WorldWideScience

Sample records for fungal origin review

  1. Fungal catalases: function, phylogenetic origin and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberg, Wilhelm; Salas-Lizana, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Laura

    2012-09-15

    Most fungi have several monofunctional heme-catalases. Filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina) have two types of large-size subunit catalases (L1 and L2). L2-type are usually induced by different stressors and are extracellular enzymes; those from the L1-type are not inducible and accumulate in asexual spores. L2 catalases are important for growth and the start of cell differentiation, while L1 are required for spore germination. In addition, pezizomycetes have one to four small-size subunit catalases. Yeasts (Saccharomycotina) do not have large-subunit catalases and generally have one peroxisomal and one cytosolic small-subunit catalase. Small-subunit catalases are inhibited by substrate while large-subunit catalases are activated by H(2)O(2). Some small-subunit catalases bind NADPH preventing inhibition by substrate. We present a phylogenetic analysis revealing one or two events of horizontal gene transfers from Actinobacteria to a fungal ancestor before fungal diversification, as the origin of large-size subunit catalases. Other possible horizontal transfers of small- and large-subunit catalases genes were detected and one from bacteria to the fungus Malassezia globosa was analyzed in detail. All L2-type catalases analyzed presented a secretion signal peptide. Mucorales preserved only L2-type catalases, with one containing a secretion signal if two or more are present. Basidiomycetes have only L1-type catalases, all lacking signal peptide. Fungal small-size catalases are related to animal catalases and probably evolved from a common ancestor. However, there are several groups of small-size catalases. In particular, a conserved group of fungal sequences resemble plant catalases, whose phylogenetic origin was traced to a group of bacteria. This group probably has the heme orientation of plant catalases and could in principle bind NADPH. From almost a hundred small-subunit catalases only one fourth has a peroxisomal localization signal and in fact many fungi lack

  2. Fungal Origins of the Bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane Ring System of Prenylated Indole Alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finefield, Jennifer M.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Sherman, David H.

    2012-01-01

    of numerous biogenetic, synthetic, taxonomic, and biological studies and, as such, have made a lasting impact across multiple scientific disciplines. This review covers the isolation, biosynthesis, and biological activity of these unique secondary metabolites containing the bridging bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane...... ring system. Furthermore, the diverse fungal origin of these natural products is closely examined and, in many cases, updated to reflect the currently accepted fungal taxonomy....

  3. Review article: fungal microbiota and digestive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z K; Yang, Y S; Stefka, A T; Sun, G; Peng, L H

    2014-04-01

    The role of the fungal microbiota in digestive diseases is poorly defined, but is becoming better understood due to advances in metagenomics. To review the gastrointestinal fungal microbiota and its relationship with digestive diseases. Search of the literature using PubMed and MEDLINE databases. Subject headings including 'fungal-bacterial interactions', 'mycotoxins', 'immunity to fungi', 'fungal infection', 'fungal microbiota', 'mycobiome' and 'digestive diseases' were used. The fungal microbiota is an integral part of the gastrointestinal microecosystem with up to 10(6) microorganisms per gram of faeces. Next-generation sequencing of the fungal 18S rRNA gene has allowed better characterisation of the gastrointestinal mycobiome. Numerous interactions between fungi and bacteria and the complex immune response to gastrointestinal commensal or pathogenic fungi all impact on the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal inflammatory entities such as peptic ulcers. Mycotoxins generated as fungal metabolites contribute to disturbances of gastrointestinal barrier and immune functions and are associated with chronic intestinal inflammatory conditions as well as hepatocellular and oesophagogastric cancer. Systemic and gastrointestinal disease can also lead to secondary fungal infections. Fungal genomic databases and methodologies need to be further developed and will allow a much better understanding of the diversity and function of the mycobiome in gastrointestinal inflammation, tumourigenesis, liver cirrhosis and transplantation, and its alteration as a consequence of antibiotic therapy and chemotherapy. The fungal microbiota and its metabolites impact gastrointestinal function and contribute to the pathogenesis of digestive diseases. Further metagenomic analyses of the gastrointestinal mycobiome in health and disease is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  5. Fungal periprosthetic joint infection of the hip: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Schoof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty with an incidence of approximately 1%. Due to the high risk of persisting infection, successful treatment of fungal PJI is challenging. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current management of fungal PJI of the hip and, by systematically reviewing the cases published so far, to further improve the medical treatment of this serious complication of total hip arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the available literature concerning fungal PJI in total hip arthroplasty, including 45 cases of fungal PJI. At the moment a two-stage revision procedure is favorable and there is an ongoing discussion on the therapeutic effect of antifungal drug loaded cement spacers on fungal periprosthetic infections of the hip. Due to the fact that there is rare experience with it, there is urgent need to establish guidelines for the treatment of fungal infections of total hip arthroplasty.

  6. Review of clinical and basic approaches of fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal keratitis (FK is a serious disease which can cause blindness. This review has current information about the pathogenesis, limitations of traditional diagnosis and therapeutic strategies, immune recognition and the diagnosis and therapy of FK. The information of this summary was reviewed regularly and updated as what we need in the diagnosis and therapy of FK nowadays.

  7. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D'Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections.

  8. Secreted fungal aspartic proteases: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandujano-González, Virginia; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2016-01-01

    The aspartic proteases, also called aspartyl and aspartate proteases or acid proteases (E.C.3.4.23), belong to the endopeptidase family and are characterized by the conserved sequence Asp-Gly-Thr at the active site. These enzymes are found in a wide variety of microorganisms in which they perform important functions related to nutrition and pathogenesis. In addition, their high activity and stability at acid pH make them attractive for industrial application in the food industry; specifically, they are used as milk-coagulating agents in cheese production or serve to improve the taste of some foods. This review presents an analysis of the characteristics and properties of secreted microbial aspartic proteases and their potential for commercial application. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. The roles of sexual and asexual reproduction in the origin and dissemination of strains causing fungal infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashu, Eta Ebasi; Xu, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Sexual reproduction commonly refers to the reproductive process in which genomes from two sources are combined into a single cell through mating and then the zygote genomes are partitioned to progeny cells through meiosis. Reproduction in the absence of mating and meiosis is referred to as asexual or clonal reproduction. One major advantage of sexual reproduction is that it generates genetic variation among progeny which may allow for faster adaptation of the population to novel and/or stressful environments. However, adaptation to stressful or new environments can still occur through mutation, in the absence of sex. In this review, we analyzed the relative contributions of sexual and asexual reproduction in the origin and spread of strains causing fungal infectious diseases outbreaks. The necessity of sex and the ability of asexual fungi to initiate outbreaks are discussed. We propose a framework that relates the modes of reproduction to the origin and propagation of fungal disease outbreaks. Our analyses suggest that both sexual and asexual reproduction can play critical roles in the origin of outbreak strains and that the rapid spread of outbreak strains is often accomplished through asexual expansion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Who lives in a fungus? The diversity, origins and functions of fungal endobacteria living in Mucoromycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Paola; Desirò, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial interactions with plants and animals have been examined for many years; differently, only with the new millennium the study of bacterial-fungal interactions blossomed, becoming a new field of microbiology with relevance to microbial ecology, human health and biotechnology. Bacteria and fungi interact at different levels and bacterial endosymbionts, which dwell inside fungal cells, provide the most intimate example. Bacterial endosymbionts mostly occur in fungi of the phylum Mucoromycota and include Betaproteobacteria (Burkhoderia-related) and Mollicutes (Mycoplasma-related). Based on phylogenomics and estimations of divergence time, we hypothesized two different scenarios for the origin of these interactions (early vs late bacterial invasion). Sequencing of the genomes of fungal endobacteria revealed a significant reduction in genome size, particularly in endosymbionts of Glomeromycotina, as expected by their uncultivability and host dependency. Similar to endobacteria of insects, the endobacteria of fungi show a range of behaviours from mutualism to antagonism. Emerging results suggest that some benefits given by the endobacteria to their plant-associated fungal host may propagate to the interacting plant, giving rise to a three-level inter-domain interaction.

  11. The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic mechanisms for lignin degradation reconstructed using 31 fungal genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martinez, Angel T.; Otillar, Robert; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Yadav, Jagit S.; Aerts, Andrea; Benoit, Isabelle; Boyd, Alex; Carlson, Alexis; Copeland, Alex; Coutinho, Pedro M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Findley, Keisha; Foster, Brian; Gaskell, Jill; Glotzer, Dylan; Gorecki, Pawel; Heitman, Joseph; Hesse, Cedar; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jurgens, Joel A.; Kallen, Nathan; Kersten, Phil; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Kumar, T. K. Arun; Kuo, Alan; LaButti, Kurt; Larrondo, Luis F.; Lindquist, Erika; Ling, Albee; Lombard, Vincent; Lucas, Susan; Lundell, Taina; Martin, Rachael; McLaughlin, David J.; Morgenstern, Ingo; Morin, Emanuelle; Murat, Claude; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Rokas, Antonis; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Salamov, Asaf; Samejima, Masahiro; Schmutz, Jeremy; Slot, Jason C.; John, Franz; Stenlid, Jan; Sun, Hui; Sun, Sheng; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Tsang, Adrian; Wiebenga, Ad; Young, Darcy; Pisabarro, Antonio; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.

    2012-03-12

    Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non?lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.

  12. The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martínez, Angel T; Otillar, Robert; Spatafora, Joseph W; Yadav, Jagjit S; Aerts, Andrea; Benoit, Isabelle; Boyd, Alex; Carlson, Alexis; Copeland, Alex; Coutinho, Pedro M; de Vries, Ronald P; Ferreira, Patricia; Findley, Keisha; Foster, Brian; Gaskell, Jill; Glotzer, Dylan; Górecki, Paweł; Heitman, Joseph; Hesse, Cedar; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jurgens, Joel A; Kallen, Nathan; Kersten, Phil; Kohler, Annegret; Kües, Ursula; Kumar, T K Arun; Kuo, Alan; LaButti, Kurt; Larrondo, Luis F; Lindquist, Erika; Ling, Albee; Lombard, Vincent; Lucas, Susan; Lundell, Taina; Martin, Rachael; McLaughlin, David J; Morgenstern, Ingo; Morin, Emanuelle; Murat, Claude; Nagy, Laszlo G; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Rokas, Antonis; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Sabat, Grzegorz; Salamov, Asaf; Samejima, Masahiro; Schmutz, Jeremy; Slot, Jason C; St John, Franz; Stenlid, Jan; Sun, Hui; Sun, Sheng; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Tsang, Adrian; Wiebenga, Ad; Young, Darcy; Pisabarro, Antonio; Eastwood, Daniel C; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hibbett, David S

    2012-06-29

    Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non-lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.

  13. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gavito-Higuera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected. Mycetoma and Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are considered non-invasive forms. Computer tomography is the gold-standard in sinonasal imaging and is complimented by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as it is superior in the evaluation of intraorbital and intracranial extensions. The knowledge and identification of the characteristic imaging patterns in invasive - and non- invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is crucial and the radiologist plays an important role in refining the diagnosis to prevent a possible fatal outcome.

  14. A 5-Year Retrospective Review of Fungal Keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzillah Mohd-Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Corneal blindness from healed infected keratitis is one of the most preventable causes of monocular blindness in developing countries, including Malaysia. Our objectives were to identify the causative fungi, predisposing risk factors, the proportion of correct clinical diagnosis, and visual outcome of patients treated in our hospital. Methods. A retrospective review of medical and microbiology records was conducted for all patients who were treated for fungal keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2007 until December 2011. Results. Forty-seven patients (47/186, 25.27% were treated for fungal keratitis during the study period. This demonstrated that the incidence of fungal keratitis has increased each year from 2007 to 2011 by 12.50%, 17.65%, 21.21%, 26.83%, and 28.57%, respectively. The most common predisposing factors were injury to the eye followed by use of topical steroid, and preexisting ocular surface disease. Fusarium species were the most common fungal isolated, followed by Candida species. Clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 26 of the 41 (63.41% cases of positive isolates. Of these, in eleven cases (23.40% patients required surgical intervention. Clinical outcome of healed scar was achieved in 34 (72.34% cases. Conclusions. The percentage of positive fungal isolated has steadily increased and the trend of common fungal isolated has changed. The latest review regarding fungal keratitis is important for us to improve patients' outcome in the future.

  15. Phylogenetics of a fungal invasion: Origins and widespread dispersal of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Puechmaille, Sebastein J.; Parise, Katy L.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Hoyt, Joseph R.; Sun, Keping; Jargalsaikhan, Ariunbold; Dalannast, Munkhnast; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Linder, Daniel L.; Kilpatrick, Marm; Pearson, Talima; Keim, Paul S.; Blehert, David; Foster, Jeffrey T.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has exhibited few genetic polymorphisms in previous studies, presenting challenges for both epizoological tracking of the spread of this fungus and for determining its evolutionary history. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome sequencing and microsatellites to construct high-resolution phylogenies of P. destructans. Shallow genetic diversity and the lack of geographic structuring among North American isolates support a recent introduction followed by expansion via clonal reproduction across the epizootic zone. Moreover, the genetic relationships of isolates within North America suggest widespread mixing and long-distance movement of the fungus. Genetic diversity among isolates of P. destructans from Europe was substantially higher than in those from North America. However, genetic distance between the North American isolates and any given European isolate was similar to the distance between the individual European isolates. In contrast, the isolates we examined from Asia were highly divergent from both European and North American isolates. Although the definitive source for introduction of the North American population has not been conclusively identified, our data support the origin of the North American invasion by P. destructans from Europe rather than Asia.

  16. Phylogenetics of a Fungal Invasion: Origins and Widespread Dispersal of White-Nose Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P. Drees

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has exhibited few genetic polymorphisms in previous studies, presenting challenges for both epizoological tracking of the spread of this fungus and for determining its evolutionary history. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from whole-genome sequencing and microsatellites to construct high-resolution phylogenies of P. destructans. Shallow genetic diversity and the lack of geographic structuring among North American isolates support a recent introduction followed by expansion via clonal reproduction across the epizootic zone. Moreover, the genetic relationships of isolates within North America suggest widespread mixing and long-distance movement of the fungus. Genetic diversity among isolates of P. destructans from Europe was substantially higher than in those from North America. However, genetic distance between the North American isolates and any given European isolate was similar to the distance between the individual European isolates. In contrast, the isolates we examined from Asia were highly divergent from both European and North American isolates. Although the definitive source for introduction of the North American population has not been conclusively identified, our data support the origin of the North American invasion by P. destructans from Europe rather than Asia.

  17. Phylogenetics of a Fungal Invasion: Origins and Widespread Dispersal of White-Nose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Parise, Katy L; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Hoyt, Joseph R; Sun, Keping; Jargalsaikhan, Ariunbold; Dalannast, Munkhnast; Palmer, Jonathan M; Lindner, Daniel L; Marm Kilpatrick, A; Pearson, Talima; Keim, Paul S; Blehert, David S; Foster, Jeffrey T

    2017-12-12

    Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans , a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has exhibited few genetic polymorphisms in previous studies, presenting challenges for both epizoological tracking of the spread of this fungus and for determining its evolutionary history. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome sequencing and microsatellites to construct high-resolution phylogenies of P. destructans Shallow genetic diversity and the lack of geographic structuring among North American isolates support a recent introduction followed by expansion via clonal reproduction across the epizootic zone. Moreover, the genetic relationships of isolates within North America suggest widespread mixing and long-distance movement of the fungus. Genetic diversity among isolates of P. destructans from Europe was substantially higher than in those from North America. However, genetic distance between the North American isolates and any given European isolate was similar to the distance between the individual European isolates. In contrast, the isolates we examined from Asia were highly divergent from both European and North American isolates. Although the definitive source for introduction of the North American population has not been conclusively identified, our data support the origin of the North American invasion by P. destructans from Europe rather than Asia. IMPORTANCE This phylogenetic study of the bat white-nose syndrome agent, P. destructans , uses genomics to elucidate evolutionary relationships among populations of the fungal pathogen to understand the epizoology of this biological invasion. We analyze hypervariable and abundant genetic characters (microsatellites and genomic SNPs

  18. A Review of Occurrence of Fungal Pathogens on Significant Brassicaceous Vegetable Crops and their Control Measures

    OpenAIRE

    M. Srivastava; S.K. Gupta, A.P. Saxena, L.A.J. Shittu and S.K. Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are subjected to viral, bacterial as well as fungal attack, which causes a high yield loss. Temperature and moisture conditions, which promote the growth of fungus, are needed to be studied in order for an effective control of the disease to be estimated. The present review gives a brief account of the fungal diseases which have been considered responsible for major economic loss to the Brassica crops. The epidemiological conditions necessary for the occurrence and prevale...

  19. The Paleozoic Origin of Enzymatic Lignin Decomposition Reconstructed from 31 Fungal Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrios Floudas; Manfred Binder; Robert Riely; Kerrie Barry; Robert A. Blanchette; Bernard Henrissat; Angel T. Martínez; Robert Otillar; Joseph W. Spatafora; Jagjit S. Yadav; Andrea Aerts; Isabelle Benoit; Alex Boyd; Alexis Carlson; Alex Copeland; Pedro M. Coutinho; Ronald P. deVries; Patricia Ferreira; Keisha Findley; Brian Foster; Jill Gaskell; Dylan Glotzer; Pawe³ Górecki; Joseph Heitman; Cedar Hesse; Chiaki Hori; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Joel A. Jurgens; Nathan Kallen; Phil Kersten; Annegret Kohler; Ursula Kües; T. K. ArunKumar; Alan Kuo; Kurt LaButti; Luis F. Larrondo; Erika Lindquist; Albee Ling; Vincent Lombard; Susan Lucas; Taina Lundell; Rachael Martin; David J. McLaughlin; Ingo Morgenstern; Emanuelle Morin; Claude Murat; Laszlo G. Nagy; Matt Nolan; Robin A. Ohm; Aleksandrina Patyshakuliyeva; Antonis Rokas; Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas; Grzegorz Sabat; Asaf Salamov; Masahiro Samejima; Jeremy Schmutz; Jason C. Slot; Franz St. John; Jan Stenlid; Hui Sun; Sheng Sun; Khajamohiddin Syed; Adrian Tsang; Ad Wiebenga; Darcy Young; Antonio Pisabarro; Daniel C. Eastwood; Francis Martin; Dan Cullen; Igor V. Grigoriev; David S. Hibbett

    2012-01-01

    Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non–lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study)...

  20. Phylogenetics of a fungal invasion: origins and widespread dispersal of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin P. Drees; Jeffrey M. Lorch; Sebastien J. Puechmaille; Katy L. Parise; Gudrun Wibbelt; Joseph R. Hoyt; Keping Sun; Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan; Munkhnast Dalannast; Jonathan M. Palmer; Daniel L. Lindner; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Talima Pearson; Paul S. Keim; David S. Blehert; Jeffrey T. Foster; Joseph. Heitman

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has...

  1. Fungal/mycotic diseases of poultry-diagnosis, treatment and control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Shambhu Dayal

    2013-12-01

    Fungal/mycotic diseases cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry either due to their direct infectious nature or due to production of mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites produced in grains or poultry feed. Several fungi have created havoc in the poultry industry and some of them cause direct harm to human health due to their zoonotic implications. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. Mycotic dermatitis is a possible health hazard associated with poultry houses. Mycotoxins are the leading cause of producing immunosuppression in birds, which makes them prone to several bacterial and viral infections leading to huge economic losses to the poultry industry. In comparison to bacterial and viral diseases, advances in diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of fungal diseases in poultry has not taken much attention. Recently, molecular biological tools have been explored for rapid and accurate diagnosis of important fungal infections. Effective prevention and control measures include: appropriate hygiene, sanitation and disinfection, strict biosecurity programme and regular surveillance/monitoring of fungal infections as well as following judicious use of anti-fungal drugs. Precautionary measures during crop production, harvesting and storing and in feed mixing plants can help to check the fungal infections including health hazards of mycotoxins/mycotoxicosis. The present review describes the fungal pathogens causing diseases in poultry/birds, especially focusing to their diagnosis, prevention and control measures, which would help in formulating appropriate strategies to have a check and control on these unwanted troubles to the poultry producers/farmers.

  2. Fungal periprosthetic joint infection in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Jakobs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal periprosthetic joint infection (PJI is a rare but devastating complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA. A standardized procedure regarding an accurate treatment of this serious complication of knee arthroplasty is lacking. In this systematic review, we collected data from 36 studies with a total of 45 reported cases of a TKA complicated by a fungal PJI. Subsequently, an analysis focusing on diagnostic, medicaments and surgical procedures in the pre-, intra- and postoperative period was performed. Candida spp. accounts for about 80% (36 out of 45 cases of fungal PJIs and is therefore the most frequently reported pathogen. A systemic antifungal therapy was administered in all but one patient whereas a local antifungal therapy, e.g. the use of an impregnated spacer, is of inferior relevance. Resection arthroplasty with delayed re-implantation (two-stage revision was the surgical treatment of choice. However, in 50% of all reported cases the surgical therapy was heterogeneous. The outcome under a combined therapy was moderate with recurrent fungal PJI in 11 patients and subsequent bacterial PJI as a main complication in 5 patients. In summary, this systematic review integrates data from up to date 45 reported cases of a fungal PJI of a TKA. On the basis of the current literature strategies for the treatment of this devastating complication after TKA are discussed

  3. Fungal brain abscess: report of three cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal brain abscess is an unusual but serious complication associated with immunosuppression. The aim of this study is to review our experience, to determine the factors related to the outcome, the pathogenesis and clinical presentation, and to improve the therapeutic strategy for this disease, and also include a review of the relevant literature. We reviewed three cases of fungal brain abscess in patients who were immunocompromised. The three patients included two males and one female. Their ages ranged from 35 to 53 years (mean, 43.3 years. The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis of brain abscess was 19 days. The diagnostic of brain abscess were performed in all three cases by histopathology and direct preparation, culture techniques and CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were presenting with mild dizziness and unsteady gait, headache, and focal or generalized seizure. We isolated two cases of Aspergillus fumigatus and one Candida albicans from cerebral abscess. All patients had predisposing factor to fungal infections. The outcome in our patients was poor, with an overall mortality of 2:3 of patients. Blood and urine culture were negative for fungi in all patients. Early diagnosis, aggressive surgical procedures, and antimicrobial therapy for fungal brain abscess may reduce morbidity and mortality.

  4. The Distant Siblings—A Phylogenomic Roadmap Illuminates the Origins of Extant Diversity in Fungal Aromatic Polyketide Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczyk, Grzegorz; Dawidziuk, Adam; Popiel, Delfina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, the influx of newly sequenced fungal genomes has enabled sampling of secondary metabolite biosynthesis on an unprecedented scale. However, explanations of extant diversity which take into account both large-scale phylogeny reconstructions and knowledge gained from multiple genome projects are still lacking. We analyzed the evolutionary sources of genetic diversity in aromatic polyketide biosynthesis in over 100 model fungal genomes. By reconciling the history of over 400 nonreducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) with corresponding species history, we demonstrate that extant fungal NR-PKSs are clades of distant siblings, originating from a burst of duplications in early Pezizomycotina and thinned by extensive losses. The capability of higher fungi to biosynthesize the simplest precursor molecule (orsellinic acid) is highlighted as an ancestral trait underlying biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. This base activity was modified during early evolution of filamentous fungi, toward divergent reaction schemes associated with biosynthesis of, for example, aflatoxins and fusarubins (C4–C9 cyclization) or various anthraquinone derivatives (C6–C11 cyclization). The functional plasticity is further shown to have been supplemented by modularization of domain architecture into discrete pieces (conserved splice junctions within product template domain), as well as tight linkage of key accessory enzyme families and divergence in employed transcriptional factors. Although the majority of discord between species and gene history is explained by ancient duplications, this landscape has been altered by more recent duplications, as well as multiple horizontal gene transfers. The 25 detected transfers include previously undescribed events leading to emergence of, for example, fusarubin biosynthesis in Fusarium genus. Both the underlying data and the results of present analysis (including alternative scenarios revealed by sampling multiple reconciliation

  5. Fungal Succession on Keratinous Hair and Nail Baits of Human Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahariya, Sunita; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2017-03-01

    Mycologically, succession is more precisely the sequential occupation of the same site by thalli (normally mycelia) either of different fungi or of different associations of fungi. For the study of fungal succession on hair bait, different soil samples were collected from different habitats of Jaipur. The fungal growth isolated from soil samples was observed macroscopically and microscopically for the appearance of fungi at regular interval of 15 days for more than 6 months. Regular microscopic examination of fungi of soil samples baited with hair showed a successional colonization of non-keratinophilic and keratinophilic fungi. In the first phase of 30-day incubation, five non-keratinophilic fungi appeared. After 45 days, three non-keratinophilic fungi appeared together and three keratinophilic fungi viz. Geotrichum spp., Coccidiodes immitis and Aspergillus niger. In third phase of 60 days, growth of only one Fusarium spp. as non-keratinophilic fungi and four keratinophilic fungi viz. Geotrichum spp. Chrysosporium spp., Chrysosporium indicum and Microsporum gypseum was observed. During the study, Fusarium spp. showed persistent growth from initial phase to third phase of incubation. After 75 days, all the non-keratinophilic fungi disappeared fully and seven fungi viz. Geotrichum spp., Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium evolceanui, C. indicum, Trichophyton simii, Trichophyton terrestre and M. gypseum were observed as keratinophilic fungi. In the last phase of 90-day incubation, three keratinophilic fungi viz. Geotrichum spp., C. evolceanui and M. gypseum were also disappeared and four keratinophilic fungi like C. tropicum, T. simii, C. indicum and T. terrestre were found to be more persistent fungi.

  6. Fungal Keratitis: A Six-Year Review at a Tertiary Referral Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, K C; Baenninger, P B; Schmittinger-Zirm, A; Thiel, M A; Kaufmann, C

    2017-04-01

    Background This review reports the epidemiology, laboratory results, treatment regimens and costs of fungal keratitis at a tertiary referral center in Lucerne, Switzerland. Patients and Methods Culture-proven fungal infections between January 2010 and December 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Results Seventeen patients with a mean age of 52 years were identified. Contact lens wear was the most important risk factor (n = 11) (65 % of all cases), with filamentous fungi being identified as the most common fungus type (n = 10) (91 % of all cases of contact lens-associated fungal keratitis). All non-contact lens-associated fungal infections (n = 6) (35 % of all cases) were related to Candida spp. Six patients (35 %) were treated on an outpatient basis; 11 cases (65 %) required hospitalisation. Systemic voriconazole was the treatment regimen prescribed most often (n = 12) (71 %), followed by topical natamycin 5 % (n = 11) (65 %). Corneal crosslinking and penetrating keratoplasty were required in 4 cases each (24 %). One case ended up in enucleation (6 %). Average costs per case were EUR 15 952 for hospitalised patients if surgical intervention was required, and EUR 7415 if no intervention was performed. Average costs for outpatients were EUR 7079. In a majority of cases, visual acuity could be improved (n = 9) (53 %) or preserved (n = 2) (12 %). Conclusion Despite the relatively low incidence of culture-proven keratitis (17 cases in 6 years), a clear pattern with regard to risk factors and fungus species was noted. In the absence of a gold standard for the treatment of fungal keratitis, the combination of systemic voriconazole and topical natamycin seems to be one of the most commonly used antifungal treatment regimens. The costs of outpatient versus inpatient non-surgical treatment were approximately the same. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Fungal endophytes as prolific source of phytochemicals and other bioactive natural products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa, Humeera; Kamili, Azra N; Nawchoo, Irshad A; Shafi, Sana; Shameem, Nowsheen; Bandh, Suhaib A

    2015-05-01

    Endophytic fungi are those that live internally in apparently healthy and asymptomatic hosts. Endophytic fungi appear to be ubiquitous; indeed, no study has yet shown the existence of a plant species without endophytes. High species diversity is another characteristic of endophytic mycobiota which is depicted by the fact that it is quite common for endophyte surveys to find assemblages consisting of more than 30 fungal species per host plant species. Medicinal plants had been used to isolate and characterize directly the bioactive metabolites. However, the discovery of fungal endophytes inside these plants with capacity to produce the same compounds shifted the focus of new drug sources from plants to fungi. Bioactive natural products from endophytic fungi, isolated from different plant species, are attracting considerable attention from natural product chemists and biologists alike which is clearly depicted by the steady increase of publications devoted to this topic during the recent years. This review will highlight the chemical potential of endophytic fungi with focus on the detection of pharmaceutically valuable plant constituents as products of fungal biosynthesis. In addition, it will cover newly discovered endophytic fungi and also new bioactive metabolites reported in recent years from fungal endophytes. It summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information on bioactive compounds from endophytic fungi by having done a thorough survey of literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stable isotope fingerprinting: a novel method for identifying plant, fungal, or bacterial origins of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Larsen; D. Lee Taylor; Mary Beth Leigh; Diane M. O' Brien

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids play an important role in ecology as essential nutrients for animals and as currencies in symbiotic associations. Here we present a new approach to tracing the origins of amino acids by identifying unique patterns of carbon isotope signatures generated by amino acid synthesis in plants, fungi, and bacteria ("13C fingerprints...

  9. Invasive Fungal Infections Acquired from Contaminated Food or Nutritional Supplements: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Chiller, Tom M; Mody, Rajal K

    2016-07-01

    Fungi are an integral part of the natural environment and, therefore, play many roles in relation to food: some fungi are used in food production, some are food sources themselves, and some are agents of food spoilage. Some fungi that contaminate food can also be harmful to human health. The harmful but noninfectious health consequences of mycotoxins have been well-characterized, but the extent to which fungi in food pose a risk for invasive infections is unknown. We conducted a literature review to identify cases of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) believed to have resulted from ingestion or inhalation of food, beverages, or dietary supplements (excluding Saccharomyces infections). We identified 11 publications describing cases or small outbreaks of IFIs related to foods or beverages and three describing IFIs related to dietary supplements. These food-associated IFIs were predominantly mold infections, and the few yeast infections were associated with dairy products. Suspected foodborne IFIs appear to be rare, but are increasingly described in the electronically searchable literature. They are associated with a variety of foods, are due to a variety of fungal pathogens, and primarily occur in persons with immunosuppressive conditions or other predisposing factors. Various guidelines for high-risk patients recommend avoidance of certain food products that may contain high levels of fungi, but further work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these restrictive diets in preventing fungal infections. The relationships between food spoilage, food insecurity, and IFI risk are another area that may warrant further exploration.

  10. Fungal endophytes and their interactions with plants in phytoremediation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zujun; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-02-01

    Endophytic microorganisms (including bacteria and fungi) are likely to interact closely with their hosts and are more protected from adverse changes in the environment. The microbiota contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration, and phytoremediation. Elevated levels of contaminants (i.e. metals) are toxic to most plants, the plant's metabolism and growth were impaired and their potential for metal phytoextraction is highly restricted. Exploiting endophytic microorganisms to reduce metal toxicity to plants have been investigated to improve phytoremediation efficiencies. Fungi play an important role in organic and inorganic transformation, element cycling, rock and mineral transformations, bioweathering, mycogenic mineral formation, fungal-clay interactions, and metal-fungal interactions. Endophytic fungi also showed potentials to enhance phytoremediation. Compared to bacteria, most fungi exhibit a filamentous growth habit, which provides the ability to adopt both explorative or exploitative growth strategies and form linear organs of aggregated hyphae to protect fungal translocation. However, the information regarding the role of endophytic fungi in phytoremediation are incomplete, this review highlights the taxa, physiological properties, and interaction of endophytic fungi with plants in phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ hybridization for rRNA sequences in anatomic pathology specimens, applications for fungal pathogen detection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, Kathleen T; Guarner, Jeannette

    2013-05-01

    Fungal infections are a frequent occurrence in medical practice due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients. New antifungal medications have been developed and it has become evident that different fungi require different treatments as some are intrinsically resistant to these drugs. Thus, it is imperative that pathologists recognize the limitations of histopathologic diagnosis regarding speciation of fungal infections and advocate for the use of different techniques that can help define the genus and species of the fungus present in the specimen they are studying. In this review we present the use of in situ hybridization as an important adjunct for the diagnosis of fungal diseases, the different techniques that have been used for fungal identification, and the limitations that these techniques have.

  12. Original antigenic sin: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Anup; Monsalve, Diana M; Pacheco, Yovana; Chang, Christopher; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gershwin, M Eric

    2017-09-01

    The concept of "original antigenic sin" was first proposed by Thomas Francis, Jr. in 1960. This phenomenon has the potential to rewrite what we understand about how the immune system responds to infections and its mechanistic implications on how vaccines should be designed. Antigenic sin has been demonstrated to occur in several infectious diseases in both animals and humans, including human influenza infection and dengue fever. The basis of "original antigenic sin" requires immunological memory, and our immune system ability to autocorrect. In the context of viral infections, it is expected that if we are exposed to a native strain of a pathogen, we should be able to mount a secondary immune response on subsequent exposure to the same pathogen. "Original antigenic sin" will not contradict this well-established immunological process, as long as the subsequent infectious antigen is identical to the original one. But "original antigenic sin" implies that when the epitope varies slightly, then the immune system relies on memory of the earlier infection, rather than mount another primary or secondary response to the new epitope which would allow faster and stronger responses. The result is that the immunological response may be inadequate against the new strain, because the immune system does not adapt and instead relies on its memory to mount a response. In the case of vaccines, if we only immunize to a single strain or epitope, and if that strain/epitope changes over time, then the immune system is unable to mount an accurate secondary response. In addition, depending of the first viral exposure the secondary immune response can result in an antibody-dependent enhancement of the disease or at the opposite, it could induce anergy. Both of them triggering loss of pathogen control and inducing aberrant clinical consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Book Review The origins, prevention and treatment of infant crying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review The origins, prevention and treatment of infant crying and sleeping problems: An evidence based guide for healthcare professionals and the families they support By Ian St James-Roberts (2012)

  14. Incidence of fungals in a vineyard of the denomination of origin ribeiro (Ourense - north-western Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Maria; Rodriguez-Rajo, Javier; Jato, Victoria; Aira, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about the fungal spores most abundant in the atmosphere of a vineyard is of great use since it allows development of prediction models of the spore concentration, and therefore application of phytosanitary treatments only when high levels of fungal propaguls are detected. In this study the concentration of phytopathogenic spores is related with the different phenological stages of the vineyard, and a prediction model developed for each fungal type using meteorological, phenological and spore concentrations variables. The study was carried out in a vineyard of the Ribeiro district during the year 2007. For the aerobiological study a volumetric Hirst type trap was used, while phenological observations were carried out on 20 plants of the three varieties monitored (Treixadura, Godello and Loureira) following the phenological scale standardized by the BBCH. Botrytis reached the highest annual total value with 16,145 spores, followed by Plasmopara with 747 spores and Uncinula with 578 spores. In order to forecast the concentration of the phytopathogenic fungal spores, equations of lineal regression were elaborated including as estimators, variables with high correlation coefficient. For Botrytis the regression equation explained 42.4% of the variability of spore concentration, 26.1% for Uncinula and 24.7% for Plasmopara.

  15. A 5-year retrospective review of fungal keratitis in the region of Cap Bon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiba, W; Baba, A; Bouayed, E; Abdessalem, N; Daldoul, A

    2016-12-01

    Microbial keratitis is a serious ocular infection and a leading cause of morbidity and blindness worldwide. A retrospective review of the charts of 30 patients (30 eyes) diagnosed with presumed or culture-proven fungal keratitis among 100 patients with infectious keratitis. All patients initially received hourly 0.5% Amphotericin B eye drops. Systemic antifungal agents consisted mainly of oral Fluconazole. After treatment, a healing time of less than 3 weeks from presentation was considered a good result. Mean follow up was 10.4 months. Risk factors for fungal keratitis included ocular trauma in 13 patients (43.3%). Stromal infiltration was seen in 100% of patients. Satellite lesions were noted in 6 eyes (20%) and an immune ring was noted in 3 cases (10%). The most commonly isolated agent was Fusarium in 9 eyes (50%), followed by Aspergillus in 6 eyes (33.3%), and Candida in 2 eyes (11.1%). At the end of follow up, final visual acuity varied from no light perception to 20/20. The significant predictors were initial visual acuity, size of infiltrate at presentation, male gender and advanced age. The key element in the diagnosis of mycotic keratitis is clinical suspicion on the part of the ophthalmologist. However, because of the potential serious complications, it is essential to identify the exact pathogen so as to initiate appropriate treatment in time and to thus improve the prognosis of this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Orofacial pain of cardiac origin: Review literature and clinical cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vicente, Laia; Jané-Salas, Enric; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Roca-Elias, Josep

    2012-01-01

    The most common types of orofacial pain originate at the dental or periodontal level or in the musculoskeletal structures. However, the patient may present pain in this region even though the source is located elsewhere in the body. One possible source of heterotopic pain is of cardiac origin. Objectives: Report two cases of orofacial pain of cardiac origin and review the clinical cases described in the literature. Study Design: Description of clinical cases and review of clinical cases. Results and conclusions: Nine cases of atypical pain of cardiac origin are recorded, which include 5 females and 4 males. In craniofacial structures, pain of cardiac origin is usually bilateral. At the craniofacial level, the most frequent location described is in the throat and jaw. Pain of cardiac origin is considered atypical due to its location, although roughly 10% of the cases of cardiac ischemia manifest primarily in craniofacial structures. Finally, the differential diagnosis of pain of odontogenic origin must be taken into account with pain of non-odontogenic origin (muscle, psychogenic, neuronal, cardiac, sinus and neurovascular pain) in order to avoid diagnostic errors in the dental practice as well as unnecessary treatments. Key words:Orofacial pain, ischemic heart disease, heterotopic pain, odontalgia. PMID:22322488

  17. Eradication of superficial fungal infections by conventional and novel approaches: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Verma, Shivani; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Vaidya, Shubha; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

    2014-02-01

    During the last two decades, the occurrence of fungal infections either superficial or systemic has been increasing. Moreover, fungal infections become more difficult to treat when they show coupling with immunogenic diseases like AIDS. Superficial fungal infections are associated with skin, nail and eye and are less prominent to systemic infection. However, it may be dangerous if not treated properly. It is usually observed that conventional formulations including cream, powder, gels etc. are used to treat skin fungal infections even for the deep seated fungal infections. However, these formulations show various side-effects on the application site like burning, redness and swelling. Further, due to the immediate release of drug from these formulations they can stimulate the immune system of body generating high impact allergic reactions. Deep seated fungal infections like invasive aspergillosis and invasive candidiasis may be more difficult to treat because the drug released from conventional topical formulation can not reach at the target site due to the low penetration capacity. Similarly, in case of fungal infection of nail and eye, conventional formulations show problem of less bioavailability. Thus, to overcome the drawbacks of conventional therapy a lot of research works have been carried out to develop novel formulations of antifungal drugs to deliver them superficially. Novel formulations explored for the skin delivery of antifungal drugs include liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, microemulsions, nanoparticles, microspheres and micelles. These formulations show extended or sustained release of drug, minimizing the side effect on application site, enhancing bioavailability and reducing the dosing frequency. Further, these formulations also show penetration into the deep skin to treat invasive fungal infections. Novel formulations explored in treatment of fungal infections of eye are liposomes and nanoparticles and whether for nail fungal infections

  18. Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis, a Rare and Under-diagnosed Fungal Infection in Immunocompetent Hosts: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Geramizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis (GIB is an unusual, rare, but emerging fungal infection in the stomach, small intestine, colon, and liver. It has been rarely reported in the English literature and most of the reported cases have been from US, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Iran. In the last five years, 17 cases have been reported from one or two provinces in Iran, and it seems that it has been undiagnosed or probably unnoticed in other parts of the country. In this review, we explored the English literature from 1964 through 2013 via PubMed, Google, and Google scholar using the following search keywords: 1 Basidiobolomycosis 2 Basidiobolus ranarum 3 Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis In this review, we attempted to collect all clinical, pathological, and radiological findings of the presenting patients; complemented with previous experiences regarding the treatment and prognosis of the GIB. Since 1964, only 71 cases have been reported, which will be fully described in terms of clinical presentations, methods of diagnosis and treatment as well as prognosis and follow up.

  19. Fungal Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Fungal Keratitis Sections What is Fungal Keratitis? Fungal Keratitis Causes ... Keratitis Symptoms Fungal Keratitis Treatment What is Fungal Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Fúngica? ...

  20. Solitary Candida albicans Infection Causing Fournier Gangrene and Review of Fungal Etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Tiffany A; Bieniek, Jared M; Sumfest, Joel M

    2014-01-01

    Polymicrobial bacterial infections are commonly found in cases of Fournier gangrene (FG), although fungal growth may occur occasionally. Solitary fungal organisms causing FG have rarely been reported. The authors describe a case of an elderly man with a history of diabetes who presented with a necrotizing scrotal and perineal soft tissue infection. He underwent emergent surgical debridement with findings of diffuse urethral stricture disease and urinary extravasation requiring suprapubic tube placement. Candida albicans was found to be the single causative organism on culture, and the patient recovered well following antifungal treatment. Fungal infections should be considered as rare causes of necrotizing fasciitis and antifungal treatment considered in at-risk immunodeficient individuals.

  1. THE USE OF PLANTS TO PROTECT PLANTS AND FOOD AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS: A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuping, D S S; Eloff, J N

    2017-01-01

    Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal diseases, farmers have used fungicides to manage the damage of plant pathogenic fungi. Drawbacks such as development of resistance and environmental toxicity associated with these chemicals have motivated researchers and cultivators to investigate other possibilities. Several databases were accessed to determine work done on protecting plants against plant fungal pathogens with plant extracts using search terms "plant fungal pathogen", "plant extracts" and "phytopathogens". Proposals are made on the best extractants and bioassay techniques to be used. In addition to chemical fungicides, biological agents have been used to deal with plant fungal diseases. There are many examples where plant extracts or plant derived compounds have been used as commercial deterrents of fungi on a large scale in agricultural and horticultural setups. One advantage of this approach is that plant extracts usually contain more than one antifungal compound. Consequently the development of resistance of pathogens may be lower if the different compounds affect a different metabolic process. Plants cultivated using plants extracts may also be marketed as organically produced. Many papers have been published on effective antimicrobial compounds present in plant extracts focusing on applications in human health. More research is required to develop suitable, sustainable, effective, cheaper botanical products that can be used to help overcome the scourge of plant fungal diseases. Scientists who have worked only on using plants to control human and animal fungal pathogens should consider the advantages of focusing on plant fungal pathogens. This approach could not only potentially increase

  2. A Review of Diagnostic Methods for Invasive Fungal Diseases: Challenges and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Falci, Diego R.; Stadnik, Claudio M. B.; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, particularly in the context of immunosuppression. Diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases is usually complicated by factors such as poor clinical suspicion and unspecific clinical findings. Access to modern diagnostic tools is frequently limited in developing countries. Here, we describe five real-life clinical cases from a Brazilian tertiary hospital, in order to illustrate how to best select diagnostic tests in patie...

