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Sample records for functional refractory period

  1. Effects of Electric Stimulations Applied during Absolute Refractory Period on Cardiac Function of Rabbits with Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海柱; 崔长琮; 胡大一

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electric currents applied during absolute refractory period(ARP) on the cardiac function of rabbits with heart failure due to myocardial infarction(MI),and the safety of this method were investigated.Thirty rabbits were randomly assigned equally to 3 groups:sham-operated group,LV-anterior wall cardiac contractility modulation(LV-CCM) group,and septum-CCM(S-CCM) group.A thoracotomy was performed on all the rabbits.Electric pulses were delivered during the ARP on the anterior wall of left ventr...

  2. [The influence of frequency and blockade of the autonomic nervous system on the functional behaviour of the human conduction system. Part B: Refractory periods (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M; Luckmann, E; Narula, O S

    1976-01-01

    32 patients were studied by His-bundle-electrocardiogram and programmed atrial stimulation to examine to which extent frequency and autonomic tone participate in influencing the effective (ERP) and functional (FRP) refractory periods of the atrium and AV-node. The measurements were performed during three electrically induced atrial frequencies before and after intravenous injection of 1 mg Atropine (15 patients) and 0.4 mg Visken (17 patients). For the atrium, frequency dominates the blockade of both components of the autonomic nervous system in influencing both refractory periods. Increase in frequency shortens both ERP and FRP of the atriu. The blockade of parasympathicus and sympathicus does not significantly influence the changes in atrial ERP and FRP induced by atrial pacing. The AV-node responses most sensitive to both pacing induced cycle length shortening and blockade of the autonomic tone. Cycle length shortening prolongs the nodal ERP. the FRP is either shortened or prolonged. Blockade of the parasympathicus shortens both nodal ERP and FRP. Blockade of the sympathicus lengthens both parameters. This behaviour of both refractory periods in response to atrial pacing and blockade of the autonomic tone are discussed with respect to the "gate mechanism" in the conduction system. In the majority of patients blockade of the parasympathicus shifts the "gate" from the AV-node to the atrium. Blockade of the sympathicus has the opposite effect in some cases.

  3. How Social and Refractory Is the Social Psychological Refractory Period?

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    Wühr, Peter; Heuer, Herbert

    2017-07-01

    The social psychological refractory period (PRP) effect refers to an increase in RT to the second of two successive stimuli when another person responds to the first stimulus (shared dual-task condition) rather than when a single person responds to both stimuli (individual dual-task condition). We investigated (a) whether a social PRP effect would occur without explicit instruction concerning task priority and (b) whether there are crosstalk effects in the shared dual-task situation. We observed a strong PRP effect together with a small crosstalk effect in the individual dual-task condition, but in the shared dual-task condition both effects were absent. These findings suggest that the explicit instruction to perform responses in a fixed order is necessary to obtain the social PRP effect. In the individual dual-task condition, sequential processing can be seen as a means to reduce or prevent crosstalk effects, which is not necessary in the shared dual-task condition.

  4. Queuing Network Modeling of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Liu, Yili

    2008-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) is a basic but important form of dual-task information processing. Existing serial or parallel processing models of PRP have successfully accounted for a variety of PRP phenomena; however, each also encounters at least 1 experimental counterexample to its predictions or modeling mechanisms. This article…

  5. Individual differences effects on the psychological refractory period

    OpenAIRE

    Laguë-Beauvais, Maude; Gagnon, Christine; Castonguay, Nathalie; Bherer, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of individual neuropsychological differences on the ability to share attention between concurrent tasks. Participants (n = 20) were trained on six single task practice sessions and dual-task was assessed with reaction time performance on a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm. Neuropsychological test scores were also acquired. Furthermore, one of the known variables that can influence performances on neuropsychological tests is gender,...

  6. Refractory period of an excitable semiconductor laser with optical injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garbin, Bruno; Prati, Franco; Javaloyes, Julien; Tissoni, Giovanna; Barland, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Injection-locked semiconductor lasers can be brought to a neuron-like excitable regime when parameters are set close to the unlocking transition. Here we study experimentally the response of this system to repeated optical perturbations and observe the existence of a refractory period during which perturbations are not able to elicit an excitable response. The results are analyzed via simulations of a set of dynamical equations which reproduced adequately the experimental results.

  7. Relative Refractory Period in an Excitable Semiconductor Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, F.; Braive, R.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Barbay, S.

    2014-05-01

    We report on experimental evidence of neuronlike excitable behavior in a micropillar laser with saturable absorber. We show that under a single pulsed perturbation the system exhibits subnanosecond response pulses and analyze the role of the laser bias pumping. Under a double pulsed excitation we study the absolute and relative refractory periods, similarly to what can be found in neural excitability, and interpret the results in terms of a dynamical inhibition mediated by the carrier dynamics. These measurements shed light on the analogy between optical and biological neurons and pave the way to fast spike-time coding based optical systems with a speed several orders of magnitude faster than their biological or electronic counterparts.

  8. Periodic solutions and refractory periods in the soliton theory for nerves and the locust femoral nerve

    CERN Document Server

    Vargas, Edgar Villagran; Hustert, Reinhold; Gumrich, Peter; Jackson, Andrew D; Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Close to melting transitions it is possible to propagate solitary electromechanical pulses which reflect many of the experimental features of the nerve pulse including mechanical dislocations and reversible heat production. Here we show that one also obtains the possibility of periodic pulse generation when the boundary condition for the nerve is the conservation of the overall length of the nerve. This condition generates an undershoot beneath the baseline (`hyperpolarization') and a `refractory period', i.e., a minimum distance between pulses. In this paper, we outline the theory for periodic solutions to the wave equation and compare these results to action potentials from the femoral nerve of the locust (locusta migratoria). In particular, we describe the frequently occurring minimum-distance doublet pulses seen in these neurons and compare them to the periodic pulse solutions.

  9. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  10. Synchronization of globally coupled two-state stochastic oscillators with a state-dependent refractory period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaff, Daniel; Harbola, Upendra; Lindenberg, Katja

    2012-07-01

    We present a model of identical coupled two-state stochastic units, each of which in isolation is governed by a fixed refractory period. The nonlinear coupling between units directly affects the refractory period, which now depends on the global state of the system and can therefore itself become time dependent. At weak coupling the array settles into a quiescent stationary state. Increasing coupling strength leads to a saddle node bifurcation, beyond which the quiescent state coexists with a stable limit cycle of nonlinear coherent oscillations. We explicitly determine the critical coupling constant for this transition.

  11. THE WAVELET TRANSFORM OF PERIODIC FUNCTION AND NONSTATIONARY PERIODIC FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海峰; 周炜星; 王辅臣; 龚欣; 于遵宏

    2002-01-01

    Some properties of the wavelet transform of trigonometric function, periodic function and nonstationary periodic function have been investigated. The results show that the peak height and width in wavelet energy spectrum of a periodic function are in proportion to its period. At the same time, a new equation, which can truly reconstruct a trigonometric function with only one scale wavelet coefficient, is presented. The reconstructed wave shape of a periodic function with the equation is better than any term of its Fourier series. And the reconstructed wave shape of a class of nonstationary periodic function with this equation agrees well with the function.

  12. Response Grouping in the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) Paradigm: Models and Contamination Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Rolf; Miller, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Response grouping is a ubiquitous phenomenon in psychological refractory period (PRP) tasks, yet it hampers the analysis of dual-task performance. To account for response grouping, we developed several extended versions of the standard bottleneck model, each of which incorporates a possible grouping mechanism into this model. Computer simulations…

  13. Multi-neuronal refractory period adapts centrally generated behaviour to reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Harris

    Full Text Available Oscillating neuronal circuits, known as central pattern generators (CPGs, are responsible for generating rhythmic behaviours such as walking, breathing and chewing. The CPG model alone however does not account for the ability of animals to adapt their future behaviour to changes in the sensory environment that signal reward. Here, using multi-electrode array (MEA recording in an established experimental model of centrally generated rhythmic behaviour we show that the feeding CPG of Lymnaea stagnalis is itself associated with another, and hitherto unidentified, oscillating neuronal population. This extra-CPG oscillator is characterised by high population-wide activity alternating with population-wide quiescence. During the quiescent periods the CPG is refractory to activation by food-associated stimuli. Furthermore, the duration of the refractory period predicts the timing of the next activation of the CPG, which may be minutes into the future. Rewarding food stimuli and dopamine accelerate the frequency of the extra-CPG oscillator and reduce the duration of its quiescent periods. These findings indicate that dopamine adapts future feeding behaviour to the availability of food by significantly reducing the refractory period of the brain's feeding circuitry.

  14. Absolute and relative refractory periods in a micropillar laser with saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, F.; Braive, R.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Barbay, S.

    2014-05-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor micropillar lasers with intracavity saturable absorber in the excitable regime. The excitable regime is characterized by an all-or-none type of response to an input perturbation: when the perturbation amplitude is below the excitable threshold, the system remains in its quiet, stable state; when the perturbation exceeds the excitable threshold, a calibrated response pulse is emitted. It is believed to have great potential for fast neuromorphic optical processing, in addition to being also interesting for the study of nonlinear wave propagation. Fast excitable, neuron-like, dynamics is experimentally evidenced with response times in the 200ps range. We also show the presence of an absolute and a relative refractory periods in this system, analog to what is found in biological neurons but with several orders of magnitude faster response times. The absolute refractory period is the amount of time after a first excitable pulse has been emitted during which it is not possible to excite the system anymore. The relative refractory period is the time after a first excitable pulse during which an inhibited response is emitted and has been often overlooked in optical systems. Both these times are of fundamental importance regarding the propagation of stable excitable waves, and in view of designing spike-time based optical signal processing systems. The experimental results are well described qualitatively by a simple model of a laser with saturable absorber.

  15. Effects of Electric Stimulations Applied During Absolute Refractory Period on Ventricular Muscle from Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海柱; 崔长琮; 赵晓静; 周忠

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To investigatethe influences of electric signals applied during absoluterefractory period(ARP)on the contractility of isolatedpapilary muscle from rabbits.Methods Papillarymuscle was exercised from the right yentricle and waspaced at 1 Hz.Biphasic square wave current pulse wasdelivered during the absolute refractory period(calledCCM)in isolated,superfused,isometrically contractil-ity rabbit papillary muscle.The peak tension(PT)ofpapillary muscle,as well as maximum positive tensionchange(+dT/dtmax),were observed.ResultsCompared with the baseline,both PT and+dT/dtmaxsignificantly increased during CCM stimulation by18.2%and 21.4%respectively(P<0.05).In ad-dition,PT increased significantly with one or two beatsfollowing CCM signal application and reached a newsteady state level after a few beats.Once the CCM signals were turned off,the PT returned to the approximatelv baseline level(P<0.05).Moreover,the effectof CCM on PT was dose-response to voltage.Theobvious effect was at higher voltage.No effect was ob-served at lower voltage.Conclusions Electric signalsdelivered during the absolute refractory period canrapidly enhance the contractility of myocardium,whichsuggests that CCM signal is a novel potent method forcontractility modulation.

  16. Atypical auditory refractory periods in children from lower socio-economic status backgrounds: ERP evidence for a role of selective attention.

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    Stevens, Courtney; Paulsen, David; Yasen, Alia; Neville, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies indicate that lower socio-economic status (SES) is associated with reduced effects of selective attention on auditory processing. Here, we investigated whether lower SES is also associated with differences in a stimulus-driven aspect of auditory processing: the neural refractory period, or reduced amplitude response at faster rates of stimulus presentation. Thirty-two children aged 3 to 8 years participated, and were divided into two SES groups based on maternal education. Event-related brain potentials were recorded to probe stimuli presented at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 200, 500, or 1000 ms. These probes were superimposed on story narratives when attended and ignored, permitting a simultaneous experimental manipulation of selective attention. Results indicated that group differences in refractory periods differed as a function of attention condition. Children from higher SES backgrounds showed full neural recovery by 500 ms for attended stimuli, but required at least 1000 ms for unattended stimuli. In contrast, children from lower SES backgrounds showed similar refractory effects to attended and unattended stimuli, with full neural recovery by 500 ms. Thus, in higher SES children only, one functional consequence of selective attention is attenuation of the response to unattended stimuli, particularly at rapid ISIs, altering basic properties of the auditory refractory period. Together, these data indicate that differences in selective attention impact basic aspects of auditory processing in children from lower SES backgrounds.

  17. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) regulates excitability and refractory period of the guinea pig ureter.

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    Maggi, C A; Giuliani, S

    1994-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), released from the peripheral endings of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent neurons, may play a role as an inhibitory transmitter in the guinea pig ureter. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of capsaicin desensitization and administration of a CGRP receptor antagonist on the excitability and refractory period of the guinea pig ureter to electrical field stimulation. Electrical field stimulation using a long (5 msec.) pulse width produced phasic contractions of the ureter which were unaffected by tetrodotoxin, that is, were produced through direct excitation of ureteral smooth muscle. Human alpha CGRP (1 to 10 nM.) produced a concentration-dependent transient suppression of the evoked contractions, and its effect was prevented by the CGRP receptor antagonist human alpha CGRP(8-37) (1 microM.). In vitro capsaicin pretreatment (10 microM. for 15 minutes) to block neuropeptide release from peripheral endings of sensory nerves or administration of the CGRP receptor antagonist enhanced the responsiveness of the guinea pig ureter to electrical stimulation. In control ureters, the application of two trains of electrical stimuli failed to produce a second contraction at intertrain intervals greater than 20 seconds. The intertrain interval required to obtain a second contraction averaging 50% of the amplitude of the first response (ITI50) of control ureters was about 50 seconds. In vitro capsaicin pretreatment or administration of the CGRP receptor antagonist reduced the refractory period of the ureter to electrical field stimulation: ITI50 averaged 8.8 and 9.1 seconds after capsaicin or CGRP antagonist pretreatment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that capsaicin pretreatment or blockade of CGRP receptors produced qualitatively and quantitatively similar excitatory effects on ureteral excitability and refractory period and are in general agreement with the idea that CGRP is a

  18. Task switching and response correspondence in the psychological refractory period paradigm

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    Lien, Mei-Ching; Schweickert, Richard; Proctor, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of task switching and response correspondence in a psychological refractory period paradigm. A letter task (vowel-consonant) and a digit task (odd-even) were combined to form 4 possible dual-task pairs in each trial: letter-letter, letter-digit, digit-digit, and digit-letter. Foreknowledge of task transition (repeat or switch) and task identity (letter or digit) was varied across experiments: no foreknowledge in Experiment 1, partial foreknowledge (task transition only) in Experiment 2, and full foreknowledge in Experiment 3. For all experiments, the switch cost for Task 2 was additive with stimulus onset asynchrony, and the response-correspondence effect for Task 2 was numerically smaller in the switch condition than in the repeat condition. These outcomes suggest that reconfiguration for Task 2 takes place after the central processing of Task 1 and that the crosstalk correspondence effect is due to response activation by way of stimulus-response associations.

  19. A study of cognitive function in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feilong; Li, Peng; Li, Bin; Zhang, Shizhen; Zhang, Xinjie; Yang, Sen; Liu, Hongbin; Wang, Wei

    2017-03-24

    OBJECTIVE Anterior capsulotomy (AC) is sometimes used as a last resort for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous studies assessing neuropsychological outcomes in patients with OCD have identified several forms of cognitive dysfunction that are associated with the disease, but few have focused on changes in cognitive function in OCD patients who have undergone surgery. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of AC on the cognitive function of patients with treatment-refractory OCD. METHODS The authors selected 14 patients with treatment-refractory OCD who had undergone bilateral AC between 2007 and 2013, 14 nonsurgically treated OCD patients, and 14 healthy control subjects for this study. The 3 groups were matched for sex, age, and education. Several neuropsychological tests, including Similarities and Block Design, which are subsets of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; Immediate and Delayed Logical Memory and Immediate and Delayed Visual Reproduction, which are subsets of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and Corrects, Categories, Perseverative Errors, Nonperseverative Errors, and Errors, subtests of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, were conducted in all 42 subjects at baseline and after AC, after nonsurgical treatment, or at 6-month intervals, as appropriate. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to measure OCD symptoms in all 28 OCD patients. RESULTS The Y-BOCS scores decreased significantly in both OCD groups during the 12-month follow-up period. Surgical patients showed higher levels of improvement in verbal memory, visual memory, visuospatial skills, and executive function than the nonsurgically treated OCD patients. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study suggest that AC not only reduces OCD symptoms but also attenuates moderate cognitive deficits.

  20. Ion channel remodeling is related to intraoperative atrial effective refractory periods in patients with paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brundel, BJJM; Van Gelder, IC; Henning, RH; Tieleman, RG; Tuinenburg, AE; Wietses, M; Grandjean, JG; Van Gilst, WH; Crijns, HJGM

    2001-01-01

    Background-Sustained shortening of the atrial effective refractory period (AERP), probably due to reduction in the L-type calcium current, is a major factor in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF), We investigated underlying molecular changes by studying the relation between ge

  1. The influence of training on the attentional blink and psychological refractory period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, K G; Tombu, M N; Dux, P E

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research suggests that dual-task interference in sensory consolidation (e.g., the attentional blink, AB) and response selection (e.g., the psychological refractory period, PRP) stems from a common central bottleneck of information processing. With regard to response selection, it is well known that training reduces dual-task interference. We tested whether training that is known to be effective for response selection can also reduce dual-task interference in sensory consolidation. Over two experiments, performance on a PRP paradigm (Exp. 1) and on AB paradigms (differing in their stimuli and task demands, Exps. 1 and 2) was examined after participants had completed a relevant training regimen (T1 practice for both paradigms), an irrelevant training regimen (comparable sensorimotor training, not related to T1 for both tasks), a visual-search training regimen (Exp. 2 only), or after participants had been allocated to a no-training control group. Training that had shown to be effective for reducing dual-task interference in response selection was also found to be effective for reducing interference in sensory consolidation. In addition, we found some evidence that training benefits transferred to the sensory consolidation of untrained stimuli. Collectively, these findings show that training benefits can transfer across cognitive operations that draw on the central bottleneck in information processing. These findings have implications for theories of the AB and for the design of cognitive-training regimens that aim to produce transferable training benefits.

  2. Multisession, dual-task psychological refractory period practice benefits older and younger adults equally.

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    Allen, Philip A; Ruthruff, Eric; Elicker, Joelle D; Lien, Mei-Ching

    2009-10-01

    The authors tested 18 younger adults and 18 older adults on four sessions in a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm, to see whether older adults can benefit as much from dual-task practice as younger adults. Task 1 involved tone discrimination and Task 2 involved simultaneous letter-matching. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the tasks was either 50, 150, 300, or 900 ms. Although older adults showed a larger PRP effect than younger adults, there were no group differences in the practice/training benefit. These results differ from Maquestiaux, Hartley, and Bertsch (2004, Psychology and Aging, 19, 649-667, Experiment 1), who found that age differences in PRP effects became progressively larger with increased practice. These findings, along with the simultaneous-presentation, dual-task work of Kramer, Larish, and Strayer (1995, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 1, 50-76) and Bherer et al. (2005, Psychology and Aging, 20, 695-709; 2006, Acta Psychologica, 123, 261-278), suggest that older adults can benefit as much as younger adults from dual-task training.

  3. Repelling periodic points of given periods of rational functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jianming; FANG Mingliang

    2006-01-01

    Let R(z) be a rational function of degree d ≥ 2. Then R(z) has at least one repelling periodic point of given period k ≥ 2, unless k = 4 and d=2, or k= 3 and d ≤ 3, or k=2 and d≤8. Examples show that all exceptional cases occur.

  4. Atria selective prolongation by NIP-142, an antiarrhythmic agent, of refractory period and action potential duration in guinea pig myocardium.

