profile of the secondary metabolites produced by a deep-sea sediment-derived fungus Penicillium commune SD-118

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhuo; Li, Xiaoming; Meng, Li; Li, Chunshun; Gao, Shushan; Huang, Caiguo; Wang, Bingui

    2012-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from Penicillium commune SD-118, a fungus obtained from a deep-sea sediment sample, resulted in the isolation of a known antibacterial compound, xanthocillin X ( 1), and 14 other known compounds comprising three steroids ( 2-4), two ceramides ( 5 and 6), six aromatic compounds ( 7-12), and three alkaloids ( 13-15). Xanthocillin X ( 1) was isolated for the first time from a marine fungus. In the bioassay, xanthocillin X ( 1) displayed remarkable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7, HepG2, H460, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Meleagrin ( 15) exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. This is the first report of the cytotoxicity of xanthocillin X ( 1).

  19. Physiological traits of Penicillium glabrum strain LCP 08.5568, a filamentous fungus isolated from bottled aromatized mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevarez, L; Vasseur, V; Le Madec, A; Le Bras, M A; Coroller, L; Leguérinel, I; Barbier, G

    2009-04-15

    Penicillium glabrum is a ubiquitous fungus distributed world wide. This fungus is a frequent contaminant in the food manufacturing industry. Environmental factors such as temperature, water activity and pH have a great influence on fungal development. In this study, a strain of P. glabrum referenced to as LCP 08.5568, has been isolated from a bottle of aromatized mineral water. The effects of temperature, a(w) and pH on radial growth rate were assessed on Czapeck Yeast Agar (CYA) medium. Models derived from the cardinal model with inflection [Rosso et al., 1993 An unexpected correlation between cardinal temperatures of microbial growth highlighted by a new model. J. Theor. Bio. 162, 447-463.] were used to fit the experimental data and determine for each factor, the cardinal parameters (minimum, optimum and maximum). Precise characterisation of the growth conditions for such a fungal contaminant, has an evident interest to understand and to prevent spoilage of food products.

  20. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Postharvest Fungus Penicillium expansum R21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuliang; Hua, Sui Sheng T.; Yu, Jiujiang; Bu, Lijing; Pennerman, Kayla K.; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Bennett, Joan W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Blue mold is the vernacular name of a common postharvest disease of stored apples, pears, and quince that is caused by several common species of Penicillium. This study reports the draft genome sequence of Penicillium expansum strain R21, which was isolated from a red delicious apple in 2011 in Pennsylvania. PMID:28209811

  1. Genome sequencing and analyses of the postharvest fungus Penicillium expansum R21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue mold is the vernacular name of a common postharvest disease of stored apples, pears and quince that is caused by several common species of Penicillium. This study reports the draft genome sequence of Penicillium expansum strain R21, a strain isolated from a Red Delicious apple in 2011 in Pennsy...

  2. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  3. Pigment and amylase production in Penicillium sp NIOM-02 and its radical scavenging activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhale, M.A.; VijayRaj, A.S.

    is an extensive area of investigation, since they overcome concerns of unfavorable side effects by synthetic colours (Delgado- Vargas et al., 2000). The production of pigment and amylase by Penicillium sp NIOM-02 indicated its importance in food, pharmaceutical... of Natural Products, 71, 66-70. Delgado-Vargas, F., Jimenez, A.R. & Paredes-Lopez, O. (2000). Natural pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins and betalains-characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability. Critical Review of Food Science and Nutrition...

  4. Culture Conditions of Psychrotrophic Fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Its Lipase Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bsncerz, Renata; Ginalska, Grazyna; Leonowicz, Andrzej; Oga, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Among 97 fungal strains from the soil collected from the high mountain areas in the Jeju Island, Korea, Penicillium chrysogenum 9 was found to be the best lipase producer. Its lipase productivity reached 42 U/ml in the culture medium. Factors affecting lipase production by Penicillium chrysogenum 9 were studied using fermentation media of different chemical compositions. Under optimal conditions we noted a 1.6-fold increase of lipase activity. The maximum lipase activity was 68 U/ml of cultur...

  5. 真菌Penicillium terrestre的化学成分研究%Secondary metabolites from marine derived fungus Penicillium terrestre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧; 陈键; 邓志威; 黄华容; 林文翰

    2010-01-01

    对分离自南海海绵的真菌Penicillium terrestre中的化学成分进行研究.采用多种色谱手段进行分离纯化,得到单体化合物,通过理化性质及波谱方法(1D,2D NMR)确定化合物结构.分离得到的8个化合物分别为cyclo(glycyl-D-proline)(1),cyclo(L-prolyl-L-alanine)(2),cyclo(L-prolyl-D-alanine)(3),cyclo(L-leucyl-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline)(4),cyclo (L-leucyl-cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline)(5),cyclo(L-trans-(4-hydroxyprolinyl)-L-phenylalanine)(6),hexylitaconic acid(7),hexylitaconic methylate(8).化合物7,8为首次从该属中分得,其余化合物为首次从该种中分得.

  6. Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  7. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  8. Pulmonary fungus ball caused by Penicillium capsulatum in a patient with type 2 diabetes: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, M.; Houbraken, J.; Pan, W.; Zhang, C.; Peng, H.; Wu, L.; Xu, D.; Xiao, Y.; Wang, Z.; Liao, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Following the recent transfer of all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces (including Talaromyces marneffei, formerly Penicillium marneffei), Penicillium species are becoming increasingly rare causal agents of invasive infections. Herein, we present a rep

  9. Penicibrocazines A–E, Five New Sulfide Diketopiperazines from the Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium brocae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Hong Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new sulfide diketopiperazine derivatives, namely, penicibrocazines A–E (1–5, along with a known congener (6, were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Penicillium brocae MA-231, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh tissue of the marine mangrove plant Avicennia marina. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed interpretation of NMR and mass spectroscopic data and the structures of compounds 1 and 3 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 2–6 exhibited antimicrobial activity against some of the tested strains with MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 64 μg/mL.

  10. Penicibrocazines A-E, five new sulfide diketopiperazines from the marine-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium brocae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Hong; Zhang, Peng; Li, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2015-01-07

    Five new sulfide diketopiperazine derivatives, namely, penicibrocazines A-E (1-5), along with a known congener (6), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Penicillium brocae MA-231, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh tissue of the marine mangrove plant Avicennia marina. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed interpretation of NMR and mass spectroscopic data and the structures of compounds 1 and 3 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 2-6 exhibited antimicrobial activity against some of the tested strains with MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 64 μg/mL.

  11. BIOSYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ASPERGILLUS CONCIUS, PENICILLIUM JANTHINELLUM AND PHOMOSIS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharathidasan et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study of seventy one endophytic fungi isolated from Avicennia marina, Suaeda monica and Rhizophora mucronata plant leaf. Among 34 genera and 71 species was identified by Lactophenol cotton blue mounting techniques. To induce the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNO3 using Aspergillus conicus, Penicillium janthinellum and Phomosis sp. And evaluate their antimicrobial potential. The characterization of silver nano particles on these fungi by FT-IR, UV, and Fre-SEM analysis to confirm the reduction and it is believed that protein might have played an important role in the stabilization of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNO3 were found to be extracellular polydispersed spherical or hexagonal particles ranging from 6-12mm, 8-14mm 10-16mm in size. Antibacterial activity was performed using a Agar well diffusion method against Bacillus subtillus, E-coli, Enterobacter aurogens, Enterococcus, Klebseilla Pneumonia, Micrococus lutes, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococus aureus Streptococcus sp. Vibrio cholera. AgNO3 can be mycosynthesized extracelluraly using A.Conicus, Penicillium janthinellum and Phomosis sp. As the fungal system. Which is highly advantageous over chemical synthesis not only because in can be synthesized on a large scale, but because of the case of downstream processing and its biomedical activity.

  12. Assessment of the microbody luminal pH in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lende, Ted R. van der; Breeuwer, Pieter; Abee, Tjakko; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The enzymes of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium chrysogenum are located in different subcellular compartments. Consequently, penicillin pathway precursors and the biologically active penicillins have to cross one or more membranes. The final enzymatic step that is mediated by acylt

  13. Steroids produced by Penicillium herquei, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae); Esteroides produzidos por Penicillium herquei, um fungo endofitico isolado dos frutos de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Andrey Moacir do Rosario [Universidade do Estado do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais], e-mail: andreymoacir@yahoo.com.br; Marinho, Patricia Santana Barbosa; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS. (author)

  14. Esteroides produzidos por Penicillium herquei, um fungo endofítico isolado dos frutos de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae Steroids produced by Penicillium herquei, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Moacir do Rosario Marinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14,22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14,22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS.

  15. Removal of chromium(VI) ions from synthetic solutions by the fungus Penicillium purpurogenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Say, R. [Anadolu University, Department of Chemistry, Eskisehir (Turkey); Yilmaz, N. [Hacettepe University, Department of Biology, Eskisehir (Turkey); Denizli, A. [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    The ability of Penicillium purpurogenum to bind high amounts of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions is demonstrated. Cr(VI) adsorption capacity increases with time during the first four hours and then leveled off toward the equilibrium adsorption capacity. Biosorption of Cr(VI) ions reached equilibrium in four hours. Binding of Cr(VI) ions with Penicillium purpurogenum biomass was clearly pH dependent. Cr(VI) loading capacity increased with increasing pH. The adsorption of Cr(VI) ions reached a plateau value at a pH of approx. 6.0. The maximum capacity of adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the fungal biomass was 36.5 mg/g. Adsorption behavior of Cr(VI) ions can be approximately described with the Langmuir equation. When applying the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity (Q{sub max}) and the Langmuir constant were found to be 40 mg/g and 3.9 x 10{sup -3} mg/L. Elution of Cr(VI) ions was performed by means of 0.5 M HCl. It was possible to use the biomass of Penicillium purpurogenum for six cycles for biosorption. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Synergistic Degradation of Metsulfuron-Methyl in Penicillium sp. Inoculated Wheat Rhizosphere Soil%接种Penicillium sp.和根际分泌物对土壤甲磺隆的协同降解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡立芳; 沈东升; 贺永华

    2007-01-01

    通过接种Penicillium sp.和模拟小麦根际环境的方法,研究了甲磺隆在Penicillium sp.和小麦根际分泌物协同作用下的生物降解特性.结果表明,根系分泌物丰富了土著微生物和外源微生物,对甲磺隆的降解具有显著的促进作用.接种Penicilliumsp.的根际土壤中甲磺隆降解半衰期为8.6 d,其降解速率是接种Penicillium sp.的非根际土壤的1.8倍,是普通根际土壤的2.7倍.继续追加甲磺隆的试验表明,接种菌株Penicillium sp.对甲磺隆的降解具有可持续性.

  17. Macrolides from a Marine-Derived Fungus, Penicillium meleagrinum var. viridiflavum, Showing Synergistic Effects with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Miki; Sugita, Takashi; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka

    2016-04-22

    Two new 13-membered macrolides (1, 7), along with known 13-membered macrolides PF1163A, B, D, H, and F (2-6), were isolated from a strain of a marine-derived fungus, Penicillium meleagrinum var. viridiflavum. The structures of 1 and 7 were elucidated from spectroscopic data (NMR, MS, IR). Compounds 1-7 showed synergistic effects with fluconazole against azole-resistant Candida albicans by a checkerboard assay.

  18. Identification of microRNA-like RNAs in mycelial and yeast phases of the thermal dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K P Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Penicillium marneffei is the most important thermal dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in China and Southeast Asia. While miRNAs are increasingly recognized for their roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in animals and plants, miRNAs in fungi were less well studied and their potential roles in fungal dimorphism were largely unknown. Based on P. marneffei genome sequence, we hypothesize that miRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs may be expressed in the dimorphic fungus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We attempted to identify milRNAs in P. marneffei in both mycelial and yeast phase using high-throughput sequencing technology. Small RNAs were more abundantly expressed in mycelial than yeast phase. Sequence analysis revealed 24 potential milRNA candidates, including 17 candidates in mycelial and seven in yeast phase. Two genes, dcl-1 and dcl-2, encoding putative Dicer-like proteins and the gene, qde-2, encoding Argonaute-like protein, were identified in P. marneffei. Phylogenetic analysis showed that dcl-2 of P. marneffei was more closely related to the homologues in other thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungi than to Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus spp., suggesting the co-evolution of dcl-2 among the thermal dimorphic fungi. Moreover, dcl-2 demonstrated higher mRNA expression levels in mycelial than yeast phase by 7 folds (P<0.001. Northern blot analysis confirmed the expression of two milRNAs, PM-milR-M1 and PM-milR-M2, only in mycelial phase. Using dcl-1(KO, dcl-2(KO, dcl(DKO and qde-2(KO deletion mutants, we showed that the biogenesis of both milRNAs were dependent on dcl-2 but not dcl-1 or qde-2. The mRNA expression levels of three predicted targets of PM-milR-M1 were upregulated in knockdown strain PM-milR-M1 (KD, supporting regulatory function of milRNAs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provided the first evidence for differential expression of milRNAs in different growth phases of thermal dimorphic

  19. Role of the rttA gene in morphogenesis, stress response, and virulence in the human pathogenic fungus Penicillium marneffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwunnakorn, Sumanun; Cooper, Chester R; Kummasook, Aksarakorn; Pongpom, Monsicha; Vanittanakom, Pramote; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2015-02-01

    Penicillium marneffei is a human pathogenic fungus and the only thermally dimorphic species of the genus. At 25°C, P. marneffei grows as a mycelium that produces conidia in chains. However, when incubated at 37°C or following infection of host tissue, the fungus develops as a fission yeast. Previously, a mutant (strain I133) defective in morphogenesis was generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Specifically, the rtt109 gene (subsequently designated rttA) in this mutant was interrupted by T-DNA insertion. We characterized strain I133 and the possible roles of the mutated rttA gene in altered P. marneffei phenotypes. At 25°C, the rttA mutant produces fewer conidia than the wild type and a complemented mutant strain, as well as slower rates of conidial germination; however, strain I133 continued to grow as a yeast in 37°C-incubated cultures. Furthermore, whereas the wild type exhibited increased expression of rttA at 37°C in response to the DNA-damaging agent methyl methane sulfonate, strain I133 was hypersensitive to this and other genotoxic agents. Under similar conditions, the rttA mutant exhibited decreased expression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress. Importantly, when compared with the wild-type and the complemented strain, I133 was significantly less virulent in a Galleria infection model when the larvae were incubated at 37°C. Moreover, the mutant exhibited inappropriate phase transition in vivo. In conclusion, the rttA gene plays important roles in morphogenesis, carbohydrate metabolism, stress response, and pathogenesis in P. marneffei, suggesting that this gene may be a potential target for the development of antifungal compounds.

  20. Functional analysis of atfA gene to stress response in pathogenic thermal dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmanee, Panjaphorn; Woo, Patrick C Y; Vanittanakom, Pramote; Youngchim, Sirida; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei, the pathogenic thermal dimorphic fungus is a causative agent of a fatal systemic disease, penicilliosis marneffei, in immunocompromised patients especially HIV patients. For growth and survival, this fungus has to adapt to environmental stresses outside and inside host cells and this adaptation requires stress signaling pathways and regulation of gene expression under various kinds of stresses. In this report, P. marneffei activating transcription factor (atfA) gene encoding bZip-type transcription factor was characterized. To determine functions of this gene, atfA isogenic mutant strain was constructed using the modified split marker recombination method. The phenotypes and susceptibility to varieties of stresses including osmotic, oxidative, heat, UV, cell wall and cell membrane stresses of the mutant strain were compared with the wild type and the atfA complemented strains. Results demonstrated that the mRNA expression level of P. marneffei atfA gene increased under heat stress at 42°C. The atfA mutant was more sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulphate, amphotericin B and tert-butyl hydroperoxide than the wild type and complemented strains but not hydrogen peroxide, menadione, NaCl, sorbitol, calcofluor white, itraconazole, UV stresses and heat stress at 39°C. In addition, recovery of atfA mutant conidia after mouse and human macrophage infections was significantly decreased compared to those of wild type and complemented strains. These results indicated that the atfA gene was required by P. marneffei under specific stress conditions and might be necessary for fighting against host immune cells during the initiation of infection.

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of the phytopathogenic fungus Penicillium digitatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-ye WANG; Hong-ye LI

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system was assessed for conducting insertional mutagenesis in Penicillium digitatum, a major fungal pathogen infecting post-harvest citrus fruits. A transformation efficiency of up to 60 transformants per 106 conidia was achieved by this system. The integration of the hph gene into the fungal genome was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. These transformants tested were also shown to be mitotically stable. Southern blot analysis of 14 randomly selected transformants showed that the hph gene was randomly integrated as single copy into the fungal genome of P. digitatum. Thus, we conclude that ATMT of P. digitatum could be used as an alternatively practical genetic tool for conducting insertional mutagenesis in P. digitatum to study functional genomics.

  2. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic fungus Penicillium digitatum, the main postharvest pathogen of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcet-Houben Marina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium digitatum is a fungal necrotroph causing a common citrus postharvest disease known as green mold. In order to gain insight into the genetic bases of its virulence mechanisms and its high degree of host-specificity, the genomes of two P. digitatum strains that differ in their antifungal resistance traits have been sequenced and compared with those of 28 other Pezizomycotina. Results The two sequenced genomes are highly similar, but important differences between them include the presence of a unique gene cluster in the resistant strain, and mutations previously shown to confer fungicide resistance. The two strains, which were isolated in Spain, and another isolated in China have identical mitochondrial genome sequences suggesting a recent worldwide expansion of the species. Comparison with the closely-related but non-phytopathogenic P. chrysogenum reveals a much smaller gene content in P. digitatum, consistent with a more specialized lifestyle. We show that large regions of the P. chrysogenum genome, including entire supercontigs, are absent from P. digitatum, and that this is the result of large gene family expansions rather than acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Our analysis of the P. digitatum genome is indicative of heterothallic sexual reproduction and reveals the molecular basis for the inability of this species to assimilate nitrate or produce the metabolites patulin and penicillin. Finally, we identify the predicted secretome, which provides a first approximation to the protein repertoire used during invasive growth. Conclusions The complete genome of P. digitatum, the first of a phytopathogenic Penicillium species, is a valuable tool for understanding the virulence mechanisms and host-specificity of this economically important pest.

  3. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic fungus Penicillium digitatum, the main postharvest pathogen of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet-Houben, Marina; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Harries, Eleonora; Marcos, Jose F; González-Candelas, Luis; Gabaldón, Toni

    2012-11-21

    Penicillium digitatum is a fungal necrotroph causing a common citrus postharvest disease known as green mold. In order to gain insight into the genetic bases of its virulence mechanisms and its high degree of host-specificity, the genomes of two P. digitatum strains that differ in their antifungal resistance traits have been sequenced and compared with those of 28 other Pezizomycotina. The two sequenced genomes are highly similar, but important differences between them include the presence of a unique gene cluster in the resistant strain, and mutations previously shown to confer fungicide resistance. The two strains, which were isolated in Spain, and another isolated in China have identical mitochondrial genome sequences suggesting a recent worldwide expansion of the species. Comparison with the closely-related but non-phytopathogenic P. chrysogenum reveals a much smaller gene content in P. digitatum, consistent with a more specialized lifestyle. We show that large regions of the P. chrysogenum genome, including entire supercontigs, are absent from P. digitatum, and that this is the result of large gene family expansions rather than acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Our analysis of the P. digitatum genome is indicative of heterothallic sexual reproduction and reveals the molecular basis for the inability of this species to assimilate nitrate or produce the metabolites patulin and penicillin. Finally, we identify the predicted secretome, which provides a first approximation to the protein repertoire used during invasive growth. The complete genome of P. digitatum, the first of a phytopathogenic Penicillium species, is a valuable tool for understanding the virulence mechanisms and host-specificity of this economically important pest.

  4. One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

    2012-05-01

    Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw.

  5. Bisthiodiketopiperazines and Acorane Sesquiterpenes Produced by the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium adametzioides AS-53 on Different Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Xiao-Ming; Meng, Ling-Hong; Jiang, Wen-Li; Xu, Gang-Ming; Huang, Cai-Guo; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2015-06-26

    Chemical investigation of the marine-sponge-derived fungus Penicillium adametzioides AS-53 resulted in the identification of two new bisthiodiketopiperazine derivatives, adametizines A (1) and B (2), from cultivation in a liquid potato-dextrose broth (PDB) culture medium, whereas two new acorane sesquiterpenes, adametacorenols A (3) and B (4), were isolated from a rice solid culture medium. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis, and that of 3 was determined by modified Mosher's method. Compound 1 exhibited lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LD50 value of 4.8 μM and inhibitory activities against Staphyloccocus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophilia, Vibrio spp. V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus, and Gaeumannomyces graminis with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 8, 8, 32, 8, and 16 μg/mL, respectively. Chlorination at C-7 significantly increased the brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial activity of the bisthiodiketopiperazines.

  6. Clonality despite sex: the evolution of host-associated sexual neighborhoods in the pathogenic fungus Penicillium marneffei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Henk

    Full Text Available Molecular genetic approaches typically detect recombination in microbes regardless of assumed asexuality. However, genetic data have shown the AIDS-associated pathogen Penicillium marneffei to have extensive spatial genetic structure at local and regional scales, and although there has been some genetic evidence that a sexual cycle is possible, this haploid fungus is thought to be genetically, as well as morphologically, asexual in nature because of its highly clonal population structure. Here we use comparative genomics, experimental mixed-genotype infections, and population genetic data to elucidate the role of recombination in natural populations of P. marneffei. Genome wide comparisons reveal that all the genes required for meiosis are present in P. marneffei, mating type genes are arranged in a similar manner to that found in other heterothallic fungi, and there is evidence of a putatively meiosis-specific mutational process. Experiments suggest that recombination between isolates of compatible mating types may occur during mammal infection. Population genetic data from 34 isolates from bamboo rats in India, Thailand and Vietnam, and 273 isolates from humans in China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam show that recombination is most likely to occur across spatially and genetically limited distances in natural populations resulting in highly clonal population structure yet sexually reproducing populations. Predicted distributions of three different spatial genetic clusters within P. marneffei overlap with three different bamboo rat host distributions suggesting that recombination within hosts may act to maintain population barriers within P. marneffei.

  7. Quinazolin-4-one Coupled with Pyrrolidin-2-iminium Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanqin Dai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new alkaloids, including auranomides A and B (1 and 2, a new scaffold containing quinazolin-4-one substituted with a pyrrolidin-2-iminium moiety, and auranomide C (3, as well as two known metabolites auranthine (4 and aurantiomides C (5 were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum. The chemical structures of compounds 13 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including IR, HRESIMS and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 13 were suggested from the perspective of a plausible biosynthesis pathway. Compounds 13 were subjected to antitumor and antimicrobial screening models. Auranomides A–C exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells. Auranomides B was the most potent among them with an IC50 value of 0.097 μmol/mL against HEPG2 cells.

  8. Zosteropenillines: Polyketides from the MarineDerived Fungus Penicillium thomii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamil Sh. Afiyatullov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new polyketides, zosteropenillines A–L (1–12, together with known polyketide pallidopenilline A (13, were isolated from the ethylacetate extract of the fungus Penicillium thomii associated with the seagrass Zostera marina. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of zosteropenilline A (1 as 4R, 5S, 8S, 9R, 10R, and 13S was determined by a combination of the modified Mosher’s method, X‐ray analysis, and NOESY data. Absolute configurations of zosteropenillines B–D (2–4 were determined by timedependent density functional theory (TD‐DFT calculations of ECD spectra. The effect of compounds 1–3, 7, 8, 10, and 11 on the viability of human drug‐resistant prostate cancer cells PC3 as well as on autophagy in these cancer cells and inhibitory effects of compounds 1, 2, and 8–10 on NO production in LPS‐induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were examined.

  9. Structurally diverse secondary metabolites from a deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum SCSIO 41001 and their biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengtian; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Zhen; Lin, Xiuping; Zhao, Bingxin; Kaliaperumal, Kumaravel; Liao, Xiaojian; Tu, Zhengchao; Li, Jianlin; Xu, Shihai; Liu, Yonghong

    2017-03-01

    Five new compounds, including a cytotoxic dimeric isocoumarin, bipenicilisorin (1), a merosesquiterpenoid, yaminterritrem C (2), a citrinin dimer, penicitrinone F (3), a alkaloid, terremide D (4), and a δ-valerolacton, (E)-4-(propen-1-yl)-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (5), along with ten known compounds (6-15) were isolated from a deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum SCSIO 41001. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by NMR spectra, MS, CD, optical rotation, X-ray crystallography, and compared with literature data. Biological evaluation results revealed that 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against K562, A549, and Huh-7 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.78, 6.94, and 2.59μM, respectively. Compound 3 exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against EV71 with IC50 value of 14.50μM. In addition, 13 and 14 showed specific COX-2 inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 1.09 and 1.97μM, respectively.

  10. Sexual reproduction and mating-type-mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Julia; Hoff, Birgit; O'Gorman, Céline M; Wolfers, Simon; Klix, Volker; Binger, Danielle; Zadra, Ivo; Kürnsteiner, Hubert; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Dyer, Paul S; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-22

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a filamentous fungus of major medical and historical importance, being the original and present-day industrial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has been considered asexual for more than 100 y, and despite concerted efforts, it has not been possible to induce sexual reproduction, which has prevented sexual crosses being used for strain improvement. However, using knowledge of mating-type (MAT) gene organization, we now describe conditions under which a sexual cycle can be induced leading to production of meiotic ascospores. Evidence of recombination was obtained using both molecular and phenotypic markers. The identified heterothallic sexual cycle was used for strain development purposes, generating offspring with novel combinations of traits relevant to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1-1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in governing sexual identity, was also found to control transcription of a wide range of genes with biotechnological relevance including those regulating penicillin production, hyphal morphology, and conidial formation. These discoveries of a sexual cycle and MAT gene function are likely to be of broad relevance for manipulation of other asexual fungi of economic importance.

  11. Characterization of salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from the mangrove fungus Pestalotiopsis sp

    OpenAIRE

    Chevret, Didier; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Levasseur, Anthony; Record, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are important for biomass degradation processes in mangrove forests. Given the presence of sea water in these ecosystems, mangrove fungi are adapted to high salinity. Here we isolate Pestalotiopsis sp. NCi6, a halotolerant and lignocellulolytic mangrove fungus of the order Xylariales. We study its lignocellulolytic enzymes and analyse the effects of salinity on its secretomes. De novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly indicate that this fungus possesses of over 400 putative lignocel...

  12. Halogenated Compounds from Directed Fermentation of Penicillium concentricum, an Endophytic Fungus of the Liverwort Trichocolea tomentella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tehane; Inagaki, Masanori; Chai, Hee-Byung; Wieboldt, Thomas; Rapplye, Chad; Rakotondraibe, L Harinantenaina

    2017-05-26

    One new chlorinated xanthone, 6-chloro-3,8-dihydroxy-1-methylxanthone (1), a new 2-bromo-gentisyl alcohol (2), and a mixture of 6-epimers of 6-dehydroxy-6-bromogabosine C (3a and 3b), together with 19 previously identified compounds, epoxydon (4), norlichexanthone (5), 2-chlorogentisyl alcohol (6), hydroxychlorogentisyl quinone (7), 6-dehydroxy-6α-chlorogabosine C (8a), 6-dehydroxy-6β-chlorogabosine C (8b), gentisyl alcohol (9), gentisyl quinone (10), (R,S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (11), dehydrodechlorogriseofulvin (12), dechlorogriseofulvin (13), dehydrogriseofulvin (14), griseofulvin (15), ethylene glycol benzoate (16), alternariol (17), griseoxanthone C (18), drimiopsin H (19), griseophenone C (20), and griseophenone B (21), were isolated from cultures of Penicillium concentricum, a fungal endophyte of the liverwort Trichocolea tomentella. The structures of the new compounds (1, 2, 3a, and 3b) were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques. Among these, compounds 2-4 displayed modest cytotoxicity to the MCF-7 hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line with IC50 values of 8.4, 9.7, and 5.7 μM, respectively, whereas compound 9 exhibited selective cytotoxicity against the HT-29 colon cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 6.4 μM. During this study we confirmed that the brominated gentisyl alcohol (2) was formed by chemical conversion of 4 during bromide salt addition to culture media.

  13. Cultivation conditions and properties of extracellular crude lipase from the psychrotrophic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum 9'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz, R; Ginalska, G; Fiedurek, J; Gromada, A

    2005-06-01

    Among 97 fungal strains isolated from soil collected in the arctic tundra (Spitsbergen), Penicillium chrysogenum 9' was found to be the best lipase producer. The maximum lipase activity was 68 units mL(-1) culture medium on the fifth day of incubation at pH 6.0 and 20 degrees C. Therefore, P. chrysogenum 9' was classified as a psychrotrophic microorganism. The non-specific extracellular lipase showed a maximum activity at 30 degrees C and pH 5.0 for natural oils or at pH 7.0 for synthetic substrates. Tributyrin was found to be the best substrate for lipase, among those tested. The Km and Vmax were calculated to be 2.33 mM and 22.1 units mL(-1), respectively, with tributyrin as substrate. The enzyme was inhibited more by EDTA than by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and was reactivated by Ca2+. The P. chrysogenum 9' lipase was very stable in the presence of hexane and 1,4-dioxane at a concentration of 50%, whereas it was unstable in presence of xylene.

  14. Study on degradation characteristics of a Penicillium sp. Degrading metsulfuron-methyl%一株甲磺隆降解真菌(Penicillium sp.)的降解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈东升; 方程冉; 周旭辉

    2002-01-01

    Penicilliumsp.的纯培养试验结果表明:Penicillium sp.的最适降解条件为甲磺隆浓度22.6mg/L,菌体浓度12.25 mg/L溶液,温度30 C,pH 7.0.在有机肥浸出液为共基质时,甲磺隆降解速率可以提高约15%,但葡萄糖影响不显著.当Penicillium sp.加入到华家池潮土中时,可明显促进土壤甲磺隆的降解,且有较好的持续性,从而使甲磺隆在土壤中的半衰期由对照的27.7 d缩短到16.5~18.8 d.

  15. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, T.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which produc

  16. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, T.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations,

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, whic

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthra

  20. UP-HILIC-MS/MS to Determine the Action Pattern of Penicillium sp. Dextranase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin; Sun, Xue; Du, Kenze; Ouyang, Yilan; Wu, Chengling; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2015-07-01

    Investigation of the action pattern of enzymes acting on carbohydrates is challenging, as both the substrate and the digestion products are complex mixtures. Dextran and its enzyme-derived oligosaccharides are widely used for many industrial applications. In this work, a new method relying on ultra-performance hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UP-HILIC- Q/TOF-MS/MS) was developed to analyze a complex mixture of dextran oligosaccharide products to determine the action pattern of dextranase. No derivatization of oligosaccharides was required and the impact of the α- and β-configurations of the native oligosaccharides on the chromatographic separation was eliminated. The 1→6, 1→3, 1→4 backbone linkages and the branch linkages of these oligosaccharides were all distinguished from diagnostic ions in their MS/MS spectra, including fragments corresponding to 0,2A, 0,3A, 0,4A, B-H2O, 2,5A, and 3,5A. The sequences of the oligosaccharide products were similarly established. Thus, the complex oligosaccharide mixtures in dextran digestion products were profiled and identified using this method. The more enzyme-resistant structures in dextran were established using much less sample, labor, time, and uncertainty than in previous studies. This method provides an efficient, sensitive, and straightforward way to monitor the entire process of digestion, establish the action pattern of the dextranase from Penicillium sp., and to support the proper industrial application of dextranase.

  1. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis, sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections caused by Penicillium spp. are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resoluti...

  2. Effect of growing media and their constituents on fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Lintner) adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAYMOND A. CLOYD; AMY DICKINSON; RICHARD A. LARSON; KAREN A.MARLEY

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attractiveness of two growing media,commonly utilized in greenhouses, to fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila adults. The constituents of the most attractive growing medium tested were determined by gas chromatography analysis using a steam-distillation procedure. We found that fungus gnat adults were more attracted to the growing medium, SB300 Universal Professional Growing Mix,which contains composted bark, than to another growing medium (Sunshine LC1 Mix) and their components when tested in a series of laboratory experiments using multiple-choice experimental arenas. A higher percentage of fungus gnat adults were attracted to moist SB300(92%)than SB300 growing medium that had been oven dried (8%). In addition,fungus gnat adults preferred SB300 although they had been reared on Sunshine LC1 Mix.When comparing the SB300 fresh from the bag to growing medium that had been pasteurized and moistened with water, gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic data showed there were declines in several terpenoid constituents as well as an increase in fatty acids and cyclosulfur.The results of this study indicate that B. sp. nr. coprophila adults prefer certain growing media, which may assist greenhouse producers in managing fungus gnats in crop production systems.

  3. The Indoor Fungus Cladosporium halotolerans Survives Humidity Dynamics Markedly Better than Aspergillus niger and Penicillium rubens despite Less Growth at Lowered Steady-State Water Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Frank J. J.; van Laarhoven, Karel A.; Huinink, Hendrik P.; Adan, Olaf C. G.; Wösten, Han A. B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Indoor fungi cause damage in houses and are a potential threat to human health. Indoor fungal growth requires water, for which the terms water activity (aw) and relative humidity (RH) are used. The ability of the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium halotolerans, and Penicillium rubens at different developmental stages to survive changes in aw dynamics was studied. Fungi grown on media with high aw were transferred to a controlled environment with low RH and incubated for 1 week. Growth of all developmental stages was halted during incubation at RHs below 75%, while growth continued at 84% RH. Swollen conidia, germlings, and microcolonies of A. niger and P. rubens could not reinitiate growth when retransferred from an RH below 75% to a medium with high aw. All developmental stages of C. halotolerans showed growth after retransfer from 75% RH. Dormant conidia survived retransfer to medium with high aw in all cases. In addition, retransfer from 84% RH to medium with high aw resulted in burst hyphal tips for Aspergillus and Penicillium. Cell damage of hyphae of these fungi after incubation at 75% RH was already visible after 2 h, as observed by staining with the fluorescent dye TOTO-1. Thus, C. halotolerans is more resistant to aw dynamics than A. niger and P. rubens, despite its limited growth compared to that of these fungi at a lowered steady-state aw. The survival strategy of this phylloplane fungus in response to the dynamics of aw is discussed in relation to its morphology as studied by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). IMPORTANCE Indoor fungi cause structural and cosmetic damage in houses and are a potential threat to human health. Growth depends on water, which is available only at certain periods of the day (e.g., during cooking or showering). Knowing why fungi can or cannot survive indoors is important for finding novel ways of prevention. Until now, the ability of fungi to grow on media with little available water at steady state

  4. Parthenium sp. as a plant biomass for the production of alkalitolerant xylanase from mutant Penicillium oxalicum SAU{sub E}-3.510 in submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, Pallavi; Vivekanand, V.; Ganguly, Ruma; Singh, Rajesh P. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The use of congress grass (Parthenium sp.) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as low cost raw materials for xylanase production from mutant Penicillium oxalicum SAU{sub E}-3.510 in submerged fermentation was investigated. For development of mutant from wild type P. oxalicum SA-8 ITCC 6024, a strategy of mixed mutagenesis was followed using UV-irradiation and ethidium bromide, which had resulted into 1.87 fold increases in the activity of the enzyme. For enzyme production, the fungus was cultivated in mineral medium containing congress grass as carbon source. Considerably higher levels of production (475.2 {+-} 6.0 IU ml{sup -1}) were achieved in media containing congress grass, although it was slightly less than that was obtained (488.5 {+-} 6.5 IU ml{sup -1}) in presence of commercial oat spelt xylan. This fact confirms the feasibility of using this low cost non-food resource as an alternative carbon source to save costs of the enzyme production process. Maximum xylanase activity was reported at 55 C with its stability at 80 C for 2 h. The highest activity of xylanase at pH 9.0 and its stability at similar pH for 24 h denote the alkalitolerant nature of enzyme. (author)

  5. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of a Tolypocladium sp. fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Our results suggest that the aqueous extract of Tolypocladium sp. mycelium has strong ... It was identified as one of the anamorph strains ... as positive control and the sample solution without DPPH was used as sample blank. .... extract. Scavenging effect on superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals.

  6. Penicillium sp.脂肪酶的发酵及催化生成生物柴油的研究%Fermentation of Penicillium sp. Lipase and Application of the Enzyme in the Biodiesel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐良华; 苏敏; 薛建平; 郭华颖; 黄丽梅

    2006-01-01

    目的:为了提高脂肪酶的产量及更好地应用脂肪酶.方法:采用单因子实验与均匀设计相结合的方法,对青霉Penicillium sp.TS414发酵生产脂肪酶的条件进行了优化.结果:在实验优化后的最适产酶培养基中,碳源为1.4%蔗糖,氮源为7.0%豆饼粉,起始pH8.0.均匀设计优化后的产酶水平(315.1U/mL)比优化前(101.5U/mL)提高了约2倍.Penicillium sp.TS414脂肪酶能够有效地催化大豆油转酯化合成脂肪酸甲酯(生物柴油),反应72h后,脂肪酸甲酯的最终得率在96%左右.结论:Penicillium sp.TS414产生的脂肪酶在生物柴油的工业化生产方面,具有潜在的应用前景.

  7. Isolation and Structures of Two Steroids from Mangrove Endophyte Penicillium sp.%红树植物内生真菌Penicillium sp.中两个甾体化合物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 孙光芝; 郑毅男; 林文翰; Isabel Sattler

    2007-01-01

    从红树植物内生真菌Penicillium sp.的发酵液中分离纯化了两个甾体类化合物,通过各种波谱实验(1D-NMR,2D-NMR,ESI-MS)确定为:麦角甾-4,6,8 (14),22-四烯-3-酮(1)和麦角甾-5,7,22-三烯-3-醇(2),1对于3α-HSD脱氢酶在250 μm浓度下有较弱的活性.

  8. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Houbraken, Jos; Popma, Suuske;

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181(T) = IBT 6005(T) = IMI 30428(T) ) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192(T) = IBT 22220(T) ) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate...... supplemented with 5% NaCl, terverticillate bi- and ter-ramulate conidiophores and consistently produces the extrolites benzomalvin A and D and asperphenamate. The two new species belong to Penicillium section Brevicompacta and are phylogenetically closely related to Penicillium tularense. With exception...... of Penicillium fennelliae, asperphenamate is also produced by all other species in section Brevicompacta (P. tularense, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium bialowiezense, Penicillium olsonii, Penicillium astrolabium and Penicillium neocrassum). Both new species have a worldwide distribution. The new species...

  9. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  10. Benzopyranones from the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid ‘Neva’ of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1, 4-hydroxymellein (2, alternariol 9-methyl ether (3, and botrallin (4 by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. 4-Hydroxymellein (2 exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than the other compounds. Palmariol B (1 showed stronger antimicrobial, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than alternariol 9-methyl ether (3 which indicated that the chlorine substitution at position 2 may contribute to its bioactivity. The results indicate the potential of this endophytic fungus as a source of bioactive benzopyranones.

  11. Constituintes Químicos de Penicillium sp, um Fungo Endofítico Isolado de Murraya paniculata (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho, Andrey Moacir do Rosário; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SÃO CARLOS; Marinho, Patrícia Santana Barbosa; Universidade Federal de São Carlos; Filho, Edson Rodrigues; Universidade Federal de São Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Penicillium sp, isolado como um fungo endofítico de Murraya paniculata, foi cultivado por 20 dias em arroz autoclavado de onde as substâncias ergosterol (1), peróxido de ergosterol (2), cerivisterol (3), uracila (4), dulcitol (5) e lactona do ácido mevalônico (6) foram produzidas e isoladas por procedimentos cromatográficos clássicos e identificadas por estudos espectroscópicos, principalmente EM e RMN 1D e 2D.

  12. Polyketides from the plant endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. IFB3lp-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuringege; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Wei, Wei; Jiao, Rui-Hua; Yan, Tong; Zang, Le-Yun; Jiang, Rong; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Ge, Hui-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Chemical study of the ethyl acetate extract of the plant endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. (strain no. IFB3lp-2) yielded three new polyketides (1-3), together with nine known compounds. All of the structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds were screened for their cytotoxic, antiviral, and acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activities. Regretfully, no compounds showed any significant activity in these assays.

  13. A New Compound Along With Seven Known Compounds from an Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. HS-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of EtOAc extract from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Asperilligus sp. HS-05 led to the isolation of a new compound (1 of spiro moiety named aspergispiroketal and seven known compounds (2-8. Their structures were elucidated mainly by NMR and HR-TOF-MS, as well as on comparison with the reported data. The absolute configuration of 1 was defined by comparison of quantum chemical TDDFT calculated and experimental ECD spectra.

  14. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5, together with three known compounds, incarnal (2, arthrosporone (3, and (2E-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6, were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.

  15. Role of the fungus--Periconiella sp. in destruction of biomedical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anupriya; Gundevia, H S

    2008-07-01

    The disposal of biomedical waste is a burning problem in developing countries due to scarcity of resources and funds in view of its high cost involved. In this paper, a very cheap, easily available and effective method by using fungus--Periconiella sp. isolated from cow dung was successfully tried, which degrades the biomedical waste materials very efficiently and quickly without leaving any trace of harmful effect on the population.