  3. THE USE OF PLANTS TO PROTECT PLANTS AND FOOD AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Shuping, D.S.S.; Eloff, J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal diseases, farmers have used fungicides to manage the damage of plant pathogenic fungi. Drawbacks such as development of resistance and environmental toxicity associated with t...

  4. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pan

    Full Text Available The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline, -NHCH3 (loline, -N(CH32 (N-methylloline, -N(CH3Ac (N-acetylloline, -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline, and -N(CH3CHO (N-formylloline. Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for

  5. Enzymes from Fungal and Plant Origin Required for Chemical Diversification of Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in Grass-Epichloë Symbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  6. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B; Schardl, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  7. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  8. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Voriconazole in the Management of Invasive Fungal Infections: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewa, Hazem; El-Mekaty, Eman; El-Bardissy, Ahmed; Ensom, Mary H H; Wilby, Kyle John

    2015-12-01

    The broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent voriconazole is highly efficacious against invasive fungal infections (IFIs) caused by Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp. IFIs are associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially in vulnerable populations such as patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplant as well as other immunocompromised patients. Efficacy of voriconazole in these patients is critical to ensure positive outcomes and reduce mortality. However, a major limitation of voriconazole is the risk of adverse events such as hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. As such, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has been suggested as a mechanism to optimize both efficacy and safety. The aim of this review was to summarize and evaluate evidence from the primary literature that assessed TDM outcomes for voriconazole as well as evaluate the association between CYP2C19 polymorphism and the clinical outcomes of voriconazole. Findings showed associations for both efficacy and safety outcomes with measurement of drug concentrations, yet exact targets or thresholds remain unclear. As such, TDM should be reserved for those patients not responding to therapy with voriconazole or those experiencing adverse drug reactions. Future studies should attempt to further define these populations within controlled settings. Studies that evaluated the effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on clinical outcomes found no significant relationship between CYP2C19 genotype and hepatotoxicity. These negative findings may be due to lack of power, use of phenotypes not well-defined, and the presence of other interacting factors that may impact voriconazole pharmacokinetics. Future well-designed studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  9. Brief review on the effect of low-power laser irradiation on neutrophils with emphasis on emerging fungal infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, F. F.; Bani, G. M. A. C.; Mendes, A. C. S. C.; Brigagão, M. R. P. L.; Santos, G. B.; Malaquias, L. C. C.; Chavasco, J. K.; Verinaud, L. M.; Burger, E.

    2015-03-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) participate in an active way in the innate immunity developed after the fungal infection paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Nevertheless, the sole participation of neutrophils is not sufficient to eradicate PCM`s pathogenic fungus: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb). In that way, we aimed to develop a treatment capable of stimulating PMN to the site of injury through low-level laser therapy (LLLT). (LLLT) is safe to use and has not been linked to microorganism resistance so far; in addition, based on previous studies we understand that LLLT may be useful to treat several medical conditions through the stimulation and activation of certain types of cells. This brief review is based on the novel attempt of activating PMN against a fungal infection.

  10. New psychoactive substances of natural origin: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ling-Yi; Battulga, Altansuvd; Han, Eunyoung; Chung, Heesun; Li, Jih-Heng

    2017-07-01

    Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively. In this review, we briefly discussed the chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of five common NPS of natural origin, i.e., khat, kratom, salvia, magic mushroom and mandrake. Through the review, we hope that professionals and general public alike can pay more attention to the potential problems caused by natural NPS, and suitable control measures will be taken. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. New psychoactive substances of natural origin: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yi Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS, which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively. In this review, we briefly discussed the chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of five common NPS of natural origin, i.e., khat, kratom, salvia, magic mushroom and mandrake. Through the review, we hope that professionals and general public alike can pay more attention to the potential problems caused by natural NPS, and suitable control measures will be taken.

  12. Nursery practices and management of fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Lilja, Arja; Lilja, Sakari; Kurkela, Timo; Rikala., Risto

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to collate the literature on fungal diseases that occur on seedlings in forest nurseries. It describes the symptoms of the diseases, the infection pattern of each fungus and the possibilities of controlling the diseases. As background a short introduction is given on forests and nursery practices in Finland.

  13. Wildlife forensic science: A review of genetic geographic origin assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Rob; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife forensic science has become a key means of enforcing legislation surrounding the illegal trade in protected and endangered species. A relatively new dimension to this area of forensic science is to determine the geographic origin of a seized sample. This review focuses on DNA testing, which relies on assignment of an unknown sample to its genetic population of origin. Key examples of this are the trade in timber, fish and ivory and these are used only to illustrate the large number of species for which this type of testing is potentially available. The role of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers is discussed, alongside a comparison of neutral markers with those exhibiting signatures of selection, which potentially offer much higher levels of assignment power to address specific questions. A review of assignment tests is presented along with detailed methods for evaluating error rates and considerations for marker selection. The availability and quality of reference data are of paramount importance to support assignment applications and ensure reliability of any conclusions drawn. The genetic methods discussed have been developed initially as investigative tools but comment is made regarding their use in courts. The potential to compliment DNA markers with elemental assays for greater assignment power is considered and finally recommendations are made for the future of this type of testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Myofascial origin of shoulder pain: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, Stanislav; Kalichman, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder pain is a common problem imposing a considerable burden on the affected person and society. Since interventions targeting traditional musculoskeletal conditions are usually only moderately effective, myofascial origin can be suggested as an alternative possible source of shoulder pain. To examine current evidence associated with myofascial origin of shoulder pain, with emphasis on diagnosis, prevalence and treatment efficacy. PubMed, Google Scholar and PEDro databases were searched from inception until December 2013 for terms relating to myofascial pain in the shoulder area. Two studies showed a high reliability of the following diagnostic characteristics during palpation: presence or absence of the taut band, spot tenderness, jump sign, pain recognition and referred pain sensation. Three prevalence studies showed a significant greater number of active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the painful shoulder side. Reduced muscle strength, accelerated muscle fatigue, inconsistent muscle activation pattern under load and reduced antagonist reciprocal inhibition were found in subjects with latent MTrPs in four observational studies. Six interventional studies demonstrated the effectiveness of dry needling, myofascial manipulation, ischemic compression, laser therapy and multimodal treatment. MTrPs in shoulder muscles is a common condition among patients with shoulder complaints and can be reliably diagnosed by palpation. The reviewed interventions seem to be effective in reducing pain, increasing range of motion and improving function of the painful shoulder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is the emergence of fungal resistance to medical triazoles related to their use in the agroecosystems? A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aícha Daniela Ribas e Ribas

    Full Text Available Abstract Triazole fungicides are used broadly for the control of infectious diseases of both humans and plants. The surge in resistance to triazoles among pathogenic populations is an emergent issue both in agriculture and medicine. The non-rational use of fungicides with site-specific modes of action, such as the triazoles, may increase the risk of antifungal resistance development. In the medical field, the surge of resistant fungal isolates has been related to the intensive and recurrent therapeutic use of a limited number of triazoles for the treatment and prophylaxis of many mycoses. Similarities in the mode of action of triazole fungicides used in these two fields may lead to cross-resistance, thus expanding the spectrum of resistance to multiple fungicides and contributing to the perpetuation of resistant strains in the environment. The emergence of fungicide-resistant isolates of human pathogens has been related to the exposure to fungicides used in agroecosystems. Examples include species of cosmopolitan occurrence, such as Fusarium and Aspergillus, which cause diseases in both plants and humans. This review summarizes the information about the most important triazole fungicides that are largely used in human clinical therapy and agriculture. We aim to discuss the issues related to fungicide resistance and the recommended strategies for preventing the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal populations capable of spreading across environments.

  16. Is the emergence of fungal resistance to medical triazoles related to their use in the agroecosystems? A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas E Ribas, Aícha Daniela; Spolti, Pierri; Del Ponte, Emerson Medeiros; Donato, Katarzyna Zawada; Schrekker, Henri; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello

    Triazole fungicides are used broadly for the control of infectious diseases of both humans and plants. The surge in resistance to triazoles among pathogenic populations is an emergent issue both in agriculture and medicine. The non-rational use of fungicides with site-specific modes of action, such as the triazoles, may increase the risk of antifungal resistance development. In the medical field, the surge of resistant fungal isolates has been related to the intensive and recurrent therapeutic use of a limited number of triazoles for the treatment and prophylaxis of many mycoses. Similarities in the mode of action of triazole fungicides used in these two fields may lead to cross-resistance, thus expanding the spectrum of resistance to multiple fungicides and contributing to the perpetuation of resistant strains in the environment. The emergence of fungicide-resistant isolates of human pathogens has been related to the exposure to fungicides used in agroecosystems. Examples include species of cosmopolitan occurrence, such as Fusarium and Aspergillus, which cause diseases in both plants and humans. This review summarizes the information about the most important triazole fungicides that are largely used in human clinical therapy and agriculture. We aim to discuss the issues related to fungicide resistance and the recommended strategies for preventing the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal populations capable of spreading across environments. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Serotonin Syndrome in Tapentadol Literature: Systematic Review of Original Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, Laura E; Hammond, Drayton A; Painter, Jacob T

    The potential association between serotonin syndrome and tapentadol is not well described in the literature. This study aimed to review the literature and identify methodological issues that could lead to inaccurately reported rates of serotonin syndrome associated with tapentadol use. A systematic review of English articles using MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Scopus was performed. Additional studies were identified by cross-referencing article bibliographies. Original research that examined the safety of tapentadol in patients with nonconfounding indications were examined. In total, 22 studies met inclusion criteria. There were 13 randomized clinical trials, 7 open-label trials, and 2 observational studies. All studies either did not mention whether serotonergic medication use was prohibited or disallowed use. Frequently reported adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, vomiting, and somnolence. No studies reported serotonin syndrome development. No included trials differentiated between the development of adverse events in patients taking serotonergic drugs and those who were not. This differentiation is necessary to evaluate the increased risk of adverse events in patients prescribed tapentadol concomitantly with other serotonergic medications. Therefore, the current tapentadol literature has important limitations that prevent the adequate characterization of the potential association between tapentadol and serotonin syndrome.

  18. The evolution of fungal epiphytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hongsanan, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, S.; Crous, P.W.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Zhao, R.L.; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal epiphytes are a polyphyletic group found on the surface of plants, particularly on leaves, with a worldwide distribution. They belong in the phylum Ascomycota, which contains the largest known number of fungal genera. There has been little research dating the origins of the common ancestors

  19. Fungal Keratitis Secondary to Trametes betulina: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Joshua S; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Mele, James; Goyal, Sunali

    2017-08-01

    We report the first case of human infection and keratitis secondary to Trametes betulina, a rare filamentous fungus. Clinical examination including external and slit-lamp examination and corneal scrapings with microbiologic evaluation were performed on a patient with chronic allergic conjunctivitis, entropion and a long-standing corneal ulcer resistant to treatment. The culture from the corneal scraping revealed a basidiomycetous fungus which was submitted for identification. DNA extraction with sequencing and analysis of the ITS and D1/D2 regions were performed on the isolate and demonstrated 100% similarity to Lenzites betulina/Trametes betulina. Susceptibility testing demonstrated potent in vitro activity of voriconazole (MIC keratitis caused by Trametes betulina. This organism should be considered in the differential diagnosis for rare filamentous fungal keratitis and its treatment with voriconazole also noted.

  20. Fungal DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in both natural and human-made environments. They play important roles in the health of plants, animals, and humans, and in broad ecosystem functions. Thus, having an efficient species-level identification system could significantly enhance our ability to treat fungal diseases and to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of fungal distributions and migrations. DNA barcoding is a potent approach for rapid identification of fungal specimens, generating novel species hypothesis, and guiding biodiversity and ecological studies. In this mini-review, I briefly summarize (i) the history of DNA sequence-based fungal identification; (ii) the emergence of the ITS region as the consensus primary fungal barcode; (iii) the use of the ITS barcodes to address a variety of issues on fungal diversity from local to global scales, including generating a large number of species hypothesis; and (iv) the problems with the ITS barcode region and the approaches to overcome these problems. Similar to DNA barcoding research on plants and animals, significant progress has been achieved over the last few years in terms of both the questions being addressed and the foundations being laid for future research endeavors. However, significant challenges remain. I suggest three broad areas of research to enhance the usefulness of fungal DNA barcoding to meet the current and future challenges: (i) develop a common set of primers and technologies that allow the amplification and sequencing of all fungi at both the primary and secondary barcode loci; (ii) compile a centralized reference database that includes all recognized fungal species as well as species hypothesis, and allows regular updates from the research community; and (iii) establish a consensus set of new species recognition criteria based on barcode DNA sequences that can be applied across the fungal kingdom.

  1. A Review and Meta-Analysis of Country-of-Origin Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a large body of research, country-of-origin effects are still poorly understood. Combining the strengths of a narrative review with those of a quantitative meta-analysis, our study seeks to establish a firm grounding for country-of-origin research. We review previous country-of-origin

  2. Fungal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other illnesses such as the flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal diseases like fungal meningitis and bloodstream ... prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y pruebas Tratamiento Profesionales de la salud Estadísticas Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources ...

  3. Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fungal Infections KidsHealth / For Kids / Fungal Infections What's in this ...

  4. The origin of the chemical profiles of fungal symbionts and their significance for nestmate recognition in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Poulsen, Michael; Hefetz, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    exist in the fungus-growing ants where the symbiotic fungus garden may be an independent source of recognition compounds. To investigate this hypothesis, we quantified the chemical profiles of the fungal symbionts of 18 sympatric colonies of Acromyrmex echinatior and Acromyrmex octospinosus...... and evaluated the quantitative variation of the 47 compounds in a multivariate analysis. Colony-specific chemical profiles of fungal symbionts were highly distinct and significantly different between the two ant species. We also estimated the relative genetic distances between the fungal symbionts using...... in chemical profiles could be explained by genetic differences between the fungal symbionts. However, there was no significant effect of ant species in partial analyses because genetic differences between symbionts tend to coincide with being reared by different ant species. However, compound groups differed...

  5. Diversity and evolutionary origins of fungi associated with seeds of a neotropical pioneer tree: a case study for analysing fungal environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U'ren, Jana M; Dalling, James W; Gallery, Rachel E; Maddison, David R; Davis, E Christine; Gibson, Cara M; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    Fungi associated with seeds of tropical trees pervasively affect seed survival and germination, and thus are an important, but understudied, component of forest ecology. Here, we examine the diversity and evolutionary origins of fungi isolated from seeds of an important pioneer tree (Cecropia insignis, Cecropiaceae) following burial in soil for five months in a tropical moist forest in Panama. Our approach, which relied on molecular sequence data because most isolates did not sporulate in culture, provides an opportunity to evaluate several methods currently used to analyse environmental samples of fungi. First, intra- and interspecific divergence were estimated for the nu-rITS and 5.8S gene for four genera of Ascomycota that are commonly recovered from seeds. Using these values we estimated species boundaries for 527 isolates, showing that seed-associated fungi are highly diverse, horizontally transmitted, and genotypically congruent with some foliar endophytes from the same site. We then examined methods for inferring the taxonomic placement and phylogenetic relationships of these fungi, evaluating the effects of manual versus automated alignment, model selection, and inference methods, as well as the quality of BLAST-based identification using GenBank. We found that common methods such as neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference differ in their sensitivity to alignment methods; analyses of particular fungal genera differ in their sensitivity to alignments; and numerous and sometimes intricate disparities exist between BLAST-based versus phylogeny-based identification methods. Lastly, we used our most robust methods to infer phylogenetic relationships of seed-associated fungi in four focal genera, and reconstructed ancestral states to generate preliminary hypotheses regarding the evolutionary origins of this guild. Our results illustrate the dynamic evolutionary relationships among endophytic fungi, pathogens, and seed-associated fungi, and the apparent

  6. Origin,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  7. Fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection: a case study and a literature review of the differences between Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis * #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lie-dao; Feng, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xuan-wei; Ling, Zhi-heng; Lin, Xiang-jin

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection and perform a literature review of the different characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis, we reviewed cases of spondylodiscitis caused by Candida and Aspergillus species. Data, including patients’ information, pathogenic species, treatment strategy, outcomes, and relapses, were collected and summarized. The characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were compared to see if any differences in clinical features, management, or consequences could be detected. The subject of the case study was first misdiagnosed as having a vertebral tumor, and then, following open biopsy, was diagnosed as having fungal spondylodiscitis. The patient made a good recovery following radical debridement. Seventy-seven additional cases of Candida spondylodiscitis and 94 cases of Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were identified in the literature. Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis tended to have a better outcome than patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (cure rate 92.3% vs. 70.2%). Candida was found more frequently (47.8%) than Aspergillus (26.7%) in blood cultures, while neurological deficits were observed more often in patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (43.6% vs. 25.6%). Candida spinal infections were more often treated by radical debridement (60.5% vs. 39.6%). Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis have better outcomes, which may be associated with prompt recognition, radical surgical debridement, and azoles therapy. A good outcome can be expected in fungal spondylodiscitis with appropriate operations and anti-fungal drugs. PMID:27819134

  8. Fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection: a case study and a literature review of the differences between Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lie-Dao; Feng, Zhi-Yun; Wang, Xuan-Wei; Ling, Zhi-Heng; Lin, Xiang-Jin

    To report a rare case of fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection and perform a literature review of the different characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis, we reviewed cases of spondylodiscitis caused by Candida and Aspergillus species. Data, including patients' information, pathogenic species, treatment strategy, outcomes, and relapses, were collected and summarized. The characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were compared to see if any differences in clinical features, management, or consequences could be detected. The subject of the case study was first misdiagnosed as having a vertebral tumor, and then, following open biopsy, was diagnosed as having fungal spondylodiscitis. The patient made a good recovery following radical debridement. Seventy-seven additional cases of Candida spondylodiscitis and 94 cases of Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were identified in the literature. Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis tended to have a better outcome than patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (cure rate 92.3% vs. 70.2%). Candida was found more frequently (47.8%) than Aspergillus (26.7%) in blood cultures, while neurological deficits were observed more often in patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (43.6% vs. 25.6%). Candida spinal infections were more often treated by radical debridement (60.5% vs. 39.6%). Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis have better outcomes, which may be associated with prompt recognition, radical surgical debridement, and azoles therapy. A good outcome can be expected in fungal spondylodiscitis with appropriate operations and anti-fungal drugs.

  9. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  10. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:26273247

  11. 36 CFR 1260.56 - Is White House originated information subject to mandatory review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is White House originated... Mandatory Review § 1260.56 Is White House originated information subject to mandatory review? White House... administrations pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 2107 and 2111. Unless precluded by such laws or agreements, White House...

  12. Animal, Microbial, and Fungal Borne Skin Pathology in the Mountain Wilderness: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, William E; Levandowski, William; Califf, Tom; Manly, Cory; Levandowski, Cecilia Blair

    2017-06-01

    Mountains are home to numerous organisms known to cause skin disease. Bites, stings, poisons, chemicals, toxins, trauma, and infections all contribute to this end. Numerous plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa are responsible. This paper aims to review skin illness and injury sustained from organisms in the mountains of North America. Other factors such as increased ultraviolet radiation, temperature extremes, and decreasing atmospheric pressure along with human physiologic parameters, which contribute to disease severity, will also be discussed. After reading this review, one should feel more comfortable identifying potentially harmful organisms, as well as diagnosing, treating, and preventing organism-inflicted skin pathology sustained in the high country. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of microbiological air quality in hemato-oncology units and its relationship with the occurrence of invasive fungal infections: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Goncalves Menegueti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide aging of the human population has promoted an increase in the incidence of neoplasia, including hematological cancers, which render patients particularly vulnerable to invasive fungal infections. For this reason, air filtration in hemato-oncology units has been recommended. However, scarce literature has assessed the impact of microbiological air quality on the occurrence of fungal infections in this population. We performed an integrative review of studies in the MEDLINE database that were published between January 1980 and October 2012, using the following combinations of keywords: air × quality × HEPA, air × quality × hematology, and airborne fungal infections. The search yielded only 13 articles, suggesting that high-efficiency filtering of the ambient air in hemato-oncology units can prevent the incidence of invasive fungal infections. However, no randomized clinical trial was found to confirm this suggestion. Currently, there is no consensus about the maximum allowable count of fungi in the air, which complicates filtration monitoring, including filter maintenance and replacement, and needs to be addressed in future studies.

  14. Fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  15. A review of three major fungal diseases of Coffea arabica L. in the rainforests of Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hindorf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a review of their own research the authors summarize incidences and distributions of the most important fungal diseases in Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance. Ethiopia, as the centre of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm. The incidences of diseases are based on observations in the montane rainforests of the southeast (Harenna and southwest (Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu of Ethiopia. Major diseases are Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix; Coffee Berry Disease (CBD, Colletotrichum kahawae and Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides. CLR incidences in Ethiopia were present in all regions with highs between January and March and lows between June and October. CBD was present mostly in Bonga (40.0% and Yayu (26.3%, but less frequent in Harenna (18.6% and Berhane-Kontir (6.0%. CWD as a recently developed disease in Arabica coffee could be detected ranging from 2.4% in Berhane-Kontir to 16.9% in Yayu. CLR has been a serious constraint in all production countries since it became prominent in Ceylon in the late 19th century after leaf infection defoliation affects plants. CBD was first observed in Kenya in 1922. The disease is currently confined to the African continent in all countries that grow Arabica coffee. In the mid-1990s in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania a resurgence of CWD in Robusta coffee and in Ethiopia in Arabica coffee occurred. Over the last 40 years breeding activities have been carried out to combat CLR, CBD and CWD. Breeding for resistance against CLR in Arabica coffee has successfully utilized single or combinations of major genes designated as SH genes. Major gene resistance has also been deployed in breeding for resistance against CBD, whereas in the case of CWD, selections of tolerant Arabica accessions are being pursued from local landraces in Ethiopia.

  16. Invasive Trichosporon Infection: A systematic review on a re-emerging fungal pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nobrega De Almeida Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aimed to better depict the clinical features and address the issue of therapeutic management of Trichosporon deep-seated infections.Methods: We comprehensively reviewed the cases of invasive Trichosporon infection reported in the literature from 1994 (date of taxonomic modification to 2015. Data from antifungal susceptibility testing (AST studies were also analyzed. Results: Two hundred and three cases were retained and split into four groups: hemopathy (n=79, other immunodeficiency conditions (n =41, miscellaneous (n=58 and newborns (n=25. Trichosporon asahii was the main causative species (46.7% and may exhibit cross-resistance to different antifungal classes. The unfavorable outcome rate was at 44.3%. By multivariate analysis, breakthrough infection (OR 2.45 was associated with unfavorable outcome, whilst the use of an azole-based therapy improved the prognosis (OR 0.16. Voriconazole-based treatment was associated with favorable outcome in hematological patients (73.6% vs. 41.8%; p=0.016. Compiled data from AST demonstrated that (i T. asahii exhibits the highest MICs to amphotericin B and (ii voriconazole has the best in vitro efficacy against clinical isolates of Trichosporon spp. Conclusions: Trichosporon infection is not only restricted to hematological patients. Analysis of compiled data from AST and clinical outcome support the use of voriconazole as first line therapy.

  17. Modulation of genetic clusters for synthesis of bioactive molecules in fungal endophytes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepika, V B; Murali, T S; Satyamoorthy, K

    2016-01-01

    Novel drugs with unique and targeted mode of action are very much need of the hour to treat and manage severe multidrug infections and other life-threatening complications. Though natural molecules have proved to be effective and environmentally safe, the relative paucity of discovery of new drugs has forced us to lean towards synthetic chemistry for developing novel drug molecules. Plants and microbes are the major resources that we rely upon in our pursuit towards discovery of novel compounds of pharmacological importance with less toxicity. Endophytes, an eclectic group of microbes having the potential to chemically bridge the gap between plants and microbes, have attracted the most attention due to their relatively high metabolic versatility. Since continuous large scale supply of major metabolites from microfungi and especially endophytes is severely impeded by the phenomenon of attenuation in axenic cultures, the major challenge is to understand the regulatory mechanisms in operation that drive the expression of metabolic gene clusters of pharmaceutical importance. This review is focused on the major regulatory elements that operate in filamentous fungi and various combinatorial multi-disciplinary approaches involving bioinformatics, molecular biology, and metabolomics that could aid in large scale synthesis of important lead molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. REVIEWING TRANSFERABILITY in ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS ORIGINATING from EASTERN EUROPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); Z. Kaló (Zoltán); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objectives:__ The aim of this study is to analyze the quality and transferability issues reported in published peer-reviewed English-language economic evaluations based in healthcare settings of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) and former Soviet countries. __Methods:__ A

  19. A review of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of parasitic origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fore a now recognized mode of transmission – sexual contact. This in turn has led to giardiasis being classified as a sexually transmitted disease by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. This review identifies its occurrence mainly in homosexual populations of the developed world ...

  20. Review: Utilization of antagonistic yeasts to manage postharvest fungal diseases of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Liu, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Significant losses in harvested fruit can be directly attributable to decay fungi. Some of these pathogenic fungi are also the source of mycotoxins that are harmful to humans. Biological control of postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables and grains using antagonistic yeasts has been explored as one of several promising alternatives to chemical fungicides, the use of which is facing increasingly more stringent regulation. Yeast species have been isolated over the past two decades from a variety of sources, including fruit surfaces, the phyllosphere, soil and sea water, and their potential as postharvest biocontrol agents has been investigated. Several mechanisms have been proposed as responsible for their antagonistic activity, including competition for nutrients and space, parasitism of the pathogen, secretion of antifungal compounds, induction of host resistance, biofilm formation, and most recently, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in defense response. It has been recognized that a biocontrol system is composed of a three-way interaction between the host (commodity), the pathogen and the yeast, all of which are affected by environmental factors. Efficacy and consistent performance in controlling postharvest diseases are the hurdles that must be overcome if the use of yeast biocontrol agents and other alternatives are to be widely used commercially. Therefore, attempts have been made to combine alternative treatments in order improve their overall performance. The current review provides a brief overview of the topic of the use of yeasts as postharvest biocontrol agents and includes information on the sources from which yeast antagonists have been isolated, their mode of action, and abiotic stress resistance in yeast as it relates to biocontrol performance. Areas in need of future research are also highlighted. © 2013.

  1. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-06-01

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  2. Fungal diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Thomas R; Wickes, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments.

  3. Transdisciplinarity: A Review of Its Origins, Development, and Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Hillel Bernstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinarity originated in a critique of the standard configuration of knowledge in disciplines in the curriculum, including moral and ethical concerns. Pronouncements about it were first voiced between the climax of government-supported science and higher education and the long retrenchment that began in the 1970s. Early work focused on questions of epistemology and the planning of future universities and educational programs. After a lull, transdisciplinarity re-emerged in the 1990s as an urgent issue relating to the solution of new, highly complex, global concerns, beginning with climate change and sustainability and extending into many areas concerning science, technology, social problems and policy, education, and the arts. Transdisciplinarity today is characterized by its focus on “wicked problems” that need creative solutions, its reliance on stakeholder involvement, and engaged, socially responsible science. In simultaneously studying multiple levels of, and angles on, reality, transdisciplinary work provides an intriguing potential to invigorate scholarly and scientific inquiry both in and outside the academy.

  4. Origins of magic: review of genetic and epigenetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Knight, Marian; Ebers, George C; Knight, Julian C

    2007-12-22

    To assess the evidence for a genetic basis to magic. Literature review. Harry Potter novels of J K Rowling. Muggles, witches, wizards, and squibs. Limited. Family and twin studies, magical ability, and specific magical skills. Magic shows strong evidence of heritability, with familial aggregation and concordance in twins. Evidence suggests magical ability to be a quantitative trait. Specific magical skills, notably being able to speak to snakes, predict the future, and change hair colour, all seem heritable. A multilocus model with a dominant gene for magic might exist, controlled epistatically by one or more loci, possibly recessive in nature. Magical enhancers regulating gene expressionmay be involved, combined with mutations at specific genes implicated in speech and hair colour such as FOXP2 and MCR1.

  5. Immunoregulation in Fungal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Roussey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses specific regulatory mechanisms involved in the host immune response to fungal organisms. We focus on key cells and regulatory pathways involved in these responses, including a brief overview of their broader function preceding a discussion of their specific relevance to fungal disease. Important cell types discussed include dendritic cells and regulatory T cells, with a focus on specific studies relating to their effects on immune responses to fungi. We highlight the interleukin-10, programmed cell death 1, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 signaling pathways and emphasize interrelationships between these pathways and the regulatory functions of dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. Throughout our discussion, we identify selected studies best illustrating the role of these cells and pathways in response to specific fungal pathogens to provide a contextual understanding of the tightly-controlled network of regulatory mechanisms critical to determining the outcome of exposure to fungal pathogens. Lastly, we discuss two unique phenomena relating to immunoregulation, protective tolerance and immune reactivation inflammatory syndrome. These two clinically-relevant conditions provide perspective as to the range of immunoregulatory mechanisms active in response to fungi.

  6. Allergic Fungal Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, E M; Woolnough, K; Pashley, C H; Wardlaw, A J

    Fungi are ubiquitous and form their own kingdom. Up to 80 genera of fungi have been linked to type I allergic disease, and yet, commercial reagents to test for sensitization are available for relatively few species. In terms of asthma, it is important to distinguish between species unable to grow at body temperature and those that can (thermotolerant) and thereby have the potential to colonize the respiratory tract. The former, which include the commonly studied Alternaria and Cladosporium genera, can act as aeroallergens whose clinical effects are predictably related to exposure levels. In contrast, thermotolerant species, which include fungi from the Candida, Aspergillus, and Penicillium genera, can cause a persistent allergenic stimulus independent of their airborne concentrations. Moreover, their ability to germinate in the airways provides a more diverse allergenic stimulus, and may result in noninvasive infection, which enhances inflammation. The close association between IgE sensitization to thermotolerant filamentous fungi and fixed airflow obstruction, bronchiectasis, and lung fibrosis suggests a much more tissue-damaging process than that seen with aeroallergens. This review provides an overview of fungal allergens and the patterns of clinical disease associated with exposure. It clarifies the various terminologies associated with fungal allergy in asthma and makes the case for a new term (allergic fungal airway disease) to include all people with asthma at risk of developing lung damage as a result of their fungal allergy. Lastly, it discusses the management of fungirelated asthma.

  7. [Human origin and evolution. A review of advances in paleoanthropology, comparative genetics, and evolutionary psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, A V

    2009-01-01

    In his main work, "On the origin of species", Darwin has refrained from discusion of the origin of man; be only mentioned that his theory would "throw light" on this problem. This famous Darwin's phrase turned out to be one of the most succesful scientific predictions. In the present paper some of the most important recent adavnces in paleoanthroplogy, comparative genetics and evolutionary psychology are reviewed. These three disciplines currently contribute most to our knowledge of anthropogenesis. The review demonstrates that Darwin's ideas not only "threw light" on human origin and evolution; they provided a comprehensive framework for a great variety of studies concerning different aspects of anthropogenesis.

  8. 36 CFR 1260.58 - What are the procedures for requesting a mandatory review of White House originated information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requesting a mandatory review of White House originated information? 1260.58 Section 1260.58 Parks, Forests... review of White House originated information? (a) Requests for mandatory review must describe the...) NARA will promptly acknowledge to the requester the receipt of a request for White House originated...

  9. Fungal dysbiosis: immunity and interactions at mucosal barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Iliyan D; Leonardi, Irina

    2017-10-01

    Fungi and mammals share a co-evolutionary history and are involved in a complex web of interactions. Studies focused on commensal bacteria suggest that pathological changes in the microbiota, historically known as dysbiosis, are at the root of many inflammatory diseases of non-infectious origin. However, the importance of dysbiosis in the fungal community - the mycobiota - was only recently acknowledged to have a pathological role, as novel findings have suggested that mycobiota disruption can have detrimental effects on host immunity. Fungal dysbiosis and homeostasis are dynamic processes that are probably more common than actual fungal infections, and therefore constantly shape the immune response. In this Review, we summarize specific mycobiota patterns that are associated with fungal dysbiosis, and discuss how mucosal immunity has evolved to distinguish fungal infections from dysbiosis and how it responds to these different conditions. We propose that gut microbiota dysbiosis is a collective feature of complex interactions between prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities that can affect immunity and that can influence health and disease.

  10. Potential of small-molecule fungal metabolites in antiviral chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Biswajit G

    2017-08-01

    Various viral diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, influenza, and hepatitis, have emerged as leading causes of human death worldwide. Scientific endeavor since invention of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of pox virus in 1967 resulted in better understanding of virus replication and development of various novel therapeutic strategies. Despite considerable advancement in every facet of drug discovery process, development of commercially viable, safe, and effective drugs for these viruses still remains a big challenge. Decades of intense research yielded a handful of natural and synthetic therapeutic options. But emergence of new viruses and drug-resistant viral strains had made new drug development process a never-ending battle. Small-molecule fungal metabolites due to their vast diversity, stereochemical complexity, and preapproved biocompatibility always remain an attractive source for new drug discovery. Though, exploration of therapeutic importance of fungal metabolites has started early with discovery of penicillin, recent prediction asserted that only a small percentage (5-10%) of fungal species have been identified and much less have been scientifically investigated. Therefore, exploration of new fungal metabolites, their bioassay, and subsequent mechanistic study bears huge importance in new drug discovery endeavors. Though no fungal metabolites so far approved for antiviral treatment, many of these exhibited high potential against various viral diseases. This review comprehensively discussed about antiviral activities of fungal metabolites of diverse origin against some important viral diseases. This also highlighted the mechanistic details of inhibition of viral replication along with structure-activity relationship of some common and important classes of fungal metabolites.

  11. Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadip Mahapatra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs.

  12. Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases in Hematological Malignancies: A Critical Review of Evidence and Turkish Expert Opinion (TEO-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevtap Arıkan Akdağlı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most problematic issues in hematological malignancies is the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases. Especially, the difficulty of mycological diagnosis and the necessity of immediate intervention in molds have led to the adoption of “surrogate markers” which does not verify, but strongly suggests fungal infection. The markers commonly used are galactomannan (GM, beta-glucan and imaging methods. Although there are numerous studies on these diagnostic approaches, none of these markers serve as a support for the clinician, as is in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or cytomegalovirus (CMV infections. This paper has been prepared to explain the diagnostic tests and show the clinician how the available resources can be used. As moleculer tests have not been standardized and not used routinely in the clinics, they will not be mentioned here.

  13. [Clinically documented fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed.

  14. Is the emergence of fungal resistance to medical triazoles related to their use in the agroecosystems? A mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas e Ribas, A?cha Daniela; Spolti, Pierri; Del Ponte, Emerson Medeiros; Donato, Katarzyna Zawada; Schrekker, Henri; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Triazole fungicides are used broadly for the control of infectious diseases of both humans and plants. The surge in resistance to triazoles among pathogenic populations is an emergent issue both in agriculture and medicine. The non-rational use of fungicides with site-specific modes of action, such as the triazoles, may increase the risk of antifungal resistance development. In the medical field, the surge of resistant fungal isolates has been related to the intensive and recurrent t...

  15. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species authentication, Geographical origin discrimination, Quality control

  16. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  17. Recommendations for Risk Categorization and Prophylaxis of Invasive Fungal Diseases in Hematological Malignancies: A Critical Review of Evidence and Expert Opinion (TEO-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Boğa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the last of a series of articles on invasive fungal infections prepared by opinion leaders in Turkey. The aim of these articles is to guide clinicians in managing invasive fungal diseases in hematological malignancies and stem cell transplantation based on the available best evidence in this field. The previous articles summarized the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal disease and this article aims to explain the risk categorization and guide the antifungal prophylaxis in invasive fungal disease.

  18. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species...

  19. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination.

  20. A review of higher order strain gradient theories of plasticity: Origins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 4. A review of higher order strain gradient theories of plasticity: Origins, thermodynamics and connections with dislocation mechanics. Suman Guha Sandeep Sangal Sumit Basu. Mechanical Sciences Volume 40 Issue 4 June ...

  1. Tropospheric ozone as a fungal elicitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tropospheric ozone has been proven to trigger biochemical plant responses that are similar to the ones induced by an attack of fungal pathogens, i.e. it resembles fungal elicitors. This suggests that ozone can represent a valid tool for the study of stress responses and induction of resistance to pathogens. This review ...

  2. Potential Roles of Fungal Extracellular Vesicles during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Luna S.; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by virtually all cell types. Within the past few years, work in this field has revealed more information about fungal EVs. Fungal EVs have been shown to carry proteins, lipids, pigments, polysaccharides, and RNA; these components are known virulence factors, a fact which supports the hypothesis that fungal EVs concentrate pathogenic determinants. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated that fungal EVs stimulate the host immune system. In this review, putative roles of fungal EVs are discussed, including their potential as vaccination tools and their possible contribution to pathogenesis in invasive fungal diseases. PMID:27390779

  3. An evidence-based review literature about risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2013-05-01

    This evidence-based article reviews risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia. Xerostomia and hyposalivation refer to different aspects of dry mouth. Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth, whilst hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of reduced salivary flow rate. About 30% of the elderly (65 years and older) experience xerostomia and hyposalivation. Structural and functional factors, or both may lead to salivary gland dysfunction. The EBM literature search was conducted by using the medical literature database MEDLINE via PubMed and OvidMedline search engines. Results were limited to English language articles (1965 to present) including clinical trials (CT), randomized controlled trials (RCT), systematic reviews and review articles. Case control or cohort studies were included for the etiology. Neuropathic etiology such as localized oral alteration of thermal sensations, saliva composition change (for example higher levels of K, Cl, Ca, IgA, amylase, calcium, PTH and cortisol), lower levels of estrogen and progesterone, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as lichen planus, are risk indicators for unknown-origin xerostomia. The management is palliative and preventative. Management of symptoms includes drug administration (systemic secretogogues, saliva substitutes and bile secretion-stimulator), night guard, diet and habit modifications. Other managements may be indicated to treat adverse effects. Neuropathic etiology, saliva composition change, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as oral lichen planus can be suggestive causes for unknown-origin xerostomia. However, longitudinal studies will be important to elucidate the causes of unknown-origin xerostomia.

  4. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Nonculture Diagnostics in Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diagnostics that utilize antibody, antigen or nucleic acid detection offer several advantages that supplement traditional culture-based methods. As a group, nonculture assays can help identify patients with invasive fungal infection (IFI) sooner than is possible with culture, are often more sensitive, and can be used to guide early interventions. Challenges associated with these techniques include the possibility for contamination or cross-reactivity as well as the potential for false negative tests. This review summarized the test characteristics and clinical utility of nonculture-based laboratory methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  7. An Evidence-Based Review Literature About Risk Indicators and Management of Unknown-Origin Xerostomia

    OpenAIRE

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This evidence-based article reviews risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia. Xerostomia and hyposalivation refer to different aspects of dry mouth. Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth, whilst hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of reduced salivary flow rate. About 30% of the elderly (65 years and older) experience xerostomia and hyposalivation. Structural and functional factors, or both may lead to salivary gland dysfunction.Study ...

  8. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 36 CFR 1260.62 - What is the appeal process when a mandatory review request for White House originated information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the appeal process when a mandatory review request for White House originated information is denied? 1260.62 Section 1260... mandatory review request for White House originated information is denied? (a) When the Deputy Archivist of...

  10. Out of Asia: Biogeography of fungal populations reveals Asian origin of diversification of the Laccaria amethystina complex, and two new species of violet Laccaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenot, Lucie; Popa, Flavius; Laso, Francisco; Donges, Kathrin; Rexer, Karl-Heinz; Kost, Gerhard; Yang, Zhu L; Nara, Kazuhide; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-11-01

    Purple Laccaria are ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes associated with temperate forests all over the Northern Hemisphere in at least two taxa: Laccaria amethysteo-occidentalis in North America, and L. amethystina complex in Eurasia, as shown by Vincenot et al. (2012). Here, we combine a further study of the genetic structure of L. amethystina populations from Europe to southwestern China and Japan, using neutral Single Sequence Repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers; and a systematic description of two novel Asian species, namely Laccaria moshuijun and Laccaria japonica, based on ecological, morphological, and molecular criteria (rDNA sequences). Population genetics provides evidence of the ancient isolation of three regional groups, with strong signal for speciation, and suggests a centre of origin of modern populations closest to present-day Chinese populations. Phylogenetic analyses confirm speciation at the molecular level, reflected in morphological features: L. moshuijun samples (from Yunnan, China) display strongly variable cheilocystidia, while L. japonica samples (from Japan) present distinctive globose to subglobose spores and clavate cheilocystidia. This study of a species complex primarily described with an extremely wide ecological and geographical range sheds new light on the biodiversity and biogeography of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Recommendations for Risk Categorization and Prophylaxis of Invasive Fungal Diseases in Hematological Malignancies: A Critical Review of Evidence and Expert Opinion (TEO-4)

    OpenAIRE

    Can Boğa; Zahit Bolaman; Seçkin Çağırgan; İhsan Karadoğan; Mehmet Ali Özcan; Fahir Özkalemkaş; Rabin Saba; Mehmet Sönmez; Esin Şenol; Hamdi Akan; Murat Akova

    2015-01-01

    This is the last of a series of articles on invasive fungal infections prepared by opinion leaders in Turkey. The aim of these articles is to guide clinicians in managing invasive fungal diseases in hematological malignancies and stem cell transplantation based on the available best evidence in this field. The previous articles summarized the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal disease and this article aims to explain the risk categorization and guide the antifungal prophylaxis in inva...

  12. An Evidence-Based Review Literature About Risk Indicators and Management of Unknown-Origin Xerostomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Agha-hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This evidence-based article reviews risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia. Xerostomia and hyposalivation refer to different aspects of dry mouth. Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth, whilst hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of reduced salivary flow rate. About 30% of the elderly (65 years and older experience xerostomia and hyposalivation. Structural and functional factors, or both may lead to salivary gland dysfunction.Study Selection: The EBM literature search was conducted by using the medical literature database MEDLINE via PubMed and OvidMedline search engines. Results were limited to English language articles (1965 to present including clinical trials (CT, randomized controlled trials (RCT, systematic reviews and review articles. Case control or cohort studies were included for the etiology.Results: Neuropathic etiology such as localized oral alteration of thermal sensations, saliva composition change (for example higher levels of K, Cl, Ca, IgA, amylase, calcium, PTH and cortisol, lower levels of estrogen and progesterone, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as lichen planus, are risk indicators for unknown-origin xerostomia. The management is palliative and preventative. Management of symptoms includes drug administration (systemic secretogogues, saliva substitutes and bile secretion-stimulator, night guard, diet and habit modifications. Other managements may be indicated to treat adverse effects.Conclusion: Neuropathic etiology, saliva composition change, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as oral lichen planus can be suggestive causes for unknown-origin xerostomia. However, longitudinal studies will be important to elucidate the causes of unknown-origin xerostomia.