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    Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Takeda, Kentaro; Ito, Mie; Yamagishi, Reiko; Tamura, Miku; Nakamura, Hideki; Tsuruoka, Noriko; Saito, Tomoaki; Masumiya, Haruko; Suzuki, Takeshi; Iida-Tanaka, Naoko; Itokawa-Matsuda, Maho; Yamashita, Toru; Tsuruzoe, Nobutomo; Tanaka, Hikaru; Shigenobu, Koki

    2005-05-01

    NIP-142 is a novel benzopyran compound that was shown to prolong the atrial effective refractory period and terminate experimental atrial fibrillation in the dog. In the present study, we examined the effects of NIP-142 on isolated guinea pig myocardium and on the G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel current (acetylcholine-activated potassium current; I(KACh)) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. NIP-142 (10 and 100 microM) concentration-dependently prolonged the refractory period and action potential duration in the atrium but not in the ventricle. E-4031 and 4-aminopyridine prolonged action potential duration in both left atrium and right ventricle. Prolongation by NIP-142 of the atrial action potential duration was observed at stimulation frequencies between 0.5 and 5 Hz. In contrast, the prolongation by E-4031 was not observed at higher frequencies. Tertiapin, a blocker of I(KACh), prolonged action potential duration in the atrium but not in the ventricle. NIP-142 completely reversed the carbachol-induced shortening of atrial action potential duration. NIP-142 (1 to 100 microM), as well as tertiapin (0.1 to 100 nM), concentration-dependently blocked I(KACh) expressed in Xenopus oocytes; the blockade by NIP-142 was not affected by membrane voltage. In conclusion, NIP-142 was shown to prolong atrial refractory period and action potential duration through blockade of I(KACh) which may possibly explain its previously described antiarrhythmic activity. NIP-142 has pharmacological properties that are different from classical class III antiarrhythmic agents such as atria specificity and lack of reverse frequency dependence, and thus appears promising for the treatment of supraventricular arrhythmia.

  5. The period functions' higher order derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Sabatini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We prove a formula for the $n$-th derivative of the period function $T$ in a period annulus of a planar differential system. For $n = 1$, we obtain Freire, Gasull and Guillamon formula for the period's first derivative \\cite{FGG}. We apply such a result to hamiltonian systems with separable variables and other systems. We give some sufficient conditions for the period function of conservative second order O.D.E.'s to be convex.

  6. Local Extrema of Periodic Function's Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Qi-bin; SONG Xiao-yan

    2005-01-01

    The theory of detecting ridges in the modulus of the continuous wavelet transform is presented as well as reconstructing signal by using information on ridges. To periodic signal we suppose Morlet wavelet as basic wavelet, and research the local extreme point and extrema of the wavelet transform on periodic function for the collection of signal's instantaneous amplitude and period.

  7. David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Hope

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

  8. David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Hope

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

  9. Weight effects on the periodic ambiguity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Benjamin; Levanon, Nadav

    1995-01-01

    CW radar signals and processors are discussed. The use of the periodic ambiguity function (PAF) to analyze the delay-Doppler performance of CW signals and their corresponding correlation receivers, is extended to include weight function effects. This work provides tools which can predict the delay-Doppler response of almost any phase-coded CW radar. Examples demonstrate that a combination of CW signals having perfect periodic autocorrelation, a matched reference signal with a large number of modulation periods and a smooth weight function, can create a delay-Doppler response with extremely low sidelobes, strongly resembling the response of a coherent pulse train.

  10. Refractory hypoglycemia in a patient with functional adrenal cortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Regina Marchetti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adrenacarcinomas are rare, and hypoglycemic syndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II by these tumors have been described infrequently. This study describes the case of a young woman with severe persistent hypoglycemia and a large adrenal tumor and discusses the physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypoglycemia. The case is described as a 21-year-old woman who presented with 8 months of general symptoms and, in the preceding 3 months, with episodes of mental confusion and visual blurring secondary to hypoglycemia. A functional assessment of the adrenal cortex revealed ACTH-independent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism. Hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, low C-peptide and no ketones were also detected. An evaluation of the GH–IGF axis revealed GH blockade (0.03; reference: up to 4.4 ng/mL, greatly reduced IGF-I levels (9.0 ng/mL; reference: 180–780 ng/mL, slightly reduced IGF-II levels (197 ng/mL; reference: 267–616 ng/mL and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio (21.9; reference: ~3. CT scan revealed a large expansive mass in the right adrenal gland and pulmonary and liver metastases. During hospitalization, the patient experienced frequent difficult-to-control hypoglycemia and hypokalemia episodes. Octreotide was ineffective in controlling hypoglycemia. Due to unresectability, chemotherapy was tried, but after 3 months, the patient’s condition worsened and progressed to death. In conclusion, our patient presented with a functional adrenal cortical carcinoma, with hyperandrogenism associated with hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and blockage of the GH–IGF-I axis. Patient’s data suggested a diagnosis of hypoglycemia induced by an IGF-II or a large IGF-II-producing tumor (low levels of GH, greatly decreased IGF-I, slightly decreased IGF-II and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio.

  11. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Refractory Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Shino; Ishimura, Norihisa; Mikami, Hironobu; Okimoto, Eiko; Uno, Goichi; Tamagawa, Yuji; Aimi, Masahito; Oshima, Naoki; Sato, Shuichi; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). However, the prevalence and clinical conditions of SIBO in patients with FGID remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the frequency of SIBO in patients with refractory FGID. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with refractory FGID based on Rome III criteria. A glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) was performed using a gas analyzer after an overnight fast, with breath hydrogen concentration measured at baseline and every 15 minutes after administration of glucose for a total of 3 hours. A peak hydrogen value ≥ 10 ppm above the basal value between 60 and 120 minutes after administration of glucose was diagnosed as SIBO. Results A total of 38 FGID patients, including 11 with functional dyspepsia (FD), 10 with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 17 with overlapping with FD and IBS, were enrolled. Of those, 2 (5.3%) were diagnosed with SIBO (one patient diagnosed with FD; the other with overlapping FD and IBS). Their symptoms were clearly improved and breath hydrogen levels decreased to normal following levofloxacin administration for 7 days. Conclusions Two patients initially diagnosed with FD and IBS were also diagnosed with SIBO as assessed by GHBT. Although the frequency of SIBO is low among patients with FGID, it may be important to be aware of SIBO as differential diagnosis when examining patients with refractory gastrointestinal symptoms, especially bloating, as a part of routine clinical care. PMID:26554916

  12. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

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    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  13. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  14. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables.

  15. Some Properties of Weighted Pseudo almost Periodic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Ming Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several interesting and new properties of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions are established. Firstly, we obtain an equivalent definition for weighted pseudo almost periodic functions, which shows a close relationship between asymptotically almost periodic functions and weighted pseudo almost periodic functions; secondly, we prove that the space of asymptotically almost periodic functions is always a proper subspace of the space of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions; thirdly, we show that under some cases, the space of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions equals the classical space of pseudo almost periodic functions.

  16. Effect of β3-adrenoceptors on Ventricle Fibrillation Threshold and Effective Refractory Period in Rats With Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yijun; Wu Wei; Huang Zhibing; Fang Chang

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To observe the effect of β3-Adrenoceptor (AR) on ventricle fibrillation threshold ( VFT ) and effective refractory period (ERP) in rats with heart failure. Methods Rats were randomized into control group and heart failure group.The expression of β3-ARmRNA was detected with RTPCR; The VFT, ERP, LVESP,LVEDP, +dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmax was measured at the same time with administration of BRL37344 ( 2 nmol / kg, β3- AR agonist). Results ①Both the expression of β3-AR mRNA and the proportion increased in rats with heart failure in comparison with control rats (0.028 vs.0.011 and 5.4% vs 1.2%, P < 0.05); ② ERP was longer in rats with heart failure than control group (70.5±5.5 ms vs 59.5±6.4ms, P < 0.05) and there was no difference of ERP in rats with heart failure with administration of BRL37344 (73.0±4.8 ms vs 70.5±5.5 ms, P > 0.05); ③VFT was lower in rats with heart failure than control group(10.9±0.8 mv vs 30.5±1.3 mv, P<0.05) and decreased obviously in rats with heart failure with administration of BRL37344 (7.1±0.6 mv vs 10.9±0.8 mv, P < 0.05); The decrease of VFT correlated with the effect on LVESP, +dp/dtmax,-dp/dtmax of BRL37344 and the expression of β3-AR mRNA (correlation coefficient: 0.788, 0.708,0.759, 0.787; P < 0.05). Conclusions The expression of β3-AR mRNA of left ventricle was obviously increased in rats with heart failure, and activation of β3-AR had no effect on ERP but could decreased VFT which correlated with the effect of β3-AR on LVESP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmax and the expression of β3-AR mRNA.

  17. Uniformly Almost Periodic Functions and Almost Periodic Solutions to Dynamic Equations on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, we propose a concept of uniformly almost periodic functions on almost periodic time scales and investigate some basic properties of them. When time scale T=ℝ or ℤ, our definition of the uniformly almost periodic functions is equivalent to the classical definitions of uniformly almost periodic functions and the uniformly almost periodic sequences, respectively. Then, based on these, we study the existence and uniqueness of almost periodic solutions and derive some fundamental conditions of admitting an exponential dichotomy to linear dynamic equations. Finally, as an application of our results, we study the existence of almost periodic solutions for an almost periodic nonlinear dynamic equations on time scales.

  18. Delirium in advanced age and dementia: A prolonged refractory course of delirium and lower functional status

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOETTGER, SOENKE; JENEWEIN, JOSEF; BREITBART, WILLIAM

    2017-01-01

    and refractory course of delirium, in addition to more severe functional impairment through one week of management. PMID:25192320

  19. Effect of a prostaglandin F2α analogue on the cyclic corpus luteum during its refractory period in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzinger Beatrice

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to examine the response of the cyclic corpus luteum of cows to the administration of a prostaglandin F2α analogue (PGF during the transition of refractoriness to responsiveness by investigating ultrasonographic changes in the corpus luteum and changes in plasma progesterone concentration in cows following the administration of PGF 3 and 5 days after ovulation. Results All cows that responded to PGF given on day 5 ovulated on day 9. In the cows that did not respond on day 5, the luteal cross-sectional area stagnated after treatment, whereas the plasma progesterone concentration continued to increase. In the cows that received PGF on day 3 of the oestrous cycle, the luteal cross-sectional area and the plasma progesterone concentration continued to increase. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the transition of the bovine corpus luteum from refractoriness to responsiveness to PGF occurs during day 5 of the oestrous cycle because in 5 of 8 cows given PGF on day 5, early luteal regression was evident during the examination 24 hours after PGF administration.

  20. Unhealthy dietary behavior in refractory functional dyspepsia: a multicenter prospective investigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu Man; Lei, Xiao Gai; Jia, Lin; Xu, Ming; Wang, Sheng Bing; Liu, Jing; Song, Min

    2014-12-01

    To determine the association of dietary behavior with refractory functional dyspepsia (RFD) and its subtypes in Chinese patients. The medical records of patients admitted to the Outpatient Department of Gastroenterology of four hospitals in Mainland China for upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms from June to September 2012 were reviewed and their characteristics were collected. Functional dyspepsia (FD) was diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria. RFD was defined as FD with continuous symptoms for at least 6 months that was unresponsive to at least two kinds of medications. Another 100 healthy volunteers were included as controls. The participants' dietary behaviors were investigated using a questionnaire survey. Overall, 1341 FD patients were enrolled in the study, including 327 RFD and 1014 non-RFD (NRFD). Unhealthy dietary behaviors were more prevalent in both RFD and NRFD than in the healthy controls. Skipping meals, eating extra meals and a preference to sweet food and gas-producing food were more common in the RFD patients. Compared with NRFD, RFD-epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) patients preferred spicy food, whereas those with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) preferred sweet food and gas-producing food, and those with both EPS and PDS were found to skip meals and take extra meals more often. Logistic regression analysis showed that skipping meals, eating extra meals and a preference to sweet food and gas-producing food were risk factors for RFD. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, especially skipping meals, eating extra meals and a preference to sweet food and gas-producing food, were correlated with RFD and its subtypes. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Impact of alternate fuels on industrial refractories and refractory insulation applications. An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-09-01

    The effects of use of alternate fuels such as distillate oils, residual oils, coal, producer gas, and electricity on refractory insulation are evaluated. Sections are included on alternate fuels for 1976 to 1980, assessment by industry of fuel conversion impact on industrial refractories in the period 1976 to 1980, interactions of alternate fuel combustion products with refractories and refractory insulation, and analysis of degradation mechanisms in refractories and refractory materials. (JRD)

  2. Effects of Electrical Stimulation During Absolute Refractory Period on Contraction and Relaxation of Cardiomyocytes from Normal Guinea-pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓静; 崔长琮; 张海柱

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To investi- gate the effect of electrical stimulation during absoluterefractory period on contraction and relaxation of ven-tricular myocytes from normal guinea-pigs. MethodsThe guinea -pig ventricular myocytes were obtainedby enzyme digesting, and the extent of its contractionand relaxation and Ca2+ transient were recordedthrough the motion edge detection system. Resultsmyocytes increased 15.45±6.48%, and the peakvelocity of shorting (contraction) and the peak velocity of relengthening (relaxation) increased 15.97±8.37% and 21.63 ± 8.06% respectively ( n = 10 );tio(360/380) (F360/F380) increased 22. 55 ± 9.08%,and the peak velocity of ventricular myocytes F360/F380 increased 36.75 ± 9.77% and 23.62 ± 4.47%during shorting and relengthening respectively (n =6) . Conclusions Appropriate electrical stimulationmay strengthen the contracting and relaxing function ofnormal guinea- pig ventricular myocytes.

  3. Periodic Solutions of Periodic Delay Predator-Prey System with Nonmonotonic Functional Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永利; 韩茂安

    2003-01-01

    By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions are obtained for theexistence of positive periodic solutions of a delayed predator-prey system with nonmonotonic functional response ina periodic environment.

  4. Determination of work functions near melting points of refractory metals by using a direct-current arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, W. A.; Chapman, G. B., II

    1972-01-01

    Effective work functions of refractory metals at temperatures near their melting points were determined by using a direct-current arc. A metal wire connected as the cathode was melted by striking an arc discharge in an argon atmosphere. A melted sphere was formed with a definite emitting area which was calculated from the sphere diameter measured after terminating the arc. Effective work functions were calculated from the Richardson-Dushman equation by using this emission area. The procedure is experimentally advantageous because surface cleanliness of the specimen is not critical, high vacuum is not required, and the anode-cathode spacing is not critical.

  5. Is there a decline in cognitive functions after combined electroconvulsive therapy and antipsychotic therapy in treatment-refractory schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Kołodziej-Kowalska, Emilia; Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2015-03-01

    An analysis of literature shows that there is still little evidence concerning the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) combined with antipsychotic therapy in a group of treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients. More precisely, its influence on cognitive functions is still equivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ECT combined with antipsychotic therapy on working memory, attention, and executive functions in a group of treatment-refractory schizophrenia patients. Twenty-seven patients completed the study: 14 men and 13 women, aged 21 to 55 years (mean age, 32.8 years), diagnosed with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Each patient underwent a course of ECT sessions and was treated with antipsychotic medications. Before the ECT and within 3 days after the last ECT session, the participants were assessed with the following neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test (TMT) and Wisconsin Cart Sorting Test (WCST). There were no significant differences in the TMT and WCST results after combined ECT and antipsychotic therapy in treatment-refractory schizophrenia patients. According to the results of the neuropsychological tests, there was no decline in attention, executive functions, or working memory. The current study shows no significant difference in attention, working memory, or executive functions after treatment with a combination of electroconvulsive and antipsychotic therapy. This suggests that combined electroconvulsive therapy may not have a negative influence on the neuropsychological functioning of patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia.

  6. The period functionsʼ higher order derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, M.

    We prove a formula for the n-th derivative of the period function T in a period annulus of a planar differential system. For n=1, we obtain Freire, Gasull and Guillamon formula for the period's first derivative (Chicone and Dumortier, 1993) [17]. We apply such a result to Hamiltonian systems with separable variables and other systems. We give some sufficient conditions for the period function of conservative second order ODE's to be convex.

  7. Bypassing the central bottleneck after single-task practice in the psychological refractory period paradigm: evidence for task automatization and greedy resource recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquestiaux, François; Laguë-Beauvais, Maude; Ruthruff, Eric; Bherer, Louis

    2008-10-01

    In this research, the controversial issue of whether the central bottleneck can be bypassed through task automatization was investigated. To examine this issue, participants received six single-task practice sessions with an auditory-vocal task (low vs. high pitch). We then assessed dual-task performance using the analytically tractable psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm, in which the highly practiced auditory-vocal task was presented as Task 2, along with an unpracticed visual-manual Task 1. The results provide evidence of bottleneck bypass for virtually all the participants (17 out of 20). Several converging tests suggest that the bottleneck reemerged, however, in a follow-up experiment with tasks presented in the opposite order (auditory-vocal Task 1 and visual-manual Task 2). One possible explanation is that tasks greedily recruit central resources when available, even though they can operate without central resources when unavailable.

  8. Evidence for a response preparation bottleneck during dual-task performance: effect of a startling acoustic stimulus on the psychological refractory period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovat, Dana; Chua, Romeo; Spencer, Hunter C; Forgaard, Christopher J; Carlsen, Anthony N; Franks, Ian M

    2013-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism associated with dual-task interference in a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm. We used a simple reaction time paradigm consisting of a vocal response (R1) and key-lift task (R2) with a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between 100ms and 1500ms. On selected trials we implemented a startling acoustic stimulus concurrent with the second stimulus to determine if we could involuntarily trigger the second response. Our results indicated that the PRP delay in the second response was present for both control and startle trials at short SOAs, suggesting the second response was not prepared in advance. These results support a response preparation bottleneck and can be explained via a neural activation model of preparation. In addition, we found that the reflexive startle activation was reduced in the dual-task condition for all SOAs, a result we attribute to prepulse inhibition associated with dual-task processing.

  9. A comparison of the psychological refractory period and prioritized processing paradigms: Can the response-selection bottleneck model explain them both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Durst, Moritz

    2015-10-01

    Four experiments examined whether well-established phenomena from the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm are also observed in the prioritized processing paradigm, as would be expected from a common description of the 2 paradigms with the response selection bottleneck (RSB) model. Consistent with a generalization of the RSB model to the prioritized processing paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that this paradigm yields effects of SOA and stimulus discriminability analogous to those observed in the PRP paradigm. In Experiments 3 and 4, however, overall RTs and effect sizes differed between the PRP and prioritized processing paradigms in ways that are difficult to explain within the RSB model. Understanding the differences between these 2 paradigms offers considerable promise as a way to extend the RSB model beyond the domain of the PRP paradigm and to generalize our understanding of multitasking interference.

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of digital music gastric electrical pacing for refractory functional dyspepsia concomitant with non-erosive reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-mei RAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical efficacy of digital music gastric electrical pacing for refractory functional dyspepsia concomitant with non-erosive reflux disease, and its effects on mental health and life-quality of the patients. Methods According to the Rome Ⅲ criteria and Montreal consensus in diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease, 50 patients with concomitant refractory functional dyspepsia and non-erosive reflux disease were recruited. The clinical efficacy of digital music gastric electrical pacing were evaluated using the score of clinical symptoms before treatment and 15 days after treatment, and the mental health and life-quality of patients were assessed using symptom checklist 90. Results Main symptoms, including upper abdominal pain, abdominal fullness, early satiety, belching, hiccup, nausea, heartburn, acid reflux (daytime, nocturnal acid reflux, loss of appetite and sleep, were significantly improved 15 days after treatment compared with those of pre-treatment, and there were statistically significant differences (all P<0.005. The significant response rate/response rate (efficacy rate were 59.0%/100.0%, 59.3%/96.3%, 47.0%/94.1%, 61.3%/96.8 %, 86.7%/100.0%, 80.0%/100.0%, 64.3%/92.9%, 73.7%/89.5%, 64.3%/85.7%, 90.0%/90.0%, 36.7%/93.3% respectively. After treatment for 15 days, the overall response rate of symptom relief was 94.4% in patients and the overall significant response rate was 65.7%. The symptom scores of somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, depression, and anxiety were significantly improved, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.01. Conclusion The clinical efficacy of digital music gastric electrical pacing is significant for refractory functional dyspepsia concomitant with nonerosive reflux disease, and it is expected to be a new option for the treatment of this disease complex. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.08

  11. Preferential loss of mismatch repair function in refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia: potential contribution to AML progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guogen Mao; Fenghua Yuan; Kimberly Absher; C Darrell Jennings; Dianna S Howard; Craig T Jordan; Liya Gu

    2008-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematological cancer. Despite therapeutic regimens that lead to complete remission, the vast majority of patients undergo relapse. The molecular mechanisms underlying AML development and relapse remain incompletely defined. To explore whether loss of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) function is involved in AML, we screened two key MMR genes, MSH2 and MLH1, for mutations and promoter hypermethylation in leukemia specimens from 53 AML patients and blood from 17 non-cancer controls. We show here that whereas no amino acid alteration or promoter hypermethylation was detected in all control samples, 18 AML patients exhibited either mutations in MMR genes or hypermethylation in the MLH1 promoter. In vitro functional MMR analysis revealed that almost all the mutations analyzed resulted in loss of MMR function. MMR defects were significantly more frequent in patients with refractory or relapsed AML compared with newly diagnosed patients. These observations suggest for the first time that the loss of MMR function is associated with refractory and relapsed AML and may contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  12. Thoughts on Strategic Development of China's Refractories Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiangchong

    2003-01-01

    For China' s refractories industry, the first two decades in the new century would be a period of structural optimization with reorganization of refractories enterprises,reconstruction of manufacturing plants and restructuring of product varieties. An important strategic measure should be to develop high quality synthetic raw materials and high performance functional products mainly based on our rich natural resources to cope with new demands of advanced high temperature technologies.