  16. Isolation, antimicrobial activity, and metabolites of fungus Cladosporium sp. associated with red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Qin, Song; Li, Fuchao; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Cladosporium sp. isolate N5 was isolated as a dominant fungus from the healthy conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis. In the re-infection test, it did not cause any pathogenic symptoms in the alga. Twenty-one cultural conditions were chosen to test its antimicrobial activity in order to obtain the best condition for large-scale fermentation. Phenylacetic acid, p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol, and L-beta-phenyllactic acid were isolated from the crude extract as strong antimicrobial compounds and they are the first reported secondary metabolites for the genus Cladosporium. In addition, the Cladosporium sp. produced the reported Porphyra yezoensis growth regulators phenylacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. No cytotoxicity was found in the brine shrimp lethality test, which indicated that the environmental-friendly Cladosporium sp. could be used as a potential biocontrol agent to protect the alga from pathogens.

  17. Fate and effects of nonylphenol in the filamentous fungus Penicillium expansum isolated from the bottom sediments of the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzikova, I.; Safronova, V.; Zaytseva, T.; Medvedeva, N.

    2017-07-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is the most abundant environmental pollutant that is classified as an endocrine disruptor, and it originates from the degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are widely used as industrial surfactants. It has been referred to in a list of substances of particular risk to the Baltic Sea, in a list of priority hazardous substances in the Water Frame Directive, and in the 3rd draft Working Document on Sludge, developed by the EU. In this study, the fate and effects of NP in the filamentous fungus Penicillium expansum isolated from the bottom sediments of the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland were investigated in laboratory experiments. This strain was more tolerant to technical nonylphenol (tNP) compared to other types of aquatic organisms, such as fish, protozoa, and algae. The toxicity concentration values of tNP in Penicillium expansum were EC50 20 mg L- 1 and EC90 > 100 mg L- 1. The activity level of hydrolytic enzymes, cellulases and amylases decreased significantly in the tNP treatments. Given the significant role played by terrestrial fungi in the transformation of organic substrate into bottom sediment, such an effect from tNP on fungi could disturb the regulatory mechanisms and balance between the biosynthesis and biodegradation of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems as well as the formation of cenotic relations in aquatic biocenoses. Oxidative stress induced by tNP has been found to increase the synthesis of enzymatic protection factors, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and nonenzymatic factors (melanin-like pigments and extracellular polysaccharides). This research indicated that the malondialdehyde concentration (the biochemical marker of lipid peroxidation) in the cells of the fungus decreased with increasing antioxidation factors. Penicillium expansum was able to decrease the tNP concentration in the culture medium. The removal of tNP was mainly caused by fungal degradation rather than by simple sorption and

  18. Endophytic synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles from Penicillium sp. of Calophyllum apetalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrappa, C. P.; Govindappa, M.; Chandrasekar, N.; Sarkar, Sonia; Ooha, Sepuri; Channabasava, R.

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, Penicillium species extract isolated from Calophyllum apetalum was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and it was confirmed by changing the color of the silver nitrate UV-Vis spectrum. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by biophysical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction.

  19. Penicillium jejuense sp. nov., isolated from the marine environments of Jeju Island, Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan Julio; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Houbraken, Jos; Sohn, Jae Hak; Hong, Seung-Beom; Lim, Young Woon

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of an unidentified Penicillium species were isolated during a fungal diversity survey of marine environments in Korea. These strains are described here as a new species following a multigene phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer barcodes (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), genes

  20. Chondrosterins A–E, Triquinane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from Soft Coral-Associated Fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Liang Xie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. This fungus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium and the culture broth was extracted with EtOAc. Five new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids, chondrosterins A–E (1–5, and the known sesquiterpenoid hirsutanol C (6, were isolated. The structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of NMR, MS, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction data. Chondrosterin A (1 showed significant cytotoxic activities against cancer lines A549, CNE2, and LoVo with IC50 values of 2.45, 4.95, and 5.47 μM, respectively.

  1. Antitumor Metabolites from Marine Sediment Derived Penicillium sp.WF-06%海泥青霉Penicillium sp.WF-06的抗肿瘤活性代谢产物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任虹; 于洋

    2011-01-01

    目的 阐明海泥青霉Penicillium sp.WF-06的抗肿瘤活性次级代谢产物.方法 28℃下,130r/min摇床发酵7d培养生产菌WF-06,活性跟踪分离纯化WF-06发酵液中的活性单体化合物,根据理化性质和光谱分析(ESI MS、UV、IR、NMR等)鉴定单体化合物结构;采用细胞形态镜检、MTT方法评价单体化合物对人肝癌hepG2细胞的抗肿瘤活性.结果 从青霉Penicillium sp.WF-06发酵液中分离并鉴定了6个生物碱类单体化合物,分别为四个环肽类化合物Gliocladine C(1)、环-甘氨酰脯氨酸(2)、环-苯内氨酰脯氨酸(3)、环-色氨酰内氨酸(4)和两个苯衍生物1,3-二氨基-2-硝基苯(5)和3-羧基吲哚(6),抗肿瘤活性检测结果发现化合物1对hepG2细胞显示增殖抑制活性,其IC50为19.6μmol/L,化合物2~6无活性(IC50>100μmol/L).结论 本实验首次评价了含硫环肽类化合物Gliocladine C对hepG2细胞的抗肿瘤活性,揭示了海泥青霉Penicillium sp.WF-06的主要抗肿瘤活性次级代谢物是含硫环肽类化合物.

  2. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Lou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75 µg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50 values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27 µg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18 µg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17 µg/mL and 74.62 µg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms.

  3. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17μg/mL and 74.62μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms.

  4. [A novel chromene with anti-tumor activities from fungus Phomopsis sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-jun; Yin, Yu; Ge, Mei

    2015-02-01

    A new chromene (1) and six known compounds identified as 6-hydroxymellein (2), 6-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (3) nectriapyrone (4), chermesinone A(5), chermesinone B(6), and pomopxanthone A(7), were isolated in our investigation of the cytotoxic constituents from the fermented rice substrate of endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. HCCB03519. The structures of these com pounds were elucidated through spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against cancer cell lines. Compound 7 showed stronger inhibition against cancer cells than the positive control 5-Fu.

  5. Antiviral alkaloids produced by the mangrove-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. PJX-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jixing; Lin, Tao; Wang, Wei; Xin, Zhihong; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

    2013-06-28

    Six new indole alkaloids including five new glyantrypine derivatives (1, 2a, 2b, 3, 4) and a new pyrazinoquinazoline derivative (5), together with eight known alkaloids (6-13), were isolated from the culture of the mangrove-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. PJX-41. Their structures were elucidated primarily by spectroscopic and physical data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-9 were established on the basis of CD, NOESY data, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 2b, 5, 7-9, and 11 exhibited significant activities against influenza virus A (H1N1), with IC50 values of 82-89 μM.

  6. Lipid-lowering polyketides from a soft coral-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. TZP29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meilin; Gao, Huquan; Wu, Chongming; Zhu, Tianjiao; Che, Qian; Gu, Qianqun; Guo, Peng; Li, Dehai

    2015-09-01

    Two new C12 polyketides, cladospolides E and F (1 and 2), together with four known derivatives seco-patulolides A and C (3 and 4), 11-hydroxy-γ-dodecalactone (5) and iso-cladospolide B (6), were isolated from a soft coral-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. TZP-29. Their structures, including the absolute configurations, were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, modified Mosher's method, and the analysis of their biogenesis. All compounds were non-cytotoxic while compounds 1 and 3-5 showed potent lipid-lowering activity in HepG2 hepatocytes.

  7. Morphological, molecular and ecological aspects of the South American hypogeous fungus Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhra, Eduardo R; Dominguez, Laura S; Becerra, Alejandra G; Trappe, James M

    2005-01-01

    Field studies in Argentina's Yunga District revealed Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov., a hypogeous fungus associated with Alnus acuminata ssp. acuminata. Morphological and molecular studies based on amplification and sequencing of the nuclear LSU rDNA gene showed its unique identity within Alpova. Related genera included in the analyses were Boletus edulis, Rhizopogon spp., Suillus luteus and Truncocolumella citrina. Additional observations of animal diggings around the sites and microscopic examination of fecal pellets of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) indicate A. austroalnicola is consumed and its spores dispersed by animals.

  8. Five Sesquiterpenoids from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. Isolated from a Gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yan Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new phenolic bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids: (+-methyl sydowate (1, 7-deoxy-7,14-didehydrosydonic acid (2, and 7-deoxy-7,8-didehydrosydonic acid (3, together with two known fungal metabolites were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated in turn from a gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods, and the structure of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray data.

  9. Biotransformation of a tetrahydrofuran lignan by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis Sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verza, Michelle; Arakawa, Nilton S.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Pupo, Monica T.; Said, Suraia; Carvalho, Ivone [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: carronal@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The biotrasformation of the tetrahydrofuran lignan, (-)-grandisin, by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis sp, obtained from Viguiera arenaria, led to the formation of a new compound determined as 3,4-dimethyl-2- (4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-tetrahydrofuran. The metabolite was evaluated against the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas's disease, and showed a trypanocidal activity (IC{sub 50} 9.8 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) similar to the natural precursor (IC{sub 50} 3.7 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). (author)

  10. Two new antibiotic pyridones produced by a marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2014-03-06

    Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1) and trichodin B (2), together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3), were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC₅₀ values of 24 μM and 4 μM, respectively.

  11. Two New Antibiotic Pyridones Produced by a Marine Fungus, Trichoderma sp. Strain MF106

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1 and trichodin B (2, together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3, were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC50 values of 24 μM and 4 μM, respectively.

  12. A new minor diketopiperazine from the sponge-derived fungus Simplicillium sp. YZ-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bing-Fei; Fang, Sheng-Tao; Li, Wen-Zuo; Liu, Su-Jing; Wang, Jian-Hua; Xia, Chuan-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cultures of a sponge-derived fungus Simplicillium sp. YZ-11 led to the isolation of a new minor diketopiperazine alkaloid cyclo-(2-hydroxy-Pro-Gly) (1) and a natural lactone (S)-dihydro-5-[(S)- hydroxyphenylmethyl]-2(3H)-furanone (2), together with five known ergostane-type sterols (3-7). Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and optical rotation analysis.

  13. Penicillium daejeonium sp. nov., a new species isolated from a grape and schisandra fruit in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Hyunkyu; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Chang Sun; Choi, Young Phil; Deng, Jian-Xin; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-08-01

    Two isolates of monoverticillate Penicillium species were collected from a grape and schisandra fruit in Korea. Multigene phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and genes encoding β-tubulin (benA) and calmodulin (cmd), as well as morphological analyses revealed that the two isolates are members of the P. sclerotiorum complex in Penicillium subgenus Aspergilloides, but different from species of the P. sclerotiorum complex. The isolates are closely related to P. cainii, P. jacksonii, and P. viticola in terms of their multigene phylogeny, but their colony and conidiophore morphologies differ from those of closely related species. The name P. daejeonium is proposed for this unclassified new species belonging to the P. sclerotiorum complex in subgenus Aspergilloides.

  14. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Armillaria sp.F022

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tony Hadibarata; Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff; Azmi Aris; Risky Ayu Kristanti

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria sp.F022,a white rot fungus isolated from tropical rain forest (Samarinda,Indonesia) was used to biodegrade naphthalene in cultured medium.Transformation of naphthalene by Armillaria sp.F022 which is able to use naphthalene,a two ring-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) as a source of carbon and energy was investigated.The metabolic pathway was elucidated by identifying metabolites,biotransformation studies and monitoring enzyme activities in cell-free extracts.The identification of metabolites suggests that Armillaria sp.F022 initiates its attack on naphthalene by dioxygenation at its C-1 and C-4 positions to give 1,4-naphthoquinone.The intermediate 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylic acid,and the characteristic of the meta-cleavage of the resulting diol were identified in the long-term incubation.A part from typical metabolites of naphthalene degradation known from mesophiles,benzoic acid was identified as the next intermediate for the naphthalene pathway of this Armillaria sp.F022.Neither phthalic acid,catechol and cis,cis-muconic acid metabolites were detected in culture extracts.Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase,lignin peroxidase,laccase,1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase) produced by Armillaria sp.F022 were detected during the incubation.

  15. Marilones A–C, phthalides from the sponge-derived fungus Stachylidium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Almeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine-derived fungus Stachylidium sp. was isolated from the sponge Callyspongia sp. cf. C. flammea. Culture on a biomalt medium supplemented with sea salt led to the isolation of three new phthalide derivatives, i.e., marilones A–C (1–3, and the known compound silvaticol (4. The skeleton of marilones A and B is most unusual, and its biosynthesis is suggested to require unique biochemical reactions considering fungal secondary metabolism. Marilone A (1 was found to have antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei liver stages with an IC50 of 12.1 µM. Marilone B (2 showed selective antagonistic activity towards the serotonin receptor 5-HT2B with a Ki value of 7.7 µM.

  16. Bioactive secondary metabolites from Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, L W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, C L

    2012-05-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam. Based on analyzing the rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Nigrospora sp. This is the first report of the isolation of endophytic Nigrospora from M. oleifera. By bioassay-guided fractionation, four antifungal secondary metabolites were isolated from liquid cultures of the fungus Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, and their chemical structures were determined to be griseofulvin (1), dechlorogriseofulvin (2), 8-dihydroramulosin (3) and mellein (4) on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from Nigrospora sp. for the first time. In vitro antifungal assay showed that griseofulvin displayed clear inhibition of the growth of 8 plant pathogenic fungi. Dechlorogriseofulvin and mellein exhibited only weak antifungal activities, whereas 8-dihydroramulosin displayed no antifungal activities.

  17. Gliotoxin Isolated from Marine Fungus Aspergillus sp. Induces Apoptosis of Human Cervical Cancer and Chondrosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Tinh Nguyen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gliotoxin, a secondary metabolite produced by marine fungus Aspergillus sp., possesses various biological activities including anticancer activity. However, the mechanism underlying gliotoxin-induced cytotoxicity on human cervical cancer (Hela and human chondrosarcoma (SW1353 cells remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the effect of gliotoxin induction on apoptosis, the activating expressions of caspase family enzymes in the cells. Apoptotic cell levels were measured through DAPI and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI double staining analysis. The apoptotic protein expression of Bcl-2 and caspase family was detected by Western blot in Hela and SW1353 cells. Our results showed that gliotoxin treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced significant morphological changes. Gliotoxin induced apoptosis was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential. Gliotoxin-induced activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and cytochromec (cyt c release showed evidence for the gliotoxin activity on apoptosis. These findings suggest that gliotoxin isolated from marine fungus Aspergillus sp. induced apoptosis in Hela and SW1353 cells via the mitochondrial pathway followed by downstream events leading to apoptotic mode of cell death.

  18. Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal strain was cultivated on 7 L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium under room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The ethyl acetate were added to cultur medium and left overnight to stop cell growth. The culture filtrates were collected and extracted with EtOAc and then taken to evaporation. Two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1 and (5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H pyran-4-yl methyl acetate (2 were obtained from the EtOAc extracts of Trichoderma sp. Their structures were determined on the basic of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, and HMBC.

  19. Identification of an extracellular antifungal protein from the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. DM06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Prabuddha; Kamdar, Maulik R; Mandal, Santi M; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2013-02-01

    An extracellular antifungal protein of 28 kDa (exAFP-C28) was identified from an endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. DM-06. After purification, the MIC value of exAFP-C28 against Candida albicans, a well-known human pathogenic fungus was found to be 32 μg/mL that unaffected the human red blood cells. The antifungal activity associated with exAFP-C28 was manifested by the increased membrane permeability of C. albicans cells followed by disruption. Proteomics and bioinformatics analyses revealed that several peptide fragments of exAFP-C28 have identity with the bacterial 50S ribosomal protein L10, and a stretch of 55 amino acids of two peptide fragments corresponding to the Nterminus of L10 protein is capable of forming amphipathic helix required for membrane penetration. Taken together, our results suggest that the exAFP-C28 protein from Colletotrichum sp. DM-06 is a promising therapeutic agent in controlling candidiasis disease in animals including humans.

  20. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  1. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Massi, Fernanda P.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype. PMID:26717519

  2. Microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum and their cytotoxic effects against mouse mayo blast cancer C 2 C 12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrita; Tripathy, Suraj Kumar; Wahab, Rizwan; Jeong, Song-Hoon; Hwang, Inho; Yang, You-Bing; Kim, Young-Soon; Shin, Hyung-Shik; Yun, Soon-Il

    2011-11-01

    Microorganisms, their cell filtrates, and live biomass have been utilized for synthesizing various gold nanoparticles. The shape, size, stability as well as the purity of the bio synthesized nanoparticles become very essential for application purpose. In the present study, gold nanoparticles have been synthesized from the supernatant, live cell filtrate, and biomass of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum. The fungus has been grown in potato dextrose broth which is also found to synthesize gold nanoparticles. The size of the particles has been investigated by Bio-TEM before purification, following purification and after storing the particles for 3 months under refrigerated condition. Different characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy have been used for analysis of the particles. The effect of reaction parameters such as pH and concentration of gold salt have also been monitored to optimize the morphology and dispersity of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. A pH range of 5 to 8 has favored the synthesis process whereas increasing concentration of gold salt (beyond 2 mM) has resulted in the formation of bigger sized and aggregated nanoparticles. Additionally, the cytotoxic nature of prepared nanoparticles has been analyzed using mouse mayo blast cancer C(2)C(12) cells at different time intervals (24, 48, and 72 h) of incubation period. The cells are cultivated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum with antibiotics (streptopenicillin) at 37°C in a 5% humidified environment of CO(2). The medium has been replenished every other day, and the cells are subcultured after reaching the confluence. The viability of the cells is analyzed with 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method.

  3. Medium Optimization for Exopolysaccharide Production in Liquid Culture of Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqin Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, an endophytic fungus from Dioscorea zingiberensis, is a high producer of spirobisnaphthalenes with various bioactivities. The exopolysaccharide (EPS produced by this fungus also shows excellent antioxidant activity. In this study, the experimental designs based on statistics were employed to evaluate and optimize the medium for EPS production in liquid culture of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. For increasing EPS yield, the concentrations of glucose, peptone, KH2PO4, MgSO4∙7H2O and FeSO4∙7H2O in medium were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Both the fractional factorial design (FFD and central composite design (CCD were applied to optimize the main factors which significantly affected EPS production. The concentrations of glucose, peptone and MgSO4∙7H2O were found to be the main effective factors for EPS production by FFD experimental analysis. Based on the further CCD optimization and RSM analysis, a quadratic polynomial regression equation was derived from the EPS yield and three variables. Statistical analysis showed the polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results with the determination coefficient (adj-R2 as 0.9434. By solving the quadratic regression equation, the optimal concentrations of glucose, peptone and MgSO4∙7H2O for EPS production were determined as 63.80, 20.76 and 2.74 g/L, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted EPS yield reached the maximum (13.22 g/L. Verification experiment confirmed the validity with the actual EPS yield as 13.97 g/L, which was 6.29-fold in comparison with that (2.22 g/L in the original basal medium. The results provide the support data for EPS production in large scale and also speed up the application of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12.

  4. Cytotoxic polyphenols from the fungus Penicillium expansum 091 006 endogenous with the mangrove plant Excoecaria agallocha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Lu, Zhenyu; Liu, Peipei; Wang, Yi; Li, Jing; Hong, Kui; Zhu, Weiming

    2012-11-01

    As part of our ongoing chemical investigation of biologically active metabolites from marine-derived fungi, four new polyphenols containing both phenolic bisabolane and diphenyl ether units, expansols C-F (1-4), and one new diphenyl ether derivative, 3-O-methyldiorcinol (5), as well as twelve known compounds (6-17), were isolated from Penicillium expansum 091006 endogenous with the mangrove plant Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae). The structures of the new metabolites were determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopy. Among them, expansols C (1) and E (3) exhibited weak cytotoxicity against the HL-60 cell lines with IC50 values of 18.2 and 20.8 µM, respectively. The results showed that diphenyl ether substituted phenolic bisabolanes with a Δ7 double bond in the side chain are slightly less cytotoxic to HL-60 cell lines than the 7-OH or 7-OCH3 derivatives.

  5. [State of Fungal Lipases of Rhizopus microsporus, Penicillium sp. and Oospora lactis in Border Layers Water-Solid Phase and Factors Affecting Catalytic Properties of Enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, Kh T; Davranov, K; Rakhimov, M M

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that a change in the catalytic activity of fungal lipases synthesized by Rhizopus microsporus, Penicillium sp. and Oospora lactis and their ability to absorb on different sorbents depended on the nature of groups on the solid phase surface in the model systems water: lipid and water: solid phase. Thus, the stability of Penicillium sp. lipases increased 85% in the presence ofsorsilen or DEAE-cellulose, and 55% of their initial activity respectively was preserved. In the presence of silica gel and CM-cellulose, a decreased rate of lipid hydrolysis by Pseudomonas sp. enzymes was observed in water medium, and the hydrolysis rate increased by 2.4 and 1.5 times respectively in the presence of aminoaerosil and polykefamid. In an aqueous-alcohol medium, aminoaerosil and polykefamid decreased the rate of substrate hydrolysis by more than 30 times. The addition of aerosil to aqueous and aqueous-alcohol media resulted in an increase in the hydrolysis rate by 1.2-1.3 times. Sorsilen stabilized Penicillium sp. lipase activity at 40, 45, 50 and 55 degrees C. Either stabilization or inactivation of lipases was observed depending on the pH of the medium and the nature of chemical groups localized on the surface of solid phase. The synthetizing activity of lipases also changed depending on the conditions.

  6. Characterization of oil-palm trunk residue degradation enzymes derived from the isolated fungus, Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kok Chang; Arai, Takamitsu; Ibrahim, Darah; Deng, Lan; Murata, Yoshinori; Mori, Yutaka; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes crude enzymes derived from Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL, a mesophilic fungus isolated from the local soil of Malaysia. Prior to enzyme activity evaluation, P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL was inoculated into a broth medium containing oil-palm trunk residues for the preparation of crude enzymes. Oil-palm trunk residues were optimally hydrolysed at pH5.0 and 50°C. P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived crude enzymes displayed higher thermal stability compared with the commercial enzymes, Celluclast 1.5 L and Acellerase 1500. Moreover, the hydrolysing activities of the P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived crude enzymes (xylan, arabinan, and laminarin) were superior compared to that of Celluclast 1.5 L and Acellerase 1500, and exhibit 2- to 3-fold and 3- to 4-fold higher oil-palm trunk residues-hydrolysing specific activity, respectively. This higher hydrolysis efficiency may be attributed to the weak 'lignin-binding' ability of the P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived enzymes compared to the commercial enzymes.

  7. Antitumor Effects and Related Mechanisms of Penicitrinine A, a Novel Alkaloid with a Unique Spiro Skeleton from the Marine Fungus Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Ying Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penicitrinine A, a novel alkaloid with a unique spiro skeleton, was isolated from a marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum. In this study, the isolation, structure and biosynthetic pathway elucidation of the new compound were described. This new compound showed anti-proliferative activity on multiple tumor types. Among them, the human malignant melanoma cell A-375 was confirmed to be the most sensitive. Morphologic evaluation, apoptosis rate analysis, Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR results showed penicitrinine A could significantly induce A-375 cell apoptosis by decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 and increasing the expression of Bax. Moreover, we investigated the anti-metastatic effects of penicitrinine A in A-375 cells by wound healing assay, trans-well assay, Western blot and RT-qPCR. The results showed penicitrinine A significantly suppressed metastatic activity of A-375 cells by regulating the expression of MMP-9 and its specific inhibitor TIMP-1. These findings suggested that penicitrinine A might serve as a potential antitumor agent, which could inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells.

  8. Bioremediation of BTEX hydrocarbons: Effect of soil inoculation with the toluenegrowing fungus Cladophialophora sp strain T1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta, F.X.; Ballerstedt, H.; Gerritse, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2004-01-01

    The biodegradation of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, (BTEX) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was studied in soil microcosms. Soil inoculation with the toluene-metabolising fungusCladophialophora sp. strain T1 was evaluated in sterile and non-sterile soil. Induction of biodegr

  9. Bioremediation of BTEX hydrocarbons: Effect of soil inoculation with the toluenegrowing fungus Cladophialophora sp strain T1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta, F.X.; Ballerstedt, H.; Gerritse, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2004-01-01

    The biodegradation of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, (BTEX) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was studied in soil microcosms. Soil inoculation with the toluene-metabolising fungusCladophialophora sp. strain T1 was evaluated in sterile and non-sterile soil. Induction of

  10. Green Chemistry Approach for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using the Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Naresh Niranjan; Rahul, Ganga Ravindran; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Raman, Gurusamy; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles has gained tremendous attention owing to their immense applications in the field of biomedical sciences. Although several chemical procedures are used for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the release of toxic and hazardous by-products restricts their use in biomedical applications. In the present investigation, gold nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using the culture filtrate of the filamentous fungus Alternaria sp. The culture filtrate of the fungus was exposed to three different concentrations of chloroaurate ions. In all cases, the gold ions were reduced to Au(0), leading to the formation of stable gold nanoparticles of variable sizes and shapes. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of nanoparticles by reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0). TEM analysis revealed the presence of spherical, rod, square, pentagonal, and hexagonal morphologies for 1 mM chloroaurate solution. However, quasi-spherical and spherical nanoparticles/heart-like morphologies with size range of about 7-13 and 15-18 nm were observed for lower molar concentrations of 0.3 and 0.5 mM gold chloride solution, respectively. The XRD spectrum revealed the face-centered cubic crystals of synthesized gold nanoparticles. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of aromatic primary amines, and the additional SPR bands at 290 and 230 nm further suggested that the presence of amino acids such as tryptophan/tyrosine or phenylalanine acts as the capping agent on the synthesized mycogenic gold nanoparticles.

  11. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis sp. nov., a dark septate endophytic fungus from a cedar forest in Ibaraki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diene, Ousmane; Wang, Wei; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A dark septate fungus of Pseudosigmoidea, Hyphomycetes, was recovered from forest soil in Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. The isolate is characterized by pale to brown conidia with up to 8 septa measuring 68-132 × 4-7.9 mm. It is also unique in producing conidia borne by long conidogenious cells in agar medium with or without water, compared to P. cranei, which must be immersed in water to sporulate. Morphological analysis indicated that the isolate is distinct from P. cranei and is described as a new species, P. ibarakiensis sp. nov. Pathogenicity tests of Chinese cabbage and cucumber seedlings indicated that the fungus grows as an endophyte and colonizes, inter and intracellularly, the root epidermal and cortical layers without causing apparent disease symptoms in the host. This endophyte showed the ability to support cucumber plant growth under conditions where NaNO3 was replaced by organic nitrogen but also conferred to Chinese cabbage the ability to grow at low pH. It also became successfully established in six other plants, including the Brassicae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, and Liliacea families, suggesting its adaptability to a broad range of host plants.

  12. NEW PYRAN OF AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS Fusarium sp. ISOLATED FROM THE LEAVES OF BROTOWALI (Tinaspora crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfita Elfita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are microorganisms that reside asymptomatically in the tissues of higher plants and are relatively unstudied and a promising source of novel organic natural metabolites exhibiting a variety of biological activities. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures from endophytic, the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from the leaves of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, was cultured for isolation of metabolite. The endophytic fungus was cultivated on 6 L of Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium at room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The cultures were then extracted with ethyl acetate to afford 9.4 g of residue after removal of the solvent under reduced pressure. The extract was separated into the fractions by column chromatography (CC on silica gel. The fractions were further separated by silica gel column chromatography to give one compound. The molecular structure was established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC, COSY, and MS. The compound was determined as a new pyran.

  13. Three New Resveratrol Derivatives from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A–C (1–3, were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 μM. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 < 10 μM. Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  14. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Phomopsis sp., an Endophytic Fungus from Senna spectabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Mara Chapla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of an acetonitrile fraction from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. led to the isolation of the new natural product 2-hydroxy-alternariol (7 together with the known compounds cytochalasins J (1 and H (2, 5'-epialtenuene (3 and the mycotoxins alternariol monomethyl ether (AME, 4, alternariol (AOH, 5 and cytosporone C (6. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by using 1-D and 2-D NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution mass spectrometry. The cytochalasins J (1 and H (2 and AOH (5 exhibited potent inhibition of the total ROS (reactive oxygen species produced by stimulated human neutrophils and acted as potent potential anti-inflammatory agents. Moreover, cytochalasin H (2 demonstrated antifungal and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE inhibition in vitro.

  15. Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1, (−-sydonol (2, (−-sydonic acid (3, and (−-5-(hydroxymethyl-2-(2′,6′,6′-trimethyltetrahydro-2H- pyran-2-ylphenol (4 together with one known fungal metabolite (5 were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1–4 are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1–5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations values between 1.25 and 20.0 µM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined.

  16. Phomopsichin A–D; Four New Chromone Derivatives from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Phomopsis sp. 33#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixiang Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Four new chromone derivatives, phomopsichins A–D (1–4, along with a known compound, phomoxanthone A (5, were isolated from the fermentation products of mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. 33#. Their structures were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analysis coupled with single-crystal X-ray diffraction or theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD. They feature a tricyclic framework, in which a dihydropyran ring is fused with the chromone ring. Compounds 1–5 showed weak inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase as well as α-glucosidase, weak radical scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH as well as OH, and weak antimicrobial activities. Compounds 1–4 showed no cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Their other bioactivities are worthy of further study, considering their unique molecular structures.

  17. Phomopsichin A-D; Four New Chromone Derivatives from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Phomopsis sp. 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meixiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Lan; Yin, Sheng; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yongcheng

    2016-11-22

    Four new chromone derivatives, phomopsichins A-D (1-4), along with a known compound, phomoxanthone A (5), were isolated from the fermentation products of mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. 33#. Their structures were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analysis coupled with single-crystal X-ray diffraction or theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). They feature a tricyclic framework, in which a dihydropyran ring is fused with the chromone ring. Compounds 1-5 showed weak inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase as well as α-glucosidase, weak radical scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as OH, and weak antimicrobial activities. Compounds 1-4 showed no cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Their other bioactivities are worthy of further study, considering their unique molecular structures.

  18. Guaiane sesquiterpenes and isopimarane diterpenes from an endophytic fungus Xylaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; He, Jian; Li, Xiao-Nian; Huang, Rong; Song, Fei; Chen, You-Wei; Miao, Cui-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Nine oxygenated guaiane-type sesquiterpenes and three isopimarane diterpenes were isolated from the culture broth of an endophytic fungus, Xylaria sp. YM 311647, obtained from Azadirachta indica. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of two of these were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. All of the compounds were tested for their antifungal activities against five pathogenic fungal cells. The results showed that nine sesquiterpenes were moderately active against Candida albicans and Hormodendrum compactum with MIC values ranging from 32 to 256μg/ml, while the diterpenes were more active; One of these exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against C. albicans and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC values of 16μg/ml.

  19. Antifungal Long-Chain Alkenyl Sulphates Isolated from Culture Broths of the Fungus Chaetopsina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Gloria; González-Menéndez, Víctor; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Martín, Jesús; Cautain, Bastien; Sánchez, Pilar; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Reyes, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    During a high-throughput screening program focused on the discovery and characterization of new antifungal compounds, a total of 8320 extracts from Fundacion MEDINA's collection were screened against a panel of 6 fungal parasitic strains, namely Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. A total of 127 extracts displayed antifungal properties and, after LC/MS dereplication, 10 were selected for further fractionation. Bioassay-guided fractionation from a 1-L fermentation of one of these extracts, belonging to the fungus Chaetopsina sp., led to the isolation of linoleyl sulphate (1), linolenyl sulphate (2), and oleyl sulphate (3) as the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity. These molecules were previously described as synthetic products with the ability to produce the allosteric inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase and human lipoxygenase. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dan

    2012-01-19

    Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1), (-)-sydonol (2), (-)-sydonic acid (3), and (-)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2′, 6′,6′-trimethyltetrahydro-2Hpyran-2-yl)phenol (4) together with one known fungal metabolite (5) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1-4) are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1-5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations) values between 1.25 and 20.0 μM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  1. New Polyphenols from a Deep Sea Spiromastix sp. Fungus, and Their Antibacterial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwen Niu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eleven new polyphenols namely spiromastols A–K (1–11 were isolated from the fermentation broth of a deep sea-derived fungus Spiromastix sp. MCCC 3A00308. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR data and mass spectroscopic analysis in association with chemical conversion. The structures are classified as diphenyl ethers, diphenyl esters and isocoumarin derivatives, while the n-propyl group in the analogues is rarely found in natural products. Compounds 1–3 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against a panel of bacterial strains, including Xanthomanes vesicatoria, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Ralstonia solanacearum, Bacillus thuringensis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationships are discussed, while the polychlorinated analogues 1–3 are assumed to be a promising structural model for further development as antibacterial agents.

  2. New Polyphenols from a Deep Sea Spiromastix sp. Fungus, and Their Antibacterial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Siwen; Liu, Dong; Proksch, Peter; Shao, Zongze; Lin, Wenhan

    2015-01-01

    Eleven new polyphenols namely spiromastols A–K (1–11) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a deep sea-derived fungus Spiromastix sp. MCCC 3A00308. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR data and mass spectroscopic analysis in association with chemical conversion. The structures are classified as diphenyl ethers, diphenyl esters and isocoumarin derivatives, while the n-propyl group in the analogues is rarely found in natural products. Compounds 1–3 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against a panel of bacterial strains, including Xanthomanes vesicatoria, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Ralstonia solanacearum, Bacillus thuringensis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationships are discussed, while the polychlorinated analogues 1–3 are assumed to be a promising structural model for further development as antibacterial agents. PMID:25913707

  3. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, J.C.; Houbraken, J.; Popma, S.; Samson, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181T = IBT 6005T = IMI 30428T) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192T = IBT 22220T) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate conidiophores with echinu

  4. 固定化Penicillium sp.ZD-Z1降解壳聚糖的研究%Study of chitosan degradation with immobilized Penicillium sp.ZD-Z1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑连英; 肖玉良; 隋斯光

    2004-01-01

    采用六种不同的载体对Penicillium sp.ZD-Z1菌进行了固定化,多孔聚氨酯泡沫固定化效果最佳.在固定化生物反应器中同时产酶和降解壳聚糖,确定了菌体固定化的最佳条件为: 载体用量为0.4g载体/50 mL培养基、pH为5.0、摇瓶培养48h;在30℃、通气量为0.1m3/h条件下,连续进行18批同时产酶降解试验.结果发现,壳聚糖酶活力和壳聚糖降解效率保持稳定,每批产生的壳聚糖酶活力可达0.128 U/mL以上,壳聚糖的黏均分子量可以降解到4 kDa以下.

  5. Degradation and transformation of anthracene by white-rot fungus Armillaria sp. F022.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Rubiyatno; Chuang, Teh Zee; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Fulazzaky, Mohammad Ali; Seng, Bunrith; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2013-09-01

    Characterization of anthracene metabolites produced by Armillaria sp. F022 was performed in the enzymatic system. The fungal culture was conducted in 100-mL Erlenmeyer flask containing mineral salt broth medium (20 mL) and incubated at 120 rpm for 5-30 days. The culture broth was then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 45 min to obtain the extract. Additionally, the effect of glucose consumption, laccase activity, and biomass production in degradation of anthracene were also investigated. Approximately, 92 % of the initial concentration of anthracene was degraded within 30 days of incubation. Dynamic pattern of the biomass production was affected the laccase activity during the experiment. The biomass of the fungus increased with the increasing of laccase activity. The isolation and characterization of four metabolites indicated that the structure of anthracene was transformed by Armillaria sp. F022 in two routes. First, anthracene was oxidized to form anthraquinone, benzoic acid, and second, converted into other products, 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid and coumarin. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis also revealed that the molecular structure of anthracene was transformed by the action of the enzyme, generating a series of intermediate compounds such as anthraquinone by ring-cleavage reactions. The ligninolytic enzymes expecially free extracellular laccase played an important role in the transformation of anthracene during degradation period.

  6. Penicillium jejuense sp. nov., isolated from the marine environments of Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Houbraken, Jos; Sohn, Jae Hak; Hong, Seung-Beom; Lim, Young Woon

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of an unidentified Penicillium species were isolated during a fungal diversity survey of marine environments in Korea. These strains are described here as a new species following a multigene phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer barcodes (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), genes for β-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit, and observation of macro-and micromorphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the three strains formed a strongly supported monophyletic group distinct from previously reported species of section Aspergilloides. Morphologically this species can be distinguished from its sister species, P. crocicola, by the reverse color on Czapek yeast autolysate agar, abundant production of sclerotia on malt extract agar and colony characters on yeast extract sucrose agar. We name this new species P. jejuense, after the locality where it was discovered. At 25 C for 7 d, P. jejuense colonies grew to 55-60 mm on CYA, 45-48 mm on MEA, 48-52 mm on YES and 23-26 mm on CREA. Conidia (2.2-3.4 × 2.0-2.6 μm) and sclerotia (160-340 × 125-210 μm) were globose to ellipsoidal.

  7. Inhibition of Tumor Cells Interacting with Stromal Cells by Xanthones Isolated from a Costa Rican Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shugeng; McMillin, Douglas W.; Tamayo, Giselle; Delmore, Jake; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Clardy, Jon

    2012-01-01

    CR1642D, an endophytic isolate of Penicillium sp. collected from a Costa Rican rainforest, was identified through a high-throughput approach to identify natural products with enhanced anti-tumor activity in the context of tumor-stromal interactions. Bioassay-guided separation led to the identification of five xanthones (1-5) from CR1642D. The structures of the xanthone dimer penexanthone A (1) and monomer penexanthone B (2) were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR experiments. All of the compounds were tested against a panel of tumor cell lines in the presence and absence of bone marrow stromal cells. Compound 3 was the most active, with IC50 values of 1~17 μM, and its activity was enhanced two-fold against tumor cell line RPMI8226 in the presence of stromal cells (IC50 1.2 μM, but 2.4 μM without stromal cells). PMID:22458669

  8. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C; Houbraken, Jos; Popma, Suuske; Samson, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181(T)  = IBT 6005(T)  = IMI 30428(T) ) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192(T)  = IBT 22220(T) ) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate conidiophores with echinulate thick-walled conidia and produce the extrolites asperphenamate, citreoisocoumarin, communesin A and B, asperentin and 5'-hydroxy-asperentin. Penicillium spathulatum is unique in having restricted colonies on Czapek yeast agar (CYA) with an olive grey reverse, good growth on CYA supplemented with 5% NaCl, terverticillate bi- and ter-ramulate conidiophores and consistently produces the extrolites benzomalvin A and D and asperphenamate. The two new species belong to Penicillium section Brevicompacta and are phylogenetically closely related to Penicillium tularense. With exception of Penicillium fennelliae, asperphenamate is also produced by all other species in section Brevicompacta (P. tularense, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium bialowiezense, Penicillium olsonii, Penicillium astrolabium and Penicillium neocrassum). Both new species have a worldwide distribution. The new species were mainly isolated from indoor environments and food and feedstuffs. The fact that asperphenamate has been found in many widely different plants may indicate that endophytic fungi rather than the plants are the actual producers.

  9. The anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2 : Growth and production of (Hemi)cellulolytic enzymes on a range of carbohydrate substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkerman, R; Ledeboer, J; op den Camp, H.J M; Prins, R.A; van der Drift, C

    1997-01-01

    The anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2, isolated from the feces of a Ilama, was tested for growth on a range of soluble and insoluble carbohydrate substrates. The fungus was able to ferment glucose, cellobiose, fructose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, soluble starch, inulin, filter paper cell

  10. RNAi silencing of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase disrupts the ability of a filamentous fungus, Graphium sp. to grow on short-chain gaseous alkanes and ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400), a filamentous fungus, is one of the few eukaryotes that grows on short-chain alkanes and ethers. In this study, we investigated the genetic underpinnings that enable this fungus to catalyze the first step in the alkane and ether oxidation pathway. A gene, CYP52L1, was iden...

  11. The anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2 : Growth and production of (Hemi)cellulolytic enzymes on a range of carbohydrate substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkerman, R; Ledeboer, J; denCamp, HJMO; Prins, RA; vanderDrift, C

    1997-01-01

    The anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2, isolated from the feces of a Ilama, was tested for growth on a range of soluble and insoluble carbohydrate substrates. The fungus was able to ferment glucose, cellobiose, fructose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, soluble starch, inulin, filter paper cell

  12. Enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 production in liquid culture of endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 after treatments with metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Luo

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that the enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 accumulation in liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 by the metal ions and their combination should be an effective strategy.

  13. Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae); Substancias antifungicas de Xylaria sp., um fungo endofitico isolado de Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafeu, Mariana C.; Silva, Geraldo H.; Teles, Helder L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia

    2005-11-15

    Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

  14. Thorium(IV) removal from aqueous medium by citric acid treated mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. #ZZF51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S K; Tan, N; Yan, X M; Chen, F; Long, W; Lin, Y C

    2013-09-15

    Thorium(IV) biosorption is investigated by citric acid treated mangrove endophytic fungus Fussarium sp. #ZZF51 (CA-ZZF51) from South China Sea. The biosorption process was optimized at pH 4.5, equilibrium time 90 min, initial thorium(IV) concentration 50 mg L(-1) and adsorbent dose 0.6 g L(-1) with 90.87% of removal efficiency and 75.47 mg g(-1) of adsorption capacity, which is obviously greater than that (11.35 mg g(-1)) of the untreated fungus Fussarium sp. #ZZF51 for thorium(IV) biosorption under the condition of optimization. The experimental data are analyzed by using isotherm and kinetic models. Kinetic data follow the pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium data agree very well with the Langmuir model. In addition, FTIR analysis indicates that hydroxyl, amino, and carbonyl groups act as the important roles in the adsorption process.