  13. Distribution of country of origin in studies used in Cochrane Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Wolff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inclusion in systematic reviews is one important component in judging the potential impact of clinical studies upon practice and hence the 'value for money' of spending for clinical research. This study aims to quantify the distribution of countries of origin of clinical studies used in Cochrane Reviews (CRs, and to link these data to the size of a country and to its spending on research. METHODS: Random sample of publications used for CRs published in Issue 1 2008 and of publications used in CRs in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Publications without original data were excluded. Likely countries of origin determined based on abstracts/full texts. CIA World Factbook (population data and OECD database (economic data were used. RESULTS: 1,000 random entries out of 140,005 references available in all specialities. In 876 (91.4% of 959 eligible studies, country of origin was determined. The USA was the leading contributor (36.0% of the studies, followed by UK (13.4%, Canada (5.3%, Australia and Sweden (3.7%. In the CAM sample, country of origin was determined in 458 (93.5% of 497 assessed studies. Again, the USA was the leading contributor (24.9%, with China also emerging as a significant contributor (24.7% in this field. For both samples, the contribution of smaller countries (especially Scandinavian countries, Greece, and Ireland became more noteworthy when considered in relation to population size and research spending. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the leading roles of both the USA and the UK in publishing clinical papers. The emerging role of China can be seen, particularly related to CAM studies. Taking into account size of population and economic power, countries like France, Germany, Italy, and Spain provide small contributions. In contrast, smaller countries like Australia, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, and Sweden also play major roles.

  14. Nail Histomycology, Onychochromobiology, and Fungal Thigmatropism

    OpenAIRE

    Gérald E. Piérard; Sébastien L. Piérard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thigmotropism is a biologic feature coping with the directional growth of cells following topographical guidance cues. This mechanism is involved in the invasive phase of pathogen and opportunistic fungi. It was shown experimentally with fungal hyphae of both dermatophytes and nondermatophyte molds, as well as with the mycelial phase of the dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. Objective: To revisit histomycology in onychomycoses of a diversity of fungal origins. Method: Histopatholog...

  15. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wen, Hai; Liao, Wanqing

    2003-09-01

    To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation. An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990 - 2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles. Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: (1) disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; (2) opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient's conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  16. Origins of life: a problem for physics, a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imari Walker, Sara

    2017-09-01

    The origins of life stands among the great open scientific questions of our time. While a number of proposals exist for possible starting points in the pathway from non-living to living matter, these have so far not achieved states of complexity that are anywhere near that of even the simplest living systems. A key challenge is identifying the properties of living matter that might distinguish living and non-living physical systems such that we might build new life in the lab. This review is geared towards covering major viewpoints on the origin of life for those new to the origin of life field, with a forward look towards considering what it might take for a physical theory that universally explains the phenomenon of life to arise from the seemingly disconnected array of ideas proposed thus far. The hope is that a theory akin to our other theories in fundamental physics might one day emerge to explain the phenomenon of life, and in turn finally permit solving its origins.

  17. Microcodium: An extensive review and a proposed non-rhizogenic biologically induced origin for its formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Pavel; Anadón, Pere; Krumbein, Wolfgang E.

    2008-04-01

    Microcodium has been previously described as a mainly Cenozoic calcification pattern ascribed to various organisms. A review of the available literature and our data reveal two peaks in Microcodium abundance; the Moscovian-early Permian and the latest Cretaceous-Paleogene. A detailed analysis of late Paleozoic and Cenozoic examples leads to the following new conclusions. Typical Microcodium-forming unilayered 'corn-cob' aggregates of elongated grains and thick multilayered (palisade) replacing structures cannot be linked to smaller-grained intracellular root calcifications, as became widely accepted after the work of Klappa [Klappa, C.F., 1979. Calcified filaments in Quaternary calcretes: organo-mineral interactions in the subaerial vadose environment. J. Sediment. Petrol. 49, 955-968.] Typical Microcodium is recognized from the early Carboniferous (with doubtful Devonian reports) to Quaternary as a biologically induced mineralization formed via dissolution/precipitation processes in various aerobic Ca-rich soil and subsoil terrestrial environments. Morphology and δ13C signatures of Microcodium suggest that neither plants, algae, or roots and root-associated mycorrhiza regulate the formation of these fossil structures. Non-recrystallized Microcodium grains basically consist of slender (1.5-4 μm) curved radiating monocrystalline prisms with occasionally preserved hyphae-like morphology. Thin (0.5-3 μm) hypha-like canals can also be observed. These supposed hyphae may belong to actinobacteria. However, thin fungal mycelia cannot be excluded. We propose a model of Microcodium formation involving a mycelial saprotrophic organism responsible for substrate corrosion and associated bacteria capable of consuming acidic metabolites and CaCO 3 reprecipitation into the Microcodium structures.

  18. Protocol for the systematic review of the prevention, treatment and public health management of impetigo, scabies and fungal skin infections in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philippa; Bowen, Asha; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew; Prince, Sam; Andrews, Ross; Currie, Bart; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2016-09-23

    Impetigo, scabies, and fungal skin infections disproportionately affect populations in resource-limited settings. Evidence for standard treatment of skin infections predominantly stem from hospital-based studies in high-income countries. The evidence for treatment in resource-limited settings is less clear, as studies in these populations may lack randomisation and control groups for cultural, ethical or economic reasons. Likewise, a synthesis of the evidence for public health control within endemic populations is also lacking. We propose a systematic review of the evidence for the prevention, treatment and public health management of skin infections in resource-limited settings, to inform the development of guidelines for the standardised and streamlined clinical and public health management of skin infections in endemic populations. The protocol has been designed in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols statement. All trial designs and analytical observational study designs will be eligible for inclusion. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature will include PubMed, Excertpa Medica and Global Health. Grey literature databases will also be systematically searched, and clinical trials registries scanned for future relevant studies. The primary outcome of interest will be the clinical cure or decrease in prevalence of impetigo, scabies, crusted scabies, tinea capitis, tinea corporis or tinea unguium. Two independent reviewers will perform eligibility assessment and data extraction using standardised electronic forms. Risk of bias assessment will be undertaken by two independent reviewers according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Data will be tabulated and narratively synthesised. We expect there will be insufficient data to conduct meta-analysis. The final body of evidence will be reported against the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation grading system. The evidence

  19. Optical coherence tomography in otolaryngology: original results and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibas, Athanasios G.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Cucu, Radu G.; Dobre, George M.; Odell, Edward; Boxer, Aaron B.; O'Connors, Alec F.; Gleeson, Michael J.

    2004-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography is a diagnostic imaging technique allowing two dimensional tomographic imaging of tissue architecture. This is a review article on the use of optical coherence tomography in Otolaryngology including original images from human laryngeal tissue and temporal bones (cochlea) in our laboratory. Tissue specimens from normal larynges were imaged with an 850 nm OCT system. Our results showed good correlation between OCT image s and the corresponding haematoxylin-eosin stained histology sections in the normal larynx. Human temporal bones were also imaged using an 1300 nm OCT system. Limited morphological details were obtained due to the high scattering properties of the bony labyrinth.

  20. A review of concepts regarding the origin of respiratory muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraszkiewicz, Bożena; Piotrkiewicz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the classification of respiratory muscle fatigue from the perspective of its origin is presented. The fatigue is classified as central or peripheral, and the latter further subdivided into high- and low-frequency fatigue. However, muscle fatigue is a complex process and all three types of fatigue probably occur simultaneously in the overloaded respiratory muscles. The relative importance of each type depends on the duration of respiratory loading and other physiological variables. However, central and high-frequency fatigue resolve rapidly once muscle overload is removed, whereas low-frequency fatigue persists over long time.

  1. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications. PMID:28690593

  2. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications.

  3. Fungal Infections From Human and Animal Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections in humans resulting from human or animal contact are relatively uncommon, but they include a significant proportion of dermatophyte infections. Some of the most commonly encountered diseases of the integument are dermatomycoses. Human or animal contact may be the source of all types of tinea infections, occasional candidal infections, and some other types of superficial or deep fungal infections. This narrative review focuses on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of anthropophilic dermatophyte infections primarily found in North America. Other human-acquired and zoonotic fungal infections also are discussed in brief.

  4. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamisope S. Bamisile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  5. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamisile, Bamisope S.; Dash, Chandra K.; Akutse, Komivi S.; Keppanan, Ravindran; Wang, Liande

    2018-01-01

    The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  6. Honeydew Honeys: A Review on the Characterization and Authentication of Botanical and Geographical Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Calvo, Consuelo; Vázquez, Manuel

    2018-03-21

    The commercial interest in honeydew honeys (from the secretions of plants or the excretions of plant-sucking insects found on plants) is increasing because of their higher therapeutic properties compared with those of most blossom honeys (from nectar). However, honeydew honeys have been less studied than blossom honeys. In this work, studies carried out to characterize and authenticate honeydew honeys by their botanical and geographical origins have been reviewed. The identification of honey origins has been approached by two ways: by the analysis of chemical markers and by the development of analytical methodologies combined with multivariate analyses. Some compounds have been suggested as specific botanical markers of several honeydew honeys, such as quercitol and trans-oak lactone for oak honey, 2-aminoacetophenone and propylanisol for holm oak honey, and 1-chloro-octane and tridecane for pine honey. The presence of 3-carene and an unidentified compound in samples was proposed as a way discriminate between Greek and Turkish pine honeys. Chemometric analyses have been applied on chemical compositions and on physicochemical, microscopic, and spectral parameters and have proved to be valuable methods for authenticating honeydew honeys. Analytical methods based on spectral information are suitable for the routine control of honeydew-honey origins because they are fast and require easy sample preparations.

  7. The origins of insane asylums in England during the 19th century: a brief sociological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, B

    1995-07-01

    This paper explores the origins of insane asylums in 19th century England by comparing the official 'received' medically dominated perspective with an alternative sociological perspective. The major structural changes in provision are addressed as the focus for analysing the differing histories. A brief review is presented of the responses to insane people prior to the national asylum programme following the 1845 Lunacy Act, and of the reform logic that underpinned asylum care. The alternative sociological perspective presents the origins of psychiatric asylums as part of the social and economic changes occurring generally at that time. As such the origins of insane asylums are presented as part of a state-guided 'sanitary' movement which included poor, criminal and insane people within its remit. The effect of state-guided correction was the segregation of insane people from both the general population and other deviants who were formerly classed together. Insane people are thus presented as a group of deviants who departed most radically from the 'rational individualist' qualities of self-control, predictability and responsibility required in the industrialized world of capital social relations that emerged during the last century.

  8. Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwardhana Chesmal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.

  9. Genetic engineering of crop plants for fungal resistance: role of antifungal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceasar, S Antony; Ignacimuthu, S

    2012-06-01

    Fungal diseases damage crop plants and affect agricultural production. Transgenic plants have been produced by inserting antifungal genes to confer resistance against fungal pathogens. Genes of fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes, such as chitinase and glucanase, are frequently used to produce fungal-resistant transgenic crop plants. In this review, we summarize the details of various transformation studies to develop fungal resistance in crop plants.

  10. Cutinases fúngicas: propriedades e aplicações industriais Fungal cutinases: properties and industrial applications - review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontes Pio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutinases (EC 3.1.1.74 are also known as cutin hidrolases. These enzymes share catalytic properties of lipases and esterases, presenting a unique feature of being active regardless the presence of an oil-water interface, making them interesting as biocatalysts in several industrial processes involving hydrolysis, esterification and trans-esterification reactions. They are also active in different reaction media, allowing their applications in different areas such as food industry, cosmetics, fine chemicals, pesticide and insecticide degradation, treatment and laundry of fiber textiles and polymer chemistry. The present review describes the characteristics, potential applications and new perspectives for these enzymes.

  11. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  12. A review of observations of organic matter in fogs and clouds: Origin, processing and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2013-10-01

    While fog and cloud composition has been studied for decades, most of the research was limited to inorganic species and fog acidity. Recently the focus has shifted towards organic matter in the atmospheric aqueous phase of fogs and clouds: its origin, reactivity and fate. An impressive number of fog and cloud chemistry observational studies have been performed over the last decade throughout the world. In the present work we will review the state of knowledge of atmospheric organic matter processing by fogs, with a focus on field observations. We start by reviewing observational studies in general and then discuss our knowledge on the occurrence of organic matter in fogs, its solubility, characterization and molecular speciation. Organic carbon concentrations can vary widely from approximately 1 mg C/L in remote marine environments to more than 100 mg C/L in polluted radiation fogs, accounting for a substantial part of fogwater solutes. The carbonaceous material can enter the droplets from the gas and particle phase and the scavenging behavior of fogs will be detailed. Observational studies showed evidence of aqueous phase transformation of organic material, in particular secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generation, in fog. Recent observations of biological material in fog suggest also an impact of biological processing within the droplets on fog organic matter. The review will end with a discussion of the impact of fog on the deposition fluxes of organic material and hence its atmospheric lifetime.

  13. Testing for thrombophilia in mesenteric venous thrombosis - Retrospective original study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, M; Salim, S; Elf, J; Gottsäter, A; Acosta, S

    2017-02-01

    The aim was to perform a local study of risk factors and thrombophilia in mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT), and to review the literature concerning thrombophilia testing in MVT. Patients hospitalized for surgical or medical treatment of MVT at our center 2000-2015. A systematic review of observational studies was performed. In the local study, the most frequently identified risk factor was Factor V Leiden mutation. The systematic review included 14 original studies. The highest pooled percentage of any inherited thrombophilic factor were: Factor V Leiden mutation 9% (CI 2.9-16.1), prothrombin gene mutation 7% (CI 2.7-11.8). The highest pooled percentage of acquired thrombophilic factors were JAK2 V617F mutation 14% (CI -1.9-28.1). The wide range of frequency of inherited and acquired thrombophilic factors in different populations indicates the necessity to relate these factors to background population based data in order to estimate their overrepresentation in MVT. There is a need to develop guidelines for when and how thrombophilia testing should be performed in MVT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immune Recognition of Fungal Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan D. Snarr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections has dramatically increased in recent years, in large part due to increased use of immunosuppressive medications, as well as aggressive medical and surgical interventions that compromise natural skin and mucosal barriers. There are relatively few currently licensed antifungal drugs, and rising resistance to these agents has led to interest in the development of novel preventative and therapeutic strategies targeting these devastating infections. One approach to combat fungal infections is to augment the host immune response towards these organisms. The polysaccharide-rich cell wall is the initial point of contact between fungi and the host immune system, and therefore, represents an important target for immunotherapeutic approaches. This review highlights the advances made in our understanding of the mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes and interacts with exopolysaccharides produced by four of the most common fungal pathogens: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Work to date suggests that inner cell wall polysaccharides that play an important structural role are the most conserved across diverse members of the fungal kingdom, and elicit the strongest innate immune responses. The immune system senses these carbohydrates through receptors, such as lectins and complement proteins. In contrast, a greater diversity of polysaccharides is found within the outer cell walls of pathogenic fungi. These glycans play an important role in immune evasion, and can even induce anti-inflammatory host responses. Further study of the complex interactions between the host immune system and the fungal polysaccharides will be necessary to develop more effective therapeutic strategies, as well as to explore the use of immunosuppressive polysaccharides as therapeutic agents to modulate inflammation.

  15. Probiotics Prevent Candida Colonization and Invasive Fungal Sepsis in Preterm Neonates: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua-Jian; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qiao; Shakya, Shristi; Li, Zhong-Yue

    2017-04-01

    To investigate whether probiotic supplementation could reduce the risk of fungal infection in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on the effect of probiotics on fungal infection in preterm neonates. The outcomes of interest were Candida colonization and invasive fungal sepsis. Seven trials involving 1371 preterm neonates were included. Meta-analysis (fixed-effects model) showed that probiotic supplementation was significantly associated with a lower risk of Candida colonization (2 RCTs, n = 329; relative risk (RR), 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.67; p = 0.0002; I 2  = 0%), and invasive fungal sepsis (7 RCTs, n = 1371; RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.88; p = 0.006; I 2  = 13%). After excluding one study with a high baseline incidence (75%) of fungal sepsis, the effect of probiotics on invasive fungal sepsis became statistically insignificant (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.44-1.78; p = 0.72; I 2  = 15%). When using the random-effects model, the effect of probiotics remained favorable for Candida colonization (RR, 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p = 0.0002; I 2  = 0%) but not for fungal sepsis (RR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.38-1.08; p = 0.10; I 2  = 13%). Current evidence indicates that probiotics can reduce the risk of Candida colonization in preterm neonates in NICUs. Limited data support that probiotic supplementation prevents invasive fungal sepsis in preterm neonates. High-quality and adequately powered RCTs are warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildesø, J.; Wurtz, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2003-01-01

    The release and transport of fungal spores from water-damaged building materials is a key factor for understanding the exposure to particles of fungal origin as a possible cause of adverse health effects associated to growth of fungi indoors. In this study, the release of spores from nine species...

  17. Fungal community assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Lucheta, Adriano; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Roesch, L.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in

  18. Identification of species origin of meat and meat products on the DNA basis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Rajiv Ranjan; Sharma, Brahm Deo; Gokulakrishnan, Palanisamy; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The adulteration/substitution of meat has always been a concern for various reasons such as public health, religious factors, wholesomeness, and unhealthy competition in meat market. Consumer should be protected from these malicious practices of meat adulterations by quick, precise, and specific identification of meat animal species. Several analytical methodologies have been employed for meat speciation based on anatomical, histological, microscopic, organoleptic, chemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic, or immunological principles. However, by virtue of their inherent limitations, most of these techniques have been replaced by the recent DNA-based molecular techniques. In the last decades, several methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been proposed as useful means for identifying the species origin in meat and meat products, due to their high specificity and sensitivity, as well as rapid processing time and low cost. This review intends to provide an updated and extensive overview on the DNA-based methods for species identification in meat and meat products.

  19. IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN DEFENSE, PATHOGENESIS AND THERAPY OF FUNGAL DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2012-01-01

    Only two decades ago antibodies to fungi were thought to have little or no role in protection against fungal diseases. However, subsequent research has provided convincing evidence that certain antibodies can modify the course of fungal infection to the benefit or detriment of the host. Hybridoma technology was the breakthrough that enabled the characterization of antibodies to fungi, illuminating some of the requirements for antibody efficacy. As discussed in this review, fungal specific ant...

  20. Fungal model systems and the elucidation of pathogenicity determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Nadales, Elena; Almeida Nogueira, Maria Filomena; Baldin, Clara; Castanheira, Sónia; El Ghalid, Mennat; Grund, Elisabeth; Lengeler, Klaus; Marchegiani, Elisabetta; Mehrotra, Pankaj Vinod; Moretti, Marino; Naik, Vikram; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Oskarsson, Therese; Schäfer, Katja; Wasserstrom, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Fungi have the capacity to cause devastating diseases of both plants and animals, causing significant harvest losses that threaten food security and human mycoses with high mortality rates. As a consequence, there is a critical need to promote development of new antifungal drugs, which requires a comprehensive molecular knowledge of fungal pathogenesis. In this review, we critically evaluate current knowledge of seven fungal organisms used as major research models for fungal pathogenesis. The...

  1. Current Thoughts in Fungal Keratitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zubair; Miller, Darlene; Galor, Anat

    2013-01-01

    Fungal keratitis remains a challenging and often elusive diagnosis in geographic regions where it is endemic. Marred by delays in diagnosis, the sequelae of corneal fungal infections, though preventable, can be irreversible. Recent studies and advances in the arena have broadened the approach and treatment to mycotic keratitis. This review will discuss current diagnostic modalities of fungal keratitis and will particularly focus on treatment regimens. It will also explore future therapeutic models and critique the potential benefit of each. PMID:24040467

  2. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleyman, Geehan; Alangaden, George J

    2016-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Land Use for Edible Protein of Animal Origin-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-03-18

    The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F's). Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions. Therefore, this study´s objective was to calculate some examples of the land use (arable land and grassland) for production of edible animal protein taking into consideration important animal species/categories, levels of plant and animal yields, the latter estimated with and without co-products from agriculture, and the food/biofuel industry in animal feeding. There are large differences between animal species/categories and their potential to produce edible protein depending on many influencing variables. The highest amounts per kilogram body weight are produced by growing broiler chicken followed by laying hens and dairy cows; the lowest yields in edible protein and the highest land need were observed for beef cattle. This review clearly indicates that the production of food of animal origin is a very complex process, and selective considerations, i.e., focusing on single factors, do not provide an assessment that reflects the complexity of the subject.

  4. Estimating the concentration of indoor particles of outdoor origin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapouli, E; Chaloulakou, A; Koutrakis, P

    2013-10-01

    Recent toxicological results highlight the importance of separating exposure to indoor- and outdoor-generated particles, due to their different physicochemical and toxicological properties. In this framework, a number of studies have attempted to estimate the relative contribution of particles of indoor and outdoor origins to indoor concentrations, using either statistical analysis of indoor and outdoor concentration time-series or mass balance equations. The aim of this work is to review and compare the methodologies developed in order to determine the ambient particle infiltration factor (F(INF)) (i.e., the fraction of ambient particles that enter indoors and remains suspended). The different approaches are grouped into four categories according to their methodological principles: (1) steady-state assumption using the steady-state form of the mass balance equation; (2) dynamic solution of the mass balance equation using complex statistical techniques; (3) experimental studies using conditions that simplify model calculations (e.g., decreasing the number of unknowns); and (4) infiltration surrogates using a particulate matter (PM) constituent with no indoor sources to act as surrogate of indoor PM of outdoor origin. Examination of the various methodologies and results reveals that estimating infiltration parameters is still challenging. The main difficulty lies in the separate calculation of penetration efficiency (P) and deposition rate (k). The values for these two parameters that are reported in the literature vary significantly. Deposition rate presents the widest range of values, both between studies and size fractions. Penetration efficiency seems to be more accurately calculated through the application of dynamic models. Overall, estimates of the infiltration factor generated using dynamic models and infiltration surrogates show good agreement. This is a strong argument in favor of the latter methodology, which is simple and easy to apply when chemical

  5. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  6. CE: Original Research: End-of-Life Care Behind Bars: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Rachel K; Loeb, Susan J

    2016-03-01

    : To conduct a systematic review of the published research literature on end-of-life (EOL) care in prisons in order to determine the current state of the science and suggest implications for nursing practice and areas for future research.Applying the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we performed a comprehensive search of the literature using the following databases: CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts. All databases were searched from the time of their inception through June 2014. All English-language articles that reported on original quantitative and qualitative research involving EOL or palliative care delivered to prisoners were included. We abstracted data, using the matrix method, and independently reviewed and graded the evidence on its level of strength and quality in accordance with the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice rating scales.Nineteen articles, all published between 2002 and 2014, met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 53% were published between 2009 and 2014, and 58% reported findings from qualitative research. One article reported on research conducted in the United Kingdom; the remaining 18 reported on research conducted in the United States. Capacity (that is, the number of prisoners requiring EOL care and the ability of the prison to accommodate them) and the site of EOL care delivery varied across studies, as did the criteria for admission to EOL or hospice services. Care was provided by prison health care staff, which variously included numerous professional disciplines, corrections officers, and inmate caregivers. The inmate caregivers, in particular, provided a wide array of services and were viewed positively by both EOL patients and health care staff. There are insufficient data to characterize the patients' and inmate caregivers' perceptions of the EOL care staff and the quality

  7. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  8. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  9. Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah K; Schwartz, Benjamin; Todd, James; Pickering, Larry K

    2004-09-01

    The issue of thimerosal-containing vaccines as a possible cause of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) has been a controversial topic since 1999. Although most practitioners are familiar with the controversy, many are not familiar with the type or quality of evidence in published articles that have addressed this issue. To assess the quality of evidence assessing a potential association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism and evaluate whether that evidence suggests accepting or rejecting the hypothesis, we systematically reviewed published articles that report original data pertinent to the potential association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and ASD/NDDs. Articles for analysis were identified in the National Library of Medicine's Medline database using a PubMed search of the English-language literature for articles published between 1966 and 2004, using keywords thimerosal, thiomersal, mercury, methylmercury, or ethylmercury alone and combined with keywords autistic disorder, autistic spectrum disorder, and neurodevelopment. In addition, we used the "related links" option in PubMed and reviewed the reference sections in the identified articles. All original articles that evaluated an association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and ASD/NDDs or pharmacokinetics of ethylmercury in vaccines were included. Twelve publications that met the selection criteria were identified by the literature search: 10 epidemiologic studies and 2 pharmacokinetic studies of ethylmercury. The design and quality of the studies showed significant variation. The preponderance of epidemiologic evidence does not support an association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and ASD. Epidemiologic studies that support an association are of poor quality and cannot be interpreted. Pharmacokinetic studies suggest that the half-life of ethylmercury is significantly shorter when compared with methylmercury. Studies do not demonstrate

  10. The problem of the origin of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in vertebrates: historical review and a possible solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Giovanni; D'Urso, Vera; Viglianisi, Fabio; Sammartano, Francesca; Sabella, Giorgio; Lisi, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    A concise review of the articles about the origin of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in vertebrates is provided. Differences among various taxa concerning the origin of PGCs, not easily understandable on the base of traditional knowledge, are pointed out. All those differences can be explained taking into consideration the recent “theory of the endoderm as secondary layer”. That theory allows us to understand that those differences are only apparent, being related to modifications of stages of the consequent embryogeny, overall, to a different amount of yolk in the egg. Eggs very rich in yolk became meroblastic, and the portion of primordial ectomesenchyme destined to give rise to a part of the mesoderm and the PGCs separates early from the part destined to give rise to the rest of the mesoderm and to the digestive endoderm in order to form the vitelline hypoblast lamina. To this lamina, in contrast to the traditional interpretation, a mesodermal, not endodermal, origin must be attributed. With the misunderstanding regarding the origin of this lamina clarified, all the differences about the origin of PGCs disappears. Furthermore, in taxa where PGCs were considered to be of endodermal origin, they too have a mesodermal origin. Considering that a mesodermal origin of PGCs has been demonstrated in all sponges and cnidarians, as well, a unique, mesodermal origin of germinal cells in all pluricellular animals results.

  11. A Review: Origins of the Dielectric Properties of Proteins and Potential Development as Bio-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Bibi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymers can be classified as synthetic polymers and natural polymers, and are often characterized by their most typical functions namely their high mechanical resistivity, electrical conductivity and dielectric properties. This bibliography report consists in: (i Defining the origins of the dielectric properties of natural polymers by reviewing proteins. Despite their complex molecular chains, proteins present several points of interest, particularly, their charge content conferring their electrical and dielectric properties; (ii Identifying factors influencing the dielectric properties of protein films. The effects of vapors and gases such as water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and ethanol on the dielectric properties are put forward; (iii Finally, potential development of protein films as bio-sensors coated on electronic devices for detection of environmental changes particularly humidity or carbon dioxide content in relation with dielectric properties variations are discussed. As the study of the dielectric properties implies imposing an electric field to the material, it was necessary to evaluate the impact of frequency on the polymers and subsequently on their structure. Characterization techniques, on the one hand dielectric spectroscopy devoted for the determination of the glass transition temperature among others, and on the other hand other techniques such as infra-red spectroscopy for structure characterization as a function of moisture content for instance are also introduced.

  12. A Review: Origins of the Dielectric Properties of Proteins and Potential Development as Bio-Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Fabien; Villain, Maud; Guillaume, Carole; Sorli, Brice; Gontard, Nathalie

    2016-08-04

    Polymers can be classified as synthetic polymers and natural polymers, and are often characterized by their most typical functions namely their high mechanical resistivity, electrical conductivity and dielectric properties. This bibliography report consists in: (i) Defining the origins of the dielectric properties of natural polymers by reviewing proteins. Despite their complex molecular chains, proteins present several points of interest, particularly, their charge content conferring their electrical and dielectric properties; (ii) Identifying factors influencing the dielectric properties of protein films. The effects of vapors and gases such as water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and ethanol on the dielectric properties are put forward; (iii) Finally, potential development of protein films as bio-sensors coated on electronic devices for detection of environmental changes particularly humidity or carbon dioxide content in relation with dielectric properties variations are discussed. As the study of the dielectric properties implies imposing an electric field to the material, it was necessary to evaluate the impact of frequency on the polymers and subsequently on their structure. Characterization techniques, on the one hand dielectric spectroscopy devoted for the determination of the glass transition temperature among others, and on the other hand other techniques such as infra-red spectroscopy for structure characterization as a function of moisture content for instance are also introduced.

  13. Traditional Uses, Origins, Chemistry and Pharmacology of Bombyx batryticatus: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibian Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bombyx batryticatus (B. batryticatus, a well-known traditional animal Chinese medicine, has been commonly used in China for thousands of years. The present paper reviewed advances in traditional uses, origin, chemical constituents, pharmacology and toxicity studies of B. batryticatus. The aim of the paper is to provide more comprehensive references for modern B. batryticatus study and application. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM culture, drugs containing B. batryticatus have been used to treat convulsions, headaches, skin prurigo, scrofula, tonsillitis and fever. Many studies indicate B. batryticatus contains various compounds, including protein and peptides, fatty acids, flavonoids, nucleosides, steroids, coumarin, polysaccharide and others. Numerous investigations also have shown that extracts and compounds from B. batryticatus exert a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects both in vivo and in vitro, including effects on the nervous system, anticoagulant effects, antitumor effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, antioxidant effects, hypoglycemic effects, as well as other effects. However, further studies should be undertaken to investigate bioactive compounds (especially proteins and peptides, toxic constituents, using forms and the quality evaluation and control of B. batryticatus. Furthermore, it will be interesting to study the mechanism of biological activities and structure-function relationships of bioactive constituents in B. batryticatus.

  14. Origins, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Analytical Methods and Safety of Cortex Moutan (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; He, Chunnian; Peng, Yong; Chen, Feihu; Xiao, Peigen

    2017-06-07

    Cortex Moutan (CM), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, is commonly used for treating various diseases in China and other eastern Asian countries. Recorded in Pharmacopeias of several countries, CM is now drawing increasing attention and under extensive studies in various fields. Phytochemical studies indicate that CM contains many valuable secondary metabolites, such as monoterpene glycosides and phenols. Ample evidence from pharmacological researches suggest that CM has a wide spectrum of activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular protective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, various analytical methods were established for the quality evaluation and safety control of CM. This review synopsizes updated information concerning the origins, phytochemistry, pharmacology, analytical method and safety of CM, aiming to provide favorable references for modern CM research and application. In conclusion, continuing pharmacological investigations concerning CM should be conducted to unravel its pharmacological mechanisms. Further researches are necessary to obtain comprehensive and applicable analytical approach for quality evaluation and establish harmonized criteria of CM.

  15. The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean, R.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Pretorius, Z.A.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Pietro, Di A.; Spanu, P.D.; Rudd, J.J.; Dickman, M.; Kahmann, R.; Ellis, J.; Foster, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a ‘Top 10’ based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international

  16. Versatile biocatalysis of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Pradeepraj; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Yun, Hyungdon

    2016-07-18

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases, the nature's most versatile biological catalysts have unique ability to catalyse regio-, chemo-, and stereospecific oxidation of a wide range of substrates under mild reaction conditions, thereby addressing a significant challenge in chemocatalysis. Though CYP enzymes are ubiquitous in all biological kingdoms, the divergence of CYPs in fungal kingdom is manifold. The CYP enzymes play pivotal roles in various fungal metabolisms starting from housekeeping biochemical reactions, detoxification of chemicals, and adaptation to hostile surroundings. Considering the versatile catalytic potentials, fungal CYPs has gained wide range of attraction among researchers and various remarkable strategies have been accomplished to enhance their biocatalytic properties. Numerous fungal CYPs with multispecialty features have been identified and the number of characterized fungal CYPs is constantly increasing. Literature reveals ample reviews on mammalian, plant and bacterial CYPs, however, modest reports on fungal CYPs urges a comprehensive review highlighting their novel catalytic potentials and functional significances. In this review, we focus on the diversification and functional diversity of fungal CYPs and recapitulate their unique and versatile biocatalytic properties. As such, this review emphasizes the crucial issues of fungal CYP systems, and the factors influencing efficient biocatalysis.

  17. Fungal symbiosis unearthed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Associations between plant roots and fungi are a feature of many terrestrial ecosystems. The genome sequence of a prominent fungal partner opens new avenues for studying such mycorrhizal interactions....

  18. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  19. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  20. [Allergic fungal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, J R; Lafarga, J; Ronda, J M; Trigueros, M; Sancho, M; Aracil, A

    2000-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis is a recently described clinical entity that has gained increased attention as a cause of chronic sinusitis. Consist in a benign noninvasive sinus disease related to a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens. It should be suspected in any atopic patient with refractory nasal polyps. Computed tomography (CT) findings are characteristics, but not diagnostic. Diagnosis requires show allergic mucin in the histopathologic examination and hiphae in special fungal stains. The suitable treatment includes the allergic mucin removal and sinus aeration accomplished endoscopically, perioperative systemic steroids and immunotherapy with fungal antigens. We present a case of this kind of chronic sinusitis describing the characteristic histopathologic and radiologic findings, the pathogenic theories and recent advances in immunotherapy.

  1. How do authors of systematic reviews deal with research malpractice and misconduct in original studies? A cross-sectional analysis of systematic reviews and survey of their authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Nadia; von Elm, Erik; Chatagner, Alexandra; Pöpping, Daniel M; Tramèr, Martin R

    2016-03-02

    To study whether systematic reviewers apply procedures to counter-balance some common forms of research malpractice such as not publishing completed research, duplicate publications, or selective reporting of outcomes, and to see whether they identify and report misconduct. Cross-sectional analysis of systematic reviews and survey of their authors. 118 systematic reviews published in four journals (Ann Int Med, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet), and the Cochrane Library, in 2013. Number (%) of reviews that applied procedures to reduce the impact of: (1) publication bias (through searching of unpublished trials), (2) selective outcome reporting (by contacting the authors of the original studies), (3) duplicate publications, (4) sponsors' and (5) authors' conflicts of interest, on the conclusions of the review, and (6) looked for ethical approval of the studies. Number (%) of reviewers who suspected misconduct are reported. The procedures applied were compared across journals. 80 (68%) reviewers confirmed their data. 59 (50%) reviews applied three or more procedures; 11 (9%) applied none. Unpublished trials were searched in 79 (66%) reviews. Authors of original studies were contacted in 73 (62%). Duplicate publications were searched in 81 (69%). 27 reviews (23%) reported sponsors of the included studies; 6 (5%) analysed their impact on the conclusions of the review. Five reviews (4%) looked at conflicts of interest of study authors; none of them analysed their impact. Three reviews (2.5%) looked at ethical approval of the studies. Seven reviews (6%) suspected misconduct; only 2 (2%) reported it explicitly. Procedures applied differed across the journals. Only half of the systematic reviews applied three or more of the six procedures examined. Sponsors, conflicts of interest of authors and ethical approval remain overlooked. Research misconduct is sometimes identified, but rarely reported. Guidance on when, and how, to report suspected misconduct is needed. Published by the BMJ

  2. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  3. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 5% of people.Infection can cause discomfor...

  4. Proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Dmitry; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. They employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. Infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. These investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. Fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as their germination is one of the first steps towards a host infection. They represent interesting objects for proteomic studies because of the presence of unique proteins with unexplored biotechnological potential required for pathogen viability, development and the subsequent host infection. Proteomic peculiarities of survival structures of different fungi, including those of biotechnological significance (e.g., Asperillus fumigatus, A. nidulans, Metarhizium anisopliae), in a dormant state, as well as changes in the protein production during early stages of fungal development are the subjects of the present review. We focused on biological aspects of proteomic studies of fungal survival structures rather than on an evaluation of proteomic approaches. For that reason, proteins that have been identified in this context are discussed from the point of view of their involvement in different biological processes and possible functions assigned to them. This is the first review paper summarizing recent advances in proteomics of fungal survival structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  6. Review of the stability of biodiesel produced from less common vegetable oils of African origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kivevele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The stability of biodiesel is dependent on storage conditions such as contact with ambient air and metals, exposure to sunlight and high temperature conditions which accelerate oxidation reactions. In addition, biodiesels are more susceptible to degradation when compared to fossil diesel because of the presence of unsaturated fatty acid chains which are prone to oxidation. The stability of biodiesel is categorised according to oxidation stability, storage stability and thermal stability. Oxidation instability can led to the formation of oxidation products such as aldehydes, alcohols, shorter chain carboxylic acids, insolubles, gums and sediments in the biodiesel. Thermal instability is concerned with the increased rate of oxidation at higher temperature, which in turn increases the weight of oil and fat due to the formation of insolubles. Storage stability is the ability of liquid fuel to resist change to its physical and chemical characteristics brought about by its interaction with its storage environment, such as contamination with metals. These fuel instabilities give rise to the formation of undesirable substances in biodiesel beyond acceptable limits as per global biodiesel standards such as those of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751 and European Standards (EN 14214. When such fuel is used in the engine, it impairs engine performance through fuel filter plugging, injector fouling, and deposit formation in the engine combustion chamber and various components of the fuel system. We review the stability of biodiesel made from less common vegetable oils of African origin and synthetic antioxidants used in improving the stability of produced biodiesels.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment (ISO 14040) implementation in foods of animal and plant origin: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kotsanopoulos, Konstantinos V; Veikou, Agapi

    2014-01-01

    The importance of environmental protection has been recently upgraded due to the continuously increasing environmental pollution load. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), wellknown as ISO 14040, has been repeatedly shown to be a useful and powerful tool for assessing the environmental performance of industrial processes, both in the European and American continents as well as in many Asian countries (such as Japan and China). To the best of our knowledge, almost no information is provided in relation to LCA implementation in Africa apart from an article related to Egypt. Although food industries are not considered to be among the most heavily polluting ones, for some like olive oil, wine, dairy, and meat processing, their impact on the environment is a heavy burden. The introduction of LCA aimed at identifying both inputs and outputs to find out which are the most detrimental to the environment in terms of water/energy consumption and solid/liquid and gas releases. In this review, a thorough coverage of literature was made in an attempt to compare the implementation of LCA to a variety of products of both plant and animal origin. It was concluded that there is a high number of subsystems suggested for the same product, thereby, occasionally leading to confusion. An idea toward solving the problem is to proceed to some sort of standardization by means of several generic case studies of LCA implementation, similarly to what had happened in the case of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation in the United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, and other countries.

  8. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573

  9. Incidence and clinical characteristics of fungal keratitis in a Danish population from 2000 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine E.; Nielsen, Esben; Julian, Hanne Olsen

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fungal keratitis is a severe sight-threatening condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and clinical characteristics of fungal keratitis patients living in a temperate climate. METHODS: By reviewing medical records from 2000 to July 2013, patients with fungal ker...

  10. Cure Rate of Fungal Keratitis With Antibacterial Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Alice Y; Barrett, Ryan; Lehmann, Anna E

    2017-05-01

    To study the cure rate of fungal keratitis with moxifloxacin 0.3% monotherapy. A retrospective review of patients with culture-proven fungal keratitis who initially received moxifloxacin 0.3% monotherapy was performed. Eleven patients with culture-proven fungal keratitis were initially treated with moxifloxacin. One case each of Curvularia and Alternaria keratitis resolved with moxifloxacin monotherapy (18%). Moxifloxacin may have a significant clinical therapeutic effect in a subset of patients with fungal keratitis. Review of the literature in combination with the current study suggests that in patients with clinical features suggestive of fungal keratitis, if rapid diagnostic tests are negative or not available, pending culture results, initial therapy should include a fluoroquinolone (moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin) and/or an aminoglycoside (tobramycin or gentamicin).

  11. Fungal infections of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients.

  12. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3-5% of people.Infection can cause discomfort in...

  13. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  14. Fungal biology in the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazzocchio, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this review I give a personal perspective of how fungal biology has changed since I started my Ph. D. in 1963. At that time we were working in the shadow of the birth of molecular biology as an autonomous and reductionistic discipline, embodied in Crick's central dogma. This first period was methodologically characterised by the fact that we knew what genes were, but we could not access them directly. This radically changed in the 70s-80s when gene cloning, reverse genetics and DNA sequencing become possible. The "next generation" sequencing techniques have produced a further qualitative revolutionary change. The ready access to genomes and transcriptomes of any microbial organism allows old questions to be asked in a radically different way and new questions to be approached. I provide examples chosen somewhat arbitrarily to illustrate some of these changes, from applied aspects to fundamental problems such as the origin of fungal specific genes, the evolutionary history of genes clusters and the realisation of the pervasiveness of horizontal transmission. Finally, I address how the ready availability of genomes and transcriptomes could change the status of model organisms.

  15. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF), water (water footprint, WF) and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF) during the production process. The wide range of different land a...

  16. Revisiting the host effect on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities: implications from host-fungal associations in relict Pseudotsuga japonica forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Masao; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nara, Kazuhide

    2013-11-01

    Host identity is among the most important factors in structuring ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. Both host-fungal coevolution and host shifts can account for the observed host effect, but their relative significance in ECM fungal communities is not well understood. To investigate these two host-related mechanisms, we used relict forests of Pseudotsuga japonica, which is an endangered endemic species in Japan. As with other Asian Pseudotsuga species, P. japonica has been isolated from North American Pseudotsuga spp. since the Oligocene and has evolved independently as a warm-temperate species. We collected 100 soil samples from four major localities in which P. japonica was mixed with other conifers and broadleaf trees. ECM tips in the soil samples were subjected to molecular analyses to identify both ECM fungi and host species. While 136 ECM fungal species were identified in total, their communities were significantly different between host groups, confirming the existence of the host effect on ECM fungal communities. None of the 68 ECM fungal species found on P. japonica belonged to Pseudotsuga-specific lineages (e.g., Rhizopogon and Suillus subgroups) that are common in North America. Most of ECM fungi on P. japonica were shared with other host fungi or phylogenetically close to known ECM fungi on other hosts in Asia. These results suggest that after migrating, Pseudotsuga-specific fungal lineages may have become extinct in small isolated populations in Japan. Instead, most of the ECM fungal symbionts on P. japonica likely originated from host shifts in the region.

  17. Mycoremediation of Textile Dyes: Application of Novel Autochthonous Fungal Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Sweety; Sharad Vats; Manoj Kumar; Shivesh Sharma; Vivek Kumar; Shri K. Garg

    2017-01-01

    Four fungal isolates Trichoderma virens, Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii, Talaromyces stipitatus, Aspergillus niger originally isolated from the textile dye contaminated soil of Meerut (U.P). India. They were used for the decolorization studies of selected textile azo dyes under laboratory conditions. Out of total 74 isolates, selected four fungal strains were picked on the basis of primary screening carried out using agar layer decolorization method. Decolorization efficiency of textile dyes was s...