  13. Estudo prospectivo das repercussões de baixas doses de remifentanil na função sinoatrial e na condução e refratariedade cardíaca Estudio prospectivo de las repercusiones de bajas dosis de remifentanil en la función sinoatrial en la conducción y refractariedad cardiaca Prospective study on the repercussions of low doses of remifentanil on sinoatrial function and in cardiac conduction and refractory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Soares Leite

    2007-10-01

    recuperación del nódulo sino-atrial (p = 0,0004, del período refractario del atrio derecho (p = 0,001 y del período refractario del nódulo atrio ventricular (p = 0,0001, pero no hubo disminución de la frecuencia cardíaca basal entre M0 e M1. CONCLUSIONES: El remifentanil altero las variables electrofisiológicas cardíacas, lo que en dosis mayores que las estudiadas podría causar bradicardia sinusal, asistolia y disturbios de conducción.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Remifentanil is an opiod with fast onset of action and short acting, and its use in short-duration procedures has increased in the last few years. Bradycardia and asystole are among the side effects reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of this drug in cardiac conduction and refractory period in human beings. METHODS: A prospective study with 16 patients, ages 18 to 65, both genders, ASA I to III, undergoing elective intracardiac electrophysiological study, was undertaken. Patients with disorders of the sinoatrial node and those with severe cardiac blocks were excluded. In the laboratory of electrophysiology, patients were sedated with midazolam (0.03 mg.kg-1 after 5 minutes the degree of sedation and degree of pain, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation were evaluated. The electrophysiologist evaluated cardiac conduction (duration of the QRS complex, and AA, AH, HV, and PA intervals, duration of sinoatrial node recovery, and cardiac refractory period (refractory period of the right atrium, right ventricle, and atrioventricular node. After the initial measurements, remifentanil was administered (bolus of 0.5 µg.kg-1 + infusion of 0.05 µg.kg-1.min-1 and, after 20 minutes, the same parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: There was a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001 between M0 and M1, and significant differences in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation, which were not statistically significant. The

  14. Refractory vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Bram; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Refractory vasculitis occurs in 4-5% of patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis (AAV). Differences between therapies used for refractory disease are mostly reflected in the percentages of complete and partial remissions, but also in the number of serious side effects

  15. Refractory vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Bram; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Refractory vasculitis occurs in 4-5% of patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis (AAV). Differences between therapies used for refractory disease are mostly reflected in the percentages of complete and partial remissions, but also in the number of serious side

  16. SINTERED REFRACTORY TUNGSTEN ALLOYS. Gesinterte hochschmelzende wolframlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, R.; Sedlatschek, K.; Braun, H.

    1971-12-15

    Dependence of the melting point of the refractory metals on their positions in the periodic system - alloys of tungsten with other refractory metals - sintering of the alloys - processing of the alloys - technological properties.

  17. ALMOST PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO STOCHASTIC FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    By applying the properties of almost periodic function and exponential dichotomy of linear system as well as Banach fixed point theorem,we establish the conditions for the existence and uniqueness of square-mean almost periodic solution to some stochastic functional differential equations.

  18. Correlation functions for a periodic box-ball system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mada, Jun [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, 2-11-1 Shin-ei, Narashino, Chiba 275-8576 (Japan); Tokihiro, Tetsuji [Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Tokyo 153-8914 (Japan)

    2010-04-02

    We investigate correlation functions in a periodic box-ball system. For the two-point functions of short distance, we give explicit formulae obtained by combinatorial methods. We give expressions for general N-point functions in terms of ultradiscrete theta functions.

  19. Identification of precision treatment strategies for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma by functional drug sensitivity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Muntasir Mamun; Silvennoinen, Raija; Anttila, Pekka; Tamborero, David; Eldfors, Samuli; Yadav, Bhagwan; Karjalainen, Riikka; Kuusanmäki, Heikki; Lievonen, Juha; Parsons, Alun; Suvela, Minna; Jantunen, Esa; Porkka, Kimmo; Heckman, Caroline A

    2017-08-22

    Novel agents have increased survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, however high-risk and relapsed/refractory patients remain challenging to treat and their outcome is poor. To identify novel therapies and aid treatment selection for MM, we assessed the ex vivo sensitivity of 50 MM patient samples to 308 approved and investigational drugs. With the results we i) classified patients based on their ex vivo drug response profile; ii) identified and matched potential drug candidates to recurrent cytogenetic alterations; and iii) correlated ex vivo drug sensitivity to patient outcome. Based on their drug sensitivity profiles, MM patients were stratified into four distinct subgroups with varied survival outcomes. Patients with progressive disease and poor survival clustered in a drug response group exhibiting high sensitivity to signal transduction inhibitors. Del(17p) positive samples were resistant to most drugs tested with the exception of histone deacetylase and BCL2 inhibitors. Samples positive for t(4;14) were highly sensitive to immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors and several targeted drugs. Three patients treated based on the ex vivo results showed good response to the selected treatments. Our results demonstrate that ex vivo drug testing may potentially be applied to optimize treatment selection and achieve therapeutic benefit for relapsed/refractory MM.

  20. Memory, executive function and language function are similarly impaired in both temporal and extra temporal refractory epilepsy-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vinod K; Shukla, Garima; Afsar, Mohammad; Poornima, Shivani; Pandey, R M; Rai, Neha; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Vibha, Deepti; Behari, Madhuri

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment has long been recognized as a co-morbidity or sequel to refractory epilepsy. This study was conducted to evaluate the degree and selectivity of involvement of memory, language and executive functions performance among patients with temporal (TLE) versus extratemporal epilepsy (ETLE). We prospectively enrolled adolescent and adult patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy, who had undergone pre-surgical evaluation. Language, memory and executive function assessment was done using Western Aphasia Battery, PGI memory scale and battery of four executive function tests (trail making test A & B, digit symbol test, Stroop Task and verbal fluency test), respectively. Among102 patients enrolled (TLE-59, ETLE-43), mean age of patients 23.0 4± 8.3 years, 83 (82%) had impairment of more than one cognitive domain and 21 (21%) had all three domains involved. Severely impaired memory scores were found in 8.6% patients with MTLE-HS, 8% of the rest of the patients with TLE and 7% patients with ETLE. The differences in the mean scores were also not found statistically significant (p=0.669). Naming impairment was the most common language abnormality, although all aphasia subscores were similar for the ETLE and TLE groups. Executive function impairment was the most common cognitive domain affected. Overall performance on executive function tests was found impaired in almost all patients of both groups without any significant inter-group difference, except on Trail-A test, which revealed better results in patients with mTLE-HS as compared to all other sub-groups. Our study shows that impairment of memory, language and executive function is common among patients with drug refractory epilepsy. The most prevalent impairment is in executive function. There is no significant difference in the degree, prevalence or selectivity of impairment in either of the three domains, between the TLE versus ETLE groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PSEUDO-ALMOST PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO SOME FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the pseudo-almost periodic solutions to some functional differential equations. By the exponential dichotomy theory and Schauder’s fixed-point theorem, some results on the existence and uniqueness of pseudo-almost periodic solutions to the system are obtained.

  2. Effects of Amiodarone on Transmural Dispersion of Ventricular Effective Refractory Periods across Myocardial Layers in the Normal and Hypertrophic Canine Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; L(U) Jiagao; ZHANG Fanzhi; BAI Rong; WANG Lin

    2006-01-01

    The effects of amiodarone on transmural dispersion of ventricular effective refractory periods (ERPs) in the normal and hypertrophic canine heart were investigated in vivo. By using the programmed stimulation protocol, the ERPs of epicardium (Epi), midmyocardium (Mid) and endocardium (Endo) were measured by inserting specially-designed electrodes into the three myocardial layers before and after mainlining of amiodarone. No significant ERPs-dispersion was observed in the three layers before and after mainlining of amiodarone in the normal group. In contrast, ERPs of all the three layers were prolonged in the hypertrophic heart, while the ERPs-dispersion was reduced significantly after mainlining of amiodarone. The ERPs-dispersion was significantly increased in the hypertrophic heart but not in the normal heart using "long-short" and "short-long" interval stimulation technique. It was concluded that (1) the differences in ERPs-dispersion among the three layers were significant in hypertrophic heart, and differences were not significant in normal canine heart;(2) ERPs of each three-myocardial layers were significantly prolonged after using amiodarone, but the ERPs-dispersion decreased in hypertrophic heart and (3) the programmed extrastimulus technique of "long-short" and "short-long" intervals increased the transmural ERPs-dispersion in the hypertrophic heart.

  3. The effects of baroreflex activation therapy on blood pressure and sympathetic function in patients with refractory hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordin, Daniel; Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M; Andersson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    will take place after 16 months to BAT or BAT off for 3 months. Eligible patients have a daytime systolic ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) of  ≥145 mm Hg, and/or a daytime diastolic ABPM of  ≥95 mm Hg after witnessed drug intake (including  ≥3 antihypertensive drugs, preferably including a diuretic......). Results: The primary end point is the reduction in 24-hour systolic ABPM by BAT at 8 months, as compared to pharmacotherapy. Secondary and tertiary endpoints are effects of BAT on home and office blood pressures, measures of indices of cardiac and vascular structure and function during follow......-up, and safety. Conclusions: This academic initiative will increase the understanding of mechanisms and role of BAT in the refractory hypertension....

  4. TRACTABILITY OF MULTIVARIATE INTEGRATION PROBLEM FOR PERIODIC CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Gensun; Long Jingfan

    2007-01-01

    The authors study the tractability and strong tractability of a multivariate integration problem in the worst case setting for weighted 1-periodic continuous functions spaces of d coordinates with absolutely convergent Fourier series. The authors reduce the initial error by a factor ε for functions from the unit ball of the weighted periodic continuous functions spaces. Tractability is the minimal number of function samples required to solve the problem in polynomial in ε-1 and d, and the strong tractability is the presence of only a polynomial dependence in ε-1. This problem has been recently studied for quasi-Monte Carlo quadrature rules, quadrature rules with non-negative coefficients,and rules for which all quadrature weights are arbitrary for weighted Korobov spaces of smooth periodic functions of d variables. The authors show that the tractability and strong tractability of a multivariate integration problem in worst case setting hold for the weighted periodic continuous functions spaces with absolutely convergent Fourier series under the same assumptions as in Ref. [14] on the weights of the Korobov space for quasi-Monte Carlo rules and rules for which all quadrature weights are non-negative. The arguments are not constructive.

  5. Period functions for Maass wave forms and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, R; Zagier, D; Bruggeman, R W; Zagier, D

    2015-01-01

    The authors construct explicit isomorphisms between spaces of Maass wave forms and cohomology groups for discrete cofinite groups \\Gamma\\subset\\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{R}}). In the case that \\Gamma is the modular group \\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{Z}}) this gives a cohomological framework for the results in Period functions for Maass wave forms. I, of J. Lewis and D. Zagier in Ann. Math. 153 (2001), 191-258, where a bijection was given between cuspidal Maass forms and period functions. The authors introduce the concepts of mixed parabolic cohomology group and semi-analytic vectors in principal serie

  6. Periodic Solutions for Functional Differential Inclusions With Infinite Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 周钦德; 吕显瑞

    1994-01-01

    By means of asymptotic fixed point theory,it is established that every dissipative functional differential inclusion (probably with infinite delay) has a periodic solution.This provides a theoretical basis for the applications of Liapunov’s second method to multivalued systems.As a result,a positive answer to Hutson’s open problem is given for more general multivalued systems.

  7. Second-order Green's function perturbation theory for periodic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rusakov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances, systematic quantitative treatment of the electron correlation problem in extended systems remains a formidable task. Systematically improvable Green's function methods capable of quantitatively describing weak and at least qualitatively strong correlations appear promising candidates for computational treatment of periodic systems. We present a periodic implementation of temperature-dependent self-consistent 2nd-order Green's function method (GF2), where the self-energy is evaluated in the basis of atomic orbitals. Evaluating the real-space self-energy in atomic orbitals and solving the Dyson equation in $\\mathbf{k}$-space are the key components of a computationally feasible algorithm. We apply this technique to the 1D hydrogen lattice - a prototypical crystalline system with a realistic Hamiltonian. By analyzing the behavior of the spectral functions, natural occupations, and self-energies, we claim that GF2 is able to recover metallic, band insulating, and at least qualitatively Mot...

  8. Cognitive functioning in depression period of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtalska, Julita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Study aims were to compare neuropsychological functioning of depressed bipolar patients and healthy controls and to estimate relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. Method. Cognitive functions were examined in 30 depressed bipolar patients aged 18-68 (M=45,6, SD=12,6; 18 women and 12 men who fulfilled ICD-10 criteria for depressive episode (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score ≥11. The comparison group consisted of 30 healthy subjects aged 23-71 (M=46, 20 women and 10 men matched in age, years of education and gender to bipolar group. A neuropsychological battery assessed executive functions and working memory. Results. The bipolar patients in depression revealed neuropsychological deficits in working memory and some aspects of executive functions in comparison to healthy group. Only in WCST test both groups received similar results. Neuropsychological functioning seems to be independent of the severity of depressive symptoms. Discussion. Different aspects of working memory and executive functions are impaired in depression period of bipolar disorder and they seem independent of the severity of depressive symptoms. These results are consistent with previous reports. Conclusions. In patients with bipolar depression cognitive assessment should be taken into account in the diagnosis and the disturbances in executive functions and working memory should be treated with neuropsychological rehabilitation and / or pharmacotherapy.

  9. Quasi-periodic and periodic solutions of the Toda lattice via the hyperelliptic sigma function

    CERN Document Server

    Kodama, Yuji; Previato, Emma

    2010-01-01

    M. Toda in 1967 (\\textit{J. Phys. Soc. Japan}, \\textbf{22} and \\textbf{23}) considered a lattice model with exponential interaction and proved it, as observed by the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam experiments, to have exact periodic and soliton solutions. The Toda lattice, as it came to be known, was then extensively studied as one of the completely integrable (differential-difference) non-linear equations which admit exact solutions in terms of theta functions of hyperelliptic curves. In this paper, we extend Toda's original approach to give hyperelliptic solutions of the Toda lattice in terms of hyperelliptic Kleinian (sigma) functions for arbitrary genus. The key identities are given by generalized addition formulae for the hyperelliptic sigma functions (J.C. Eilbeck \\textit{et al.}, {\\it J. reine angew. Math.} {\\bf 619}, 2008). We then show that periodic solutions of the Toda lattice correspond to the zeros of Kiepert-Brioschi's division polynomials, and note these are related to solutions of Poncelet's closure problem...

  10. Periodic Density Functional Theory Solver using Multiresolution Analysis with MADNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Thornton, William

    2011-03-01

    We describe the first implementation of the all-electron Kohn-Sham density functional periodic solver (DFT) using multi-wavelets and fast integral equations using MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation; http://code.google.com/p/m-a-d-n-e-s-s). The multiresolution nature of a multi-wavelet basis allows for fast computation with guaranteed precision. By reformulating the Kohn-Sham eigenvalue equation into the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, we can avoid using the derivative operator which allows better control of overall precision for the all-electron problem. Other highlights include the development of periodic integral operators with low-rank separation, an adaptable model potential for nuclear potential, and an implementation for Hartree Fock exchange. This work was supported by NSF project OCI-0904972 and made use of resources at the Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  11. Pairs of oblique duals in spaces of periodic functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2010-01-01

    We construct non-tight frames in finite-dimensional spaces consisting of periodic functions. In order for these frames to be useful in practice one needs to calculate a dual frame; while the canonical dual frame might be cumbersome to work with, the setup presented here enables us to obtain...... explicit constructions of some particularly convenient oblique duals. We also provide explicit oblique duals belonging to prescribed spaces different from the space where we obtain the expansion. In particular this leads to oblique duals that are trigonometric polynomials....

  12. Functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilicas: Hierarchical and chiral materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The integration of organic and inorganic fragments within the pore walls of the periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) represents one of the recent breakthroughs in material science. The resulting PMOs are promising materials for applications in such areas as catalysis, adsorption, separation and drug-delivery. We summarize here the recent progress made in the synthesis of PMOs with hierarchical structures and large functional groups, with special emphasis on the chiral mesoporous organosilicas and their potential applications as novel chiral solids in heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis.

  13. Why PMO? Towards functionality and utility of periodic mesoporous organosilicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendong; Lofgreen, Jennifer E; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2010-12-06

    Creative synthetic chemistry has endowed the class of periodic mesoporous organosilica materials, dubbed PMO, with a variety of new and exciting compositions, properties, and functions since its inception a decade ago. Using a handful of recent trendsetting case histories, the multidisciplinary applications of PMO materials in chemistry and physics, materials science and engineering, biology, and medicine are demonstrated in a most powerful way. In doing so, this Review aims to inspire more collaborative and ambitious endeavors in the second decade of PMO research. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Characteristics of the relative refractory period of compound active potential of sciatic stem in toads%蟾蜍坐骨神经复合动作电位相对不应期的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华; 曲瑞瑶; 童学红

    2004-01-01

    背景:神经纤维疾病的患者经常被推荐做复合动作电位相对不应期的测定,但其在不同刺激条件下的特性始终并未完全证实.目的:通过蟾蜍坐骨神经复合动作电位的实验,更加全面地阐述复合动作电位相对不应期爆发动作电位的特点.设计:随机非对照的实验研究.地点和对象:由首都医科大学实验动物中心提供的6只蟾蜍,在同一生理学实验室被处死来做实验.干预:以不同的刺激强度和组合方式刺激神经.主要观察指标:用NSA-Ⅲ医学信号处理系统记录相对不应期发生动作电位的幅度.结果:在相对不应期的同一时刻,较强的刺激会引起较大幅度的复合动作电位,并且在同样的刺激强度下,不会产生太大变化.结论:在同一时期对相对不应期的刺激可引起不同阈值的神经纤维不同概率性的兴奋,但它们可以固定的概率性叠加,以形成稳定的动作电位.此外,神经干中A类神经纤维的最短绝对不应期可以通过足够强的刺激来测定.%BACKGROUND: The measure of "relative refractory period of compound action potential" is commonly recommended for patients with nervous fiber diseases. But its characteristics with different intensities of stimulus have not been completely proved.OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the characteristics of action potential occurring in "relative refractory period of compound action potential" from the experiment of compound action potential of sciatic stem in toads.DESIGN: A randomly uncontrolled trial study.SETTING and MATERIALS: Six toads were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Capital University of Medical Sciences and were killed for experiment at the same physiology laboratory.INTERVENTIONS: The sciatic stems were stimulated with different intensities and combinations.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The amplitudes of action potential occurring in relative refractory period were recorded by NSA-Ⅲ medical signal processing system

  15. Exponentially Localized Wannier Functions in Periodic Zero Flux Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    De Nittis, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    n this work, we investigate conditions which ensure the existence of an exponentially localized Wannier basis for a given periodic hamiltonian. We extend previous results [Pan07, Kuc09] to include periodic zero flux magnetic fields. The new notion of magnetic symmetry plays a crucial r\\^ole; to a large class of symmetries for a non-magnetic system, one can associate "magnetic" symmetries of the related magnetic system. Observing that the existence of an exponentially localized Wannier basis is equivalent to the triviality of the so-called Bloch bundle, a rank m hermitian vector bundle over the Brillouin zone, we prove that magnetic time-reversal symmetry is sufficient to ensure the triviality of the Bloch bundle in spatial dimension d = 1, 2, 3. For d = 4, an exponentially localized Wannier basis exists provided that the trace per unit volume of a suitable function of the Fermi projection vanishes. For d > 4 and d \\leq 2m (stable rank regime) only the exponential localization of a subset of Wannier functions ...