  15. The Mechanism of Ethylene Signaling Induced by Endophytic Fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 Mediating Sesquiterpenoids Biosynthesis in Atractylodes lancea

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene, the first known gaseous phytohormone, is involved in plant growth, development as well as responses to environmental signals. However, limited information is available on the role of ethylene in endophytic fungi induced secondary metabolites biosynthesis. Atractylodes lancea is a traditional Chinese herb, and its quality depends on the main active compounds sesquiterpenoids. This work showed that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 induced ethylene production in Atractylodes ...

  16. Three New Butenolides from the Fungus Aspergillus sp. CBS-P-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new butenolides aspernolides H–J (1–3 together with seven known ones (4–10 were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus sp. CBS-P-2. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data, HR-ESI-MS analysis, and their absolute configuration were determined by circular dichroism (CD analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for the antioxidant effects by DPPH and ABTS methods, the antitumor activities against four human tumor cell lines (HL-60, ASPC1, HCT-116 and PC-3 and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 4–10 showed significant activity against DPPH (IC50 = 15.9–34.3 μM and compounds 1–10 exhibited significant ABTS free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 2.8–33.1 μM. Compounds 2, 5 and 11 showed potent cytotoxic activities against HL-60 cell lines with IC50 values of 39.4, 13.2 and 16.3 μM, respectively. Compound 10 showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 21.3 μM.

  17. Three New Butenolides from the Fungus Aspergillus sp. CBS-P-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiao; Pei, Yuehu; Chen, Shaofei; Li, Shengge; Hu, Xiaolong; Chen, Gang; Lin, Bin; Wang, Haifeng

    2016-10-13

    Three new butenolides aspernolides H-J (1-3) together with seven known ones (4-10) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus sp. CBS-P-2. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data, HR-ESI-MS analysis, and their absolute configuration were determined by circular dichroism (CD) analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for the antioxidant effects by DPPH and ABTS methods, the antitumor activities against four human tumor cell lines (HL-60, ASPC1, HCT-116 and PC-3) and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 4-10 showed significant activity against DPPH (IC50 = 15.9-34.3 μM) and compounds 1-10 exhibited significant ABTS free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 2.8-33.1 μM). Compounds 2, 5 and 11 showed potent cytotoxic activities against HL-60 cell lines with IC50 values of 39.4, 13.2 and 16.3 μM, respectively. Compound 10 showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 21.3 μM.

  18. Kretzschmaria quercicola sp. nov., an Undescribed Fungus from Living Oak in Mt. Daeryong, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ji Ho; Jo, Jong Won; Lee, Jin Heung; Han, Sang Kuk; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2016-06-01

    We encountered an unfamiliar ascomycete fruiting body, fitting characteristics of the genus Kretzschmaria, which features in a stipitate ascigerous stroma with carbonaceous interior and disintegrating perithecia. In this study, we report and characterize a new species of the decaying fungus. Compared to other species, one of the notable features of this specimen (TPML150908-046) is its stromatal size (up to 15 cm). Although TPML150908-046 is morphologically similar to K. milleri and K. sandvicensis, it differs sharply from both species in apical ring size (TPML150908-046, 6.5~10.5 µm; K. milleri, 11~16 µm) and ascospore width (TPML150908-046, 10.5~17 µm; K. sandvicensis, 8.5~11.5 µm). Phylogenetic trees based on β-tubulin, ITS, and RPB2 sequences showed that our collection clustered with K. sandvicensis, with the respective similarities for these sequences being 95.6%, 91.3%, and 97.7%, signifying it as another species. With these results, we report it as a new species, which we call Kretzschmaria quercicola sp. nov.

  19. Antarctomyces pellizariae sp. nov., a new, endemic, blue, snow resident psychrophilic ascomycete fungus from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Graciéle C A; Godinho, Valéria M; Porto, Bárbara A; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Rosa, Luiz H

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we have identified and characterised a new snow resident ascomycete blue stain fungus from Antarctica named Antarctomyces pellizariae sp. nov. Menezes, Godinho, Porto, Gonçalves and Rosa, using polyphasic taxonomy techniques. This fungal species was recovered from the seasonal snow of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctomyces pellizariae displayed different macro- and micromorphology when compared with A. psychrotrophicus Stchigel and Guarro, the only other Antarctomyces species reported until date. Antarctomyces pellizariae showed psychrophilic behavior and very low growth rate at 22-25 °C, quite different from A. psychrotrophicus that has a higher growth rate at mesophilic temperatures. In addition, micromorphological characteristics and the analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and RNA polymerase II regions revealed that A. pellizariae is a new species that is related to A. psychrotrophicus and Thelebolus species. Since the Antarctic Peninsula is reported to be one of the main regions of the earth experiencing the effects of global change in climate, species, such as A. pellizariae, might provide information about these effects on the endemic Antarctic biota. In addition, A. pellizariae displayed psychrophilic behavior and might be a source of interesting anti-freeze compounds that might prove useful in biotechnological processes.

  20. Immobilization of Lipase from Penicillium sp. Section Gracilenta (CBMAI 1583 on Different Hydrophobic Supports: Modulation of Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F. M. Turati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are promising enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol ester bonds at the oil/water interface. Apart from allowing biocatalyst reuse, immobilization can also affect enzyme structure consequently influencing its activity, selectivity, and stability. The lipase from Penicillium sp. section Gracilenta (CBMAI 1583 was successfully immobilized on supports bearing butyl, phenyl, octyl, octadecyl, and divinylbenzyl hydrophobic moieties wherein lipases were adsorbed through the highly hydrophobic opened active site. The highest activity in aqueous medium was observed for the enzyme adsorbed on octyl support, with a 150% hyperactivation regarding the soluble enzyme activity, and the highest adsorption strength was verified with the most hydrophobic support (octadecyl Sepabeads, requiring 5% Triton X-100 to desorb the enzyme from the support. Most of the derivatives presented improved properties such as higher stability to pH, temperature, and organic solvents than the covalently immobilized CNBr derivative (prepared under very mild experimental conditions and thus a reference mimicking free-enzyme behavior. A 30.8- and 46.3-fold thermostabilization was achieved in aqueous medium, respectively, by the octyl Sepharose and Toyopearl butyl derivatives at 60 °C, in relation to the CNBr derivative. The octyl- and phenyl-agarose derivatives retained 50% activity after four and seven cycles of p-nitrophenyl palmitate hydrolysis, respectively. Different derivatives exhibited different properties regarding their properties for fish oil hydrolysis in aqueous medium and ethanolysis in anhydrous medium. The most active derivative in ethanolysis of fish oil was the enzyme adsorbed on a surface covered by divinylbenzyl moieties and it was 50-fold more active than the enzyme adsorbed on octadecyl support. Despite having identical mechanisms of immobilization, different hydrophobic supports seem to promote different shapes of the adsorbed open

  1. Biological characteristics of strain F603 of Epicoccom sp.,an antagonistic fungus for controlling Phytophthora infestans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoyun; HU Tongle; CAO Keqiang

    2007-01-01

    Factors influencing vegetative growth and spore germination of strain F603 of Epicoccom sp.,an antagonistic fungus for Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary,were studied.Among the different growth media tested,Rye agar was the best medium for its vegetative growth.The range of temperature and pH value for mycelial growth was 5-35℃ and 2-12,respectively,with the optimum 25℃ and 6-9,respectively.The fungus grew better in Czapek medium with maltose and dextrose as carbon sources and peptone,KNO3,and NaNO3 as nitrogen sources.The range of temperature for spore germination of strain F603 was 5-35℃,the optimum was 20℃.The range of temperature for sporulation was 10-30℃,and the optimum was 15-18℃.

  2. Four new steroids from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. M453 derived of Chinese herbal medicine Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei-Xue; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yao; Yang, Yin-He; Li, Guo-Hong; Zhao, Pei-Ji

    2017-03-01

    An endophytic fungus, Chaetomium sp. M453, was isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. and subjected to phytochemical investigation. Three unusual C25 steroids, neocyclocitrinols E-G (1-3), and 3β-hydroxy-5,9-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4) together with three known steroids were isolated from solid fermentation products of the fungus, which were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS experiments. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD analyses. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of compounds 1-4 were tested in vitro. Compound 4 showed weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  3. Soudanones A-G: Antifungal Isochromanones from the Ascomycetous Fungus Cadophora sp. Isolated from an Iron Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusman, Yudi; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A; Wittlin, Sergio; Salomon, Christine E

    2015-06-26

    One new isochromane (pseudoanguillosporin C, 2), seven isochromanones (soudanones A-G, 3-9), and six known analogues including 10 and 11 were isolated from a culture of the fungus Cadophora sp. 10-5-2 M, collected from the subterranean 10th level of the Soudan Underground Iron Mine in Minnesota. All of the compounds were tested against a panel of microbial pathogens, and 2, 3, 10, and 11 were found to have activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC = 35, 40, 20, and 30 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 11 was also active against Candida albicans, with an MIC of 40 μg/mL.

  4. Stimulation of Ligninolytic Peroxidase Activity by Nitrogen Nutrients in the White Rot Fungus Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55

    OpenAIRE

    Kaal, Erwin E. J.; de Jong, Ed; Field, Jim A.

    1993-01-01

    Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55, a newly isolated wild-type white rot fungus, produced lignin peroxidase (LiP) in nitrogen (N)-sufficient glucose-peptone medium, whereas no LiP was detectable in N-limited medium. The production of LiP was induced by the peptide-containing components of this medium and also by soy bean protein. Furthermore, the production of manganese-dependent peroxidase was stimulated by organic N sources, although lower production was also evident in N-limited medium. Further ...

  5. Aspergilones A and B, two benzylazaphilones with an unprecedented carbon skeleton from the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Chang Lun

    2011-01-01

    Two novel benzylazaphilone derivatives with an unprecedented carbon skeleton, aspergilone A (1), and its symmetrical dimer with a unique methylene bridge, aspergilone B (2), have been isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. from a gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. Their structures and relative stereochemistries of 1 and 2 were elucidated using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 not only exhibited in vitro selective cytotoxicity but also showed potent antifouling activity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Australasian sequestrate fungi 18: Solioccasus polychromus gen. & sp. nov., a richly colored, tropical to subtropical, hypogeous fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, James M; Castellano, Michael A; Halling, Roy E; Osmundson, Todd W; Binder, Manfred; Fechner, Nigel; Malajczuk, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Solioccasus polychromus gen. & sp. nov., the most brightly colored hypogeous fungus known, is described from Papua New Guinea and tropical northern Australia south into subtropical forests along the Queensland coast and coastal mountains to near Brisbane. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular data places it as a sister genus to Bothia in the Boletineae, a clade of predominantly ectomycorrhizal boletes. Ectomycorrhizal trees, such as members of the Myrtaceae (Eucalyptus, Corymbia, Lophostemon, Melaleuca spp.) and Allocasuarina littoralis, were present usually in mixture or in some cases dominant, so we infer some or all of them to be among the ectomycorrhizal hosts of S. polychromus.

  7. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as ...

  8. Biological activity of the mite Sancassania sp. (Acari: Acaridae from bat guano associated with the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Estrada-Bárcenas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mites and the mammal pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum are the major components of bat guano microbiota. Interactions between mites and H. capsulatum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Acarid mites, mainly Sancassania sp., were the most abundant microarthropod in the sampled guano of the Mexican bat Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana and, based on its morphology, Sancassania sp. was similar to the cosmopolitan species Sancassania sphaerogaster. The mycophagous and vectoring activities of this mite were tested for H. capsulatum and two other fungal species, Sporothrix schenckii (pathogenic and Aspergillus sclerotiorum (non-pathogenic. S. ca. sphaerogaster was able to reproduce in H. capsulatum and S. schenckii colonies, multiplying in great numbers under controlled fungal mycelial-phase culture conditions. H. capsulatum colonies were completely destroyed after 14 days of in vitro interaction with mites. In contrast, S. ca. sphaerogaster did not reproduce in A. sclerotiorum cultures. S. ca. sphaerogaster was found vectoring H. capsulatum, but not the two other fungal species studied.

  9. (±-Pestalachloride D, an Antibacterial Racemate of Chlorinated Benzophenone Derivative from a Soft Coral-Derived Fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Deng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new antibacterial chlorinated benzophenone derivative, (±-pestalachloride D (1, along with a related analog, (±-pestalachloride C (2, was recently isolated from the marine-derived fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. isolated from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from Yongxing Island in the South China Sea. Both chiral HPLC analysis and single-crystal X-ray data indicated that 1 is a racemic mixture. Interestingly, 1 did not exhibit any effect in the zebrafish embryo teratogenicity assay, while 2 led to abnormal growth. The potential impact on zebrafish embryo growth is discussed based on their crystal structures. The main difference of crystal structures between 1 and 2 is that the six-member non-aromatic ring (O4, C10, C9, C8, C2′, and C3′ in 1 exhibits a distorted chair conformation, while 2 shows a distorted boat conformation. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited moderate antibacterial activity.

  10. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  11. Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes by White-Rot Fungus Datronia sp. KAPI0039 and Their Application for Reactive Dye Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilanee Vaithanomsat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on decolorization of 2 reactive dyes; Reactive Blue 19 (RBBR and Reactive Black 5 (RB5, by selected white-rot fungus Datronia sp. KAPI0039. The effects of reactive dye concentration, fungal inoculum size as well as pH were studied. Samples were periodically collected for the measurement of color unit, Laccase (Lac, Manganese Peroxidase (MnP, and Lignin Peroxidase (LiP activity. Eighty-six percent of 1,000 mg L−1 RBBR decolorization was achieved by 2% (w/v Datronia sp. KAPI0039 at pH 5. The highest Lac activity (759.81 UL−1 was detected in the optimal condition. For RB5, Datronia sp. KAPI0039 efficiently performed (88.01% decolorization at 2% (w/v fungal inoculum size for the reduction of 600 mg L−1 RB5 under pH 5. The highest Lac activity (178.57 UL−1 was detected, whereas the activity of MnP and LiP was absent during this hour. The result, therefore, indicated that Datronia sp. KAPI0039 was obviously able to breakdown both reactive dyes, and Lac was considered as a major lignin-degradation enzyme in this reaction.

  12. Phenolic Polyketides from the Co-Cultivation of Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 and Streptomyces fradiae 007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 was co-cultured with Streptomyces fradiae 007 to produce five natural products (1–3, 4a and 4b that were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. Interestingly, these compounds were found to be different from those produced in discrete fungal and bacterial controls. Among these compounds, the absolute configurations of compounds 4a and 4b were determined for the first time by X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments and electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculations. An evaluation of the cytotoxic activities of these compounds revealed that 4b was moderately cytotoxic towards HL-60 and H1975 tumor cells with IC50 values of 3.73 and 5.73 µM, respectively, whereas compound 4a was only moderately cytotoxic towards H1975 cells with an IC50 value of 3.97 µM.

  13. Phenolic polyketides from the co-cultivation of marine-derived Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 and Streptomyces fradiae 007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Liping; Zhuang, Yibin; Kong, Fandong; Zhang, Cuixian; Zhu, Weiming

    2014-04-04

    Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 was co-cultured with Streptomyces fradiae 007 to produce five natural products (1-3, 4a and 4b) that were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. Interestingly, these compounds were found to be different from those produced in discrete fungal and bacterial controls. Among these compounds, the absolute configurations of compounds 4a and 4b were determined for the first time by X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. An evaluation of the cytotoxic activities of these compounds revealed that 4b was moderately cytotoxic towards HL-60 and H1975 tumor cells with IC₅₀ values of 3.73 and 5.73 µM, respectively, whereas compound 4a was only moderately cytotoxic towards H1975 cells with an IC₅₀ value of 3.97 µM.

  14. Peniciadametizine A, a Dithiodiketopiperazine with a Unique Spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] Skeleton, and a Related Analogue, Peniciadametizine B, from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Penicillium adametzioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mándi, Attila; Li, Xiao-Ming; Meng, Ling-Hong; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2015-06-05

    Peniciadametizine A (1); a new dithiodiketopiperazine derivative possessing a unique spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] skeleton, together with a highly oxygenated new analogue, peniciadametizine B (2); as well as two known compounds, brasiliamide A (3); and viridicatumtoxin (4), were isolated and identified from Penicillium adametzioides AS-53, a fungus obtained from an unidentified marine sponge. The unambiguous assignment of the relative and absolute configuration for the spiro center C-2 of compound 1 was solved by the combination of NMR and ECD measurements with Density-Functional Theory (DFT) conformational analysis and Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory-Electronic Circular Dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations. The spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] skeleton of 1 has not been reported yet among natural products and the biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was discussed. Compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity against the pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicae.

  15. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  16. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  17. Biolistic transformation of the obligate plant pathogenic fungus, Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, S.K.; Knudsen, S.; Giese, H.

    1995-01-01

    Particle gun acceleration appears to be a possible way to transform mycelium cells of obligate plant parasites growing on host surfaces, GUS expression was obtained in E. graminis f.sp. hordei cells after bombardment with the GUS gene under the control of the E. graminis f.sp. hordei beta...

  18. Substrate Interactions during the Biodegradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenze, and Xylene (BTEX) Hydrocarbons by the Fungus Cladophialophora sp. Strain T1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta-Boldú, F.X.; Vervoort, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2002-01-01

    The soil fungus Cladophialophora sp. strain T1 (= ATCC MYA-2335) was capable of growth on a model water-soluble fraction of gasoline that contained all six BTEX components (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylene isomers). Benzene was not metabolized, but the alkylated benzenes (toluene, ethy

  19. INFLUENCE OF METRONIDAZOLE, CO, CO2, AND METHANOGENS ON THE FERMENTATIVE METABOLISM OF THE ANAEROBIC FUNGUS NEOCALLIMASTIX SP STRAIN L2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; REES, E; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    The effects of metronidazole, CO, methanogens, and CO, on the fermentation of glucose by the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2 were investigated. Both metronidazole and CO caused a shift in the fermentation products from predominantly H-2, acetate, and formate to lactate as the major

  20. Substrate Interactions during the Biodegradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenze, and Xylene (BTEX) Hydrocarbons by the Fungus Cladophialophora sp. Strain T1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta-Boldú, F.X.; Vervoort, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2002-01-01

    The soil fungus Cladophialophora sp. strain T1 (= ATCC MYA-2335) was capable of growth on a model water-soluble fraction of gasoline that contained all six BTEX components (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylene isomers). Benzene was not metabolized, but the alkylated benzenes (toluene, ethy

  1. Biological control of Cucurbita pepo var texana (Texas gourd) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) with the fungus Fusarium solani f sp Cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate various formulations and application methods of the fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae (FSC) for controlling Texas gourd (Cucurbita pepo var. texana) in cotton (Gosssypium hirsutum). In greenhouse tests, Texas gourd was controlled 93% and 96%, respective...

  2. INFLUENCE OF METRONIDAZOLE, CO, CO2, AND METHANOGENS ON THE FERMENTATIVE METABOLISM OF THE ANAEROBIC FUNGUS NEOCALLIMASTIX SP STRAIN L2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; REES, E; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    1993-01-01

    The effects of metronidazole, CO, methanogens, and CO, on the fermentation of glucose by the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2 were investigated. Both metronidazole and CO caused a shift in the fermentation products from predominantly H-2, acetate, and formate to lactate as the major pro

  3. Citocalasinas produzidas por Xylaria sp., um fungo endofítico de Piper aduncum (piperaceae Cytochalasins produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo H. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical study on the EtOAc extract produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum, resulted in the isolation of a new cytochalasin 1, along with five known 19,20-epoxycytochalasin D (2, C (3, N (4, Q (5, and R (6. The 1-6 were evaluated against the fungi C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum and only 5 showed weak activity. The cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLA and CHO cells lines were investigated and the cytochalasins 2-4, and 6 showed a strong activity against HeLA. The DNAdamaging activity of 1-6 were also investigated against mutant strains of S. cerevisiae.

  4. A Copper Coordination Compound Produced by a Marine Fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 with Biosorption of Cu(Ⅱ) Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ni; PAN Jia-Hui; PENG Guang-Tian; MOU Cheng-Bo; TAO Yi-Wen; SHE Zhi-Gang; YANG Ze-Liang; ZHOU Shi-Ning; LIN Yong-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    A copper coordination compound ZZF51 (A) named bis(5-butyl-2-pyridinecarboxylato-N1,O2)-copper, the first time found in the nature, was isolated from a marine endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 from the South China Sea coast. Its structure was elucidated using spectroscopic methods and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.The antimicrobial cytotoxicity experiments exhibited that ZZF51(A) had mutagenicity activities against four aerobic reference strains Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis with respective MIC values of 12.5, 25, 12.5, and 50 μg/mL. The anti-cancer tests showed that the compound had strong inhibitory activities against three human cancer lines KB, KBv200, and HepG2 with IC50 values of 3.54, 3.68 and 25.12 μg/mL respectively. In the course of investigating the source of ZZF51(A) in biomass, it was found that the output of ZZF51(A) was largely influenced by the amount of CuCl2 in the liquid medium, and the fungus (No.ZZF51) had two notable characteristics: endurance of high concentration Cu(Ⅱ) ions and biosorption of Cu(Ⅱ) ions.

  5. New Dimeric Members of the Phomoxanthone Family: Phomolactonexanthones A, B and Deacetylphomoxanthone C Isolated from the Fungus Phomopsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ding

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new phomoxanthone compounds, phomolactonexanthones A (1, B (2 and deacetylphomoxanthone C (3, along with five known phomoxanthones, including dicerandrol A (4, dicerandrol B (5, dicerandrol (6, deacetylphomoxanthone B (7 and penexanthone A (8, were isolated in the metabolites of the fungus Phomopsis sp. HNY29-2B, which was isolated from the mangrove plants. The structures of compounds 1–3 were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. All compounds were evaluated against four human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human colon HCT-116, human lung Calu-3 and human liver Huh7 by MTT assay. The compounds 4, 5, 7 and 8 showed cyctotoxic activities against tested cancer cell lines (IC50 < 10 μM.

  6. Bioactive 7-Oxabicyclic[6.3.0]lactam and 12-Membered Macrolides from a Gorgonian-Derived Cladosporium sp. Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One new bicyclic lactam, cladosporilactam A (1, and six known 12-membered macrolides (2–7 were isolated from a gorgonian-derived Cladosporium sp. fungus collected from the South China Sea. Their complete structural assignments were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic investigation. Quantum chemistry calculations were used in support of the structural determination of 1. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by calculation of its optical rotation. Cladosporilactam A (1 was the first example of 7-oxabicyclic[6.3.0]lactam obtained from a natural source. Compound 1 exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against cervical cancer HeLa cell line with an IC50 value of 0.76 μM.

  7. Asteltoxins with Antiviral Activities from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qi Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new asteltoxins named asteltoxin E (2 and F (3, and a new chromone (4, together with four known compounds were isolated from a marine sponge–derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40. The structures of the compounds (1–7 were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, and HRESIMS spectrometry. All the compounds were tested for their antiviral (H1N1 and H3N2 activity. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant activity against H3N2 with the prominent IC50 values of 6.2 ± 0.08 and 8.9 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. In addition, compound 2 also exhibited inhibitory activity against H1N1 with an IC50 value of 3.5 ± 1.3 μM.

  8. Lethality of cytochalasin B and other compounds isolated from fungus Aspergillus sp. (Trichocomaceae) endophyte of Bauhinia guianensis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, André de O; Dias, Amanda Cristina S; Ramos, Gisele da C; Bitencourt, Heriberto R; Siqueira, José Edson S; Marinho, Patrícia Santana B; Barison, Andersson; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Marinho, Andrey Moacir do R

    Endophytic fungi are fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants; several biologically active compounds have been isolated from these fungi. There are few studies of compounds isolated from endophytic fungi of Amazon plants. Thus, this study aimed the isolation and structural identification of ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), mevalonolactone (3), cytochalasin B (4) and cytochalasin H (5) from Aspergillus sp. EJC 04, an endophytic fungus from Bauhinia guianensis. The cytochalasin B (4) and the diacetate derivative of cytochalasin B (4a) showed high lethality in the brine shrimp assay. This is the first occurrence of cytochalasins in Amazonian endophytic fungi from B. guianensis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-respiratory syncytial virus prenylated dihydroquinolone derivatives from the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. XS-20090B15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Shao, Chang-Lun; Meng, Hong; She, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-12-26

    Two new prenylated dihydroquinolone derivatives, 22-O-(N-Me-l-valyl)aflaquinolone B (1) and 22-O-(N-Me-l-valyl)-21-epi-aflaquinolone B (2), and two known analogues, aflaquinolones A (3) and D (or a diastereomer of D, 4), were isolated from the mycelia of a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, ECD spectra, Marfey's method, and chemical conversion. Compounds 1 and 2 display an unusual esterification of N-Me-l-Val to the side-chain prenyl group. Compound 2 exhibited outstanding anti-RSV activity with an IC50 value of 42 nM, approximately 500-fold stronger than that of the positive control ribavirin (IC50 = 20 μM), and showed a comparatively higher therapeutic ratio (TC50/IC50 = 520).

  10. Asteltoxins with Antiviral Activities from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong-Qi; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Qin, Xiao-Chu; Kaliyaperumal, Kumaravel; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-12-26

    Two new asteltoxins named asteltoxin E (2) and F (3), and a new chromone (4), together with four known compounds were isolated from a marine sponge-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIO XWS02F40. The structures of the compounds (1-7) were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, and HRESIMS spectrometry. All the compounds were tested for their antiviral (H1N1 and H3N2) activity. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant activity against H3N2 with the prominent IC50 values of 6.2 ± 0.08 and 8.9 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. In addition, compound 2 also exhibited inhibitory activity against H1N1 with an IC50 value of 3.5 ± 1.3 μM.

  11. Development of SSR Markers for a Phytopathogenic Fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, Using a FIASCO Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng; XUE Fei; YANG Peng; DUAN Xia-yu; ZHOU Yi-lin; SHEN Chong-yao; ZHANG Guo-zhen; WANG Bao-tong

    2014-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) have been widely used as molecular markers due to their abundance and high polymorphism. However, up to now, the SSR markers had not been developed in the obligate biotrophic phytopathogenic fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. From (AC)10 and (AG)10 enriched genomic libraries for Bgt, 25 primer pairs were designed using the FIASCO (fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats) protocol. Five primer pairs exhibited polymorphism with allelic diversity from two to seven alleles and produced 29 alleles in a survey of 90 isolates collected from six provinces (cities) in China, while the others displayed monomorphic. Levels of observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.000-0.044 (mean 0.025) and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.297-0.816 (mean 0.538). These molecular markers provide a novel source to genetic diversity assays and to genetic and physical mapping of Bgt. SSR markers of Bgt need to be further explored.

  12. Dimeric Naphthopyrones from Penicillium oxalicum,a Fungus Residing in Acrida cinerea%中华剑角蝗共生真菌Penicillium oxalicum中苯并吡喃酮二聚体类化合物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐帮; 邹坤; 郭玲芝; 刘呈雄; 程凡

    2014-01-01

    从中华剑角蝗肠道共生真菌Penicillium oxalicum的发酵产物中分离得到6个苯并吡喃酮二聚体类化合物,经波谱数据及理化性质分别鉴定为secalonic acid A (1)、asperpyrones A (2)、asperpyrones B(3)、asperpyrones C (4)、asperpyrones D(5)和aurasperone A(6).所有化合物均为首次从该属菌种中分离得到,其中化合物1对人肝癌细胞Hep G2具有显著的细胞毒活性,其IC50值为1.1 μM.

  13. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis sp. nov., a Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus from a Cedar Forest in Ibaraki, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Diene, Ousmane; Wang, Wei; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A dark septate fungus of Pseudosigmoidea, Hyphomycetes, was recovered from forest soil in Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. The isolate is characterized by pale to brown conidia with up to 8 septa measuring 68–132 × 4–7.9 μm. It is also unique in producing conidia borne by long conidogenious cells in agar medium with or without water, compared to P. cranei, which must be immersed in water to sporulate. Morphological analysis indicated that the isolate is distinct from P. cranei and is described as a...

  14. Effects of inorganic nitrogen sources on the production of PP-V [(10Z)-12-carboxyl-monascorubramine] and the Expression of the nitrate assimilation gene cluster by Penicillium sp. AZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Teppei; Umemura, Sara; Ota, Tamaki; Ogihara, Jun; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2012-01-01

    A fungal strain, Penicillium sp. AZ, produced the azaphilone Monascus pigment homolog when cultured in a medium composed of soluble starch, ammonium nitrate, yeast extract, and citrate buffer, pH 5.0. One of the typical features of violet pigment PP-V [(10Z)-12-carboxyl-monascorubramine] is that pyranoid oxygen is replaced with nitrogen. In this study, we found that ammonia and nitrate nitrogen are available for PP-V biosynthesis, and that ammonia nitrogen was much more effective than nitrate nitrogen. Further, we isolated nitrate assimilation gene cluster, niaD, niiA, and crnA, and analyzed the expression of these genes. The expression levels of all these genes increased with sodium nitrate addition to the culture medium. The results obtained here strongly suggest that Penicillium sp. AZ produced PP-V using nitrate in the form of ammonium reduced from nitrate through a bioprocess assimilatory reaction.

  15. Biological Evaluation of Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 of Justicia adhatoda L.: A Potential Candidate for Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nighat; Mukhtar, Usman; Ihsan-Ul-Haq; Ahmed Qazi, Muneer; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia

    2016-06-01

    The endophytes of medicinal plants, such as Justicia adhatoda L., represent a promising and largely underexplored domain that is considered as a repository of biologically active compounds. The aim of present study was isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant for the production of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds. Endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant were isolated from healthy plant parts and taxonomically characterized through morphological, microscopic, and 18S rDNA sequencing methods. The screening for bioactive metabolite production was achieved using ethyl acetate extracts, followed by the optimization of different parameters for maximum production of bioactive metabolites. Crude and partially purified extracts were used to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential. Out of six endophytic fungal isolates, Chaetomium sp. NF15 showed the most promising biological activity and was selected for detailed study. The crude ethyl acetate extract of NF15 isolate after cultivation under optimized culture conditions showed promising antimicrobial activity, with significant inhibition of the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (87%, n=42), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (> 85%, n = 41), and Candida albicans (62%, n = 24). The present study confirms the notion of selecting endophytic fungi of medicinal plant Justicia for the bioassay-guided isolation of its bioactive compounds, and demonstrates that endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 could be a potential source of bioactive metabolites.

  16. The Newly Isolated Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium sp. LK1 Produces Ascotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mo Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated five endophytic fungi from the roots of Capsicum annuum, Cucumis sativus and Glycine max. The culture filtrates (CF of these endophytes were screened on dwarf mutant rice (Waito-C and normal rice (Dongjin-byeo. Endophyte CAC-1A significantly inhibited the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo. Endophyte CAC-1A was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp. by sequencing the ITS rDNA region and phylogenetic analysis. The ethyl acetate fraction of Paraconiothyrium sp. suppressed the germination of Lactuca sativa and Echinochloa crus-galli seeds. The ethyl acetate fraction of the endophyte was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained the phytotoxic compound ascotoxin (1 which was characterized through NMR and GC/MS techniques. Ascotoxin revealed 100% inhibitory effects on seed germination of Echinochloa crus-galli. Compound (1 was isolated for the first time from Paraconiothyrium sp.

  17. Genome sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungus causing wilt disease on melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt disease on melon (Cucumis melo). The project is part of a large comparative study designed to explore the genetic composition and evolutionary origin of this group of horizontally ...

  18. Aspergillus hancockii sp. Nov., a biosynthetically talented fungus endemic to southeastern Australian soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitt, John I.; Lange, Lene; Lacey, Alastair E.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., classified in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi, was originally isolated from soil in peanut fields near Kumbia, in the South Burnett region of southeast Queensland, Australia, and has since been found occasionally from other substrates and locations in...

  19. Ermophilane sesquiterpenes from Hawaiian endophytic fungus Chaetoconis sp.FT087

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven sesquiterpene derivatives, including chaetopenoids A–F and dendryphiellin A1, and 6-methyl-(2E,4E, 6S) octadienoic acid were isolated from the culture broth of Chaetoconis sp. FT087. Their structures were determined through the analysis of HRMS and NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configur...

  20. Aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Gerald F; Yue, Qun; Chen, Li; Li, Yan; An, Zhiqiang; Frisvad, Jens C

    2016-03-01

    The invalidly published name Aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of Aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. Reinvestigation of this strain (Y-30462=DSMZ 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated that it is a distinct and novel species of Aspergillus sect. Nidulantes. The taxonomic novelty, Aspergillus mulundensis, is introduced for this historically important echinocandin-producing strain. The closely related A. nidulans FGSC A4 has one of the most extensively characterized secondary metabolomes of any filamentous fungus. Comparison of the full-genome sequences of DSMZ 5745 and FGSC A4 indicated that the two strains share 33 secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. These shared gene clusters represent ~45% of the total secondary metabolome of each strain, thus indicating a high level intraspecific divergence in terms of secondary metabolism.

  1. Symbiotic efficiency of autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and Brevibacillus sp. isolated from cadmium polluted soil under increasing cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivas, A.; Voeroes, I.; Biro, B.; Campos, E.; Barea, J.M.; Azcon, R

    2003-11-01

    Selected ubiquitous microorganisms are important components of Cd tolerance in plants. - The effect of inoculation with indigenous naturally occurring microorganisms [an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and rhizosphere bacteria] isolated from a Cd polluted soil was assayed on Trifolium repens growing in soil contaminated with a range of Cd. One of the bacterial isolate showed a marked PGPR effect and was identified as a Brevibacillus sp. Mycorrhizal colonization also enhanced Trifolium growth and N, P, Zn and Ni content and the dually inoculated (AM fungus plus Brevibacillus sp.) plants achieved further growth and nutrition and less Cd concentration, particularly at the highest Cd level. Increasing Cd level in the soil decreased Zn and Pb shoot accumulation. Coinoculation of Brevibacillus sp. and AM fungus increased shoot biomass over single mycorrhizal plants by 18% (at 13.6 mg Cd kg{sup -1}), 26% (at 33.0 mg Cd kg{sup -1}) and 35% (at 85.1 mg Cd kg{sup -1}). In contract, Cd transfer from soil to plants was substantially reduced and at the highest Cd level Brevibacillus sp. lowered this value by 37.5% in AM plants. Increasing Cd level highly reduced plant mycorrhization and nodulation. Strong positive effect of the bacterium on nodule formation was observed in all treatments. Results show that selected ubiquitous microorganisms, applied as enriched inocula, are important in plant Cd tolerance and development in Cd polluted soils.

  2. Synthesis of small silver nanoparticles under light radiation by fungus Penicillium oxalicum and its application for the catalytic reduction of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Liangwei, E-mail: dulily9@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangxi University, 100 Daxue Road, Nanning 530004, Guangxi (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, 100 Daxue Road, Nanning 530004, Guangxi (China); Xu, Qiuhong; Huang, Meiying [State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangxi University, 100 Daxue Road, Nanning 530004, Guangxi (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, 100 Daxue Road, Nanning 530004, Guangxi (China); Xian, Liang [State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangxi University, 100 Daxue Road, Nanning 530004, Guangxi (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Guangxi University, 100 Daxue Road, Nanning 530004, Guangxi (China); Feng, Jia-Xun, E-mail: jiaxunfeng@sohu.com [State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangxi University, 100 Daxue Road, Nanning 530004, Guangxi (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Guangxi University, 100 Daxue Road, Nanning 530004, Guangxi (China)

    2015-06-15

    At present, green and efficient synthetic strategies have been gaining great interest for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. In this study, the synthesis of extracellular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under light radiation was described using the cell filtrate of Penicillium oxalicum 1–208. The pH effect of the cell filtrate on nanosynthesis was investigated by visual observation, ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential. The results showed that the pH of the cell filtrate affected the time of nanosynthesis, and the size, size distribution and stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. The AgNPs synthesized at pH 8.0 and 12.0 were further characterized by X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape, crystalline in nature and preferentially oriented in (111) plane. Small AgNPs with an average particle size of about 4 nm were successfully synthesized at pH 12.0 and well dispersed in solution without obvious aggregation. Furthermore, the AgNPs synthesized at pH 8.0 were used as catalyst and exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of methylene blue in the presence of NaBH{sub 4} at ambient temperature. - Highlights: • Extracellular silver nanoparticles were synthesized using Penicillium oxalicum assisted by simulated sunlight. • The pH of the cell filtrate affected the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. • The silver nanoparticles were more stable in weakly alkaline and alkaline solutions. • Small silver nanoparticles with good dispersibility and stability were rapidly synthesized at pH 12.0. • The reduction of methylene blue was instantly completed with silver nanoparticles synthesized at pH 8.0 used as catalyst.

  3. Hesseltin A, a novel antiviral metabolite from Penicillium hesseltinei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phipps, Richard Kerry; Petersen, B.O.; Christensen, K.B.;

    2004-01-01

    Hesseltin A(1), a novel compound of mixed polyketide-terpenoid origins was isolated from the filamentous fungus Penicillium hesseltinei. The structure and stereochemistry were determined from extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectral data.......Hesseltin A(1), a novel compound of mixed polyketide-terpenoid origins was isolated from the filamentous fungus Penicillium hesseltinei. The structure and stereochemistry were determined from extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectral data....

  4. Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside C-K by endophytic fungus Arthrinium sp. GE 17-18 isolated from Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y; Yin, Z-H; Wu, L-P; Yin, C-R

    2016-09-01

    This research aimed to isolate β-glycosidase-producing endophytic fungus in Panax ginseng to achieve biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside C-K. Of these 15 β-glucosidase-producing endophytic fungus isolated from ginseng roots, a β-glucosidase-producing endophytic fungi GE 17-18 could hydrolyse major ginsenosides Rb1 to minor ginsenoside C-K with metabolic pathways: ginsenoside Rb1→ginsenoside Rd→ginsenoside F2→ginsenoside C-K. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS gene sequences indicated that the strain GE 17-18 belongs to the genus Arthrinium and is most closely related to Arthrinium sp. HQ832803.1. This is the first study to provide information of cultivable β-glycosidase-producing Endophytic fungus in Panax ginseng. The strain GE 17-18 has potential to be applied on the preparation for minor ginsenoside C-K in pharmaceutical industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Cytochalasin H2, a New Cytochalasin, Isolated from the Endophytic Fungus Xylaria sp. A23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new natural product, cytochalasin H2 (1, together with cytochalasin H (2 were obtained from the agar cultures of the strain Xylaria sp. A23, which was isolated from Annona squamosa. The chemical structures of them were elucidated by spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR FTMS. Compound 1 showed week cytotoxicity against HeLa and 293T cell lines by MTT assay.

  6. Decolorization of Remazol Briliant Blue R by Laccase from White Rot Fungus Polyporus sp. S133

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Hadibarata; Sanro Tachibana

    2015-01-01

    The decolourization of the recalcitrant dye RBBR by the culture filtrate of Polyporus sp. S133 and its isolatedlaccase was investigated. The laccase alone decolorized RBBR. A small molecular weight redox mediator (HBT) wasnecessary to increase the decolorization. The purified laccase totally decolorized the dye of 200 mg l-1 initialconcentration of RBBR when only 1.5 U ml-1 of laccase was used in the reaction mixture. The effects of differentphysicochemical parameters were tested and optimal ...

  7. Betagamma-dehydrocurvularin and related compounds as nematicides of Pratylenchus penetrans from the fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Miyako; Nakagami, Kazumi; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi; Kimura, Yasuo

    2003-06-01

    The new nematicidal compound, betagamma-dehydrocurvularin (1), together with three known compounds, alphabeta-dehydrocurvularin (2), 8-beta-hydroxy-7-oxocurvularin (3) and 7-oxocurvularin (4), were isolated from the culture filtrate and mycelial mats of Aspergillus sp. The structures of 1-4 were established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR. The biological activities of 1-4 were examined by bioassays with root-lesion nematodes, and lettuce and rice seedlings.

  8. Fluorene biodegradation and identification of transformation products by white-rot fungus Armillaria sp. F022.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu

    2014-06-01

    A diverse surfactant, including the nonionic Tween 80 and Brij 30, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate, the cationic surfactant Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and biosurfactant Rhamnolipid were investigated under fluorine-enriched medium by Armilaria sp. F022. The cultures were performed at 25 °C in malt extract medium containing 1 % of surfactant and 5 mg/L of fluorene. The results showed among the tested surfactants, Tween-80 harvested the highest cell density and obtained the maximum specific growth rate. This due Tween-80 provide a suitable carbon source for fungi. Fluorane was also successfully eliminated (>95 %) from the cultures within 30 days in all flasks. During the experiment, laccase production was the highest among other enzymes and Armillaria sp. F022-enriched culture containing Non-ionic Tween 80 showed a significant result for laccase activity (1,945 U/L). The increased enzyme activity was resulted by the increased biodegradation activity as results of the addition of suitable surfactants. The biotransformation of fluorene was accelerated by Tween 80 at the concentration level of 10 mg/L. Fluorene was initially oxidized at C-2,3 positions resulting 9-fluorenone. Through oxidative decarboxylation, 9-fluorenone subjected to meta-cleavage to form salicylic acid. One metabolite detected in the end of experiment, was identified as catechol. Armillaria sp. F022 evidently posses efficient, high effective degrader and potential for further application on the enhanced bioremediation technologies for treating fluorene-contaminated soil.