  18. Thai marine fungal diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Rattaket Choeyklin; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Ittichai Chatmala; Jariya Sakayaroj; Apiradee Pilantanapak; E.B. Gareth Jones

    2006-01-01

    The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  19. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  20. The Fungal Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitman, Joseph; Howlett, B.J.; Crous, P.W.; Stukenbrock, E.H.; James, T.Y.; Gow, N.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi research and knowledge grew rapidly following recent advances in genetics and genomics. This book synthesizes new knowledge with existing information to stimulate new scientific questions and propel fungal scientists on to the next stages of research. This book is a comprehensive guide on

  1. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  2. Fungal glycan interactions with epithelial cells in allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, René M; Klein, Bruce S

    2013-08-01

    Human exposure to fungi results in a wide range of health outcomes, from invasive disease or allergy to immune tolerance. Inhaled fungi contact airway epithelial cells as an early event, and this host:fungal interaction can shape the eventual immunological outcome. Emerging evidence points to exposure to fungal cell wall carbohydrates in the development of allergic airway disease. Herein, we describe determinants of fungal allergenicity, and review the responses of airway epithelial cells to fungal carbohydrates. A greater understanding of the recognition of and response to fungal carbohydrates by airway epithelial cells may lead to the development of targeted therapies that ameliorate allergic airway disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunoglobulins in defense, pathogenesis, and therapy of fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-Anne

    2012-05-17

    Only two decades ago antibodies to fungi were thought to have little or no role in protection against fungal diseases. However, subsequent research has provided convincing evidence that certain antibodies can modify the course of fungal infection to the benefit or detriment of the host. Hybridoma technology was the breakthrough that enabled the characterization of antibodies to fungi, illuminating some of the requirements for antibody efficacy. As discussed in this review, fungal-specific antibodies mediate protection through direct actions on fungal cells and through classical mechanisms such as phagocytosis and complement activation. Although mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection are often species-specific, numerous fungal antigens can be targeted to generate vaccines and therapeutic immunoglobulins. Furthermore, the study of antibody function against medically important fungi has provided fresh immunological insights into the complexity of humoral immunity that are likely to apply to other pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultured and uncultured fungal diversity in deep-sea environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Takahiko; Nagano, Yuriko

    2012-01-01

    The importance of fungi found in deep-sea extreme environments is becoming increasingly recognized. In this chapter, current scientific findings on the fungal diversity in several deep-sea environments by conventional culture and culture-independent methods are reviewed and discussed, primarily focused on culture-independent approaches. Fungal species detected by conventional culture methods mostly belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla. Culture-independent approaches have revealed the presence of highly novel fungal phylotypes, including new taxonomic groups placed in deep branches within the phylum Chytridiomycota and unknown ancient fungal groups. Future attempts to culture these unknown fungal groups may provide key insights into the early evolution of fungi and their ecological and physiological significance in deep-sea environments.

  5. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone...... pigments from such potentially safe hosts is advantageous over traditional processes that involve Monascus spp., which risks co-production of the mycotoxin citrinin. Thus, there is tremendous potential for the development of robust fungal production systems for polyketide pigments, both to tailor...

  6. The Interface between Fungal Biofilms and Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Kernien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biofilms are communities of adherent cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix. These biofilms are commonly found during infection caused by a variety of fungal pathogens. Clinically, biofilm infections can be extremely difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antifungals and host defenses. Biofilm formation can protect fungal pathogens from many aspects of the innate immune system, including killing by neutrophils and monocytes. Altered immune recognition during this phase of growth is also evident by changes in the cytokine profiles of monocytes and macrophages exposed to biofilm. In this manuscript, we review the host response to fungal biofilms, focusing on how these structures are recognized by the innate immune system. Biofilms formed by Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus have received the most attention and are highlighted. We describe common themes involved in the resilience of fungal biofilms to host immunity and give examples of biofilm defenses that are pathogen-specific.

  7. evaluation of indigenous fungal isolates and metarhizium anisopliae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    Seyoum, 2001). Spore batches with >85% germination were considered to be viable and used. Table 1. Fungal isolates used, source substrates, and country of origin. Code. Isolate. Sources. Country of origin. DLCO-AA5. Beauveria. Grasshopper. Ethiopia. DLCO-AA14. Beauveria. Grasshopper. Ethiopia. IITA 18. Beauveria.

  8. Dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and site-specific cancer risk: protocol for a systematic review with an original design combining umbrella and traditional reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Alessandra; Bosetti, Cristina; Peveri, Giulia; Rota, Matteo; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Gallus, Silvano

    2017-11-01

    Only a limited number of meta-analyses providing risk curve functions of dose-response relationships between various smoking-related variables and cancer-specific risk are available. To identify all relevant original publications on the issue, we will conduct a series of comprehensive systematic reviews based on three subsequent literature searches: (1) an umbrella review, to identify meta-analyses, pooled analyses and systematic reviews published before 28 April 2017 on the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of 28 (namely all) malignant neoplasms; (2) for each cancer site, an updated review of original publications on the association between cigarette smoking and cancer risk, starting from the last available comprehensive review identified through the umbrella review; and (3) a review of all original articles on the association between cigarette smoking and site-specific cancer risk included in the publications identified through the umbrella review and the updated reviews. The primary outcomes of interest will be (1) the excess incidence/mortality of various cancers for smokers compared with never smokers; and (2) the dose-response curves describing the association between smoking intensity, duration and time since stopping and incidence/mortality for various cancers. For each cancer site, we will perform a meta-analysis by pooling study-specific estimates for smoking status. We will also estimate the dose-response curves for other smoking-related variables through random-effects meta-regression models based on a non-linear dose-response relationship framework. Ethics approval is not required for this study. Main results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will also be included in a publicly available website. We will provide therefore the most complete and updated estimates on the association between various measures of cigarette smoking and site-specific cancer risk. This will allow us to obtain precise estimates on the cancer burden

  9. A review of higher order strain gradient theories of plasticity: Origins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    review attempts at resolving these issues pertaining to higher order boundary condi- tions. Finally, we review the future of such theories, their relevance and experimental validation. Keywords. Size effects; higher order strain gradient plasticity; geometrically necessary dislocations; thermodynamic consistency; higher order ...

  10. Risk of spontaneous fungal peritonitis in hospitalized cirrhotic patients with ascites: a systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Marco; Chiodini, Paolo; Pota, Vincenzo; Sansone, Pasquale; Passavanti, Maria B; Leone, Sebastiano; Aurilio, Caterina; Pace, Maria C

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is an infection of ascitic fluid occurring in cirrhotic patients. SFP prevalence varies from 0% to 41% of patients with spontaneous peritonitis (SP) and a positive ascitic fluid culture. Cirrhotic patients with SFP who fail to show improvement with empirical antibiotic therapy, before the identification of the fungal pathogen, have high mortality (89.5-100%). Although the weight of the disease is so dramatic, more recent guidelines on infections in cirrhosis do not consider SFP management. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the association between hospitalization (at least 48-72 hours after admission) and risk of SFP. A literature search was performed on PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science to identify relevant studies published up to March 2, 2017. Only observational studies that specify the etiology of SP were included. Data were pooled using risk difference as a summary measure and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Thirteen cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis (12 retrospective and one prospective). A pooled risk difference, using a random effects model, of nosocomial versus non-nosocomial SFP was 2.9% (95% CI, 0.4% to 5.3%, P=0.024) with a no significant heterogeneity among studies (P=0.090, I²=37%). This meta-analysis suggests that hospitalization is related to a significant increase of SFP risk.

  11. FUNGAL ASSOCIATION WITH SESSILE MARINE INVERTEBRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded eYarden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence and association of fungi with sessile marine animals such as coral and sponges has been well established, yet information on the extent of diversity of the associated fungi is still in its infancy. Culture- as well as metagenomic- and transcriptomic-based analyses have shown that fungal presence in association with these animals can be dynamic and can include core residents as well as shifts in fungal communities. Evidence for detrimental and beneficial interactions between fungi and their marine hosts is accumulating and current challenges include the elucidation of the chemical and cellular crosstalk between fungi and their associates within the holobionts. The ecological function of fungi in association with sessile marine animals is complex and is founded on a combination of factors such as fungal origin, host health, environmental conditions and the presence of other resident or invasive microorganisms in the host. Based on evidence from the much more studied terrestrial systems, the evaluation of marine animal-fungal symbioses under varying environmental conditions may well prove to be critical in predicting ecosystem response to global change, including effects on the health of sessile marine animals.

  12. Locally advanced female urethral adenocarcinoma of enteric origin: The role of adjuvant chemoradiation and brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ping Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary female urethral adenocarcinoma (FUA is rare and has a poor prognosis. The common manifestations include urethrorrhagia, urinary frequency, dysuria, urethral obstructions, focal tenderness, and urinary tract infection. These symptoms are neither diagnostic nor pathognomonic; therefore, a delay in diagnosis and even a misdiagnosis is hardly uncommon. The histogenesis of FUAs may have derived from urethritis glandularis, Mullerian ducts, Skene’s glands, or mixed origins. Tumors of different embryologic origins displayed heterogeneous pathological morphology and immunohistochemistical phenotypes. Because of its rarity and the lack of large-scale studies, there is no current consensus on the optimal treatment of urethral adenocarcinomas. Here, we report two cases of locally advanced FUA of enteric origin. They manifested as slightest warning symptoms of urinary tract infection and stress urinary incontinence, respectively. One patient died of disease progression 2 months after curative operation. The other patient underwent surgery followed by adjuvant irinotecan-containing chemoradiation, and the effect was at least modest. Hence, we recommend adjuvant chemoradiation in locally advanced FUA. Individualizing cancer care of chemoregimens in accordance with the tumor origins may probably be beneficial in FUAs.

  13. Oro-cutaneous fistula of dental origin: Report of a case and review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oro-cutaneous fistula of dental origin is uncommon, unsightly, and sometimes distressing and frustrating to the patient. The major sources of dental infection causing this condition are periapical following pulpal necrosis, and periodontal. The continued leakage of purulent material from the oral cavity to the face and the ...

  14. Disseminated hydatid disease presenting as fever of unknown origin: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human hydatid disease occurs due to infection with larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. The disseminated hydatid disease is a very rare finding. Disseminated hydatid disease presenting as a cause of fever of unknown origin is a rare phenomenon. We present to you such a rare case.

  15. AHP 28: Review - Origins and Migrations in the Extended Eastern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hayes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This multidisciplinary anthology draws from papers presented at the international conference "Origins and Migrations Among TibetoBurman-Speakers of the Extended Eastern Himalaya" held at Humboldt University, Berlin in 2008. This collection of articles contributes to discussions surrounding the nature of and questions surrounding data, hypotheses, and theories of origins and migration in the 'extended Eastern Himalaya'. This region includes the hill peoples and territory ranging from eastern Nepal to runachal Pradesh, Nagaland, upland Southeast Asia and southwest China. Although there is some thematic overlap among the fourteen essays, they are quite a diverse lot, critically examining local and regional history, theoretical and methodological issues writ large, myths and rituals, society and social narrative, language and linguistic relationships, identity formation, and local-state dynamics related to local ideas about origins and migration. This book is particularly useful for gaining a better understanding of the issues linked to topics and theories of identity in the Eastern Himalaya (and wider Himalaya region more broadly considering the core importance of 'origins' in any construction or reconstruction of identity among diverse and idely spread communities. Graduate students and specialists interested in the Himalayan region will find this book useful. Individual chapters, especially the more theory-oriented ones, are also well suited for undergraduate courses.

  16. The origin of life--a review of facts and speculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Three popular hypotheses attempt to explain the origin of prebiotic molecules: synthesis in a reducing atmosphere, input in meteorites and synthesis on metal sulfides in deep-sea vents. It is not possible to decide which is correct. It is also unclear whether the RNA world was the first biological world or whether some simpler world preceded it.

  17. Ophthalmic artery originating from the anterior cerebral artery: anatomo-radiological study, histological analysis, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, Francesco; Ferrari, Marco; Doglietto, Francesco; Cocchi, Marco Angelo; Lancini, Davide; Buffoli, Barbara; Nicolai, Piero; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Maroldi, Roberto; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    The ophthalmic artery has an anomalous origin in 2-3 % of cases and rarely arises from the anterior cerebral artery. Herein, we provide the first anatomical, radiological, and histological description of such an anomalous origin, together with a literature review. During the anatomical dissection of an 81-year-old Caucasian male, the absence of the right ophthalmic artery in its usual location was evident from an endonasal transsphenoidal perspective. The specimen was then studied in detail, through multiple dissections, corrosion casting, high-resolution CT, and histological analysis. The English literature on anomalous origins of the ophthalmic artery was reviewed, together with reported associated pathologies. Anatomo-radiological analysis documented that the right ophthalmic artery arose from the inferior surface of A1 tract of the anterior cerebral artery (A1) and passed over the optic nerve in its subarachnoid tract. A meningo-ophthalmic artery was evident on the same side and reached the orbit through the superior orbital fissure. Histological examination of both internal carotid artery (ICA) walls documented a significantly decreased thickness of the tunica media and adventitia on the side of the anomalous ophthalmic artery, with a significantly different content of collagen types I and III. The literature review documented an association of aneurysms and anomalous ophthalmic arteries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first anatomical report that includes a radiological and arterial wall analysis of a persistent ventral ophthalmic artery. The latter provides histological data that support the clinical evidence of a higher association of aneurysms with anomalous origins of the ophthalmic artery.

  18. Inositol Polyphosphate Kinases, Fungal Virulence and Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cecilia; Lev, Sophie; Saiardi, Adolfo; Desmarini, Desmarini; Sorrell, Tania C; Djordjevic, Julianne T

    2016-09-06

    Opportunistic fungi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Developing new treatments to combat invasive fungal disease is challenging given that fungal and mammalian host cells are eukaryotic, with similar organization and physiology. Even therapies targeting unique fungal cell features have limitations and drug resistance is emerging. New approaches to the development of antifungal drugs are therefore needed urgently. Cryptococcus neoformans , the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, is an accepted model for studying fungal pathogenicity and driving drug discovery. We recently characterized a phospholipase C (Plc1)-dependent pathway in C. neoformans comprising of sequentially-acting inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK), which are involved in synthesizing inositol polyphosphates (IP). We also showed that the pathway is essential for fungal cellular function and pathogenicity. The IP products of the pathway are structurally diverse, each consisting of an inositol ring, with phosphate (P) and pyrophosphate (PP) groups covalently attached at different positions. This review focuses on (1) the characterization of the Plc1/IPK pathway in C. neoformans ; (2) the identification of PP-IP₅ (IP₇) as the most crucial IP species for fungal fitness and virulence in a mouse model of fungal infection; and (3) why IPK enzymes represent suitable candidates for drug development.

  19. Inositol Polyphosphate Kinases, Fungal Virulence and Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Developing new treatments to combat invasive fungal disease is challenging given that fungal and mammalian host cells are eukaryotic, with similar organization and physiology. Even therapies targeting unique fungal cell features have limitations and drug resistance is emerging. New approaches to the development of antifungal drugs are therefore needed urgently. Cryptococcus neoformans, the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, is an accepted model for studying fungal pathogenicity and driving drug discovery. We recently characterized a phospholipase C (Plc1-dependent pathway in C. neoformans comprising of sequentially-acting inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK, which are involved in synthesizing inositol polyphosphates (IP. We also showed that the pathway is essential for fungal cellular function and pathogenicity. The IP products of the pathway are structurally diverse, each consisting of an inositol ring, with phosphate (P and pyrophosphate (PP groups covalently attached at different positions. This review focuses on (1 the characterization of the Plc1/IPK pathway in C. neoformans; (2 the identification of PP-IP5 (IP7 as the most crucial IP species for fungal fitness and virulence in a mouse model of fungal infection; and (3 why IPK enzymes represent suitable candidates for drug development.

  20. Land Use for Edible Protein of Animal Origin?A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; S?dekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The growing world population has led to a higher demand for more and better quality food. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and other non-renewable resources. Proteins of animal origin are very valuable sources of essential nutrients, but their production consumes resources and causes emissions. The aim of this study was to calculate exemplarily the land use for production of edible animal protein from different animal species and cate...

  1. Machado-Joseph disease in a Nigerian family: mutational origin and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogun, Shamsideen Abayomi; Martins, Sandra; Adebayo, Philip B; Dawodu, Clara O; Sequeiros, Jorge; Finkel, Michael F

    2015-02-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) has been described in Africans, but no cases have been reported from Nigeria. Current MJD global distribution results from both the ancestral populations-of-origin and the founder effects of mutations, some as a consequence of the Portuguese sea travels in the 15th to 16th century. Two main ancestral haplotypes have been identified: the Machado lineage, which is more recent, predominant in families of Portuguese extraction, and the Joseph lineage, which is much older and worldwide spread, postulated to have an Asian origin. We report a Nigerian family with MJD from Calabar, once settled by Portuguese slave traders, and assessed its mutational origin. The proband was a 33-year-old man with progressive unsteady gait, weakness of all limbs, dysphagia, dysarthria, urinary frequency and diaphoresis. He had end-of-gaze nystagmus, spastic quadriparesis and atrophic small muscles of the hand. He showed fibrillation potentials on EMG, and nerve conduction studies suggested a central axonopathy without demyelination. This family bears the Joseph haplotype, which has a founder effect in the island of Flores, in the Azores (and their descendants in North-America), but is also the most common in non-Portuguese populations worldwide, with an estimated mutation age of around 7000 years.

  2. Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    1) Fungal nail infection, or onychomycosis, mainly affects toenails. Infections are generally asymptomatic. Spontaneous regressions, but also complications, appear to be rare. Discomfort and cosmetic complaint are occasionally reported; 2) After a review of the literature based on the standard Prescrire procedure, we examined the diagnosis and management of fungal nail infections; 3) Clinical signs of fungal nail infections are non-specific. Alternative diagnoses include psoriasis and nail microtrauma. Nail hyperkeratosis and leukonychia are useful diagnostic pointers. Matrix involvement has important implications in the choice of treatment; 4) Detection of fungal structures by direct examination of a nail sample is strongly suggestive of fungal nail infection. In contrast, cases of negative direct examination with positive culture must be interpreted with caution, as contamination is frequent; 5) Antifungal lacquers (5% amorolfine and 8% ciclopirox) applied to the nails cure about 30% of fungal infections and sometimes cause mild irritation. There is no firm evidence that these solutions are any more effective than other topical antifungals applied daily to the affected nail. Trimming, filing or grinding the nail, in addition to these drug treatments, is likely to be beneficial, but these measures have not been evaluated; 6) Chemical nail destruction with a combination of urea and bifonazole, followed by treatment with an antifungal ointment, can be used when the nail is markedly thickened. Non-comparative trials have shown cure rates close to 70% at three months when the matrix is not involved, and 40% with matrix involvement. Drug application is inconvenient and local reactions are frequent. Surgical nail avulsion carries a risk of local infection and permanent nail dystrophy; 7) Oral terbinafine is effective in more than 50% of cases but its cutaneous, hepatic and haematological adverse effects are severe in about 1 in 2000 patients and can be life

  3. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan P

    2012-04-01

    Tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and pityriasis versicolor are common superficial fungal infections in the pediatric population. • Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection worldwide. In North America, the cause is almost exclusively T tonsurans. Diagnosis of tinea capitis usually can be made by clinical features alone, especially when occipital or postauricular lymphadenopathy is present. Skin scrapings prepared with potassium hydroxide for microscopic examination, or a cotton swab for fungal culture, usually are diagnostic. • Treatment of tinea capitis requires systemic antifungal therapy. Terbinafine and griseofulvin are both effective against T tonsurans and are FDA-approved for this indication in children. • Adjunctive topical therapy for the patient and household contacts decreases transmission of this infection. • Topical antifungal therapy usually is effective for tinea corporis and pityriasis versicolor. However, recurrences of pityriasis versicolor are common.

  4. A review on the genetic, environmental, and lifestyle aspects of the early-life origins of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2014-03-01

    This article is a comprehensive review on developmental origins of health and disease regarding various factors related to the origins of cardiovascular diseases from early life. It presents a summary of the impacts of various factors such as epigenetics; gene-environment interaction; ethnic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and their underlying risk factors; prenatal factors; fetal programming; maternal weight status and weight gain during pregnancy; type of feeding during infancy; growth pattern during childhood; obesity; stunting; socioeconomic status; dietary and physical activity habits; active, secondhand, and thirdhand smoking, as well as environmental factors including air pollution and global climate change on the development and progress of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The importance of early identification of predisposing factors for cardiovascular diseases for primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases from early life is highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metals in fungal virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwien, Franziska; Skrahina, Volha; Kasper, Lydia; Hube, Bernhard; Brunke, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    Metals are essential for life, and they play a central role in the struggle between infecting microbes and their hosts. In fact, an important aspect of microbial pathogenesis is the 'nutritional immunity', in which metals are actively restricted (or, in an extended definition of the term, locally enriched) by the host to hinder microbial growth and virulence. Consequently, fungi have evolved often complex regulatory networks, uptake and detoxification systems for essential metals such as iron, zinc, copper, nickel and manganese. These systems often differ fundamentally from their bacterial counterparts, but even within the fungal pathogens we can find common and unique solutions to maintain metal homeostasis. Thus, we here compare the common and species-specific mechanisms used for different metals among different fungal species-focusing on important human pathogens such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus or Cryptococcus neoformans, but also looking at model fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or A. nidulans as well-studied examples for the underlying principles. These direct comparisons of our current knowledge reveal that we have a good understanding how model fungal pathogens take up iron or zinc, but that much is still to learn about other metals and specific adaptations of individual species-not the least to exploit this knowledge for new antifungal strategies. © FEMS 2017.

  6. Thigmo Responses: The Fungal Sense of Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana Cruz; Brand, Alexandra C

    2017-04-01

    The growth and development of most fungi take place on a two-dimensional surface or within a three-dimensional matrix. The fungal sense of touch is therefore critical for fungi in the interpretation of their environment and often signals the switch to a new developmental state. Contact sensing, or thigmo-based responses, include thigmo differentiation, such as the induction of invasion structures by plant pathogens in response to topography; thigmonasty, where contact with a motile prey rapidly triggers its capture; and thigmotropism, where the direction of hyphal growth is guided by physical features in the environment. Like plants and some bacteria, fungi grow as walled cells. Despite the well-demonstrated importance of thigmo responses in numerous stages of fungal growth and development, it is not known how fungal cells sense contact through the relatively rigid structure of the cell wall. However, while sensing mechanisms at the molecular level are not entirely understood, the downstream signaling pathways that are activated by contact sensing are being elucidated. In the majority of cases, the response to contact is complemented by chemical cues and both are required, either sequentially or simultaneously, to elicit normal developmental responses. The importance of a sense of touch in the lifestyles and development of diverse fungi is highlighted in this review, and the candidate molecular mechanisms that may be involved in fungal contact sensing are discussed.

  7. There Is a Significant Discrepancy Between "Big Data" Database and Original Research Publications on Hip Arthroscopy Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Kyle R; Jack, Robert A; Safran, Marc R; Nho, Shane J; Harris, Joshua D

    2018-02-21

    The purpose of this study was to compare (1) major complication, (2) revision, and (3) conversion to arthroplasty rates following hip arthroscopy between database studies and original research peer-reviewed publications. A systematic review was performed using PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, SCOPUS, SportDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies that investigated major complication (dislocation, femoral neck fracture, avascular necrosis, fluid extravasation, septic arthritis, death), revision, and hip arthroplasty conversion rates following hip arthroscopy. Major complication, revision, and conversion to hip arthroplasty rates were compared between original research (single- or multicenter therapeutic studies) and database (insurance database using ICD-9/10 and/or current procedural terminology coding terminology) publishing studies. Two hundred seven studies (201 original research publications [15,780 subjects; 54% female] and 6 database studies [20,825 subjects; 60% female]) were analyzed (mean age, 38.2 ± 11.6 years old; mean follow-up, 2.7 ± 2.9 years). The database studies had a significantly higher age (40.6 + 2.8 vs 35.4 ± 11.6), body mass index (27.4 ± 5.6 vs 24.9 ± 3.1), percentage of females (60.1% vs 53.8%), and longer follow-up (3.1 ± 1.6 vs 2.7 ± 3.0) compared with original research (P database studies (P = .029; relative risk [RR], 1.3). There was a significantly higher rate of femoral neck fracture (0.24% vs 0.03%; P database studies. Reoperations occurred at a significantly higher rate in the database studies (11.1% vs 7.3%; P database studies (8.0% vs 3.7%; P Database studies report significantly increased major complication, revision, and conversion to hip arthroplasty rates compared with original research investigations of hip arthroscopy outcomes. Level IV, systematic review of Level I-IV studies. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Nail Histomycology, Onychochromobiology, and Fungal Thigmatropism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thigmotropism is a biologic feature coping with the directional growth of cells following topographical guidance cues. This mechanism is involved in the invasive phase of pathogen and opportunistic fungi. It was shown experimentally with fungal hyphae of both dermatophytes and nondermatophyte molds, as well as with the mycelial phase of the dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. Objective: To revisit histomycology in onychomycoses of a diversity of fungal origins. Method: Histopathological section of nails plates were oriented parallel to the nail direction of growth. Result: Thigmotropism in part explains the patterns of orientations and shapes of fungi invading nail plates. It is probably influenced by onychochronobiology (speed of growth of the affected nails, and it governs various clinical presentations of onychomycoses.

  9. Conflict(s) of interest in peer review: its origins and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Scientific communication takes place at two registers: first, interactions with colleagues in close proximity-members of a network, school of thought or circle; second, depersonalised transactions among a potentially unlimited number of scholars can be involved (e.g., author and readers). The interference between the two registers in the process of peer review produces a drift toward conflict of interest. Three particular cases of peer review are differentiated: journal submissions, grant applications and applications for tenure. The current conflict of interest policies do not cover all these areas. Furthermore, they have a number of flaws, which involves an excessive reliance on scholars' personal integrity. Conflicts of interest could be managed more efficiently if several elements and rules of the judicial process were accepted in science. The analysis relies on both primary and secondary data with a particular focus on Canada.

  10. Oral Medication for Agitation of Psychiatric Origin: A Scoping Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinax, Samuel; Shokraneh, Farhad; Wilson, Michael P; Adams, Clive E

    2017-10-01

    Understanding more about the efficacy and safety of oral second-generation antipsychotic medications in reducing the symptoms of acute agitation could improve the treatment of psychiatric emergencies. The objective of this scoping review was to examine the evidence base underlying expert consensus panel recommendations for the use of oral second-generation antipsychotics to treat acute agitation in mentally ill patients. The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register was searched for randomized controlled trials comparing oral second-generation antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, or first-generation antipsychotics with or without adjunctive benzodiazepines, irrespective of route of administration of the drug being compared. Six articles were included in the final review. Two oral second-generation antipsychotic medications were studied across the six included trials. While the studies had relatively small sample sizes, oral second-generation antipsychotics were similarly effective to intramuscular first-generation antipsychotics in treating symptoms of acute agitation and had similar side-effect profiles. This scoping review identified six randomized trials investigating the use of oral second-generation antipsychotic medications in the reduction of acute agitation among patients experiencing psychiatric emergencies. Further research will be necessary to make clinical recommendations due to the overall dearth of randomized trials, as well as the small sample sizes of the included studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short review on the origin and countermeasure of biomass slagging in grate furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming eZhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing demand for energy consumption, biomass has been more and more important as a new type of clean renewable energy source. Biomass direct firing is the most mature and promising utilization method to date, while it allows a timely solution to slagging problems. Alkali metal elements in the biomass fuel and the ash fusion behavior, as the two major origins contributing to slagging during biomass combustion, are analyzed in this paper. The slag presents various layered structures affected by the different compositions of ash particles. Besides, the high-temperature molten material which provides a supporting effect on the skeletal structure in biomass ash was proposed to evaluate the ash fusion characteristics. In addition, numerous solutions to biomass slagging, such as additives, fuel pretreatment and biomass co-firing, were also discussed.

  12. Variations in the origin and course of the suprascapular artery: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The suprascapular artery is normally a branch of the thyrocervical trunk of the subclavian artery. During dissection of the left upper limb of a female cadaver, aged 70 years and fixed in 10% formalin solution, the suprascapular artery was observed aberrantly arising from the first part of the axillary artery. Later, it coursed obliquely behind the clavicle bone and brachial plexus to reach the suprascapular notch, where it was accompanied by the suprascapular nerve. Then, both suprascapular nerve and artery anomalously traversed beneath the transverse scapular ligament. It then irrigated the supraspinatus muscles and took part in the anastomosis around the scapula. On the contralateral side there was no abnormality. Variations in the origin and course of suprascapular artery are of immense value to orthopedic and vascular surgeons, angiographists, and anatomists.

  13. Developmental origins of chronic inflammation: a review of the relationship between birth weight and C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRosset, Leslie; Strutz, Kelly L

    2015-07-01

    The developmental origins of adult disease hypothesis suggests that the intrauterine environment may program postnatal health outcomes through mechanisms such as chronic inflammation. The purpose of this article was to review the literature on the association between infant birth weight and C-reactive protein (CRP), markers of the fetal environment and inflammation, respectively. We used PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, the citation lists of the reviewed literature, and recommendations from experts in the field to identify potential articles. Inclusion criteria for the studies, regardless of study design, included human subjects, documented or self-reported infant birth weight, and a minimum of one measurement of CRP (during childhood, adolescence, or adulthood). Several studies demonstrated a statistically significant inverse association between birth weight and CRP in adulthood, although in many cases only after controlling for markers of current adiposity. No studies significantly linked birth weight to CRP in childhood or adolescence. Longitudinal studies, including multigenerational studies, are needed to further understand whether adult CRP has origins in the fetal environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in patients with fungal keratitis and to provide evidence for diagnosis and treatment of this disease.METHODS:The clinical data of 98 cases(98 eyeswith fungal keratitis from January 2012 to July 2015 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University were retrospectively reviewed.RESULTS:The main cause for fungal keratitis was corneal injury by plants. The inappropriate use of contact lenses and glucocorticoids therapy were the next cause. Almost all of the patients had hyphae moss, pseudopodia, immune ring, and satellite signs. A few of patients had endothelial plaque and anterior chamber empyema. The majority pathogens of fungal keratitis was Fusarium spp(73.5%,followed by Aspergillus spp(13.2%,Candida spp(9.2%and others(4.1%.Sixty-five patients(65 eyestreated with 5% natamycin were cured. The condition of 15 patients was improved. Eighteen patients were invalid, in which 13 patients became better and 5 patients became worse after voriconazole was added into the therapy, leading to amniotic membrance cover in 3 patients and eyeball removal in 2 patients at last.CONCLUSION:Fusarium genus is the predominant pathogen for fungal keratitis in Jingzhou. Natamycin can be used as the preferred drug for the prevention and treatment for fungal keratitis. The clinicians should pay attention to the fungal keratitis, in order to early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  15. Adiposity and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and related health outcomes in European ethnic minorities of Asian and African origin: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Karen Jenum

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic minorities in Europe have high susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM and, in some groups, also cardiovascular disease (CVD. Pregnancy can be considered a stress test that predicts future morbidity patterns in women and that affects future health of the child. Objective: To review ethnic differences in: 1 adiposity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy; 2 future risk in the mother of obesity, T2DM and CVD; and 3 prenatal development and possible influences of maternal obesity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia on offspring's future disease risk, as relevant for ethnic minorities in Europe of Asian and African origin. Design: Literature review. Results: Maternal health among ethnic minorities is still sparsely documented. Higher pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI is found in women of African and Middle Eastern descent, and lower BMI in women from East and South Asia compared with women from the majority population. Within study populations, risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is considerably higher in many minority groups, particularly South Asians, than in the majority population. This increased risk is apparent at lower BMI and younger ages. Women of African origin have higher risk of pre-eclampsia. A GDM pregnancy implies approximately seven-fold higher risk of T2DM than normal pregnancies, and both GDM and pre-eclampsia increase later risk of CVD. Asian neonates have lower birth weights, and mostly also African neonates. This may translate into increased risks of later obesity, T2DM, and CVD. Foetal overgrowth can promote the same conditions. Breastfeeding represents a possible strategy to reduce risk of T2DM in both the mother and the child. Conclusions: Ethnic minority women in Europe with Asian and African origin and their offspring seem to be at increased risk of T2DM and CVD, both currently and in the future. Pregnancy is an important window of opportunity for short and long-term disease prevention.

  16. Advances in biosensor development for the screening of antibiotic residues in food products of animal origin - A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Valérie

    2017-04-15

    Antibiotic residues may be found in food of animal origin, since veterinary drugs are used for preventive and curative purposes to treat animals. The control of veterinary drug residues in food is necessary to ensure consumer safety. Screening methods are the first step in the control of antibiotic residues in food of animal origin. Conventional screening methods are based on different technologies, microbiological methods, immunological methods or physico-chemical methods (e.g. thin-layer chromatography, HPLC, LC-MS/MS). Screening methods should be simple, quick, inexpensive and specific, with low detection limits and high sample throughput. Biosensors can meet some of these requirements. Therefore, the development of biosensors for the screening of antibiotic residues has been increasing since the 1980s. The present review provides extensive and up-to-date findings on biosensors for the screening of antibiotic residues in food products of animal origin. Biosensors are constituted of a bioreceptor and a transducer. In the detection of antibiotic residues, even though antibodies were the first bioreceptors to be used, new kinds of bioreceptors are being developed more and more (enzymes, aptamers, MIPs); their advantages and drawbacks are discussed in this review. The different categories of transducers (electrochemical, mass-based biosensors, optical and thermal) and their potential applications for the screening of antibiotic residues in food are presented. Moreover, the advantages and drawbacks of the different types of transducers are discussed. Lastly, outlook and the future development of biosensors for the control of antibiotic residues in food are highlighted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles: a general review of the origins and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Lingling; Song, Bin; Liang, Huimin; Liu, Jia; Feng, Xiaoli; Deng, Bin; Sun, Ting; Shao, Longquan

    2016-10-31

    Due to their unique physicochemical properties, graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) are widely used in many fields, especially in biomedical applications. Currently, many studies have investigated the biocompatibility and toxicity of GFNs in vivo and in intro. Generally, GFNs may exert different degrees of toxicity in animals or cell models by following with different administration routes and penetrating through physiological barriers, subsequently being distributed in tissues or located in cells, eventually being excreted out of the bodies. This review collects studies on the toxic effects of GFNs in several organs and cell models. We also point out that various factors determine the toxicity of GFNs including the lateral size, surface structure, functionalization, charge, impurities, aggregations, and corona effect ect. In addition, several typical mechanisms underlying GFN toxicity have been revealed, for instance, physical destruction, oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammatory response, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. In these mechanisms, (toll-like receptors-) TLR-, transforming growth factor β- (TGF-β-) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) dependent-pathways are involved in the signalling pathway network, and oxidative stress plays a crucial role in these pathways. In this review, we summarize the available information on regulating factors and the mechanisms of GFNs toxicity, and propose some challenges and suggestions for further investigations of GFNs, with the aim of completing the toxicology mechanisms, and providing suggestions to improve the biological safety of GFNs and facilitate their wide application.

  18. The Fungal Genetics Stock Center: a repository for 50 years of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Fungal Genetics Stock Center (FGSC) was established in 1960 to ensure that important strains used in early genetics research were available to subsequent generations of fungal geneticists. Originally, only mutant strains were held. At present, any organism that has had its genome sequenced is a genetic system and ...

  19. Amazonian Dark Earth and its Black Carbon Particles Harbor Different Fungal Abundance and Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Lucheta, Adriano; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) is a highly fertile soil of anthropogenic origin characterized by higher amount of charred black carbon (BC). ADE is considered a fertility model, however knowledge about the fungal community structure and diversity inhabiting ADE and BC is scarce. Fungal community

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES c(~rvical spine injury outcome- a review of 101 cases treated in a tertiary referral unit. K Friielingsdorf, R N Dunn. Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event for the patient and family. It has a huge impact on society because of the intensive resources required to manage the patient in both.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. WHAT IS THE INFANT MORTALITY. RATE IN SOUTH AFRICA? THE NEED FOR IMPROVED DATA. Nadine Nannan, Debbie Bradshaw, Robert Mazur, Sim.phiwe. Maphumulo. Objectives. To review recent infant mortality and birth registration data in South Africa and to investigate geographical ...

  2. Regulatory circuitry governing fungal development, drug resistance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Rebecca S; Robbins, Nicole; Cowen, Leah E

    2011-06-01

    Pathogenic fungi have become a leading cause of human mortality due to the increasing frequency of fungal infections in immunocompromised populations and the limited armamentarium of clinically useful antifungal drugs. Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading causes of opportunistic fungal infections. In these diverse pathogenic fungi, complex signal transduction cascades are critical for sensing environmental changes and mediating appropriate cellular responses. For C. albicans, several environmental cues regulate a morphogenetic switch from yeast to filamentous growth, a reversible transition important for virulence. Many of the signaling cascades regulating morphogenesis are also required for cells to adapt and survive the cellular stresses imposed by antifungal drugs. Many of these signaling networks are conserved in C. neoformans and A. fumigatus, which undergo distinct morphogenetic programs during specific phases of their life cycles. Furthermore, the key mechanisms of fungal drug resistance, including alterations of the drug target, overexpression of drug efflux transporters, and alteration of cellular stress responses, are conserved between these species. This review focuses on the circuitry regulating fungal morphogenesis and drug resistance and the impact of these pathways on virulence. Although the three human-pathogenic fungi highlighted in this review are those most frequently encountered in the clinic, they represent a minute fraction of fungal diversity. Exploration of the conservation and divergence of core signal transduction pathways across C. albicans, C. neoformans, and A. fumigatus provides a foundation for the study of a broader diversity of pathogenic fungi and a platform for the development of new therapeutic strategies for fungal disease.

  3. Synthetic biology of fungal natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Derek J.; Valiante, Vito; Unkles, Shiela E.; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an ever-expanding field in science, also encompassing the research area of fungal natural product (NP) discovery and production. Until now, different aspects of synthetic biology have been covered in fungal NP studies from the manipulation of different regulatory elements and heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways to the engineering of different multidomain biosynthetic enzymes such as polyketide synthases or non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. The following review will cover some of the exemplary studies of synthetic biology in filamentous fungi showing the capacity of these eukaryotes to be used as model organisms in the field. From the vast array of different NPs produced to the ease for genetic manipulation, filamentous fungi have proven to be an invaluable source for the further development of synthetic biology tools. PMID:26284053

  4. Saprotrophic fungal mycorrhizal symbionts in achlorophyllous orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Florent; Perry, Brian A; Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Roy, Mélanie; Pailler, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi. They are usually considered to associate with fungi that are (1) specific of each mycoheterotrophic species and (2) mycorrhizal on surrounding green plants, which are the ultimate carbon source of the entire system. Here we review recent works revealing that some mycoheterotrophic plants are not fungal-specific, and that some mycoheterotrophic orchids associate with saprophytic fungi. A re-examination of earlier data suggests that lower specificity may be less rare than supposed in mycoheterotrophic plants. Association between mycoheterotrophic orchids and saprophytic fungi arose several times in the evolution of the two partners. We speculate that this indirectly illustrates why transition from saprotrophy to mycorrhizal status is common in fungal evolution. Moreover, some unexpected fungi occasionally encountered in plant roots should not be discounted as ‘molecular scraps’, since these facultatively biotrophic encounters may evolve into mycorrhizal symbionts in some other plants. PMID:20061806

  5. Role And Relevance Of Mast Cells In Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit eSaluja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their detrimental role in allergic diseases, mast cells (MCs are well known to be important cells of the innate immune system. In the last decade, they have been shown to contribute significantly to optimal host defense against numerous pathogens including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The contribution of MCs to the immune responses in fungal infections, however, is largely unknown. In this review, we first discuss key features of mast cell responses to pathogens in general and then summarize the current knowledge on the function of MCs in the defense against fungal pathogens. We especially focus on the potential and proven mechanisms by which MC can detect fungal infections and on possible MC effector mechanisms in protecting from fungal infections.

  6. Fungal model systems and the elucidation of pathogenicity determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Nadales, Elena; Nogueira, Maria Filomena Almeida; Baldin, Clara; Castanheira, Sónia; El Ghalid, Mennat; Grund, Elisabeth; Lengeler, Klaus; Marchegiani, Elisabetta; Mehrotra, Pankaj Vinod; Moretti, Marino; Naik, Vikram; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Oskarsson, Therese; Schäfer, Katja; Wasserstrom, Lisa; Brakhage, Axel A; Gow, Neil A R; Kahmann, Regine; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Perez-Martin, José; Di Pietro, Antonio; Talbot, Nicholas J; Toquin, Valerie; Walther, Andrea; Wendland, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Fungi have the capacity to cause devastating diseases of both plants and animals, causing significant harvest losses that threaten food security and human mycoses with high mortality rates. As a consequence, there is a critical need to promote development of new antifungal drugs, which requires a comprehensive molecular knowledge of fungal pathogenesis. In this review, we critically evaluate current knowledge of seven fungal organisms used as major research models for fungal pathogenesis. These include pathogens of both animals and plants; Ashbya gossypii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Ustilago maydis and Zymoseptoria tritici. We present key insights into the virulence mechanisms deployed by each species and a comparative overview of key insights obtained from genomic analysis. We then consider current trends and future challenges associated with the study of fungal pathogenicity. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fungal model systems and the elucidation of pathogenicity determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Nadales, Elena; Almeida Nogueira, Maria Filomena; Baldin, Clara; Castanheira, Sónia; El Ghalid, Mennat; Grund, Elisabeth; Lengeler, Klaus; Marchegiani, Elisabetta; Mehrotra, Pankaj Vinod; Moretti, Marino; Naik, Vikram; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Oskarsson, Therese; Schäfer, Katja; Wasserstrom, Lisa; Brakhage, Axel A.; Gow, Neil A.R.; Kahmann, Regine; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Perez-Martin, José; Di Pietro, Antonio; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Toquin, Valerie; Walther, Andrea; Wendland, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Fungi have the capacity to cause devastating diseases of both plants and animals, causing significant harvest losses that threaten food security and human mycoses with high mortality rates. As a consequence, there is a critical need to promote development of new antifungal drugs, which requires a comprehensive molecular knowledge of fungal pathogenesis. In this review, we critically evaluate current knowledge of seven fungal organisms used as major research models for fungal pathogenesis. These include pathogens of both animals and plants; Ashbya gossypii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Ustilago maydis and Zymoseptoria tritici. We present key insights into the virulence mechanisms deployed by each species and a comparative overview of key insights obtained from genomic analysis. We then consider current trends and future challenges associated with the study of fungal pathogenicity. PMID:25011008

  8. Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Mareike; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2017-12-01

    The fungal kingdom comprises some of the most devastating plant pathogens. Sequencing the genomes of fungal pathogens has shown a remarkable variability in genome size and architecture. Population genomic data enable us to understand the mechanisms and the history of changes in genome size and adaptive evolution in plant pathogens. Although transposable elements predominantly have negative effects on their host, fungal pathogens provide prominent examples of advantageous associations between rapidly evolving transposable elements and virulence genes that cause variation in virulence phenotypes. By providing homogeneous environments at large regional scales, managed ecosystems, such as modern agriculture, can be conducive for the rapid evolution and dispersal of pathogens. In this Review, we summarize key examples from fungal plant pathogen genomics and discuss evolutionary processes in pathogenic fungi in the context of molecular evolution, population genomics and agriculture.