  16. Functional traits, convergent evolution, and periodic tables of niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, Kirk O; Fitzgerald, Daniel B; Bower, Luke M; Pianka, Eric R

    2015-08-01

    Ecology is often said to lack general theories sufficiently predictive for applications. Here, we examine the concept of a periodic table of niches and feasibility of niche classification schemes from functional trait and performance data. Niche differences and their influence on ecological patterns and processes could be revealed effectively by first performing data reduction/ordination analyses separately on matrices of trait and performance data compiled according to logical associations with five basic niche 'dimensions', or aspects: habitat, life history, trophic, defence and metabolic. Resultant patterns then are integrated to produce interpretable niche gradients, ordinations and classifications. Degree of scheme periodicity would depend on degrees of niche conservatism and convergence causing species clustering across multiple niche dimensions. We analysed a sample data set containing trait and performance data to contrast two approaches for producing niche schemes: species ordination within niche gradient space, and niche categorisation according to trait-value thresholds. Creation of niche schemes useful for advancing ecological knowledge and its applications will depend on research that produces functional trait and performance datasets directly related to niche dimensions along with criteria for data standardisation and quality. As larger databases are compiled, opportunities will emerge to explore new methods for data reduction, ordination and classification. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Colectomy for refractory constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Loud, Franck Bjørn; Christensen, Elsebeth;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the type of colectomy, postoperative complications, functional results, and satisfaction in patients with constipation refractory to conservative therapy. Further, colonic transit time (CTT), faecal load (coprostasis), and colon length (redundancies) were compared...... had at hemicolectomy, 11 patients a subtotal colectomy and 3 patients an ileostomy. Two patients had an anastomotic leak and one died. In 11 patients, further surgery was necessary, because of recurrent constipation. Abdominal pain disappeared and defecation patterns improved significantly to 1-4 per...

  18. 神经干与骨骼肌绝对不应期测定方法的比较%Screening of detection methods for absolute refractory period of nerve trunk and skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焰; 李建国

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of different methods for determining the absolute refractory period of nerve trunk and skeletal muscle. Methods Under suitable stimulation intensity, the wave interval of double stimulation ( began from 4 ms in nervetrunk and from 200 ms in skeletal muscle ) was gradually shortened until the second action potential in nerve trunk just disappeared or the tetanus amplitude was equal to the twitch amplitude in skeletal muscle. Results The ahsolute refractory period of nerve trunk and skeletal muscle was 1. 45 ms and 3 ms , respectively. Conclusion This method for determining ahsolute refractory period is better and suitable for undergraduate course.%目的 比较测定神经干与骨骼肌绝对不应期实验方法.方法 以最适刺激强度采用双刺激法逐渐缩短刺激间隔或波间隔(坐骨神经干从4 ms开始、腓肠肌从200 ms开始),记录神经干动作电位和肌肉收缩图形的变化和波幅,直到双刺激下神经干第二个动作电位刚消失、肌肉收缩的波幅刚小于强直收缩波幅且等于单收缩波幅.结果 神经干动作电位绝对不应期为1.45 ms、骨骼肌绝对不应期为3 ms.结论 本文建立的骨骼肌测定方法趋于完善,适用于本硕生的机能实验课教学.

  19. Effect of Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP on Exercise Time Duration and Functional Capacity in Patients with Refractory Angina Pectoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorgi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP is a noninvasive technique used for patients with refractory angina pectoris. There are controversial data on the effectiveness of EECP in improving patients with refractory stable angina. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of EECP for the treatment of patients with refractory angina pectoris.Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with refractory angina pectoris were treated with EECP, and their symptoms, echocardiographic measures, treadmill exercise test parameters, and Canadian Cardiovascular Society Class were evaluated before and immediately after EECP. The patients were followed up for 6months post treatment.Results: There were significant differences regarding total exercise time before and after treatment (p value < 0.001. The patients showed a significant reduction in angina classes III and IV immediately after EECP (p value < 0.001; for most of the patients, these beneficial effects were sustained for 6 months (p value = 0.010. There was no significant improvement in the echocardiographic parameters.Conclusion: EECP decreased symptoms and increased total exercise time in our study population. These beneficial effectswere sustained for 6 months.

  20. Transition mode long period grating biosensor with functional multilayer coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Pierluigi; Malachovská, Viera; Borriello, Anna; Buosciolo, Antonietta; Giordano, Michele; Ambrosio, Luigi; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2011-01-17

    We report our latest research results concerning the development of a platform for label-free biosensing based on overlayered Long Period Gratings (LPGs) working in transition mode. The main novelty of this work lies in a multilayer design that allows to decouple the problem of an efficient surface functionalization from that of the tuning in transition region of the cladding modes. An innovative solvent/nonsolvent strategy for the dip-coating technique was developed in order to deposit on the LPG multiple layers of transparent polymers. In particular, a primary coating of atactic polystyrene was used as high refractive index layer to tune the working point of the device in the so-called transition region. In this way, state-of-the-art-competitive sensitivity to surrounding medium refractive index changes was achieved. An extremely thin secondary functional layer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) was deposited onto the primary coating by means of an original identification of selective solvents. This approach allowed to obtain desired functional groups (carboxyls) on the surface of the device for a stable covalent attachment of bioreceptors and minimal perturbation of the optical design. Standard 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide / N-hydrosuccinimide (EDC / NHS) coupling chemistry was used to link streptavidin on the surface of the coated LPG. Highly sensitive real-time monitoring of multiple affinity assays between streptavidin and biotinylated bovine serum albumin was performed by following the shift of the LPGs attenuation bands.

  1. PERIODIC DYADIC GREEN'S FUNCTION FOR FIELD ANALYSIS IN EMC CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Feiyan; Ding Jianjin; Sha Fei

    2006-01-01

    Herein a novel Dyadic Green's Function (DGF) is presented to calculate the field in ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) chamber. Due to the difficulty of simulating the whole chamber environment, the analysis combines the DGF formulation and the FEM method, with the latter deals with the reflection from absorbers. With DGF formulation for infinite periodic array structures, this paper investigates electromagnetic field in chamber with truncated arrays. The reflection from the absorber serves as the virtual source contributing to the total field. Hence the whole chamber field calculation can be separated from the work of absorber model set-up. Practically the field homogeneity test and Normal Site Attenuation (NSA) test are carried out to evaluate the chamber performance. Based on the method in this paper, the simulation results agree well with the test, and predict successfully the victim frequency points of the chamber.

  2. Designing advanced functional periodic mesoporous organosilicas for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Esquivel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs, reported for the first time in 1999, constitute a new branch of organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high-ordered structures, uniform pore size and homogenous distribution of organic bridges into a silica framework. Unlike conventional mesoporous silicas, these materials offer the possibility to adjust the surface (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and physical properties (morphology, porosity as well as their mechanical stability through the incorporation of different functional organic moieties in their pore walls. A broad variety of PMOs has been designed for their subsequent application in many fields. More recently, PMOs have attracted growing interest in emerging areas as biology and biomedicine. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent breakthroughs achieved for PMOs in biological and biomedical applications.

  3. Refractories Quality Improvement for Glass Industry Upgrading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Dafan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Glass Industry and Refractories Industry Closely Connect 1.1 Glass Development Drives Refractories Progress Refractories are indispensable to glass industry; the rapid development of glass industry drives the growth of refractories industry. China's glass industry developed slowly before the mid 1980s. The kilns and furnaces were backward and small-scale with furnace life of only 2-3 years; glass was produced with extremely low efficiency and poor quality. During that period, refractories for glass melting furnaces had very limited varieties and inferior quality. The fused cast refractories for advanced glass melting furnaces were imported, for the materials made in China could not meet the requirements, which seriously restrained the technical progress of China's glass industry.

  4. Case 40. Misdiagnosis of refractory macrocytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringaris, Kate; Bain, Barbara

    2008-11-01

    A diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome, refractory anemia subtype, was made in an elderly Indian woman on the basis of a refractory macrocytic anemia with normal vitamin B(12) and folate assays, normal thyroid function, essentially normal liver function and normal cytogenetic analysis. Disease evolution revealed that the diagnosis was erroneous.

  5. Extraction of information about periodic orbits from scattering functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bütikofer, T; Seligman, T H; Bütikofer, Thomas; Jung, Christof; Seligman, Thomas H.

    1999-01-01

    As a contribution to the inverse scattering problem for classical chaotic systems, we show that one can select sequences of intervals of continuity, each of which yields the information about period, eigenvalue and symmetry of one unstable periodic orbit.

  6. Energy concentration of periodic nanoparticle array using Green function formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, King Chun; Fung Lee, Sze; Yu, Kin Wah

    2013-03-01

    We have studied a periodic array of nanoparticle wires by using the Green function formalism (GFF). When light is incident on the wire, a collective oscillation of the free electrons is excited on the surface of the wires, which is called the coupled surface plasmon. The excitation of coupled surface plasmon can cause an enhancement of the local energy density. By tuning the separation relative to the radius of the wires, an energy concentration can be controlled. When the separation of the wires is small, multipolar effect becomes significant. Dealing with tight-binding model by Park and Stroud (2004) would involve interaction term which appears to be non-existent and the resolution of FDTD is insufficient to resolve the multipole interaction as the multipole field can vary rapidly. We applied GFF to this problem which expresses all interaction in a Greenian within one unit cell. The system was studied under spectral representation and the relation between different resonance modes and the outcoming energy concentration was examined. The energy concentration is largest several hot spots which depend on the incident directions.

  7. Functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilicas for enhanced and selective peptide enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jingjing; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yunhua; Yang, Pengyuan; Liu, Baohong; Yu, Chengzhong

    2010-05-18

    The analysis of peptides by the mass spectrometry (MS) technique is important in modern life science. The enrichment of peptides can increase the detection efficiency and is sometimes indispensable for collecting the information on proteins with low-abundance. Herein, we first report that functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) materials have a superior peptide enrichment property. It is demonstrated that the PMO materials with an organo-bridged (-CH(2)-) hybrid wall composition display a highly enhanced peptide enrichment ability compared to the pure silica material (SBA-15) with similar mesostructured parameters and morphology. More importantly, by surface modification of PMO with amino groups (denoted NH(2)-PMO), PMO and NH(2)-PMO with opposite charged surfaces (-25.2 and +39.0 mV, respectively) show selective affinities for positively and negatively charged peptides, respectively. By directly adding PMO, NH(2)-PMO as well as pure silica materials to the peptides solution with a low concentration (1-2 fmol/microL), 36 and 28 peptides can be detected from the BSA digestion in the presence of PMO and NH(2)-PMO, respectively, while only 6 and 4 are monitored in the case of SBA-15 enrichment and from solution without enrichment, respectively. Moreover, 69.4% (25 of 36) of enriched peptides by PMO have pI > or = 6 and 80% (21 of 28) of enriched peptides by NH(2)-PMO possess pI PMO and PMO enrichment together, 51 peptides can be identified with a MOWSE score of 333. It is also noted that similar conclusions can also be obtained from the peptides solution originated from other proteins. This might be an important contribution to the understanding of the interaction between peptides and porous hosts, and the proposed method is promising for the development of both material science and biotechnology.

  8. Personalized diet management can optimize compliance to a high-fiber, high-water diet in children with refractory functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Daskalou, Efstratia; Agakidis, Charalambos; Savvidou, Afroditi; Apostolou, Aggeliki; Vlahavas, Georges

    2012-05-01

    Diet modification to increase water and fiber consumption is considered an important component in the management of constipation. This prospective randomized study aimed to evaluate the compliance of 86 children with refractory functional constipation (mean age 4.4 years, range 1 to 11 years)-to a high-fiber, high-water diet following either physician's dietary advice (PI group) (n=42) or physician's dietary advice plus personalized diet management by a registered dietitian (DM group) (n=44). Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall at baseline and 1 month later. The changes in water and fiber consumption were used as compliance criteria. DM group had comparable anthropometric measurements; sex distribution; and baseline intakes of energy, macronutrient, water, and dietary fiber compared with the PI group. Comparison of nutrient intakes between the two visits within each group showed a significant increase in fiber consumption in both groups that was more pronounced in the DM group. Water, energy, and carbohydrate consumption increased significantly only in the DM group. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the intervention group was the only significant independent predictor for the change in fiber and water consumption after controlling for age, sex, and weight-for-age z score. Children receiving personalized diet management for refractory functional constipation achieved better compliance in increasing fiber and water consumption. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical Release of the First Extensor Compartment for Refractory de Quervain's Tenosynovitis: Surgical Findings and Functional Evaluation Using DASH Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Aminata, Iman Widya; Hong, Han-Pyo; Yoon, Jong-Pil

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated surgical outcomes in patients with refractory de Quervain's disease using validated outcome measures. We assessed the clinical outcomes of dorsal release of the first extensor compartment for the treatment of de Quervain's disease using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score. Methods From October 2003 to May 2009, we retrospectively evaluated 33 patients (3 men and 30 women) who underwent surgical treatment for de Quervain's disease. All patients had a positive Finkelstein test and localized tenderness over the first dorsal compartment. All operations were performed under local anesthesia. A 2-cm-long transverse skin incision was made over the first extensor compartment and the dorsal retinaculum covering the extensor pollicis brevis was incised longitudinally. Preoperative and postoperative clinical evaluation included the use of DASH score, Finkelstein test, and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results In 18 patients (55%), the extensor pollicis brevis tendon compartment was separated from the abductor pollicis longus compartment. Eight patients had intracompartmental ganglia in the extensor pollicis brevis subcompartment. All patients except one had negative sign on Finkelstein test at the last follow-up. The average VAS score decreased from 7.42 preoperatively to 1.33 postoperatively (p Quervain's disease. The release of the first extensor compartment for refractory de Quervain's disease resulted in good clinical outcomes with minimal morbidity. PMID:25436064

  10. Estimating a Common Period for a Set of Irregularly Sampled Functions with Applications to Periodic Variable Star Data

    CERN Document Server

    Long, James P; Baraniuk, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    We consider the estimation of a common period for a set of functions sampled at irregular intervals. The problem arises in astronomy, where the functions represent a star's brightness observed over time through different photometric filters. While current methods can estimate periods accurately provided that the brightness is well--sampled in at least one filter, there are no existing methods that can provide accurate estimates when no brightness function is well--sampled. In this paper we introduce two new methods for period estimation when brightnesses are poorly--sampled in all filters. The first, multiband generalized Lomb-Scargle (MGLS), extends the frequently used Lomb-Scargle method in a way that na\\"{i}vely combines information across filters. The second, penalized generalized Lomb-Scargle (PGLS), builds on the first by more intelligently borrowing strength across filters. Specifically, we incorporate constraints on the phases and amplitudes across the different functions using a non--convex penalized...

  11. Hemisferectomia funcional precoce na hemimegalencefalia associada à epilepsia refratária Early functional hemispherectomy in hemimegalencephaly associated to refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Fonseca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A hemimegalencefalia (HME é malformação congênita cerebral rara de etiologia desconhecida que pode se apresentar com síndrome epiléptica de início precoce e resistente à terapia com anticonvulsivantes, associada a comprometimento significativo do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. A hemisferectomia funcional (HF tem-se mostrado alternativa eficaz nos casos refratários à terapêutica medicamentosa. Em número diminuto, crianças foram operadas antes dos seis meses de idade. Esse estudo relata duas crianças com idade inferior a 6 meses com HME e síndrome epiléptica catastrófica submetidas a HF e com boa evolução clínica.Hemimegalencephaly (HME is a rare congenital brain malformation of unknown etiology. Patients with HME can present with an early onset epileptic syndrome which is often refractory to medical treatment and associated to impaired neurological development. Functional hemispherectomy (FH has proven to be a valuable treatment alternative in patients with refractory epilepsy in this setting. Very few children operated under the age of 6 months and bearing HME and catastrophic epilepsy (CE have been described in the literature. This study reports on 2 kids younger than 6 months with HME and CE submitted to FH with good clinical outcome.

  12. Automating Partial Period Bond Valuation with Excel's Day Counting Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicknair, David; Spruell, James

    2009-01-01

    An Excel model for calculating the actual price of bonds under a 30 day/month, 360 day/year day counting assumption by nesting the DAYS360 function within the PV function is developed. When programmed into an Excel spreadsheet, the model can accommodate annual and semiannual payment bonds sold on or between interest dates using six fundamental…

  13. APφ(R, C-Spaces of Almost Periodic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin CORDUNEANU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The spaces APφ(R, C, corresponding to functions φ ∈ K = Kamke class, have been defined and a few of their properties have been investigated in our recent paper [1]. The aim of this paper is to present some facts/properties, completing those emphasized in [1] (like generalizations of the concept or some applications.

  14. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in ad...

  15. Existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions for a class of partial functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Sheng Ding

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first introduce a new class of pseudo almost periodic type functions and investigate some properties of pseudo almost periodic type functions; and then we discuss the existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions to the class of abstract partial functional differential equations $x'(t=Ax(t+f(t,x_t$ with finite delay in a Banach space X.

  16. Developing Refractories for Exporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANShang-xin

    1996-01-01

    The total output of China refractory products and export volume of China refractory raw materials rank the first in the world,In future the task is to improve the quality of the products to enlarge the variety and to expand export.

  17. Silica Refractory Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of silica refractory bricks.This standard is applicable to silica refractory bricks with single weight≤40 kg.

  18. AGE, PERIOD, AND COHORT EFFECTS ON PULMONARY-FUNCTION IN A 24-YEAR LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, XP; LAIRD, N; DOCKERY, DW; SCHOUTEN, JP; RIJCKEN, B; WEISS, ST

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function meas

  19. Development of improved refractories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Liu, K.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moore, R.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The goal of the proposed project is to provide expertise and facilities for the high temperature mechanical properties characterization of refractory materials which are of interest to the US DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies Advanced Industrial Materials Project. Initially the project would establish dedicated refractory testing facilities which would be capable of generating representative engineering creep and high temperature modulus of elasticity (MOE) data to a temperature of 3300{degrees}F (1815{degrees}C) in ambient air. The generated engineering creep and MOE data would serve R&D requirements of refractories-manufacturers and its glass-manufacturer end-users and designers. The relevance of this effort to the refractory and glass-making industries would be ensured by coordinating the research activities through a membership with Alfred University`s Center for Glass Research (CGR) Satellite Center at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), an NSF Center. Valid engineering creep and high temperature MOE data currently do not exist for almost all commercial refractories. Refractory end-users such as glass-manufacturers require such data for efficient and economical design of their various glass-melting furnace superstructures (e.g., furnace crowns). Refractories in glass production furnaces may be subjected to extreme temperatures as high as 3200{degrees}F (1760{degrees}C). With the simultaneous imposition of mechanical and thermal stresses, creep deformation of the refractory material will assuredly occur as a consequence. Designers must ensure that the structural integrity is maintained, so these high temperature deformations must be considered for successful glass furnace superstructure design. These criteria can only be satisfied with the utilization of representative engineering creep and high temperature MOE data for the refractory materials that are chosen for the design of the refractory superstructures.

  20. Stimulus-dependent refractoriness in the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, R P; Allingham, D; Stocks, N G

    2015-10-07

    Phenomenological neural models, such as the leaky integrate-and-fire model, normally have a fixed refractory time-course that is independent of the stimulus. The recovery of threshold following an action potential is typically based on physiological experiments that use a two-pulse paradigm in which the first pulse is suprathreshold and causes excitation and the second pulse is used to determine the threshold at various intervals following the first. In such experiments, the nerve is completely unstimulated between the two pulses. This contrasts the receptor stimuli in normal physiological systems and the electrical stimuli used by cochlear implants and other neural prostheses. A numerical study of the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley conductance-based model of nerve fibre was therefore undertaken to investigate the effect of stimulation on refractoriness. We found that the application of a depolarizing stimulus during the later part of what is classically regarded as the absolute refractory period could effectively prolong the absolute refractory period, while leaving the refractory time-constants and other refractory parameters largely unaffected. Indeed, long depolarizing pulses, which would have been suprathreshold if presented to a resting nerve fibre, appeared to block excitation indefinitely. Stimulation during what is classically regarded as the absolute refractory period can therefore greatly affect the temporal response of a nerve. We conclude that the classical definition of absolute refractory period should be refined to include only the initial period following an action potential when an ongoing stimulus would not affect threshold; this period was found to be about half as long as the classical absolute refractory period. We further conclude that the stimulus-dependent nature of the relative refractory period must be considered when developing a phenomenological nerve model for complex stimuli.