  9. Penicyrones A and B, an epimeric pair of α-pyrone-type polyketides produced by the marine-derived Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Ying-Yue; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Two polyketides containing an α-pyrone unit, named penicyrones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture broth of the marine-derived Penicillium sp. TPU1271 together with nine known compounds: verrucosidin (3), fructigenine A (4), verrucofortine (5), cyclo-(L-Trp-L-Phe) (6), cyclopenol (7), cyclopenin (8), penipratynolene (9), aspterric acid (10) and viridicatol (11). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by analyzing the spectroscopic data of 1, 2 and their O-acetyl derivatives (1a and 2a). Compounds 1 and 2 were epimers of each other at the C-9 position. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of NOESY data for 1, 2, 1a and 2a, a conformational analysis and the identity of the biogenetic pathway with verrucosidin (3). The planar structure of penicyrones was found in the SciFinder as a compound in the commercial chemical libraries; however, the stereostructure and spectroscopic data were not available. Therefore, this is the first study on the isolation and structure elucidation, including the absolute configurations, of penicyrones A (1) and B (2) as fungal metabolites. Compound 3 exhibited growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis at 40 μg per disc (inhibition zone of 11 mm). This is the first study to demonstrate that verrucosidin (3) exhibited anti-mycobacterial activity.

  10. A biosorption system for metal ions on Penicillium italicum - loaded on Sepabeads SP 70 prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendil, Durali; Tuzen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: msoylak@gmail.com

    2008-04-15

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) preconcentration system, coupled to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS), was developed for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II), manganese(II), iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions at the {mu}g L{sup -1} levels on Penicillium italicum - loaded on Sepabeads SP 70. The analytes were adsorbed on biosorbent at the pH range of 8.5-9.5. The adsorbed metals were eluted with 1 mol L{sup -1} HCl. The influences of the various analytical parameters including pH of the aqueous solutions, sample volume, flow rates were investigated for the retentions of the analyte ions. The recovery values are ranged from 95-102%. The influences of alkaline, earth alkaline and some transition metal ions were also discussed. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (3 s, n = 21) for analytes were in the range of 0.41 {mu}g L{sup -1} (cadmium) and 1.60 {mu}g L{sup -1} (iron). The standard reference materials (IAEA 336 Lichen, NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves) were analyzed to verify the proposed method. The method was successfully applied for the determinations of analytes in natural water, cultivated mushroom, lichen (Bryum capilare Hedw), moss (Homalothecium sericeum) and refined table salt samples.

  11. Effect of metal ions and redox mediators on decolorization of synthetic dyes by crude laccase from a novel white rot fungus Peniophora sp. (NFCCI-2131).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Shikha; Nill, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different metal ions and two redox mediators on laccase activity and laccase-catalyzed decolorization of five synthetic dyes was investigated in vitro using crude laccase from a novel white rot fungus Peniophora sp. (NFCCI-2131). The fungus effectively decolorized crystal violet and brilliant green on malt extract agar medium. Laccase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Na(+) Ca(2+), and Cu(2+). Among the different dyes tested, highest decolorization of crystal violet (96.30 %) was obtained in the presence of 1 mM ABTS followed by 86.01 % by HBT. The results conspicuously indicated that laccase from Peniophora sp. has the potential for color removal from textile dye effluent even in the presence of toxic metal ions.

  12. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities and Effect of 1-Hexadecene Addition on Palmarumycin C2 and C3 Yields in Liquid Culture of Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Mou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two spirobisnaphthalenes, namely palmarumycins C2 and C3, were isolated from cultures of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 after treatment with 1-hexadecene. After addition of 1-hexadecene at 10% to the medium on day 6 of culture, the maximal yields of palmarumycins C2 and C3 were obtained as 0.40 g/L and 1.19 g/L, which were 40.00 fold and 59.50 fold higher, respectively, in comparison with those of the control (0.01 g/L and 0.02 g/L. The results indicated that addition of 1-hexadecene can be an effective strategy for enhancing the production of palmarumycins C2 and C3 in liquid culture of endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. Palmarumycin C3 exhibited stronger antimicrobial and antioxidant activities than palmarumycin C2.

  13. New cytotoxic compounds of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naidan; Zhang, Chunyan; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Huang, Baokang

    2016-04-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of a culture of the endophytic fungus Alternaria species G7 in Broussonetia papyrifera, a new compound altertoxin IV (1) together with nine known compounds were isolated and identified by means of bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, among which the absolute configuration of compound 1, a new tetrahydroperylenone derivative, was determined by means of X-Ray Crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (A549, MG-63, and SMMC-7721). Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activities against tested cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.47, 2.11 and 7.34 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 4 also exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against cell lines MG-63 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 0.53 and 2.92 μg/mL. Endophytic fungi Alternaria from B. papyrifera might be promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites.

  14. The Structure of manganese oxide formed by the fungus Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratovsky, Ian; Gurr, Sarah J.; Hayward, Michael A.

    2009-06-01

    Manganese oxides are observed to form by the oxidation of aqueous solutions of Mn(II) catalyzed by the action of microorganisms. In contrast to the widely studied material produced by bacteria, manganese oxide phases produced by the action of fungi have received only limited attention. A detailed study of the MnO x material produced by the action of the fungus Acremonium KR21-2, utilizing X-ray diffraction, XANES, EXAFS and transmission electron microscopy is reported. The MnO x material is produced as small crystalline particles which adopt a todorokite-like tunnel structure, in striking contrast to previously reported microbial MnO x materials which adopt layered birnessite-type structures. ICPMS measurements reveal there are no templating metal ions present in the fungally mediated MnO x material, in contrast to analogous bacterially mediated material, suggesting these cations play a critical role in determining the structure of the material precipitated. A phylogenetic analysis places KR21-2 with other Acremonium species in the Hypocreales.

  15. Secondary Metabolites of Aspergillus sp. CM9a, an E ndophytic Fungus of Cephalotaxus mannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven compounds belonging to eight structure types, namely cyclopentenedione (1, diketopiperazines (2, 9, 10, lactone (3, benzophenone (4, 5, terpene (6, anthraquinone (7, diphenyl ethers (10, and alkaloid (11 were isolated from the cultivation extract of the strain Aspergillus sp. CM9a, which was isolated from the stems of Cephalotaxus mannii. Among them, compounds 1, 2, and 3 were determined to b e new ones on the basis of spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D - NMR experiments and HR Q-TOF MS. The structures of the eight known compounds were characterized based on their NMR data and by comparison with those reported.

  16. Methylthio-Aspochalasins from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two novel aspochalasins, 20-β-methylthio-aspochalsin Q (named as aspochalasin V, (1 and aspochalasin W (2, were isolated from culture broth of Aspergillus sp., which was found in the gut of a marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectral data analysis. This is the first report about methylthio-substituted aspochalasin derivatives. Cytotoxicity against the prostate cancer PC3 cell line and HCT116 cell line was assayed using the MTT method. Apochalasin V showed moderate activity at IC50 values of 30.4 and 39.2 μM, respectively.

  17. Ascochlorin derivatives from the leafhopper pathogenic fungus Microcera sp. BCC 17074.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Masahiko; Yangchum, Arunrat; Supothina, Sumalee; Laksanacharoen, Pattiyaa; Jennifer Luangsa-Ard, J; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L

    2015-01-01

    Two new ascochlorin derivatives, nectchlorins A (1) and B (2), together with eight known compounds (3-10), were isolated from cultures of the leafhopper pathogen Microcera sp. BCC 17074. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. The absolute configuration of 2 was determined by application of the modified Mosher's method. The absolute configuration of LL-Z 1272α epoxide (9), which is a plausible biosynthetic precursor of ascochlorins, was established by chemical correlations. Cytotoxic activities of these ascochlorin derivatives were evaluated.

  18. The influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp.: modeling of production kinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Li, Le; Peterson, Eric Charles; Ruan, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of improving the fungal production of flavonoids, the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp. P0988 was investigated by developing the corresponding kinetics of flavonoid production in a 7-L bioreactor. Phellinus sp. was confirmed to form flavonoids in pellets and broth when cultivated in basic medium, and the optimum concentration of NAA and coumarin in medium for flavonoid production were determined to be 0.03 and 0.02 g/L, respectively. The developed unstructured mathematical models were in good agreement with the experimental results with respect to flavonoid production kinetic profiles with NAA and coumarin supplementation at optimum levels and revealed significant accuracy in terms of statistical consistency and robustness. Analysis of these kinetic processes indicated that NAA and coumarin supplementations imposed a stronger positive influence on flavonoid production and substrate consumption compared to their effects on cell growth. The separate addition of NAA and coumarin resulted in enhancements in final product accumulation and productivity, achieving final flavonoid concentrations of 3.60 and 2.75 g/L, respectively, and glucose consumption showed a significant decrease compared to the non-supplemented control as well. Also, the separate presence of NAA and coumarin respectively decreased maintenance coefficients (M s) from 2.48 in the control to 1.39 and 0.22, representing decreases of 43.9 and 91.1 %, respectively. The current study is the first known application of mathematical kinetic models to explore the influence of medium components adding on flavonoid production by fungi.

  19. Decolorization of Remazol Briliant Blue R by Laccase from White Rot Fungus Polyporus sp. S133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hadibarata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The decolourization of the recalcitrant dye RBBR by the culture filtrate of Polyporus sp. S133 and its isolatedlaccase was investigated. The laccase alone decolorized RBBR. A small molecular weight redox mediator (HBT wasnecessary to increase the decolorization. The purified laccase totally decolorized the dye of 200 mg l-1 initialconcentration of RBBR when only 1.5 U ml-1 of laccase was used in the reaction mixture. The effects of differentphysicochemical parameters were tested and optimal decolorization rates occurred at pH 5 and at a temperature of 50°C. The effect of surfactants on the decolourization of RBBR was tested with Tween 80, Tween 20, and Brij 35. It wasdemonstrated that Tween 80 was inhibiting substrate for the decolorization while Tween 80 and Brij 35 was noinhibiting effect for the decolorization. Provided that all of the condition is included, it is suggested that laccase maybe suitable for the wastewater treatment of similar anthraquinone dyes.Keywords: Decolorization; Laccase; Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR; Polyporus sp. S133

  20. Deletion of PdMit1, a homolog of yeast Csg1, affects growth and Ca(2+) sensitivity of the fungus Penicillium digitatum, but does not alter virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Congyi; Wang, Weili; Wang, Mingshuang; Ruan, Ruoxin; Sun, Xuepeng; He, Meixian; Mao, Cungui; Li, Hongye

    2015-04-01

    GDP-mannose:inositol-phosphorylceramide (MIPC) and its derivatives are important for Ca(2+) sensitization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and for the virulence of Candida albicans, but its role in the virulence of plant fungal pathogens remains unclear. In this study, we report the identification and functional characterization of PdMit1, the gene encoding MIPC synthase in Penicillium digitatum, one of the most important pathogens of postharvest citrus fruits. To understand the function of PdMit1, a PdMit1 deletion mutant was generated. Compared to its wild-type control, the PdMit1 deletion mutant exhibited slow radial growth, decreased conidia production and delayed conidial germination, suggesting that PdMit1 is important for the growth of mycelium, sporulation and conidial germination. The PdMit1 deletion mutant also showed hypersensitivity to Ca(2+). Treatment with 250 mmol/l Ca(2+) induced vacuole fusion in the wild-type strain, but not in the PdMit1 deletion mutant. Treatment with 250mmol/lCaCl2 upregulated three Ca(2+)-ATPase genes in the wild-type strain, and this was significantly inhibited in the PdMit1 deletion mutant. These results suggest that PdMit1 may have a role in regulating vacuole fusion and expression of Ca(2+)-ATPase genes by controlling biosynthesis of MIPC, and thereby imparts P. digitatum Ca(2+) tolerance. However, we found that PdMit1 is dispensable for virulence of P. digitatum.

  1. Preparative Separation of Spirobisnaphthalenes from Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was applied for the first time for the preparative separation of spirobisnaphthalenes from a crude extract of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, associated with the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis. Six spirobisnaphthalenes were successfully separated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-chloroform-methanol-water (1.5:3.0:2.5:2.0, v/v. About 18.0 mg of diepoxin k (1, 245.7 mg of palmarumycin C13 (2, 42.4 mg of palmarumycin C16 (3, 42.2 mg of palmarumycin C15 (4, 32.6 mg of diepoxin δ (5, and 22.3 mg of diepoxin γ (6 with purities of 56.82, 71.39, 76.57, 75.86, 91.01 and 82.48%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, were obtained from 500 mg of the crude extract in a one-step elution within 7 h of separation procedure by HSCCC. The purified spirobisnaphthalenes were further structurally characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.

  2. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26–42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants.

  3. Decolorization of anthraquinone-type dye by bilirubin oxidase-producing nonligninolytic fungus Myrothecium sp. IMER1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Youxun; Yan, Keliang; Wu, Hangjun

    2007-08-01

    The decolorization of an anthraquinone dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), was carried out using a new isolated nonligninolytic fungus, strain Myrothecium sp. IMER1. In potato dextrose broth (PDB) containing RBBR, this strain was able to grow and decolorize the dye efficiently at pHs ranging from 4.0 to 9.0, and the optimal pH and temperature were pH 7.0 and 28 degrees C. A decolorization efficiency of approximately 90% was achieved by cultivation for 7 d at an initial dye concentration of 80 mg l(-1). The adsorption of the dye by cells was observed at the beginning of the decolorization, then the color became faint and finally disappeared when bilirubin oxidase (BOX) was released by the strain. Additionally, the visual observation and ultraviolet- visible (UV-VIS) spectral analysis demonstrated that decolorization involved biosorption and biodegradation. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude enzyme and purified BOX confirmed that BOX, which is an important extracellular oxidoreductase, played a major role in decolorization. Furthermore, purified BOX was demonstrated to degrade RBBR and other dyes by in vitro enzymatic experiments. Our results suggest that both the strain and its extracellular BOX have promising applications in dye effluent decolorization.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in Dendrobine Biosynthesis in Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Infected with Mycorrhizal Fungus MF23 (Mycena sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Ding, Gang; Li, Biao; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2017-03-22

    Content determination and microscopic observation proved that dendrobine accumulation in the stem of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. increased after infection with mycorrhizal fungus MF23 (Mycena sp.). Large-scale transcriptome sequencing of symbiotic and asymbiotic D. nobile revealed that 30 unigenes encoding proteins were possibly related to the biosynthesis of dendrobine sesquiterpene backbone. A qRT-PCR experiment of 16 unigenes, selected randomly, proved that there were significant changes in the expression levels of AACT, MVD, PMK and TPS21 at 9 weeks after inoculation. These results implied that MF23 might stimulate dendrobine biosynthesis by regulating the expressions of genes involved in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The biogenetic pathway of dendrobine was suggested systematically according to the structural features of dendrobine alkaloids and their sesquiterpene precursors, which implied that post-modification enzymes might play a major role in dendrobine biosynthesis. Thus, genes encoding post-modification enzymes, including cytochrome P450, aminotransferase and methyltransferase, were screened for their possible involvement in dendrobine biosynthesis. This study provides a good example of endophytes promoting the formation of bioactive compounds in their host and paves the way for further investigation of the dendrobine biosynthetic pathway.

  5. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26–42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants. PMID:27703209

  6. New p-terphenyls from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Wuringege; Li, Sui-Jun; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Wei, Wei; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Jiao, Rui-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Five new p-terphenyls named prenylterphenyllin D (1), prenylterphenyllin E (2), 2'-O-methylprenylterphenyllin (3), 4-O-methylprenylterphenyllin (4) and 3'-O-methylterphenyllin (5) together with seven known compounds (6-12), were isolated from cultures of Aspergillus sp. YXf3. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR analyses. The NMR and MS data of 5 is reported for the first time, as its structure was listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. Compounds 6 and 7 were distinguished from each other on the basis of 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 8 showed antibacterial activities against X. oryzae pv. oryzicola Swings and E. amylovora with the same MIC values of 20μg/mL while 10 exhibited activities against E. amylovora with an MIC value of 10μg/mL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioactive isopimarane diterpenes from the fungus, Epicoccum sp. HS-1, associated with Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xuekui; Qi, Jun; Liu, Yayue; Jia, Airong; Zhang, Yonggang; Liu, Changheng; Gao, Cuiling; She, Zhigang

    2015-03-02

    One new isopimarane diterpene (1), together with two known compounds, 11-deoxydiaporthein A (2) and iso-pimara-8(14),15-diene (3) were isolated from the culture of Epicoccum sp., which was associated with Apostichopus japonicus. Their structures were determined by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, as well as mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of Compound 1 was deduced by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment using CuKα radiation. In the bioactivity assay, both Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 4.6 ± 0.1 and 11.9 ± 0.4 μM, respectively. This was the first report on isopimarane diterpenes with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

  8. Diterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Botryosphaeria sp. P483 of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Huperzia serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Mei Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new tetranorlabdane diterpenoids, named botryosphaerins G (1 and H (2, were isolated from the solid fermentation products of Botryosphaeria sp. P483 along with seven known tetranorlabdane diterpenes (3–9. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS. Their absolute configuration was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses using the anomalous scattering of Cu Kα radiation. All of the isolated compounds were tested for activity against phytopathogenic fungi and nematodes. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antifungal activity and compound 2 showed weak nematicidal activity.

  9. Natural control of corn postharvest fungi Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. using essential oils from plants grown in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiletti, Boris X; Asensio, Claudia M; Pecci, María de la Paz Giménez; Lucini, Enrique I

    2014-12-01

    The objective in this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils from native and commercial aromatic plants grown in Argentina against corn postharvest fungi and to link the essential oil bioactivity with lipid oxidation and morphological changes in fungus cell membrane. Essential oil (EO) of oregano variety Mendocino (OMen), Cordobes (OCor), and Compacto (OCom), mint variety Inglesa (Mi), and Pehaujo (Mp), Suico (Sui); rosemary (Ro), and Aguaribay (Ag) were tested in vitro against 4 corn fungi: A. flavus (CCC116-83 and BXC01), P. oxalicum (083296), and P. minioluteum (BXC03). The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. The chemical profiles of the EOs were analyzed by GC-MS. Lipid oxidation in cell membrane of fungi was determined by hydroperoxides and related with essential oil antifungal activity. The major compounds were Thymol in OCor (18.66%), Omen (12.18%), and OCom (9.44%); menthol in Mi and Mp; verbenone in Sui; dehydroxy-isocalamendiol in Ag; and eucaliptol in Ro. OCor, Omen, and OCom showed the best antifungal activity. No antifungal activity was observed in Ag and Ro EO. The hydroperoxide value depended on the fungi (P fungi that produce mycotoxin in maize.

  10. Dicer-Dependent Biogenesis of Small RNAs and Evidence for MicroRNA-Like RNAs in the Penicillin Producing Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlmann, Tim A; Kück, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) that regulate gene expression in a wide range of eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed regulatory sRNAs in Penicillium chrysogenum, the industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin. To identify sRNAs and microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) on a global approach, two sRNA sequencing libraries were constructed. One library was created with pooled total RNA, obtained from twelve differently grown cultures (RNA Mix), and the other with total RNA from a single submerged cultivation (∆ku70FRT2). Illumina sequencing of both RNA libraries produced 84,322,825 mapped reads. To distinguish between Dicer-dependent and independent sRNA formation, we further constructed two single dicer gene mutants (∆dcl2 and ∆dcl1) and a dicer double mutant (∆dcl2∆dcl1) and analyzed an sRNA library from the Dicer-deficient double-mutant. We identified 661 Dicer-dependent loci and in silico prediction revealed 34 milRNAs. Northern blot hybridization of two milRNAs provided evidence for mature milRNAs that are processed either in a complete or partial Dicer-dependent manner from an RNA precursor. Identified milRNAs share typical characteristics of previously discovered fungal milRNAs, like a strong preference for a 5' uracil and the typical length distribution. The detection of potential milRNA target sites in the genome suggests that milRNAs might play a role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Our data will further increase our knowledge of sRNA dependent gene regulation processes, which is an important prerequisite to develop more effective strategies for improving industrial fermentations with P. chrysogenum.

  11. Dicer-Dependent Biogenesis of Small RNAs and Evidence for MicroRNA-Like RNAs in the Penicillin Producing Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A Dahlmann

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs that regulate gene expression in a wide range of eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed regulatory sRNAs in Penicillium chrysogenum, the industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin. To identify sRNAs and microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs on a global approach, two sRNA sequencing libraries were constructed. One library was created with pooled total RNA, obtained from twelve differently grown cultures (RNA Mix, and the other with total RNA from a single submerged cultivation (∆ku70FRT2. Illumina sequencing of both RNA libraries produced 84,322,825 mapped reads. To distinguish between Dicer-dependent and independent sRNA formation, we further constructed two single dicer gene mutants (∆dcl2 and ∆dcl1 and a dicer double mutant (∆dcl2∆dcl1 and analyzed an sRNA library from the Dicer-deficient double-mutant. We identified 661 Dicer-dependent loci and in silico prediction revealed 34 milRNAs. Northern blot hybridization of two milRNAs provided evidence for mature milRNAs that are processed either in a complete or partial Dicer-dependent manner from an RNA precursor. Identified milRNAs share typical characteristics of previously discovered fungal milRNAs, like a strong preference for a 5' uracil and the typical length distribution. The detection of potential milRNA target sites in the genome suggests that milRNAs might play a role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Our data will further increase our knowledge of sRNA dependent gene regulation processes, which is an important prerequisite to develop more effective strategies for improving industrial fermentations with P. chrysogenum.

  12. The mechanism of ethylene signaling induced by endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 mediating sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis in Atractylodes lancea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eYuan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene, the first known gaseous phytohormone, is involved in plant growth, development as well as responses to environmental signals. However, limited information is available on the role of ethylene in endophytic fungi induced secondary metabolites biosynthesis. Atractylodes lancea is a traditional Chinese herb, and its quality depends on the main active compounds sesquiterpenoids. This work showed that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 induced ethylene production in Atractylodes lancea. Pre-treatment of plantlets with ethylene inhibiter aminooxyacetic acid (AOA suppressed endophytic fungi induced accumulation of ethylene and sesquiterpenoids. Plantlets were further treated with AOA, salicylic acid (SA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC, jasmonic acid inhibitor ibuprofen (IBU, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 scavenger catalase (CAT, nitric oxide (NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO. With endophytic fungi inoculation, IBU or PAC did not inhibit ethylene production, and JA and SA generation were suppressed by AOA, showing that ethylene may act as an upstream signal of JA and SA pathway. With endophytic fungi inoculation, CAT or cPTIO suppressed ethylene production, and H2O2 or NO generation was not affected by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, showing that ethylene may act as a downstream signal of H2O2 and NO pathway. Then, plantlets were treated with ethylene donor ACC, JA, SA, H2O2, NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Exogenous ACC could trigger JA and SA generation, whereas exogenous JA or SA did not affect ethylene production, and the induced sesquiterpenoids accumulation triggered by ACC was partly suppressed by IBU and PAC, showing that ethylene acted as an upstream signal of JA and SA pathway. Exogenous ACC did not affect H2O2 or NO generation, whereas exogenous H2O2 and SNP induced ethylene production, and the induced sesquiterpenoids

  13. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...

  14. Spirocyclic Drimanes from the Marine Fungus Stachybotrys sp. Strain MF347

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel spirocyclic drimane coupled by two drimane fragment building blocks 2 and a new drimane 1 were identified in mycelia and culture broth of Stachybotrys sp. MF347. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means. This is the first example of spirocyclic drimane coupled by a spirodihydrobenzofuranlactam unit and a spirodihydroisobenzofuran unit; and the connecting position being N-C instead of an N and N connecting unit. Strain MF347 produced also the known spirocyclic drimanes stachybocin A (12 and stachybocin B (11 featured by two sesquiterpene-spirobenzofuran structural units connected by a lysine residue; the known spirocyclic drimanes chartarlactam O (5; chartarlactam K (6; F1839A (7; stachybotrylactam (8; stachybotramide (9; and 2α-acetoxystachybotrylactam acetate (10; as well as ilicicolin B (13, a known sesquiterpene. The relative configuration of two known spirobenzofuranlactams (3 and 4 was determined. All compounds were subjected to biological activity tests. The spirocyclic drimane 2, 11, and 12, as well as the sesquiterpene 13, exhibited antibacterial activity against the clinically relevant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

  15. Autophagy Deficiency Promotes β-Lactam Production in Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartoszewska, Magdalena; Kiel, Jan A.K.W.; Bovenberg, Roel A.L.; Veenhuis, Marten; Klei, Ida J. van der

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the significance of autophagy in the production of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin (PEN) by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. In this fungus PEN production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. We demonstrate that under PEN-producing conditions

  16. 虎皮楠内生真菌Aspergillus sp.DCS31化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp.DCS31 of Daphniphyllum longeracemosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟欣欣; 葛锋; 曾英; 赵沛基

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. DCS31 was isolated from Daphniphyllum longeracemosum and identified to be Aspergillus by ITS sequence. Five compounds were isolated from the solid-state fermentation product of endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. DCS31. Their structures were identified as asperpyrone D (1) , asperpyrone A (2),flavasperone (3) ,1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid bis(2α-methyl hepryl) ester (4) and 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (5). Compounds 1-4 were isolated from the endophytic fungus of Daphniphyllum longeracemosum for the first time.%从长序虎皮楠韧皮部分离到内生真菌Aspergillus sp.DCS31,经ITS序列分析将该株菌鉴定为曲霉属真菌.我们从该菌的固体发酵物中分离得到了5个化合物,经质谱和核磁共振波谱解析,分别鉴定为asperpyroneD(1)、asperpyrone A(2)、flavasperone(3)、1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis(2α-methyl heptyl)ester (4)、2,5-di-hydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester(5).化合物1、2、3、4为首次从虎皮楠内生真菌中分离得到.

  17. Assessment of antifungal effects of copper nanoparticles on the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. on white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Kalatehjari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the in-vitro effects of copper nanoparticles on the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. isolated from white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum eggs. The antifungal effects were measured by determining the minimum lethal concentration of copper nanoparticles on Saprolegnia sp. in yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol (YGC agar at 25 °C. Saprolegnia grown in YGC agar without added copper nanoparticles served as negative controls. Our study showed that copper nanoparticles at a minimum concentration of 10 ppm have antifungal effects on Saprolegnia sp. The antifungal effects of copper nanoparticles are positively correlated to both concentration and time of exposure. This study showed that the antifungal properties of copper nanoparticles make it a good alternative to malachite green, which is carcinogenic.

  18. 椭孢青霉,分离自广西的一新种%PENICILLIUM ELLIPSOIDEOSPORUM, A NEW SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙; 孔华忠

    2000-01-01

    新种椭孢青霉Penicillium ellipsoideosporum sp.nov.分离自中国广西地区的一颗榕树籽.它在标准培养条件下生长局限;其帚状枝非常不规则,分生孢子幼时呈圆柱形,成熟后呈长椭球形、圆柱形或椭球形.%The new species Penicillium ellipsoideosporum L. Wang & H. Z. Kong sp. nov. described here is based on an isolate from the seeds of Ficus microcarpa, Guangxi Region of China. This fungus is characterized by its restricted growth, irregular conidiophores and cylindrical to ellipsoidal conidia.

  19. The Research of Cinnamon and Garlic Oil on Antifungal Properties of Alternaria Sp.and Penicillium Sp%肉桂、大蒜精油对链格孢霉和青霉抑菌特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许倩; 牛希跃; 李述刚; 潘丽娜

    2013-01-01

    以冬枣贮藏期间主要致病菌链格孢霉(Alternaria sp.)和青霉Penicillium sp.)为研究对象,以抑菌圈直经为指标,通过单因素和正交试验研究了不同复配比例、不同温度和pH条件下肉桂精油、大蒜精油对链格孢霉的抑菌效果.结果表明:(1)肉桂精油和大蒜精油对链铬孢菌的MIC分别为:0.313 μL/mL和1.25 μL/mL;对青霉的MIC分别是0.313μL/mL和5 μL/mL.(2)影响抑菌效果的因素主次顺序为精油复配比例>温度、pH,其中复配精油各比例之间对链格孢霉和青霉抑菌效果差异极显著(p<0.01).(3)在5℃的酸性(pH 3)条件下,肉桂精油与大蒜精油总体积分数为0.42 μL/mL,复配体积比为3∶1时对链格孢霉和青霉的抑菌效果最好,28 ℃培养72 h后抑菌直径达22.4 mm和24.8 mm.

  20. Dereplication-guided isolation of depsides thielavins S-T and lecanorins D-F from the endophytic fungus Setophoma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Lívia S; Abreu, Lucas M; Nielsen, Anita; Ingmer, Hanne; Larsen, Thomas O; Nielsen, Kristian F; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2015-03-01

    Dereplication methodology using UHPLC-DAD-QTOFMS was applied during the metabolic profiling investigation of the endophyte Setophoma sp., a fungus isolated from symptomless guava fruits. The approach performed allowed a fast analysis of the microbial secondary metabolites. From this fungus, seven highly C-alkylated depsides were isolated and identified as polyketides thielavins S, T, U and V and lecanorins D, E and F. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic methods including NMR, HRMS and especially with assistance of HRMS/MS experiments. The compounds were tested for quorum sensing regulation activity in the virulence gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus, but no inhibitory effect was detected. Nevertheless, moderate antibacterial activity was encountered in three of tested depsides, particularly with thielavin T, whose MIC was 6.25 μg/mL against S. aureus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Levaduras inhibidoras de Penicillium Inhibitory Penicillium yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Benítez Ahrendts

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la acción inhibitoria in vitro e in vivo de algunas cepas de levaduras de la zona citrícola jujeña sobre el crecimiento de los mohos patógenos post-cosecha y seleccionarlas para elaborar un producto de biocontrol. Se aislaron de frutos cítricos cepas de los mohos patógenos post-cosecha Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum,P. ulaiense, Phyllosticta sp. y Galactomyces geotrichum, así como de levaduras saprófítas de los géneros Brettanomyces, Candida, Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Pichia y Rhodotorula. También se obtuvieron algunas levaduras de otras fuentes. Se identificaron las levaduras por las características macro y micromorfológicas y las pruebas fisiológicas. La actividad in vitro e in vivo de las diferentes cepas fue diferente según se enfrentaran a P. digitatum o P. ulaiense. Candida cantarellii y una cepa de Pichia subpelliculosa produjeron una reducción significativa del área de las lesiones provocadas por estas especies de Penicillium, y podrían ser empleadas en la formulación de un producto para biocontrol.The objective of this work was to establish the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of post-harvest pathogenic moulds by yeasts in order to make a biocontrol product. Post-harvest pathogenic moulds Penicillium digitatumP. italicum, P. ulaiense, Phyllosticta sp., Galactomyces geotrichum and yeasts belonging to genera Brettanomyces, Candida, Cryptococcus, Kloeckera,Pichia, Rhodotorula were isolated from citrus fruits. Some yeasts strains were also isolated from other sources. The yeasts were identified by their macro and micro-morphology and physiological tests. The in vitro and in vivo activities against P. digitatum or P. ulaiense were different. Candida cantarellii and one strain of Pichia subpelliculosa produced a significant reduction of the lesion area caused by the pathogenic moulds P. digitatum and P. ulaiense, and could be used in a biocontrol product formulation.

  2. The fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis harbors bacillaene-producing Bacillus sp. that inhibit potentially antagonistic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Um, Soohyun; Fraimout, Antoine; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The ancient fungus-growing termite (Mactrotermitinae) symbiosis involves the obligate association between a lineage of higher termites and basidiomycete Termitomyces cultivar fungi. Our investigation of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis shows that Bacillus strains from M. natalensis...... have high homology with more than 90% of ORFs being 100% identical, and the sequence identities across the biosynthetic gene cluster for bacillaene are higher between termite-associated strains than to the cluster previously reported in B. subtilis. Our findings suggest that this lineage of antibiotic......-producing Bacillus may be a defensive symbiont involved in the protection of the fungus-growing termite cultivar....

  3. Pestalols A-E, new alkenyl phenol and benzaldehyde derivatives from endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. AcBC2 isolated from the Chinese mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Fan; Lin, Xiuping; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Wan, Junting; Zhang, Tianyu; Yang, Bin; Yang, Xian-Wen; Tu, Zhengchao; Liu, Yonghong

    2014-06-01

    Five alkenyl phenol and benzaldehyde derivatives, pestalols A-E (1-5), as well as seven known compounds (6-12), were isolated from endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. AcBC2 derived from the Chinese mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 3 showed cytotoxicity against a panel of 10 tumor cell lines. Compounds 1-5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 showed inhibitory activities against Influenza A virus subtype (H3N2) and Swine Flu (H1N1) viruses. Compound 2 also showed inhibitory activity against tuberculosis.

  4. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Deyholos, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars [Crop Development Center (CDC) Bethune and Lutea], showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune) was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time course at 2, 4, 8, and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI). While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signaling, activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these, several key genes that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113, and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3); the flavonoid

  5. White-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to decolorize and tolerate the anthraquinone, indigo and triphenylmethane dye with high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruoying; Ma, Li; He, Feng; Yu, Dong; Fan, Ruozhi; Zhang, Yangming; Long, Zheping; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2016-03-01

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 to decolorize different kinds of dyes widely applied in the textile and dyeing industry, including the anthraquinone dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), indigo dye indigo carmine and triphenylmethane dye methyl green, was evaluated in this study. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability of decolorizing high concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green. Obvious reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand was observed after decolorization of different dyes. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to tolerate RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green with high concentrations. High concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green could also be efficiently decolorized by the crude enzyme of Ganoderma sp.En3. Different redox mediators such as syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone could enhance the decolorization capability for higher concentration of indigo carmine and methyl green. Different metal ions had little effect on the ability of the crude enzyme to decolorize indigo carmine and methyl green. Our study suggested that Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability for decolorizing and tolerating high concentrations of different types of dyes such as RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green.

  6. Atlantinone A, a meroterpenoid produced by Penicillium ribeum and several cheese associated Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur W.; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Ø.;

    2012-01-01

    Atlantinone A has been isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum. The exact structure of the compound was confirmed by mass spectrometric and 1- and 2D NMR experiments. Atlantinone A was originally only produced upon chemical epigenetic manipulation of P. hirayamae, however...

  7. 青霉胞外合成银纳米粒子及其表征%Biosynthesis and characterization of extracellular silver nanonparticles assisted by Penicillium sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋红; 黄梅颖; 冯家勋; 杜良伟

    2016-01-01

    为了寻求绿色高效的纳米粒子合成方法,在模拟太阳光的照射下,利用青霉滤液快速胞外合成了银纳米粒子。用肉眼观察、紫外—可见吸收光谱、X射线衍射( XRD)和透射电镜( TEM)对合成的银纳米粒子进行表征。 XRD结果表明合成了优先沿着(111)面生长的晶体结构的银纳米粒子。 TEM结果表明,大部分纳米粒子以团聚的状态分散在溶液中,单个纳米粒子的形貌呈球形,平均粒径约为6 nm,团聚物的形状不规则,其粒径在20~50 nm。该合成方法具有条件温和、清洁、无毒、无污染的特点,是一种绿色化学和环境友好的合成方法。%In order to explore green and efficient methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles, extra-cellular silver nanoparticles ( AgNPs ) were rapidly synthesized assisted by the cell filtrates of Penicillium sp. 1-208 under simulated sunlight. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by means of visual observation, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction ( XRD) and trans-mission electron microscopy ( TEM ) . The XRD results showed that the synthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature and preferentially oriented in (111) plane. The TEM results showed that most of the nanoparticles dispersed in solution in the form of agglomerated structure, in which the single nanoparticles were spherical in shape with average particle size of 6 nm and the diameter of agglom-erated structure with irregular shape ranged from 20 to 50 nm. The approach used in this study is a green and environment-friendly synthesis method with the advantage of mild condition, clean, non-toxicity and non-polluting.

  8. Isolation, purification, and characterization of antimicrobial compound 6-[1,2-dimethyl-6-(2-methyl-allyloxy)-hexyl]-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-chromen-4-one from Penicillium sp. HT-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Arora, Daljit Singh; Sharma, Vishal

    2014-08-01

    A fungal culture (Penicillium sp., HT-28), isolated from soil has been evaluated for its bioactivity, which showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and was effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) also. Statistical optimization of the medium by response surface methodology (RSM) enhanced the antimicrobial activity up to 1.8-fold. Column chromatography was used to isolate the active compound (A), which was characterized to be 6-[1,2-dimethyl-6-(2-methyl-allyloxy)-hexyl]-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-chromen-4-one by various spectroscopic techniques such as infrared (IR), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and mass spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the active compound (A) ranged from 0.5 to 15 μg/mL. Viable cell count studies of the active compound (A) showed S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella typhimurium 1 to be the most sensitive. The compound retained its bioactivity after treating it at 100 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the compound (A) when tested for its biosafety was found neither to be cytotoxic nor mutagenic. The study demonstrated that an apparently novel compound isolated from Penicillium sp. (HT-28) seems to be a stable and potent antimicrobial.

  9. Penicillium expansum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    Penicillium expansum is known for its destructive rot and patulin production in apple juice. According to the literature, P. expansum can, among other compounds, produce citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, penitrem A, and rubratoxin B. In this study the qualitative production of metabolites...... produced by 98% of the isolates. Expansolides A/B and citrinin were detected in 91 and 85% of the isolates, respectively. Chaetoglobosins and communesins were detected in naturally infected juices and potato pulp, whereas neither patulin nor citrinin was found. Because most P. expansum isolates produce...

  10. RNAi silencing of a cytochrome P450 monoxygenase disrupts the ability of a filamentous fungus, Graphium sp., to grow on short-chain gaseous alkanes and ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Kristin M; Wolpert, Thomas J; Hyman, Michael R; Ciuffetti, Lynda M

    2014-02-01

    Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400), a filamentous fungus, is one of the few eukaryotes that grows on short-chain alkanes and ethers. In this study, we investigated the genetic underpinnings that enable this fungus to catalyze the first step in the alkane and ether oxidation pathway. A gene, CYP52L1, was identified, cloned and functionally characterized as an alkane-oxidizing cytochrome P450 (GSPALK1). Analysis of CYP52L1 suggests that it is a member of the CYP52 cytochrome P450 family, which is comprised of medium- and long-chain alkane-oxidizing enzymes found in yeasts. However, phylogenetic analysis of GSPALK1 with other CYP52 members suggests they are not closely related. Post-transcriptional ds-RNA-mediated gene silencing of CYP52L1 severely reduced the ability of this fungus to oxidize alkanes and ethers, however, downstream metabolic steps in these pathways were unaffected. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that GSPALK1 is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial oxidation of alkanes and ethers but is not involved in the later steps of alkane or ether metabolism.

  11. Corymbiferan lactones from Penicillium hordei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Blunt, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Cultivation of a strain of Penicillium hordei on macerated tulip tissue agar resulted in the stimulated production of a series of four novel hydroxymethyl naphthalene carboxylic acid lactones from the fungus. The naphthalene derivatives were isolated using a combination of vacuum liquid chromatog...... chromatography and preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR techniques in conjunction with high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). These metabolites were given the trivial names corymbiferan lactones A-D (1-4)....

  12. 盐生海芦笋来源真菌Penicillium stoloniferum发酵产物抗肿瘤活性成分研究%Separation, Identification and Bioactivity of Anti-Tumor Components from Fermented Broth and Mycelia of Fungus Penicillium stoloniferum Derived from Salicornia herbacea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈可慧; 孟晓露; 刘天行; 辛志宏

    2012-01-01

    Eight anti-tumor monomer compounds were isolated from the fermented broth and mycelia of the fungus Penicillium stoloniferum derived from Salicornia herbacea by bioassay-guided isolation method using silica gel column chromatography,Sephedex LH-20 chromatography,and semi-preparative HPLC.They were identified by physiochemical analysis and spectroscopic techniques as ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3-ol,ergosterol,spinasterol,5α,8α-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-23methylergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol,tryptophan phenylalanine cyclic dipeptide,phenylalanine,dibutyl phthalate and diisobutyl phthalate.Only 5α,8α-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-23-methylergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol,dibutyl phthalate and diisobutyl phthalate had strong cytotoxicity with IC50values of 14,34 μg/mL and 46 μg/mL,respectively,as evaluated by SRB method.%采用活性追踪的方法,对一株盐生海芦笋来源真菌Penicillium stoloniferum发酵产物中的抗肿瘤活性成分进行分离和鉴定。利用常压硅胶柱层析、Sephedex LH-20、半制备HPLC等分离方法从中分离得到8个单体化合物,通过理化性质分析及波谱学方法鉴定其化学结构分别为:麦角甾-7,9(11),22-三烯-3-醇、麦角固醇、菠菜甾醇、5α,8α-环二氧-(22E,24R)-23-甲基麦角甾-6,22-二烯-3β-醇、色氨酸-苯丙氨酸-环二肽、苯丙氨酸、邻苯二甲酸正丁酯、邻苯二甲酸异丁酯;以SRB法评价化合物的抗肿瘤活性,5α,8α-环二氧-(22E、24R)-23-甲基麦角甾-6,22-二烯-3β-醇、邻苯二甲酸正丁酯、邻苯二甲酸异丁酯对小鼠乳腺癌P388细胞具有强的细胞毒活性,IC50值分别为14、34、46μg/mL,其他化合物没有活性。

  13. The fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis harbors bacillaene-producing Bacillus sp. that inhibit potentially antagonistic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Soohyun; Fraimout, Antoine; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael

    2013-11-19

    The ancient fungus-growing termite (Mactrotermitinae) symbiosis involves the obligate association between a lineage of higher termites and basidiomycete Termitomyces cultivar fungi. Our investigation of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis shows that Bacillus strains from M. natalensis colonies produce a single major antibiotic, bacillaene A (1), which selectively inhibits known and putatively antagonistic fungi of Termitomyces. Comparative analyses of the genomes of symbiotic Bacillus strains revealed that they are phylogenetically closely related to Bacillus subtilis, their genomes have high homology with more than 90% of ORFs being 100% identical, and the sequence identities across the biosynthetic gene cluster for bacillaene are higher between termite-associated strains than to the cluster previously reported in B. subtilis. Our findings suggest that this lineage of antibiotic-producing Bacillus may be a defensive symbiont involved in the protection of the fungus-growing termite cultivar.