  9. Consensus methods: review of original methods and their main alternatives used in public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrée, Fanny; Michel, Philippe; Salmi, Louis Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Consensus-based studies are increasingly used as decision-making methods, for they have lower production cost than other methods (observation, experimentation, modelling) and provide results more rapidly. The objective of this paper is to describe the principles and methods of the four main methods, Delphi, nominal group, consensus development conference and RAND/UCLA, their use as it appears in peer-reviewed publications and validation studies published in the healthcare literature. Methods A bibliographic search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE, Banque de Données Santé Publique (BDSP), The Cochrane Library, Pascal and Francis. Keywords, headings and qualifiers corresponding to a list of terms and expressions related to the consensus methods were searched in the thesauri, and used in the literature search. A search with the same terms and expressions was performed on Internet using the website Google Scholar. Results All methods, precisely described in the literature, are based on common basic principles such as definition of subject, selection of experts, and direct or remote interaction processes. They sometimes use quantitative assessment for ranking items. Numerous variants of these methods have been described. Few validation studies have been implemented. Not implementing these basic principles and failing to describe the methods used to reach the consensus were both frequent reasons contributing to raise suspicion regarding the validity of consensus methods. Conclusion When it is applied to a new domain with important consequences in terms of decision making, a consensus method should be first validated. PMID:19013039

  10. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  11. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  12. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain of neuropathic or ischaemic origin: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E L; Duenas, A; Holmes, M W; Papaioannou, D; Chilcott, J

    2009-03-01

    This report addressed the question 'What is the clinical and cost-effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the management of chronic neuropathic or ischaemic pain?' Thirteen electronic databases [including MEDLINE (1950-2007), EMBASE (1980-2007) and the Cochrane Library (1991-2007)] were searched from inception; relevant journals were hand-searched; and appropriate websites for specific conditions causing chronic neuropathic/ischaemic pain were browsed. Literature searches were conducted from August 2007 to September 2007. A systematic review of the literature sought clinical and cost-effectiveness data for SCS in adults with chronic neuropathic or ischaemic pain with inadequate response to medical or surgical treatment other than SCS. Economic analyses were performed to model the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of SCS in patients with neuropathic or ischaemic pain. From approximately 6000 citations identified, 11 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the clinical effectiveness review: three of neuropathic pain and eight of ischaemic pain. Trials were available for the neuropathic conditions failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I, and they suggested that SCS was more effective than conventional medical management (CMM) or reoperation in reducing pain. The ischaemic pain trials had small sample sizes, meaning that most may not have been adequately powered to detect clinically meaningful differences. Trial evidence failed to demonstrate that pain relief in critical limb ischaemia (CLI) was better for SCS than for CMM; however, it suggested that SCS was effective in delaying refractory angina pain onset during exercise at short-term follow-up, although not more so than coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for those patients eligible for that surgery. The results for the neuropathic pain model suggested that the cost-effectiveness estimates for SCS in patients with FBSS who had inadequate

  13. On the origins and domestication of the olive: a review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Cornille, Amandine

    2018-03-05

    Unravelling domestication processes is crucial for understanding how species respond to anthropogenic pressures, forecasting crop responses to future global changes and improving breeding programmes. Domestication processes for clonally propagated perennials differ markedly from those for seed-propagated annual crops, mostly due to long generation times, clonal propagation and recurrent admixture with local forms, leading to a limited number of generations of selection from wild ancestors. However, additional case studies are required to document this process more fully. The olive is an iconic species in Mediterranean cultural history. Its multiple uses and omnipresence in traditional agrosystems have made this species an economic pillar and cornerstone of Mediterranean agriculture. However, major questions about the domestication history of the olive remain unanswered. New paleobotanical, archeological, historical and molecular data have recently accumulated for olive, making it timely to carry out a critical re-evaluation of the biogeography of wild olives and the history of their cultivation. We review here the chronological history of wild olives and discuss the questions that remain unanswered, or even unasked, about their domestication history in the Mediterranean Basin. We argue that more detailed ecological genomics studies of wild and cultivated olives are crucial to improve our understanding of olive domestication. Multidisciplinary research integrating genomics, metagenomics and community ecology will make it possible to decipher the evolutionary ecology of one of the most iconic domesticated fruit trees worldwide. The olive is a relevant model for improving our knowledge of domestication processes in clonally propagated perennial crops, particularly those of the Mediterranean Basin. Future studies on the ecological and genomic shifts linked to domestication in olive and its associated community will provide insight into the phenotypic and molecular

  14. [Thalidomide: Drug of horror and last resort. A review. Part 1: Origin, molecular structure and first pattern of use.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Thornorkell

    2003-10-01

    Thalidomide was originally a hypnotic, sedative and anxiolytic drug that was first used in 1955. It was considered to have little toxicity and have smooth activity. Thalidomide was in fact poorly studied both in animals and for therapeutic purposes. It was nevertheless agressively advertised, and inter alia for use in pregnancy, and accordingly it was a much used drug. During the year 1961 it became evident that intake of thalidomide in therapeutic doses could result in severe peripheral neuritis and, when taken early in pregnancy, in horrendous damage to the fetus. Thalidomide was thus shortly afterwards generally removed from the market and its use prohibited. Nevertheless, interest rose a few years later to use thalidomide on other indications than before. This is the topic of Part 2 of this review as well as discussion of studies pertinent to the mechanisms of action of thalidomide.

  15. Traumatic bone cyst of the mandible of possible iatrogenic origin: a case report and brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosios Konstantinos

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The traumatic bone cyst (TBC is an uncommon nonepithelial lined cavity of the jaws. The lesion is mainly diagnosed in young patients most frequently during the second decade of life. The majority of TBCs are located in the mandibular body between the canine and the third molar. Clinically, the lesion is asymptomatic in the majority of cases and is often accidentally discovered on routine radiological examination usually as an unilocular radiolucent area with a "scalloping effect". The definite diagnosis of traumatic cyst is invariably achieved at surgery. Since material for histologic examination may be scant or non-existent, it is very often difficult for a definite histologic diagnosis to be achieved. We present a well documented radiographically and histopathologically atypical case of TBC involving the ramus of the mandible, which is also of possible iatrogenic origin. The literature is briefly reviewed.

  16. Darkness: A Crucial Factor in Fungal Taxol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh S. M. Soliman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal Taxol acquired lots of attention in the last few decades mainly because of the hope that fungi could be manipulated more easily than yew trees to scale up the production level of this valuable anticancer drug. Several researchers have studied diverse factors to enhance fungal Taxol production. However, up to date fungal Taxol production has never been enhanced to the commercial level. We have hypothesized that optimization of fungal Taxol production may require clear understanding of the fungal habitat in its original host plant. One major feature shared by all fungal endophytes is that they are located in the internal plant tissues where darkness is prominent; hence here the effect of light on fungal Taxol production was tested. Incubation of Taxol-producing endophytic SSM001 fungus in light prior to inoculation in Taxol production culture media showed dramatic loss of Taxol accumulation, significant reduction in Taxol-containing resin bodies and reduction in the expression of genes known to be involved in Taxol biosynthesis. The loss of Taxol production was accompanied by production of dark green pigments. Pigmentation is a fungal protection mechanism which is photoreceptor mediated and induced by light. Opsin, a known photoreceptor involved in light perception and pigment production, was identified in SSM001 by genome sequencing. SSM001 opsin gene expression was induced by white light. The results from this study indicated that the endophytic fungus SSM001 required the dark habitat of its host plant for Taxol production and hence this biosynthetic pathway shows a negative response to light.

  17. The Combination of Laser Therapy and Metal Nanoparticles in Cancer Treatment Originated From Epithelial Tissues: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Naghdi, Nafiseh; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Several methods have been employed for cancer treatment including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Today, recent advances in medical science and development of new technologies, have led to the introduction of new methods such as hormone therapy, Photodynamic therapy (PDT), treatments using nanoparticles and eventually combinations of lasers and nanoparticles. The unique features of LASERs such as photo-thermal properties and the particular characteristics of nanoparticles, given their extremely small size, may provide an interesting combined therapeutic effect. The purpose of this study was to review the simultaneous application of lasers and metal nanoparticles for the treatment of cancers with epithelial origin. A comprehensive search in electronic sources including PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct was carried out between 2000 and 2013. Among the initial 400 articles, 250 articles applied nanoparticles and lasers in combination, in which more than 50 articles covered the treatment of cancer with epithelial origin. In the future, the combination of laser and nanoparticles may be used as a new or an alternative method for cancer therapy or diagnosis. Obviously, to exclude the effect of laser's wavelength and nanoparticle's properties more animal studies and clinical trials are required as a lack of perfect studies.

  18. Epidemiology of fungal infections and risk factors in newborn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Manzoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections among newborn babies is increasing, owing mainly to the in­creased ability to care and make survive immature infants at higher specific risk for fungal infections. The risk is higher in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight, in babies receiving total parenteral nutrition, in neonates with limited barrier effect in the gut, or with central venous catheter or other devices where fungal biofilms can originate. Also neonates receiving broad spectrum antibiotics, born through caesarian section or non-breastfed can feature an increased, specific risk. Most fungal infections in neonatology occur in premature children, are of nosocomial origin, and are due to Candida species. Colonization is a preliminary step, and some factors must be considered for the diagnosis and grading process: the iso­lation site, the number of colonized sites, the intensity of colonization, and the Candida subspecies. The most complicated patients are at greater risk of fungal infections, and prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy should often be considered. A consistent decisional tree in neonatology is yet to be defined, but some efforts have been made in order to identify characteristics that should guide the prophylaxis or treatment choices. A negative blood culture and the absence of symptoms aren’t enough to rule out the diagnosis of fungal infections in newborn babies. Similarly, laboratory tests have been validated only for adults. The clinical judgement is of utmost importance in the diagnostic process, and should take into account the presence of clinical signs of infection, of a severe clinical deterioration, as well as changes in some laboratory tests, and also the presence and characteristics of a pre-existing fungal colonization.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v14i1S.856

  19. Submicronic fungal bioaerosols: high-resolution microscopic characterization and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nilsen, Terje; Synnes, Ole; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James; Eduard, Wijnand

    2014-11-01

    Submicronic particles released from fungal cultures have been suggested to be additional sources of personal exposure in mold-contaminated buildings. In vitro generation of these particles has been studied with particle counters, eventually supplemented by autofluorescence, that recognize fragments by size and discriminate biotic from abiotic particles. However, the fungal origin of submicronic particles remains unclear. In this study, submicronic fungal particles derived from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum cultures grown on agar and gypsum board were aerosolized and enumerated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A novel bioaerosol generator and a fungal spores source strength tester were compared at 12 and 20 liters min(-1) airflow. The overall median numbers of aerosolized submicronic particles were 2 × 10(5) cm(-2), 2.6 × 10(3) cm(-2), and 0.9 × 10(3) cm(-2) for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. A. fumigatus released significantly (P < 0.001) more particles than A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum. The ratios of submicronic fragments to larger particles, regardless of media type, were 1:3, 5:1, and 1:2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Spore fragments identified by the presence of rodlets amounted to 13%, 2%, and 0% of the submicronic particles released from A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Submicronic particles with and without rodlets were also aerosolized from cultures grown on cellophane-covered media, indirectly confirming their fungal origin. Both hyphae and conidia could fragment into submicronic particles and aerosolize in vitro. These findings further highlight the potential contribution of fungal fragments to personal fungal exposure. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Roles of Rack1 Proteins in Fungal Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi cause diseases on various organisms. Despite their differences in life cycles, fungal pathogens use well-conserved proteins and pathways to regulate developmental and infection processes. In this review, we focus on Rack1, a multifaceted scaffolding protein involved in various biological processes. Rack1 is well conserved in eukaryotes and plays important roles in fungi, though limited studies have been conducted. To accelerate the study of Rack1 proteins in fungi, we review the functions of Rack1 proteins in model and pathogenic fungi and summarize recent progress on how Rack1 proteins are involved in fungal pathogenesis.

  1. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  2. Bacterial - Fungal Interactions: ecology, mechanisms and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, A; Bonito, G; Uehling, J; Paoletti, M; Becker, M; Bindschedler, S; Hacquard, S; Hervé, V; Labbé, J; Lastovetsky, O A; Mieszkin, S; Millet, L J; Vajna, B; Junier, P; Bonfante, P; Krom, B P; Olsson, S; Elsas, J D van; Wick, L Y

    2018-02-19

    Fungi and bacteria are found living together in a wide variety of environments. Their interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. A large number of fungal and bacterial families are engaged in complex interactions that lead to critical behavioural shifts of the microorganisms ranging from mutualism to pathogenicity. The importance of bacterial-fungal interactions (BFI) in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology has led to the emergence of a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field that combines highly diverse approaches including molecular biology, genomics, geochemistry, chemical and microbial ecology, biophysics and ecological modelling. In this review, we discuss most recent advances that underscore the roles of BFI across relevant habitats and ecosystems. A particular focus is placed on the understanding of BFI within complex microbial communities and in regards of the metaorganism concept. We also discuss recent discoveries that clarify the (molecular) mechanisms involved in bacterial-fungal relationships, and the contribution of new technologies to decipher generic principles of BFI in terms of physical associations and molecular dialogues. Finally, we discuss future directions for researches in order to catalyse a synergy within the BFI research area and to resolve outstanding questions.

  3. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of

  5. Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensah-Attipoe, Jacob [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Saari, Sampo [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Veijalainen, Anna-Maria; Pasanen, Pertti [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Keskinen, Jorma [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Leskinen, Jari T.T. [SIB Labs, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1E, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Reponen, Tiina, E-mail: reponeta@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Intact spores and submicrometer size fragments are released from moldy building materials during growth and sporulation. It is unclear whether all fragments originate from fungal growth or if small pieces of building materials are also aerosolized as a result of microbial decomposition. In addition, particles may be formed through nucleation from secondary metabolites of fungi, such as microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). In this study, we used the elemental composition of particles to characterize the origin of submicrometer fragments released from materials contaminated by fungi. Particles from three fungal species (Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum), grown on agar, wood and gypsum board were aerosolized using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) at three air velocities (5, 16 and 27 m/s). Released spores (optical size, d{sub p} ≥ 0.8 μm) and fragments (d{sub p} ≤ 0.8 μm) were counted using direct-reading optical aerosol instruments. Particles were also collected on filters, and their morphology and elemental composition analyzed using scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) coupled with an Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Among the studied factors, air velocity resulted in the most consistent trends in the release of fungal particles. Total concentrations of both fragments and spores increased with an increase in air velocity for all species whereas fragment–spore (F/S) ratios decreased. EDX analysis showed common elements, such as C, O, Mg and Ca, for blank material samples and fungal growth. However, N and P were exclusive to the fungal growth, and therefore were used to differentiate biological fragments from non-biological ones. Our results indicated that majority of fragments contained N and P. Because we observed increased release of fragments with increased air velocities, nucleation of MVOCs was likely not a relevant process in the formation of fungal fragments. Based

  6. Chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis by Paecilomyces variotii: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognised entity, both in normal and immunocompromised individuals. The recent increase in mycotic nasal and paranasal infections is due to both improved diagnostic research and an increase in the conditions that favour fungal infection. Aspergillus, Candida, and Mucor species are the most common causative agents of fungal sinusitis, but infection with lesser known species have been reported across the world infrequently. This article reviews and presents a case report of chronic fungal sinusitis in an immunocompetent adult male infected with Paecilomyces variotii which is opportunistic soil saprophyte, uncommon to humans.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and saprotrophic fungal diversity are linked to different tree community attributes in a field-based tree experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhu H; Williams, Laura J; Vincent, John B; Stefanski, Artur; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Messier, Christian; Paquette, Alain; Gravel, Dominique; Reich, Peter B; Kennedy, Peter G

    2016-08-01

    Exploring the link between above- and belowground biodiversity has been a major theme of recent ecological research, due in large part to the increasingly well-recognized role that soil microorganisms play in driving plant community processes. In this study, we utilized a field-based tree experiment in Minnesota, USA, to assess the effect of changes in plant species richness and phylogenetic diversity on the richness and composition of both ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungal communities. We found that ectomycorrhizal fungal species richness was significantly positively influenced by increasing plant phylogenetic diversity, while saprotrophic fungal species richness was significantly affected by plant leaf nitrogen content, specific root length and standing biomass. The increasing ectomycorrhizal fungal richness associated with increasing plant phylogenetic diversity was driven by the combined presence of ectomycorrhizal fungal specialists in plots with both gymnosperm and angiosperm hosts. Although the species composition of both the ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungal communities changed significantly in response to changes in plant species composition, the effect was much greater for ectomycorrhizal fungi. In addition, ectomycorrhizal but not saprotrophic fungal species composition was significantly influenced by both plant phylum (angiosperm, gymnosperm, both) and origin (Europe, America, both). The phylum effect was caused by differences in ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition, while the origin effect was attributable to differences in community heterogeneity. Taken together, this study emphasizes that plant-associated effects on soil fungal communities are largely guild-specific and provides a mechanistic basis for the positive link between plant phylogenetic diversity and ectomycorrhizal fungal richness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  9. The Diversity of Anti-Microbial Secondary Metabolites Produced by Fungal Endophytes: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Raizada, Manish N.

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit host plants without causing disease and are reported to be reservoirs of metabolites that combat microbes and other pathogens. Here we review diverse classes of secondary metabolites, focusing on anti-microbial compounds, synthesized by fungal endophytes including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, aliphatic compounds, polyketides, and peptides from the interdisciplinary perspectives of biochemistry, genetics, fungal biology, host plant biology, huma...

  10. Lung epithelium: barrier immunity to inhaled fungi and driver of fungal-associated allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Darin L; Klein, Bruce S

    2017-12-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment. The epithelium that lines our airways is the first point of contact with the frequent encounter of inhaled fungi. Consequently, the lung epithelium has evolved behaviors that instruct the earliest immune events to resist fungal penetration. Although the epithelium efficiently assists in immunity to invasive fungi, it also can be inappropriately triggered, to the detriment of the host, by normally innocuous fungi or fungal components. Thus, there is a tipping point of protective immunity against fungal pathogens versus inflammatory disease caused by an exuberant immune response to harmless fungal antigens. This review will discuss several aspects of barrier immunity to pulmonary fungal infection, as well as situations where fungal exposure leads to allergic asthma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. CT evaluation in children with hepatosplenic and renal fungal infection after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Li Yuhua; Zhu Min; Jiang Hua; Zou Jiayin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To understand the incidence of hepatosplenic and/or renal fungal infection after chemotherapy in children, and to recognize the CT findings and clinical manifestation. Methods: Clinical materials and CT images of 106 patients with leukemia or lymphoma were reviewed retrospectively. 8 cases of hepatosplenic and/or renal fungal infection after chemotherapy were selected, and CT findings of pre- and post anti-fungal therapy were analyzed. Results: Among these 8 cases, the liver was involved in 6, spleen in 6, and kidney in 51 CT findings were multiple round low density lesions. After contrast media administration, there were no or slight enhancement in the lesions. Conclusion: The incidence of hepatosplenic and/or renal fungal infection after chemotherapy in children is relatively high. CT can clearly demonstrate the hepatosplenic and/or renal fungal infection. Correct and prompt diagnosis of the hepatosplenic and/or renal fungal infection can help ensure the process of chemotherapy. (authors)

  12. DFVF: database of fungal virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Yao, Bo; Zhang, Chi

    2012-01-01

    Fungal pathogens cause various diseases for plant and animal hosts. Despite the extensive impact of fungi on human health and life, the threats posed by emerging fungal pathogens are poorly understood. Specifically, there exist few fungal virulence gene databases, which prevent effective bioinformatics studies on fungal pathogens. Therefore, we constructed a comprehensive online database of known fungal virulence factors, which collected 2058 pathogenic genes produced by 228 fungal strains from 85 genera. This database creates a pivotal platform capable of stimulating and facilitating further bench studies on fungal pathogens. Database URL: http://sysbio.unl.edu/DFVF/ PMID:23092926

  13. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... includes places like chicken coops and caves. Wear gloves when handling materials such as soil, moss, or ... MMWR: Recommendations and Reports 2000;49:1-128. Top of Page Related Links Fungal Meningitis National Center ...

  14. Fungal infections of the mucous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2010-01-01

    A clinical review of three potentially severe fungal diseases, which are characterized in many cases by mucosal involvement, is presented. They are paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and mucormycosis. Mucosal involvement for paracoccidioidomycosis and rhinocerebral mucormycosis is frequent. Thus, oral involvement may provide early clue for diagnosis. In paracoccidioidomycosis, the mucosal lesion classically shows superficial ulcers with granular appearance and hemorrhagic points, usually on lips, palate, and jugal mucosa. In mucormycosis, necrosis of the palate followed for purulent discharge is a hallmark of rhinocerebral disease. Treatment with amphotericin B desoxycholate or the new second-generation triazoles is highly efficacious.

  15. Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Harry; Leducq, Valentin; Aschard, Hugues; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Jegou, Sarah; Landman, Cecilia; Cohen, David; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bourrier, Anne; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Cosnes, Jacques; Seksik, Philippe; Langella, Philippe; Skurnik, David; Richard, Mathias L; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Objective The bacterial intestinal microbiota plays major roles in human physiology and IBDs. Although some data suggest a role of the fungal microbiota in IBD pathogenesis, the available data are scarce. The aim of our study was to characterise the faecal fungal microbiota in patients with IBD. Design Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota of 235 patients with IBD and 38 healthy subjects (HS) was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. The obtained sequences were analysed using the Qiime pipeline to assess composition and diversity. Bacterial and fungal taxa associated with clinical parameters were identified using multivariate association with linear models. Correlation between bacterial and fungal microbiota was investigated using Spearman's test and distance correlation. Results We observed that fungal microbiota is skewed in IBD, with an increased Basidiomycota/Ascomycota ratio, a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increased proportion of Candida albicans compared with HS. We also identified disease-specific alterations in diversity, indicating that a Crohn's disease-specific gut environment may favour fungi at the expense of bacteria. The concomitant analysis of bacterial and fungal microbiota showed a dense and homogenous correlation network in HS but a dramatically unbalanced network in IBD, suggesting the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom alterations. Conclusions Besides bacterial dysbiosis, our study identifies a distinct fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD characterised by alterations in biodiversity and composition. Moreover, we unravel here disease-specific inter-kingdom network alterations in IBD, suggesting that, beyond bacteria, fungi might also play a role in IBD pathogenesis. PMID:26843508

  16. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  17. A parts list for fungal cellulosomes revealed by comparative genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haitjema, Charles H.; Gilmore, Sean P.; Henske, John K.; Solomon, Kevin V.; de Groot, Randall; Kuo, Alan; Mondo, Stephen J.; Salamov, Asaf A.; LaButti, Kurt; Zhao, Zhiying; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Barry, Kerrie; Brewer, Heather M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wright, Aaron T.; Hainaut, Matthieu; Boxma, Brigitte; van Alen, Theo; Hackstein, Johannes H. P.; Henrissat, Bernard; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; O' Malley, Michelle A.

    2017-05-26

    Cellulosomes are large, multi-protein complexes that tether plant biomass degrading enzymes together for improved hydrolysis1. These complexes were first described in anaerobic bacteria where species specific dockerin domains mediate assembly of enzymes onto complementary cohesin motifs interspersed within non-catalytic protein scaffolds1. The versatile protein assembly mechanism conferred by the bacterial cohesin-dockerin interaction is now a standard design principle for synthetic protein-scale pathways2,3. For decades, analogous structures have been reported in the early branching anaerobic fungi, which are known to assemble by sequence divergent non-catalytic dockerin domains (NCDD)4. However, the enzyme components, modular assembly mechanism, and functional role of fungal cellulosomes remain unknown5,6. Here, we describe the comprehensive set of proteins critical to fungal cellulosome assembly, including novel, conserved scaffolding proteins unique to the Neocallimastigomycota. High quality genomes of the anaerobic fungi Anaeromyces robustus, Neocallimastix californiae and Piromyces finnis were assembled with long-read, single molecule technology to overcome their repeat-richness and extremely low GC content. Genomic analysis coupled with proteomic validation revealed an average 320 NCDD-containing proteins per fungal strain that were overwhelmingly carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), with 95 large fungal scaffoldins identified across 4 genera that contain a conserved amino acid sequence repeat that binds to NCDDs. Fungal dockerin and scaffoldin domains have no similarity to their bacterial counterparts, yet several catalytic domains originated via horizontal gene transfer with gut bacteria. Though many catalytic domains are shared with bacteria, the biocatalytic activity of anaerobic fungi is expanded by the inclusion of GH3, GH6, and GH45 enzymes in the enzyme complexes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the fungal cellulosome is an evolutionarily

  18. Compartimentalization for chylothorax originating from the abdomen after extended esophagectomy. Report of two cases and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omloo, J. M. T.; Lagarde, S. M.; Vrouenraets, B. C.; Busch, O. R. C.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chyle leakage from the chest after extended esophagectomy originating from the abdomen is a rare complication with various clinical presentations and treatments. METHODS: Two cases of chylothorax originating from the abdomen are discussed and the literature concerning diagnosis,

  19. The soil resistome: a critical review on antibiotic resistance origins, ecology and dissemination potential in telluric bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesme, Joseph; Simonet, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a large reservoir of microbial diversity and the majority of antimicrobial compounds used today in human and veterinary health care have been isolated from soil microorganisms. The Darwinian hypothesis of an 'arms-shields race' between antibiotic producers and resistant strains is often cited to explain antibiotic resistance gene determinants (ARGD) origins and diversity. ARGD abundance and antibiotic molecule exposure are, however, not systematically linked, and many other factors can contribute to resistance gene emergence, selection and dissemination in the environment. Soil is a heterogeneous habitat and represents a broad spectrum of different ecological niches. Soil harbours a large genetic diversity at small spatial scale, favouring exchange of genetic materials by means of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) that will contribute to ARGD dissemination between bacteria and eventually acquisition by pathogen genomes, therefore threatening antibiotic therapies. Our current knowledge on the extent of the soil resistome abundance and diversity has been greatly enhanced since the metagenomic revolution and help of high-throughput sequencing technologies. Different ecological hypotheses explaining their high prevalence in soil and questioning their transfer rate to pathogens, in respect to these recent experimental results, will be discussed in the present review. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sample size determinations in original research protocols for randomised clinical trials submitted to UK research ethics committees: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Timothy; Berger, Ursula; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2013-03-21

    To assess the completeness of reporting of sample size determinations in unpublished research protocols and to develop guidance for research ethics committees and for statisticians advising these committees. Review of original research protocols. Unpublished research protocols for phase IIb, III, and IV randomised clinical trials of investigational medicinal products submitted to research ethics committees in the United Kingdom during 1 January to 31 December 2009. Completeness of reporting of the sample size determination, including the justification of design assumptions, and disagreement between reported and recalculated sample size. 446 study protocols were reviewed. Of these, 190 (43%) justified the treatment effect and 213 (48%) justified the population variability or survival experience. Only 55 (12%) discussed the clinical importance of the treatment effect sought. Few protocols provided a reasoned explanation as to why the design assumptions were plausible for the planned study. Sensitivity analyses investigating how the sample size changed under different design assumptions were lacking; six (1%) protocols included a re-estimation of the sample size in the study design. Overall, 188 (42%) protocols reported all of the information to accurately recalculate the sample size; the assumed withdrawal or dropout rate was not given in 177 (40%) studies. Only 134 of the 446 (30%) sample size calculations could be accurately reproduced. Study size tended to be over-estimated rather than under-estimated. Studies with non-commercial sponsors justified the design assumptions used in the calculation more often than studies with commercial sponsors but less often reported all the components needed to reproduce the sample size calculation. Sample sizes for studies with non-commercial sponsors were less often reproduced. Most research protocols did not contain sufficient information to allow the sample size to be reproduced or the plausibility of the design assumptions to

  1. Fungal Infections in Patients with Walled-off Pancreatic Necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werge, Mikkel; Roug, Stine; Novovic, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    drainage and necrosectomy for WON, treated in a tertiary referral center was reviewed. Results Between 2005 and 2013, fungal infection in WON was documented in 57 (46%) of 123 patients. The most common isolates at first positive culture were Candida albicans (55%) and Candida glabrata (20%). Thirty...

  2. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  3. Evaluation of pulmonary fungal diseases in patients with fungal rhino-sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Badawy

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Universal screening for pulmonary fungal infection especially in patients with fungal rhino sinusitis is highly recommended to treat it early, decrease morbidity and mortality of the diseases.

  4. New insights into the formation of fungal aromatic polyketides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jason M; Townsend, Craig A

    2010-12-01

    Fungal aromatic polyketides constitute a large family of bioactive natural products and are synthesized by the non-reducing group of iterative polyketide synthases (PKSs). Their diverse structures arise from selective enzymatic modifications of reactive, enzyme-bound poly-β-keto intermediates. How iterative PKSs control starter unit selection, polyketide chain initiation and elongation, intermediate folding and cyclization, selective redox or modification reactions during assembly, and product release are central mechanistic questions underlying iterative catalysis. This Review highlights recent insights into these questions, with a particular focus on the biosynthetic programming of fungal aromatic polyketides, and draws comparisons with the allied biosynthetic processes in bacteria.

  5. Modulation of Human Immune Response by Fungal Biocontrol Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovas, Cibele; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago A.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lima-Santos, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Although the vast majority of biological control agents is generally regarded as safe for humans and environment, the increased exposure of agriculture workers, and consumer population to fungal substances may affect the immune system. Those compounds may be associated with both intense stimulation, resulting in IgE-mediated allergy and immune downmodulation induced by molecules such as cyclosporin A and mycotoxins. This review discusses the potential effects of biocontrol fungal components on human immune responses, possibly associated to infectious, inflammatory diseases, and defective defenses. PMID:28217107

  6. Fungal and plant gene expression in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Lanfranco, Luisa

    2006-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) are a unique example of symbiosis between two eukaryotes, soil fungi and plants. This association induces important physiological changes in each partner that lead to reciprocal benefits, mainly in nutrient supply. The symbiosis results from modifications in plant and fungal cell organization caused by specific changes in gene expression. Recently, much effort has gone into studying these gene expression patterns to identify a wider spectrum of genes involved. We aim in this review to describe AM symbiosis in terms of current knowledge on plant and fungal gene expression profiles.

  7. Fungal melanin: what do we know about structure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Nosanchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of melanin significantly enhances the virulence of many important human pathogenic fungi. Despite fungal melanin’s importance in human disease, as well as melanin’s contribution to the ability of fungi to survive in diverse hostile environments, the structure of melanin remains unsolved. Nevertheless, ongoing research efforts have progressively revealed several notable structural characteristics of this enigmatic pigment, which will be the focus of this review. These compositional and organizational insights could further our ability to develop novel therapeutic approaches to combat fungal disease and enhance our understanding of how melanin is inserted into the cell wall.

  8. Fungal type III polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nonaka, Takamasa; Fujii, Isao

    2014-10-01

    This article covers the literature on fungal type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) published from 2005 to 2014. Since the first discovery of fungal type III PKS genes in Aspergillus oryzae, reported in 2005, putative genes for type III PKSs have been discovered in fungal genomes. Compared with type I PKSs, type III PKSs are much less abundant in fungi. However, type III PKSs could have some critical roles in fungi. This article summarizes the studies on fungal type III PKS functional analysis, including Neurospora crassa ORAS, Aspergillus niger AnPKS, Botrytis cinerea BPKS and Aspergillus oryzae CsyA and CsyB. It is mostly in vitro analysis using their recombinant enzymes that has revealed their starter and product specificities. Of these, CsyB was found to be a new kind of type III PKS that catalyses the coupling of two β-keto fatty acyl CoAs. Homology modelling reported in this article supports the importance of the capacity of the acyl binding tunnel and active site cavity in fungal type III PKSs.

  9. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  10. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flachowsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF, water (water footprint, WF and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF during the production process. The wide range of different land and water inputs per unit feed between various studies largely influences the results. Further influencing factors are species and categories of animals that produce edible protein, their yields and the feeding of animals. Coproducts with no or low humanly edible fractions and grassland as feed contribute to a lower need for arable land and lower LF, WF and CF. The most efficient land use or the lowest LF per kilogram of edible protein was estimated for higher milk and egg yields; the highest LF values were calculated for beef, followed by pork. The lowest WF and CF were calculated for edible protein of chicken meat and eggs. Edible protein from ruminants is mostly characterized by a higher CF because of the high greenhouse gas potential of methane produced in the rumen. A key prerequisite for further progress in this field is the harmonization of data collection and calculation methods. Alternatives to partial or complete replacement of protein of terrestrial animals, such as marine animals, insects, cell cultures, single-cell proteins or simulated animal products from plants, as well as changing eating patterns and reducing food losses are mentioned as further potential ways for more efficient feed production. For all those dealing with plant or animal breeding and cultivation and all those who are working along the whole food production chain, it is a major challenge to enhance the production of more food for more people with, at the same time, less, limited resources and

  11. Tracing the origin of dissolved silicon transferred from various soil-plant systems towards rivers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-T. Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si released as H4SiO4 by weathering of Si-containing solid phases is partly recycled through vegetation before its land-to-rivers transfer. By accumulating in terrestrial plants to a similar extent as some major macronutrients (0.1–10% Si dry weight, Si becomes largely mobile in the soil-plant system. Litter-fall leads to a substantial reactive biogenic silica pool in soil, which contributes to the release of dissolved Si (DSi in soil solution. Understanding the biogeochemical cycle of silicon in surface environments and the DSi export from soils into rivers is crucial given that the marine primary bio-productivity depends on the availability of H4SiO4 for phytoplankton that requires Si. Continental fluxes of DSi seem to be deeply influenced by climate (temperature and runoff as well as soil-vegetation systems. Therefore, continental areas can be characterized by various abilities to transfer DSi from soil-plant systems towards rivers. Here we pay special attention to those processes taking place in soil-plant systems and controlling the Si transfer towards rivers. We aim at identifying relevant geochemical tracers of Si pathways within the soil-plant system to obtain a better understanding of the origin of DSi exported towards rivers. In this review, we compare different soil-plant systems (weathering-unlimited and weathering-limited environments and the variations of the geochemical tracers (Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si in DSi outputs. We recommend the use of biogeochemical tracers in combination with Si mass-balances and detailed physico-chemical characterization of soil-plant systems to allow better insight in the sources and fate of Si in these biogeochemical systems.

  12. Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Susanne; Gupta, Vijai K.; Dahms, Tanya E. S.; Silva, Roberto N.; Singh, Harikesh B.; Upadhyay, Ram S.; Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Nayak S, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Fungi interact with plants in various ways, with each interaction giving rise to different alterations in both partners. While fungal pathogens have detrimental effects on plant physiology, mutualistic fungi augment host defence responses to pathogens and/or improve plant nutrient uptake. Tropic growth towards plant roots or stomata, mediated by chemical and topographical signals, has been described for several fungi, with evidence of species-specific signals and sensing mechanisms. Fungal partners secrete bioactive molecules such as small peptide effectors, enzymes and secondary metabolites which facilitate colonization and contribute to both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships. There has been tremendous advancement in fungal molecular biology, omics sciences and microscopy in recent years, opening up new possibilities for the identification of key molecular mechanisms in plant–fungal interactions, the power of which is often borne out in their combination. Our fragmentary knowledge on the interactions between plants and fungi must be made whole to understand the potential of fungi in preventing plant diseases, improving plant productivity and understanding ecosystem stability. Here, we review innovative methods and the associated new insights into plant–fungal interactions. PMID:26591004

  13. Allergic fungal airway disease: pathophysiologic and diagnostic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, Kerry; Fairs, Abbie; Pashley, Catherine H; Wardlaw, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Fungal spores are ubiquitously present in indoor and outdoor air. A number can act as aeroallergens in Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-sensitized individuals and some thermotolerant fungi germinate in the lung where they can cause a combined allergic and infective stimulus leading to a number of clinical presentations characterized by evidence of lung damage. We discuss which biomarkers are useful in helping to guide diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of allergic fungal airway disease (AFAD). Diagnostic biomarkers, such as specific IgEs and fungal culture, for AFAD are limited by sensitivity, although this may be improved with novel agents such as specific IgEs to fungal components and quantitative PCR. Total IgE and hypereosinophilia are nonspecific and do not clearly relate to disease activity. High attenuation mucus and proximal bronchiectasis are specific, albeit insensitive markers of AFAD. Biomarkers that predict prognosis and treatment response are yet to be defined. This review summarizes the fungi involved and the current debate regarding the diagnostic criteria to define fungal-associated lung disease. We advocate the phasing out of the term allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and the use of a more inclusive term such as AFAD, together with a more liberal set of criteria based largely on IgE sensitization to thermotolerant fungi, which identifies those patients at risk of developing lung damage.

  14. Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Susanne; Gupta, Vijai K; Dahms, Tanya E S; Silva, Roberto N; Singh, Harikesh B; Upadhyay, Ram S; Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Nayak S, Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Fungi interact with plants in various ways, with each interaction giving rise to different alterations in both partners. While fungal pathogens have detrimental effects on plant physiology, mutualistic fungi augment host defence responses to pathogens and/or improve plant nutrient uptake. Tropic growth towards plant roots or stomata, mediated by chemical and topographical signals, has been described for several fungi, with evidence of species-specific signals and sensing mechanisms. Fungal partners secrete bioactive molecules such as small peptide effectors, enzymes and secondary metabolites which facilitate colonization and contribute to both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships. There has been tremendous advancement in fungal molecular biology, omics sciences and microscopy in recent years, opening up new possibilities for the identification of key molecular mechanisms in plant-fungal interactions, the power of which is often borne out in their combination. Our fragmentary knowledge on the interactions between plants and fungi must be made whole to understand the potential of fungi in preventing plant diseases, improving plant productivity and understanding ecosystem stability. Here, we review innovative methods and the associated new insights into plant-fungal interactions. © FEMS 2015.

  15. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  16. Directed evolution of fungal laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

    2011-04-01

    Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary efforts have been made to engineer fungal laccases by directed evolution and semi-rational approaches to improve their functional expression or stability. All these studies have taken advantage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous host, not only to secrete the enzyme but also, to emulate the introduction of genetic diversity through in vivo DNA recombination. Here, we discuss all these endeavours to convert fungal laccases into valuable biomolecular platforms on which new functions can be tailored by directed evolution.

  17. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    equalizer and tasseled cap transformation were employed to the image data. RGB to IHS conversions and color combination of the original image data have also been made. The Vegetation index, NDVI, has also been used to measure the presence and state of vegetation so as to distinguish vegetated areas from others.

  18. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-28

    Mar 28, 2013 ... food production in sub-Saharan Africa coun. (Sanchez, 2010). Soil is the most precious vital natural resource and it must be mana. Original Research .... Exchangeable K and Na were measured by fl photometer. Exchangeable acidity determined by saturating the samples with. KCl solution and titrated with ...

  19. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    questionnaires and analyzed using cross tab revealed the transfer of ... informal enterprises with the rural economy. Original Research. 95 ... ise from the formal sectors ew (1994) accepts these is study of the dynamics of lared the informal tailoring inputs from intermediary of and this is economic of inputs. According to.

  20. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... great value in Ethiopian socio-economic growt requires small capital, promote inter linkages as it is a base for medium and large enterprises, increased domestic saving investment. Also they help for bal development provision of goods and services. Original Research. 123. 3327 (Online) esearch Journal.

  1. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    , fatty makeup of compost and raised the tempera of composting dairy manure and bedding by average of 3.4°C during an 8-wk developm period. BD compost preparation are used to. Original Research. 32. 3327 (Online) esearch Journal.

  2. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-25

    Jun 25, 2013 ... the feeding practices (Kassahun, 2000). This involves the use of fodder bank, f trees, agro-industrial by-products such as, seed cake and urea to overcome CP shor. (ILCA, 1990). Supplementation of poor q roughage feed with suitable energy and p. Original Research. 38. 3327 (Online) esearch Journal.

  3. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-24

    Mar 24, 2013 ... approach is to create a pseudo alignment by taking random positions of the original alignment. Some columns of the alignment ... Table 1: Sequences selected for MSA: Inform contains the organism name from wh sequences. Sequence format. Sequence number. Sequence 1. Sequence 2. Sequence 3.

  4. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...... that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  5. Fungal diversity in major oil-shale mines in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Wang, Wenxing; Xue, Xiangxin; Cao, Chengyou; Zhang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    As an insufficiently utilized energy resource, oil shale is conducive to the formation of characteristic microbial communities due to its special geological origins. However, little is known about fungal diversity in oil shale. Polymerase chain reaction cloning was used to construct the fungal ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) clone libraries of Huadian Mine in Jilin Province, Maoming Mine in Guangdong Province, and Fushun Mine in Liaoning Province. Pure culture and molecular identification were applied for the isolation of cultivable fungi in fresh oil shale of each mine. Results of clone libraries indicated that each mine had over 50% Ascomycota (58.4%-98.9%) and 1.1%-13.5% unidentified fungi. Fushun Mine and Huadian Mine had 5.9% and 28.1% Basidiomycota, respectively. Huadian Mine showed the highest fungal diversity, followed by Fushun Mine and Maoming Mine. Jaccard indexes showed that the similarities between any two of three fungal communities at the genus level were very low, indicating that fungi in each mine developed independently during the long geological adaptation and formed a community composition fitting the environment. In the fresh oil-shale samples of the three mines, cultivable fungal phyla were consistent with the results of clone libraries. Fifteen genera and several unidentified fungi were identified as Ascomycota and Basidiomycota using pure culture. Penicillium was the only genus found in all three mines. These findings contributed to gaining a clear understanding of current fungal resources in major oil-shale mines in China and provided useful information for relevant studies on isolation of indigenous fungi carrying functional genes from oil shale. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in organ transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  7. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Gets Fungal Infections? People living with HIV/AIDS Organ Transplant Patients Cancer Patients Hospitalized Patients Stem Cell Transplant Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis ...

  8. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    introdution of defects during the synthesis proces growth of the films. But, still the origin of ferromag is in debate. ... se (Mn), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) ndidates for variety of practical application due to their spin of ... hexhydrate (Zn (NO3)26H2O), mangane hydrate (Co(NO3)2.6H2O), cobalt nitrate he.

  9. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Selbach Scheffel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing’s original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endo-genous Cushing’s syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease.

  10. Coupled Metagenomic and Chemical Analyses of Degrading Fungal Necromass and Implications for Fungal contributions to Stable Soil Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton-Warburton, L. M.; Schreiner, K. M.; Morgan, B. S. T.; Schultz, J.; Blair, N. E.