  1. Refractory migraine in a headache clinic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Torron Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many migraineurs who seek care in headache clinics are refractory to treatment, despite advances in headache therapies. Epidemiology is poorly characterized, because diagnostic criteria for refractory migraine were not available until recently. We aimed to determine the frequency of refractory migraine in patients attended in the Headache Unit in a tertiary care center, according to recently proposed criteria. Methods The study population consisted of a consecutive sample of 370 patients (60.8% females with a mean age of 43 years (range 14-86 evaluated for the first time in our headache unit over a one-year period (between October 2008 and October 2009. We recorded information on clinical features, previous treatments, Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS, and final diagnosis. Results Overall migraine and tension-type headache were found in 46.4% and 20.5% of patients, respectively. Refractory migraine was found in 5.1% of patients. In refractory migraineurs, the mean MIDAS score was 96, and 36.8% were medication-overusers. Conclusions Refractory migraine is a relatively common and very disabling condition between the patients attended in a headache unit. The proposed operational criteria may be useful in identifying those patients who require care in headache units, the selection of candidates for combinations of prophylactic drugs or invasive treatments such as neurostimulation, but also to facilitate clinical studies in this patient group.

  2. Dose-intensified bendamustine followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell support in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma with impaired bone marrow function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Iris; Becker, Natalia; Benner, Axel; Kosely, Florentina; Heining, Christoph; Hillengass, Jens; Egerer, Gerlinde; Ho, Anthony D; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Raab, Marc S

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic options in heavily pretreated relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients are often very limited because of impaired bone marrow function. Bendamustine is effective in multiple myeloma and has a favourable toxicity profile. We hypothesized that dose-intensified bendamustine (180 mg/m(2) , day 1 and 2) followed by autologous blood stem cell support (ASCS) would improve bone marrow function with low post-transplant toxicity in patients with severely impaired haematopoiesis. We analyzed 28 consecutive myeloma patients, with a median of three prior lines of therapy (range 2-7), who had relapsed from the last treatment with very limited bone marrow function and were therefore ineligible for conventional chemotherapy, novel agents or trial enrolment. Dose-intensified bendamustine with ASCS improved haematopoiesis as reflected by increased platelet counts (median 40/nl vs 94/nl, p = 0.0004) and white blood cell counts (3.0/nl vs 4.8/nl, p = 0.02) at day +100. The median time until engraftment of platelets (>50/nl) was 11 days (0-24 days) and of white cell counts (>1.0/nl) 0 days (0-24 days). At least, a minimal response was achieved in 36% of patients. The disease stabilization rate was 50% while the median progression-free survival rate was limited to 2.14 months. Most importantly, patients were once again eligible for alternative treatments including enrolment into clinical trials. We conclude that dose-intensified bendamustine followed by ASCS is safe and feasible for multiple myeloma patients with very limited bone marrow reserve. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Two Point Correlation Functions for a Periodic Box-Ball System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate correlation functions in a periodic box-ball system. For the second and the third nearest neighbor correlation functions, we give explicit formulae obtained by combinatorial methods. A recursion formula for a specific N-point functions is also presented.

  4. Periodic differential equations an introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and allied functions

    CERN Document Server

    Arscott, Felix M; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1964-01-01

    Periodic Differential Equations: An Introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and Allied Functions covers the fundamental problems and techniques of solution of periodic differential equations. This book is composed of 10 chapters that present important equations and the special functions they generate, ranging from Mathieu's equation to the intractable ellipsoidal wave equation.This book starts with a survey of the main problems related to the formation of periodic differential equations. The subsequent chapters deal with the general theory of Mathieu's equation, Mathieu functions of integral order, and

  5. Fireclay Refractory Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,brand,shape,dimension,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fireclay refractory bricks.

  6. TWIN POSITIVE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS OF FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH INFINITE DELAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the author studies a class of nonlinear functional differential equation. By using a fixed point theorem in cones, sufficient conditions are established for the existence of twin positive periodic solutions.

  7. EXISTENCE OF PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO A KIND OF n-ORDER NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By means of the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we study a kind of n-order neutral functional differential equation. Some new results on the existence of periodic solutions are obtained.

  8. On the Existence of Periodic Solutions for a Kind of Second Order Neutral Functional Differential Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Ping LU; Wei Gao GE

    2005-01-01

    By means of the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, some new results on the non-existence, existence and unique existence of periodic solutions for a kind of second order neutral functional differential equation are obtained.

  9. PERMANENCE OF A PERIODIC PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM WITH DISPERSAL AND GENERAL HOLLING TYPE FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a set of sufficient conditions which ensure the permanence of a periodic predator-prey system with dispersal and general Holling type functional response are obtained. Our results generalize some known results.

  10. Transformation Semigroup Compactifications and Norm Continuity of Weakly almost Periodic Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Jalilian; M A Pourabdollah

    2000-02-01

    We prove if there exists a separately continuous action of a topologically right simple semitopological semigroup on a topologoical space and if acts topologically surjective on then each weakly almost periodic function on , with respect to , is left norm continuous.

  11. Refractory duodenal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Freihi Hussein

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractory or intractable ulcer is defined as an ulcer that fails to heal completely after eight to twelve weeks, despite appropriate treatment with a modern antiulcer therapy in a compliant patient. Refractory ulcer should be suspected in individuals diagnosed to have peptic ulcer if their symptoms persist longer than usual: occurrence of complications or simply their ulcers fail to heal, since up to 25% of such patients remain asymptomatic. Conditions associated with refractory ulcer include noncompliance, continuous consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflam-matory drugs, acid hypersecretion, smoking. male gender and other factors with questionable role like advanced age, large ulcer size, prolonged duration of symptoms and the presence of complication like bleeding. Nonpeptic ulcers like tuberculosis, malignancy, Crohn′s disease and primary intestinal lymphoma should always be considered in the differential diagnosis. Colonization with H. pylori which is well-known as a cause of frequent recurrences, has not been linked with refractoriness. Patients with refractory ulcers must undergo thorough re-evaluation including repeated endoscopies, obtaining biopsies for microbiology and histology and determination of serum-gastrin level. Once diseases with identifiable etiologies have been ruled out, aggressive medical management with single or multiple antiulcer drugs should be instituted. Such treatments will virtually heal all refractory ulcers. Surgery should be reserved for patients whose ulcers fail to respond to optimal medical therapy or those who develop com-plications necessitating surgical intervention.

  12. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS FOR INFINITE DELAY FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the existence of positive periodic solutions for infinite delay functional differential equations(FDEs for short) is discussed by utilizing a fixed point theorem on a cone in Banach space. Some results on the existence of positive periodic solutions are derived.

  13. PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO A HIGH-ORDER NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,using the principle of a priori boundedness,we study the existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions to a high-order neutral functional differential equation.Some new results for the existence and uniqueness of the periodic solution are obtained.

  14. A PRIORI BOUNDS FOR PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO A FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH DELAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A priori bounds are established for periodic solutions to a functional differential equation with delay.By means of these bounds,an existence theorem for periodic solutions is obtained using Mawhin's continuation theorem.Our work generalizes the known result.

  15. Period function and normalizers of vector fields in R with n-1 first integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Salas, D.

    We extend the theory that relates period function, normalizers and first integrals, which has been widely developed in R, to any dimension. In particular, we show how to find n-1 independent normalizers of vector fields in R with n-1 independent first integrals. A formula for the derivatives of the period function is obtained and a necessary and sufficient condition for isochronicity is also proved. These results generalize previous works of Freire, Gasull and Guillamon, Sabatini and Villarini.

  16. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Green's function of a heat problem with a periodic boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzhanov, Nurzhan E.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper, a nonlocal initial-boundary value problem for a non-homogeneous one-dimensional heat equation is considered. The domain under consideration is a rectangle. The classical initial condition with respect to t is put. A nonlocal periodic boundary condition by a spatial variable x is put. It is well-known that a solution of problem can be constructed in the form of convergent orthonormal series according to eigenfunctions of a spectral problem for an operator of multiple differentiation with periodic boundary conditions. Therefore Green's function can be also written in the form of an infinite series with respect to trigonometric functions (Fourier series). For classical first and second initial-boundary value problems there also exists a second representation of the Green's function by Jacobi function. In this paper we find the representation of the Green's function of the nonlocal initial-boundary value problem with periodic boundary conditions in the form of series according to exponents.

  18. EXISTENCE OF PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO A p-LAPLACIAN NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH VARIABLE PARAMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By the generalized Borsuk theorem in coincidence degree theory, a p-Laplacian neutral functional differential equation is studied. A new result on the existence of periodic solution is obtained. The interest is that some coeffcient in it is not a constant function and its sign can be changeable, which is different from that in the known literatures.

  19. The Bessel-Struve intertwining operator on ℂ and mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gasmi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a description of all transmutation operators from the Bessel-Struve operator to the second-derivative operator. Next we define and characterize the mean-periodic functions on the space ℋ of entire functions and we characterize the continuous linear mappings from ℋ into itself which commute with Bessel-Struve operator.

  20. Spreading Speed for a Periodic Reaction-diffusion Model with Nonmonotone Birth Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ye-hui; WENG Pei-xuan

    2012-01-01

    A reaction-diffusion model for a single spccies with age structure and nonlocal reaction for periodic time t is derived.Some results about the model with monotone birth function are firstly introduced,and then by constructing two auxiliary equations and squeezing method,the spreading speed for the system with nonmonotone birth function is obtained.

  1. New Doubly Periodic Solutions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations via Weierstrass Elliptic Function Expansion Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhen-Ya

    2004-01-01

    A Weierstrass elliptic function expansion method and its algorithm are developed in this paper. The method changes the problem solving nonlinear evolution equations into another one solving the correspondingsystem of nonlinear algebraic equations. With the aid of symbolic computation (e.g. Maple), the method is applied to the combined KdV-mKdV equation and (2+1)-dimensional coupled Davey-Stewartson equation. As a consequence, many new types of doubly periodic solutions are obtained in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function. Jacobi elliptic function solutions and solitary wave solutions are also given as simple limits of doubly periodic solutions.

  2. New Doubly Periodic Solutions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations via Weierstrass Elliptic Function Expansion Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANZhen-Ya

    2004-01-01

    A Weierstrass elliptic function expansion method and its algorithm are developed in this paper. The method changes the problem solving nonlinear evolution equations into another one solving the corresponding system of nonlinear algebraic equations. With the aid of symbolic computation (e.g. Maple), the method is applied to the combined KdV-mKdV equation and (2+1)-dimensional coupled Davey-Stewartson equation. As a consequence, many new types of doubly periodic solutions are obtained in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function. Jacobi elliptic function solutions and solitary wave solutions are also given as simple limits of doubly periodic solutions.

  3. [Dynamics of functional status of submarine personnel during the pre-deployment period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankevich, Iu R; Bloshchinskiĭ, I A; Val'skiĭ, A V; Nabokov, N L

    2014-09-01

    Authors came to conclusions that during the pre-deployment period submarine personnel are stressed out. During this period submarine personnel .usually resupply, conduct maintenance and other monitoring-and-checkout measures, which leads to functional stress. Authors came to conclusion that it is necessary to use simple and easy, but at the same time informative methods for early diagnosis of worsen functional health status. One of these methods is evaluation of indicators of cardiovascular system. This method is a base for functional health status prophylaxis.

  4. Characteristic Functions Describing the Power Absorption Response of Periodic Structures to Partially Coherent Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Craeye, Christophe; Thomas, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Many new types of sensing or imaging surfaces are based on periodic thin films. It is explained how the response of those surfaces to partially coherent fields can be fully characterized by a set of functions in the wavenumber spectrum domain. The theory is developed here for the case of 2D absorbers with TE illumination and arbitrary material properties in the plane of the problem, except for the resistivity which is assumed isotropic. Sum and difference coordinates in both spatial and spectral domains are conveniently used to represent the characteristic functions, which are specialized here to the case of periodic structures. Those functions can be either computed or obtained experimentally. Simulations rely on solvers based on periodic-boundary conditions, while experiments correspond to Energy Absorption Interferometry (EAI), already described in the literature. We derive rules for the convergence of the representation versus the number of characteristic functions used, as well as for the sampling to be ...

  5. Detection of a periodic structure embedded in surface roughness, for various correlation functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Vani; S Chatterjee

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with surface profilometry, where we try to detect a periodic structure, hidden in randomness using the matched filter method of analysing the intensity of light, scattered from the surface. From the direct problem of light scattering from a composite rough surface of the above type, we find that the detectability of the periodic structure can be hindered by the randomness, being dependent on the correlation function of the random part. In our earlier works, we had concentrated mainly on the Cauchy-type correlation function for the rough part. In the present work, we show that this technique can determine the periodic structure of different kinds of correlation functions of the roughness, including Cauchy, Gaussian etc. We study the detection by the matched filter method as the nature of the correlation function is varied.

  6. RHI Refractories Opens Dalian Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefan Pirker

    2004-01-01

    @@ End of November the opening ceremony of the RHI Refractories Dalian plant took place in the presence of 250 guests from China and Europe. RHI Refractories welcomed highly official guests from the Dalian City and the Dalian Development Area, the Supervisory Board of RHI, the company's biggest shareholder, the Board of Management, representatives of customers in China as well as Professors of China's refractory academic field. The ceremony' s highlight was the speech of Professor Zhong Xiangchong from Zhengzhou University, member of the China Academy of Science, who pointed out RHI Refractories' long and successful history of refractory innovations during the last decades and the future possibilities of collaboration with RHI Refractories.

  7. Effect of periodized water exercise training program on functional autonomy in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Yesica Ochoa Martínez; Javier Arturo Hall López; Alberto Paredones Hernández; Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scientific evidence have been related negative functional autonomy to sedentary lifestyle in elderly women by other hand physical exercise is highly recommended to prevent deterioration of neuromuscular functions and proposed during the rehabilitation of physical disability and fall accidents. Aim: To determine the effect of periodized water exercise training on functional autonomy in elderly women. Methods: Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned in two, water exercise interve...

  8. Asteroid lightcurves from the Palomar Transient Factory survey: Rotation periods and phase functions from sparse photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Waszczak, Adam; Ofek, Eran O; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; Surace, Jason; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Helou, George; Prince, Thomas A; Kulkarni, Shrinivas

    2015-01-01

    We fit 54,296 sparsely-sampled asteroid lightcurves in the Palomar Transient Factory to a combined rotation plus phase-function model. Each lightcurve consists of 20+ observations acquired in a single opposition. Using 805 asteroids in our sample that have reference periods in the literature, we find the reliability of our fitted periods is a complicated function of the period, amplitude, apparent magnitude and other attributes. Using the 805-asteroid ground-truth sample, we train an automated classifier to estimate (along with manual inspection) the validity of the remaining 53,000 fitted periods. By this method we find 9,033 of our lightcurves (of 8,300 unique asteroids) have reliable periods. Subsequent consideration of asteroids with multiple lightcurve fits indicate 4% contamination in these reliable periods. For 3,902 lightcurves with sufficient phase-angle coverage and either a reliably-fit period or low amplitude, we examine the distribution of several phase-function parameters, none of which are bimo...

  9. Localization of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by linear functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E. [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)] e-mail: konst@citedi.mx

    2005-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the localization problem of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by using linear functions. Conditions of the localization of all periodic orbits in sets of a simple structure are obtained. Our results are based on the solution of the conditional extremum problem and the application of homogeneous polynomial forms of even degrees. As examples, the Lanford system, the jerky system with one quadratic monomial and a quartically perturbed harmonic oscillator are considered.

  10. Refractory peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Lena

    2009-06-01

    Refractory PUD is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Optimal management of severe or refractory PUD requires a multidisciplinary team approach, using primary care providers, gastroenterologists, and general surgeons. Medical management has become the cornerstone of therapy. Identification and eradication of H pylori infection combined with acid reduction regimens can heal ulceration and also prevent recurrence. Severe, intractable or recurrent PUD and associated complications mandates a careful and methodical evaluation and management strategy to determine the potential etiologies and necessary treatment (medical or surgical) required.

  11. Precise and full extraction of the coupling-of-mode parameters with periodic Green's function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林基明; 吴浩东; 王宁; 仇洪冰; 水永安

    2003-01-01

    Precise extraction of coupling-of-mode (COM) parameters plays a key role in the design for modern high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. An accurate and efficient analysis of characteristics for SAW propagating under periodic metal gratings has been developed based on the concept of harmonic admittance and periodic Green's function. Some further improvement is made on the numerical algorithm, such as isolation of the logarithmic singularity, asymptotic simplification of periodic Green's function, and utilization of Chebyshev polynomials as basis functions of the charge distribution. The most important point is extraction of the phase of coupling reflection coefficient by the characteris- tics of standing wave on the edges of stopband. This approach leads to a fast, precise and full extraction of COM parameters. The results and discussions for several materials have been presented.

  12. 难治性功能性胃肠病的心理因素识别%Identification of psychological factors in refractory functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩

    2009-01-01

    , anxiety and other psychological disorders. So psychological evaluation should be carried out to make early recognition for refractory functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  13. [Functional characteristics of gait and standing posture in poststroke patients in residual period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batysheva, T T; Rusina, L R; Skvortsov, D V; Boĭko, A N

    2004-01-01

    Using biomechanic method, gait and standing posture were studied in 17 stroke patients in a remote poststroke period. The locomotor system was found to have non-specific compensatory changes to optimize motor functions and reduce functional disturbances. Symptoms of the triceps surae muscle insufficiency as well as a balance deficit at standing posture and displacement of the center of pressure towards the non-affected side were characteristic of the given stage of rehabilitation stroke period that should be taken into account during the rehabilitation treatment.

  14. Dynamic Testing of Gasifier Refractory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Mann; Wayne S. Seames; Devdutt Shukla; Xi Hong; John P. Hurley

    2005-12-01

    The University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department in conjunction with the UND Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have initiated a program to examine the combined chemical (reaction and phase change) and physical (erosion) effects experienced by refractory materials under slagging coal gasification conditions. The goal of this work is to devise a mechanism of refractory loss under these conditions. The controlled-atmospheric dynamic corrodent application furnace (CADCAF) was utilized to simulate refractory/slag interactions under dynamic conditions that more realistically simulate the environment in a slagging coal gasifier than any of the static tests used previously by refractory manufacturers and researchers. High-alumina and high-chromia refractory bricks were tested using slags obtained from two solid fuel gasifiers. Testing was performed at 1475 C in a reducing atmosphere (2% H{sub 2} in N{sub 2}) The CADCAF tests show that high-chrome refractories have greater corrosion resistance than high-aluminum refractories; coal slag readily diffuses into the refractory through its grain boundaries; the refractory grains are more stable than the matrix in the tests, and the grains are the first line of defense against corrosion; calcium and alkali in the slag are more corrosive than iron; and silicon and calcium penetrate the deepest into the refractory. The results obtained from this study are preliminary and should be combined with result from other research programs. In particular, the refractory corrosion results from this study should be compared with refractories removed from commercial gasifiers.

  15. Refractory Minerals in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qinguo; LI Jing; LIU Jiehua; LIU Yanjun

    2004-01-01

    Henan province is very rich in refractory minerals of many varieties including silica, dolomite, graphite,pearlite, sepiolite, olivine, and sillimanite group minerals, besides the abundant reserves of fireclay and bauxite,which lay a good foundation for the development of the refractories industry of the province. The paper introduces the reserves, distribution and character of the refractory minerals in Henan province.