  14. Antifungal, anti-oomycete and phytotoxic effects of volatile organic compounds from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. strain PB3f3 isolated from Haematoxylon brasiletto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, B L; Sánchez-Fernández, R E; Duarte, G; Lappe-Oliveras, P; Macías-Rubalcava, M L

    2016-05-01

    To determine the antifungal, anti-oomycete and phytotoxic activity; and chemical composition of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. PB3f3 isolated from Haematoxylon brasiletto Karst. Bioactivity and chemical composition of the VOCs from Xylaria sp. PB3f3 were established by using simple and multiple antagonism bioassays, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. The results showed that Xylaria sp. PB3f3 inhibited the growth of the oomycetes Pythium aphanidermatum (78·3%), Phytophthora capsici (48·3%), and the fungi Alternaria solani (24·5%) and Fusarium oxysporum (24·2%), in multiple antagonism bioassays. Volatile organic compounds, produced at 20 and 30 days of fungal growth, inhibited root elongation on Amaranthus hypochondriacus (27·6%) and on Solanum lycopersicum (53·2%). Forty VOCs were identified at 10, 20 and 30 days in Xylaria sp. PB3f3 cultures. The compounds with the highest fibre affinity were: 3-methyl-1-butanol and thujopsene, at 10 days of fungal growth; an unidentified amine and 2-methyl-1-butanol at 20 days; and 2-methyl-1-propanol at 30 days. In the gas phase assay method 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol showed significant inhibitory effects on root elongation and germination of Am. hypochondriacus and S. lycopersicum. Xylaria sp. PB3f3 and its VOCs showed significant phytotoxic effects on root elongation and germination of Am. hypochondriacus and S. lycopersicum. The genus Xylaria produces a great variety of secondary metabolites, but, up date, there are no reports of the identification of bioactive volatile compounds. Thus, Xylaria sp. PB3f3 and its VOCs are a possible candidate for the biological control of weeds. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. A Branched Biosynthetic Pathway Is Involved in Production of Roquefortine and Related Compounds in Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Hazrat; Ries, Marco I.; Nijland, Jeroen G.; Lankhorst, Peter P.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Profiling and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum and derived deletion strains were used to identify the various metabolites and enzymatic steps belonging to the roquefortine/meleagrin pathway. Major abundant metabolites of this

  16. Secondary metabolites from a fungus Peniophora sp.isolated from a gorgonian Echinogorgia sp.%一株枝网刺柳珊瑚共附生真菌Peniophora sp.次级代谢产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 陈敏; 李筠; 刘云章; 王长云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the secondary metabolites and their bioactivities of symbiotic fungus Peniophora sp. associated with the gorgonian Echinogorgia sp. collected from the South China Sea. Methods Column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, recrystallization and semi-preparative HPLC were used to isolate and purify the compounds from EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques (NMR, MS) and compared with the reported spectral date. Brine Shrimp lethal Toxicity and Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity models were used to evaluate their bioactivities. Results Seven sterols were isolated and identified as 4-hydroxy-17R-methyl-incisterol (1), ergosterol (2), (3(3,5a,6β,22E)-6-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3,5-diol (3), cerevisterol (4), ergosta-4,6,8,22-tetraen-3-one (5), ergosterol peroxide (6) and 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7). Conclusion Compound 1 showed significant lethal activity toward brine shrimp Artemia salina with a mortality rate of 88. 4% at the concentration of 25 μg · mL-1. Compound 4 exhibited potent fish tox-icity causing embryo notochord malformation of zebrafish Danio rerio with a EC50 value of 7. 83 μg · mL-1(72 h).%目的 对一株中国南海枝网刺柳珊瑚Echinogorgia sp.共附生真菌Peniophora sp.的次级代谢产物及生物活性进行研究.方法 利用硅胶柱层析、凝胶柱层析、重结晶和半制备HPLC等方法,对发酵产物乙酸乙酯相进行分离纯化;采用NMR、MS等波谱分析方法并结合文献数据,鉴定化合物的结构;通过卤虫致死活性模型和斑马鱼胚胎毒性模型评价化合物的生物活性.结果 从真菌Peniophora sp.中分离得到7个甾体化合物,分别鉴定为:4—hydroxy—17R— methylincisterol (1),麦角甾醇(2),(3β,5α,6β,22E)—6—甲氧基麦角甾—7,22—二烯—3,5—二醇(3),酒酵母甾醇(4),麦角甾—4,6,8,22—四烯—3—酮(5),过氧化麦角甾醇(6)和9(11)

  17. Isolation, purification and characterization of a novel glucose oxidase from Penicillium sp. CBS 120262 optimally active at neutral pH

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available .51 Two bands at 4.3 and 4.67 5–6 4–6 4.5–6.5 6–8 ND ND 40–50 25–30 ND 6.2 5.2 18.4 [8] [9] [25] Present work strains were reported to contain more than one isoenzyme of GOX, these being, A. niger (Sigma type VII) and P. amagasakiense (ATCC 28686... Penicillium chrysogenum, J. Chromatogr. 397 (1987) 239–249. [8] D. Rando, G-W. Kohring, F. GiVhorn, Production puriWcation and characterization of glucose oxidase from a newly isolated strain of Penicillium pinophilum, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 48...

  18. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Humicola sp. and evaluation of their cytoxicity using normal and cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Asad; Saraswati, Supriya; Kundu, Gopal C.; Ahmad, Absar

    2013-10-01

    Nanoscience is a new born science of the modern era and taps into the potential of particles at nanoscale. Bulk materials reduced to nanoscale dimensions thus obtain unique properties such as electronic, optical, magnetic and chemical. As far as synthesis of nanoparticles is concerned, biological synthesis has recently sparked a great interest as compared to other available chemical and physical methods on account of its eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness. Here we report, for the first time, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus when reacted with Ag+ ions reduces the precursor solution and leads to the formation of extracellular nanoparticles as monitored by ultra violet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The morphology of nanoparticles is found to be spherical with good dispersity as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cell viability assays were carried out to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles on NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line and MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cell line.

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes of the fungus Hydnangium sp. during the pre-symbiotic phase of the ectomycorrhizal association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Coelho, Irene; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Costa, Maurício Dutra; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    The pre-symbiotic phase that precedes physical contact between symbionts is a crucial phase in determining their compatibility, allowing the formation of the ectomycorrhiza. A subtractive cDNA library representing the differentially expressed genes of the fungus Hydnangium sp. in the pre-symbiotic phase was constructed using fungal mycelia obtained through the in vitro mycorrhization technique. The fungus was cultured in the presence of Eucalyptus grandis roots, but with no contact between the hyphae and the root system of the host plant. Genes that code for proteins related to carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms, transcription, and protein synthesis, cellular communication, signal transduction, stress response, transposons, and proteins related to the biogenesis of cell components were identified among the 131 expressed sequence tags. Expression of the genes that code for acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, a voltage-dependent protein from the selective ion channel, and hydrophobin was evaluated by the RT-qPCR technique, confirming the activation of these genes in this phase of the association.

  20. Genomic insights into the carbohydrate catabolism of Cairneyella variabilis gen. nov. sp. nov., the first reports from a genome of an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus from the southern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, David J; Rosewarne, Carly P; Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei; Vockler, Cassandra J; Hitchcock, Catherine J; Sawyer, Nicole A; Brett, Robyn; Edwards, Jacqueline; Pitt, John I; Tran-Dinh, Nai

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a novel species of ericoid mycorrhizal fungus from Australia, Cairneyella variabilis, Midgley and Tran-Dinh, gen. nov. sp. nov. The genome of C. variabilis was sequenced and a draft genome assembled. The draft genome of C. variabilis is 52.4 Mbp in length, and to our knowledge, this is the first study to present a genome of an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus from the southern hemisphere. Using the SignalP and dbCAN bioinformatic pipelines, a study of the catabolic potential of C. variabilis was undertaken and showed genes for an array of degradative enzymes, most of which appear to be secreted from the hyphae, to access a suite of different carbon sources. Isolates of C. variabilis have been previously shown to utilise cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), cellobiose, xylan, pectin, starch and tannic acid for growth, and in the current study, putative enzymes for these processes were revealed. These enzymes likely play key roles in nutrient cycling and other edaphic processes in heathland environments. ITS phylogenetic analyses showed C. variabilis to be distinct from the fungi of the "Hymenoscyphus ericae aggregate".

  1. 冬青卫矛上的叶点霉属新种%Phyllosticta euonymi-japonici sp. nov., an endophytic fungus isolated from Euonymus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽莉; 吕国忠

    2007-01-01

    报道了分离自冬青卫矛植物叶片上的一株内生真菌.在培养基上产生分生孢子器,分生孢子具有一明显的附属物,根据形态特征鉴定为新种,命名为冬青卫矛叶点霉Phyllosticta euonymi-japonic.模式标本(IBE 0000989)保存于大连民族学院生物资源与环境研究所标本室.%Phyllosticta euonymi-japonici sp. nov. was described. It was an endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Euonymus japonicus. It was characterized by the conidia bearing an evident appendage.

  2. Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from a Deep Marine-Derived Fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW2, Cultivated in the Presence of Epigenetic Modifying Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical epigenetic manipulation was applied to a deep marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW2, resulting in significant changes of the secondary metabolites. Three new eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes, dihydrobipolaroxin B (2, dihydrobipolaroxin C (3, and dihydrobipolaroxin D (4, along with one known analogue, dihydrobipolaroxin (1, were isolated from the culture treated with a combination of histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (5-azacytidine. 1–4 were not produced in the untreated cultures. 2 and 3 might be artificial because 1 could form 2 and 3 spontaneously in water by intracellular acetalization reaction. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned based on ECD spectroscopy combined with time-dependent density functional theory calculations. All four compounds exhibited moderate nitric oxide inhibitory activities without cytotoxic effects.

  3. 佛手采后致病青霉的分离鉴定%Identification of Penicillium species causing post-harvest diseases of finger citron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 杨佳妮; 陈文荣; 路梅; 郭卫东

    2011-01-01

    Golden Finger citron (Citrusmedica var. Sarcodactylis Swingle), one of the traditional specialities of Jinhua.Zhejiang Province, has high ornamental and medicinal value. Green mould is the major fungus disease of Citrus fruits, causing substantial economic losses during the storage of post-harvest. To identify the exact species of the pathogenic fungus, an isolate belonged to genus Penicillium was isolated from the infected Golden Finger citron. Kochs postulation was completed by wounded-inoculation with the conidial suspension of Penicillium sp. On health Golden Finger. It was identified as Penicillium digitatum based on morphological characters and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) analysis. This result would be helpful for controlling post-harvest disease.%佛手(Citrusmedica var.sarcodactylis Swingle)又名九爪木、五指橘、佛手柑,为芸香科柑橘属常绿小乔木.主产于闽、粤、川、浙等省,其中浙江金华“金佛手”最为著名,被称为“果中之仙品,世上之奇卉”.其果形美观、色泽金黄、香味浓郁,具有药用价值高、贮藏期长的特点[1],是金华地区的传统特产之一.

  4. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  5. Autophagy Deficiency Promotes β-Lactam Production in Penicillium chrysogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoszewska, Magdalena; Kiel, Jan A.K.W.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the significance of autophagy in the production of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin (PEN) by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. In this fungus PEN production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. We demonstrate that under PEN-producing conditions significant amounts of cytosolic and peroxisomal proteins are degraded via autophagy. Morphological analysis, based on electron and fluorescence microscopy, revealed that this phenomenon might con...

  6. Enhanced Production of Botrallin and TMC-264 with in Situ Macroporous Resin Adsorption in Mycelial Liquid Culture of the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Luo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, an endophytic fungus from the hybrid “Neva” of Populus deltoides × P. nigra, is a high producer of the bioactive dibenzo-α-pyrones botrallin and TMC-264. However, both the botrallin and TMC-264 produced by Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 were retained as both intracellular and extracellular products. The aim of this study was to evaluate an in situ macroporous resin adsorption for enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 production in mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12. Production of botrallin and TMC-264 was most effectively enhanced by macroporous resin DM-301 among the thirteen nonionic macroporous resins tested. The highest botrallin yield (51.47 mg/L, which was 2.29-fold higher than the control at 22.49 mg/L was obtained by adding resin DM-301 at 4.38% (g/mL to the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 4 days for adsorption. The highest TMC-264 yield reached 47.74 mg/L, which was 11.76-fold higher than that of the control (4.06 mg/L, and was achieved by adding DM-301 resin at 4.38% (w/v in the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 6 days for adsorption. The results show that in situ resin adsorption is an effective strategy for enhancing production of botrallin and TMC-264, and also for facilitating their recovery from mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12.

  7. The distribution and host range of the banana Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Agustin B.; Daniells, Jeff; Fourie, Gerda; Hermanto, Catur; Chao, Chih-Ping; Fabregar, Emily; Sinohin, Vida G.; Masdek, Nik; Thangavelu, Raman; Li, Chunyu; Yi, Ganyun; Mostert, Lizel; Viljoen, Altus

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis. To simplify the identification process, the isolates were first divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis. Six lineages and 14 VCGs, representing three Foc races, were identified in this study. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester strains. In this study, Foc VCG diversity in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka was determined for the first time and VCGs 01221 and 01222 were first reported from Cambodia and Vietnam. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. Information obtained in this study could help Asian countries to develop and implement regulatory measures to prevent the incursion of Foc into areas where it does not yet occur. It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas. PMID:28719631

  8. The acid pectinase from Penicillium sp.JF09: fermentation optimization,enzymatic characterization and potential for application in apple juice clarification%Penicillium sp.JF09酸性果胶酶的发酵条件、酶学性质及其在苹果汁澄清中的应用潜力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴倩; 周峻沛; 唐湘华; 李俊俊; 董岩岩; 黄遵锡

    2013-01-01

    对一株产酸性果胶酶的菌株Penicillium sp.JF09的发酵条件、酶学特性及其在苹果汁澄清中的应用潜力进行研究.该菌株发酵产果胶酶的培养基优化后,碳源为1.0%的柚子皮粉,氮源为0.5%的蛋白胨,起始pH值为5.5,发酵时间75~147 h,产果胶酶酶活力为16.5 U/mL,比活力为199.5 U/mg.该果胶酶最造反应温度为60℃,在10~70℃范围内具有活性;最适反应pH值为5.0,酶在pH3.0~5.5范围内活性保持83%以上并在pH3.0~8.0范围内保持稳定;10 mmol/L的Hg2+、pb2+、Cu2+、Fe2+、Ag+及SDS对该酶有不同程度的抑制作用,10 mmol/L的Mg2+、Mn2+对该酶有略微的促进作用,不同浓度的Ca2+对酶活力有较大影响(最适浓度为0.2 mmol/L).在低温和高温下(10~60℃)添加JF09果胶酶对鲜榨苹果汁都有显著澄清作用,反应1h后澄清率可达88.8%.

  9. Direct Fungal Production of Ethanol from High-Solids Pulps by the Ethanol-fermenting White-rot Fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Kamei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60, was applied to the fermentation of high-solid loadings of unbleached hardwood kraft pulp (UHKP without the addition of commercial cellulase. From 4.7% UHKP, 19.6 g L-1 ethanol was produced, equivalent to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum. The highest ethanol concentration (25.9 g L-1, or 46.7% of the theoretical maximum was observed in the culture containing 9.1% UHKP. The highest filter paper activity (FPase was observed in the culture containing 4.7% UHKP, while the production of FPase in the 16.5% UHKP culture was very low. Temporarily removing the silicone plug from Erlenmeyer flasks, which relieved the pressure and allowed a small amount of aeration, improved the yield of ethanol produced from the 9.1% UHKP, which reached as high as 37.3 g L-1. These results indicated that production of cellulase and ensuing saccharification and fermentation by Phlebia sp. MG-60 is affected by water content and benefits from a small amount of aeration.

  10. Evidence for a facultative mutualist nutritional relationship between the green coccoid alga Bracteacoccus sp. (Chlorophyceae) and the zoosporic fungus Rhizidium phycophilum (Chytridiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Kathryn T; Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J

    2013-05-01

    Symbiotic interactions between fungi and photosynthetic partners are common among derived fungal lineages. The only fungal-phototroph interactions thus far reported from the early diverging zoosporic fungi are parasitic in nature. Rhizidium phycophilum is a terrestrial, saprotrophic chytrid, which appears to be able to enter a facultative mutualism with a coccoid green alga in the absence of refractory organic material, such as pollen and chitin. Liquid and solid culturing methods were used in a series of differential fitness experiments in conjunction with microscopic analyses to characterize the interaction between R. phycophilum and the alga. The alga in this partnership is identified as a member of the genus Bracteacoccus. Under certain culturing conditions, algal cells grown in coculture with R. phycophilum were shown to grow larger and more prolifically than when cultured axenically under the same conditions. Additionally, dialysis experiments demonstrate that R. phycophilum does not parasitize Bracteacoccus sp., and can be cultured in media infused with unknown algal exudates. Rhizidium phycophilum and Bracteacoccus sp. represent the first facultative positive interaction between a zoosporic fungus and a photoautotroph and may prove a tractable system for modelling interactions between early fungi and plants. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immune Restoration Syndrome with disseminated Penicillium marneffei and Cytomegalovirus co-infections in an AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig Naveet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus, endemic in South-east Asia. The fungus causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients such as AIDS. However, no case of immune restoration disease of Penicillium marneffei is reported in literature from a non-endemic area. Case Presentation We report the first case of Penicillium marneffei and Cytomegalovirus infection manifesting as a result of immune restoration one month after initiating HAART. This severely immunocompromised patient had presented with multiple lymphadenopathy, massive hepatosplenomegaly, visual impairment and mild icterus, but no skin lesions. Penicillium marneffei was isolated from lymph node fine-needle aspirates and blood cultures. Conclusion In order to diagnose such rare cases, the clinicians, histopathologists and microbiologists alike need to maintain a strong index of suspicion for making initial diagnosis as well as for suspecting immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS with Penicillium marneffei.

  12. Immune Restoration Syndrome with disseminated Penicillium marneffei and Cytomegalovirus co-infections in an AIDS patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Mathur, Purva; Maskey, Dipesh; Wig, Naveet; Singh, Sarman

    2007-01-01

    Background Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus, endemic in South-east Asia. The fungus causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients such as AIDS. However, no case of immune restoration disease of Penicillium marneffei is reported in literature from a non-endemic area. Case Presentation We report the first case of Penicillium marneffei and Cytomegalovirus infection manifesting as a result of immune restoration one month after initiating HAART. This severely immunocompromised patient had presented with multiple lymphadenopathy, massive hepatosplenomegaly, visual impairment and mild icterus, but no skin lesions. Penicillium marneffei was isolated from lymph node fine-needle aspirates and blood cultures. Conclusion In order to diagnose such rare cases, the clinicians, histopathologists and microbiologists alike need to maintain a strong index of suspicion for making initial diagnosis as well as for suspecting immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) with Penicillium marneffei. PMID:17922912

  13. CRISPR/Cas9 based genome editing of Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Carsten; Kiel, Jan A K W; Driessen, Arnold J M; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Nygård, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially rel

  14. Talaroxanthone, a novel xanthone dimer from the endophytic fungus Talaromyces sp. associated with Duguetia stelechantha (Diels) R.E. Fries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Hector H.F., E-mail: hectorkoolen@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Menezes, Lais S.; Souza, Mayane P.; Silva, Felipe M.A.; Almeida, Fabiana G.O.; Souza, Afonso D.L. de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L. de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Escola Superior de Ciencias da Saude; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Silva, Flavio Henrique da; Evangelista, Danilo Elton [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao

    2013-05-15

    DgCr22.1b, an endophytic isolate of Talaromyces sp., was collected in the Amazonian Rain forest from the medicinal plant Duguetia stelechantha. From the fractionation of the methanolic mycelial extract, a new xanthone dimer talaroxanthone was isolated. The structure of this new compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses including 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. (author)

  15. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  16. Disinfection of Penicillium-infected Wheat Seed by Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-ah Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Olgeurumil were infected with Penicillium sp. at mean infection rate of 83%. Penicillium sp. was detected in endosperm with bran but not in embryo. Gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 effectively inhibited growth of Penicillium sp. at concentration of 5 to 20 mg/ml. As treatment duration was extended from 1 to 3 h, growth of Penicillium sp. was completely suppressed even at 10 mg/ml. There was no significant reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. at 30% relative humidity (RH. However, the incidence of Penicillium sp. was 27.7% at 50% RH, further those were 3.5% and 0.2% at 70% and 80% RH, respectively. Seed germination was not affected by ClO2 treatment at all the RH conditions. Water-soaked seeds (30% seed moisture content showed a drastic reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. when treated at more than 10 mg/ml of ClO2. The incidences of Penicillium sp. were 3.3, 1.8 and 1.2% at 10, 15 and 20 mg/ml, respectively. The incidence of Penicillium sp. in dry seeds with 9.7% seed moisture content did not reduce when treated with 5 and 10 mg/ml at 50% RH although it tended to decrease as ClO2 concentration increased to 20 mg/ml. Seed germination was not affected by ClO2 treatment at the tested concentrations. These results indicated that gaseous ClO2 was effective disinfectant to wheat seeds infected with Penicillium sp. and that the effectiveness of ClO2 strongly increased when moisture content around or inside of the seed was increased.

  17. Production of patulin by various isolates of Penicillium expansum (Link Thom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pytel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of patulin by fourteen isolates of Penicillium expansum (Link Thorn was studied. The fungus was isolated from apples, pears and air in cold storage rooms in Poland. Different isolates of fungus produced from 268 to 2225 µg/ml patulin into the liquid medium. The productivity of the isolates depends on the source of carbon in the medium and temperature during fungus growth. Production of patulin was not correlated with the pathogenicity of the fungus isolate. The fungus produces less patulin when growing on apple tissue than on Czapek liquid medium.

  18. Structural characterization and anti-aging activity of a novel extracellular polysaccharide from fungus Phellinus sp. in a mammalian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Guo, Dan Dan; Peterson, Eric Charles; Dun, Ying; Li, Dan Yang

    2016-08-10

    Little is known about the chemical structure of purified extracellular polysaccharides from Phellinus sp., a fungal species with known medicinal properties. A combination of IR spectroscopy, methylation analysis and NMR were performed for the structural analysis of a purified extracellular polysaccharide derived from Phellinus sp. culture, denoted as SHP-1, along with an evaluation of the anti-aging effect in vivo of the polysaccharide supplementation. The structure of SHP-1 was established, with a backbone composed of →2,4)-α-d-glucopyranose-(1→ and →2)-β-d-mannopyranose-(1→ and two terminal glucopyranose branches. Biochemical analysis from mammalian animal experiments demonstrated that SHP-1 possesses the ability to enhance antioxidant enzyme activities, such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in serum of d-galactose-aged mice, while reducing lipofuscin levels, another indicator of cell aging, indicating a potential association with anti-aging activities in a dose dependent manner. This compound had a favourable influence on immune organ indices, and a marked amelioration ability of histopathological hepatic lesions such as necrosis, karyolysis and reduced inflammation and apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes. These results suggest that SHP-1 has strong antioxidant activities and a significant protective effect against oxidative stress or hepatotoxicity induced by d-galactose in mice and it could be developed as a food ingredient or a pharmaceutical to prevent many age-associated diseases such as major depressive disorder and hepatotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antioxidant effects of a novel purified exopolysaccharide derived from Phellinus sp.

  19. The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A.; Peever, Tobin L.; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity. PMID:24909710

  20. The tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares common ancestors with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from wild tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A; Peever, Tobin L; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity.

  1. Preparative separation of sulfur-containing diketopiperazines from marine fungus Cladosporium sp. using high-speed counter-current chromatography in stepwise elution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binbin; Zhang, Yanying; Ding, Lijian; He, Shan; Wu, Bin; Dong, Junde; Zhu, Peng; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-01-09

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs) (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1) and cladosporin B (3), and a known compound haematocin (2)) from a marine fungus Cladosporium sp. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v) and (2:1:2:1, v/v), in stepwise elution mode, was used for HSCCC. The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding 26.7 mg of compound 3 at a purity of over 95%, 53.6 mg of a mixture of compounds 1 and 2, which was further separated by preparative-HPLC yielding 14.3 mg of compound 1 and 25.4 mg of compound 2 each at a purity of over 95%. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The sulfur-containing DKPs suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The present work represents the first application of HSCCC in the efficient preparation of marine fungal natural products.

  2. A Versatile Monosaccharide Transporter That Operates in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus sp Is Crucial for the Symbiotic Relationship with Plants[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helber, Nicole; Wippel, Kathrin; Sauer, Norbert; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Hause, Bettina; Requena, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    For more than 400 million years, plants have maintained a mutualistic symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This evolutionary success can be traced to the role of these fungi in providing plants with mineral nutrients, particularly phosphate. In return, photosynthates are given to the fungus, which support its obligate biotrophic lifestyle. Although the mechanisms involved in phosphate transfer have been extensively studied, less is known about the reciprocal transfer of carbon. Here, we present the high-affinity Monosaccharide Transporter2 (MST2) from Glomus sp with a broad substrate spectrum that functions at several symbiotic root locations. Plant cell wall sugars can efficiently outcompete the Glc uptake capacity of MST2, suggesting they can serve as alternative carbon sources. MST2 expression closely correlates with that of the mycorrhiza-specific Phosphate Transporter4 (PT4). Furthermore, reduction of MST2 expression using host-induced gene silencing resulted in impaired mycorrhiza formation, malformed arbuscules, and reduced PT4 expression. These findings highlight the symbiotic role of MST2 and support the hypothesis that the exchange of carbon for phosphate is tightly linked. Unexpectedly, we found that the external mycelium of AM fungi is able to take up sugars in a proton-dependent manner. These results imply that the sugar uptake system operating in this symbiosis is more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:21972259

  3. Characterization of a manganese peroxidase from white-rot fungus Trametes sp.48424 with strong ability of degrading different types of dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Shu; He, Feng; Qin, Xing; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-15

    Manganese peroxidase, MnP-Tra-48424, was purified and characterized from the white-rot fungus Trametes sp.48424. MnP-Tra-48424 was strongly resistant to metal ions such as Ni(2+), Li(+), Ca(2+), K(+), Mn(2+). MnP-Tra-48424 was also resistant to organic solvents such as propanediol, glycerol, and glycol. MnP-Tra-48424 decolorized dyes (indigo, anthraquinone, azo and triphenylmethane) and degraded different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Indigo Carmine, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R and Methyl Green were efficiently decolorized by MnP-Tra-48424. MnP-Tra-48424 also decolorized Indigo Carmine and Methyl Green combined with metal ions and organic solvents. The decolorization capability of MnP-Tra-48424 was not inhibited by selected metal ions and organic solvents. A combination of MnP-Tra-48424 and Lac-Tra-48424 improved the decolorization rate. In addition to dyes, MnP-Tra-48424 was effective at degrading individual PAHs (fluorene, fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene, anthracene) and also PAHs in mixtures.

  4. Saline-Dependent Regulation of Manganese Peroxidase Genes in the Hypersaline-Tolerant White Rot Fungus Phlebia sp. Strain MG-60▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Ichiro; Daikoku, Chieko; Tsutsumi, Yuji; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2008-01-01

    The expression pattern of manganese peroxidases (MnPs) in nitrogen-limited cultures of the saline-tolerant fungus Phlebia sp. strain MG-60 is differentially regulated under hypersaline conditions at the mRNA level. When MG-60 was cultured in nitrogen-limited medium (LNM) containing 3% (wt/vol) sea salts (LN-SSM), higher activity of MnPs was observed than that observed in normal medium (LNM). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that two MnP isoenzymes were de novo synthesized in the culture of LN-SSM. Three MnP-encoding genes (MGmnp1, MGmnp2, and MGmnp3) were isolated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR techniques. The corresponding isozymes were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. MnP isozymes encoded by MGmnp2 and MGmnp3 were observed mainly in LN-SSM. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed high levels of MGmnp2 and MGmnp3 transcripts in LN-SSM 48 h after the addition of 2% NaCl. The induction of MnP production and the accumulation of gene transcripts by saline were well correlated in the presence of Mn2+. However, in the absence of Mn2+, there was no clear correlation between mnp transcripts levels and MnP activity, suggesting posttranscriptional regulation by Mn2+. PMID:18310430

  5. Saline-dependent regulation of manganese peroxidase genes in the hypersaline-tolerant white rot fungus Phlebia sp. strain MG-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Ichiro; Daikoku, Chieko; Tsutsumi, Yuji; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2008-05-01

    The expression pattern of manganese peroxidases (MnPs) in nitrogen-limited cultures of the saline-tolerant fungus Phlebia sp. strain MG-60 is differentially regulated under hypersaline conditions at the mRNA level. When MG-60 was cultured in nitrogen-limited medium (LNM) containing 3% (wt/vol) sea salts (LN-SSM), higher activity of MnPs was observed than that observed in normal medium (LNM). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that two MnP isoenzymes were de novo synthesized in the culture of LN-SSM. Three MnP-encoding genes (MGmnp1, MGmnp2, and MGmnp3) were isolated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR techniques. The corresponding isozymes were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. MnP isozymes encoded by MGmnp2 and MGmnp3 were observed mainly in LN-SSM. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed high levels of MGmnp2 and MGmnp3 transcripts in LN-SSM 48 h after the addition of 2% NaCl. The induction of MnP production and the accumulation of gene transcripts by saline were well correlated in the presence of Mn(2+). However, in the absence of Mn(2+), there was no clear correlation between mnp transcripts levels and MnP activity, suggesting posttranscriptional regulation by Mn(2+).

  6. Quinone/hydroquinone meroterpenoids with antitubercular and cytotoxic activities produced by the sponge-derived fungus Gliomastix sp. ZSDS1-F7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang; Qin, Xiao-Chu; Mai, Yong-Xin; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Liao, Sheng-Rong; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Tianyu; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Wang, Jun-Feng; Liu, Yonghong

    2017-03-01

    Fifteen compounds, including six quinone/hydroquinone meroterpenoids, purpurogemutantin (1), macrophorin A (2), 4'-oxomacrophorin (3), 7-deacetoxyyanuthone A (4), 2,3-hydro-deacetoxyyanuthone A (5), 22-deacetylyanuthone A (6), anicequol (7), three roquefortine derivatives, roquefortine C (8), (16S)-hydroxyroquefortine C (9), (16R)-hydroxyroquefortine C (10), dihydroresorcylide (11), nectriapyrone (12), together with three fatty acid derivatives, methyl linoleate (13), phospholipase A2 (14), methyl elaidate (15), were isolated from the sponge-derived fungus Gliomastix sp. ZSDS1-F7 isolated from the sponge Phakellia fusca Thiele collected in the Yongxing island of Xisha. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. Among these compounds, compounds 1-3 and 5-7 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicities against the K562, MCF-7, Hela, DU145, U937, H1975, SGC-7901, A549, MOLT-4 and HL60 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 0.19 to 35.4 μM. And compounds 2-4 exhibited antitubercular activity with IC50 values of 22.1, 2.44 and 17.5 μM, respectively. Furthermore, compound 7 had anti-enterovirus 71 activity with MIC value of 17.8 μM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to product two quinone/hydroquinone meroterpenoids skeletons (linear skeleton and drimane skeleton) from the same fungal strain.

  7. Interaction with mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 modifies organisation of actin cytoskeleton in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria (fly agaric).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Silvia D; Salo, Vanamo; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Hampp, Rüdiger; Nehls, Uwe; Tarkka, Mika T

    2007-08-01

    The actin cytoskeleton (AC) of fungal hyphae is a major determinant of hyphal shape and morphogenesis, implicated in controlling tip structure and secretory vesicle delivery. Hyphal growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria and symbiosis formation with spruce are promoted by the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 (AcH 505). To investigate structural requirements of growth promotion, the effect of AcH 505 on A. muscaria hyphal morphology, AC and actin gene expression were studied. Hyphal diameter and mycelial density decreased during dual culture (DC), and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the dense and polarised actin cap in hyphal tips of axenic A. muscaria changes to a loosened and dispersed structure in DC. Supplementation of growth medium with cell-free bacterial supernatant confirmed that reduction in hyphal diameter and AC changes occurred at the same stage of growth. Transcript levels of both actin genes isolated from A. muscaria remained unaltered, indicating that AC changes are regulated by reorganisation of the existing actin pool. In conclusion, the AC reorganisation appears to result in altered hyphal morphology and faster apical extension. The thus improved spreading of hyphae and increased probability to encounter plant roots highlights a mechanism behind the mycorrhiza helper effect.

  8. Induction of Diverse Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma sp. (Strain 307 by Co-Cultivation with Acinetobacter johnsonii (Strain B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhong Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenes, microsphaeropsisin B (1 and C (2, and two new de-O-methyllasiodiplodins, (3R, 7R-7-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (4 and (3R-5-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (5, together with one new natural product (6 and twelve known compounds (3, 7–17, were isolated from the co-cultivation of mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 307 and aquatic pathogenic bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii B2. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, electronic circular dichroism, Mo2(AcO4-induced circular dichroism, and comparison with reported data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. New compounds 4 and 5 exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 25.8 and 54.6 µM, respectively, which were more potent than the positive control (acarbose, IC50 = 703.8 µM. The good results of the tested bioactivity allowed us to explore α-glucosidase inhibitors in lasiodiplodins.

  9. Preparative Separation of Sulfur-Containing Diketopiperazines from Marine Fungus Cladosporium sp. Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography in Stepwise Elution Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1 and cladosporin B (3, and a known compound haematocin (2 from a marine fungus Cladosporium sp. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v and (2:1:2:1, v/v, in stepwise elution mode, was used for HSCCC. The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding 26.7 mg of compound 3 at a purity of over 95%, 53.6 mg of a mixture of compounds 1 and 2, which was further separated by preparative-HPLC yielding 14.3 mg of compound 1 and 25.4 mg of compound 2 each at a purity of over 95%. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The sulfur-containing DKPs suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The present work represents the first application of HSCCC in the efficient preparation of marine fungal natural products.

  10. Isolation and Identification of Antagonistic Strain against Penicillium in the Polluted Edible Fungus%食用菌种植中污染菌青霉的拮抗菌筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向晶晶; 陈静鸿; 丁成祥; 张斌; 葛绍荣

    2006-01-01

    针对食用菌种植中常见的污染菌青霉(penicillium)进行了生物防治探讨,通过桔抗(antagonism)实验筛选到一株桔抗菌-蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus Frankland& Frankland);并将其与有关灭菌剂进行了对比,同时也进行了小规模田间防治实验,均取得了较好的效果.

  11. Nail Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems, a weakened immune system or, in children, Down syndrome A severe case of nail fungus can be ... possibly effective in treating nail fungus, but more study is needed. ... and file down thickened areas. Wear socks that absorb sweat. Fabrics ...

  12. Thielavins W–Z7, New Antifouling Thielavins from the Marine-Derived Fungus Thielavia sp. UST030930-004

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Zhuang

    2017-05-02

    Eleven new depsides-thielavins W-Z (1-4) and thielavins Z₁-Z₇ (5-11)-and also four known thielavins-A, H, J, and K (12-15)-were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a marine-derived fungal strain Thielavia sp UST030930-004. All of these compounds were evaluated for antifouling activity against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The results showed that compounds 1-3 and 6-13 were active, with EC50 values ranging from 2.95 ± 0.59 to 69.19 ± 9.51 μM, respectively. The inhibitive effect of compounds 1-3 and 7 was reversible. This is the first description of the antifouling activity of thielavins against barnacle cyprids.

  13. 大花绿绒蒿内生真菌 Neurospora sp.DHLRH-F次级代谢产物研究%Secondary metabolites of endophytic fungus Neurospora sp. DHLRH-F from Meconopsis grandis Prain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梅香; 胡谷平; 陈彬; 徐爱国; 普布多吉; 蒋思萍; 王军

    2016-01-01

    To study the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungus Neurospora sp.DHLRH -F from Meconopsis grandis Prain from Tibet,its fermentation products were isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH -20,ODS -1 8 column chromatography,and HPLC.The structures of obtained compounds were identified by NMR and MS analysis,and the absorption spectrums of the compounds-iron (Ⅱ)or i-ron (Ⅲ)were investigated by UV /Vis spectroscopy,respectively.The results showed that three polyphe-nols were isolated from the fermentation compounds of Neurospora sp.DHLRH -F.Their structures were identified as 2 -chloro -6 -methoxybenzene -1 ,4 -diol (1),6 -epi -5′-hydroxy-mycosporulone (2),and mycophenolic acid (3);compound 1 was a new natural product and showed a certain complex-ation ability for iron (Ⅲ).We firstly reported about secondary metabolites of endophytic fungus from Meconopsis Vig..%为了研究藏药大花绿绒蒿内生真菌 Neurospora sp.DHLRH -F 的次级代谢产物,采用硅胶、C -18反相硅胶、Sephadex LH -20等柱色谱及 HPLC 技术对其发酵物进行了系统分离;采用波谱分析技术进行化合物结构鉴定;采用光度法研究所得化合物对 Fe2+,Fe3+的络合能力。结果从大花绿绒蒿内生真菌 Neurospora sp.DHL-RH -F 的发酵物中分离得到3个多羟基化合物,分别鉴定为2-氯-6-甲氧基间苯二酚(1)、6-epi -5′-hy-droxy -mycosporulone (2)、霉酚酸(3)。本文是首次关于绿绒蒿属植物内生真菌次级代谢产物研究的报道;分离得到的化合物1是新天然产物,有一定的络合 Fe3+能力。

  14. Bioactive secondary metabolites produced by an endophytic fungus Gaeumannomyces sp. JS0464 from a maritime halophyte Phragmites communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changyeol; Kim, Soonok; Li, Wei; Bang, Sunghee; Lee, Hanna; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Noh, Eun-Young; Park, Jung-Eun; Bang, Woo Young; Shim, Sang Hee

    2017-03-29

    Endophytes, important plant-associated mycobionts, have attracted a great deal of attention because of their bioactive secondary metabolites. Even though halophytes have been reported to overcome salt stress via associations with their endophytes, few studies have investigated the metabolites produced by the endophytes from halophytes. In this study, a dark septate endophytic fungal strain (JS0464), identified as Gaeumannomyces sp. by ITS sequencing, was isolated from the rhizome of a halophyte, Phragmites communis, in Suncheon bay, South Korea. This strain was cultured on a large scale and extracted with ethyl acetate. Chemical investigations of extracts of JS0464 led to the isolation of two glycosylated dialkylresorcinol derivatives (1-2), an anthraquinone derivative (3) and eight known compounds (4-11), which were identified by spectroscopic analyses incorporating one-dimensional/2D NMR and MS. Nine compounds showed significant nitric oxide reduction activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells, seven of which did not impair cell viability. The results suggest that endophytes from the halophytes could be potential resources for bioactive natural products.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 29 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.39.

  15. Asperlones A and B, Dinaphthalenone Derivatives from a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze'en Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Racemic dinaphthalenone derivatives, (±-asperlone A (1 and (±-asperlone B (2, and two new azaphilones, 6′-hydroxy-(R-mitorubrinic acid (3 and purpurquinone D (4, along with four known compounds, (−-mitorubrinic acid (5, (−-mitorubrin (6, purpurquinone A (7 and orsellinic acid (8, were isolated from the cultures of Aspergillus sp. 16-5C. The structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and the structures of 1 further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, while the absolute configuration of 3 and 4 were determined by comparing their optical rotation and CD with those of the literature, respectively. Compounds 1, 2 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB with IC50 values of 4.24 ± 0.41, 4.32 ± 0.60 and 3.99 ± 0.34 μM, respectively.

  16. Isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of metabolites from Sch-642305-producing endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelin, Emilie; Servy, Claudine; Cortial, Sylvie; Lévaique, Hélène; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Retailleau, Pascal; Le Goff, Géraldine; Bussaban, Boonsom; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2011-12-01

    Eight polyketide compounds were isolated from the cultivation broth of Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA. We have recently described LMA-P1, a bicyclic 10-membered macrolide, obtained as a bioconversion derivative of Sch-642305, the major compound isolated in this study. Benquinol is the ethyl ester derivative of the 13-dihydroxytetradeca-2,4,8-trienoic acid produced by Valsa ambiens. This compound is concomitantly produced with the 6,13-dihydroxytetradeca-2,4,8-trienoic acid (DHTTA) previously isolated from Mycosphaerellarubella. The absolute configuration of the new compound, (2R,3R,4S,5R)-3-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-5-[(S,Z)-3-methylpentenyl]-tetrahydro-pyranone LMA-P2 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The δ-lactone 2,3-dihydroxytetradecan-5-olide (DHTO) was previously isolated from Seiridium unicorne. This compound may form through the cyclization of the methyl-2,3,5-trihydroxytridecanoate LMA-P3, a new linear polyketide isolated in this study. Benquoine, a new 14-membered lactone generated from the cyclization of benquinol, is proposed as the key precursor for the biosynthesis of Sch-642305. Antimicrobial activity and cancer cell viability inhibition by the new compounds were investigated. Benquoine exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, and cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cancer cell line.