    2016-12-01

    Fungi comprise a significant portion of total soil biomass, the turnover of which must represent a dominant flux within the soil carbon cycle. Fungal organic carbon (OC) can turn over on time scales of days to months, but this process is poorly understood. Here, we examined temporal changes in the chemical and microbial community composition of fungal necromass during a 2-month decomposition experiment in which Fusarium avenaceum (a common saprophyte) was exposed to a natural soil microbial community. Over the course of the experiment, residual fungal necromass was harvested and analyzed using FTIR and thermochemolysis-GCMS to examine chemical changes in the tissue. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from tissues, amplified with barcoded ITS primers, and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform to examine changes in microbial community composition. Up to 80% of the fungal necromass turned over in the first week. This rapid degradation phase corresponded to colonization of the necromass by known chitinolytic soil fungi including Mortierella species. Members of the Zygomycota and Ascomycota were among the dominant fungal groups involved in degradation with very small contributions from Basidiomycota. At the end of the 2-month degradation, only 15% of the original necromass remained. The residual material was rich in amide and C-O moieties which is consistent with previous work predicting that peptidoglycans are the main residual product from microbial tissue degradation. Straight-chain fatty acids exhibited varying degradation profiles, with some fatty acids (e.g. C16, C18:1) degrading more rapidly than bulk tissue while others maintained steady concentrations relative to bulk OC (C18) or increased in concentration throughout the degradation sequence (C24). These results indicate that the turnover of fungal necromass has the potential to rapidly and significantly influence a variety of soil OC properties including C/N ratios, lipid biomarker

  11. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  12. Hidden killers: human fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, G.D.; Denning, D.W.; Gow, N.A.; Levitz, S.M.; Netea, M.G.; White, T.C.

    2012-01-01

    Although fungal infections contribute substantially to human morbidity and mortality, the impact of these diseases on human health is not widely appreciated. Moreover, despite the urgent need for efficient diagnostic tests and safe and effective new drugs and vaccines, research into the

  13. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  14. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  15. Sexual Reproduction of Human Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A.; Dyer, Paul S.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25085958

  16. Fungal proteomics: from identification to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Sean

    2011-08-01

    Some fungi cause disease in humans and plants, while others have demonstrable potential for the control of insect pests. In addition, fungi are also a rich reservoir of therapeutic metabolites and industrially useful enzymes. Detailed analysis of fungal biochemistry is now enabled by multiple technologies including protein mass spectrometry, genome and transcriptome sequencing and advances in bioinformatics. Yet, the assignment of function to fungal proteins, encoded either by in silico annotated, or unannotated genes, remains problematic. The purpose of this review is to describe the strategies used by many researchers to reveal protein function in fungi, and more importantly, to consolidate the nomenclature of 'unknown function protein' as opposed to 'hypothetical protein' - once any protein has been identified by protein mass spectrometry. A combination of approaches including comparative proteomics, pathogen-induced protein expression and immunoproteomics are outlined, which, when used in combination with a variety of other techniques (e.g. functional genomics, microarray analysis, immunochemical and infection model systems), appear to yield comprehensive and definitive information on protein function in fungi. The relative advantages of proteomic, as opposed to transcriptomic-only, analyses are also described. In the future, combined high-throughput, quantitative proteomics, allied to transcriptomic sequencing, are set to reveal much about protein function in fungi. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fungal Exposure and Asthma: IgE and Non-IgE-Mediated Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Reponen, Tiina; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor environments and have been associated with respiratory disease including childhood and adult asthma. A growing body of evidence from human and animal studies has revealed a link between fungal exposure, especially indoor fungal exposure, with asthma initiation, persistence, and exacerbation. Despite the overwhelming evidence linking mold exposure and asthma, the mechanistic basis for the association has remained elusive. It is now clear that fungi need not be intact to impart negative health effects. Fungal components and fungal fragments are biologically active and contribute to asthma development and severity. Recent mechanistic studies have demonstrated that fungi are potent immunomodulators and have powerful effects on asthma independent of their potential to act as antigens. This paper will review the connection between fungal exposure and asthma with a focus on the immunological mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  18. Anomalous origin of coronary artery: the role of multislice CT Angiography: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, Daniel Rocha; Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira; Siqueira, Maria Helena Albernaz

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous origin of coronary arteries is a relatively rare entity and can present different clinical forms. Recently, CT angiography of the coronary arteries have demonstrated an important role in the diagnosis and management of these anomalies. We present the case of a young female without significant comorbidities who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest, being revived by a team of customer service mobile emergency. After completion of multislice CT angiography of the coronary arteries was observed anomalous origin of left main coronary artery in the right coronary artery, no signs of extrinsic compression. Patient received a defibrillator and had an uneventful follow-up performed. Multislice CT angiography is minimally invasive diagnostic methods to detect the origin and trajectory of the coronary arteries, allowing an alternative to cardiac catheterization for evaluation of patients with anomalous origin of coronary arteries. (author)

  19. Anomalous origin of coronary artery: the role of multislice CT Angiography: a case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Daniel Rocha; Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira; Siqueira, Maria Helena Albernaz, E-mail: marciovlbarros@uol.com.br [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Anomalous origin of coronary arteries is a relatively rare entity and can present different clinical forms. Recently, CT angiography of the coronary arteries have demonstrated an important role in the diagnosis and management of these anomalies. We present the case of a young female without significant comorbidities who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest, being revived by a team of customer service mobile emergency. After completion of multislice CT angiography of the coronary arteries was observed anomalous origin of left main coronary artery in the right coronary artery, no signs of extrinsic compression. Patient received a defibrillator and had an uneventful follow-up performed. Multislice CT angiography is minimally invasive diagnostic methods to detect the origin and trajectory of the coronary arteries, allowing an alternative to cardiac catheterization for evaluation of patients with anomalous origin of coronary arteries. (author)

  20. Fungal chitinases: diversity, mechanistic properties and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Lukas; Zach, Simone; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena

    2012-01-01

    Chitin derivatives, chitosan and substituted chito-oligosaccharides have a wide spectrum of applications ranging from medicine to cosmetics and dietary supplements. With advancing knowledge about the substrate-binding properties of chitinases, enzyme-based production of these biotechnologically relevant sugars from biological resources is becoming increasingly interesting. Fungi have high numbers of glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases with different substrate-binding site architectures. As presented in this review, the large diversity of fungal chitinases is an interesting starting point for protein engineering. In this review, recent data about the architecture of the substrate-binding clefts of fungal chitinases, in connection with their hydrolytic and transglycolytic abilities, and the development of chitinase inhibitors are summarized. Furthermore, the biological functions of chitinases, chitin and chitosan utilization by fungi, and the effects of these aspects on biotechnological applications, including protein overexpression and autolysis during industrial processes, are discussed in this review.

  1. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  2. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    A Peer-reviewed Official Internation. Science, T. Sci. Technol. A. The Prevalence of Academic towards its Practical Habits: Imp. Department of Psychology, Ba. Abstract. The issue of quality ... STAR Journal, Wollega University. All Rights Reserved. ..... order to clearly understand the reason behind the gap observed the ...

  3. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    A Peer-reviewed Official Internat. Sci. Techn. Phytochemical Screening and C. Triterpeniod from the. Kebede Taye1*, Kibret Fikadu. 1Department of Chemistry, College of Na. 2Department of Chemistry, College of Na. Abstract. Lantana camara, commonly called wild or red sag widely spread species of the genus Lantana.

  4. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Abstract. There is a paucity of information on tetanus in working do factors that influence the prognosis of affected animals donkeys admitted to the clinic for intensive treatment a. Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, between tetanus were reviewed. The cases were grouped into su data of the two groups were ...

  5. New insights on the development of fungal vaccines: from immunity to recent challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha P Medici

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are emerging as a major problem in part due to high mortality associated with systemic infections, especially in the case of immunocompromised patients. With the development of new treatments for diseases such as cancer and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic, the number of immunosuppressed patients has increased and, as a consequence, also the number of invasive fungal infections has increased. Several studies have proposed new strategies for the development of effective fungal vaccines. In addition, better understanding of how the immune system works against fungal pathogens has improved the further development of these new vaccination strategies. As a result, some fungal vaccines have advanced through clinical trials. However, there are still many challenges that prevent the clinical development of fungal vaccines that can efficiently immunise subjects at risk of developing invasive fungal infections. In this review, we will discuss these new vaccination strategies and the challenges that they present. In the future with proper investments, fungal vaccines may soon become a reality.

  6. New insights on the development of fungal vaccines: from immunity to recent challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Natasha P; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Fungal infections are emerging as a major problem in part due to high mortality associated with systemic infections, especially in the case of immunocompromised patients. With the development of new treatments for diseases such as cancer and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic, the number of immunosuppressed patients has increased and, as a consequence, also the number of invasive fungal infections has increased. Several studies have proposed new strategies for the development of effective fungal vaccines. In addition, better understanding of how the immune system works against fungal pathogens has improved the further development of these new vaccination strategies. As a result, some fungal vaccines have advanced through clinical trials. However, there are still many challenges that prevent the clinical development of fungal vaccines that can efficiently immunise subjects at risk of developing invasive fungal infections. In this review, we will discuss these new vaccination strategies and the challenges that they present. In the future with proper investments, fungal vaccines may soon become a reality.

  7. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  8. Fungal Sex: The Basidiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marco A; Bakkeren, Guus; Sun, Sheng; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-06-01

    Fungi of the Basidiomycota, representing major pathogen lineages and mushroom-forming species, exhibit diverse means to achieve sexual reproduction, with particularly varied mechanisms to determine compatibilities of haploid mating partners. For species that require mating between distinct genotypes, discrimination is usually based on both the reciprocal exchange of diffusible mating pheromones, rather than sexes, and the interactions of homeodomain protein signals after cell fusion. Both compatibility factors must be heterozygous in the product of mating, and genetic linkage relationships of the mating pheromone/receptor and homeodomain genes largely determine the complex patterns of mating-type variation. Independent segregation of the two compatibility factors can create four haploid mating genotypes from meiosis, referred to as tetrapolarity. This condition is thought to be ancestral to the basidiomycetes. Alternatively, cosegregation by linkage of the two mating factors, or in some cases the absence of the pheromone-based discrimination, yields only two mating types from meiosis, referred to as bipolarity. Several species are now known to have large and highly rearranged chromosomal regions linked to mating-type genes. At the population level, polymorphism of the mating-type genes is an exceptional aspect of some basidiomycete fungi, where selection under outcrossing for rare, intercompatible allelic variants is thought to be responsible for numbers of mating types that may reach several thousand. Advances in genome sequencing and assembly are yielding new insights by comparative approaches among and within basidiomycete species, with the promise to resolve the evolutionary origins and dynamics of mating compatibility genetics in this major eukaryotic lineage.

  9. Fungal Phytotoxins in Sustainable Weed Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Maurizio; Boari, Angela; Casella, Francesca; Zonno, Maria Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Fungal phytotoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by plant pathogenic fungi during host-pathogen interactions. They have received considerable particular attention for elucidating disease etiology, and consequently to design strategies for disease control. Due to wide differences in their chemical structures, these toxic metabolites have different ecological and environmental roles and mechanisms of action. This review aims at summarizing the studies on the possible use of these metabolites as tools in biological and integrated weed management, e.g. as: novel and environmentally friendly herbicides; lead for novel compounds; sources of novel mechanisms of action. Moreover, the limiting factors for utilizing those metabolites in practice will also be briefly discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Racial, religious, and national origin intermarriage in the U.S.: review of selected theory, method, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretser, G A; Leon, J J

    1985-01-01

    "This article summarizes the intermarriage literature with special reference to books and articles in the social sciences. The literature is partitioned into theoretical approaches, conceptualization and operationalization, computational formulas used in the reporting of intermarriage, general findings on the extent and types of intermarriage, [and] correlates of and attitudes toward racial, religious and national origin intermarriage. The authors conclude that a variety of theories and methods have [been] and continue to be employed to investigate this phenomenon. Among the findings reported are that racial intermarriages are least prevalent and national origin intermarriages the most prevalent in the United States." excerpt

  11. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Ndip, Roland N.; Clarke, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential. PMID:22272147

  12. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.

  13. Volatile compounds in honey: a review on their involvement in aroma, botanical origin determination and potential biomedical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Ndip, Roland N; Clarke, Anna M

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey's botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey's aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.

  14. Fungal keratitis: The Aravind experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajna, Venkatesh N; Prajna, Lalitha; Muthiah, Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Research becomes very significant and meaningful when it addresses a significant public health problem of a region. Fungal keratitis is a serious problem affecting the agrarian poor and hence requires attention from public health specialists. The approach to a public health issue should focus not only on treatment but also prevention or at least show a significant thrust to reduce the morbidity of the problem. At our institution, we have developed a special interest in fungal keratitis and tried to study it in a multitude of aspects. As we put the pieces of the puzzle together, we believe that interest will be rekindled among policymakers, clinicians, microbiologists, pharmaceutical industry, and basic scientists to work together to join forces and take up an integrative approach to managing this problem. It is also believed that the article underscores the need and importance of having a focused approach to ensuring a successful career in clinical research. PMID:29044053

  15. Optical properties of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Adverdi; V-Hernandez, Alejandra; Rudamas, Carlos; Dreyer, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    It was already reported by B. Dreyer at al. [1] that all fungal structures, both intra- and extra-radical fluoresced under blue light excitation regardless of their state (dead or alive). The source of the so called autofluorescence appears to be localized in the fungal cell wall. This supports the use of photoluminescence for the evaluation of AM colonization. However, the interpretation of these results is still in discussion [1-4]. In this work, arbuscular mycorrhizal spores were isolated from the rhizosphere of mango (Mangifera indica L.) plants by the method of wet sieving and decanting of Gerdemann and Nicolson [5] and studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our experimental setup consists of an epifluorescence microscope (EM) coupled to a CCD-spectrometer through an arrangement of a home-made-telescope + fiber optic. This experimental setup allows the capture of images of the mycorrhizal structures (as usual in a standard epifluorescence microscope) combined with measurements of their corresponding emission bands. The preliminary results based on images obtained by standard EM do not clearly show that the emission is originated in the fungal cell walls as reported in Ref. 1. On the other hand, a very broad emission band in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum was observed in these spores by exciting at 450-490 nm and 300- 380 nm. We obtain a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of around 200 nm for this emission band whichis centered at 515 nm. This broad band seems to be composed of two narrower bands peaked around 494 and 547 nm and with FWHM of 50 nm and 150 nm, respectively. The profile of the observed emission band is in good agreement with the bands reported in Ref. 1 for vesicles, arbuscules and spores measured using the λ-Scan of a confocal laser scanning microscope. However, our results for spores show that the maxima of the narrower bands are shifted to higher energies in comparison to the corresponding bands observed in Ref. 1

  16. Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases

    OpenAIRE

    Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary e...

  17. Fungal inhibitory lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ström, Katrin

    2005-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms that have been used for centuries to prepare and improve storage of food and for ensiling of different crops for animal feed. This thesis explores the possibility of using LAB to inhibit growth of spoilage fungi in food and feed products. LAB isolates, collected from plant material or dairy products, were screened for antifungal activity in a dual culture assay. Strains with antifungal activity were identified and the fungal inhibitory activity wa...

  18. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The fungal community structure of barley malts from diverse geographical regions correlates with malt quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Bowman, John P; Stewart, Doug C; Evans, David E

    2015-12-23

    Malt is a preferred base for fermentations that produce beer or whisky. Barley for malt is grown under diverse environments in different geographical locations. Malt provides an ecological niche for a varied range of microorganisms with both positive and negative effects on its quality for brewing. Little information exists in the literature on the microbial community structure of Australian malt as well as broader global geographical differences in the associated fungal and bacterial communities. The aims of the present study were to compare the bacterial and fungal community structures of Australian commercial malt with its international counterparts originating from different geographical regions using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) fingerprinting and clone library analyses of ribosomal RNA genes. Further, the relationship between malt associated microbial communities and conventional malt quality parameters was also compared. Results showed that differences in fungal communities of malts from different geographical location were more pronounced than bacterial communities. TRFLP analysis discriminated high quality commercial malts with low fungal loads from malts deliberately infected with fungal inocula (Fusarium/Penicillium). Malt moisture, beta-amylase, α-amylase and limit dextrinase contents showed significant correlations with fungal community structure. This investigation concluded that fungal community structure was more important to subsequent malt quality outcomes than bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A structural overview of GH61 proteins – fungal cellulose degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lo Leggio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a spurt of activities in the elucidation of the molecular function of a class of proteins with great potential in biomass degradation. GH61 proteins are of fungal origin and were originally classified in family 61 of the glycoside hydrolases. From the beginning they were strongly suspected to be involved in cellulose degradation because of their expression profiles, despite very low detectable endoglucanase activities. A major breakthrough came from structure determination of the first members, establishing the presence of a divalent metal binding site and a similarity to bacterial proteins involved in chitin degradation. A second breakthrough came from the identification of cellulase boosting activity dependent on the integrity of the metal binding site. Finally very recently GH61 proteins were demonstrated to oxidatively cleave crystalline cellulose in a Cu and reductant dependant manner. This mini-review in particular focuses on the contribution that structure elucidation has made in the understanding of GH61 molecular function and reviews the currently known structures and the challenges remaining ahead for exploiting this new class of enzymes to the full.

  1. Non-Aspergillus fungal infections in chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotis, John; Pana, Zoe Dorothea; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2013-07-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a congenital immunodeficiency, characterised by significant infections due to an inability of phagocyte to kill catalase-positive organisms including certain fungi such as Aspergillus spp. Nevertheless, other more rare fungi can cause significant diseases. This report is a systematic review of all published cases of non-Aspergillus fungal infections in CGD patients. Analysis of 68 cases of non-Aspergillus fungal infections in 65 CGD patients (10 females) published in the English literature. The median age of CGD patients was 15.2 years (range 0.1-69), 60% of whom had the X-linked recessive defect. The most prevalent non-Aspergillus fungal infections were associated with Rhizopus spp. and Trichosporon spp. found in nine cases each (13.2%). The most commonly affected organs were the lungs in 69.9%. In 63.2% of cases first line antifungal treatment was monotherapy, with amphotericin B formulations being the most frequently used antifungal agents in 45.6% of cases. The overall mortality rate was 26.2%. Clinicians should take into account the occurrence of non-Aspergillus infections in this patient group, as well as the possibility of a changing epidemiology in fungal pathogens. Better awareness and knowledge of these pathogens can optimise antifungal treatment and improve outcome in CGD patients. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Serious fungal infections in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, S M; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age. Amongst about 21.8 million women aged 15-50 years, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (≥4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 1.3 million (3,169/100,000 females). Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 4,127 cases of candidaemia, and 619 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Amongst the survivors of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Egypt in 2012, 319 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) are likely, a prevalence of 1,005 post-TB and a total prevalence estimate of 3,015 CPA patients in all. Asthma is common in Egypt, affecting 9.4% of adults, 5.35 million, and so ABPA and SAFS were estimated in around 162/100,000 and 214/100,000 respectively. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 495 patients following leukaemia therapy, there are an estimated 37 cases in renal and liver transplant recipients, and an estimated 132 patients develop IA in the context of lung cancer. Amongst 641,000 COPD admissions to hospital each year, 8,337 patients develop IA. The total HIV-infected population is small, with an estimated 6,500 patients, 2,500 not on antiretroviral therapy. Amongst HIV-infected patients, 38 (0.6%) cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 125 (1.9%) cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated each year. Fungal keratitis is common, with 28-55% (mean 40%) of corneal infections being fungal, an estimated total of 11,550 cases. The present study indicates

  3. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  4. A giant myxoma originating from the aortic valve causing severe left ventricular tract obstruction: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Edvin; Ademaj, Fadil; Kajo, Efrosina; Baboci, Arben

    2015-04-16

    The left ventricular localization of a myxoma is very rare, usually arising from the interventricular septum close to the left ventricular outflow tract, the mitral valve, the ventricular wall and extremely rarely the aortic valve. A 13-year-old male was admitted due to dyspnea and angina. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with a mean gradient of 58 mmHg, and a mobile mass measuring 65×25 mm originating from the ventricular surface of the aortic valve was identified. The patient underwent urgent surgical excision and aortic valve replacement. Histopathological examination of the mass confirmed the diagnosis of a myxoma. In conclusion, a myxoma originating from the aortic valve remains a very rare localization. Total resection associated with aortic valve replacement seems to offer an excellent outcome.

  5. The role of effectors and host immunity in plant–necrotrophic fungal interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuli; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Jinling; Liu, Wende; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Fungal diseases pose constant threats to the global economy and food safety. As the largest group of plant fungal pathogens, necrotrophic fungi cause heavy crop losses worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of the interaction between necrotrophic fungi and plants are complex and involve sophisticated recognition and signaling networks. Here, we review recent findings on the roles of phytotoxin and proteinaceous effectors, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and small RNAs from necrot...

  6. A fruitful decade for fungal polyketides from 2007 to 2016: antimicrobial activity, chemotaxonomy and chemodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hidayat; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Schulz, Barbara; Steinert, Michael; Khan, Ajmal; Green, Ivan R; Ahmed, Ishtiaq

    2017-09-01

    The last three decades have shown that the fungi can be 'biofactories' of novel, bioactive secondary metabolites that produce numerous natural products with novel skeletons and biological activities. Particularly in the last 10 years, large numbers of antimicrobial fungal secondary metabolites have been discovered. This review provides an overview of key, defining developments of the last 10 years regarding the discovery of antimicrobial activity, chemotaxonomy and chemodiversity of fungal polyketides.

  7. Fungal thigmotropism in onychomycosis and in a clear hydrogel pad model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Quatresooz, P

    2007-01-01

    Thigmotropism is a biological characteristic corresponding to the directional growth of cells following topographical guidance cues. This behavior has been shown experimentally with fungal hyphae of both dermatophytes and nondermatophyte molds, as well as with the mycelial phase of the dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. We presently document this phenomenon using histomycology in onychomycoses of various fungal origins. This mechanism is involved in the invasive phase of the pathogen or opportunistic fungi, and it probably governs various clinical aspects of onychomycoses. We incidentally disclosed fungal invasions of hydrogel pads. Thigmotropism can in part explain the diversity of orientations and shapes of fungi invading nail plates. The same phenomenon was disclosed inside hydrogel pads. As this material is transparent and easy to cut for microscopic examination, fungal thigmotropism is conveniently explored by this way. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus can complete its sexual cycle during a pathogenic association with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chaoyang; Tada, Yasuomi; Dong, Xinnian; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-06-14

    Cryptococcus is a globally distributed human fungal pathogen that primarily afflicts immunocompromised individuals. How and why this human fungal pathogen associates with plants and how this environmental niche influences its life cycle remains a mystery. We established Cryptococcus-Arabidopsis and Cryptococcus-Eucalyptus systems and discovered that Cryptococcus proliferates and mates on plant surfaces. Mating efficiency of C. gattii was markedly enhanced on plants and myo-inositol and indole acetic acid were specific plant products that stimulated mating. On Arabidopsis, dwarfing and chlorosis were observed following infection with a fungal mixture of two opposite mating-type strains, but not with either mating-type alone. This infection process is countered by the plant jasmonate-mediated defense mechanism. These findings reveal that Cryptococcus can parasitically interact with plants to complete its sexual cycle, which may impact an understanding of the origin and evolution of both plant and animal fungal pathogens in nature.

  9. A review on the origin and spread of deleterious mutants of the beta-globin gene in Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S K; Talukder, G

    2001-01-01

    Deleterious mutations of the human beta-globin gene are responsible for beta-thalassaemia and other haemoglobinopathies, which are the most common genetic diseases in Indian populations. A highly heterogeneous distribution of those mutations is observed in India and certain mutations are restricted to some extent to particular groups only. The reasons behind the geographical clustering and origin of the mutations in India is a highly debated issue and the evidence is conflicting. Our present article aims at tracing the origin of the deleterious beta-globin mutation and evaluates the role of different evolutionary forces responsible for the spread and present distribution of those mutations in Indian populations, using data from molecular biology and statistical methods. Mutations are generated essentially randomly, but "hot-spot" sites for mutation are reported for the beta-globin gene cluster, indicating sequence dependency of mutation. A single origin of a deleterious beta-globin mutation, followed by recombination (in a hot spot region) and/or interallelic gene conversion (within beta-globin gene) through time is the most plausible hypothesis to explain the association of those mutations with multiple haplotype backgrounds and frameworks. It is suggested that India is the place of origin of HbE and HbD mutations and that they dispersed to other parts of the would by migration. HbS mutants present in Indian populations are not of Middle East origin but rather a fresh mutation is the probable explanation for the prevalence among tribal groups. beta-thalassaemia represents a heterogeneous group of mutant alleles in India. Five common and twelve rare mutations have been reported in variable frequencies among different Indian populations. Gene flow of those mutant alleles from different populations of the world by political, military and commercial interactions possibly accounts for the heterogenous nature of beta-thalassaemia among Indians. A multiple allelic

  10. Tracing the origin of Arctic driftwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Lena; Tegel, Willy; Eggertsson, Ólafur; Schweingruber, Fritz Hans; Blanchette, Robert; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Gärtner, Holger; Büntgen, Ulf

    2013-03-01

    Arctic environments, where surface temperatures increase and sea ice cover and permafrost depth decrease, are very sensitive to even slight climatic variations. Placing recent environmental change of the high-northern latitudes in a long-term context is, however, complicated by too short meteorological observations and too few proxy records. Driftwood may represent a unique cross-disciplinary archive at the interface of marine and terrestrial processes. Here, we introduce 1445 driftwood remains from coastal East Greenland and Svalbard. Macroscopy and microscopy were applied for wood anatomical classification; a multi-species subset was used for detecting fungi; and information on boreal vegetation patterns, circumpolar river systems, and ocean current dynamics was reviewed and evaluated. Four conifer (Pinus, Larix, Picea, and Abies) and three deciduous (Populus, Salix, and Betula) genera were differentiated. Species-specific identification also separated Pinus sylvestris and Pinus sibirica, which account for 40% of all driftwood and predominantly originate from western and central Siberia. Larch and spruce from Siberia or North America represents 26% and 18% of all materials, respectively. Fungal colonization caused different levels of driftwood staining and/or decay. Our results demonstrate the importance of combining wood anatomical knowledge with insight on boreal forest composition for successfully tracing the origin of Arctic driftwood. To ultimately reconstruct spatiotemporal variations in ocean currents, and to better quantify postglacial uplift rates, we recommend consideration of dendrochronologically dated material from many more circumpolar sites.

  11. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  12. [Non-coding RNA in fungi--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Luo, Yuping; Li, Siguang

    2013-08-04

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) existing widely in many living organisms are functional RNA molecules, function directly as structural or regulatory RNAs in organisms. Although large and diverse populations of ncRNAs have been extensively studied and well understood in animals and plants, few reports could be found about ncRNAs in fungi. Recently, with the development of modern biological techniques, a number of ncRNAs have been identified in fungi, including snoRNA-derived RNAs, long non-coding RNAs, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), dsRNA Killer viruses, and novel classes of ncRNAs discovered in filamentous fungi. These ncRNAs play important roles in gene transcription and translation, RNA processing and modifying, chromatin structure, and even fungal pathogenicity. Therefore, studies on ncRNAs in fungi may shed light on the regulatory system of gene expression and the characteristics of fungal growth, and even provide some clues towards understanding pathogenic mechanisms of pathogenic fungi, which will contribute to the treatment of fungal diseases. Here, we reviewed the discovery of fungal ncRNAs, their origins and processing, classification, and biological functions, aiming to establish a theoretical foundation and basis for deep understanding of fungal ncRNAs in future.

  13. A plant pathology perspective of fungal genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Janneke; Steenkamp, Emma T; Dreyer, Léanne L; Roets, Francois; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    The majority of plant pathogens are fungi and many of these adversely affect food security. This mini-review aims to provide an analysis of the plant pathogenic fungi for which genome sequences are publically available, to assess their general genome characteristics, and to consider how genomics has impacted plant pathology. A list of sequenced fungal species was assembled, the taxonomy of all species verified, and the potential reason for sequencing each of the species considered. The genomes of 1090 fungal species are currently (October 2016) in the public domain and this number is rapidly rising. Pathogenic species comprised the largest category (35.5 %) and, amongst these, plant pathogens are predominant. Of the 191 plant pathogenic fungal species with available genomes, 61.3 % cause diseases on food crops, more than half of which are staple crops. The genomes of plant pathogens are slightly larger than those of other fungal species sequenced to date and they contain fewer coding sequences in relation to their genome size. Both of these factors can be attributed to the expansion of repeat elements. Sequenced genomes of plant pathogens provide blueprints from which potential virulence factors were identified and from which genes associated with different pathogenic strategies could be predicted. Genome sequences have also made it possible to evaluate adaptability of pathogen genomes and genomic regions that experience selection pressures. Some genomic patterns, however, remain poorly understood and plant pathogen genomes alone are not sufficient to unravel complex pathogen-host interactions. Genomes, therefore, cannot replace experimental studies that can be complex and tedious. Ultimately, the most promising application lies in using fungal plant pathogen genomics to inform disease management and risk assessment strategies. This will ultimately minimize the risks of future disease outbreaks and assist in preparation for emerging pathogen outbreaks.

  14. Fungal Endocarditis: Update on Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid; Lee, Justin Z; Low, See-Wei; Desai, Hem; Lee, Kwan S; Al Mohajer, Mayar

    2016-10-01

    Fungal endocarditis is an extremely debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. are the most common isolated organisms in fungal endocarditis. It is most prevalent in patients who are immunosuppressed and intravenous drug users. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, which are indistinguishable from bacterial endocarditis, hence a high index of suspicion is required for pursuing diagnosis. Diagnosis of fungal endocarditis can be very challenging: most of the time, blood cultures are negative or take a long time to yield growth. Fungal endocarditis mandates an aggressive treatment strategy. A medical and surgical combined approach is the cornerstone of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fungal Microbiota in Chronic Airway Inflammatory Disease and Emerging Relationships with the Host Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract is a complex system that is inhabited by niche-specific communities of microbes including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These complex microbial assemblages are in constant contact with the mucosal immune system and play a critical role in airway health and immune homeostasis. Changes in the composition and diversity of airway microbiota are frequently observed in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS, cystic fibrosis, allergy, and asthma. While the bacterial microbiome of the upper and lower airways has been the focus of many recent studies, the contribution of fungal microbiota to inflammation is an emerging research interest. Within the context of allergic airway disease, fungal products are important allergens and fungi are potent inducers of inflammation. In addition, murine models have provided experimental evidence that fungal microbiota in peripheral organs, notably the gastrointestinal (GI tract, influence pulmonary health. In this review, we explore the role of the respiratory and GI microbial communities in chronic airway inflammatory disease development with a specific focus on fungal microbiome interactions with the airway immune system and fungal-bacterial interactions that likely contribute to inflammatory disease. These findings are discussed in the context of clinical and immunological features of fungal-mediated disease in CRS, allergy, and asthmatic patients. While this field is still nascent, emerging evidence suggests that dysbiotic fungal and bacterial microbiota interact to drive or exacerbate chronic airway inflammatory disease.

  16. Current ecological understanding of fungal-like pathogens of fish: what lies beneath?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Elie Gozlan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasingly sophisticated microbiological techniques, and long after the first discovery of microbes, basic knowledge is still lacking to fully appreciate the ecological importance of microbial parasites in fish. This is likely due to the nature of their habitats as many species of fish suffer from living beneath turbid water away from easy recording. However, fishes represent key ecosystem services for millions of people around the world and the absence of a functional ecological understanding of viruses, prokaryotes, and small eukaryotes in the maintenance of fish populations and of their diversity represents an inherent barrier to aquatic conservation and food security. Among recent emerging infectious diseases responsible for severe population declines in plant and animal taxa, fungal and fungal-like microbes have emerged as significant contributors. Here, we review the current knowledge gaps of fungal and fungal-like parasites and pathogens in fish and put them into an ecological perspective with direct implications for the monitoring of fungal fish pathogens in the wild, their phylogeography as well as their associated ecological impact on fish populations. With increasing fish movement around the world for farming, releases into the wild for sport fishing and human-driven habitat changes, it is expected, along with improved environmental monitoring of fungal and fungal-like infections, that the full extent of the impact of these pathogens on wild fish populations will soon emerge as a major threat to freshwater biodiversity.

  17. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush.

  18. Impact of x-ray screening programmes for active tuberculosis in homeless populations: a systematic review of original studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis prevalence is generally low in industrialized countries, but many cities now operate surveillance programmes to actively screen for tuberculosis in known risk groups including homeless people. While several studies have reported on individual screening programmes, this study is the first known systematic review specifically looking at chest x-ray screening programmes for tuberculosis in homeless populations. Systematic review of relevant studies published in the last 20 years using the PRISMA checklist. Fourteen studies were reviewed: 12 cross-sectional studies, 1 retrospective cohort study and 1 'data-linkage' study. The studies were heterogenous in terms of the objectives, measured outcomes and methodological quality. Active tuberculosis prevalence was found to be higher in homeless populations and screening programmes appear to identify tuberculosis earlier, reduce prevalence and transmission, and increase treatment compliance. Active x-ray surveillance programmes in homeless communities appear to be cost-effective in reducing prevalence within the homeless population particularly in related strains and may have some benefits over passive finding. While there is a need for high-quality research to further assess the impact of these programmes, this study has outlined the benefits and limitations of existing programmes and included recommendations to achieve maximum coverage, uptake and cost-benefit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Speculations on the origin of life and thermophily: Review of available information on reverse gyrase suggests that hyperthermophilic procaryotes are not so primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick; Confalonier, Fabrice; Charbonnier, Franck; Duguet, Michel

    1995-06-01

    All present-day hyperthermophiles studied so far (eitherBacteria orArchaea) contain a unique DNA topoisomerase, reverse gyrase, which probably helps to stabilize genomic DNA at high temperature. Herein the data relating this enzyme is reviewed and discussed from the perspective of the nature of the last detectable common ancestor and the origin of life. The sequence of the gene encoding reverse gyrase from an archaeon,Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, suggests that this enzyme contains both a helicase and a topoisomerase domains (Confalonieriet al.,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 1993, 90, 4735). Accordingly, it has been proposed that reverse gyrase originated by the fusion of DNA helicase and DNA topoisomerase genes. If reverse gyrase is essential for life at high temperature, its composite structure suggests that DNA helicases and topoisomerases appeared independently and first evolved in a mesophilic world. Such scenario contradicts the hypothesis that a direct link connects present day hyperthermophiles to a hot origin of life. We discuss different patterns for the early cellular evolution in which reverse gyrase appeared either before the emergence of the last common ancestor ofArchaea, Bacteria andEucarya, or in a lineage common to the two procaryotic domains. The latter scenario could explain why all today hyperthermophiles are procaryotes.

  20. Spectral Characterization of Fungal Metabolites in Aqueous Medium with Humus Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Khundzhua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is targeted to confirm participation of microscopic fungi in transformation of humus substances in aquatic environments. The research is focused on the spectroscopic study of the collection of fungal strains with different pigmentation of mycelium. Spectral properties of fungal metabolites were measured and compared to that of natural aquatic nonliving organic matter and commercial humus substances in aqueous solutions. The experiments revealed that the effect of microscopic fungi growing in the culture medium with added humate appeared as changes in the humic-type fluorescence: its characteristics became more similar to that of nonliving organic matter in natural waters than to original humate preparation. The experiments demonstrated degradation of coal-originated humate due to microbial activity into compounds of smaller molecular size and increased heterogeneity. We resume that transformation of humus substances by fungal cultures can be monitored and characterized using spectral measurements.

  1. Fungal transmission of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R N

    1996-01-01

    Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study.

  2. Immune response to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, R D

    1989-01-01

    In general, fungi are saprophytes that are well adapted to grow in nature supported by diverse nutritional substrates. For fungi, in contrast to many other microorganisms that infect humans, parasitism is an accidental phenomenon rather than an obligatory requirement for survival. Thus, with progressive improvement in our capabilities to prolong survival of patients with global defects in host defense mechanisms, clinical experience suggests that human tissues may support growth of numerous species of saprophytic fungi that share the capacity to grow at 37 degrees C. Normally, however, a broad array of natural and acquired host defense mechanisms make the occurrence of progressive, systemic, life-threatening mycoses extremely rare events. When one or another of these host defense mechanisms is compromised, one of a variety of significant fungal infections may then progress. Mycoses may be broadly categorized into those controlled largely by natural cellular defenses vs. acquired cell-mediated immunity. Notwithstanding data that permit such general classification of host factors controlling one or another invasive mycosis, the diverse structural and antigenic properties of individual fungi create unique patterns of infections in individual, characteristic host settings. Thus, while some broad generalizations are possible, definition of predisposing factors for specific individual mycoses (and, ultimately, prospects for corrective immunotherapy) requires careful characterization of diverse features of fungal forms mediating divergent immune responses.

  3. Optimal Fungal Space Searching Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenova, Elitsa; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Fu, Eileen; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that fungi use an efficient natural algorithm for searching the space available for their growth in micro-confined networks, e.g., mazes. This natural "master" algorithm, which comprises two "slave" sub-algorithms, i.e., collision-induced branching and directional memory, has been shown to be more efficient than alternatives, with one, or the other, or both sub-algorithms turned off. In contrast, the present contribution compares the performance of the fungal natural algorithm against several standard artificial homologues. It was found that the space-searching fungal algorithm consistently outperforms uninformed algorithms, such as Depth-First-Search (DFS). Furthermore, while the natural algorithm is inferior to informed ones, such as A*, this under-performance does not importantly increase with the increase of the size of the maze. These findings suggest that a systematic effort of harvesting the natural space searching algorithms used by microorganisms is warranted and possibly overdue. These natural algorithms, if efficient, can be reverse-engineered for graph and tree search strategies.

  4. Fungal pathogens-a sweet and sour treat for toll-like receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Christelle; Kuchler, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Hundred-thousands of fungal species are present in our environment, including normal colonizers that constitute part of the human microbiota. The homeostasis of host-fungus interactions encompasses efficient fungal sensing, tolerance at mucosal surfaces, as well as antifungal defenses. Decrease in host immune fitness or increase in fungal burden may favor pathologies, ranging from superficial mucocutaneous diseases to invasive life-threatening fungal infections. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential players in this balance, due to their ability to control both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes upon recognition of fungal-specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Certain members of the TLR family participate to the initial recognition of fungal PAMPs on the cell surface, as well as inside phagosomes of innate immune cells. Active signaling cascades in phagocytes ultimately enable fungus clearance and the release of cytokines that shape and instruct other innate immune cells and the adaptive immune system. Some TLRs cooperate with other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (e.g., C-type lectins and Galectins), thus allowing for a tailored immune response. The spatio-temporal and physiological contributions of individual TLRs in fungal infections remains ill-defined, although in humans, TLR gene polymorphisms have been linked to increased susceptibility to fungal infections. This review focuses entirely on the role of TLRs that control the host susceptibility to environmental fungi (e.g., Aspergillus, Cryptoccocus, and Coccidoides), as well as to the most frequent human fungal pathogens represented by the commensal Candida species. The emerging roles of TLRs in modulating host tolerance to fungi, and the strategies that evolved in some of these fungi to evade or use TLR recognition to their advantage will also be discussed, as well as their potential suitability as targets in vaccine therapies.

  5. Biotechnological approaches to develop bacterial chitinases as a bioshield against fungal diseases of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeraja, Chilukoti; Anil, Kondreddy; Purushotham, Pallinti; Suma, Katta; Sarma, Pvsrn; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Podile, Appa Rao

    2010-09-01

    Fungal diseases of plants continue to contribute to heavy crop losses in spite of the best control efforts of plant pathologists. Breeding for disease-resistant varieties and the application of synthetic chemical fungicides are the most widely accepted approaches in plant disease management. An alternative approach to avoid the undesired effects of chemical control could be biological control using antifungal bacteria that exhibit a direct action against fungal pathogens. Several biocontrol agents, with specific fungal targets, have been registered and released in the commercial market with different fungal pathogens as targets. However, these have not yet achieved their full commercial potential due to the inherent limitations in the use of living organisms, such as relatively short shelf life of the products and inconsistent performance in the field. Different mechanisms of action have been identified in microbial biocontrol of fungal plant diseases including competition for space or nutrients, production of antifungal metabolites, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinases and glucanases. This review focuses on the bacterial chitinases that hydrolyze the chitinous fungal cell wall, which is the most important targeted structural component of fungal pathogens. The application of the hydrolytic enzyme preparations, devoid of live bacteria, could be more efficacious in fungal control strategies. This approach, however, is still in its infancy, due to prohibitive production costs. Here, we critically examine available sources of bacterial chitinases and the approaches to improve enzymatic properties using biotechnological tools. We project that the combination of microbial and recombinant DNA technologies will yield more effective environment-friendly products of bacterial chitinases to control fungal diseases of crops.

  6. Health psychology in Ghana: A review of the multidisciplinary origins of a young sub-field and its future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a historical overview of psychology applied to health and health psychology in Ghana. A brief history of health, illness and healthcare in Ghana is introduced. Then, the history of psychology in Ghana is presented, with signposts of the major turns in the field in relation to psychology and other disciplines applied to health and the emergence of health psychology as a sub-field. Selected health psychology studies are reviewed to highlight ideological trends in the field. Finally, future prospects are considered in terms of how the sub-field can transition into an established critical field with unique contributions to make to global health psychology.

  7. [Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals in mycorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Li, Yuanjing; Tian, Chunjie

    2016-01-04

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an important role in energy flow and nutrient cycling, besides their wide distribution in the cosystem. With a long co-evolution, AM fungi and host plant have formed a symbiotic relationship, and fungal lipid metabolism may be the key point to find the symbiotic mechanism in arbusculart mycorrhiza. Here, we reviewed the most recent progress on the interaction between AM fungal lipid metabolism and symbiotic signaling networks, especially the response of AM fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals. Furthermore, we discussed the response of AM fungal lipid storage and release to symbiotic or non-symbiotic status, and the correlation between fungal lipid metabolism and nutrient transfer in mycorrhiza. In addition, we explored the feedback of the lipolysis process to molecular signals during the establishment of symbiosis, and the corresponding material conversion and energy metabolism besides the crosstalk of fungal lipid metabolism and signaling networks. This review will help understand symbiotic mechanism of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and further application in ecosystem.

  8. Neglected fungal zoonoses: hidden threats to man and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmousavi, S; Guillot, J; Tolooe, A; Verweij, P E; de Hoog, G S

    2015-05-01

    Zoonotic fungi can be naturally transmitted between animals and humans, and in some cases cause significant public health problems. A number of mycoses associated with zoonotic transmission are among the group of the most common fungal diseases, worldwide. It is, however, notable that some fungal diseases with zoonotic potential have lacked adequate attention in international public health efforts, leading to insufficient attention on their preventive strategies. This review aims to highlight some mycoses whose zoonotic potential received less attention, including infections caused by Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei, Lacazia loboi, Emmonsia spp., Basidiobolus ranarum, Conidiobolus spp. and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mucormycosis: a rare fungal infection in tornado victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Cindy L; Finley, Phillip J; Mikkelson, Debbie R; Tibbs, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews four immunocompetent patients who developed a rare fungal infection, mucormycosis, secondary to multiple traumatic injuries sustained during an EF-5 tornado in Joplin, MO. Commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter, mucorales are fungi associated with soft tissue and cutaneous infections. Onset of this fungal infection can occur without clinical signs, presenting several days to several weeks after injury, delaying diagnosis. A multidisciplinary treatment approach including aggressive antifungal therapy and aggressive surgical debridement is critical. This diagnosis should be considered in all patients presenting with injuries sustained from high-velocity embedment of debris such as natural disasters or explosions. We present four cases of mucormycosis, species Apophysomyces trapeziformis. Data reported includes predisposing factors, number of days between injury and diagnosis of mucormycosis, surgical treatment, antifungal therapy, outcomes, and potential risk factors that may have contributed to the development of mucormycosis.