  16. Pointwise approximation of periodic functions by trigonometric polynomials with Hermitian interpolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigub, R M [Donetsk National University, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2009-08-31

    We prove a general direct theorem on the simultaneous pointwise approximation of smooth periodic functions and their derivatives by trigonometric polynomials and their derivatives with Hermitian interpolation. We study the order of approximation by polynomials whose graphs lie above or below the graph of the function on certain intervals. We prove several inequalities for Hermitian interpolation with absolute constants (for any system of nodes). For the first time we get a theorem on the best-order approximation of functions by polynomials with interpolation at a given system of nodes. We also provide a construction of Hermitian interpolating trigonometric polynomials for periodic functions (in the case of one node, these are trigonometric Taylor polynomials)

  17. Classification of Periodic Functions and the Rate of Convergence of Their Fourier Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanets, A. I.

    1987-02-01

    The author proposes a classification for periodic functions that is based on grouping them according to the rate at which their Fourier coefficients tend to zero. The classes L_\\beta^\\psi\\mathfrak{N} thereby introduced coincide, for fixed values of the defining parameters, with the known classes W^r, W^rH_\\omega, W_\\beta^r, W_\\beta^rH_\\omega, and the like. Such an approach permits the classification of a wide spectrum of periodic functions, including infinitely differentiable, analytic, and entire functions. The asymptotic behavior of the deviations of the Fourier sums in these classes is studied. The assertions obtained in this direction contain results known earlier on approximation by Fourier sums of classes of differentiable functions. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  18. Periodic density-functional calculations on work-function change induced by adsorption of halogens on Cu(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Tanglaw; Groß, Axel

    2013-04-12

    Using periodic density-functional theory calculations, we address the work-function change induced by the adsorption of chlorine and iodine on Cu(111) which are shown to change the work function in opposite ways, contrary to what one may expect for these two electron acceptors. In contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate that substrate effects play only a minor role in work-function changes brought about by halogen adsorption on metals. Instead, polarization on the adsorbate not only explains the sign of the work-function change as a contributor to a positive surface dipole moment, but it is also the decisive factor in the dependence of adsorption-induced work-function changes on the coverage of halogens on metal surfaces.

  19. The exact order of approximation to periodic functions by Bernstein-Stechkin polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigub, R M [Donetsk National University, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2013-12-31

    The paper concerns the approximation properties of the Bernstein-Stechkin summability method for trigonometric Fourier series. The Jackson-Stechkin theorem is refined. Moreover, for any continuous periodic function not only is the exact upper estimate for approximation found, a lower estimate of the same order is also put forward. To do this special moduli of smoothness and the K-functional are introduced. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  20. Range-separated double-hybrid density-functional theory applied to periodic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Giuseppe; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Usvyat, Denis; Toulouse, Julien; Sharkas, Kamal; Maschio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Quantum chemistry methods exploiting density-functional approximations for short-range electron-electron interactions and second-order M{{\\o}}ller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory for long-range electron-electron interactions have been implemented for periodic systems using Gaussian-type basis functions and the local correlation framework. The performance of these range-separated double hybrids has been benchmarked on a significant set of systems including rare-gas, m...

  1. The initial period function of late-type binary stars and its variation

    CERN Document Server

    Kroupa, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The variation of the period distribution function of late-type binaries is studied. It is shown that the Taurus--Auriga pre-main sequence population and the main sequence G dwarf sample do not stem from the same parent period distribution with better than 95 per cent confidence probability. The Lupus, Upper Scorpius A and Taurus--Auriga populations are shown to be compatible with being drawn from the same initial period function (IPF), which is inconsistent with the main sequence data. Two possible IPF forms are used to find parent distributions to various permutations of the available data which include Upper Scorpius B (UScB), Chameleon and Orion Nebula Cluster pre-main sequence samples. All the pre-main sequence samples studied here are consistent with the hypothesis that there exists a universal IPF which is modified through binary-star disruption if it forms in an embedded star cluster leading to a general decline of the observed period function with increasing period. The pre-main sequence data admit a ...

  2. OKT3 Therapy in Addition to Tacrolimus Is Associated with Improved Long-Term Function in Patients with Steroid Refractory Renal Allograft Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Patschan, Daniel;Kribben, Andreas;Pietruck, Frank;Lutz, Jens;Binek, Matthias;Philipp, Thomas;Heemann, Uwe;Witzke, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term allograft salvage rates of patients with steroid refractory allograft rejection after kidney transplantation and to identify factors indicating a successful outcome. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients with continuing rejection after high-dose steroids were included in the study. Baseline immunosuppression was switched from cyclosporine to tacrolimus in all patients. Twenty patients additionally received OKT3 as antirejection t...

  3. Teaching a Concept with GeoGebra: Periodicity of Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepceoglu, Ibrahim; Yavuz, llyas

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the major subjects in high school mathematics curriculum, trigonometry links algebraic, geometric and graphical reasoning. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of GeoGebra in the teaching of the concept of the periodicity of trigonometric functions. In this study, it is investigated how effective is the dynamic…

  4. Physical and mental functioning in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis over an 11-year followup period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Van Den Joëlle; Roorda, Leo D.; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Tijhuis, Gerard J.; Bos, Van Den Geertrudis A.; Dekker, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the longterm association of a wide range of comorbidities with physical and mental functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Longitudinal data over a period of 11 years were collected from 882 patients with RA. Somatic comorbidity and comorbid depr

  5. Periodic Solutions of Evolution Variational Inequalities-a Method of Guiding Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir ADLY; Daniel GOELEVEN; Michel TH(E)RA

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on a part of the presentation given by the third author at the Shanghai Forum on Industrial and Applied Mathematics (Shanghai 2006). It is related to the existence of a periodic solution of evolution variational inequalities. The approach is based on the method of guiding functions.

  6. Periodic solutions of delayed predator-prey model with the Beddington-DeAngelis functional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo Haifeng [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China)]. E-mail: hfhuo@lut.cn; Li Wantong [Department of Mathematics, Lanzhou University Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)]. E-mail: wtli@lzu.edu.cn; Nieto, Juan J. [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)]. E-mail: amnieto@usc.es

    2007-07-15

    By using the continuation theorem based on Gaines and Mawhin's coincidence degree, sufficient and realistic conditions are obtained for the global existence of positive periodic solutions for a delayed predator-prey model with the Beddington-DeAngelis functional response. Our results are applicable to state dependent and distributed delays.

  7. Cosmos and Rulership: The Function of Olmec-Style Symbols in Formative Period Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, F. Kent III

    1990-01-01

    States that iconographic investigations of Olmec style art works have produced convincing evidence that rulership during the Early and Middle Formative Period of Mesoamerican prehistory was publicly legitimized by a visual charter. Shows that the charter's naturally derived symbols functioned within a system which stressed the human ruler's access…

  8. OKT3 therapy in addition to tacrolimus is associated with improved long-term function in patients with steroid refractory renal allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patschan, Daniel; Kribben, Andreas; Pietruck, Frank; Lutz, Jens; Binek, Matthias; Philipp, Thomas; Heemann, Uwe; Witzke, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term allograft salvage rates of patients with steroid refractory allograft rejection after kidney transplantation and to identify factors indicating a successful outcome. Fifty patients with continuing rejection after high-dose steroids were included in the study. Baseline immunosuppression was switched from cyclosporine to tacrolimus in all patients. Twenty patients additionally received OKT3 as antirejection therapy. Patients having received a cadaveric renal transplant in 1995, excluding patients with steroid resistant rejection, were chosen as a control cohort. Patient survival rates were 96% (n = 48) and 90% (n = 45) and allograft survival rates were 66% (n = 33) and 62% (n = 31) after 5 and 7 years following steroid refractory renal allograft rejection. Graft survival within the control cohort was 73% after 5 years and 69% after 7 years. Creatinine clearance increased from 20 +/- 15 ml/min/1.73 m2 at the start of tacrolimus therapy to 37 +/- 29 ml/min/1.73 m2 and to 32 +/- 26 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 5 and 7 years. OKT3 treatment predicted successful rescue therapy (p = 0.005 and p = 0.04 after 5 and 7 years). Our data indicate a reasonable graft survival in steroid refractory renal allograft rejection using tacrolimus. OKT3 treatment in addition to tacrolimus therapy may be beneficial for long-term allograft survival. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Status epilepticus: Refractory and super-refractory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Deepanshu; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K

    2017-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is an important neurological emergency. It is defined as seizures lasting for 5 minutes or more or recurrent seizures without recovery of consciousness to baseline between the attacks. Refractory SE (RSE) is defined as SE persisting despite sufficient dose of benzodiazepines and at least one antiepileptic drug (AED), irrespective of time. Super refractory SE (SRSE) is defined as SE that continues for 24 hours or more after the use of anesthetic therapy, including cases that recur on weaning of the anesthestic agent. RSE occurs in 23%-48% of the patients and SRSE in approximately 22% of the patients with SE. In general, RSE occurs in patients with new-onset seizures rather than in patients with chronic epilepsy. The etiology of RSE in developing countries is dominated by central nervous system (CNS) infections and head injury compared to stroke and drug withdrawal in the developed countries. The treatment of RSE and SRSE is not evidence based. Following benzodiazepines, the second line antiepileptic drugs include sodium valproate, phenytoin, levetiracetam, and anesthetic drugs such as midazolam, phenobarbital, and propofol. Most intravenous anesthetic drugs produce hypotension and respiratory suppression; therefore, patients with RSE are managed in intensive care units (ICUs). In RSE patients, electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression with interburst interval of 2-20 s or even flat EEG has been tried. Recently, concerns have been raised on the safety of burst suppression in RSE and SRSE. The paucity of ICUs in developing countries limits the use of these management protocols. There is a need to explore intravenous AEDs with safer cardiovascular and respiratory profile for the management of SE.

  10. Successful treatment of refractory systemic lupus erythematosus using proteasome inhibitor bortezomib followed by belimumab: description of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöwall, C; Hjorth, M; Eriksson, P

    2017-01-01

    Although the putative therapeutic options for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are steadily increasing, refractory disease is indeed a major challenge to many clinicians and patients. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib - approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma since the beginning of this century - was recently reported successful in twelve cases of refractory SLE by German colleagues. Herein, we describe two Swedish SLE cases with refractory renal and pulmonary manifestations that were rescued by bortezomib as induction of remission followed by monthly doses of belimumab. The patients were carefully monitored with regard to disease activity and renal function. Anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q antibodies, complement proteins and lymphocyte subsets were analysed in consecutive samples. In December 2016, the patients had been in clinical remission post bortezomib administration for a period of 28 and 22 months, respectively. Potential benefits of using belimumab as maintenance therapy to prevent regeneration of autoreactive B cell clones are discussed.

  11. Green's function of the heat equation with periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbaev, Nurlan; Erzhanov, Nurzhan

    2016-12-01

    In this work a non-local initial-boundary value problem for a non-homogeneous one-dimensional heat equation is con-sidered. The domain under consideration is a rectangle. The classical initial condition with respect to t is put. A non-local periodic boundary condition with respect to a spatial variable x is put. It is well-known that a solution of problem can be constructed in the form of convergent orthonormal series according to eigenfunctions of a spectral problem for an operator of multiple differentiation with periodic boundary conditions. Therefore Green's function can be also written in the form of an infinite series with respect to trigonometric functions (Fourier series). For classical first and second initial-boundary value problems there also exists a second representation of the Green's function by Jacobi function. In this paper we find the representation of the Green's function of the non-local initial-boundary value problem with periodic boundary conditions in the form of series according to exponents.

  12. Imaging Functions of Quasi-Periodic Nanohole Array as an Ultra-Thin Planar Optical Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Sheng Kao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the lensing functions and imaging abilities of a quasi-periodic nanohole array in a metal screen have been theoretically investigated and demonstrated. Such an optical binary mask with nanoholes designed in an aperiodic arrangement can function as an ultra-thin planar optical lens, imaging complex structures composed of multiple light sources at tens of wavelengths away from the lens surface. Via resolving two adjacent testing objects at different separations, the effective numerical aperture (N.A. and the effective imaging area of the planar optical lens can be evaluated, mimicking the imaging function of a conventional lens with high N.A. Furthermore, by using the quasi-periodic nanohole array as an ultra-thin planar optical lens, important applications such as X-ray imaging and nano-optical circuits may be found in circumstances where conventional optical lenses cannot readily be applied.

  13. Refractory headache: classification and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Morris

    2008-06-01

    There are a number of reasons to attempt to define and classify refractory headache disorders. Particularly important are the potential benefits in the areas of research, treatment, and medical cost reimbursement. There are challenges in attempting to classify refractory forms of headaches, including the lack of biological or other objective markers and a lack of consensus among practitioners as to what qualifies as refractoriness, or even if a separate category for refractory migraine and other refractory headaches needs to be established. A definition of refractory migraine has been proposed by Schulman et al in this issue ("Defining Refractory Migraine [RM] and Refractory Chronic Migraine [RCM]: Proposed Criteria for the Refractory Headache Special Interests Section of the American Headache Society"), which should be tested for validity and usefulness. It seems reasonable to consider adding this defined syndrome to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II). In this article, options for adding refractory headache syndromes to the ICHD are discussed with pros and cons for each. Two "best" options for adding the disorder "refractory migraine" to the ICHD are presented along with an illustrative case example.

  14. Development of Refractory Technology in China‘s Iron and Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITingshou; PENGXigao

    2000-01-01

    Review on the development of refractories technology in China's iron and steel industry during the period of "the ninth five-year plan" has been made.Some sugges-tions and opinions on the future development of refractories science and technology in China has been put forward ,including full utilization of domestic rich resources of refrac-tory raw materials to develop sophisticated synthetic refrac-tory raw materials with Chinese characteristics and the R & D on high-tech refractory products for meeting the require-ment of the development of new metallurgical technology.

  15. Meromorphic Continuations of Finite Gap Herglotz Functions and Periodic Jacobi Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhan, Rostyslav

    2014-05-01

    We find a necessary and sufficient condition for a Herglotz function m to be the Borel transform of the spectral measure of an exponential decaying perturbation of a periodic Jacobi matrix. The condition is in terms of meromorphic continuation of m to a natural Riemann surface and the structure of its zeros and poles. The analogous result is also established for the Borel transform of the spectral measure of eventually periodic Jacobi matrices. This paper generalizes the corresponding result from the author's (Constr Approx 36(2):267-309, 2012) for exponential perturbations of the free Jacobi matrix.

  16. Synthesis of periodic mesoporous organosilicas functionalized with different amine-organoalkoxysilanes via direct co-condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriyanon, Nakorn [International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (EHWM), Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Punyapalakul, Patiparn [Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (EHWM), Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit, E-mail: Chawalit.Ng@Chula.ac.th [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology (PETROMAT), Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    A series of amine-functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) were synthesized from bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane via surfactant-templating using supramolecular assemblies of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride under basic conditions. Functionalization of the PMO materials was performed via direct co-condensation in the presence of mono-, di- or tri-amine-organoalkoxysilanes. The effect of the type and concentration of the added organosilanes on the physicochemical properties of the functionalized PMOs were investigated. Thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of the inorganic–organic hybrid framework functionalized with the amine groups. The total nitrogen content of the functionalized PMOs ranged from 0.26 to 1.27 mmol/g. The materials possessed a hexagonal lattice with the highly ordered mesostructure being preserved after the amine-functionalization as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurement revealed that the materials had high specific surface areas (963–1252 m{sup 2}/g) and a relatively high total pore volume (0.52–0.85 cm{sup 3}/g). The mesopore size and wall thickness of these materials varied in relation with the molecular size and the loading of the organosilanes. Moreover, the morphology of the PMO materials was increasingly transformed from irregular shaped particles to spheres with increasing amounts of amine-functional groups or with organo-functional groups with several amine units. - Highlights: • Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) were functionalized via co-condensation. • Long-chain organosilane with three amine units was employed a precursor. • Hexagonal mesostructure of PMO was preserved at a 40 mol% loading level. • Amine-functionalized PMOs had a high surface area and total pore volume. • Their morphology depended on the

  17. Refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Prado P. Moraes-Filho

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition which develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. Its pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment have frequently been analyzed but it is interesting to review some aspects of the GERD refractory patients to the proton pump inhibitors treatment. The treatment encompasses behavioral measures and pharmacological therapy. The majority of the patients respond well to proton pump inhibito...

  18. Refractory status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractory status epilepticus is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency. It requires early diagnosis and treatment. There is a lack of consensus upon its semantic definition of whether it is status epilepticus that continues despite treatment with benzodiazepine and one antiepileptic medication (AED, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin. Others regard refractory status epilepticus as failure of benzodiazepine and 2 antiepileptic medications, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin + phenobarb. Up to 30% patients in SE fail to respond to two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs and 15% continue to have seizure activity despite use of three drugs. Mechanisms that have made the treatment even more challenging are GABA-R that is internalized during status epilepticus and upregulation of multidrug transporter proteins. All patients of refractory status epilepticus require continuous EEG monitoring. There are three main agents used in the treatment of RSE. These include pentobarbital or thiopental, midazolam and propofol. RSE was shown to result in mortality in 35% cases, 39.13% of patients were left with severe neurological deficits, while another 13% had mild neurological deficits.

  19. Monitoring of Refractory wall recession using radar technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of missouri

    2003-12-30

    Furnaces are the most crucial components in the glass and metallurgical industry. Like any other components in an industry, furnaces require periodic maintenance and repair. Today, furnaces are being operated at higher temperatures and for longer periods of time thus increasing the rate of wear and tear on the furnace refractory lining. As a result of the competitive market facing these industries, longer furnace lifetime with shorter maintenance downtime are increasingly required. Higher fuel consumption, low production and safety are issues that accompany delayed maintenance. Consequently, there is a need to know the state of a refractory wall to prevent premature or unnecessary maintenance shutdowns. For many years the observation skills of an experienced operator has been the primary source of evaluating the wear associated with a refractory wall. The rate of regression of a refractory lining depends on the type of the refractory lining, the materials Monitoring of Refractory Wall Recession Using Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FM-CW) Radar Techniques: A Proof-of-Concept Study, Final Report, Submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), September 2003. being melted, seepage, mechanical stresses, and temperature. Moreover, the regression of a refractory lining is also not uniform throughout a furnace and it is more prominent at the metal line along the sidewalls as this region is exposed to hot gaseous byproducts and flowing molten material. Hence, more accurate measurement techniques are required to determine the local residual thickness of a refractory lining so as to utilize the refractory lining to the maximum extent possible. The use of isotope radiators, thermocouples and endoscopes has also been investigated for monitoring regression. These techniques are capable of providing scanned thermal images showing the profile of the refractory wall. However, these techniques can only provide relative profile information and cannot provide absolute thickness

  20. Periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations in population dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Padhi, Seshadev; Srinivasu, P D N

    2014-01-01

    This book provides cutting-edge results on the existence of multiple positive periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations. It demonstrates how the Leggett-Williams fixed-point theorem can be applied to study the existence of two or three positive periodic solutions of functional differential equations with real-world applications, particularly with regard to the Lasota-Wazewska model, the Hematopoiesis model, the Nicholsons Blowflies model, and some models with Allee effects. Many interesting sufficient conditions are given for the dynamics that include nonlinear characteristics exhibited by population models. The last chapter provides results related to the global appeal of solutions to the models considered in the earlier chapters. The techniques used in this book can be easily understood by anyone with a basic knowledge of analysis. This book offers a valuable reference guide for students and researchers in the field of differential equations with applications to biology, ecology, a...

  1. Finding zeros of the Riemann zeta function by periodic driving of cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creffield, C. E.; Sierra, G.

    2015-06-01

    The Riemann hypothesis, which states that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function all lie on a certain line in the complex plane, is one of the most important unresolved problems in mathematics. We propose here an approach to finding a physical system to study the Riemann zeros, which is based on applying a time-periodic driving field. This driving allows us to tune the quasienergies of the system (the analog of the eigenenergies for static systems), so that they are directly governed by the zeta function. We further show by numerical simulations that this allows the Riemann zeros to be measured in currently accessible cold-atom experiments.

  2. Control of beam halo-chaos by Gauss function in the triangle periodic-focusing channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hai-Jun; Bai Long; Weng Jia-Qiang; Luo Xiao-Shu; Fang Jin-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky (K-V) beam through a triangle periodic-focusing magnetic field by using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and an idea of Gauss function controller is proposed based on the strategy of controlling the halo-chaos. It performs multiparticle simulation to control the halo by using the Gauss function control method. The numerical results show that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively, and that the radial particle density is uniform at the centre of the beam as long as the control method and appropriate parameter are chosen.