  17. The indole alkaloid meleagrin, from the olive tree endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, as a novel lead for the control of c-Met-dependent breast cancer proliferation, migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Mohamed S; Mohyeldin, Mohamed M; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Elsayed, Heba E; Houssen, Wael E; Haggag, Eman G; Soliman, Randa F; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2016-01-15

    Fungi of the genus Penicillium produce unique and chemically diverse biologically active secondary metabolites, including indole alkaloids. The role of dysregulated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, in the development and progression of breast carcinoma is documented. The goal of this work is to explore the chemistry and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites of the endophytic Penicillium chrysogenum cultured from the leaf of the olive tree Olea europea, collected in its natural habitat in Egypt. This fungal extract showed good inhibitory activities against the proliferation and migration of several human breast cancer lines. The CH2Cl2 extract of P. chrysogenum mycelia was subjected to bioguided chromatographic separation to afford three known indole alkaloids; meleagrin (1), roquefortine C (2) and DHTD (3). Meleagrin inhibited the growth of the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-468, BT-474, SK BR-3, MCF7 and MCF7-dox, while similar treatment doses were found to have no effect on the growth and viability of the non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells MCF10A. Meleagrin also showed excellent ATP competitive c-Met inhibitory activity in Z-Lyte assay, which was further confirmed via molecular docking studies and Western blot analysis. In addition, meleagrin treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of HGF-induced cell migration, and invasion of breast cancer cell lines. Meleagrin treatment potently suppressed the invasive triple negative breast tumor cell growth in an orthotopic athymic nude mice model, promoting this unique natural product from hit to a lead rank. The indole alkaloid meleagrin is a novel lead c-Met inhibitory entity useful for the control of c-Met-dependent metastatic and invasive breast malignancies.

  18. 一株拮抗香蕉枯萎病的青霉菌的分离及鉴定%Isolation and Identification of a Penicillium Strain against Banana Wilt Disease Caused by Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp.Cubense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇光; 卢娟; 孙建波; 夏启玉; 卢雪华; 张欣

    2011-01-01

    旨在从海南土壤中分离对香蕉枯萎病病原菌4号小种(FOC4)有较强拮抗作用的微生物.采用对峙实验法从海南土壤中分离到一株对FOC4有较强拮抗作用的菌株QW1,对该菌株进行了显微特征、菌落特征以及26S rDNA序列分析.此外,将该菌株与FOC4在土壤中进行了共培养实验研究.结果表明,该菌株在土豆葡萄糖培养基上生长的内生菌丝无横隔膜;孢子梗顶端膨大成帚状;单个分生孢子为椭圆形,蓝色;产有性孢子.菌落生长开始为白色,培养成熟后,气丝逐渐因产生孢子由白色变蓝色.以26S rDNA序列为基础构建了相关种属在内的系统发育树,其与青霉菌株的26S rDNA序列的同源性大于为99%.将该菌株鉴定为青霉菌.共培养实验表明,该菌株在土壤中有较强的生长力,且能有效抑制病原菌的生长.青霉菌QW1对FOC4有较强的拮抗作用,并且与FOCA在土壤中共培养的实验中也表现出较强的抑制FOCA的生长作用.%In order to get some antagonistic microorganism against banana wilt disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) from soil in Hainan province. Antagonistic microorganism QW1 was isolated by flat confrontation culture from soil in Hainan province. The morphological characteristics, colony characteristics and 26S rDNA sequences analysis of QW1 were studied. Moreover, QW1 and FOC4 were co-cultured in soil for one month. The results showed that: QW1 produced sexual spores. The substrate myceliums had no partition. The tops of conidiophores swelled to broom shape. Single-conidiospore was oval and blue. The colony of QW1 was white when it starts growing on PDA medium, after matured; the aerial myceliums of QW1 became blue gradually because of spores. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing with the published 26S rDNA sequences of the related species. The QW1 strain showed more than 99% identity with Penicillium. QW1 strain was classed to Penicillium

  19. Species-specific PCR to describe local-scale distributions of four cryptic species in the Penicillium chrysogenum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alexander G P; Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

    2013-10-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a ubiquitous airborne fungus detected in every sampled region of the Earth. Owing to its role in Alexander Fleming's serendipitous discovery of Penicillin in 1928, the fungus has generated widespread scientific interest; however its natural history is not well understood. Research has demonstrated speciation within P. chrysogenum, describing the existence of four cryptic species. To discriminate the four species, we developed protocols for species-specific diagnostic PCR directly from fungal conidia. 430 Penicillium isolates were collected to apply our rapid diagnostic tool and explore the distribution of these fungi across the London Underground rail transport system revealing significant differences between Underground lines. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple type isolates confirms that the 'Fleming species' should be named Penicillium rubens and that divergence of the four 'Chrysogenum complex' fungi occurred about 0.75 million yr ago. Finally, the formal naming of two new species, Penicillium floreyi and Penicillium chainii, is performed.

  20. Potent Antifouling Marine Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one-Containing Alkaloids from the Gorgonian Coral-Derived Fungus Scopulariopsis sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Chang Lun

    2015-04-02

    Marine biofouling has a major economic impact, especially when it occurs on ship hulls or aquaculture facilities. Since the International Maritime Organization (IMO) treaty to ban the application of organotin-based paints to ships went into effect in 2008, there is an urgent demand for the development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Marine microorganisms have proved to be a potential source of antifouling natural compounds. In this study, six dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids, three monoterpenoids combined with a 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (1–3) and three 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one alkaloids (4–6), were isolated from the gorgonian coral-derived fungus Scopulariopsis sp. collected in the South China Sea. These dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. All of them except 6 showed strong antifouling activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were discovered to be the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates. Especially, compound 1 is the strongest antifouling compound in nature until now which showed highly potent activity with picomolar level (EC50 17.5 pM) and a very safety and high therapeutic ratio (LC50/EC50 1200). This represents an effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement structural class of promising antifouling lead compound. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  1. Multiple garlic (Allium sativum L.) microRNAs regulate the immunity against the basal rot fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cepae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Mishra, Rukmini; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The basal plate rot fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC), is the most devastating pathogen posing a serious threat to garlic (Allium sativum L.) production worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key modulators of gene expression related to development and defense responses in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species associated with garlic immunity against FOC are yet to be explored. In the present study, a small RNA library developed from FOC infected resistant garlic line was sequenced to identify immune responsive miRNAs. Forty-five miRNAs representing 39 conserved and six novel sequences responsive to FOC were detected. qRT-PCR analyses further classified them into three classes based on their expression patterns in susceptible line CBT-As11 and in the resistant line CBT-As153. North-blot analyses of six selective miRNAs confirmed the qRT-PCR results. Expression studies on a selective set of target genes revealed a negative correlation with the complementary miRNAs. Furthermore, transgenic garlic plant overexpresing miR164a, miR168a and miR393 showed enhanced resistance to FOC, as revealed by decreased fungal growth and up-regulated expression of defense-responsive genes. These results indicate that multiple miRNAs are involved in garlic immunity against FOC and that the overexpression of miR164a, miR168a and miR393 can augment garlic resistance to Fusarium basal rot infection.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Curvularin-Type Metabolites from a Marine-Derived Fungal Strain Penicillium sp. SF-5859 in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tran Minh; Ko, Wonmin; Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Youn-Chul; Son, Jae-Young; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2017-09-02

    Chemical study on the extract of a marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium sp. SF-5859 yielded a new curvularin derivative (1), along with eight known curvularin-type polyketides (2-9). The structures of these metabolites (1-9) were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (MS). In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of these metabolites were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Among these metabolites, 3-9 were shown to strongly inhibit LPS-induced overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) with IC50 values ranging from 1.9 μM to 18.1 μM, and from 2.8 μM to 18.7 μM, respectively. In the further evaluation of signal pathways involved in these effects, the most active compound, (10E,15S)-10,11-dehydrocurvularin (8) attenuated the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, compound 8 was shown to suppress the upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines via the inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, but not through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Based on the comparisons of the different magnitude of the anti-inflammatory effects of these structurally-related metabolites, it was suggested that the opening of the 12-membered lactone ring in curvularin-type metabolites and blocking the phenol functionality led to the significant decrease in their anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Atlantinone A, a Meroterpenoid Produced by Penicillium ribeum and Several Cheese Associated Penicillium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petur W. Dalsgaard

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantinone A has been isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum. The exact structure of the compound was confirmed by mass spectrometric and 1- and 2D NMR experiments. Atlantinone A was originally only produced upon chemical epigenetic manipulation of P. hirayamae, however in this study the compound was found to be produced at standard growth conditions by the following species; P. solitum, P. discolor, P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. palitans, P. novae-zeelandiae and P. monticola. A biosynthetic pathway to atlantinone A starting from andrastin A is proposed.

  4. Atlantinone A, a Meroterpenoid Produced by Penicillium ribeum and Several Cheese Associated Penicillium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Petur W; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ø; Zidorn, Christian; Frisvad, Jens C; Christophersen, Carsten; Larsen, Thomas O

    2012-02-23

    Atlantinone A has been isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum. The exact structure of the compound was confirmed by mass spectrometric and 1- and 2D NMR experiments. Atlantinone A was originally only produced upon chemical epigenetic manipulation of P. hirayamae, however in this study the compound was found to be produced at standard growth conditions by the following species; P. solitum, P. discolor, P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. palitans, P. novae-zeelandiae and P. monticola. A biosynthetic pathway to atlantinone A starting from andrastin A is proposed.

  5. Atlantinone A, a meroterpenoid produced by Penicillium ribeum and several cheese associated Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Petersen, Bent; Duus, Jens Ø.;

    2012-01-01

    Atlantinone A has been isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum. The exact structure of the compound was confirmed by mass spectrometric and 1- and 2D NMR experiments. Atlantinone A was originally only produced upon chemical epigenetic manipulation of P. hirayamae, however...

  6. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  7. Secondary Metabolites of Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp.9H in the South China Sea%南海红树林内生真菌 Aspergillus sp.9H 次级代谢产物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳磊; 蓝雄; 黄华容; 张焜

    2015-01-01

    Seven compounds,including brefeldin A (1),methoxyvermistatin (2),6 -demethylver-mistatin (3),purpurester A (4),and glyceroll-hendecanoate (5),were isolated from the mangrove en-dophytic fungus Aspergillus sp.9H,obtained from the Kandeliacandel (Linn.)Druce,collected from Yangjiang,Guangdong.Their structures were identified through mass analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 2,4,5 were isolated from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.for the first time.%对南海红树林内生真菌 Aspergillus sp.9H 的次级代谢产物进行研究。利用土豆培养基对菌种进行培养,综合采用多种柱层析技术从 Aspergillus sp.9H 的次级代谢产物中分离得到了5个单体化合物,运用质谱、核磁等现代波谱技术鉴定其结构分别为 brefeldin A (1),methoxyvermistatin (2),6-demethylvermistatin (3),purpurester A (4)和十一烷酸甘油酯(5)。其中化合物2,3,4均为首次从曲霉属海洋真菌中分离得到。

  8. Chemical constituents of endophytic fungus Nodulisporium sp.A4 from Aquilaria sinensis%白木香内生真菌多节孢Nodulisporium sp.A4的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬利; 吴正超; 陈玉婵; 陶美华; 章卫民

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the chemical constituents of an endophytic fungus, Nodulisporium sp. A4, from the medicinal plant Aquilaria sinensis and search for antitumor natural products. Method: The fungus was cultured in liquid medium and extracted with EtOAc. The compounds were isolated by various chromatographic methods (silica gel, reverse silica gel, Sephadex-LH20, preparative TLC and so on) and recrystallization. Structural elucidation was conducted by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data as well as by comparison with literature reports. The antitumor activity of isolated compounds was tested by MTT method in vitro. Result; Seven compounds were isolated and identified from the broth culture, their structures were determined to be 5-methyl-2-vinyltetrahydro-furan-3-ol (1), 6-methyl-2-(5-methyl-5-vinyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl) hept-5-en-2-ol (2), 6cr-hydroxycyclonerolidol (3), rel-( IS,45, 5/R,7/R,10/R)-10-desmethyl-l-methyl-ll-eudesmene (4), tyrosol (5), 8-methoxynaphthalen-l-ol (6), and 1,8-dimethoxynaphtha-lene (7). Three compounds were isolated and identified from the mycelia as ergosterol (8) , ergosterol peroxide (9) , and cerevisterol (10). The in vitro pharmalogical evaluation results displayed that compounds 3 and 4 showed 89. 1% , 44. 2% and 82. 3% , 79. 8% inhibition against tumor cell lines SF268 and NCI-H460 at 100 mg · L-1, respectively. Conclusion; Compound 1 was a new natural product, compounds 2,3,7 and 10 were reported from the genus Nodulisporium sp. For the first time. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited weak inhibitory effects on the proliferation of tumor cell lines SF268 and NCI-H460.%目的:研究来源于药用植物白木香、具有抗肿瘤活性的内生真菌多节孢Nodulisporium sp.A4的化学成分.方法:采用马铃薯葡萄糖(PD)液体培养基培养、乙酸乙酯萃取得到内生真菌A4的发酵液和菌丝体粗提物,采用正相硅胶柱色谱、反相硅胶柱色谱、葡聚糖凝胶Sephadex LH-20柱色谱、制备薄层色

  9. Effect of LED Blue Light on Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, María T; Alférez, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Studies on the antimicrobial properties of light have considerably increased due in part to the development of resistance to actual control methods. This study investigates the potential of light-emitting diodes (LED) blue light for controlling Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum. These fungi are the most devastating postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit and cause important losses due to contaminations and the development of resistant strains against fungicides. The effect of different periods and quantum fluxes, delaying light application on the growth and morphology of P. digitatum strains resistant and sensitive to fungicides, and P. italicum cultured at 20°C was examined. Results showed that blue light controls the growth of all strains and that its efficacy increases with the quantum flux. Spore germination was always avoided by exposing the cultures to high quantum flux (700 μmol m(-2) s(-1) ) for 18 h. Continuous light had an important impact on the fungus morphology and a fungicidal effect when applied at a lower quantum flux (120 μmol m(-2) s(-1) ) to a growing fungus. Sensitivity to light increased with mycelium age. Results show that blue light may be a tool for P. digitatum and P. italicum infection prevention during handling of citrus fruits.

  10. Isolation and identification of a formaldehyde-degrading fungus Paecilomyces sp.H6 strain.%一株甲醛转化霉菌Paecilomyces sp.H6的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赛花; 陈能场; 卢普相; 彭珏; 高原雪

    2011-01-01

    concentration, this fungi could degraded a concentration of formaldehyde from 2 377, 2 849 mg·L-1 to 854, 1 507 mg·L-1, respectively, the degradation rate were 64.1%, 47.1%, respectively, the mycelial growth was slowly in this case. It could be concluded that Paecilomyces sp.H6 is an effective formaldehyde-degrading fungus, More research is needed to explore its potential use in the bioremediation of formaldehyde pollution environments.

  11. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-wei; ZHANG Tong; MA Da-qing; WANG Wei; YUAN Chun-wang; DUAN Yong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the only thermally dimorphic fungus. This fungal infection is commonly found in Southeast Asian, Hong Kong, south China, and especially in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.1-4 We reported a patient with AIDS in whom infection due to P. marneffei was demonstrated.

  12. Characterization of a phenylacetate-CoA ligase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Martijn J.; Jekel, Peter A.; van den Berg, Marco A.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic activation of PAA (phenylacetic acid) to phenylacetyl-CoA is an important step in the biosynthesis of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin G by the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. CoA esters of PAA and POA (phenoxyacetic acid) act as acyl donors in the exchange of the aminoadipyl side cha

  13. Matching the proteome to the genome : the microbody of penicillin-producing Penicillium chrysogenum cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; van den Berg, Marco A.; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Poolman, Bert; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2009-01-01

    In the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, microbodies are essential for penicillin biosynthesis. To better understand the role of these organelles in antibiotics production, we determined the matrix enzyme contents of P. chrysogenum microbodies. Using a novel in silico approach, we first ob

  14. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidijala, Loknath; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Klaassen, Paul; van der Klei, Ida J.; Veenhuis, Marten; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: beta-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldest known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the me

  15. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidijala, L.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Klaassen, P.; Van der Klei, I.J.; Veenhuis, M.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: β-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldes known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the methyl

  16. The ABC transporter ABC40 encodes a phenylacetic acid export system in Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Stefan S.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Bovenberg, Roe A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is used for the industrial production of beta-lactam antibiotics. The pathway for beta-lactam biosynthesis has been resolved and involves the enzyme phenylacetic acid CoA ligase that is responsible for the CoA activation of the side chain precursor phen

  17. Basic Amino Acid Transport in Plasma Membrane Vesicles of Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillenga, Dirk J.; Versantvoort, Hanneke J.M.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wil N.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the basic amino acid permease (system VI) of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum were studied in plasma membranes fused with liposomes containing the beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. In the presence of reduced cytochrome c, the hybrid membranes accumul

  18. Biosynthetic concepts for the production of beta-lactam antibiotics in Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Stefan S.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial production of beta-lactam antibiotics by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is based on successive classical strain improvement cycles. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the results of this classical strain improvement process, and discusses avenues to improve be

  19. Characterization of a phenylacetate-CoA ligase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Martijn J.; Jekel, Peter A.; van den Berg, Marco A.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic activation of PAA (phenylacetic acid) to phenylacetyl-CoA is an important step in the biosynthesis of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin G by the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. CoA esters of PAA and POA (phenoxyacetic acid) act as acyl donors in the exchange of the aminoadipyl side

  20. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth.

  1. Fungus Amongus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  2. THE HYDROGENOSOMAL ENZYME HYDROGENASE FROM THE ANAEROBIC FUNGUS NEOCALLIMASTIX SP L2 IS RECOGNIZED BY ANTIBODIES, DIRECTED AGAINST THE C-TERMINAL MICROBODY PROTEIN TARGETING SIGNAL SKL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; KRAAK, MN; VEENHUIS, M; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    1993-01-01

    The question was addressed whether antibodies directed against the general microbody C-terminal protein targeting signal SKL recognized hydrogenosomal proteins from Neocallimastix sp. L2. Immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting experiments using these antibodies indicated the pr

  3. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium corylophilum isolated from damp buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, David R; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Miller, J David

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to the spores and mycelial fragments of fungi that grow on damp building materials can result in increased non-atopic asthma and upper respiratory disease. The mechanism appears to involve exposure to low doses of fungal metabolites. Penicillium corylophilum is surprisingly common in damp buildings in USA, Canada and western Europe. We examined isolates of P. corylophilum geographically distributed across Canada in the first comprehensive study of secondary metabolites of this fungus. The sesquiterpene phomenone, the meroterpenoids citreohybridonol and andrastin A, koninginin A, E and G, three new alpha pyrones and four new isochromans were identified from extracts of culture filtrates. This is the first report of koninginins, meroterpenoids and alpha pyrones from P. corylophilum. These secondary metabolite data support the removal of P. corylophilum from Penicillium section Citrina and suggest that further taxonomic studies are required on this species.

  4. Penicillium kongii, a new terverticillate species isolated from plant leaves in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    A new Penicillium species isolated from plant leaves, characterized by restricted growth, terverticillate penicilli, ovoid to ellipsoidal conidia and a red soluble pigment on yeast extract sucrose agar is reported here. Penicillium kongii sp. nov. belongs to subgenus Penicillium section Brevicompacta and is morphologically similar to P. bialowiezense and P. brevicompactum. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data from calmodulin gene, β-tubulin gene and rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 show that P. kongii forms a distinctive clade.

  5. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium roqueforti, a starter for the production of Gorgonzola cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Vallone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the production of secondary metabolites. Nine Penicillium roqueforti strains were tested. The presence of roquefortine C, PR toxin and mycophenolic acid was tested first in vitro, then on bread-like substrate and lastly in vivo in nine cheese samples produced with the same starters and ready to market. In vitro, only Penicillium out of nine produced roquefortine C, four starters showed mycophenolic acid production, while no significant amounts of PR toxin were detected. In the samples grown on bread-like substrate, Penicillium did not produce secondary metabolites, likewise with each cheese samples tested. To protect consumers’ health and safety, the presence of mycotoxins needs to be verified in food which is widely consumed, above all for products protected by the protected denomination of origin (DOP label (i.e. a certificate guaranteeing the geographic origin of the product, such as Gorgonzola cheese.

  6. Secondary Metabolites from Penicillium roqueforti, A Starter for the Production of Gorgonzola Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, Alberto; Soncini, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the production of secondary metabolites. Nine Penicillium roqueforti strains were tested. The presence of roquefortine C, PR toxin and mycophenolic acid was tested first in vitro, then on bread-like substrate and lastly in vivo in nine cheese samples produced with the same starters and ready to market. In vitro, only Penicillium out of nine produced roquefortine C, four starters showed mycophenolic acid production, while no significant amounts of PR toxin were detected. In the samples grown on bread-like substrate, Penicillium did not produce secondary metabolites, likewise with each cheese samples tested. To protect consumers’ health and safety, the presence of mycotoxins needs to be verified in food which is widely consumed, above all for products protected by the protected denomination of origin (DOP) label (i.e. a certificate guaranteeing the geographic origin of the product), such as Gorgonzola cheese.

  7. Intestinal invasion and disseminated disease associated with Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herchline Thomas E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium sp., other than P. marneffei, is an unusual cause of invasive disease. These organisms are often identified in immunosuppressed patients, either due to human immunodeficiency virus or from immunosuppressant medications post-transplantation. They are a rarely identified cause of infection in immunocompetent hosts. Case presentation A 51 year old African-American female presented with an acute abdomen and underwent an exploratory laparotomy which revealed an incarcerated peristomal hernia. Her postoperative course was complicated by severe sepsis syndrome with respiratory failure, hypotension, leukocytosis, and DIC. On postoperative day 9 she was found to have an anastamotic breakdown. Pathology from the second surgery showed transmural ischemic necrosis with angioinvasion of a fungal organism. Fungal blood cultures were positive for Penicillium chrysogenum and the patient completed a 6 week course of amphotericin B lipid complex, followed by an extended course oral intraconazole. She was discharged to a nursing home without evidence of recurrent infection. Discussion Penicillium chrysogenum is a rare cause of infection in immunocompetent patients. Diagnosis can be difficult, but Penicillium sp. grows rapidly on routine fungal cultures. Prognosis remains very poor, but aggressive treatment is essential, including surgical debridement and the removal of foci of infection along with the use of amphotericin B. The clinical utility of newer antifungal agents remains to be determined.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Paraphoma sp. B47-9, a Producer of a Biodegradable Plastic-Degrading Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Koike, Hideaki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Saika, Azusa; Morita, Tomotake; Yarimizu, Tohru; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-10-20

    Paraphoma sp. B47-9 is a producer of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. The draft genome assembly has a size of 39.3 Mb with a GC content of 52.4% and consists of 185 scaffolds.

  9. Differential gene expression in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) challenged with the fusiform rust fungus, Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrietta Myburg; Alison M. Morse; Henry V. Amerson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Dudley Huber; Jason A. Osborne; Saul A. Garcia; C. Dana Nelson; John M. Davis; Sarah F. Covert; Leonel M. van Zyle

    2006-01-01

    Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme is the pathogen that incites fusiform rust disease of southern pine species. To date, a number of host resistance genes have been mapped. Although genomic mapping studies have provided valuable information on the genetic basis of disease interactions in this pine-rust pathosystem, the interaction...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium sp. Strain TBD182, an Antagonist of the Plant-Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum, Isolated from a Novel Hydroponics System Using Organic Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yuichiro; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Someya, Nobutaka; Shinohara, Makoto

    2017-03-16

    Rhizobium sp. strain TBD182, isolated from a novel hydroponics system, is an antagonistic bacterium that inhibits the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum but does not eliminate the pathogen. We report the draft genome sequence of TBD182, which may contribute to elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of its fungistatic activity. Copyright © 2017 Iida et al.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium sp. Strain TBD182, an Antagonist of the Plant-Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum, Isolated from a Novel Hydroponics System Using Organic Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Someya, Nobutaka; Shinohara, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhizobium sp. strain TBD182, isolated from a novel hydroponics system, is an antagonistic bacterium that inhibits the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum but does not eliminate the pathogen. We report the draft genome sequence of TBD182, which may contribute to elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of its fungistatic activity. PMID:28302768

  12. Autophagy deficiency promotes beta-lactam production in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszewska, Magdalena; Kiel, Jan A K W; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2011-02-01

    We have investigated the significance of autophagy in the production of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin (PEN) by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. In this fungus PEN production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. We demonstrate that under PEN-producing conditions significant amounts of cytosolic and peroxisomal proteins are degraded via autophagy. Morphological analysis, based on electron and fluorescence microscopy, revealed that this phenomenon might contribute to progressive deterioration of late subapical cells. We show that deletion of the P. chrysogenum ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae serine-threonine kinase atg1 results in impairment of autophagy. In P. chrysogenum atg1 cells, a distinct delay in cell degeneration is observed relative to wild-type cells. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the enzyme levels of the PEN biosynthetic pathway and enhanced production levels of this antibacterial compound.

  13. Production of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Moniliformin by Penicillium melanoconidium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas-Møller, Magnus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    Moniliformin is a mycotoxin produced by several cereal associated Fusaria. Here, we show for the first time that moniliformin can be produced by the cereal fungus, Penicillium melanoconidium (4 out of 4 strains), but not in the related species in the Viridicata series. Moniliformin was detected i...

  14. Production and partial characterization of arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes by Penicillium brasilianum under solid-state fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Granouillet, P.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    The production of a battery of arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes by the fungus Penicillium brasilianum grown on brewer's spent grain (BSG) under solid-state fermentation was investigated. Initial moisture content, initial pH, temperature, and nitrogen source content were optimized to achieve maximum...

  15. Penicillium cecidicola, a new species on cynipid insect galls on Quercus pacifica in the western United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, K.A.; Hoekstra, E.H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    A synnematous species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was found inside emergence tunnels from insect galls (Cynipidae, Hymenoptera, the so-called gall wasps) on scrub oaks (Quercus pacifica Nixon & C.H. Muller) collected in the western United States. The fungus produces synnemata with white...

  16. The polyene antimycotics nystatin and filipin disrupt the plasma membrane, whereas natamycin inhibits endocytosis in germinating conidia of Penicillium discolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.R.; Golovina, E.A.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the differences in membrane permeability and the effect on endocytosis of the polyene antimycotics nystatin, filipin and natamycin on germinating fungal conidia. Methods and Results: The model system was Penicillium discolor, a food spoilage fungus. Filipin resulted in permeabilizatio

  17. The polyene antimycotics nystatin and filipin disrupt the plasma membrane, whereas natamycin inhibits endocytosis in germinating conidia of Penicillium discolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.R.; Golovina, E.A.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the differences in membrane permeability and the effect on endocytosis of the polyene antimycotics nystatin, filipin and natamycin on germinating fungal conidia. Methods and Results: The model system was Penicillium discolor, a food spoilage fungus. Filipin resulted in permeabilizatio

  18. A Non-Canonical NRPS Is Involved in the Synthesis of Fungisporin and Related Hydrophobic Cyclic Tetrapeptides in Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Hazrat; Ries, Marco I.; Lankhorst, Peter P.; van der Hoeven, Rob A. M.; Schouten, Olaf L.; Noga, Marek; Hankemeier, Thomas; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum harbors an astonishing variety of nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, which encode proteins known to produce complex bioactive metabolites from simple building blocks. Here we report a novel non-canonical tetra-modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase

  19. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates with reduced sensitivity to fludioxonil from a commercial packinghouse in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue mold is caused by Penicillium expansum and is among the most economically significant disease of stored apples worldwide. The fungus gains ingress through cracks, natural openings, and wounds in the fruit and produces mycotoxins that contaminate processed apple products. All commercial apples a...

  20. Defined enzyme cocktail from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A effectively releases sugars from pretreated corn stover and switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jessica M.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Youssef, Noha H.

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces strain C1A is capable of growth on various types of lignocellulosic substrates, and harbors an impressive reservoir of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). Using a minimum enzyme cocktail strategy, we constituted a four-component lignocellulolytic cocktail derived from highly transcribed C1A, and evaluated its efficacy against pretreated corn stover and switchgrass. Hydrolysis yields ranged between 65–77.4%, depending on the lignocellulosic substrate and pretreatment applied. Addition of a highly expressed anaerobic fungal swollenin improved hydrolysis yields by up to 7%. Compared to the commercial cocktail CTec2, these anaerobic fungal cocktails provided comparable or slightly lower hydrolysis yields. Further, the differences in efficacy between commercial and anaerobic cocktails were often only realized after extended (168 hr) incubations. Under certain conditions, the hydrolysis yields of the anaerobic fungal cocktail was slightly superior to that realized by CTec2. We attribute the observed high hydrolysis yields to the high specific activity and affinity of the individual enzymes of the cocktail, as well as the high level of synergy and multi-functionality observed in multiple components. Collectively, this effort provides a novel platform for constructing highly effective enzymes for biofuel production and represents the first lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail created from anaerobic fungal enzymes. PMID:27381262

  1. Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Yeon-Sik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L. A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900 through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting

  2. Genetic diversity, recombination, and divergence in animal associated Penicillium dipodomyis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Henk

    Full Text Available Penicillium dipodomyis is thought to be an exclusively asexual fungus associated with Kangaroo Rats, Dipodomys species, and is unique among Penicillium species in growing at 37°C but producing no known toxins. Lack of recombination within P. dipodomyis would result in limited adaptive flexibility but possibly enhance local adaptation and host selection via maintenance of favourable genotypes. Here, analysis of DNA sequence data from five protein-coding genes shows that recombination occurs within P. dipodomyis on a small spatial scale. Furthermore, detection of mating-type alleles supports outcrossing and a sexual cycle in P. dipodomyis. P. dipodomyis was a weaker competitor in in vitro assays with other Penicillium species found in association with Kanagaroo rats. Bayesian species level analysis suggests that the P. dipodomyis lineage diverged from closely related species also found in cheek pouches of Kangaroo Rats and their stored seeds about 11 million years ago, a similar divergence time as Dipodomys from its sister rodent taxa.

  3. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  4. Thielavialides A-E, nor-spiro-azaphilones, and a bis-spiro-azaphilone from Thielavia sp. PA0001, an endophytic fungus isolated from aeroponically grown Physalis alkekengi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Gruener, Raphael; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2014-06-27

    Four new nor-spiro-azaphilones, thielavialides A-D (1- 4), a new bis-spiro-azaphilone, thielavialide E (5), together with pestafolide A (6), were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain, Thielavia sp. PA0001, occurring in the healthy leaf tissue of aeroponically grown Physalis alkekengi. The structures and relative configurations of 1-5 were established on the basis of their MS and NMR data. Possible biosynthetic pathways to thielavialides A-E (1- 5) from pestafolide A (6), some involving a Favorskii-like rearrangement, are proposed.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory and Cytoprotective Effects of TMC-256C1 from Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SF-6354 via up-Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Murine Hippocampal and Microglial Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of searching for bioactive secondary metabolites from marine fungi, TMC-256C1 was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SF6354. TMC-256C1 displayed anti-neuroinflammatory effect in BV2 microglial cells induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS as well as neuroprotective effect against glutamate-stimulated neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. TMC-256C1 was shown to develop a cellular resistance to oxidative damage caused by glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in HT22 cells, and suppress the inflammation process in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, the neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of TMC-256C1 were associated with upregulated expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in HT22 and BV2 cells. We also found that TMC-256C1 activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in HT22 and BV2 cells. These results demonstrated that TMC-256C1 activates HO-1 protein expression, probably by increasing nuclear Nrf2 levels via the activation of the p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  6. A natural Anopheles-associated Penicillium chrysogenum enhances mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yesseinia I. Angleró-Rodríguez; Benjamin J. Blumberg; Yuemei Dong; Sandiford, Simone L.; Andrew Pike; Clayton, April M.; George Dimopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect...

  7. [Biosynthesis of biologically active low-molecular weight compounds by fungi of the genus Penicillium (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskii, A G; Antipova, T V; Zhelifonova, V P

    2015-01-01

    The recent data on exometabolite biosynthesis in fungi of the genus Penicillium is summarized. The study of creative species, as well as those isolated from extreme ecotopes, resulted in the identification of a number of novel, biologically active compounds. Alkaloid biosynthesis has been shown to begin on.the first day of fungus cultivation and to proceed throughout the cultivation period. Idiophase kinetics was observed for the biosynthesis of polyketide metabolites. The mechanisms of regulation of biosynthesis of promising bioactive compounds are discussed.

  8. Functional characterization of a Penicillium chrysogenum mutanase gene induced upon co-cultivation with Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    I. Bajaj; Veiga, T.; Van Dissel, D.; Pronk, J. T.; Daran, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Microbial gene expression is strongly influenced by environmental growth conditions. Comparison of gene expression under different conditions is frequently used for functional analysis and to unravel regulatory networks, however, gene expression responses to co-cultivation with other microorganisms, a common occurrence in nature, is rarely studied under laboratory conditions. To explore cellular responses of the antibiotic-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum to prokaryotes, th...

  9. The ABC transporter ABC40 encodes a phenylacetic acid export system in Penicillium chrysogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Stefan S.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Bovenberg, Roe A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is used for the industrial production of beta-lactam antibiotics. The pathway for beta-lactam biosynthesis has been resolved and involves the enzyme phenylacetic acid CoA ligase that is responsible for the CoA activation of the side chain precursor phenylacetic acid (PAA) that is used for the biosynthesis of penicillin G. To identify ABC transporters related to beta-lactam biosynthesis, we analyzed the expression of all 48 ABC transporters presen...

  10. Two Novel Tyrosinase Inhibitory Sesquiterpenes Induced by CuCl2 from a Marine-Derived Fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. Z233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenes, 1β,5α,6α,14-tetraacetoxy-9α-benzoyloxy-7β H-eudesman-2β,11-diol (1 and 4α,5α-diacetoxy-9α-benzoyloxy-7βH-eudesman-1β,2β,11, 14-tetraol (2, were produced as stress metabolites in the cultured mycelia of Pestalotiopsis sp. Z233 isolated from the algae Sargassum horneri in response to abiotic stress elicitation by CuCl2. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means. New compounds 1 and 2 showed tyrosinase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 14.8 µM and 22.3 µM.

  11. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Es...

  12. 内生青霉菌对黄花蒿组培苗生长和青蒿素合成的影响%Effect of Endophytic Penicillium sp.Y2 on Growth and Artemisinin Biosynthesis of Plantlets in Tissue Cultures of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚菲; 董婷; 王剑文

    2011-01-01

    17 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from the stems of Artemisia annua L. Penicillium sp. Y2 could effectively promote the growth and artemisinin accumulation in the plantlets in tissue cultures of A. annua. After 5 days of broth culture,the fungal mycelium and culture medium were prepared for elicitors,including elicitor A(autoclaved conditioned homogenates of mycelia filtrates and medium) ,elicitor B(autoclaved conditioned medium) and elicitor C(filtrated conditioned medium). The results showed that all of the three fungal elicitors could promote the growth,induce activities of the antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase( SOD) , catalase( CAT) and peroxidase( POD) , and the accumulation of artemisinin. Elicitor C had the best effect on artemisinin induction among them. The dry weight and the content of soluble sugar of the tissue cultures of A. annua were increased by 44. 44 % and 38. 24% ,respectively. The content of artemisinin reached to 4. 701 mg·g-1 DW,a 58. 86 % increase over the control.%从黄花蒿茎中分离得到了17株内生真菌,其中内生青霉菌(Penicillium sp.Y2)能有效促进黄花蒿组培苗生长及青蒿素合成.内生青霉菌悬浮培养5d后,分别将培养液与菌丝匀浆后经过高压灭菌处理,或将培养液经过高压灭菌、过滤除菌处理获得3种内生菌诱导子(A、B和C).结果表明,3种内生菌诱导子对植株生长、抗氧化酶活性及青蒿素合成都有促进作用,诱导子C青蒿素合成诱导效果最好,可促进黄花蒿组培苗的干重增长44.44%、可溶性糖含量提高38.24%,诱导超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性,从而提高青蒿素合成达58.86%,黄花蒿组培苗青蒿素含量达4.701 mg·g-1(干重).

  13. Taxonomy of Penicillium citrinum and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Penicillium citrinum and related species have been examined using a combination of partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data, extrolite patterns and phenotypic characters. It is concluded that seven species belong to the series Citrina. Penicillium sizovae and Penicillium steckii are...

  14. Taxonomy of Penicillium citrinum and related species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Penicillium citrinum and related species have been examined using a combination of partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data, extrolite patterns and phenotypic characters. It is concluded that seven species belong to the series Citrina. Penicillium sizovae and Penicillium steckii are re

  15. Hirsutane-Type Sesquiterpenes with Inhibitory Activity of Microglial Nitric Oxide Production from the Red Alga-Derived Fungus Chondrostereum sp. NTOU4196.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, George; Chi, Wei-Chiung; Pang, Ka-Lai; Chen, Jih-Jung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Yu-Kai; Cha, Hyo-Jung; Chou, Shen-Chieh; Lee, Tzong-Huei

    2017-05-26

    The marine red alga Pterocladiella capillacea is an economic alga for the food industry in Taiwan, and its associated highly diversified fungi have not been investigated meticulously thus far. The EtOAc extract of the fermented broth of Chondrostereum sp. NTOU4196, a fungal strain isolated from P. capillacea, was found to exhibit significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine RAW 264.7 cells at a concentration of 100 μg/mL in the preliminary screening. Therefore, separation of the active principles from the fermented broths was performed, and that has led to the isolation of eight new 5,5,5-tricyclic hirsutane-type sesquiterpenes, namely, chondroterpenes A-H (1-8), together with seven known analogues. They were identified by analyses of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature values. Among the new isolates, chondroterpene A (1) exhibited more significant NO production inhibitory activity in murine BV-2 microglial cells, and of all the isolated compounds, hirsutanol A (9) exerted limited cytotoxic effects and the most potent inhibitory activity on NO production.

  16. Studies on the chemical constituents of Fusarium sp.from seagrass endophytic fungus%海草内生真菌Fusarium sp.F-1化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖义平; 陈晶晶; 张云海; 邵志宇; 徐德强

    2004-01-01

    从海草互花米草(Spartina alterni flora)中分离到真菌Fusarium sp.,从该菌株的培养物中首次分离到5个化合物,经TLC对照,MS,NMR等光谱技术鉴定,确定其结构分别为麦角甾醇(Ⅰ)、过氧化麦角甾醇(Ⅱ)、肉桂酸(Ⅲ)、对羟基苯丙酸(Ⅳ)和白僵菌素(Ⅴ).

  17. 海洋真菌Rhizopus sp.菌丝体中化学成分的研究%The chemical constituents from the mycelia of marine fungus Rhizopus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石瑛; 田黎; 裴月湖

    2005-01-01

    目的对海洋真菌Rhizopus sp.菌丝体的丙酮和甲醇萃取部分进行化学成分的研究.方法采用硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱、高效液相色谱等手段,利用理化和波谱分析方法,对海洋真菌Rhizopus sp.菌丝体中的化合物进行分离鉴定.结果与结论从该真菌菌丝体中分离得到6个化合物.经光谱数据分析,鉴定其结构为5α,8α-过氧麦角甾-6,22-二烯-3β-醇(1)、1-O-9(Z)-十八碳烯酰甘油酯(2)、麦角甾-7,22-二烯-3β,5α,6β-三醇(3)、麦角甾-8(9),22-二烯-3β,5α,6β,7α-四醇(4)、戊五醇(5)、尿素(6).这些化合物均为首次从该真菌菌丝体中分离得到.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Neoechinulin A from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through the Suppression of NF-кB and p38 MAPK Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Su Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a bioassay-guided study of metabolites from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989, two diketopiperazine type indole alkaloids, neoechinulins A and B, were isolated. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of neoechinulins A (1 and B (2 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Neoechinulin A (1 markedly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in a dose dependent manner ranging from 12.5 µM to 100 µM without affecting the cell viability. On the other hand, neoechinulin B (2 affected the cell viability at 25 µM although the compound displayed similar inhibitory effect of NO production to neoechinulin A (1 at lower doses. Furthermore, neoechinulin A (1 decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. We also confirmed that neoechinulin A (1 blocked the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappa B (IκB-α. Moreover, neoechinulin A (1 decreased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation. Therefore, these data showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of neoechinulin A (1 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inhibition of the NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways, suggesting that neoechinulin A (1 might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Benzaldehyde Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on Inflammatory Mediators via the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Su Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1 and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2, were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB. These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2 translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression.

  20. Inhibitory effects of benzaldehyde derivatives from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on inflammatory mediators via the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2014-12-19

    Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression.