  10. Fungal glucosylceramides: from structural components to biologically active targets of new antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo eNimrichter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The first work reporting synthesis of glucosylceramide (cerebrin, GlcCer by yeasts was published in 1930. During approximately 70 years members of this class of glycosphingolipids (GSL were considered merely structural components of plasma membrane in fungi. However, in the last decade GlcCer was reported to be involved with fungal growth, differentiation, virulence, immunogenicity and lipid raft architecture in at least two human pathogens. Fungal GlcCer are structurally distinct from their mammalian counterparts and enriched at the cell wall, which makes this molecule an effective target for antifungal activity of specific ligands (peptides and antibodies to GlcCer. Therefore, GSL are promising targets for new drugs to combat fungal diseases. This review discusses the most recent information on biosynthesis and role of GlcCer in fungal pathogens.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics and laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis. A three-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Jayahar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the epidemiological characteristics and laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis seen at a tertiary eye care referral centre in South India. Methods: A retrospective review of all culture-proven fungal keratitis seen over a 3-year period, September 1999 through August 2002. Results: Fungal aetiology were confirmed in1095(34.4% of 3183 corneal ulcers. The predominant fungal species isolated was Fusarium spp (471; 42.82% followed by Aspergillus spp (286; 26%. Males (712; 65.08% were more often affected (P< 0.0001. A large proportion of the patients (732; 66.85% were in the younger age group (21 to 50 years. A majority (879; 80.27% came from rural areas (P Conclusion: Agricultural activity and related ocular trauma were principal causes of mycotic keratitis. A potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount preparation is a simple, and sensitive, method for diagnosis.

  12. Dynamic Fungal Cell Wall Architecture in Stress Adaptation and Immune Evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopke, Alex; Brown, Alistair J P; Hall, Rebecca A; Wheeler, Robert T

    2018-04-01

    Deadly infections from opportunistic fungi have risen in frequency, largely because of the at-risk immunocompromised population created by advances in modern medicine and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This review focuses on dynamics of the fungal polysaccharide cell wall, which plays an outsized role in fungal pathogenesis and therapy because it acts as both an environmental barrier and as the major interface with the host immune system. Human fungal pathogens use architectural strategies to mask epitopes from the host and prevent immune surveillance, and recent work elucidates how biotic and abiotic stresses present during infection can either block or enhance masking. The signaling components implicated in regulating fungal immune recognition can teach us how cell wall dynamics are controlled, and represent potential targets for interventions designed to boost or dampen immunity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptations in bacterial and fungal communities to termite fungiculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria

    Nearly 30 MYA, a subfamily of termites, Macrotermitinae, started an obligate mutualistic relationship with the basidiomycete fungus Termitomyces. Fungus-growing termites maintain the ectosymbiont in optimal growth conditions and Termitomyces provides the food source and an external plant decompos......Nearly 30 MYA, a subfamily of termites, Macrotermitinae, started an obligate mutualistic relationship with the basidiomycete fungus Termitomyces. Fungus-growing termites maintain the ectosymbiont in optimal growth conditions and Termitomyces provides the food source and an external plant...... in the bacterial and fungal communities. To do this, we used pyrosequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridisation, light and confocal microscopy, enzymatic assays, chemical extractions, in vitro assays, and feeding experiments in this thesis work to elucidate these predicted changes in fungus-growing termite...... in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. However, gut microbiotas remained distinct from those of termites after Termitomyces-feeding, indicating that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions...

  14. Mycoremediation of Textile Dyes: Application of Novel Autochthonous Fungal Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Four fungal isolates Trichoderma virens, Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii, Talaromyces stipitatus, Aspergillus niger originally isolated from the textile dye contaminated soil of Meerut (U.P. India. They were used for the decolorization studies of selected textile azo dyes under laboratory conditions. Out of total 74 isolates, selected four fungal strains were picked on the basis of primary screening carried out using agar layer decolorization method. Decolorization efficiency of textile dyes was studied at an interval of 3, 5, 7 and 9 days at temperatures 20, 25, 30 and 40°C using five synthetic dyes viz. Xylene cynol FF, Brilliant blue R, Aniline Blue, Orange G II and Crystal violet. Decolorization study was carried out under shaking and stationary conditions at pH 4.0, 5.4, 6.5, and 8.0. The results obtained showed that Trichoderma virens and Aspergillus niger were more efficient then Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus. Highest biodegradation activities of dyes by these aboriginal fungal isolates were observed at pH 5.4 after 9 days of incubation. Maximum decolorization 99.84 % was achieved by Aspergillus niger, followed by Trichoderma virens. This is the first report where the bioremediation aspects of Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus has been revealed.

  15. Fungal infection knowledge gap in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (1). Fungi also play a role in allergic fungal disease such as allergic broncho- pulmonary Aspergilosis (ABPA) and chronic or deep tissue infections. The laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection starts with a simple potassium hydroxide.

  16. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Jylhä, S.; Haarmann, T.; Jørgensen, A.L.W.; Dalsgaard, T.K.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database

  17. Common fungal diseases of Russian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgeny P. Kuz' michevl; Ella s. Sokolova; Elena G. Kulikova

    2001-01-01

    Describes common fungal diseases of Russian forests, including diagnostic signs and symptoms, pathogen biology, damage caused by the disease, and methods of control. The fungal diseases are divided into two groups: those that are the most common in Russian forests and those that are found only in Russia. Within each group, diseases are subdivided by plant organ...

  18. On the origins of human handedness and language: a comparative review of hand preferences for bimanual coordinated actions and gestural communication in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Hopkins, William D

    2013-09-01

    Within the evolutionary framework about the origin of human handedness and hemispheric specialization for language, the question of expression of population-level manual biases in nonhuman primates and their potential continuities with humans remains controversial. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence showing consistent population-level handedness particularly for complex manual behaviors in both monkeys and apes. In the present article, within a large comparative approach among primates, we will review our contribution to the field and the handedness literature related to two particular sophisticated manual behaviors regarding their potential and specific implications for the origins of hemispheric specialization in humans: bimanual coordinated actions and gestural communication. Whereas bimanual coordinated actions seem to elicit predominance of left-handedness in arboreal primates and of right-handedness in terrestrial primates, all handedness studies that have investigated gestural communication in several primate species have reported stronger degree of population-level right-handedness compared to noncommunicative actions. Communicative gestures and bimanual actions seem to affect differently manual asymmetries in both human and nonhuman primates and to be related to different lateralized brain substrates. We will discuss (1) how the data of hand preferences for bimanual coordinated actions highlight the role of ecological factors in the evolution of handedness and provide additional support the postural origin theory of handedness proposed by MacNeilage [MacNeilage [2007]. Present status of the postural origins theory. In W. D. Hopkins (Ed.), The evolution of hemispheric specialization in primates (pp. 59-91). London: Elsevier/Academic Press] and (2) the hypothesis that the emergence of gestural communication might have affected lateralization in our ancestor and may constitute the precursors of the hemispheric specialization for language.

  19. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Origin, History, Distribution, Taxonomy, Morphology, Hosts, and Pathogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Desquesnes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of “surra,” is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. It is thought to derive from Trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic DNA (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies. It is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-Saharan area. The disease spread from North Africa towards the Middle East, Turkey, India, up to 53° North in Russia, across all South-East Asia, down to Indonesia and the Philippines, and it was also introduced by the conquistadores into Latin America. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles, and elephants. It found a new large range of wild and domestic hosts in Latin America, including reservoirs (capybaras and biological vectors (vampire bats. Surra is a major disease in camels, equines, and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment, and exhibits nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight, abortion, and death, which are variable from one host and one place to another; however, its immunosuppressive effects interfering with intercurrent diseases or vaccination campaigns might be its most significant and questionable aspect.

  20. The Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA: a Case Series and Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Moeinipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA is a rare congenital cardiovascular defect that occurs in approximately 1/300 000 live births or 0.5% of children with congenital heart disease. There are two types of ALCAPA syndrome: the infant type and the adult type. The most infants experience myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, and approximately 90% die within the first year of life; also, without early surgical intervention they have a dismal prognosis. Materials and Methods We report 3- year experiences from January 2013 to January 2016 of Imam Reza Hospital center (a tertiary referral hospital North East of Iran that consist of all patients with ALCAPA syndrome. Results The Takeuchi procedure, were successfully performed in five children with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA. There was no death and significant mitral regurgitation postoperative (n=0 in this short study. All of patients (n=5 had evidence of improving ischemic myocardium status by increasing of ejection fraction and regional wall motion of left ventricular in follow up echocardiography. Conclusion The only cure treatment for ALCAPA syndrome is surgical intervention that needs to be performed immediately after diagnosis to prevent myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure. Today, establishing a system with two coronary arteries is the goal in definitive surgical repair. The Takeuchi procedure is a prefer method to establish a two-coronary repair for ALCAPA.

  1. Diversity and distribution of fungal communities in the marine sediments of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (High Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Fei Wang, Neng; Qin Zhang, Yu; Yu Liu, Hong; Yan Yu, Li

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities in eight marine sediments of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Sedimentary fungal communities showed high diversity with 42,219 reads belonging to 113 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 62 belonged to the Ascomycota, 26 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Chytridiomycota, 1 to Zygomycota, 1 to Glomeromycota, and 21 to unknown fungi. The major known orders included Hypocreales and Saccharomycetales. The common fungal genera were Pichia, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Malassezia. Interestingly, most fungi occurring in these Arctic sediments may originate from the terrestrial habitats and different basins in Kongsfjorden (i.e., inner basin, central basin, and outer basin) harbor different sedimentary fungal communities. These results suggest the existence of diverse fungal communities in the Arctic marine sediments, which may serve as a useful community model for further ecological and evolutionary study of fungi in the Arctic.

  2. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CTR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  3. Fungal endophytes - secret producers of bioactive plant metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, A H; Debbab, A; Proksch, P

    2013-07-01

    The potential of endophytic fungi as promising sources of bioactive natural products continues to attract broad attention. Endophytic fungi are defined as fungi that live asymptomatically within the tissues of higher plants. This overview will highlight the uniqueness of endophytic fungi as alternative sources of pharmaceutically valuable compounds originally isolated from higher plants, e.g. paclitaxel, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. In addition, it will shed light on the fungal biosynthesis of plant associated metabolites as well as new approaches developed to improve the production of commercially important plant derived compounds with the involvement of endophytic fungi.

  4. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Correa, Benedito

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in 60 Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  5. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius of canine origin: literature review from 1980 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Damborg, Peter; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2014-07-16

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal and a common opportunistic pathogen causing mainly infections of the integumentary system in dogs. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates, in particular methicillin-resistant strains (MRSP) is a threat to small animal health and highlights the need for antimicrobial resistance surveillance to detect trends and potentially perform timeous interventions. We systematically reviewed 202 published articles to investigate temporal changes in antimicrobial resistance in clinical and commensal S. pseudintermedius isolated from dogs in 27 countries between 1980 and 2013. Resistance to the most common antimicrobials tested for in published studies and important for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in dogs were assessed separately for methicillin resistant (MRSP) and methicillin susceptible (MSSP) isolates. Stratified by MSSP and MRSP, no significant increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed over time, except for the penicillinase-labile penicillins (penicillin and ampicillin) among MSSP. However, in recent years, a few studies have reported higher-level of resistance to amikacin, gentamicin and enrofloxacin amongst MSSP. The review highlights inconsistencies between studies as a result of several factors, for example the use of different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and interpretation criteria. We recommend that data on susceptibility in important companion animal pathogens are collected and presented in a more harmonized way to allow more precise comparison of susceptibility patterns between studies. One way to accomplish this would be through systematic surveillance either at the country-level or at a larger scale across countries e.g. EU level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Pivovaroff, Alexandria L.; Santiago, Louis S.; Rolshausen, Philippe E.

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different ...

  8. INCIDENCE OF FUNGAL ELEMENTS IN SINONASAL POLYPOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh G. S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nasal polyposis is a disease entity characterised by formation of pseudoedema of sinonasal mucus membrane progressing to form polyps. It presents clinically with nasal obstruction and fleshy masses in the nasal cavity. The nasal mucosa reacts to formation of polypi in allergic fungal sinusitis also. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate possible fungal elements from the polypi removed during surgery by KOH study and HPE study. The aim of the study is to find out the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients attending the ENT OPD for nasal obstruction and showing polypi on anterior rhinoscopy were selected. All the patients were subjected to surgery and specimens collected were subjected to KOH study and histopathology to demonstrate fungal elements. RESULTS Among 50 patients, the age range was from 9-57 years; mean age- 36.46 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Deviated nasal septum was found in 38% of patients. Among the unilateral cases, 47% were antrochoanal polyps and 53% were ethmoid polyps. Out of 50 patients, only 3 specimens were positive for fungal elements with KOH study and only 2 cases with fungal culture. Thus, the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. CONCLUSION The incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. Histopathological examination of polypectomy specimen was negative for invasive fungal disease and showed inflammatory changes only. There is no difference in the detection of the presence of fungal by two methods.

  9. Halotolerant ability and α-amylase activity of some saltwater fungal isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niknejad, F.; Moshfegh, M.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Houbraken, J.; Rezaei, S.; Zarrini, G.; Faramarzi, M.A.; Nafissi-Varcheh, N.

    2013-01-01

    Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and α-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the β-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum

  10. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF ITRACONAZOLE IN PREOPERATIVE AND REFRACTORY POSTOPERATIVE PATIENTS OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Venkatasubbaiah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Allergic Fungal Sinusitis (AFS is a noninvasive type of fungal sinusitis, clinically and pathologically a unique entity of chronic rhinosinusitis. The aetiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of AFS are subject to controversy. In spite of aggressive endoscopic surgery, pre- and postoperative steroids and immunotherapy recurrence rates are high. Many additions are made to its original description and management since its early description in 1980. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate clinically. The response to high-dose itraconazole before endoscopic sinus surgery and in refractory postoperative patients. Related literature was reviewed in the light of the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS A 2 year prospective study conducted on 68 AFS patients divided into two groups to clinically evaluate the results after using oral itraconazole preoperatively in one group and in refractory postoperative period in another. RESULTS The mean age of patients with typical AFS was 36±3.9 years. Patients with AFS with an average follow up of 21 months were included. Recurrence was 6/34 (17.64% in itraconazole group and revision FESS done in 3/34 (08.82%. Recurrence in patients without itraconazole was 16/34 (47.05% and refractory to conventional treatment, but responded to itraconazole in 14/16 (87.50%. Revision surgery required in 2/16 (12.50% after starting oral itraconazole. No side effects or reactions were observed in a total of 7920 doses administered. CONCLUSION Itraconazole is well tolerated by patients and effective in shrinking the polyposis preoperatively with low recurrence. Postoperative refractory AFS is amenable in (87.50% of patients avoiding repeat FESS. Overall, low recurrence rate and minimizing revision surgery when compared to patients treated without itraconazole was evident in the study.

  11. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  12. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-05-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  13. Revisión de los hongos Entomophthorales (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes patógenos de insectos de la República Argentina Review of Entomophthorales (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes fungal pathogens of insects from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. López Lastra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos Entomophthorales son entomopatógenos que causan la muerte de los insectos hospedadores, son usualmente muy específicos y aún cuando algunos son posibles de cultivar in vitro , la mayoría son difíciles de aislar en cultivos axénicos. En trabajos previos en la República Argentina se ha dado a conocer la presencia de hongos entomopatógenos. Los Entomophthorales (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes son los hongos patógenicos de insectos más predominantes poco conocidos en América del Sur y raramente encontrados en la Argentina. El principal objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una puesta al día y estado de avance del conocimiento sobre este grupo de hongos en nuestro país, incluyendo un listado de especies citadas, su distribución e insectos hospedantes, con el propósito de ampliar el conocimiento de su biodiversidad.Entomophthoralean fungi are entomopathogens that cause death of their insect hosts, they usually are very specific and however some of them are able to be in vitro cultivated, some species are hardly possible or not able to be isolated in axenic cultures. The Entomophthorales (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes are the most predominant insect pathogenic fungi which are poorly known in South America and they are scarce reported in Argentina. The overall purpose of the present paper is to update the knowledge of the reports and research done about this fungal group in our country and to include a checklist of fungal species, distribution and insect hosts to further extent about its biodiversity.

  14. Fungal laccases and their applications in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Buddolla; Rajesh, Bandi; Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Arthala Praveen; Narasimha, Golla

    2014-01-01

    Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, which catalyze the monoelectronic oxidation of a broad spectrum of substrates, for example, ortho- and para-diphenols, polyphenols, aminophenols, and aromatic or aliphatic amines, coupled with a full, four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O. Hence, they are capable of degrading lignin and are present abundantly in many white-rot fungi. Laccases decolorize and detoxify the industrial effluents and help in wastewater treatment. They act on both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants, and they can be effectively used in paper and pulp industries, textile industries, xenobiotic degradation, and bioremediation and act as biosensors. Recently, laccase has been applied to nanobiotechnology, which is an increasing research field, and catalyzes electron transfer reactions without additional cofactors. Several techniques have been developed for the immobilization of biomolecule such as micropatterning, self-assembled monolayer, and layer-by-layer techniques, which immobilize laccase and preserve their enzymatic activity. In this review, we describe the fungal source of laccases and their application in environment protection.

  15. Invasive Fungal Infections Secondary to Traumatic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kronen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infection (IFI is a rare but serious complication of traumatic injury. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, natural history, mycology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic IFI in military and civilian populations. The epidemiology of post-traumatic IFI is poorly characterized, but incidence appears to be rising. Patients often suffer from severe injuries and require extensive medical interventions. Fungi belonging to the order Mucorales are responsible for most post-traumatic IFI in both civilian and military populations. Risk factors differ between these cohorts but include specific injury patterns and comorbidities. Diagnosis of post-traumatic IFI typically follows positive laboratory results in the appropriate clinical context. The gold standard of treatment is surgical debridement in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Patients with post-traumatic IFI may be at greater risk of amputation, delays in wound healing, hospital complications, and death as compared to trauma patients who do not develop IFI. More research is needed to understand the factors surrounding the development and management of post-traumatic IFI to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  16. Fungal Laccases and Their Applications in Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddolla Viswanath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, which catalyze the monoelectronic oxidation of a broad spectrum of substrates, for example, ortho- and para-diphenols, polyphenols, aminophenols, and aromatic or aliphatic amines, coupled with a full, four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O. Hence, they are capable of degrading lignin and are present abundantly in many white-rot fungi. Laccases decolorize and detoxify the industrial effluents and help in wastewater treatment. They act on both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants, and they can be effectively used in paper and pulp industries, textile industries, xenobiotic degradation, and bioremediation and act as biosensors. Recently, laccase has been applied to nanobiotechnology, which is an increasing research field, and catalyzes electron transfer reactions without additional cofactors. Several techniques have been developed for the immobilization of biomolecule such as micropatterning, self-assembled monolayer, and layer-by-layer techniques, which immobilize laccase and preserve their enzymatic activity. In this review, we describe the fungal source of laccases and their application in environment protection.

  17. The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ralph; Van Kan, Jan A L; Pretorius, Zacharias A; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Di Pietro, Antonio; Spanu, Pietro D; Rudd, Jason J; Dickman, Marty; Kahmann, Regine; Ellis, Jeff; Foster, Gary D

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international community, and resulted in the generation of a Top 10 fungal plant pathogen list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Magnaporthe oryzae; (2) Botrytis cinerea; (3) Puccinia spp.; (4) Fusarium graminearum; (5) Fusarium oxysporum; (6) Blumeria graminis; (7) Mycosphaerella graminicola; (8) Colletotrichum spp.; (9) Ustilago maydis; (10) Melampsora lini, with honourable mentions for fungi just missing out on the Top 10, including Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Rhizoctonia solani. This article presents a short resumé of each fungus in the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant mycology community, as well as laying down a bench-mark. It will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and what fungi will comprise any future Top 10. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  18. The filamentous fungal pellet-relationship between morphology and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiter, Lukas; Rajamanickam, Vignesh; Herwig, Christoph

    2018-04-01

    Filamentous fungi are used for the production of a multitude of highly relevant biotechnological products like citric acid and penicillin. In submerged culture, fungi can either grow in dispersed form or as spherical pellets consisting of aggregated hyphal structures. Pellet morphology, process control and productivity are highly interlinked. On the one hand, process control in a bioreactor usually demands for compact and small pellets due to rheological issues. On the other hand, optimal productivity might be associated with less dense and larger morphology. Over the years, several publications have dealt with aforementioned relations within the confines of specific organisms and products. However, contributions which evaluate such interlinkages across several fungal species are scarce. For this purpose, we are looking into methods to manipulate fungal pellet morphology in relation to individual species and products. This review attempts to address (i) how variability of pellet morphology can be assessed and (ii) how morphology is linked to productivity. Firstly, the mechanism of pellet formation is outlined. Subsequently, the description and analysis of morphological variations are discussed to finally establish interlinkages between productivity, performance and morphology across different fungal species.

  19. Phosphate Acquisition and Virulence in Human Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeh, Mélanie; Ahmed, Yasmin; Quinn, Janet

    2017-08-22

    The ability of pathogenic fungi to acquire essential macro and micronutrients during infection is a well-established virulence trait. Recent studies in the major human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans have revealed that acquisition of the essential macronutrient, phosphate, is essential for virulence. The phosphate sensing and acquisition pathway in fungi, known as the PHO pathway, has been extensively characterized in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . In this review, we highlight recent advances in phosphate sensing and signaling mechanisms, and use the S. cerevisiae PHO pathway as a platform from which to compare the phosphate acquisition and storage strategies employed by several human pathogenic fungi. We also explore the multi-layered roles of phosphate acquisition in promoting fungal stress resistance to pH, cationic, and oxidative stresses, and describe emerging roles for the phosphate storage molecule polyphosphate (polyP). Finally, we summarize the recent studies supporting the necessity of phosphate acquisition in mediating the virulence of human fungal pathogens, highlighting the concept that this requirement is intimately linked to promoting resistance to host-imposed stresses.

  20. Molecular and Nonmolecular Diagnostic Methods for Invasive Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Marios; Anagnostou, Theodora; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Caliendo, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Invasive fungal infections constitute a serious threat to an ever-growing population of immunocompromised individuals and other individuals at risk. Traditional diagnostic methods, such as histopathology and culture, which are still considered the gold standards, have low sensitivity, which underscores the need for the development of new means of detecting fungal infectious agents. Indeed, novel serologic and molecular techniques have been developed and are currently under clinical evaluation. Tests like the galactomannan antigen test for aspergillosis and the β-glucan test for invasive Candida spp. and molds, as well as other antigen and antibody tests, for Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis spp., and dimorphic fungi, have already been established as important diagnostic approaches and are implemented in routine clinical practice. On the other hand, PCR and other molecular approaches, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have proved promising in clinical trials but still need to undergo standardization before their clinical use can become widespread. The purpose of this review is to highlight the different diagnostic approaches that are currently utilized or under development for invasive fungal infections and to identify their performance characteristics and the challenges associated with their use. PMID:24982319

  1. Intra-arch dimensional measurement validity of laser-scanned digital dental models compared with the original plaster models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca Canto, G; Pachêco-Pereira, C; Lagravere, M O; Flores-Mir, C; Major, P W

    2015-05-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the validity of intra-arch dimensional measurements made from laser-scanned digital dental models in comparison with measurements directly obtained from the original plaster casts (gold standard). Finally included articles were only those reporting studies that compared measurements from digital models produced from laser scanning against their plaster models. Measurements from the original plaster models should have been made using a manual or digital caliper (gold standard). Articles that used scans from impressions or digital photographs were discarded. Detailed individual search strategies for Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, and LILACS were developed. The references cited in the selected articles were also checked for any references that could have been missed in the electronic database searches. A partial gray literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar. The methodology of selected studies was evaluated using the 14-item quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS). Only 16 studies were finally included for the qualitative/quantitative synthesis. The selected studies consistently agree that the validity of measurements obtained after using a laser scanner from plaster models is similar to direct measurements. Any stated differences would be unlikely clinically relevant. There is consistent scientific evidence to support the validity of measurements from digital dental models in comparison with intra-arch dimensional measurements directly obtained from them. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Indoor fungal contamination: health risks and measurement methods in hospitals, homes and workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méheust, Delphine; Le Cann, Pierre; Reboux, Gabriel; Millon, Laurence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Indoor fungal contamination has been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects, including infectious diseases, toxic effects and allergies. The diversity of fungi contributes to the complex role that they play in indoor environments and human diseases. Molds have a major impact on public health, and can cause different consequences in hospitals, homes and workplaces. This review presents the methods used to assess fungal contamination in these various environments, and discusses advantages and disadvantages for each method in consideration with different health risks. Air, dust and surface sampling strategies are compared, as well as the limits of various methods are used to detect and quantify fungal particles and fungal compounds. In addition to conventional microscopic and culture approaches, more recent chemical, immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are described. This article also identifies common needs for future multidisciplinary research and development projects in this field, with specific interests on viable fungi and fungal fragment detections. The determination of fungal load and the detection of species in environmental samples greatly depend on the strategy of sampling and analysis. Quantitative PCR was found useful to identify associations between specific fungi and common diseases. The next-generation sequencing methods may afford new perspectives in this area.

  3. Fungal infections as a contributing cause of death: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha S Uppin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With the continuing rise in the number of immunocompromised patients, the incidence of invasive mycoses has increased. Various studies have reported the trends of fungal infections in autopsies. Because of limitations in antemortem clinical diagnosis owing to lack of sensitive diagnostic tools, information regarding frequency and pathogenesis of fungal infections is largely dependent on autopsy studies. Aim: To study the prevalence of fungal infections at autopsy spanning a period of 20 years and to document recent trends, prevalence of various fungi over decades along with underlying predisposing factors and pathological findings. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods:All autopsies between 1988 and 2007 were reviewed and all cases showing fungal infections were analyzed. The clinical details and demographic data were retrieved from medical records. Representative sections from all organs were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and special stains including Gomori′s silver methenamine (GMS and per-iodic acid Schiff (PAS. Culture details were noted, wherever available. Results: A total of 401 autopsies were performed during the study period. Fungal infections were identified in 35 (8.7% of these cases. Leukemia was the commonest risk factor. The commonest pathogen in the present study was Aspergillus sp. The commonest single organ involved was brain (n = 18. Culture positivity was seen in 23.8% cases. Conclusion: The study highlights various predisposing factors and organisms in autopsy series. Existing diagnostic modalities are not sensitive to ensure antemortem diagnosis of fungal infections.

  4. Acanthamoeba, fungal, and bacterial keratitis: a comparison of risk factors and clinical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Jeena; Lalitha, Prajna; Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Das, Manoranjan; D’Silva, Sean S.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Borkar, Durga S.; Esterberg, Elizabeth J.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Keenan, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine risk factors and clinical signs that may differentiate between bacterial, fungal, and acanthamoeba keratitis among patients presenting with presumed infectious keratitis. Design Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Methods We examined the medical records of 115 patients with laboratory-proven bacterial keratitis, 115 patients with laboratory-proven fungal keratitis, and 115 patients with laboratory-proven acanthamoeba keratitis seen at Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, from 2006–2011. Risk factors and clinical features of the three organisms were compared using multinomial logistic regression. Results Of 95 patients with bacterial keratitis, 103 patients with fungal keratitis, and 93 patients with acanthamoeba keratitis who had medical records available for review, 287 (99%) did not wear contact lenses. Differentiating features were more common for acanthamoeba keratitis than for bacterial or fungal keratitis. Compared to patients with bacterial or fungal keratitis, patients with acanthamoeba keratitis were more likely to be younger and to have a longer duration of symptoms, and to have a ring infiltrate or disease confined to the epithelium. Conclusions Risk factors and clinical examination findings can be useful for differentiating acanthamoeba keratitis from bacterial and fungal keratitis. PMID:24200232

  5. Acanthamoeba, fungal, and bacterial keratitis: a comparison of risk factors and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Jeena; Lalitha, Prajna; Prajna, N Venkatesh; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Das, Manoranjan; D'Silva, Sean S; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Borkar, Durga S; Esterberg, Elizabeth J; Lietman, Thomas M; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2014-01-01

    To determine risk factors and clinical signs that may differentiate between bacterial, fungal, and acanthamoeba keratitis among patients presenting with presumed infectious keratitis. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. We examined the medical records of 115 patients with laboratory-proven bacterial keratitis, 115 patients with laboratory-proven fungal keratitis, and 115 patients with laboratory-proven acanthamoeba keratitis seen at Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, from 2006-2011. Risk factors and clinical features of the 3 organisms were compared using multinomial logistic regression. Of 95 patients with bacterial keratitis, 103 patients with fungal keratitis, and 93 patients with acanthamoeba keratitis who had medical records available for review, 287 (99%) did not wear contact lenses. Differentiating features were more common for acanthamoeba keratitis than for bacterial or fungal keratitis. Compared to patients with bacterial or fungal keratitis, patients with acanthamoeba keratitis were more likely to be younger and to have a longer duration of symptoms, and to have a ring infiltrate or disease confined to the epithelium. Risk factors and clinical examination findings can be useful for differentiating acanthamoeba keratitis from bacterial and fungal keratitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  7. Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oil and treatment of fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2017-05-01

    A. sieberi essential oil has been used for treatment of hardly curable infectious ulcers in Middle East Medicine and has been famous due to its wormicide effects. In this review, we evaluated the potency of A. sieberi essential oil in treatment of fungal infections. We searched in PubMed Central, Science direct, Wiley, Springer, SID, and accessible books, reports, thesis. There is a lot of mixed information on chemical compositions of A. sieberi essential oil, but most articles reported α, β-thujones as the main components of essential oils. In vitro studies confirmed the antifungal activity of A. sieberi essential oil against saprophytes fungi, dermatophytes, Malassezia sp. and Candida sp. and these results were confirmed in six clinical studies. The clinical studies confirmed the superiority of A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion in improvement of clinical signs of fungal superficial diseases, and mycological laboratory examinations of dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor diseases than clotrimazole (1%) topical treatment. The recurrence rate of superficial fungal infections with dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor was statistically lower in A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion than clotrimazole. There are no adverse effects due to the application of A. sieberi essential oil in clinical studies. Despite, the efficacy of A. sieberi essential oil against Candida sp., there is no clinical study about their related infections. Investigation about the effects of A. sieberi essential oil on fungal virulence factors in order to identifying the exact mechanism of antifungal activity and clinical trials on Candida related diseases are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  9. Review of the fossil matamata turtles: earliest well-dated record and hypotheses on the origin of their present geographical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriel S.; Rincón, Ascanio D.; Solórzano, Andrés; Langer, Max C.

    2016-04-01

    The matamata ( Chelus fimbriatus) is a highly aquatic chelid turtle known exclusively from northern South America. Due to its extremely modified morphology, it is well circumscribed among living taxa, but that is not the case of the two extinct species ascribed to the taxon, Chelus colombianus and Chelus lewisi. These were originally described for the Miocene of Colombia and Venezuela, respectively, and are known mostly from post-cranial material. Few traits have been considered diagnostic for these fossil taxa, and their shared geographic and temporal distributions raise doubts about their distinctiveness. Here, we describe new turtle remains from the early Miocene Castillo Formation, at Cerro la Cruz, northwestern Venezuela, assigning them to C. colombianus. We also review the taxonomy and diagnostic features of the fossil species of Chelus, comparing them with the variation recognized within C. fimbriatus. All alleged differences between the fossil Chelus species were found in our sample of the extant species, and may represent intraspecific variation of a single fossil species. Further, we reviewed the fossil record of Chelus spp. and proposed a paleobiogeographic hypothesis to explain its present geographic range.

  10. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  11. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  12. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...... analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience...... with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12...

  13. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...... storage in both a shorter and longer term global change experiment. Extended drought at the dry, temperate heath showed that soil fungi were well adapted to dry conditions. Furthermore, soil fungal communities responded significantly to seasonal fluctuations at the temperate heath, but despite large......Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...

  14. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... includes places like chicken coops and caves. Wear gloves when handling materials such as soil, moss, or ... Cell Transplant Recipients. MMWR 2000;49:1-128. Top of Page Related Links Fungal Meningitis National Center ...

  15. Fungal rhino sinusitisin in tehran, iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeri, M.; Hashemi, S.J.; Ardehali, M.; Rezaei, S.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zareei, M.; Hosseinjani, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are

  16. Foreword: Special issue on fungal grapevine diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An impressively large proportion of fungicides applied in European, North American and Australian agriculture has been used to manage grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), and botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). These fungal and oomycetous plan...

  17. Marine fungal biotechnology: An ecological perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    microscopy and immunocytochemical labelling of β-1,4-N- acetyl-D-glucosamine residues of chitin walls, a fungal signature confirmed its presence (Maldonado et al., 2005). Interestingly these yeasts are reported to be maternally transmitted from the soma...

  18. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  19. Contaminations Occurring in Fungal PCR Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Juergen; Hebart, Holger; Bialek, Ralf; Hagmeyer, Lars; Schmidt, Diethard; Serey, Francois-Prâseth; Hartmann, Matthias; Eucker, Jan; Einsele, Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Successful in vitro amplification of fungal DNA in clinical specimens has been reported recently. In a collaboration among five European centers, the frequency and risk of contamination due to airborne spore inoculation or carryover contamination in fungal PCR were analyzed. The identities of all contaminants were specified by cycle sequencing and GenBank analysis. Twelve of 150 PCR assays that together included over 2,800 samples were found to be contaminated (3.3% of the negative controls were contaminated during the DNA extraction, and 4.7% of the PCR mixtures were contaminated during the amplification process). Contaminants were specified as Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Acremonium spp. Further analysis showed that commercially available products like zymolyase powder or 10× PCR buffer may contain fungal DNA. In conclusion, the risk of contamination is not higher in fungal PCR assays than in other diagnostic PCR-based assays if general precautions are taken. PMID:10074553

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. PREVALENCE OF ANDROGENIC-. ANABOLIC STEROID USE IN. ADOLESCENTS IN TWO REGIONS. OF SOUTH AFRICA. Michael I lambert, Steven D Titlestad, Martin P Schwellnus. Objective. To determine the prevalence of androgenic- anabolic steroid (AAS) use among schoolchildren in two.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    siderosomes), Golgi complex and ... containing proteins, ferritin and haemosiderin, in the jejunal epithelial cells of black children with pellagra as well as ... from 10 of the original 16 patients showed adequate ultrastructural preservation; tissue blocks of ...

  2. Eukaryotic origins

    OpenAIRE

    Lake, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the eukaryotes is a fundamental scientific question that for over 30 years has generated a spirited debate between the competing Archaea (or three domains) tree and the eocyte tree. As eukaryotes ourselves, humans have a personal interest in our origins. Eukaryotes contain their defining organelle, the nucleus, after which they are named. They have a complex evolutionary history, over time acquiring multiple organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, smooth and rough endo...

  3. Fungal Endophthalmitis Associated with Compounded Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mikosz, Christina A.; Smith, Rachel M.; Kim, Moon; Tyson, Clara; Lee, Ellen H.; Adams, Eleanor; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sowadsky, Rick; Arroyo, Shannon; Grant-Greene, Yoran; Duran, Julie; Vasquez, Yvonne; Robinson, Byron F.; Harris, Julie R.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but serious infection. In March 2012, several cases of probable and laboratory-confirmed fungal endophthalmitis occurring after invasive ocular procedures were reported nationwide. We identified 47 cases in 9 states: 21 patients had been exposed to the intraocular dye Brilliant Blue G (BBG) during retinal surgery, and the other 26 had received an intravitreal injection containing triamcinolone acetonide. Both drugs were produced by Franck’s Compounding Lab (Oc...

  4. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis - Outcomes of Multimodality Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Baisakhi Bakat; Subhendu Chowdhury; Amitabha Roy Chowdhury; Soumitra Ghosh; Barin Kumar Roychaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective : To evaluate the treatment outcomes of multimodality therapy for allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Study Design: Prospective Observational Study. Materials&methods : This study was carried out in the department of ENT & Head neck Surgery, Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Seva Pratishthan, Kolkata from January 2010 to July 2011. During this study period of one & half years, 20 subjects having Allergic Fungal Sinusitis were selected fr...

  5. Matrix regeneration therapy: a solution to enhance healing in fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Raihan Ishak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ulcers, especially of fungal origin, are a relatively common clinical entity within the spectrum of keratitis in tropical countries. The persistence of a non-healing epithelial defect is a known complication of these ulcers. Despite advances in medical therapy, the management of this condition is still challenging. CACICOL20® is a new ophthalmic matrix therapy that has been proved efficient as a corneal healing agent. To the best of our knowledge there have been reports of the limited use of matrix therapy in ocular healing, specifically in fungal keratitis. We report 2 cases of the efficacy of it as an adjuvant to topical amphotericin B in treating non-healing epithelial defects secondary to fungal corneal ulcers.

  6. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, E; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U; Ivarsen, A; Mortensen, K L; Hjortdal, J

    2013-09-01

    Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12-69), 6 out of 17 (35%) cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86%) IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve the reliability of IVCM, we suggest implementing a simple and clinically applicable grading system for aiding the interpretation of IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis.

  8. Fungal Keratitis - Improving Diagnostics by Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Nielsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12-69, 6 out of 17 (35% cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86% IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. Conclusion: IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve the reliability of IVCM, we suggest implementing a simple and clinically applicable grading system for aiding the interpretation of IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis.

  9. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  10. Aerially transmitted human fungal pathogens: what can we learn from metagenomics and comparative genomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliouat-Denis, Cécile-Marie; Chabé, Magali; Delhaes, Laurence; Dei-Cas, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades, aerially transmitted human fungal pathogens have been increasingly recognized to impact the clinical course of chronic pulmonary diseases, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thanks to recent development of culture-free high-throughput sequencing methods, the metagenomic approaches are now appropriate to detect, identify and even quantify prokaryotic or eukaryotic microorganism communities inhabiting human respiratory tract and to access the complexity of even low-burden microbe communities that are likely to play a role in chronic pulmonary diseases. In this review, we explore how metagenomics and comparative genomics studies can alleviate fungal culture bottlenecks, improve our knowledge about fungal biology, lift the veil on cross-talks between host lung and fungal microbiota, and gain insights into the pathogenic impact of these aerially transmitted fungi that affect human beings. We reviewed metagenomic studies and comparative genomic analyses of carefully chosen microorganisms, and confirmed the usefulness of such approaches to better delineate biology and pathogenesis of aerially transmitted human fungal pathogens. Efforts to generate and efficiently analyze the enormous amount of data produced by such novel approaches have to be pursued, and will potentially provide the patients suffering from chronic pulmonary diseases with a better management. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrothermal simulation experiments as a tool for studies of the origin of life on Earth and other terrestrial planets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Nils G; Andersson, Eva

    2005-08-01

    The potential of life's origin in submarine hydrothermal systems has been evaluated by a number of investigators by conducting high temperature-high pressure experiments involving organic compounds. In the majority of these experiments little attention has been paid to the importance of constraining important parameters, such as the pH and the redox state of the system. This is particularly revealed in the apparent difficulties in interpreting experimental data from hydrothermal organic synthesis and stability studies. However, in those cases where common mineral assemblages have been used in an attempt to buffer the pH and redox conditions to geologically and geochemically realistic values, theoretical and experimental data seem to converge. The use of mineral buffer assemblages provides a convenient way by which to constrain the experimental conditions. Studies at high temperatures and pressure in the laboratory have revealed a number of reactions that proceed rapidly in hydrothermal fluids, including the Strecker synthesis of amino acids. In other cases, the verification of postulated abiotic reaction mechanisms has not been possible, at least for large molecules such as large fatty acids and hydrocarbons. This includes the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction. High temperature-high pressure experimental methods have been developed and used successfully for a long time in, for example, mineral solubility studies under hydrothermal conditions. By taking advantage of this experimental experience new and, at times, unexpected directions can be taken in bioorganic geochemistry, one being, for instance, primitive two-dimensional information coding. This article critically reviews some of the organic synthesis and stability experiments that have been conducted under simulated submarine hydrothermal conditions. We also discuss some of the theoretical and practical considerations that apply to hydrothermal laboratory studies of organic molecules related to the origin of

  12. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by fungi, fungal and bacterial laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulčnik, A; Kralj Cigić, I; Pohleven, F

    2013-12-01

    The ability of two white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) to degrade two organochlorine insecticides, lindane and endosulfan, in liquid cultures was studied and dead fungal biomass was examined for adsorption of both insecticides from liquid medium. Lindane and endosulfan were also treated with fungal laccase and bacterial protein CotA, which has laccase activities. The amount of degraded lindane and endosulfan increased with their exposure period in the liquid cultures of both examined white-rot fungi. Endosulfan was transformed to endosulfan sulphate by T. versicolor and P. ostreatus. A small amount of endosulfan ether was also detected and its origin was examined. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by a brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. Mycelial biomasses of all examined fungi have been found to adsorb lindane and endosulfan and adsorption onto fungal biomass should therefore be considered as a possible mechanism of pollutant removal when fungal degradation potentials are studied. Bacterial protein CotA performed more efficient degradation of lindane and endosulfan than fungal laccase and has shown potential for bioremediation of organic pollutants.