  3. Non-Periodic Finite-Element Formulation of Orbital-Free Density Functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavini, V; Knap, J; Bhattacharya, K; Ortiz, M

    2006-10-06

    We propose an approach to perform orbital-free density functional theory calculations in a non-periodic setting using the finite-element method. We consider this a step towards constructing a seamless multi-scale approach for studying defects like vacancies, dislocations and cracks that require quantum mechanical resolution at the core and are sensitive to long range continuum stresses. In this paper, we describe a local real space variational formulation for orbital-free density functional theory, including the electrostatic terms and prove existence results. We prove the convergence of the finite-element approximation including numerical quadratures for our variational formulation. Finally, we demonstrate our method using examples.

  4. Refractoriness in sustained visuo-manual control: is the refractory duration intrinsic or does it depend on external system properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Cornelis; Gawthrop, Peter J; Gollee, Henrik; Loram, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have previously adopted the double stimulus paradigm to study refractoriness in human neuromotor control. Currently, refractoriness, such as the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) has only been quantified in discrete movement conditions. Whether refractoriness and the associated serial ballistic hypothesis generalises to sustained control tasks has remained open for more than sixty years. Recently, a method of analysis has been presented that quantifies refractoriness in sustained control tasks and discriminates intermittent (serial ballistic) from continuous control. Following our recent demonstration that continuous control of an unstable second order system (i.e. balancing a 'virtual' inverted pendulum through a joystick interface) is unnecessary, we ask whether refractoriness of substantial duration (~200 ms) is evident in sustained visual-manual control of external systems. We ask whether the refractory duration (i) is physiologically intrinsic, (ii) depends upon system properties like the order (0, 1(st), and 2(nd)) or stability, (iii) depends upon target jump direction (reversal, same direction). Thirteen participants used discrete movements (zero order system) as well as more sustained control activity (1(st) and 2(nd) order systems) to track unpredictable step-sequence targets. Results show a substantial refractory duration that depends upon system order (250, 350 and 550 ms for 0, 1(st) and 2(nd) order respectively, n=13, p<0.05), but not stability. In sustained control refractoriness was only found when the target reverses direction. In the presence of time varying actuators, systems and constraints, we propose that central refractoriness is an appropriate control mechanism for accommodating online optimization delays within the neural circuitry including the more variable processing times of higher order (complex) input-output relations.

  5. Refractoriness in sustained visuo-manual control: is the refractory duration intrinsic or does it depend on external system properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van de Kamp

    Full Text Available Researchers have previously adopted the double stimulus paradigm to study refractoriness in human neuromotor control. Currently, refractoriness, such as the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP has only been quantified in discrete movement conditions. Whether refractoriness and the associated serial ballistic hypothesis generalises to sustained control tasks has remained open for more than sixty years. Recently, a method of analysis has been presented that quantifies refractoriness in sustained control tasks and discriminates intermittent (serial ballistic from continuous control. Following our recent demonstration that continuous control of an unstable second order system (i.e. balancing a 'virtual' inverted pendulum through a joystick interface is unnecessary, we ask whether refractoriness of substantial duration (~200 ms is evident in sustained visual-manual control of external systems. We ask whether the refractory duration (i is physiologically intrinsic, (ii depends upon system properties like the order (0, 1(st, and 2(nd or stability, (iii depends upon target jump direction (reversal, same direction. Thirteen participants used discrete movements (zero order system as well as more sustained control activity (1(st and 2(nd order systems to track unpredictable step-sequence targets. Results show a substantial refractory duration that depends upon system order (250, 350 and 550 ms for 0, 1(st and 2(nd order respectively, n=13, p<0.05, but not stability. In sustained control refractoriness was only found when the target reverses direction. In the presence of time varying actuators, systems and constraints, we propose that central refractoriness is an appropriate control mechanism for accommodating online optimization delays within the neural circuitry including the more variable processing times of higher order (complex input-output relations.

  6. Time functions of deep earthquakes from broadband and short-period stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, H.; Benz, H.M.; Vidale, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To constrain dynamic source properties of deep earthquakes, we have systematically constructed broadband time functions of deep earthquakes by stacking and scaling teleseismic P waves from U.S. National Seismic Network, TERRAscope, and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network broadband stations. We examined 42 earthquakes with depths from 100 to 660 km that occurred between July 1, 1992 and July 31, 1995. To directly compare time functions, or to group them by size, depth, or region, it is essential to scale them to remove the effect of moment, which varies by more than 3 orders of magnitude for these events. For each event we also computed short-period stacks of P waves recorded by west coast regional arrays. The comparison of broadband with short-period stacks yields a considerable advantage, enabling more reliable measurement of event duration. A more accurate estimate of the duration better constrains the scaling procedure to remove the effect of moment, producing scaled time functions with both correct timing and amplitude. We find only subtle differences in the broadband time-function shape with moment, indicating successful scaling and minimal effects of attenuation at the periods considered here. The average shape of the envelopes of the short-period stacks is very similar to the average broadband time function. The main variations seen with depth are (1) a mild decrease in duration with increasing depth, (2) greater asymmetry in the time functions of intermediate events compared to deep ones, and (3) unexpected complexity and late moment release for events between 350 and 550 km, with seven of the eight events in that depth interval displaying markedly more complicated time functions with more moment release late in the rupture than most events above or below. The first two results are broadly consistent with our previous studies, while the third is reported here for the first time. The greater complexity between 350 and 550 km suggests greater heterogeneity in

  7. Rapid pacing results in changes in atrial but not in ventricular refractoriness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderwoerd, BA; Van Gelder, IC; Tieleman, RG; Bel, KJ; Crijns, HJGM

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that atrial tachycardia causes atrial electrical remodeling, characterized by shortening of atrial effective refractory periods (AERPs) and loss of physiological adaptation of AERP to rate. However, the nature and time course of changes in ventricular effective refractory periods (V

  8. Time dependent human hip joint lubrication for periodic motion with stochastic asymmetric density function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzcholski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with the calculation of the human hip joint parameters for periodic, stochastic unsteady, motion with asymmetric probability density function for gap height. The asymmetric density function indicates that the stochastic probabilities of gap height decreasing are different in comparison with the probabilities of the gap height increasing. The models of asymmetric density functions are considered on the grounds of experimental observations. Some methods are proposed for calculation of pressure distributions and load carrying capacities for unsteady stochastic conditions in a super thin layer of biological synovial fluid inside the slide biobearing gap limited by a spherical bone acetabulum. Numerical calculations are performed in Mathcad 12 Professional Program, by using the method of finite differences. This method assures stability of numerical solutions of partial differential equations and gives proper values of pressure and load carrying capacity forces occurring in human hip joints.

  9. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Functionalized with Sulfonic Acid Groups as Acid Catalyst for Glycerol Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Van Der Voort

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica (PMO functionalized with sulfonic acid groups has been successfully synthesized via a sequence of post-synthetic modification steps of a trans-ethenylene bridged PMO material. The double bond is functionalized via a bromination and subsequent substitution obtaining a thiol functionality. This is followed by an oxidation towards a sulfonic acid group. After full characterization, the solid acid catalyst is used in the acetylation of glycerol. The catalytic reactivity and reusability of the sulfonic acid modified PMO material is investigated. The catalyst showed a catalytic activity and kinetics that are comparable with the commercially available resin, Amberlyst-15, and furthermore our catalyst can be recycled for several subsequent catalytic runs and retains its catalytic activity.

  10. 难治性强迫症患者认知功能及影响因素%Evaluation of cognitive functions and its influencing factors in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周朝昀; 沙维伟; 张晓斌; 耿德勤; 董晓星; 房才龙

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨难治性强迫症患者认知功能及影响因素. 方法:55例难治性强迫症患者(患者组)及60名正常对照者(对照组)进行Stroop色词测验、可反复测查的成套神经心理状态评估工具(RBANS)以及Yale-Brown强迫量表(YBOCS)评定,对心理测查成绩与一般情况进行相关性分析.结果:患者组RBANS在言语功能分上明显低于正常对照组(P<0.01).患者的年龄、起病年龄与RBANS即时记忆分、注意分、总分呈负相关(P<0.05或P<0.01);与Stroop中颜色干扰时呈正相关(P<0.05或P<0.01);YBOCS分与Stroop中字义干扰时呈正相关(P<0.01).在RBANS各项评分及总分上,有工作的患者组评分(n=30)高于无工作的患者组(n=25),差异有统计学意义(P均<0.01).结论:难治性强迫症患者言语功能明显受损.年龄、起病年龄和症状严重程度与认知功能有显著相关.有工作可能对强迫症患者认知功能有保护性作用.%Objective: To evaluate the cognitive functions and its influencing factors in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method:55 patients with refractory OCD and 60 healthy person as control were evaluated by neuropsychologjcal test,such as Stroop color-word test,repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) and Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale(YBOCS). Results:The language score of RBANS in refractory OCD patients were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (P < 0.01). Refractory OCD patients age,onset age were negatively correlated with immediate memory score,attention score and total scores in RBANS (P <0.05 or P <0.01) ,and were positively correlated with the color interference time in Stroop( P <0.05 or P <0.01). YBOCS scores were positively correlated with the word interference time in Stroop(P < 0.01). The points and total score in RBANS with the working group (n =30)were significantly higher than non-working group (n=25) (all P < 0.01). Conclusion

  11. Refractories Utilizability for Slagging Gasifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Slagging coal gasification process became a highlight of coal chemical industry in China during the last decade. Refractory lining's life of slagging gasifiers is one of the most critical factors for a cost -effective operation. The paper introduces current status of coal gasification in China, lining structure of slagging gasifiers and performance of refractory lining. It also summarizes the major factors impacting on refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers in four Chinese chemical plants, based on ten years of industrial experience. The utilizability is discussed in terms of cost -effectiveness of high chromia refractories and possibility of the alternatives.

  12. Management of refractory ischemic priapism: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Marco; Gillo, Arianna; Cocci, Andrea; Garaffa, Giulio; Timpano, Massimiliano; Falcone, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present manuscript is to review the current literature on priapism, focusing on the state-of-the-art knowledge of both the diagnosis and the treatment of the refractory ischemic priapism (IP). Pubmed and EMBASE search engines were used to search for words "priapism", "refractory priapism", "penile prosthesis", "diagnosis priapism", "priapism treatment", "penile fibrosis", "priapism therapy". All the studies were carefully examined by the authors and then included in the review. First-line treatment involves ejaculation, physical exercise and cold shower followed by corporal blood aspiration and injection of α-adrenoceptor agonists. Subsequently, a distal or proximal shunt may be considered. If none of the treatment is effective or the priapism episode lasts >48 hours penile prosthesis implantation could be the only option to solve the priapism and treat the ongoing erectile dysfunction. The management of IP is to achieve detumescence of persistent penile erection and to preserve erectile function after resolution of the priapic episode. On the other hand, penile fibrosis and following shortening should be prevented. Early penile prosthesis implantation in patients with refractory IP is able to solve both the priapic episode and prevent the otherwise certain penile shortening. Penile prosthesis implantation is the actual gold standard of care in cases of refractory IP.

  13. Orind Refractories Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mr R. Mishra; Group Manging Director

    2005-01-01

    @@ "Sight can be acquired, Vision cannot". Orind Refractories Limited (ORIND), China was formed with this rare vision. At a time when the world was testing the tepid waters of China; Mr. Ravin Jhunjhunwala, Chairman of ORIND and the management of ORIND India had looked over the Great Wall to begin a journey of success. Incorported on 18th August 1994 with an initial investment of USD 5 million, ORL caters to the ever-demanding needs of the steel industry and beyond. Incidentally ORIND was the first wholly owned India company to set up base in China. Pesently, ORIND China has a 616 strong work force including 23 expatriates.

  14. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...... in pharmacological management of chronic atrial fibrillation....

  15. Self-consistent second-order Green’s function perturbation theory for periodic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusakov, Alexander A., E-mail: rusakov@umich.edu; Zgid, Dominika [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    Despite recent advances, systematic quantitative treatment of the electron correlation problem in extended systems remains a formidable task. Systematically improvable Green’s function methods capable of quantitatively describing weak and at least qualitatively strong correlations appear as promising candidates for computational treatment of periodic systems. We present a periodic implementation of temperature-dependent self-consistent 2nd-order Green’s function (GF2) method, where the self-energy is evaluated in the basis of atomic orbitals. Evaluating the real-space self-energy in atomic orbitals and solving the Dyson equation in k-space are the key components of a computationally feasible algorithm. We apply this technique to the one-dimensional hydrogen lattice — a prototypical crystalline system with a realistic Hamiltonian. By analyzing the behavior of the spectral functions, natural occupations, and self-energies, we claim that GF2 is able to recover metallic, band insulating, and at least qualitatively Mott regimes. We observe that the iterative nature of GF2 is essential to the emergence of the metallic and Mott phases.

  16. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  17. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.3, Simulative corrosion of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1 and Task 1.2. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors were tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. The best performing materials in the cup testing were fused cast materials. However, 2 castables appear to outperforming any of the previously tested materials and may perform better than the fused cast materials in operation. The basis of the high performance of these materials is the low open porosity and permeability to black liquor smelt.

  18. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

  19. Development of Refractories for Continuous Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shouxin; JIN Congjin; YAO Jinfu; LI Zeya

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduces refractories for continuous casting, especially, refractories for continuous casting for clean steel in baosteel. Developing direction of refractories for continuous casting has been pointed out to satisfy the new metallurgical operating practice.

  20. Green's function asymptotics near the internal edges of spectra of periodic elliptic operators. Spectral edge case

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2012-06-21

    Precise asymptotics known for the Green\\'s function of the Laplace operator have found their analogs for periodic elliptic operators of the second order at and below the bottom of the spectrum. Due to the band-gap structure of the spectra of such operators, the question arises whether similar results can be obtained near or at the edges of spectral gaps. As the result of this work shows, this is possible at a spectral edge when the dimension d ≥ 3. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Functionalization of a long period grating coated with gold nanoparticles for glyphosate detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Bárbara R.; Pereira, Júlia C.; Chiamenti, Ismael; Oliveira, Marcela M.; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, José L.

    2017-04-01

    This work describes a method for producing a nanostructured fiber optic device for sensing of pesticides in water environment. The device consists of a long period grating with a coating of gold nanoparticles functionalized with cysteamine. The LPG shows attenuation bands near the phase matching turning point at the visible spectral range. A bottom-up production route was used to deposit gold nanoparticles on the fiber surface. Sensitivity to the refractive index of the external medium was measured before and after the layer deposition. Cysteamine was used as a ligand for glyphosate present in water at a concentration of 100 μM.

  2. Management of patients with chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis refractory to conventional treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Blanca; Canser, Enrique; Gredilla, Elena; Alonso, Eduardo; Gilsanz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The literature contains numerous studies on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, atypical locations, and clinical (hormonal) and surgical management of the disorder. However, no information is available on the management of endometriosis involving pain refractory to the usual treatment from the perspective of a pain unit. Our hospital has a pain unit specifically dedicated to pain in gynecology and obstetrics. The unit has been functioning since December 2005, and 52% of the attended patients have CPP of different origins. Endometriosis is present in 48% of all patients with CPP and is the most prevalent pathology in our practice. It moreover poses an important challenge in view of its enormous complexity. A descriptive study was made of the management of 44 patients with endometriosis refractory to therapy, evaluated and treated over a period of 3 years in the Pain Unit of the Maternity Center of La Paz University Hospital (Madrid, Spain).

  3. Effectiveness of botulinum toxin A in treatment of refractory erythromelalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hsiang Lin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Erythromelalgia is characterized by intense burning pain, erythema, and heat in affected areas after precipitating factors such as warm temperature or stress. It is refractory to treatment in some situations. We describe a woman with adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the lung and medically refractory erythromelalgia. The symptoms of erythromelalgia presented as refractory to any medical treatment. Due to the unresponsive nature of her condition, botulinum toxin type A (onabotulinumtoxin A was injected over both of her cheeks, periodically for six cycles. Her symptoms responded dramatically to subcutaneous and intradermal injection of botulinum toxin type A. Repetitive injection demonstrated consistent and reproducible responses, and the efficacy was maintained for approximately 1 month. No adverse effects or complications were noted. Botulinum toxin type A might be safe and effective as an alternative treatment for refractory erythromelalgia, but further large-scale studies are required.

  4. Improved Refractories for IGCC Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    The gasification of coal, petroleum residuals, and biomass provides the opportunity to produce energy more efficiently, and with significantly less environmental impact, than more-conventional combustion-based processes. In addition, the synthesis gas that is the product of the gasification process offers the gasifier operator the option of ''polygeneration'', i.e., the production of alternative products instead of power should it be economically favorable to do so. Because of these advantages, gasification is a key element in the U.S. Department of Energy?s Vision 21 power system. However, issues with both the reliability and the economics of gasifier operation will have to be resolved before gasification will be widely adopted by the power industry. Central to both increased reliability and economics is the development of materials with longer service lives in gasifier systems that can provide extended periods of continuous gasifier operation. The focus of the Advanced Refractories for Gasification project at the Albany Research Center is to develop improved materials capable of withstanding the harsh, high-temperature environment created by the gasification reaction, and includes both the refractory lining that insulates the slagging gasifier, as well as the thermocouple assemblies that are utilized to monitor gasifier operating temperatures. Current generation refractory liners in slagging gasifiers are typically replaced every 10 to 18 months, at costs ranging up to $2,000,000. Compounding materials and installation costs are the lost-opportunity costs for the three to four weeks that the gasifier is off-line for the refractory exchange. Current generation thermocouple devices rarely survive the gasifier start-up process, leaving the operator with no real means of temperature measurement during gasifier operation. As a result, the goals of this project include the development of a refractory liner with a service life at least double that of

  5. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

  6. Refractory Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Khatami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Refractory celiac disease (RCD is when malabsorption symptoms and villous atrophy persist despite strict adherence to a gluten free diet (GFD for more than 12 months and other causes of villous atrophy have been ruled out.  RCD is considered a rare disease and almost exclusively occurs in adults. Persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss are the most common symptoms in RCD. Also, anemia, fatigue, malaise, thromboembolic events and coexisting autoimmune disorders are frequent. Diagnosis of RCD is based on other causes of unresponsiveness to the GFD, particularly collagenous sprue, ulcerative jejunitis, and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. Many disorders such as autoimmune enteropathy, tropical sprue, common variable immunodeficiency, and intolerance to non-gluten dietary proteins may have similar histological findings but not necessarily identical with CD and therefore should be excluded. Repeat intestinal biopsy may help to differentiate causes of non-responsive CD associated with ongoing villous atrophy (e.g., gluten contamination, small-bowel bacterial overgrowth, RCD. There are 2 subtypes of RCD according to absence (type I or presence (type II of an abnormal intraepithelial lymphocyte population. RCD type 1 usually becomes better with a combination of aggressive nutritional support, adherence to GFD, and pharmacologic therapies such as prednisone, budesonide and azathioprine. For RCD type 2, more aggressive therapeutic approach is needed since clinical response to therapies is less certain and may evolve into aggressive enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma and the prognosis is poor.   Key words: Celiac Disease, Refractory.  

  7. Recovery of partial differential operators on classes of periodic functions with mixed smoothness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgimbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of optimal linear recovery for mixed partial differential operator A on the unit ball SBpθ r(Tn) of the Nikol'skii-Besov space of periodic functions with mixed smoothness. We find error bounds sharp in order for optimal linear recovery of operator A on class SBpθ r(Tn) . As information IMδ(f ) about the functions f from class SBpθ r(Tn) we shall use Fourier coefficients with numbers from step "hyperbolic" cross. As the linear method using the information about Fourier coefficients, we shall consider action of the mixed partial differential operator A on the special "private" sum of decomposition on system (type as wavelets) trigonometric polynomials.

  8. Multi-period Optimal Portfolio Decision with Transaction Costs and HARA Utility Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection problem is one of the core research fields in modern financial management. While considering the transaction costs in the long term investment makes the portfolio selection problems more complex than there are no transaction costs. In this paper, the general multi-period investment problems with HARA utility function and proportional transaction costs are investigated. By using the dynamic programming method, the indirect utility function is defined for solving the portfolio selection problem. The optimal strategies and the boundary of the no-transaction region are obtained in the explicit form. And the procedure for solving the original portfolio selection problem is given. Numerical example shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the method provided in this paper.