  1. 一株昆虫内生真菌 Alternaria sp畅次级代谢产物研究%Secondary metabolites from the insect-derived endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲芝; 刘呈雄; 徐帮; 陈剑锋; 邹坤; 郭志勇

    2014-01-01

    采用硅胶柱色谱,Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱及HPLC等方法从昆虫共生真菌Alternaria sp.(Be-1)的发酵液分离得到7个代谢产物,经NMR,MS及理化性质等确定为4个环肽和3个聚酮类化合物,4-甲氧基格链孢酚(1),5′-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3′-triol(2),altenusin(3),二氢腾毒素(4),腾毒素(5),环(4-羟基-脯-亮)二肽(6)和cyclo(L-Phenylalanine-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline)(7)。测定了化合物1-7对抗肿瘤治疗靶点-受体酪氨酸激酶的抑制活性,药理实验结果表明,化合物1-6对三种酪氨酸激酶(EGFR,VEGFR-1,c-Met)具有不同程度的抑制活性,化合物1,3,6对EGFR,VEGFR-1,c-Met均具有强的抑制作用,而且化合物6还有选择性抑制EGFR和c-Met的活性。%Seven secondary metabolites were isolated from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp.(Be-1) by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and HPLC.Their structures were elucidated as alternariol 4-O-methyl ether(1),5′-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3′-triol(2),altenusin(3),tentoxin(4),dihydrotentoxin(5),cyclo(4-hydroxyl-Pro-Leu)(6), cyclo(L-Phenylalanine-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline)(7)by NMR and MS.The activity assay showed that compounds 1-6 displayed inhibitory activities against the three targets of tyrosine kinases (EGFR,VEGFR-1,c-Met),and compounds 1,3 and 6 showed strong inhibiting activities to EGFR, VEGFR-1,c-Met.At last,compound 6 displayed selectively inhibitory activity to EGFR and c-Met.

  2. 南海海洋真菌Fusarium sp.(# 2489)的代谢产物%STUDIES ON THE SECONDARY METABOLITES OF MARINE FUNGUS Fusarium sp. (# 2489) FROM THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    首次对南海海洋真菌Fusarium sp.(#2489)的代谢产物进行研究,从菌体和培养液中共分离纯化得10个化合物.它们的结构通过IR,MS,NMR谱以及元素分析推导确定.其中(3′E,4E)-1-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基-3-羟基-2-(2′-羟基十八碳酰基)氨基-10-甲基-3′,4,9-十八碳三烯(A)是鞘胺醇甙,为首次从海洋真菌中分离得到.

  3. Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples; Efeito da radiacao gama na frequencia de fungos toxigenicos em amostras de sene (Cassia angustifolia) e cha verde (Camellia sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com; Reis, T.A.; Zorzete, P.; Correa, B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Microbiologia; Goncalez, E.; Rossi, M.H. [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination.

  4. Woronin bodies in Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski Corpúsculos de woronin em Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire A.B. Pessoni

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski is an efficient microorganism for the production of extracellular inulinases and grows rapidly on medium containing sucrose or inulin as carbon source. Maintenance of this filamentous fungus on inulin medium induces secretion of large amounts of inulinases, but the resulting mycelium has thinner cell walls that easily collapse and break. Woronin bodies in hyphae of P. janczewskii grown on sucrose and inulin substrates were observed. No significant differences in the number, location, size and shape of Woronin bodies and level of plugging were observed in cultures of the fungus grown on the two carbon sources. The data indicate that the presence of Woronin bodies in P. janczewskii could not be associated with more easily damaged hyphae, although the function of these organelles in pore plugging has been confirmed.Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski é um microrganismo eficiente para a produção de inulisases extracelulares e cresce rapidamente em meio contendo sagarose ou inulina como fonte de carbono. A manutenção desse fungo filamentoso em meio com inulina induz a secreção de grandes quantidades de inulisanes, mas resulta na presença de um micélio com parede celulares mais finas, que facilmente colapsa e se danifica. A presença de corpúsculos de Woronin foi analisada nas hifas de P. janczewskii crescido em sacarose e inulina. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada no número, localização, tamanho e forma dos corpúsculos de Woronin e na obstrução dos poros dos septos nas culturas do fungo crescido nas duas diferentes fontes de carbono. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a presença dos corpúsculos de Woronin em P. janczewskii não pode ser associada com a presença de hifas mais facilmente danificadas, embora a função dessas organelas na obstrução dos poros dos septos tenha sido confirmada.

  5. Fifteen new species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visagie, C.M.; Renaud, J.B.; Burgess, K.M.N.; Malloch, D.W.; Clark, D.; Ketch, L.; Urb, M.; Louis-Seize, G.; Assabgui, R.; Sumarah, M.W.; Seifert, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees,

  6. Tremorgenic mycotoxin from Penicillium paraherquei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, T; Morooka, N; Sawada, Y; Udagawa, S I

    1976-09-01

    A tremorgenic mycotoxin was isolated from Penicillium paraherquei Abe ex G. Smith and identified as verruculogen. It was produced at the rate of approximately 1 mg/g of the dried fungal mycelium cultured on peptone-enriched Czapek-Dox medium at 28 degrees C.

  7. 白木香内生真菌Aspergillus sp.A14的挥发性成分及其抗菌活性%Volatile Constituents and Their Antimicrobial Activities of Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. A14 from Aquilaria sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭可; 梅文莉; 吴娇; 戴好富

    2011-01-01

    通过溶剂萃取法提取白木香内生真菌A14(Aspergillus sp.)的挥发油,采用滤纸片琼脂扩散法分别测定了其对3种人体病原菌的体外抑菌活性.结果表明:A14挥发油对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(Methicillin-resistant S.aureus,MRSA)和白色念珠菌(Candida albicans)均表现出一定抑制作用.应用GC-MS技术,分析鉴定了内生真菌A14挥发油的14个化学成分,显示蜂蜜曲菌素是其中的主要成分,占挥发油峰面积的93.41%.%The volatile oils of endophytic fungus A14 (Aspergillus sp. ) from Aquilaria sinensis were extracted by solvent method and their antimicrobial activities against 3 pathogens were tested by agar disc diffusion method. The results indicated that the volatile oils of A14 exhibited weak antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) as well as Candida albicans. Fourteen ingredients were identified from the volatile oil of A14 by GC-MS analysis,and mellein was the main component,which accounted for 93.41% of the peak area.

  8. Simulated microgravity inhibits cell wall regeneration of Penicillium decumbens protoplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Sun, Y.; Yi, Z. C.; Rong, L.; Zhuang, F. Y.; Fan, Y. B.

    2010-09-01

    This work compares cell wall regeneration from protoplasts of the fungus Penicillium decumbens under rotary culture (simulated microgravity) and stationary cultures. Using an optimized lytic enzyme mixture, protoplasts were successfully released with a yield of 5.3 × 10 5 cells/mL. Under simulated microgravity conditions, the protoplast regeneration efficiency was 33.8%, lower than 44.9% under stationary conditions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy gave direct evidence for reduced formation of polysaccharides under simulated conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed the delayed process of cell wall regeneration by simulated microgravity. The delayed regeneration of P. decumbens cell wall under simulated microgravity was likely caused by the inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis. This research contributes to the understanding of how gravitational loads affect morphological and physiological processes of fungi.

  9. 红树林耐酸真菌Aspergillus sp.OUCMDZ-1914次生代谢产物研究%Bioactive Natural Products of Aspergillus sp.OUCMDZ-1914, an Aciduric Fungus from the Mangrove Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亚伟; 王立平; 王义; 王伟; 郝杰杰; 朱伟明

    2015-01-01

    为获得活性微生物代谢产物,从海南文昌红树林根泥样品中分离筛选到耐酸真菌Aspergillus sp.OUCMDZ-1914,通过酸性条件发酵培养,发酵产物经过硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和半制备高效液相色谱进行分离纯化,运用NMR、MS、UV、IR、X射线单晶衍射等手段鉴定了9个化合物的化学结构,即;(2Z,3E,5E,7E,9E)-4,10-二甲基-11-[3-(2,5-二氧亚基四氢吡咯)基]-2-(2-羟基乙亚基)-11-氧亚基-3,5,7,9-十一碳四烯酸甲酯(1)、RKB-3384A (2)、JBIR-74(3)、JBIR-75(4)、secalonic acid D (5)、oxaline (6)、meleagrin (7)、okaramine H (8)、citreorosein (9),其中1为新化合物.活性测试表明化合物2对甲型流感病毒H1N1的抑制活性与阳性药利巴韦林相当,IC50为116.2 μmol/L;化合物5对A549、MCF-7和K562细胞株表现出较好的抑制活性,IC50分别0.23,4.45和3.68 μmol/L;化合物6具有α-糖苷酶抑制活性,IC50为0.84mmol/L,与阳性药阿卡波糖相当.

  10. Penicillium subrubescens, a new species efficiently producing inulinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, S; Houbraken, J; Samson, R A; Frisvad, J C; Christensen, M; Tuthill, D E; Koutaniemi, S; Hatakka, A; Lankinen, P

    2013-06-01

    Inulin is a reserve carbohydrate in about 15 % of the flowering plants and is accumulated in underground tubers of e.g. chicory, dahlia and Jerusalem artichoke. This carbohydrate consists of linear chains of β-(2,1)-linked fructose attached to a sucrose molecule. Inulinases hydrolyse inulin into fructose and glucose. To find efficient inulin degrading fungi, 126 fungal strains from the Fungal Biotechnology Culture Collection (FBCC) at University of Helsinki and 74 freshly isolated strains from soil around Jerusalem artichoke tubers were screened in liquid cultures with inulin as a sole source of carbon or ground Jerusalem artichoke tubers, which contains up to 19 % (fresh weight) inulin. Inulinase and invertase activities were assayed by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and a freshly isolated Penicillium strain originating from agricultural soil (FBCC 1632) was the most efficient inulinase producer. When it was cultivated at pH 6 and 28 °C in 2 litre bioreactors using inulin and Jerusalem artichoke as a carbon source, inulinase and invertase activities were on day 4 7.7 and 3.1 U mL(-1), respectively. The released sugars analysed by TLC and HPLC showed that considerable amounts of fructose were released while the levels of oligofructans were low, indicating an exoinulinase type of activity. Taxonomic study of the inulinase producing strain showed that this isolate represents a new species belonging in Penicillium section Lanata-divaricata. This new species produces a unique combination of extrolites and is phenotypically and phylogenetically closely related to Penicillium pulvillorum. We propose the name Penicillium subrubescens sp. nov. (CBS 132785(T) = FBCC 1632(T)) for this new species.

  11. Production of ß-Glucosidase by Penicillium purpurogenum Produção de ß-glucosidase por Penicillium purpurogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Dhake

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Penicillium purpurogenum was found to produce intracellular ß-glucosidase. Maximum activity of ß-glucosidase was observed on sucrose. Various cultural parameters of cultivation of P. purpurogenum for production of ß-glucosidase were optimized. Maximum enzyme content was observed after 96 hours of cultivation at 30º;C. Addition of amino acids histidine and cysteine induced ß-glucosidase synthesis to certain extent. The optimum temperature and pH for ß-glucosidase activity was 50º;C and 5.5 respectively. ß-glucosidase of P.purpurogenum shows stability at pH 2 thus it could be an ideal enzyme for debittering in fruit juice and wine industries.Verificou-se que Penicillium purpurogenum foi capaz de produzir ß-glucosidase intracelular, com atividade máxima sobre a sacarose. Vários parâmetros culturais para produção da enzima foram otimizados. Verificou-se que a produção máxima da enzima ocorria após 96 h de cultivo a 30º;C. A adição dos amino-ácidos histidina e cisteína induziram a síntese da enzima até certo ponto. A temperatura e pH ótimos para atividade da enzima foram 50º;C e 5,5, respectivamente. A ß-glucosidase de Penicillium purpurogenum foi estável em pH 2,0, o que torna a enzima ideal para uso na indústria de sucos de frutas e vinhos.

  12. The Steroids and Their Bioactivities of a Sponge-Derived Fungus Pleosporaceae sp.%一株海绵共附生真菌Pleosporaceaesp.中甾体类化合物及其生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琨; 孙雪萍; 韩磊; 郑彩娟; 陈敏; 邵长伦; 佘志刚; 王长云

    2011-01-01

    Under the guidance of bioassay, five steroids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a sponge-derived fungus Pleosporaceae sp. By column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 and preparative-HPLC, Their structures were elucidated as (22E, 24jR)-5α,8α-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3β-ol (1), (22E,24R)-5α,8α-epidioxy-ergosta -6,9,22-trien-3β-ol (2), (22E)-ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol (3), ergosta-6α-hydroxy-4,22-dien-3-one (4) and (22E)-5crcholesta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β-triol (5), respectively, on the basis of their spectroscopic data including NMR and MS, combining with the data of literatures. All of the compounds were isolated from the genus of Pleosporaceae for the first time. Compounds 1 and 5 exhibited strong lethality to brine shrimp Artemia salina. And compound 1 showed potent antifouling activity against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite with the EC50 of 0. 85 μg/mL.%在生物活性测定指导下,综合运用硅胶柱层析、凝胶柱层析以及半制备HPLC等方法,从南海海绵Xestos pongia testudinaria来源的一株共附生真菌Pleosporaceae sp.发酵液的乙酸乙酯提取物中分离鉴定出5个甾体类化物,通过NMR,MS等波谱技术鉴定其结构分别为:(22E,24R)-5α,8α- epidioxy-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (1),(22E,24R)-5α,8α- epidioxy-ergosta-6,9,22-trien-3-ol (2),(22E)-ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol (3),ergosta-6α-hydroxy-4,22-dien-3-one (4),(22E)-5α-cholesta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β-triol (5).这些化合物均为首次从leos poraceae属真菌中分离获得.化合物1,4和5具有较强的卤虫Artemia salina致死活性,化合物1还显示强的抗藤壶Balanus amphitrite附着活性,其EC5o为0.85 μg/mL.

  13. The Penicillium Chrysogenum Extracellular Proteome. Conversion from a Food-rotting Strain to a Versatile Cell Factory for White Biotechnology*

    OpenAIRE

    Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; García-Estrada, Carlos; Barreiro, Carlos; Cuadrado, Abel-Alberto; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is well-known by its ability to synthesize β-lactam antibiotics as well as other secondary metabolites. Like other filamentous fungi, this microorganism is an excellent host for secretion of extracellular proteins because of the high capacity of its protein secretion machinery. In this work, we have characterized the extracellular proteome reference map of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54–1255 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. This method allowe...

  14. Efficient transformation of Penicillium chrysogenum mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 for cloning of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene

    OpenAIRE

    Sun,Chuan-Bao; Kong,Qiu-Lian; Xu,Wen-Si

    2002-01-01

    The vgb and bleomycin resistance genes could be efficiently transferred into the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum under help of T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 and the transferred genes were integrated at a chromosomal locus of P. chrysogenum. Transformation using A. tumefaciens LBA4404 could be enhanced in the presence of acetosyringone (AS) when being carried out in the conidiaand mycelium. The efficiencies of transformation could be improved up to 10 folds compared wit...

  15. Characterization of cellulase enzyme produced by Chaetomium sp. isolated from books and archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moza Mohammed AL-Kharousi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cellulase is an important industrial enzyme used to degrade cellulosic biomass. The demand for cellulase enzyme is continuously increasing because of its applications in various industries. Hence, screening of cellulase producing microorganisms from different sources has gained significant importance. Material and Methods: In this study, fungi isolated from books and archives were screened for their cellulase producing abilities. Four different fungi were isolated from books and archives using potato dextrose agar. Screening of these isolates for cellulase production was carried out using carboxymethyl cellulose broth. The most efficient fungus was subjected to cellulase fermentation and enzymes produced were purified and partially characterized. Results: Four different fungi, Chaetomium sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans and Penicillium sp., were isolated from books and archives. All the isolates were tested for their ability to producecellulase enzyme. During the primary screening Chaetomium sp. showed good growth and highercellulase activity (155.3±25.6 U/mL in carboxymethyl cellulose medium than the other fungi. The cellulase fermentation study was conducted with Chaetomium sp. using carboxymethyl cellulose asa substrate. During the stationary phase (144 h of the growth, the cellulase activity of Chaetomium sp. was significantly high. The maximum mycelial weight of this fungi was obtained at 168 h. Viscosity of the Chaetomium sp. inoculated fermentation medium continuously decreased until 144 h because of the degradation of carboxymethyl cellulose. During cellulase fermentation, pHincreased from the initial neutral pH to 8.5. Purified cellulase showed a specific activity of 7.3 U/mg. It exhibited maximum activity at 20°C and was stable between pH 5 and 9. Conclusions: Books and archives could be a good source for the isolation of cellulase producing fungi.

  16. 来源于青霉XMZ-9两个低温脂肪酶的基因克隆、原核表达与性质测定%Gene cloning, expression and characterization of two cold-adapted lipases from Penicillium sp.XMZ-9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小梅; 伍宁丰; 范云六

    2012-01-01

    Cold-adapted lipases are attractive biocatalysts that can be used at low temperatures as additives in food products, laundry detergents, and the organic synthesis of chiral intermediates. Cold-adapted Upases are normally found in microorganisms that survive at low temperatures. A fungi strain XMZ-9 exhibiting lipolytic activity was isolated from the soil of glaciers in Xinjiang by the screening plates using 1% tributyrin as the substrate and Victoria blue as an indicator. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons of its 1SS rDNA, the strain was identified as Penicillium sp. The partial nucleotide sequences of these two lipase related genes, LipA and LipB, were obtained by touchdown PCR using the degenerate primers designed according to the conservative domains of lipase. The full-length sequences of two genes were obtained by genome walking. The gene lipA contained 1 014 nucleotides, without any intron, comprising one open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The gene lipB comprised two introns (61 bp and 49 bp) and a coding region sequence of 1 122 bp encoding a polypeptide of 373 amino acids. cDNA sequences of both lipA and lipB were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant LipA was mostly expressed as inclusion bodies, and recovered lipase activity at low temperature after in vitro refolded by dilution. Differently, the recombinant LipB was expressed in the soluble form and then purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography Column. It showed high lipase activity at low temperature. These results indicated that they were cold-adapted enzymes. This study paves the way for the further research of these cold-adapted lipases for application in the industry.%低温脂肪酶在低温条件下仍具有较高活性,在食品添加剂、洗涤添加剂及有机合成等产业具有非常独特的应用前景.从低温菌株中分离低温脂肪酶基因是开发新的低温脂

  17. Production of tremorgenic toxins by Penicillium janthinellum Biourge: a possible aetiological factor in ryegrass staggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, G W; Payne, A L; Cockrum, P A

    1979-02-01

    Topsoil, herbage and faeces collected during an outbreak of ryegrass staggers in sheep were examined for tremorgenic penicillia. No such fungi were recovered from the plant material, but they were found among the predominant fungi in the soil and faecal samples. The commonest species of Penicillium, and almost the only tremorgenic species encountered, was Penicillium janthinellum Biourge. When fed to sheep, the mycelium of this fungus evoked a number of the clinical signs seen in field cases of ryegrass staggers. Two tremorgenic toxins were isolated from the mycelial felts and available evidence indicates that they are verruculogen and fumitremorgin A. P. janthinellum also produced these tremorgens when cultured in moist, autoclaved soil, but not in unheated soil. The results obtained from this study are in accord with the hypothesis that ryegrass staggers is caused by tremorgenic mycotoxins.

  18. The small molecular mass antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum--a mechanism of action oriented review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Nikoletta; Leiter, Eva; Kovács, Barbara; Tomori, Valéria; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Emri, Tamás; Marx, Florentine; Batta, Gyula; Csernoch, László; Haas, Hubertus; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Pócsi, István

    2011-12-01

    The β-lactam producing filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum secretes a 6.25 kDa small molecular mass antifungal protein, PAF, which has a highly stable, compact 3D structure and is effective against a wide spectrum of plant and zoo pathogenic fungi. Its precise physiological functions and mode of action need to be elucidated before considering possible biomedical, agricultural or food technological applications. According to some more recent experimental data, PAF plays an important role in the fine-tuning of conidiogenesis in Penicillium chrysogenum. PAF triggers apoptotic cell death in sensitive fungi, and cell death signaling may be transmitted through two-component systems, heterotrimeric G protein coupled signal transduction and regulatory networks as well as via alteration of the Ca(2+) -homeostasis of the cells. Possible biotechnological applications of PAF are also outlined in the review.

  19. Ecophysiological characterization of Penicillium expansum population in lleida (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Hector; Marín, Sonia; Obea, Laura; Patiño, Belén; Doménech, Miriam; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente

    2008-03-20

    Penicillium expansum, a patulin producer fungus, is the most important fungus causing decay in cold stored both apples and pears. This can lead to patulin contaminated by-products. The aim of this assay was to evaluate the phenotypical and physiological variability in the population of P. expansum that cause fruit spoilage in post-harvest stages in Lleida (Spain). In total, 101 isolates of P. expansum from the 2004 and the 2005 seasons were obtained from decayed fruits. Significant differences were found in the observations from both seasons. Variability of the isolates in each season seemed to be partially explained by differences in growth in media, patulin accumulation and resistance to fungicides. Patulin production was detected in almost 100% of the isolates. Variability existing in P. expansum population could not be totally explained, but the above mentioned variables explained up to 74% of the diversity in some cases. The results obtained point to the existence of different populations of P. expansum in each season and may explain the differences in fungicide resistance observed between both seasons. The capacity to colonize apple flesh and some variables involved in fruit colonization were not a source of variation neither in each season nor when both seasons were compared. As storage rooms are cleaned and disinfected each season, this suggests that each season, the populations in storage rooms develop only from strains capable to colonize apple flesh. This may lead to rapid sporulation and spreading of spores.

  20. Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by Penicillium chrysogenum

    OpenAIRE

    D’Antonio, Domenico; Violante, Beatrice; Farina, Claudio; Sacco, Rocco; Angelucci, Domenico; Masciulli, Maurizio; Iacone, Antonio; Romano, Ferdinando

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of necrotizing pneumonia due to Penicillium chrysogenum in a 57-year-old woman operated on for lung cancer. The residual right lower pulmonary lobe was infiltrated by Penicillium chrysogenum. The patient underwent a second pulmonary right lobectomy and was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pneumonia due to P. chrysogenum.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methylpenicinoline from a Marine Isolate of Penicillium sp. (SF-5995: Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Macrophages and BV2 Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a search for anti-inflammatory metabolites from marine-derived fungi, methylpenicinoline (1 was isolated from a marine isolate of Penicillin sp. Compound 1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS in RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia. It also attenuated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in a concentration-dependent manner (from 10 μM to 80 μM without affecting cell viability. In addition, compound 1 reduced the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β. In a further study designed to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effects, compound 1 was shown to block nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia by inhibiting the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B-α (IκB-α, thereby suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB dimers, namely p50 and p65, that are known to be crucial molecules associated with iNOS and COX-2 expression. In addition, compound 1 inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Taken together, the results suggest that compound 1 might be a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment of anti-inflammatory and anti-neuroinflammatory diseases.

  2. White Fungus Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: two pieces of white fungus, a handful of Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts. Directions: 1. Soak the dried fungus in water, remove the roots and then cook. 2. Steep the Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts in water for a while.

  3. Growth and enzyme production by three Penicillium species on monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Krogh, Astrid Mørkeberg; Krogh, Kristian Bertel Rømer;

    2004-01-01

    The growth and preference for utilisation of various sugar by the Penicillium species Penicillium pinophilum IBT 4186, Penicillium persicinum IBT 13226 and Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888 was studied in batch cultivations using various monosaccharides as carbon source, either alone or in mixtures...

  4. Tremorgenic Toxin from Penicillium verruculosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R. J.; Kirksey, J. W.; Moore, J. H.; Blankenship, B. R.; Diener, U. L.; Davis, N. D.

    1972-01-01

    A new mycotoxin that produces severe tremors and acute toxicity when administered orally or intraperitoneally (ip) to mice and 1-day-old cockerels was obtained from a strain of Penicillium verruculosum Peyronel isolated from peanuts. The ip 50% lethal dose (LD50) of this tremorgen was 2.4 mg/kg in mice and 15.2 mg/kg in chickens. Orally administered LD50 values for the toxin were 126.7 mg/kg in mice and 365.5 mg/kg in chickens. The trivial name „verruculogen” is proposed for this tremorgenic mycotoxin. Physical and chemical characteristics of the mycotoxin are described. PMID:4341967

  5. Tremorgenic toxin from Penicillium veruculosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R J; Kirksey, J W; Moore, J H; Blankenship, B R; Diener, U L; Davis, N D

    1972-08-01

    A new mycotoxin that produces severe tremors and acute toxicity when administered orally or intraperitoneally (ip) to mice and 1-day-old cockerels was obtained from a strain of Penicillium verruculosum Peyronel isolated from peanuts. The ip 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of this tremorgen was 2.4 mg/kg in mice and 15.2 mg/kg in chickens. Orally administered LD(50) values for the toxin were 126.7 mg/kg in mice and 365.5 mg/kg in chickens. The trivial name "verruculogen" is proposed for this tremorgenic mycotoxin. Physical and chemical characteristics of the mycotoxin are described.

  6. Fructooligosaccharide production by Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Margarida B; Mussatto, Solange I; Rodrigues, Lígia R; Teixeira, José A

    2010-06-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production by Penicillium expansum was evaluated. In a first stage, the best conditions for P. expansum growth and sporulation were established with potato/dextrose/agar being the most suitable medium at between 22 and 25 degrees C, giving good growth and good sporulation. The inocula from this medium were used for FOS production using shake-flask cultures, and yielded 0.58 g FOS/g sucrose (3.25 g FOS/l.h), demonstrating the potential of this strain for sucrose conversion to FOS.

  7. PRODUCTION OF SINGLE CELL PROTEIN, ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS, AND XYLANASE BY PENICILLIUM JANTHINELLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala B. Rao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biomass having 46% crude protein content and enriched with essential amino acids as well as extracellular xylanase activity (100-150 IU/ml was produced by an efficient fungal strain, Penicillium janthinellum (NCIM St-F-3b. Optimization studies for maximum xylanase and biomass production showed that the fungus required a simple medium containing bagasse hemicellulose as carbon source and ammonium sulphate as the nitrogen source. Therefore bagasse, which is a waste product of the sugar industry, can be efficiently used in microbioal biomass protein preparation for animal feed.

  8. Purification and characterization of five cellulases and one xylanase from Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Eriksson, T.; Borjesson, J.;

    2003-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888 was cultivated on a mixture of 30 g l(-1) cellulose and 10 g l(-1) xylan for 111 h and the resulting culture filtrate was used for protein purification. From the cultivation broth, five cellulases and one xylanase were purified. Hydrolysis...... the cellulose-binding domain or an essential part of it. The basic xylanase (pI > 9) was only active towards xylan. Two of the purified cellulases with endoglucanase activity were partly sequenced and based on sequence homology with known enzymes they were classified as belonging to families 5 and 12...

  9. Penicillium species present in Uruguayan salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvalisi, Umberto; Lupo, Sandra; Piccini, Juan; Bettucci, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The surface coverage of certain dry fermented sausages such as Italian salami by some species of Penicillium provides their characteristic flavor and other beneficial properties. One of them is the protective effect by means of a uniform film of white mold against undesirable microorganisms. The aim of this work was to identify and to isolate the fungal species present in mature Italian type of salami and to evaluate if it is possible to obtain some of them as starters. In addition, the effects of temperature (14 °C and 25 °C), water activity (a w) (0.90, 0.95 and 0.995) and 2.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) on fungal growth were determined. Similarly, the proteolytic and lipolytic activity and the ability to produce toxic secondary metabolites were evaluated in order to characterize some possible starter strain. All species found belong to the genus Penicillium, including a performing starter as Penicillium nalgiovense and some potentially toxicogenic species. All the strains showed a higher growth rate at 25 °C. The production of extracellular proteases and lipases was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 14 °C with and without sodium chloride. Only Penicillium expansum produced patulin. On the other hand, Penicillium griseofulvum was the only species that produced ciclopiazonic acid but none of the strains produced penicillin. The species present on salami, Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium minioluteum, Penicillium brevicompactum and Penicillium puberulum were unable to produce any of the evaluated toxins. These findings suggest that some fungal isolates from the surface of salami such as P. nalgiovense are potentially useful as starters in sausage manufacture.

  10. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  11. 61. STUDY ON MUTAGENICITY OF PENICILLIUM DIGITATUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum (P. digitatum) is a pathogenic fungus mildewed fruits and its process products. There were some events of poisoning on the clinic because fruits and its process products mildewed by the fungi are eaten. A lot of reports were about the study on acute poisoning on this hand. But there were few reports about the study on genetoxicity, and therefor we determined the mutagenicity of P. digitatum with different methods to provide scientific basis for prevent the effect of human genetoxicity. METHODS: ① The preparation of extract from P. digitatum: Preponderant fungus separated from mildewed fruits was incubated in the Czapak's medium for two weeks, and then it was extracted with CHCL2 and evaporated. It was dissolved by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for use. ② Bacterial reverse mutation assay: The assay was without S9 mix. E. coli ND-160 strain was used in the assay. The assay set up negative control, positive control and test group, The test group contained four concentrations (3.125 mg/plate, 6.25 mg/plate, 12.5 mg/plate and 25 mg/plate). ③ Micronucleus assay of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in mice bone marrow. The assay was individed into negative control group (0.9% NaCl, 20 ul/mice), positive control group (cyclophosphamide, CP, 30 mg/kg B.W.) and test group (extract, 250 mg/kg B.W.). ④ Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in primary cells of lung and liver of rat. Fresh cells separated from lung and liver were incubated. There were three groups in the test. They were negative control group SO, 1%(v/v)], positive control group (10-7 mol/L 3-MC for lung cell; 10-7 mol/L HN2. HCL for liver cell). The radioactivity of cells that were treated was detected. The result showed unscheduled incorporation index, and the index represented the level of UDS. ⑤ Mutation assay in E. coli K12 infA gene. Using E. coli K12 strain as mutation target, partial infA gene was amplified by PCR, and the overlapping fragments were cloned into PGEN-T vector

  12. Tremella with Edible Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (Meiwei Shuang’er)Remove the tremella and edible fungus roots, clean and drain. Slice green peppers and carrots.Heat some oil in a wok, add tremella, edible fungus, green peppers and carrots, and clear stock, salt and sugar. Simmer for two minutes. Add MSG and pepper, remove to a plate, and serve.Features: Attractively black and white.Taste: Crisp and savory.

  13. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... in foodstuff, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical manufac- turing processes (Francis ... marine Penicillium produced pigments (PP-V and PP-R) and these are similar in ...

  14. Fifteen new species of Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Renaud, J B; Burgess, K M N; Malloch, D W; Clark, D; Ketch, L; Urb, M; Louis-Seize, G; Assabgui, R; Sumarah, M W; Seifert, K A

    2016-06-01

    We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees, infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants, intestinal contents of caterpillars and soil. The new species are classified in sections Aspergilloides (1), Canescentia (2), Charlesia (1), Exilicaulis (3), Lanata-Divaricata (7) and Stolkia (1). Each is characterised and described using classical morphology, LC-MS based extrolite analyses and multigene phylogenies based on ITS, BenA and CaM. Significant extrolites detected include andrastin, pulvilloric acid, penitrem A and citrinin amongst many others.

  15. Proteomics Shows New Faces for the Old Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barreiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi comprise a vast group of microorganisms including the Ascomycota (majority of all described fungi, the Basidiomycota (mushrooms or higher fungi, and the Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota (basal or lower fungi that produce industrially interesting secondary metabolites, such as β-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs world-wide. Since Fleming's initial discovery of Penicillium notatum 80 years ago, the role of Penicillium as an antimicrobial source became patent. After the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 six decades ago, classical mutagenesis and screening programs led to the development of industrial strains with increased productivity (at least three orders of magnitude. The new “omics” era has provided the key to understand the underlying mechanisms of the industrial strain improvement process. The review of different proteomics methods applied to P. chrysogenum has revealed that industrial modification of this microorganism was a consequence of a careful rebalancing of several metabolic pathways. In addition, the secretome analysis of P. chrysogenum has opened the door to new industrial applications for this versatile filamentous fungus.

  16. Proteomics shows new faces for the old penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Carlos; Martín, Juan F; García-Estrada, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Fungi comprise a vast group of microorganisms including the Ascomycota (majority of all described fungi), the Basidiomycota (mushrooms or higher fungi), and the Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota (basal or lower fungi) that produce industrially interesting secondary metabolites, such as β-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs world-wide. Since Fleming's initial discovery of Penicillium notatum 80 years ago, the role of Penicillium as an antimicrobial source became patent. After the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 six decades ago, classical mutagenesis and screening programs led to the development of industrial strains with increased productivity (at least three orders of magnitude). The new "omics" era has provided the key to understand the underlying mechanisms of the industrial strain improvement process. The review of different proteomics methods applied to P. chrysogenum has revealed that industrial modification of this microorganism was a consequence of a careful rebalancing of several metabolic pathways. In addition, the secretome analysis of P. chrysogenum has opened the door to new industrial applications for this versatile filamentous fungus.

  17. Multiple brain abscesses due to Penicillium spp infection Abscessos cerebrais múltiplos causados por infecção por Penicillium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Teixeira Noritomi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of central nervous system (CNS infection by a member of the Penicillium genera in a HIV-negative man in Brazil. The patient was admitted complaining of loss of visual fields and speech disturbances. CT scan revealed multiple brain abscesses. Stereothacic biopsies revealed fungal infection and amphotericin B treatment begun with initial improvement. The patient died few days later as a consequence of massive gastrointestinal bleeding due to ruptured esophageal varices. The necropsy and final microbiologic analyses disclosed infection by Penicillium sp. There are thousands of fungal species of the Penicillium genera. Systemic penicilliosis is caused by the P. marneffei and was formerly a rare disease, but now is one of the most common opportunistic infection of AIDS patients in Southeast Asia. The clinical presentation usually involves the respiratory system and the skin, besides general symptoms like fever and weight loss. Penicillium spp infection caused by species other than P. marneffei normally cause only superficial or allergic disease but rare cases of invasive disease do occur. We report the fourth case of Penicillium spp CNS infection.Apresentamos um caso de infecção do sistema nervoso central (SNC por Penicillium spp em paciente do sexo masculino, HIV-negativo no Brasil. O paciente apresentou-se ao Serviço de Urgência do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo queixando-se de alteração visual e dificuldade na fala. Exames de neuroimagem mostraram lesões múltiplas, compatíveis com abscessos. A biópsia esterotáxica revelou infecção fúngica, iniciando-se o tratamento com anfotericina B com sucesso inicial. O paciente morreu poucos dias depois, vítima de uma hemorragia digestiva maciça devido a varizes de esôfago. A necropsia e a análise microbiológica final da biópsia cerebral revelaram infecção por Penicillium spp. Exixtem centenas de espécies de fungos do g

  18. Comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. ... microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products.

  19. Co-synergism of endophyte Penicillium resedanum LK6 with salicylic acid helped Capsicum annuum in biomass recovery and osmotic stress mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Lee, In-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background Water-deficiency adversely affects crop growth by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) at cellular level. To mitigate such stressful events, it was aimed to investigate the co-synergism of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and symbiosis of endophytic fungus with Capsicum annuum L. (pepper). Results The findings of the study showed that exogenous SA (10-6 M) application to endophyte (Penicillium resedanum LK6) infected plants not only increased the shoot length and chlorophyll conte...

  20. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhuis Marten; van der Klei Ida J; Klaassen Paul; Bovenberg Roel AL; Gidijala Loknath; Kiel Jan AKW

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background β-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldest known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Yeast species have the advantage of being versatile, easy to handle and cultivate, and possess superior fermentation properties relative to filamentous...

  1. The Biosynthetic Gene Cluster for Andrastin A in Penicillium roqueforti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Rojas-Aedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium roqueforti is a filamentous fungus involved in the ripening of several kinds of blue cheeses. In addition, this fungus produces several secondary metabolites, including the meroterpenoid compound andrastin A, a promising antitumoral compound. However, to date the genomic cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of this compound in P. roqueforti has not been described. In this work, we have sequenced and annotated a genomic region of approximately 29.4 kbp (named the adr gene cluster that is involved in the biosynthesis of andrastin A in P. roqueforti. This region contains ten genes, named adrA, adrC, adrD, adrE, adrF, adrG, adrH, adrI, adrJ and adrK. Interestingly, the adrB gene previously found in the adr cluster from P. chrysogenum, was found as a residual pseudogene in the adr cluster from P. roqueforti. RNA-mediated gene silencing of each of the ten genes resulted in significant reductions in andrastin A production, confirming that all of them are involved in the biosynthesis of this compound. Of particular interest was the adrC gene, encoding for a major facilitator superfamily transporter. According to our results, this gene is required for the production of andrastin A but does not have any role in its secretion to the extracellular medium. The identification of the adr cluster in P. roqueforti will be important to understand the molecular basis of the production of andrastin A, and for the obtainment of strains of P. roqueforti overproducing andrastin A that might be of interest for the cheese industry.

  2. A retrospective review on successful management of Penicillium marneffei infections in patients with advanced HIV in Hospital Sungai Buloh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor-Hayati, S; Sahlawati, M; Suresh-Kumar, C; Lee, K C Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus which commonly causes a life threatening systemic fungal infection in an immunocompromised host. It has been recognized as an AIDS defining illness in Malaysia since the beginning of the HIV pandemic. The presence of various non specific clinical presentations, especially the characteristic umbilicated papular rashes with central necrosis which lead to significant ill health in immunocompromised patients should alarm clinicians to the possibility of Penicillium marneffei infection and prompt investigations accordingly. Simple investigations like blood culture and fungal staining of the skin scrapping can confirm the diagnosis in the majority of cases. Early treatment with appropriate systemic antifungal for a definite duration will significantly decrease the mortality rate from penicilliosis.

  3. Safety evaluation of nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazushige; Mizuhashi, Fukutaro; Lynch, Barry S; Vo, Trung D; Roberts, Ashley S

    2016-02-01

    Nuclease P1 has been widely used in the food industry to enhance or create flavor. One commercial source of this enzyme is Penicillium citrinum, an anamorphic mesophilic fungus with a long history of safe use in Europe and Asia as a fermentation organism used in the production of ribonucleases. Given the intended use in food for human consumption, and noting its potential presence at trace levels in finished products, a series of safety studies including an in vitro Ames and chromosome aberration assay, an in vivo rat erythrocyte micronucleus assay and a 90-day oral toxicity study in rats were conducted. No mutagenic activity was observed in the Ames assay. Equivocal activity in the chromosome aberration assay was not replicated in the micronucleus assay at doses of up to 1007 mg total organic solids (TOS)/kg body weight (bw)/day. Following oral administration of nuclease P1 at dosages of 10.1, 101 or 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day to Sprague-Dawley rats, no adverse effects on any study parameter were observed. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day. The results of the genotoxicity studies and subchronic rat study support the safe use in food production of nuclease P1 produced from P. citrinum.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9 Based Genome Editing of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C; Kiel, J A K W; Driessen, A J M; Bovenberg, R A L; Nygård, Y

    2016-07-15

    CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially relevant cell factory. The developed CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox is highly flexible and allows editing of new targets with minimal cloning efforts. The Cas9 protein and the sgRNA can be either delivered during transformation, as preassembled CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) or expressed from an AMA1 based plasmid within the cell. The direct delivery of the Cas9 protein with in vitro synthesized sgRNA to the cells allows for a transient method for genome engineering that may rapidly be applicable for other filamentous fungi. The expression of Cas9 from an AMA1 based vector was shown to be highly efficient for marker-free gene deletions.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  6. Dipodazine, a diketopiperazine from Penicillium dipodomyis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Christophersen, Carsten;

    1999-01-01

    Dipodazine, (Z)-1',3-didehydro-3-(3"-indolylmethylene)-piperazine-2,5-dione (1), has been isolated from Penicillium dipodomyis and is also present in P. nalgiovense. The structure was established by spectroscopical methods. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......Dipodazine, (Z)-1',3-didehydro-3-(3"-indolylmethylene)-piperazine-2,5-dione (1), has been isolated from Penicillium dipodomyis and is also present in P. nalgiovense. The structure was established by spectroscopical methods. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. A non-canonical NRPS is involved in the synthesis of fungisporin and related hydrophobic cyclic tetrapeptides in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Ali

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum harbors an astonishing variety of nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, which encode proteins known to produce complex bioactive metabolites from simple building blocks. Here we report a novel non-canonical tetra-modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS with microheterogenicity of all involved adenylation domains towards their respective substrates. By deleting the putative gene in combination with comparative metabolite profiling various unique cyclic and derived linear tetrapeptides were identified which were associated with this NRPS, including fungisporin. In combination with substrate predictions for each module, we propose a mechanism for a 'trans-acting' adenylation domain.

  8. A non-canonical NRPS is involved in the synthesis of fungisporin and related hydrophobic cyclic tetrapeptides in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hazrat; Ries, Marco I; Lankhorst, Peter P; van der Hoeven, Rob A M; Schouten, Olaf L; Noga, Marek; Hankemeier, Thomas; van Peij, Noël N M E; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Vreeken, Rob J; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum harbors an astonishing variety of nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, which encode proteins known to produce complex bioactive metabolites from simple building blocks. Here we report a novel non-canonical tetra-modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) with microheterogenicity of all involved adenylation domains towards their respective substrates. By deleting the putative gene in combination with comparative metabolite profiling various unique cyclic and derived linear tetrapeptides were identified which were associated with this NRPS, including fungisporin. In combination with substrate predictions for each module, we propose a mechanism for a 'trans-acting' adenylation domain.