  13. Bacterial endophytes from wild and ancient maize are able to suppress the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia homoeocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, H R; Lyons, E M; Jordan, K S; Raizada, M N

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if endophytes from wild and ancient Zea plants (corn family) have anti-fungal activities, specifically against the most important fungal pathogen (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) of creeping bentgrass, a relative of Zea, used here as a model grass. A library of 190 bacterial endophytes from wild, ancient and modern Zea plants were tested for their ability to suppress S. homoeocarpa in vitro, followed by in planta testing of candidates using greenhouse trials. Three endophytes could suppress S. homoeocarpa, originating from wild maize and an ancient Mexican landrace, consistent with our hypothesis. 16S phylogenetic analysis and BOX-PCR DNA fingerprinting suggest that the anti-fungal endophytes are distinct strains of Burkholderia gladioli. One strain (3A12) was confirmed to colonize creeping bentgrass using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging. Evans blue vitality staining demonstrated that the bacterial endophytes exhibited fungicidal activities against the pathogen. The endophytes inhibited a wide spectrum of plant-associated fungi including diverse crop pathogens. The results support the hypothesis that wild and ancient Zea genotypes host bacterial endophytes that can control fungal pathogen(s). These results suggest that wild and ancient crops may be an unexplored reservoir of anti-fungal bacterial endophytes. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Bio-clarification of water from heavy metals and microbial effluence using fungal chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Gharieb, Mohamed M; Zaki, Hanaa R; Elguindy, Nihal M

    2016-02-01

    Water pollution is among the most hazardous problems that threaten human health worldwide. Chitosan is a marvelous bioactive polymer that could be produced from fungal mycelia. This study was conducted to produce chitosan from Cunninghamella elegans and to use it for water pollutants elimination, e.g. heavy metals and waterborne microorganisms, and to investigate its antibacterial mode of action against Escherichia coli. The produced fungal chitosan had a deacetylation degree of 81%, a molecular weight of 92.73 kDa and a matched FT-IR spectrum with standard shrimp chitosan. Fungal chitosan exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Chitosan was proved as an effective metal adsorbent, toward the examined metal ions, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+, and its adsorption capacity greatly increased with the increasing of metal concentration, especially for Cu and Zn. The scanning electron micrographs, of treated E. coli cells with fungal chitosan, indicated that the cells began to lyse and combine after 3h of exposure and chitosan particles attached to the combined cells and, after 12 h from exposure, the entire bacterial cell walls were fully disrupted and lysed. Therefore, fungal chitosan could be recommended, as a bioactive, renewable, ecofriendly and cost effective material, for overcoming water pollution problems, from chemical and microbial origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fungal-Induced Deterioration of Mural Paintings: In Situ and Mock-Model Microscopy Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unković, Nikola; Grbić, Milica Ljaljević; Stupar, Miloš; Savković, Željko; Jelikić, Aleksa; Stanojević, Dragan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-04-01

    Fungal deterioration of frescoes was studied in situ on a selected Serbian church, and on a laboratory model, utilizing standard and newly implemented microscopy techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray confirmed the limestone components of the plaster. Pigments used were identified as carbon black, green earth, iron oxide, ocher, and an ocher/cinnabar mixture. In situ microscopy, applied via a portable microscope ShuttlePix P-400R, proved very useful for detection of invisible micro-impairments and hidden, symptomless, microbial growth. SEM and optical microscopy established that observed deterioration symptoms, predominantly discoloration and pulverization of painted layers, were due to bacterial filaments and fungal hyphal penetration, and formation of a wide range of fungal structures (i.e., melanized hyphae, chlamydospores, microcolonial clusters, Cladosporium-like conidia, and Chaetomium perithecia and ascospores). The all year-round monitoring of spontaneous and induced fungal colonization of a "mock painting" in controlled laboratory conditions confirmed the decisive role of humidity level (70.18±6.91% RH) in efficient colonization of painted surfaces, as well as demonstrated increased bioreceptivity of painted surfaces to fungal colonization when plant-based adhesives (ilinocopie, murdent), compared with organic adhesives of animal origin (bone glue, egg white), are used for pigment sizing.

  16. HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections: a guide to using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review aims to provide a guide for clinicians to using the clinical microbiology laboratory for management of common HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections, e.g. mucosal candidiasis, cryptococcosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), histoplasmosis, etc. Laboratory tests provide valuable guidance at ...

  17. Fungal secretomics to probe the biological functions of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrin, Jean-Guy; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2017-01-01

    to starch, the main carbon storage reservoir. In this review, we focus on the identification of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and their redox partners in fungal secretomes to highlight the biological functions of these remarkable enzyme systems and we discuss future trends related to LPMO...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    men (MSM) from donating blood and the negative emotions that surround this policy. I would like to assure readers that SANBS does not make such decisions lightly, and we constantly review policies based on the latest scientific findings. It is perhaps time to review the basis of the current policy and engage in debate on.

  19. Fungal-host diversity among mycoheterotrophic plants increases proportionally to their fungal-host overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent S F T; Saavedra, Serguei

    2017-05-01

    The vast majority of plants obtain an important proportion of vital resources from soil through mycorrhizal fungi. Generally, this happens in exchange of photosynthetically fixed carbon, but occasionally the interaction is mycoheterotrophic, and plants obtain carbon from mycorrhizal fungi. This process results in an antagonistic interaction between mycoheterotrophic plants and their fungal hosts. Importantly, the fungal-host diversity available for plants is restricted as mycoheterotrophic interactions often involve narrow lineages of fungal hosts. Unfortunately, little is known whether fungal-host diversity may be additionally modulated by plant-plant interactions through shared hosts. Yet, this may have important implications for plant competition and coexistence. Here, we use DNA sequencing data to investigate the interaction patterns between mycoheterotrophic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We find no phylogenetic signal on the number of fungal hosts nor on the fungal hosts shared among mycoheterotrophic plants. However, we observe a potential trend toward increased phylogenetic diversity of fungal hosts among mycoheterotrophic plants with increasing overlap in their fungal hosts. While these patterns remain for groups of plants regardless of location, we do find higher levels of overlap and diversity among plants from the same location. These findings suggest that species coexistence cannot be fully understood without attention to the two sides of ecological interactions.

  20. Etiological Analysis of Fungal Keratitis and Rapid Identification of Predominant Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Hao, Jilong; Gao, Song; Wan, Xue; Wang, Wanting; Shan, Qiushi; Wang, Li

    2016-02-01

    Fungal keratitis is a worldwide-distributed refractory and potentially blinding ocular infection caused by various fungi. It is necessary to investigate the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of this disease and establish a rapid and specific pathogenic identification method. Here, we isolated and identified fungal pathogens of 275 patients with presumed fungal keratitis from Jilin Province, China, and conducted statistical analyses of epidemiological information. The positive rate of fungal culture was 72.0 %. Fusarium sp. was the most common genus among 210 fungal isolates. The predominant species were Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida glabrata, which accounted for over 50 % of the isolated organisms. Corneal trauma and previous use of drugs were the most important predisposing factors. In addition, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was designed with species-specific primers of the three species that could identify them with amplicons of approximately 330 bp from F. solani, 275 bp from A. fumigatus, and 230 bp from C. glabrata. Additionally, PCR with fungal universal primers and multiplex PCR were performed using DNA prepared by an improved DNA extraction method from corneal scrapings. With this method, fungal pathogens from corneal scrapings could be specifically and rapidly identified within 8 h. The culture-independent rapid identification of corneal scrapings may have great significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of fungal keratitis.

  1. Assessing the impact of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics on fungal phytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kar-Chun; Ipcho, Simon V S; Trengove, Robert D; Oliver, Richard P; Solomon, Peter S

    2009-09-01

    SUMMARY Peer-reviewed literature is today littered with exciting new tools and techniques that are being used in all areas of biology and medicine. Transcriptomics, proteomics and, more recently, metabolomics are three of these techniques that have impacted on fungal plant pathology. Used individually, each of these techniques can generate a plethora of data that could occupy a laboratory for years. When used in combination, they have the potential to comprehensively dissect a system at the transcriptional and translational level. Transcriptomics, or quantitative gene expression profiling, is arguably the most familiar to researchers in the field of fungal plant pathology. Microarrays have been the primary technique for the last decade, but others are now emerging. Proteomics has also been exploited by the fungal phytopathogen community, but perhaps not to its potential. A lack of genome sequence information has frustrated proteomics researchers and has largely contributed to this technique not fulfilling its potential. The coming of the genome sequencing era has partially alleviated this problem. Metabolomics is the most recent of these techniques to emerge and is concerned with the non-targeted profiling of all metabolites in a given system. Metabolomics studies on fungal plant pathogens are only just beginning to appear, although its potential to dissect many facets of the pathogen and disease will see its popularity increase quickly. This review assesses the impact of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics on fungal plant pathology over the last decade and discusses their futures. Each of the techniques is described briefly with further reading recommended. Key examples highlighting the application of these technologies to fungal plant pathogens are also reviewed.

  2. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    .starjournal.org ... Soil pH can vary from 7 to 8.3 when only. Original Research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v2i4.9 ...... to solve fertility management related problems in the area. Thus identification of the reasons behind.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. FIREARM-RELATED INJURIES AND. DEATHS AMONG CHILDREN AND. ADOLESCENTS IN CAPE TOWN -. 1992 -1996. Alyssa Wigton. Objective. To determ.i.lle the epidemiological profile of fireann- related injuries among children and adolescents in Cape. Town during recent years in order to ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. PEAK RATES OF DIURESIS IN. HEALTHY HUMANS DURING ORAL. FLUID OVERLOAD. Timothy D Noakes, Gary Wilson, David A Gray,. Michael I Lambert, Steven C Dennis. Objective. To determine whether rates of intestinal fluid absorption and renal diuresis can match high rates of fluid ingestion ...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. CRITICAL CARE FOCUS. AETIOLOGY AND OUTCOME OF. SEVERE COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED. PNEUMONIA IN CHILDREN. ADMITTED TO A PAEDIATRIC. INTENSIVE CARE UNIT. S D Delport, T Brisley. Objective. To determine the aetiological agents and outcome of severe community-acquired ...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. UNPAID COMMUNITY. VOLUNTEERS - EFFECTIVE. PROVIDERS OF DIRECTLY. OBSERVED THERAPY (DOT) IN. RURAL SOUTH AFRICA. R D Barker, F J C Millard, M E Nthangeni. Objective. To il).ustrate successes and difficulties for the South. African National Tuberculosis Progranune in a ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Dual protection in sexually active women. Immo Kleinschmidt, Baker Ndugga Maggwa, Jennifer Smit,Mags E Beksinska, Helen Rees. Objective. To determine the prevalence and co-factors associated with the practice of dual protection against sexually transmitted infections (STis) and unwanted.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE. CANCER IN THE WESTERN CAPE. C F Heyns, AM Naude, A J Visser, D C Marais,. H B Stopforth, J K Nyarko, G A Stellmacher. Background. Early stage prostate cancer does not cause symptoms, and even metastatic disease may exist for years without causing ...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Nutritional variation and cardiovascular risk factors in. Tanzania - rural-urban difference. Marina Njelekela, Toshiaki Sato, Yasuo Nara, Tomohiro Miki, Sachiko Kuga, Takanori Noguchi, Torno Kanda, Masashi Yamori,. Josiah Ntogwisangu, Zablon Masesa, Yohana Mashalla, Jacob Mtabaji, Yukio ...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Formative assessment promotes learning in undergraduate clinical clerkships. V C Burch, J L Seggie, N E Gary. Introduction. Clinical clerkships, typically situated in environments lacking educational structure, form the backbone of undergraduate medical training. The imperative to develop strategies ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF. INTERNS TO BLOOD IN AN AREA. OF HIGH HIV SEROPREVALENCE. A S Karstaedt, L Pantanowitz. Objective. To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Design. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire ...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. HISTORY OF MEDICINE. ELIM HOSPITAL - THE FIRST 100. YEARS. Part 2. C F van der Merwe. THE JAQUES ERA. The year 1957 saw the arrival of another giant in the history of. Elim Hospital. During this year Dr Pierre Jaques returned from postgraduate work in the UK. This son of the North was.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. Raftery J. Mental health services in transition: the United States and the United Kingdom. Br. J Psychiatry 1992; 161: 589-593. 2. Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health. The Mental Health Services Workforce: Present and Future. A Report for the NHS Executive. London: The Sainsbury ...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND. DENTAL CARIES IN A LARGE. SAMPLE OF 4- AND 5-YEAR-OLD. SOUTH AFRICAN CHILDREN. Peter Cleaton-Jones, Barbara D Richardson, Lars Granath,. L raul Fatti, Ruth SinweU, Alexander R Walker, Mirriam. Mogotsi. Background. Evidence from studies involving ...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY MAY 2017 ISBN 1595-689X VOL18 No. 2 ... aquaculture in particular is of great concern to environmental and public health. In Nigeria, regulation ..... Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 7 (2): 66-71. 29. Adebowale O.O ...

  17. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    Stroke in Palestine www.ljm.org.ly. Libyan J Med, AOP: 080920. Page 39. Original Article. Characterization of Hospitalized Ischemic Stroke Patients in. Palestine. Sawalha AF ... Key words: Ischemic stroke, Risk factors, In-hospital mortality, Palestine. ABSTRACT .... stroke in young patients seems to vary between different ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alternatives to conventional care (homoeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, etc.), and also recognise the groundswell of interest in and support for inclusion of benefits for services provided by traditional healers. The transition from the original, relatively restricted approach which was concerned with established, mainstream.

  19. original research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    Original Research: Computer-based learning for the enhancement of breastfeeding training. 2009;22(3) ... Conclusion: It is recommended that validated computer-based breastfeeding training modules be integrated as part of multi-media methods .... training and consultations at community and individual level. 3. 0.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES failure, breath-holding spells and even strokeY The decreased attention span and learning associated with iron deficiency may have adverse effects on cognitive and psychomotor development.'-' Furthermore, appropriate treatment of iron deficiency is effective and safe, It would therefore seem worth.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-01

    Apr 1, 2011 ... also trained as VCT counsellors by the Foundation for ... of VCT. As a further response to reaching the NSP target, the national HIV counselling and testing campaign3 was launched in April 2010 with a focus on mobilising all South Africans to be ... origin of HIV/AIDS, HIV as an infectious disease, stigma,.

  2. original articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reliably measured by double-beam X-ray absorptiometry. (DEXA), which ... The diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD relative to that of healthy young adults and criteria for diagnosis are arbritary. The original 'normal' BMD data published by some ..... measurement error and were regarded as unchanged, but 10%.

  3. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    102640

    stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Jamahiriya Medical Journal 2003; 2:43-46. 13. Trease G and Evans W. Drugs of biological origin. In: Trease and Evans, 11th ed. Bailliere. Tindall. London 1980; pp 319-320, 741. 14. Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, et al. High α-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum):.

  4. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... 1998) and involves the movement of water along evapotranspiration, precipitation, surface runoff, subsurface flow, and groundwater pathways. Evapotranspiration (ET) is usually the largest component of the hydrologic cycle, given that most precipitation that falls on land is returned to the. Original Research ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    warrant delivery:. was made in the presence of fetal heart rate baseline variability of less than 5 beats per minute continuing for at least 60 minutes, or repeated late decelerations. 4. Antepartum haemorrhage included bleeding due to abruptio placentae, placenta praevia and antepartum haemorrhage of unknown origin.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of MTB strain is less than 39,062,500 and. 4,444,444,444 with selective effect to INH and RIF ..... random generated cycles was used as the empirical data to further assess the simulated results of the ... Basically, the process is a form of pseudo sampling from the original dataset to determine the variability.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Paediatric immunity. The immaturity of the infant immune system is demonstrated by the increased susceptibility of children to infections by both viral and bacterial pathogens. The humoral arm of the immune system is underdeveloped and differs greatly from that of adults. Infants only develop the ...

  8. Cultural Originality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of originality for the concept of alterity (or difference) and endorse it rather than rejecting it as the bedrock of a ..... economies and tax-paying dynamics of established nation-states. How then do we ~ and people .... The book demonstrates particularly clearly certain features of the intellec- tual artisanship of anthropological ...

  9. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010 May;3(2):25-9. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Several reports described an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Chronic HCV infection is prevalent in Egypt. The present work aimed to evaluate the prevalence of proteinuria and neuropathy.

  10. Lymphogenous metastasis to the transverse colon that originated from signet-ring cell gastric cancer: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Hirofumi; Kawai, Kazushige; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Murono, Koji; Kaneko, Manabu; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Yasuda, Koji; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Aikou, Susumu; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Seto, Yasuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-12-01

    Metastases to the colon are rare and a high-frequency primary region is the stomach. In cases of metastases to the colon, the morphological type of the metastatic region is mostly the infiltrating type of poorly differentiated or undifferentiated adenocarcinoma with lymph and blood vessel invasion. A case of cancer metastasis to the transverse colon that originated from advanced gastric cancer, which shows the difficulties in the precise diagnosis of metastases to the colon, is presented. In the present case, the gastric carcinoma was determined to be an advanced infiltrative ulcerative adenocarcinoma and the colon carcinoma was determined to be a superficial depressed adenocarcinoma. After surgery, the colon carcinoma was diagnosed as a metastatic adenocarcinoma from gastric adenocarcinoma with high invasion of vessels, by immunohistopathological analysis of CK7, CK20, p53 and HER-2. In this report, previously reported cases of metastases to the colon from gastric cancer were reviewed and their morphological characteristics were analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of effectors and host immunity in plant-necrotrophic fungal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuli; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Jinling; Liu, Wende; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Fungal diseases pose constant threats to the global economy and food safety. As the largest group of plant fungal pathogens, necrotrophic fungi cause heavy crop losses worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of the interaction between necrotrophic fungi and plants are complex and involve sophisticated recognition and signaling networks. Here, we review recent findings on the roles of phytotoxin and proteinaceous effectors, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and small RNAs from necrotrophic fungi. We also consider the functions of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), the receptor-like protein kinase BIK1, and epigenetic regulation in plant immunity to necrotrophic fungi.

  12. Naturally occurring bioactive Cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids in fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2014-10-15

    This article focuses on the occurrence and biological activities of cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids obtained from fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants. Naturally occurring CBC alkaloids are of particular interest because many of these compounds display important biological activities and possess antitumour, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, and immunosuppressive properties. Therefore, these compounds are of great interest in the fields of medicine, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and the pharmaceutical industry. Fermentation and production of CBC alkaloids by fungi and/or fungal endophytes is also discussed. This review presents the structures and describes the activities of 98 CBC alkaloids. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. The fungal biocontrol agent Coniothyrium minitans: production by solid-state fermentation, application and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrije, T; Antoine, N; Buitelaar, R M; Bruckner, S; Dissevelt, M; Durand, A; Gerlagh, M; Jones, E E; Lüth, P; Oostra, J; Ravensberg, W J; Renaud, R; Rinzema, A; Weber, F J; Whipps, J M

    2001-07-01

    Biological control agents (BCAs) are potential alternatives for the chemical fungicides presently used in agriculture to fight plant diseases. Coniothyrium minitans is an example of a promising fungal BCA. It is a naturally occurring parasite of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a wide-spread pathogen which substantially reduces the yield of many crops. This review describes, exemplified by C. minitans, the studies that need to be carried out before a fungal BCA is successfully introduced into the market. The main aspects considered are the biology of C. minitans, the development of a product by mass production of spores using solid-state fermentation technology, its biocontrol activity and marketing of the final product.

  14. Alfalfa snakin-1 prevents fungal colonization and probably coevolved with rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Araceli Nora; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Fox, Ana Romina; Gómez, María Cristina; Diéguez, María José; Pagano, Elba María; Berini, Carolina Andrea; Muschietti, Jorge Prometeo; Soto, Gabriela

    2014-09-17

    The production of antimicrobial peptides is a common defense strategy of living cells against a wide range of pathogens. Plant snakin peptides inhibit bacterial and fungal growth at extremely low concentrations. However, little is known of their molecular and ecological characteristics, including origin, evolutionary equivalence, specific functions and activity against beneficial microbes. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize snakin-1 from alfalfa (MsSN1). Phylogenetic analysis showed complete congruence between snakin-1 and plant trees. The antimicrobial activity of MsSN1 against bacterial and fungal pathogens of alfalfa was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Transgenic alfalfa overexpressing MsSN1 showed increased antimicrobial activity against virulent fungal strains. However, MsSN1 did not affect nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains only when these had an alfalfa origin. The results reported here suggest that snakin peptides have important and ancestral roles in land plant innate immunity. Our data indicate a coevolutionary process, in which alfalfa exerts a selection pressure for resistance to MsSN1 on rhizobial bacteria. The increased antimicrobial activity against virulent fungal strains without altering the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis observed in MsSN1-overexpressing alfalfa transgenic plants opens the way to the production of effective legume transgenic cultivars for biotic stress resistance.

  15. Fungal Biodiversity and Their Role in Soil Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Frąc

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil health, and the closely related terms of soil quality and fertility, is considered as one of the most important characteristics of soil ecosystems. The integrated approach to soil health assumes that soil is a living system and soil health results from the interaction between different processes and properties, with a strong effect on the activity of soil microbiota. All soils can be described using physical, chemical, and biological properties, but adaptation to environmental changes, driven by the processes of natural selection, are unique to the latter one. This mini review focuses on fungal biodiversity and its role in the health of managed soils as well as on the current methods used in soil mycobiome identification and utilization next generation sequencing (NGS approaches. The authors separately focus on agriculture and horticulture as well as grassland and forest ecosystems. Moreover, this mini review describes the effect of land-use on the biodiversity and succession of fungi. In conclusion, the authors recommend a shift from cataloging fungal species in different soil ecosystems toward a more global analysis based on functions and interactions between organisms.

  16. Moisture parameters and fungal communities associated with gypsum drywall in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-08

    Uncontrolled excess moisture in buildings is a common problem that can lead to changes in fungal communities. In buildings, moisture parameters can be classified by location and include assessments of moisture in the air, at a surface, or within a material. These parameters are not equivalent in dynamic indoor environments, which makes moisture-induced fungal growth in buildings a complex occurrence. In order to determine the circumstances that lead to such growth, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of in situ moisture measurement, the influence of building factors on moisture parameters, and the levels of these moisture parameters that lead to indoor fungal growth. Currently, there are disagreements in the literature on this topic. A literature review was conducted specifically on moisture-induced fungal growth on gypsum drywall. This review revealed that there is no consistent measurement approach used to characterize moisture in laboratory and field studies, with relative humidity measurements being most common. Additionally, many studies identify a critical moisture value, below which fungal growth will not occur. The values defined by relative humidity encompassed the largest range, while those defined by moisture content exhibited the highest variation. Critical values defined by equilibrium relative humidity were most consistent, and this is likely due to equilibrium relative humidity being the most relevant moisture parameter to microbial growth, since it is a reasonable measure of moisture available at surfaces, where fungi often proliferate. Several sources concur that surface moisture, particularly liquid water, is the prominent factor influencing microbial changes and that moisture in the air and within a material are of lesser importance. However, even if surface moisture is assessed, a single critical moisture level to prevent fungal growth cannot be defined, due to a number of factors, including variations in fungal genera and

  17. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  18. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  19. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Arnold JM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. Results We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Conclusions Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    who.int/ cardiovascular_diseases/resources/trs923/en/ (last accessed 15 November 2005). 3. Manyemba J, Mayosi BM. Intramuscular penicill1n is more effective than oral penicillin in secondary prevention of rheumatic fever- a systematic review.

  2. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    27.Ade, Rosmana

    2016-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Effectiveness of Fungal and Bacterial Isolates Fruits Againts Fusarium oxysporum f, sp passifl (Penulis: Hilda Karim, Tutik Kuswinanti, Ade Rosmana Burhanuddin). International Journal of agricultural system. (IJAS) ISSN: 2337-9782. Vol. 1 . No. 2, December 2013. Penerbit: Pascasarjana Unhas. Hal.120-126 www.pasca.unhas.ac.id

  3. Is the blood pressure of people from African origin adults in the UK higher or lower than that in European origin white people? A review of cross-sectional data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure (BP) levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher in adult populations of African descent living in the UK as compared to the white population. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE

  4. Fungi identify the geographic origin of dust samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Neal S; Reich, Brian J; Pacifici, Krishna; Laber, Eric B; Menninger, Holly L; Henley, Jessica B; Barberán, Albert; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    There is a long history of archaeologists and forensic scientists using pollen found in a dust sample to identify its geographic origin or history. Such palynological approaches have important limitations as they require time-consuming identification of pollen grains, a priori knowledge of plant species distributions, and a sufficient diversity of pollen types to permit spatial or temporal identification. We demonstrate an alternative approach based on DNA sequencing analyses of the fungal diversity found in dust samples. Using nearly 1,000 dust samples collected from across the continental U.S., our analyses identify up to 40,000 fungal taxa from these samples, many of which exhibit a high degree of geographic endemism. We develop a statistical learning algorithm via discriminant analysis that exploits this geographic endemicity in the fungal diversity to correctly identify samples to within a few hundred kilometers of their geographic origin with high probability. In addition, our statistical approach provides a measure of certainty for each prediction, in contrast with current palynology methods that are almost always based on expert opinion and devoid of statistical inference. Fungal taxa found in dust samples can therefore be used to identify the origin of that dust and, more importantly, we can quantify our degree of certainty that a sample originated in a particular place. This work opens up a new approach to forensic biology that could be used by scientists to identify the origin of dust or soil samples found on objects, clothing, or archaeological artifacts.

  5. Fungi identify the geographic origin of dust samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal S Grantham

    Full Text Available There is a long history of archaeologists and forensic scientists using pollen found in a dust sample to identify its geographic origin or history. Such palynological approaches have important limitations as they require time-consuming identification of pollen grains, a priori knowledge of plant species distributions, and a sufficient diversity of pollen types to permit spatial or temporal identification. We demonstrate an alternative approach based on DNA sequencing analyses of the fungal diversity found in dust samples. Using nearly 1,000 dust samples collected from across the continental U.S., our analyses identify up to 40,000 fungal taxa from these samples, many of which exhibit a high degree of geographic endemism. We develop a statistical learning algorithm via discriminant analysis that exploits this geographic endemicity in the fungal diversity to correctly identify samples to within a few hundred kilometers of their geographic origin with high probability. In addition, our statistical approach provides a measure of certainty for each prediction, in contrast with current palynology methods that are almost always based on expert opinion and devoid of statistical inference. Fungal taxa found in dust samples can therefore be used to identify the origin of that dust and, more importantly, we can quantify our degree of certainty that a sample originated in a particular place. This work opens up a new approach to forensic biology that could be used by scientists to identify the origin of dust or soil samples found on objects, clothing, or archaeological artifacts.

  6. Nasal rhinosporidiosis: differential diagnosis of fungal sinusitis and inverted papilloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crosara, Paulo Fernando Tormin Borges

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical case report of rhinosporidiosis, a rare and chronic granulomatous disease, caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Objective: To include this disease in the differential diagnoses of polypoid lesions of the nasal mass. Report: A male patient from the North of Brazil evolved a three-year papilomatous polypoid lesion of the left nasal cavity. He was submitted to sinusectomy with resection of the entire lesion, located in ethmoid bulla and uncinated process. Inverted papilloma or fungal sinusitis were differential diagnoses. The histopathological examination revealed a strong infestation by numerous fungal structures with sporangia shape full of sporangiospores. The microorganisms were positive for colorations of Grocott, PAS and Mayer's Mucicarmin; opposite from Coccidioides immitis, which presents no contrast by the mucicarmin. We didn't choose complimentary treatment and after one year of follow-up he presents with no sign of recurrence. Final Comments: Rhinosporidiosis must be considered to be a nasal polypoid lesion differential diagnosis. In the intranasal lesions diagnosis we should keep in mind the patient's origin. The anatomopathological study is mandatory to set the diagnosis. In the rhinosporidiosis, the surgical exeresis can be a curative treatment.

  7. Role of Macroautophagy in Nutrient Homeostasis During Fungal Development and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naweed I. Naqvi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Macroautophagy is a non-selective, bulk degradation process conserved in eukaryotes. Response to starvation stress and/or regulation of nutrient breakdown/utilization is the major intracellular function of macroautophagy. Recent studies have revealed requirement for autophagy in diverse functions such as nutrient homeostasis, organelle degradation and programmed cell death in filamentous fungal pathogens, for proper morphogenesis and differentiation during critical steps of infection. In this review, we aim to summarize the physiological functions of autophagy in fungal virulence, with an emphasis on nutrient homeostasis in opportunistic human fungal pathogens and in the rice-blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. We briefly summarize the role of autophagy on the host side: for resistance to, or subversion by, the pathogens.

  8. Bacterial-Fungal Interactions: Hyphens between Agricultural, Clinical, Environmental, and Food Microbiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey-Klett, P.; Burlinson, P.; Deveau, A.; Barret, M.; Tarkka, M.; Sarniguet, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Bacteria and fungi can form a range of physical associations that depend on various modes of molecular communication for their development and functioning. These bacterial-fungal interactions often result in changes to the pathogenicity or the nutritional influence of one or both partners toward plants or animals (including humans). They can also result in unique contributions to biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological processes. Thus, the interactions between bacteria and fungi are of central importance to numerous biological questions in agriculture, forestry, environmental science, food production, and medicine. Here we present a structured review of bacterial-fungal interactions, illustrated by examples sourced from many diverse scientific fields. We consider the general and specific properties of these interactions, providing a global perspective across this emerging multidisciplinary research area. We show that in many cases, parallels can be drawn between different scenarios in which bacterial-fungal interactions are important. Finally, we discuss how new avenues of investigation may enhance our ability to combat, manipulate, or exploit bacterial-fungal complexes for the economic and practical benefit of humanity as well as reshape our current understanding of bacterial and fungal ecology. PMID:22126995

  9. Immunological Consequences of Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Matthew L; Limon, Jose J; Bar, Agnieszka S; Leal, Christian A; Gargus, Matthew; Tang, Jie; Brown, Jordan; Funari, Vincent A; Wang, Hanlin L; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M; Iliev, Iliyan D

    2016-06-08

    Compared to bacteria, the role of fungi within the intestinal microbiota is poorly understood. In this study we investigated whether the presence of a "healthy" fungal community in the gut is important for modulating immune function. Prolonged oral treatment of mice with antifungal drugs resulted in increased disease severity in acute and chronic models of colitis, and also exacerbated the development of allergic airway disease. Microbiota profiling revealed restructuring of fungal and bacterial communities. Specifically, representation of Candida spp. was reduced, while Aspergillus, Wallemia, and Epicoccum spp. were increased. Oral supplementation with a mixture of three fungi found to expand during antifungal treatment (Aspergillus amstelodami, Epicoccum nigrum, and Wallemia sebi) was sufficient to recapitulate the exacerbating effects of antifungal drugs on allergic airway disease. Taken together, these results indicate that disruption of commensal fungal populations can influence local and peripheral immune responses and enhance relevant disease states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Can Some Marine-Derived Fungal Metabolites Become Actual Anticancer Agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson G. M. Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine fungi are known to produce structurally unique secondary metabolites, and more than 1000 marine fungal-derived metabolites have already been reported. Despite the absence of marine fungal-derived metabolites in the current clinical pipeline, dozens of them have been classified as potential chemotherapy candidates because of their anticancer activity. Over the last decade, several comprehensive reviews have covered the potential anticancer activity of marine fungal-derived metabolites. However, these reviews consider the term “cytotoxicity” to be synonymous with “anticancer agent”, which is not actually true. Indeed, a cytotoxic compound is by definition a poisonous compound. To become a potential anticancer agent, a cytotoxic compound must at least display (i selectivity between normal and cancer cells (ii activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR cancer cells; and (iii a preferentially non-apoptotic cell death mechanism, as it is now well known that a high proportion of cancer cells that resist chemotherapy are in fact apoptosis-resistant cancer cells against which pro-apoptotic drugs have more than limited efficacy. The present review thus focuses on the cytotoxic marine fungal-derived metabolites whose ability to kill cancer cells has been reported in the literature. Particular attention is paid to the compounds that kill cancer cells through non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms.

  11. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  12. Fungal traits that drive ecosystem dynamics on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, Kathleen K; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Fungi contribute extensively to a wide range of ecosystem processes, including decomposition of organic carbon, deposition of recalcitrant carbon, and transformations of nitrogen and phosphorus. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about physiological and morphological traits of fungi that directly influence these processes, and we describe the functional genes that encode these traits. In addition, we synthesize information from 157 whole fungal genomes in order to determine relationships among selected functional genes within fungal taxa. Ecosystem-related traits varied most at relatively coarse taxonomic levels. For example, we found that the maximum amount of variance for traits associated with carbon mineralization, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, and stress tolerance could be explained at the levels of order to phylum. Moreover, suites of traits tended to co-occur within taxa. Specifically, the genetic capacities for traits that improve stress tolerance-β-glucan synthesis, trehalose production, and cold-induced RNA helicases-were positively related to one another, and they were more evident in yeasts. Traits that regulate the decomposition of complex organic matter-lignin peroxidases, cellobiohydrolases, and crystalline cellulases-were also positively related, but they were more strongly associated with free-living filamentous fungi. Altogether, these relationships provide evidence for two functional groups: stress tolerators, which may contribute to soil carbon accumulation via the production of recalcitrant compounds; and decomposers, which may reduce soil carbon stocks. It is possible that ecosystem functions, such as soil carbon storage, may be mediated by shifts in the fungal community between stress tolerators and decomposers in response to environmental changes, such as drought and warming. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Plant and fungal diversity in gut microbiota as revealed by molecular and culture investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gouba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A stool specimen was collected from a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a body mass index of 48.9 who was living in Marseille, France. Plant and fungal species were identified using a PCR-based method incorporating 25 primer pairs specific for each eukaryotic phylum and universal eukaryotic primers targeting 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS and a chloroplast gene. The PCR products amplified using these primers were cloned and sequenced. Three different culture media were used to isolate fungi, and these cultured fungi were further identified by ITS sequencing. A total of 37 eukaryotic species were identified, including a Diatoms (Blastocystis sp. species, 18 plant species from the Streptophyta phylum and 18 fungal species from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiocomycota phyla. Cultures yielded 16 fungal species, while PCR-sequencing identified 7 fungal species. Of these 7 species of fungi, 5 were also identified by culture. Twenty-one eukaryotic species were discovered for the first time in human gut microbiota, including 8 fungi (Aspergillus flavipes, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium dipodomyicola, Penicillium camemberti, Climacocystis sp. and Malassezia restricta. Many fungal species apparently originated from food, as did 11 plant species. However, four plant species (Atractylodes japonica, Fibraurea tinctoria, Angelica anomala, Mitella nuda are used as medicinal plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Investigating the eukaryotic components of gut microbiota may help us to understand their role in human health.

  14. Fungal diversity from deep marine subsurface sediments (IODP 317, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redou, V.; Arzur, D.; Burgaud, G.; Barbier, G.

    2012-12-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest regarding micro-eukaryotic communities in extreme environments as a third microbial domain after Bacteria and Archaea. However, knowledge is still scarce and the diversity of micro-eukaryotes in such environments remains hidden and their ecological role unknown. Our research program is based on the deep sedimentary layers of the Canterbury Basin in New Zealand (IODP 317) from the subsurface to the record depth of 1884 meters below seafloor. The objectives of our study are (i) to assess the genetic diversity of fungi in deep-sea sediments and (ii) identify the functional part in order to better understand the origin and the ecological role of fungal communities in this extreme ecosystem. Fingerprinting-based methods using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography were used as a first step to raise our objectives. Molecular fungal diversity was assessed using amplification of ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacer 1) as a biomarker on 11 samples sediments from 3.76 to 1884 meters below seafloor. Fungal molecular signatures were detected throughout the sediment core. The phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were revealed with DNA as well as cDNA. Most of the phylotypes are affiliated to environmental sequences and some to common fungal cultured species. The discovery of a present and metabolically active fungal component in this unique ecosystem allows some interesting first hypotheses that will be further combined to culture-based methods and deeper molecular methods (454 pyrosequencing) to highlight essential informations regarding physiology and ecological role of fungal communities in deep marine sediments.

  15. Simultaneous detection and quantification of the unculturable microbe Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum inside its fungal host Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvioli, Alessandra; Lumini, Erica; Anca, Iulia A; Bianciotto, Valeria; Bonfante, Paola

    2008-01-01

    A combined approach based on quantitative and nested polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and nPCR, respectively) has been set up to detect and quantify the unculturable endobacterium Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum inside the spores of its fungal host Gigaspora margarita. Four genes were targeted, two of bacterial origin (23S rRNA gene and rpoB) and two from the fungus (18S rRNA gene and EF1-alpha). The sensitivity of the qPCR protocol has proved to be comparable to that of nPCR, both for the fungal and the bacterial detection. It has been demonstrated that the last detected dilution in qPCR corresponded, in each case, to 10 copies of the target sequences, suggesting that the method is equally sensitive for the detection of both fungal and bacterial targets. As the two targeted bacterial genes are predicted to be in single copy, it can be concluded that the detection limit is of 10 bacterial genomes for each mixture. The protocol was then successfully applied to amplify fungal and bacterial DNA from auxiliary cells and extraradical and intraradical mycelium. For the first time qPCR has been applied to a complex biological system to detect and quantify fungal and bacterial components using single-copy genes, and to monitor the bacterial presence throughout the fungal life cycle.

  16. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pezhman Kharazm

    Background: Acute Mesenteric Ischemia (AMI) is one of the causes of acute abdomen which occurs because of significant ... clinical features, laboratory findings, abdominal x rays, ECGs, intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 32 patients ... we decided to review our experience in the management of mesenteric ...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herod the Great, ldumean by birth, was king ofthe Jews from 40 to 4 BC. An able statesman, builder and warrior, he ruthlessly stamped out all perceived opposition to his rule. His last decade was characterised by vicious strife within his family and progressive ill health. We review the nature of his illnesses and suggest that ...

  18. ; ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginally absorbed serum kvels are more prolonged' The shorter half- life when given orally may be advantageous in the event of uterine hyperstimulation. On the other hand, the direct local effect of vaginal misoprostol on cervical softening may be advantageous. Randomised trials of oral misoprostol reviewed to date have.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the effect of length of stay and administration of depot antipsychotics in hospital on time to readmission. Design. A retrospective cohort of 180 admissions was followed up for 12 months, after an index discharge, by means of multiple hospital and community-based record reviews. Each readmission was analysed as an event ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Government Gazette. Pretoria: Government Printers, 1996. 4_ Makan 8_ Distribution of health personneL In: Barron P, ed. South African Health Review 1998. Durban: Health Systems Trust, 199 . 5. Moorman J, Pick WM. Planning Human Resources for Health Care. johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand, 1997. 6.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The. Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-12-02

    Dec 2, 2001 ... Pretoria: Department of Finance, 1996. 6. National Department of Finance. Intergovernmental Review 1999. Pretoria: Department of. Finance, 1999. 7. National ... Department of Finance, Western Cape Province. ... Mcintyre D. Social health insurance: is it a feasible and desirable option for South Africa?

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Sputum smear conversion during pulmonary tuberculosis treatment is an important indicator of patient response to therapy ... spective review assessed the trends in sputum smear evaluation and conversion rates among follow up pulmonary tuberculosis ...... “Influence of diabetes on manifestations and treatment outcome of ...

  4. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction: End stage renal disease (ESRD) is a significant social and economic burden on Africa. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was introduced as a national service in the Sudan three years ago. An overview of the Sudan Peritoneal Dialysis. Program is presented. Review: As a national ...

  5. . ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with pulmonary inflammatory disease. Methods. A retrospective review of patients admitted ... Massive haemoptysis is defined as blood loss exceeding 600 rnl over 24 hours or haemoptysis exceeding 250 rnl ... Pleural involvement due to chronic tuberculosis commonly recruits collateral feeders from these arteries.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    published peer-reviewed clinical evidence for the efficacy of traditional medicines in the treatment of HIV. We investigated the dominant practices of THPs towards HIV-positive patients and whether these practices have changed following widespread .... of dried plant material (leaves, roots, bark, etc.); the resultant solutions ...

  7. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... Boyle, W. (1955). Spices and essential oils as preservatives. American Perfumer and Essential Oil Review 66: 25-28. Brodin, P., Roed, A. (1984). Effects of eugenol on rat phrenic nerve and phrenic nerve diaphragm preparations. Archives of Oral Biology 29: 611-615. Burbott, A.J., and W.D. Loomis, (1967).

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hepatitis B carriers in the South African population, the reduction in the number of patients at risk of infection, ... among British and American haemodialysis patients respectively,'·" prompted studies which ..... in antiquity, and the nature of tumours reported, are reviewed. P 0 Box 29521, Danhof, 9310. Francois P Retief, MD, ...

  9. Indoor airborne fungal pollution in newborn units in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, Rasime; Sen, Burhan; Kadaifciler, Duygu; Yoltas, Aysegul; Okten, Suzan; Ozkale, Evrim; Berikten, Derya; Samson, Robert A.; Haliki Uztan, Alev; Yilmaz, Neriman; Abaci Gunyar, Ozlem; Aydogdu, Halide; Asan, Ahmet; Kivanc, Merih; Ozdil, Soner; Sakartepe, Erhan

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic and/or opportunistic fungal species are major causes of nosocomial infections, especially in controlled environments where immunocompromised patients are hospitalized. Indoor fungal contamination in hospital air is associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Regular

  10. Fungal isolates and their toxicity from different ecosystems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    , chemical and drug industries. Since then, new fungal ...... Nesci A, Barros G, Castillo C, Etcheverry M (2006). Soil fungal population in preharvest maize ecosystem in different tillage practices in Argentina. Soil Tillage Res.

  11. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  12. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    authenticity in professional judgment and identity building. I argue that this should be seen in the context that the professional status of the Danish pedagogues is being challenged by the current restructuring of public services with reference to knowledge economy discourse. Furthermore there is remarkable...... and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study...

  13. Alfalfa snakin-1 prevents fungal colonization and probably coevolved with rhizobia

    OpenAIRE

    García, Araceli Nora; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Fox, Ana Romina; Gómez, María Cristina; Diéguez, María José; Pagano, Elba María; Berini, Carolina Andrea; Muschietti, Jorge Prometeo; Soto, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Background: The production of antimicrobial peptides is a common defense strategy of living cells against a wide range of pathogens. Plant snakin peptides inhibit bacterial and fungal growth at extremely low concentrations. However, little is known of their molecular and ecological characteristics, including origin, evolutionary equivalence, specific functions and activity against beneficial microbes. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize snakin-1 from alfalfa (MsSN1). R...

  14. Potential Roles of Fungal Extracellular Vesicles during Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Joffe, Luna S.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by virtually all cell types. Within the past few years, work in this field has revealed more information about fungal EVs. Fungal EVs have been shown to carry proteins, lipids, pigments, polysaccharides, and RNA; these components are known virulence factors, a fact which supports the hypothesis that fungal EVs concentrate pathogenic determinants. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated that fungal EVs stimulate the host immune system. ...

  15. Drivers of soil fungal communities in boreal forests

    OpenAIRE

    Sterkenburg, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests harbour diverse fungal communities with decisive roles in decomposition and plant nutrition. Difficulties in studying soil fungi have limited knowledge about how fungal communities are shaped. The objective of this thesis was to study factors influencing soil fungal communities, aiming for increased understanding of their effect on environmental processes. Using next generation sequencing, responses of fungal communities to their physical-chemical environment, and responses...

  16. Fungal community assemblage of different soil compartments in mangrove ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Loganathachetti, Dinesh Sanka; Poosakkannu, Anbu; Muthuraman, Sundararaman

    2017-01-01

    The fungal communities of different soil compartments in mangrove ecosystem are poorly studied. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions to characterize the fungal communities in Avicennia marina root-associated soils (rhizosphere and pneumatophore) and bulk soil compartments. The rhizosphere but not pneumatophore soil compartment had significantly lower fungal species richness than bulk soil. However, bulk soil fungal diversity (Shannon diversity index) was significantly hi...

  17. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  18. High prevalence of a fungal prion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debets, A.J.M.; Dalstra, H.J.P.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Koopmanschap-Memelink, A.B.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Saupe, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been found in fungi, but studies on their role in nature are scarce. The proposed biological function of fungal prions is debated and varies from detrimental to benign or even beneficial. [Het-s] is a prion of the

  19. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  20. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.