  9. A natural Anopheles-associated Penicillium chrysogenum enhances mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angleró-Rodríguez, Yesseinia I; Blumberg, Benjamin J; Dong, Yuemei; Sandiford, Simone L; Pike, Andrew; Clayton, April M; Dimopoulos, George

    2016-09-28

    Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect mosquito survival, it renders the mosquito significantly more susceptible to Plasmodium infection through a secreted heat-stable factor. We further provide evidence that the mechanism of the fungus-mediated modulation of mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium involves an upregulation of the insect's ornithine decarboxylase gene, which sequesters arginine for polyamine biosynthesis. Arginine plays an important role in the mosquito's anti-Plasmodium defense as a substrate of nitric oxide production, and its availability therefore has a direct impact on the mosquito's susceptibility to the parasite. While this type of immunomodulatory mechanism has already been demonstrated in other host-pathogen interaction systems, this is the first report of a mosquito-associated fungus that can suppress the mosquito's innate immune system in a way that would favor Plasmodium infection and possibly malaria transmission.

  10. A natural Anopheles-associated Penicillium chrysogenum enhances mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angleró-Rodríguez, Yesseinia I.; Blumberg, Benjamin J.; Dong, Yuemei; Sandiford, Simone L.; Pike, Andrew; Clayton, April M.; Dimopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect mosquito survival, it renders the mosquito significantly more susceptible to Plasmodium infection through a secreted heat-stable factor. We further provide evidence that the mechanism of the fungus-mediated modulation of mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium involves an upregulation of the insect’s ornithine decarboxylase gene, which sequesters arginine for polyamine biosynthesis. Arginine plays an important role in the mosquito’s anti-Plasmodium defense as a substrate of nitric oxide production, and its availability therefore has a direct impact on the mosquito’s susceptibility to the parasite. While this type of immunomodulatory mechanism has already been demonstrated in other host-pathogen interaction systems, this is the first report of a mosquito-associated fungus that can suppress the mosquito’s innate immune system in a way that would favor Plasmodium infection and possibly malaria transmission. PMID:27678168

  11. Disposition of recently described species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.

    1990-01-01

    Hundred and twenty-two species, varieties, and new combinations of Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Talaromyces described since 1977 have been studied taxonomically and screened for mycotoxin production. Only 48 taxa could be accepted: Eupenicillium angustiporcatum, E. cryptum, E. lineolatum, E. limo

  12. Disposition of recently described species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.

    1990-01-01

    Hundred and twenty-two species, varieties, and new combinations of Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Talaromyces described since 1977 have been studied taxonomically and screened for mycotoxin production. Only 48 taxa could be accepted: Eupenicillium angustiporcatum, E. cryptum, E. lineolatum, E. limo

  13. Sulfate transport in Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillenga, Dirk J.; Versantvoort, Hanneke J.M.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wil N.

    1996-01-01

    Transport studies with Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes fused with cytochrome c oxidase liposomes demonstrate that sulfate uptake is driven by the transmembrane pH gradient and not by the transmembrane electrical potential. Ca2+ and other divalent cations are not required. It is concluded th

  14. Degradation of veratryl alcohol by Penicillium simplicissimum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de E.; Beuling, E.E.; Zwan, van der R.P.; Bont, de J.A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Several bacteria, yeast and fungi selectively isolated from paper-mill waste-water grew on veratryl alcohol, a key intermediate of lignin metabolism. Penicillium simplicissimum oxidized veratryl alcohol via a NAD(P)+-dependent veratryl alcohol dehydrogenase to veratraldehyde, which was further

  15. Sulfate transport in Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillenga, Dirk J.; Versantvoort, Hanneke J.M.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Konings, Wil N.

    1996-01-01

    Transport studies with Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes fused with cytochrome c oxidase liposomes demonstrate that sulfate uptake is driven by the transmembrane pH gradient and not by the transmembrane electrical potential. Ca2+ and other divalent cations are not required. It is concluded that the sulfate transport system catalyzes the symport of two protons with one sulfate anion.

  16. Rheological characterization of media containing Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annemarie Gade; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Mikael; Nielsen, Jens;

    1993-01-01

    Samples from fed-batch fermentations of Penicillium chrysogenum on complex medium are rheologically characterized. The behavior is well described by a power law model for which the parameters are estimates. Furthermore, two types of model media are characterized and compared with the real...

  17. Pseudoxylallemycins A-F, cyclic tetrapeptides with rare allenyl modifications isolated from Pseudoxylaria sp. X802

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Huijuan; Kreuzenbeck, Nina B.; Otani, Saria

    2016-01-01

    Based on fungus-fungus pairing assays and HRMS-based dereplication strategy, six new cyclic tetrapeptides, pseudoxylallemycins A-F (1-6), were isolated from the termite-associated fungus Pseudoxylaria sp. X802. Structures were characterized using NMR spectroscopy, HRMS, and Marfey's reaction...

  18. A rapid knockdown effect of Penicillium citrinum for control of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maketon, Monchan; Amnuaykanjanasin, Alongkorn; Kaysorngup, Achirayar

    2014-02-01

    Twenty local isolates of entomopathogenic fungi were determined for control of the larvae and adults of Culex quinquefasciatus. In a laboratory experiment, a Penicillium sp. CM-010 caused 100% mortality of third-instar larvae within 2 h using a conidial suspension of 1 × 10⁶ conidia ml⁻¹. Its LC₅₀ was 3 × 10⁵ conidia ml⁻¹, and the lethal time (LT₅₀) was 1.06 h. Cloning and sequencing of its internal transcribed spacer region indicated that this Penicillium species is Penicillium citrinum (100% identity in 434 bp). Mortality of the adult was highest with Aspergillus flavus CM-011 followed with Metarhizium anisopliae CKM-048 from 1 × 10⁹ conidia ml⁻¹. P. citrinum CM-010 at 1 × 10⁶ conidia ml⁻¹ killed 100% larvae within 2 h while Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis at 5 ITU ml⁻¹ required 24 h. This P. citrinum CM-010 also greatly reduced survival of C. quinquefasciatus larvae in an unreplicated field test. Light and transmission electron micrographs showed that the fungal conidia were ingested by the larvae and deposited in the gut. The metabolite patulin was produced by P. citrinum CM-010 instead of citrinin.

  19. Penicillium roqueforti: a multifunctional cell factory of high value-added molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioso, R; Toledo Marante, F J; Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I

    2015-04-01

    This is a comprehensive review, with 114 references, of the chemical diversity found in the fungus Penicillium roqueforti. Secondary metabolites of an alkaloidal nature are described, for example, ergot alkaloids such as festuclavine, isofumigaclavines A and B, and diketopiperazine alkaloids such as roquefortines A-D, which are derived from imidazole. Other metabolites are marcfortines A-C, PR-toxin, eremofortines A-E, mycophenolic and penicillic acids, and some γ-lactones. Also, recent developments related to the structural characteristics of botryodiplodin and andrastin are studied-the latter has anticancer properties. Finally, we discuss the enzymes of P. roqueforti, which can participate in the biotechnological production of high value-added molecules, as well as the use of secondary metabolite profiles for taxonomic purposes.

  20. Efficient production and evaluation of lignocellulolytic enzymes using a constitutive protein expression system in Penicillium oxalicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yibo; Xue, Haizhao; Liu, Guodong; Song, Xin; Qu, Yinbo

    2015-06-01

    Native lignocellulolytic enzyme systems secreted by filamentous fungi can be further optimized by protein engineering or supplementation of exogenous enzyme components. We developed a protein production and evaluation system in cellulase-producing fungus Penicillium oxalicum. First, by deleting the major amylase gene amy15A, a strain Δ15A producing few extracellular proteins on starch was constructed. Then, three lignocellulolytic enzymes (BGL4, Xyn10B, and Cel12A) with originally low expression levels were successfully expressed with selected constitutive promoters in strain Δ15A. BGL4 and Cel12A overexpression resulted in increased specific filter paper activity (FPA), while the overexpression of Xyn10B improved volumetric FPA but not specific FPA. By switching the culture medium, this platform is convenient to produce originally low-expressed lignocellulolytic enzymes in relatively high purities on starch and to evaluate the effect of their supplementation on the performance of a complex cellulase system on cellulose.

  1. A New Acetylenic Compound and Other Bioactive Metabolites from a Shark Gill-derived Penicillium Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine chiral compounds (1−9 were isolated from the static fermentation culture of a shark gill-derived fungus Penicillium polonicum AP2T1. These compounds include a new acetylenic aromatic ether (1 , (--WA , four alkaloids ( a urantiomide C ( 2 , fructigenine A (3, cyclopenin (4 and cyclopenol (5 and four oxygenated compounds ((R-penipratynolene (6, (3S,4S-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxyl-naphthalenone (7, verrucosidin (8 and norverrucosidin (9. Their structures were elucidated by MS, NMR , optical rotation and circular dichroism (CD . In antimicrobial tests , compounds 1–4, 6 and 8–9 showed weak antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and/or Escherichia coli.Compounds 3, 8 and 9 also exhibited moderate toxicity against Artemia salina larva , and showed cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cell line HCT116.

  2. Untargeted Metabolic Profiling of Winery-Derived Biomass Waste Degradation by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Avinash V; Beale, David J; Godhani, Nainesh B; Morrison, Paul D; Harding, Ian H; Palombo, Enzo A

    2015-12-16

    Winery-derived biomass waste was degraded by Penicillium chrysogenum under solid state fermentation over 8 days in a (2)H2O-supplemented medium. Multivariate statistical analysis of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data resulted in the identification of 94 significant metabolites, within 28 different metabolic pathways. The majority of biomass sugars were utilized by day 4 to yield products such as sugars, fatty acids, isoprenoids, and amino acids. The fungus was observed to metabolize xylose to xylitol, an intermediate of ethanol production. However, enzyme inhibition and autolysis were observed from day 6, indicating 5 days as the optimal time for fermentation. P. chrysogenum displayed metabolism of pentoses (to alcohols) and degraded tannins and lignins, properties that are lacking in other biomass-degrading ascomycetes. Rapid fermentation (3-5 days) may not only increase the pentose metabolizing efficiency but also increase the yield of medicinally important metabolites, such as syringate.

  3. Travel-related disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in a renal transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, J; Dyer, J R; Clark, B M; McLellan, D G; Perera, S; Ferrari, P

    2012-08-01

    Penicillium marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes severe human immunodeficiency virus-related opportunistic infection in endemic areas of Southeast Asia and has rarely been reported in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We report here the case of an Australian renal transplant patient who presented with disseminated P. marneffei infection shortly after a 10-day holiday to Vietnam, and review all previously published cases of penicilliosis associated with renal transplantation. This is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of P. marneffei infection in an SOT recipient acquired during travel to an endemic country, and highlights the importance of an accurate travel history when opportunistic infection is suspected, as well as giving appropriate health advice to transplant patients who travel.

  4. Secondary Metabolism in Penicillium expansum: Emphasis on Recent Advances in Patulin Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Joanna; Keller, Nancy P; Atoui, Ali; El Khoury, André; Lteif, Roger; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2017-03-31

    The plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum is a major concern of the global food industry due to its wide occurrence and ability to produce various mycotoxins, of which the most significant is patulin. Relatively less highlighted in the literature, in comparison with the other food-borne mycotoxins, patulin is one of the main factors in economic losses of vegetables and fruits. Otherwise, patulin is a health hazard which results in both short-term and long-term risks. This review includes knowledge on the biosynthetic mechanisms used for secondary metabolite production in P. expansum, with special emphasis on patulin biosynthesis. The abiotic factors triggering the production of patulin and the strategies developed to reduce or prevent the contamination by this mycotoxin are comprehensively discussed. The database presented in this review would be useful for the prioritization and development of future research.

  5. Gymnemagenin-producing endophytic fungus isolated from a medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ramalingam; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is a plant containing the triterpenoid gymnemagenin, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an antidiabetic agent. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi, isolated from G. sylvestre, produce gymnemagenin. We isolated an endophytic fungal strain from the leaves of G. sylvestre which produces gymnemagenin in the medium. The fungus was identified as Penicillium oxalicum based on morphological and molecular methods. The strain had a component with the same TLC Rf value and HPLC retention time as authentic gymnemagenin. The presence of gymnemagenin was further confirmed by FTIR, UV, and (1)H NMR analyses.

  6. Wheat straw lignin degradation induction to aromatics by por Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltierra-Trejo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is a recalcitrant agricultural waste; incineration of this material represents an important environmental impact. Different reports have been made regarding the use of the structural components of wheat straw, i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; however, lignin has been less exploited because it is largely considered the recalcitrant part. Residual wheat straw lignin (REWSLI has a potential biotech-nological value if depolymerization is attained to produce aromatics. Ligninolytic mitosporic fungus represent an alternative where very little research has been done, even though they are capable of depol-ymerize REWSLI in simple nutritional conditions in relatively short periods, when compared to basidio-mycetes. The aim of this research was to study the depolymerization activity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp on semipurified REWSLI as the sole carbon source to produce aromatics. The depoly-merization capacity was determined by the activity of the laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase enzymes. The generated aromatics derived from the REWSLI depolymerization were identi-fied by gas chromatography. Obtained results revealed that Penicillium chrysogenum depolymerized the lignin material by 34.8% during the 28-day experimentation period. Laccase activity showed the largest activity with 111 U L-1 in a seven-day period, this enzyme induction was detected in a smaller period than that required by basidiomycetes to induce it. Moreover, the enzymatic activity was produced with-out the addition of an extra carbon source as metabolic inductor. Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp generated guaiacol, vanillin, and hydroxybenzoic, vanillinic, syringic and ferulic acid with a maximum weekly production of 3.5, 3.3, 3.2, 3.3, 10.1 and 21.9 mg mL-1, respectively.

  7. Detection of Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Penicillium using Chromogenic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Hwan; Hong, Seung Beom; Ko, Seung Ju; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2007-09-01

    A total of 106 Penicillium species were tested to examine their ability of degrading cellobiose, pectin and xylan. The activity of β-glucosidase was generally strong in all the Penicillium species tested. P. citrinum, P. charlesii, P. manginii and P. aurantiacum showed the higher ability of producing β-glucosidase than other tested species. Pectinase activity was detected in 24 Penicillium species. P. paracanescens, P. sizovae, P. sartoryi, P. chrysogenum, and P. claviforme showed strong pectinase activity. In xylanase assay, 84 Penicillium species showed activity. Strong xylanase activity was detected from P. megasporum, P. sartoryi, P. chrysogenum, P. glandicola, P. discolor, and P. coprophilum. Overall, most of the Penicillium species tested showed strong β-glucosidase activity. The degree of pectinase and xylanase activity varied depending on Penicillium species.

  8. Novel Cold-adaptive Penicillium Strain FS010 Secreting Thermo-labile Xylanase Isolated from Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Hua HOU; Tian-Hong WANG; Hao LONG; Hui-Yuan ZHU

    2006-01-01

    A novel cold-adaptive xylanolytic Penicillium strain FS010 was isolated from Yellow Sea sediments. The marine fungus grew well from 4 to 20 ℃; a lower (0 ℃) or higher (37 ℃) temperature limits its growth. The strain was identified as Penicillium chrysogenum. Compared with mesophilic P. chrysogenum,the cold-adaptive fungus secreted the cold-active xylanase (XYL) showing high hydrolytic activities at low temperature (2-15 ℃) and high sensitivity to high temperature (>50 ℃). The XYL gene was isolated from the cold-adaptive P. chrysogenum FS010 and designated as xyl. The deduced amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by xyl showed high homology with the sequence of glycoside hydrolase family 10. The gene was subcloned into an expression vector pGEX-4T-1 and the encoded protein was overexpressed as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase in Escherichia coli BL21. The expression product was purified and subjected to enzymatic characterization. The optimal temperature and pH for recombinantXYL was 25 ℃ and 5.5, respectively. Recombinant XYL showed nearly 80% of its maximal activity at 4 ℃ and was active in the pH range 3.0-9.5.

  9. Gluconic acid production by Penicillium puberulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, M A; Megalla, S E

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-five Penicillium species isolated from Egyptian soil were examined for their ability to produce gluconic acid in surface culture. Of the eight species capable of producing gluconic acid, Penicillium puberulum gave the maximum yield (91% gluconic acid from glucose after 7 days of fermentation with 3% CaCO3). Peptone was the best nitrogen source for acid fermentation and glucose was superior to sucrose. Addition of low concentrations of KH2PO4 and MgSO4 - 7 H2O stimulated acid production. An initial pH of 6.1 was most favourable for acid accumulation and addition of CaCO3 was necessary for maximum acid production.

  10. Construction of transformation system in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum attracts attention in the food industry and biomass degradation. We expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) with pBPE, a novel vector, and constructed a transformation system for P. purpurogenum. The accumulation of GFP was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. In future, this system may prove useful for the genetic modification of P. purpurogenum. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosynthesis of radiolabeled verruculogen by Penicillium simplicissimum.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, J. B.; Mantle, P. G.

    1982-01-01

    In surface culture of Penicillium simplicissimum, verruculogen was shown to be biosynthesized from the intact carbon skeletons of tryptophan and proline, isoprenoid derivatives of mevalonic acid, and a methyl group donated by methionine. Selected radiolabeled precursors (1 mCi) pulse-fed at the optimum stage of fermentation yielded verruculogen (specific activity, 5.89 X 10(2) microCi mmol-1) labeled in the prolyl and isoprenyl regions of the molecule and suitable for metabolic studies.

  12. Biosynthesis of radiolabeled verruculogen by Penicillium simplicissimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G

    1982-03-01

    In surface culture of Penicillium simplicissimum, verruculogen was shown to be biosynthesized from the intact carbon skeletons of tryptophan and proline, isoprenoid derivatives of mevalonic acid, and a methyl group donated by methionine. Selected radiolabeled precursors (1 mCi) pulse-fed at the optimum stage of fermentation yielded verruculogen (specific activity, 5.89 X 10(2) microCi mmol-1) labeled in the prolyl and isoprenyl regions of the molecule and suitable for metabolic studies.

  13. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium fumiculosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the biological and chemical activity on two species of fungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from wastewater. On the selected species of fungi the different antioxidant activity assays were carried out: DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, Fe2+- chelating ability and Fe3+- reducing power. Total phenol content was also determinate for ethanolic extract of mycelia. Penicillium chrysogenum ethanolic extract contained higher total phenolic content and better total antioxidant capacity as well as ferrous ion chelating ability. Penicillium fumiculosum ethanolic extract showed higher DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, as well as reducing power. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that two types of fungi are potential new sources of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  14. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  15. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE COMPONENTS GENERATED BY ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE GENUS PENICILLIUM ISOLATED FROM BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs. We concretely used thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary EOs by vapor contact against the fungal species, namely Penicillium citrinum, P. chrysogenum, P. hordei, P. citreonigrum, and P. viridicatum and their ability to affect production of mycotoxins. Each fungus was inoculated in the centre on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA dishes. Dishes were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for fourteen days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment. Volatile phase effect of 50 μl of the essential oils was found to inhibit on growth of Penicillium spp.. Complete growth inhibition of the isolates by EOs of thyme and clove was observed. The EO of basil had antifungal effect on growth of P. citreonigrum only after 3rd and 7th day of the incubation at concentration 100 % of EO, like a P. viridicatum, which was inhibited by basil EO (100 % in comparison with control sets. Data was evaluated statistically by 95.0 % Tukey HSD test. In this study we also tested potentional effect of EOs to affect production of mycotoxins of tested Penicillium isolates which are potential toxigenic fungi. After 14 days of incubation with EOs (100 % with control sets, they were screened for a production of mycotoxins by TLC chromatography. Results showed non affecting production of mycotoxins by tested EOs. Conclusions indicate that volatile phase of combinations of thyme oil and clove oil showed good potential in the inhibition of growth of Penicillium spp. EOs should find a practical application in the inhibition of the fungal mycelial growth in some kind of the food.

  16. Immunosuppressive effects of Bryoria sp. (lichen forming fungus) extracts via inhibition of CD8+ T cells proliferation and IL-2 production in CD4⁺ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Lee, Sung-Ju; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2017-04-03

    Lichen forming fungi are known to have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammation, anti-proliferative activities. However, their immunosuppressive effects of Bryoria sp. extract (BSE) have not previously been investigated. In this study, the inhibitory activity of BSE extract on the proliferation of CD8⁺ T cells and the mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR) was evaluated in vitro. BSE is non-toxic in spleen cells and suppresses the growth of splenocytes induced by anti-CD3. The suppressed cell population in spleen cells consists of CD8⁺ T cells and their proliferation is inhibited by the treatment with BSE. This extract significantly suppressed the IL-2 associated with T cells growth and IFN-γ as the CD8⁺ T cells marker. Furthermore, BSE reduced the expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain (IL-2Rα) on CD8⁺ T cells and CD86 on dendritic cells by acting as antigen presenting cells. Finally, the MLR produced by the co-culture of C57BL/6 and MMC-treated BALB/c was suppressed by BSE. IL-2, IFN-γ, and CD69 on CD8⁺ T cells in MLR condition were inhibited by BSE. These results indicated that BSE inhibits the MLR via the suppression of IL-2 Rα expression in CD8⁺ T cells and CD86 expression in DCs. BSE has the potential to be developed as an anti-immunosuppression agent for organ transplants.

  17. Species distinction of the ascomycetous heterothallic yeast-like fungus Stephanoascus ciferrii complex: description of Candida allociferrii sp. nov. and reinstatement of Candida mucifera Kocková-Kratochvílová et Sláviková.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda-Nishimura, Kumiko; Mikata, Kozaburo

    2002-03-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA gene (rDNA) from nine strains of the heterothallic ascomycetous Stephanoascus ciferrii complex were determined and the strains were separated into three groups according to their sequences. 18S rDNA sequences were identical within the same group. In group A the 18S rDNA sequences had no introns; in group B there was one group I intron, Sc1506-1 at position 1506; and in group C there were two group I introns, Sc943 at position 943 and Sc1506-2 at position 1506. Sc1506-1 and Sc1506-2 at position 1506 exhibited 19 base differences but were very similar. Therefore, it is suggested that these introns existed in the common ancestor of groups B and C, and that they were vertically inherited. DNA similarity values showed that the strains within the same group were of identical species. Group B included the isotype strains of Stephanoascus ciferrii and the type strains of Candida ciferrii and Sporothrix catenata; this confirmed that group B strains correspond to Stephanoascus ciferrii and that Candida ciferrii and Sporothrix catenata are synonyms of Stephanoascus ciferrii. The single member of group C, strain IFO 10918T, corresponds to the type strain of Candida mucifera and was independent of the other tested strains. Thus, Candida mucifera should be regarded as an independent species from Stephanoascus ciferrii. It is suggested that group A strains might comprise a new Stephanoascus species, but since group A strains could not form asci by themselves in this study they are described as a new species for which the name Candida allociferrii sp. nov. (type strain IFO 10194T) is proposed.

  18. POTENSI MELANOTUS SP. DALAM MENDEGRADASI LIGNIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNIK SULISTINAH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of fungus were isolated from oil palm stem at oil palm plantation in Medan All of them were tested its abilities to degrade lignin. The results showed that one of them was able to grow on ligninase media and the fungi has the ability to degrade ligin. The fungi is identified as Melanotus sp.

  19. Psychrophilin A and cycloaspeptide D, novel cyclic peptides from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frydenvang, K.;

    2004-01-01

    and 2D NMR techniques, HREIMS, tandem mass spectrometry (ESMS/MS), and X-ray crystallography. The amino acid residues of psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2) were all found to possess the L configuration by Marfey's method. Psychrophilin A (1) is the first natural cyclic peptide containing...

  20. Psychrophilin A and cycloaspeptide D, novel cyclic peptides from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea;

    2004-01-01

    and 2D NMR techniques, HREIMS, tandem mass spectrometry (ESMS/MS), and X-ray crystallography. The amino acid residues of psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2) were all found to possess the l configuration by Marfey's method. Psychrophilin A (1) is the first natural cyclic peptide containing...

  1. Production of 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-methylphthalide in a culture of Penicillium crustosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Angela M M P; Ferreira, Antonio G; Daolio, Cristina; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Boffo, Elisangela F; Souza, Antonia Q L; Sebastianes, Fernanda L S; Melo, Itamar S

    2013-01-01

    The chemical reactions carried out by microorganisms have been used as a tool in modern chemistry. This paper reports the production of mycophenolic acid and a new phthalide by the endophytic fungus Penicillium crustosum obtained from coffee seeds. The fungus was cultivated in a liquid medium for a period of seven days and after that the culture medium was divided into four treatments: A, B, C and D, to which different organic substances were added. Treatment A was maintained as the control to evaluate the occurrence of biotransformation. Organic acids were added to the culture media of treatments B (ferulic and quinic acids) and C [cinnamic and 3,4-(methylenedioxy) cinnamic acids], and caffeine was added in the treatment D. All these organic compounds were dissolved in DMSO, and the fermentation was maintained for more 13 days, totalizing 20 days. Mycophenolic acid was isolated from the culture with no added acids (treatment A). Mycophenolic acid and a new phthalide, 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-methylphthalide were isolated from treatments B and C, and mycophenolic acid and caffeine (added to the culture medium) were isolated from treatment D. The structures were determined by NMR techniques and confirmed by MS and MS/MS techniques.

  2. Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Pimenta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%, and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

  3. Isolation and analysis of differentially expressed genes in Penicillium glabrum subjected to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevarez, L; Vasseur, V; Le Dréan, G; Tanguy, A; Guisle-Marsollier, I; Houlgatte, R; Barbier, G

    2008-12-01

    Penicillium glabrum is a filamentous fungus frequently involved in food contamination. Numerous environmental factors (temperature, humidity, atmospheric composition, etc.) or food characteristics (water activity, pH, preservatives, etc.) could represent potential sources of stress for micro-organisms. These factors can directly affect the physiology of these spoilage micro-organisms: growth, conidiation, synthesis of secondary metabolites, etc. This study investigated the transcriptional response to temperature in P. glabrum, since this factor is one of the most important for fungal growth. Gene expression was first analysed by using suppression subtractive hybridization to generate two libraries containing 445 different up- and downregulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Expression of these ESTs was then assessed for different thermal stress conditions, with cDNA microarrays, resulting in the identification of 35 and 49 significantly up- and downregulated ESTs, respectively. These ESTs encode heat-shock proteins, ribosomal proteins, superoxide dismutase, trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and a large variety of identified or unknown proteins. Some of these may be molecular markers for thermal stress response in P. glabrum. To our knowledge, this work represents the first study of the transcriptional response of a food spoilage filamentous fungus under thermal stress conditions.

  4. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Mycophenolic Acid Gene Cluster of Penicillium roqueforti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdiel Del-Cid

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti is widely known as the ripening agent of blue-veined cheeses. Additionally, this fungus is able to produce several secondary metabolites, including the meroterpenoid compound mycophenolic acid (MPA. Cheeses ripened with P. roqueforti are usually contaminated with MPA. On the other hand, MPA is a commercially valuable immunosuppressant. However, to date the molecular basis of the production of MPA by P. roqueforti is still unknown. Using a bioinformatic approach, we have identified a genomic region of approximately 24.4 kbp containing a seven-gene cluster that may be involved in the MPA biosynthesis in P. roqueforti. Gene silencing of each of these seven genes (named mpaA, mpaB, mpaC, mpaDE, mpaF, mpaG and mpaH resulted in dramatic reductions in MPA production, confirming that all of these genes are involved in the biosynthesis of the compound. Interestingly, the mpaF gene, originally described in P. brevicompactum as a MPA self-resistance gene, also exerts the same function in P. roqueforti, suggesting that this gene has a dual function in MPA metabolism. The knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of MPA in P. roqueforti will be important for the future control of MPA contamination in cheeses and the improvement of MPA production for commercial purposes.

  5. Analysis of autophagy in Penicillium chrysogenum by using starvation pads in combination with fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckhuber, Christian Q

    2015-02-01

    The study of cellular quality control systems has emerged as a highly dynamic and relevant field of contemporary research. It has become clear that cells possess several lines of defense against damage to biologically relevant molecules like nucleic acids, lipids and proteins. In addition to organelle dynamics (fusion/fission/motility/inheritance) and tightly controlled protease activity, the degradation of surplus, damaged or compromised organelles by autophagy (cellular 'self-eating') has received much attention from the scientific community. The regulation of autophagy is quite complex and depends on genetic and environmental factors, many of which have so far not been elucidated. Here a novel method is presented that allows the convenient study of autophagy in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. It is based on growth of the fungus on so-called 'starvation pads' for stimulation of autophagy in a reproducible manner. Samples are directly assayed by microscopy and evaluated for autophagy induction / progress. The protocol presented here is not limited for use with P. chrysogenum and can be easily adapted for use in other filamentous fungi.

  6. Biodegradation of phenol in static cultures by Penicillium chrysogenum ERK1: catalytic abilities and residual phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Erika A; Barrera, Viviana; Castellari, Claudia; González, Jorge F

    2012-01-01

    A phenol-degrading fungus was isolated from crop soils. Molecular characterization (using internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor and beta-tubulin gene sequences) and biochemical characterization allowed to identify the fungal strain as Penicillium chrysogenum Thom ERK1. Phenol degradation was tested at 25 degrees C under resting mycelium conditions at 6, 30, 60, 200, 350 and 400 mg/l of phenol as the only source of carbon and energy. The time required for complete phenol degradation increased at different initial phenol concentrations. Maximum specific degradation rate (0.89978 mg of phenol/day/mg of dry weight) was obtained at 200 mg/l. Biomass yield decreased at initial phenol concentrations above 60 mg/l. Catechol was identified as an intermediate metabolite by HPLC analysis and catechol dioxygenase activity was detected in plate assays, suggesting that phenol metabolism could occur via ortho fission of catechol. Wheat seeds were used as phytotoxicity indicators of phenol degradation products. It was found that these products were not phytotoxic for wheat but highly phytotoxic for phenol. The high specific degradation rates obtained under resting mycelium conditions are considered relevant for practical applications of this fungus in soil decontamination processes.

  7. Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, R. S.; Silva, J. F. M.; Coelho, C. M.; Morais, P. B.; Rosa, C. A.; Corrêa Jr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%), and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments. PMID:24031511

  8. Assessment of exposure to the Penicillium glabrum complex in cork industry using complementing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Sabino, Raquel; Botelho, Daniel; dos Santos, Mateus; Gomes, Anita Quintal

    2015-09-01

    Cork oak is the second most dominant forest species in Portugal and makes this country the world leader in cork export. Occupational exposure to Chrysonilia sitophila and the Penicillium glabrum complex in cork industry is common, and the latter fungus is associated with suberosis. However, as conventional methods seem to underestimate its presence in occupational environments, the aim of our study was to see whether information obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a molecular-based method, can complement conventional findings and give a better insight into occupational exposure of cork industry workers. We assessed fungal contamination with the P. glabrum complex in three cork manufacturing plants in the outskirts of Lisbon using both conventional and molecular methods. Conventional culturing failed to detect the fungus at six sampling sites in which PCR did detect it. This confirms our assumption that the use of complementing methods can provide information for a more accurate assessment of occupational exposure to the P. glabrum complex in cork industry.

  9. Expanding the species and chemical diversity of Penicillium section Cinnamopurpurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of isolates genetically similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates...

  10. Molecular characterization of the PR-toxin gene cluster in Penicillium roqueforti and Penicillium chrysogenum: cross talk of secondary metabolite pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pedro I; Ullán, Ricardo V; Albillos, Silvia M; Montero, Olimpio; Fernández-Bodega, María Ángeles; García-Estrada, Carlos; Fernández-Aguado, Marta; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The PR-toxin is a potent mycotoxin produced by Penicillium roqueforti in moulded grains and grass silages and may contaminate blue-veined cheese. The PR-toxin derives from the 15 carbon atoms sesquiterpene aristolochene formed by the aristolochene synthase (encoded by ari1). We have cloned and sequenced a four gene cluster that includes the ari1 gene from P. roqueforti. Gene silencing of each of the four genes (named prx1 to prx4) resulted in a reduction of 65-75% in the production of PR-toxin indicating that the four genes encode enzymes involved in PR-toxin biosynthesis. Interestingly the four silenced mutants overproduce large amounts of mycophenolic acid, an antitumor compound formed by an unrelated pathway suggesting a cross-talk of PR-toxin and mycophenolic acid production. An eleven gene cluster that includes the above mentioned four prx genes and a 14-TMS drug/H(+) antiporter was found in the genome of Penicillium chrysogenum. This eleven gene cluster has been reported to be very poorly expressed in a transcriptomic study of P. chrysogenum genes under conditions of penicillin production (strongly aerated cultures). We found that this apparently silent gene cluster is able to produce PR-toxin in P. chrysogenum under static culture conditions on hydrated rice medium. Noteworthily, the production of PR-toxin was 2.6-fold higher in P. chrysogenum npe10, a strain deleted in the 56.8kb amplifiable region containing the pen gene cluster, than in the parental strain Wisconsin 54-1255 providing another example of cross-talk between secondary metabolite pathways in this fungus. A detailed PR-toxin biosynthesis pathway is proposed based on all available evidence.

  11. Secondary metabolites characteristic of Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium steckii and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrom, J.; Christophersen, C.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2000-01-01

    an unidentified tunicate. The carboxylic acids and the benzopyran were identified on the basis of mass spectrometry, and one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques. The structures 1 and 2 resemble tanzawaic acid A-D, previously isolated from Penicillium citrinum. Screening of isolates of species related...

  12. Differential apple transcriptomic responses to penicillium expansum (pathogen) and penicillium digitatum (non-host pathogen) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillium expansum is the causal agent of blue mould of pome fruits and is responsible for important economical losses during postharvest handling in all producing countries. Although control of this pathogen can be achieved by using chemical fungicides, the appearance of resistant strains and in...

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium using partial P-tubulin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Kuijpers, A.F.A.

    2004-01-01

    . Chrysogena had limited strict consensus and bootstrap support. One clade comprises P. chrysogenum and P. flavigenum (96%), another P. dipodomyis and P. nalgiovense, and a third P. mononematosum and P. confertum. Penicillium persicinum and P. aethiopicum were weakly placed in this section, both emerging from...

  14. Inibição do desenvolvimento de Penicillium expansum (Link Thom. por fungicidas, in vitro In vitro development inhibition of Penicillium expansum (Link Thom. by fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Francisco Dressier da Costa

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a eficiência de quatro fungicidas sobre a inibição do desenvolvimento de Penicillium expansum, foi desenvolvido um experimento em laboratório na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, durante o ano de 1992. Foram testados os princípios alivos Tiabendazole, Tiofanato Metílico, Iprodione e Imazalil, em cinco concentrações sobre dois isolados do fungo, sendo um resistente e outro sensível aos benzimidazóis. Foram testadas as concentrações de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0; 5,0 e l0.0mg/ml dos princípios ativos, e as avaliações/oram realizadas com 0; 48;96, 144 e 192 horas após as repicagens. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve diferença na inibição do desenvolvimento entre os fungicidas sobre o isolado sensível, porém ocorreu diferença entre os produtos para o isolado resistente, sendo o Tiabendazole e o Tiofanato Metílico os que apresentaram a menor eficiência. O Iprodione mostrou-se eficiente sobre os dois isolados e, o Imazalil inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento do fungo nas concentrações de 5,0 e 10mg/ml até as 192 horas.This experiment was conducted to evaluate lhe effïciency of four fungicides in the development inhibition of Penicillium expansum. A laboratory experiment was carried out in 1993, at Federal University of Santa Maria, RS. The fungicides Thiabendazol, Methyl Tiophanate, Iprodione and Imazalil, infive concentrations of active ingredients (0.1; 0.5; 1.0; 5.0 and 10mg/ml on two isolates of the fungus were tested. The diametersof pathogen colonies were measured at 0; 48; 96, 144 and 192 hours after pathogen plating. There were no statistical differences in the inhibitions of benzimidazols compounds to sensible isolate among fungicides. There were significant difference for the resistant isolate, with less effïcience for Thiabendazol and Methyl Tiophanate fungicides. The Iprodione showed effïcience on the two isolates, and only Imazalil demonstrated complete inhibition of Penicillium expansum

  15. Penicillium mycobiota in Arctic subglacial ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, S.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, N.

    2006-01-01

    to be inhabited exclusively by heterotrophic bacteria. In this study we report on the very high occurrence (up to 9000 CFU L-1) and diversity of filamentous Penicillium spp. in the sediment-rich subglacial ice of three different polythermal Arctic glaciers (Svalbard, Norway). The dominant species was P. crustosum......Fungi have been only rarely isolated from glacial ice in extremely cold polar regions and were in these cases considered as random, long-term preserved Aeolian deposits. Fungal presence has so far not been investigated in polar subglacial ice, a recently discovered extreme habitat reported......-rich ice....

  16. A NEW PENICILLIUM SPECIES ISOLATED FROM JIANGXI, CHINA%分离自江西的一个青霉属新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔华忠; 梁宗琦

    2003-01-01

    新种江西青霉Pencillium jangxiense sp. nov. 分离自江西省的江西虫草Cordyceps jiangxiensis, 它类似于无色青霉Penicillium incoloratum和贵州青霉P. guizhouanum, 但前者的帚状枝不分枝,显著单轮生,生长很慢,分生孢子结构发育很慢,分生孢子也很小,这些特征易于与近似种相区分.%Penicillium jiangxiense sp. nov. isolated from Jiangxi Province of China is described. The species is placed in Sect. Exilicaulis of Subgen. Aspergilloides.

  17. The relationship between the violet pigment PP-V production and intracellular ammonium level in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Kasumi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum is the fungus that produces an azaphilone pigment. However, details about the pigment biosynthesis pathway are unknown. The violet pigment PP-V is the one of the main pigments biosynthesized by this fungus. This pigment contains an amino group in a pyran ring as its core structure. We focused on this pigment and examined the relationship between intracellular ammonium concentration and pigment production using glutamine as a nitrogen source. The intracellular ammonium level decreased about 1.5-fold in conditions favoring PP-V production. Moreover, P. purpurogenum was transferred to medium in which it commonly produces the related pigment PP-O after cultivating it in the presence or absence of glutamine to investigate whether this fungus biosynthesizes PP-V using surplus ammonium in cells. Only mycelia cultured in medium containing 10 mM glutamine produced the violet pigment, and simultaneously intracellular ammonium levels decreased under this condition. From comparisons of the amount of PP-V that was secreted with quantity of surplus intracellular ammonium, it is suggested that P. purpurogenum maintains ammonium homeostasis by excreting waste ammonium as PP-V.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from algae against Penicillium expansum Link (Trichocomaceae, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argus Cezar da Rocha Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium expansum is a cosmopolitan, highly aggressive pathogen that causes blue mold, a disease of great importance that leads to losses in quality and quantity of harvested fruits. The application of chemicals is traditionally used as a control method. However, algae bioprospecting has revealed many antifungal compounds that can be used to control pathogens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extracts from seven microalgae and five macroalgae against P. expansum. The antifungal potential was evaluated by analyzing germination percentage, the size of the germ tube, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and the median effective concentration (EC50. The spectrophotometric profile was determined for extracts that showed an inhibitory effect. Among the investigated algae, the Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis extracts, which had final concentrations of 18.8 and 125.95mg.mL-1, inhibited 100% and 91% germination, respectively. The EC50 was 2.93 and 61.20 mg.mL-1 for Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis, respectively. Chlorella sp. showed absorption peaks in the range of chlorophyll-a and H. pluvialis presented a peak in the range of phenolic compounds. Although further studies are required to characterize the extracts, Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis showed promising antifungal effects on the control of P. expansum.

  19. Mycotoxins, drugs and other extrolites produced by species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2004-01-01

    The 58 species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium produce a large number of bioactive extrolites (secondary metabolites), including several mycotoxins. An overview of these extrolites is presented with original references to the reports on their production and their chemical constitution. 132...... mycotoxin ochratoxin A is produced by P. verrucosum and P. nordicum, and another nephrotoxin, citrinin, is produced by P. expansum, P. radicicola and P. verrucosum. Patulin is produced by P. carneum, P. clavigerum, P. concentricum, P. coprobium, P. dipodomyicola, P. expansum, P. glandicola, P. gladioli, P....... confertum, P. formosanum and P. tricolor. The mutagenic mycotoxin botryodiploidin is produced by P. brevicompactum and P. paneum. The chaetoglobosins are produced by P. discolor, P. expansum and P. marinum. The cytotoxic communesins are produced by P. expansum and P. marinum. Cyclopiazonic acid is produced...

  20. Individual and combined effects of vanillin and potassium sorbate on Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium glabrum, and Penicillium italicum growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros-León, B; Argaiz, A; López-Malo, A

    1999-05-01

    The individual and combined effects of potassium sorbate and vanillin concentrations on the growth of Penicillium digitatum, P. glabrum, and P. italicum in potato dextrose agar adjusted to water activity 0.98 and pH 3.5 were evaluated. Inhibitory concentrations of potassium sorbate varied from 150 ppm for P. digitatum to 700 ppm for P. glabrum, and for vanillin from 1,100 ppm for P. digitatum and P. italicum and 1,300 ppm for P. glabrum. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) isobolograms show curves deviated to the left of the additive line. Calculated FIC index varied from 0.60 to 0.84. FIC index as well as FIC isobolograms show synergistic effects on mold inhibition when vanillin and potassium sorbate are applied in combination.