  9. New Applications of Some High Technologies i Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYiquan; ZHANGYufeng; 等

    2001-01-01

    The potential applications of some high tenologies in refractories,such as,nanotechnology,in-situ synthesis,self-propagating high-temperature synthesis,functional gradient materials,computer assisted design and some new advanced refactories in Si-Al-O-N system are briefly described.The characteristics and preparation processes of these new refractories areintroduced,and the remaining problems awaiting effective solutions are pointed out .Some suggesions on future diection of research and development are fitly made.

  10. PERIODIC SOLUTIONS AND GLOBAL ASYMPTOTIC STABILITY OF A DELAYED DISCRETE PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM WITH HOLLING Ⅱ TYPE FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuimei ZHANG; Wencheng CHEN; Yu YANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the existence and global asymptotic stability of positive periodic solutions of a delayed periodic predator-prey system with Holling Ⅱ type functional response. By use of the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and the method of Lyapunov function, some sufficient conditions are obtained.

  11. Dealing with periodical loads and harmonics in operational modal analysis using time-varying transmissibility functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijtjens, Wout; Lataire, John; Devriendt, Christof; Guillaume, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Periodical loads, such as waves and rotating machinery, form a problem for operational modal analysis (OMA). In OMA only the vibrations of a structure of interest are measured and little to nothing is known about the loads causing these vibrations. Therefore, it is often assumed that all dynamics in the measured data are linked to the system of interest. Periodical loads defy this assumption as their periodical behavior is often visible within the measured vibrations. As a consequence most OMA techniques falsely associate the dynamics of the periodical load with the system of interest. Without additional information about the load, one is not able to correctly differentiate between structural dynamics and the dynamics of the load. In several applications, e.g. turbines and helicopters, it was observed that because of periodical loads one was unable to correctly identify one or multiple modes. Transmissibility based OMA (TOMA) is a completely different approach to OMA. By using transmissibility functions to estimate the structural dynamics of the system of interest, all influence of the load-spectrum can be eliminated. TOMA therefore allows to identify the modal parameters without being influenced by the presence of periodical loads, such as harmonics. One of the difficulties of TOMA is that the analyst is required to find two independent datasets, each associated with a different loading condition of the system of interest. This poses a dilemma for TOMA; how can an analyst identify two different loading conditions when little is known about the loads on the system? This paper tackles that problem by assuming that the loading conditions vary continuously over time, e.g. the changing wind directions. From this assumption TOMA is developed into a time-varying framework. This development allows TOMA to not only cope with the continuously changing loading conditions. The time-varying framework also enables the identification of the modal parameters from a single dataset

  12. 关于周期函数定义的研究%A Research on the Definition of Periodic Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘劲松; 童丽娟

    2012-01-01

    In the first place, the traditional periodic function definition is enumerated, and their shortages are analyzed. Results show that the traditional periodic function definition is not really perfect. Afterwards, the weak periodic function is defined. Function's periodicity is discussed by the basic properties of weak periodic function at last.%首先例举了周期函数的传统定义,并分析了它们的不足之处,得出了周期函数的传统定义均不太理想的结论.然后给出了弱周期函数的定义,并利用弱周期函数的基本性质讨论了有关函数的周期性.

  13. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  14. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  15. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  16. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    -situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  17. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  18. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    -situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  19. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  20. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  1. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  2. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  3. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  4. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  5. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  6. Refractory chronic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Katsarava, Zaza; Lampl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    and in the uncontrolled application of therapeutic techniques not yet validated.The European Headache Federation Expert Group on rCM presents hereby the updated definition criteria for this harmful subset of headache disorders. This attempt wants to be the first impulse towards the correct identification......The debate on the clinical definition of refractory Chronic Migraine (rCM) is still far to be concluded. The importance to create a clinical framing of these rCM patients resides in the complete disability they show, in the high risk of serious adverse events from acute and preventative drugs...... of these patients, the correct application of innovative therapeutic techniques and lastly aim to be acknowledged as clinical entity in the next definitive version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 (ICHD-3 beta)....

  7. Refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Andres; Claassen, Jan

    2012-04-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) has a high morbidity and mortality. There are currently no definitive data to guide both the optimal choice of therapy and treatment goals. This review focuses on RSE diagnosis and outcome and discusses both commonly used and anecdotal therapies for RSE. The challenges in performing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in neurocritical care and more specifically for the treatment of RSE are illustrated by the early termination of the first RCT of RSE due to low recruitment that compared propofol to barbiturates. Recent case series include the successful treatment of recurrent RSE with ketamine, intravenous lacosamide as an add-on treatment, the use of combination antiepileptics (phenytoin, levetiracetam, and pregabalin), and surgical treatments (vagal nerve and deep brain stimulation) for the control of RSE. A number of different therapeutic options are available for the treatment of RSE but none have been shown to be superior to others at this point.

  8. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years....... Eighty-five investigators reached by email. Proposed criteria were in the format of the International Classification of Headache Disorders III-beta (description, criteria, notes, comments and references). Following this evaluation eight drafts were prepared before the final. Twenty-four (28...

  9. A Possible Effect of the Period of Galaxy Formation on the Angular Correlation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, T; Yamashita, K; Ogawa, Tomoya; Roukema, Boudewijn F.; Yamashita, Kazuyuki

    1997-01-01

    During the epoch of galaxy formation, the formation of the first galaxies in regions of high overdensity may lead to an initial amplitude of the spatial correlation function of galaxies, $\\xi_0,$ much higher than that expected in linear perturbation theory. This initially high ``bias'' would consequently decrease to the near-unityvalues expected from local observations. Such a ``Decreasing Correlation Period'' (DCP), detected in N-body simulations under certain conditions by several authors, is parametrised in a simple way, ending at a ``transition'' redshift $z_t.$ Consequences on $w_0,$ the amplitude of the angular correlation function of faint galaxies (for a fixed apparent magnitude range), have been estimated. The sensitivity of $w_0$ to $z_t,$ and how this is affected by the redshift distribution of the galaxies in the sample, by low redshift spatial correlation function behaviour, by cosmology, and by the rate at which $\\xi_0$ decreases during the DCP, are shown and discussed. This simple model is inte...

  10. Affect of surgical approaches on functional results of total hip arthroplasty in early postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Andreyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive approaches implies a less soft tissue damage and, therefore, more rapid recovery of the patient in the early postoperative period. The present study is a comparison of minimally invasive and standard approaches using biomechanical analysis of standing and walking patients before and after total hip arthroplasty, as well as an analysis of clinical outcomes in the early postoperative period. Fifty patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty using a minimally invasive and conventional techniques were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of patients operated on using the MIS AL (modified minimally invasive approach Watson-Jones (n = 17, the second - MDM (minimally invasive approach to the modified Mueller (n = 16 and in the third - with the use of transgluteal conventional approach by Harding (n = 17. The estimation of biomechanical parameters in static and dynamic patients before surgery and at 8-10 days after surgery. Also assessed clinical outcome postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS and Harris scale on day 10, 6 and 12 weeks and 1 year. When comparing the three groups of patients stabilometry best results were observed in groups of minimally invasive approaches MIS AL and MDM. When comparing the three groups significantly better (a moderate increase in the duration of the step, rolling the contralateral limb and a slight increase in the duration of the step the operated limb by increasing the duration of the roll-over were identified in the minimally invasive group MIS AL and MDM. In assessing the scale of Harris in the early postoperative period, higher rates were observed in groups of minimally invasive approaches. A year after the operation functional results become similar in all groups.

  11. Compressive Creep and Thermophysical Performance of Mullite Refractories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, JG

    2002-04-01

    Compressive creep testing of ten commercially available mullite refractories was performed at 1300-1450 C and at static stresses between 0.2-0.6 MPa. These refractories were examined because they are used in borosilicate glass furnace crowns and superstructures along with in sidewall applications. Additionally, despite their high cost ({approx}$500/ft{sup 3}) they are cheaper than other refractories such as chrome alumina ({approx}$3000/ft{sup 3}) or fusion-cast alumina ({approx}900/ft{sup 3}) which are used as replacements for traditional silica refractories in harsh oxy-fuel environments. The corrosion resistances of these ten materials were also evaluated. In addition, measurements were made that tracked their dimensional stability, phase content, microstructure, and composition as a function of temperature and time. The techniques used for these characterizations and their respective analyses are described. An intent of this study was to provide objective and factual results whose interpretations were left to the reader.

  12. A periodic density functional theory study of cumene formation catalyzed by H-mordenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanska, X; Barbosa, L A M M; van Santen, R A

    2005-02-17

    A periodic density functional theory study of the alkylation of benzene with propene in proton-exchanged mordenite has been achieved. The two different reaction routes that are usually proposed for this reaction, namely the direct and the step-by-step reaction pathways, have been investigated. The explicit consideration of the zeolite catalyst framework allows a better level of description of the interactions between the catalyst framework and the reaction than what is obtained with the cluster approach method. The direct reaction route is found to be the preferred one. It is observed that the cluster approach method, which does not describe the zeolite framework, is unable to qualitatively described the trend in activation energies. This is owing to the greater stabilization of larger transition state by the mordenite zeolite framework compared with smaller ones.

  13. Asymptotically Almost Periodic Solutions for a Class of Stochastic Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the quadratic-mean asymptotically almost periodic mild solutions for a class of stochastic functional differential equations dxt=Atxt+Ft,xt,xtdt+H(t,xt,xt∘dW(t. A new criterion ensuring the existence and uniqueness of the quadratic-mean asymptotically almost periodic mild solutions for the system is presented. The condition of being uniformly exponentially stable of the strongly continuous semigroup {Tt}t≥0 is essentially removed, which is generated by the linear densely defined operator A∶D(A⊂L2(ℙ,ℍ→L2(ℙ,ℍ, only using the exponential trichotomy of the system, which reflects a deeper analysis of the behavior of solutions of the system. In this case the asymptotic behavior is described through the splitting of the main space into stable, unstable, and central subspaces at each point from the flow’s domain. An example is also given to illustrate our results.

  14. Predicting factors for refractory kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young-Sun; Kim, Ki-Won; Chun, Jin-Kyong; Cha, Byung Ho; Namgoong, Mee Kyung; Lee, Hae Yong

    2010-05-01

    About 10-15% of Kawasaki disease (KD) is refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. This study was designed to investigate the predicting factors for refractory KD. We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of 77 patients with typical KD admitted at Wonju Christian Hospital from January, 2005, to December, 2008. The variance of laboratory and demographic parameters between the IVIG-responsive group and IVIG-resistant group were analyzed. Thirteen patients with urinary tract infections were randomly collected as a febrile control group. Among 77 patients diagnosed with complete KD, 13 patients (16.9%) were IVIG-resistant. The febrile period and hospital days were significantly longer in the IVIG-resistant group than IVIG-responsive group (pIVIG-resistant group (p=0.025). The Kobayashi score could differentiate these two groups (p=0.015). Fewer lymphocytes was observed during the subacute phase in the IVIG-resistant group (p=0.032). Coronary arterial dilatations (CADs) were observed in 10.9% (7/64) of IVIG-responders and 38.5% (5/13) of IVIG-resistant patients (p=0.038). The percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes in patients with KD, in addition to known risk factors for refractory KD, may help predict IVIG-resistance in patients with KD.

  15. IMPROVED CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ALUMINA REFRACTORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven

    2001-09-30

    The initial objective of this project was to do a literature search to define the problems of refractory selection in the metals and glass industries. The problems fall into three categories: Economic--What do the major problems cost the industries financially? Operational--How do the major problems affect production efficiency and impact the environment? and Scientific--What are the chemical and physical mechanisms that cause the problems to occur? This report presents a summary of these problems. It was used to determine the areas in which the EERC can provide the most assistance through bench-scale and laboratory testing. The final objective of this project was to design and build a bench-scale high-temperature controlled atmosphere dynamic corrosion application furnace (CADCAF). The furnace will be used to evaluate refractory test samples in the presence of flowing corrodents for extended periods, to temperatures of 1600 C under controlled atmospheres. Corrodents will include molten slag, steel, and glass. This test should prove useful for the glass and steel industries when faced with the decision of choosing the best refractory for flowing corrodent conditions.

  16. New-onset refractory status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Brandon P.; Alvarez, Vincent; Cabrera Kang, Christian; Probasco, John C.; Jongeling, Amy C.; Meyers, Emma; Espinera, Alyssa; Haas, Kevin F.; Schmitt, Sarah E.; Gerard, Elizabeth E.; Gofton, Teneille; Kaplan, Peter W.; Lee, Jong W.; Legros, Benjamin; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Westover, Brandon M.; LaRoche, Suzette M.; Hirsch, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the etiology, clinical features, and predictors of outcome of new-onset refractory status epilepticus. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with refractory status epilepticus without etiology identified within 48 hours of admission between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2013, in 13 academic medical centers. The primary outcome measure was poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as a score >3 on the modified Rankin Scale). Results: Of 130 cases, 67 (52%) remained cryptogenic. The most common identified etiologies were autoimmune (19%) and paraneoplastic (18%) encephalitis. Full data were available in 125 cases (62 cryptogenic). Poor outcome occurred in 77 of 125 cases (62%), and 28 (22%) died. Predictors of poor outcome included duration of status epilepticus, use of anesthetics, and medical complications. Among the 63 patients with available follow-up data (median 9 months), functional status improved in 36 (57%); 79% had good or fair outcome at last follow-up, but epilepsy developed in 37% with most survivors (92%) remaining on antiseizure medications. Immune therapies were used less frequently in cryptogenic cases, despite a comparable prevalence of inflammatory CSF changes. Conclusions: Autoimmune encephalitis is the most commonly identified cause of new-onset refractory status epilepticus, but half remain cryptogenic. Outcome at discharge is poor but improves during follow-up. Epilepsy develops in most cases. The role of anesthetics and immune therapies warrants further investigation. PMID:26296517

  17. Sample Preparation for Monolithic Refractories Part 1: Refractory Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition and test methods of flowability of dense and insulating refractory castables,and moulding equipment,moulding methods,curing and drying conditions of castables samples.

  18. The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is

  19. Nursing Experience of Marrow Inhibitory Period Platelet Transfusion Refractoriness in Patients with Acute Leukemia%急性白血病患者骨髓抑制期血小板输注无效的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 李平

    2014-01-01

    化疗是目前急性白血病的常用治疗手段。化疗后患者进入骨髓抑制期,血细胞明显减少,输注血小板可以预防血小板减少引起的出血,患者多次输注血小板常会发生血小板输注无效(PTR)。发生PTR的患者出血风险较大,甚至发生颅内出血而危及生命,及时严密的病情观察和包括心理、预防出血、避免感染、输注血小板等方面的针对性护理是患者顺利度过骨髓抑制期不可缺少的一部分。%Chemotherapy is the most commonly used treatment for acute leukemia. blood cel s was significantly reduced in patients during bone marrow suppression After chemotherapy, platelet transfusion is used to prevent bleeding, PTR is observed in many patients after repeated platelet transfusions, patients with platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) may bleed because of Thrombocytopenia,while Intracranial hemor hage can be life-threatening. Timely and close observation and other aspects of nursing care including psychology, prevention of bleeding, infection prevention, platelet transfusion are indispensable parts for patients to survive the bone mar ow suppression.

  20. Propofol infusion syndrome in refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Woo Sub; Gwak, Hye Min; Seo, Dae-Won

    2013-06-01

    Propofol is used for treating refractory status epilepticus, which has high rate of mortality. Propofol infusion syndrome is a rare but often fatal syndrome, characterized by lactic acidosis, lipidemia, and cardiac failure, associated with propofol infusion over prolonged periods of time. We investigated the clinical factors that characterize propofol infusion syndrome to know the risk of them in refractory status epilepticus. This retrospective observation study was conducted in Samsung medical center from Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2009. Thirty two patients (19 males, 13 females, aged between 16 and 64 years), with refractory status epilepsy were included. Their clinical findings and treatment outcomes were evaluated retrospectively. We divided our patients into established status epilepticus (ESE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE). And then the patients with RSE was further subdivided into propofol treatment group (RSE-P) and the other anesthetics treatment group (RSE-O). We analyzed the clinical characteristics by comparison of the groups. There were significant differences of hypotension and lipid change between ESE and RSE (pRSE-P and RSE-O groups. The hospital days were longer in RSE than in ESE (p=0.012) and treatment outcome was also worse in RSE than in ESE (p=0.007) but there were no significant differences of hospital stays and treatment outcome between RSE-P and RSE-O. RSE is very critical disease with high mortality, which may show as many clinical changes as propofol infusion syndrome. Therefore propofol infusion syndrome might be considered as one of the clinical manifestations of RSE.

  1. On Periodicity of Trigonometric Functions and Connections with Elementary Number Theoretic Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupel, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The notion of periodicity stands for regular recurrence of phenomena in a particular order in nature or in the actions of man, machine, etc. Many examples can be given from daily life featuring periodicity. Mathematically the meaning of periodicity is that some value recurs with a constant frequency. Students learn about the periodicity of the…

  2. Present Situation of Refractories for Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI Li; SHEN Keyin

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the present situation of refractories for Baosteel, including refractories for iron-making system, converters, ladles and tundishes. Descriptions have been also conducted on the environment protection and reutilization of refractories in Baosteel, together with somesuggestions for refractories suppliers to meet the advancement in iron and steel making technology of Baosteel.

  3. Ultraviolet inscription of long period gratings on polymer functionalized optical microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongyang; Li, Yuhang; Wang, Lijun

    2016-04-01

    Optical microfibers functionalized with surface microstructures, have attracted great attentions and been widely used in various optical devices. In this work, we demonstrated a technique to fabricate microstructures on polymer coated optical microfibers via ultraviolet inscription. Optical microfibers were firstly functionalized with ultraviolet photosensitivity by surface PMMA jackets. Microstructures were fabricated on optical microfibers via point-by-point ultraviolet inscription since the photo-etching in PMMA jackets. As an illustration, a 2-mm-long microfiber long period grating (MLPG) with a pitch of 80 μm was inscribed. The diameter of optical microfiber is 5.4 μm and a resonant dip of 15dB was observed at 1377 nm. The MLPG showed a high sensitivity of strain and axial force, i.e., -1.93 pm/μɛ and -867 μN/nm. Sealed by a PMMA housing, the temperature sensitivity of MLPG could be enhanced from -12.75 pm/°C to -385.11 pm/°C. This technique demonstrates ultraviolet inscription of MLPGs and also provides an approach to fabricate microstructures on optical microfiber via ultraviolet exposure.

  4. Range-separated double-hybrid density-functional theory applied to periodic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sansone, Giuseppe; Usvyat, Denis; Toulouse, Julien; Sharkas, Kamal; Maschio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chemistry methods exploiting density-functional approximations for short-range electron-electron interactions and second-order M{{\\o}}ller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory for long-range electron-electron interactions have been implemented for periodic systems using Gaussian-type basis functions and the local correlation framework. The performance of these range-separated double hybrids has been benchmarked on a significant set of systems including rare-gas, molecular, ionic, and covalent crystals. The use of spin-component-scaled MP2 for the long-range part has been tested as well. The results show that the value of $\\mu$ = 0.5 bohr^{--1} for the range-separation parameter usually used for molecular systems is also a reasonable choice for solids. Overall, these range-separated double hybrids provide a good accuracy for binding energies using basis sets of moderate sizes such as cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVDZ.

  5. Range-separated double-hybrid density-functional theory applied to periodic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansone, Giuseppe; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Maschio, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.maschio@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces) Centre, Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Usvyat, Denis [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Toulouse, Julien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Sharkas, Kamal [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-3000 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Quantum chemistry methods exploiting density-functional approximations for short-range electron-electron interactions and second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory for long-range electron-electron interactions have been implemented for periodic systems using Gaussian-type basis functions and the local correlation framework. The performance of these range-separated double hybrids has been benchmarked on a significant set of systems including rare-gas, molecular, ionic, and covalent crystals. The use of spin-component-scaled MP2 for the long-range part has been tested as well. The results show that the value of μ = 0.5 bohr{sup −1} for the range-separation parameter usually used for molecular systems is also a reasonable choice for solids. Overall, these range-separated double hybrids provide a good accuracy for binding energies using basis sets of moderate sizes such as cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVDZ.

  6. Higher-order finite-difference formulation of periodic Orbital-free Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Swarnava

    2014-01-01

    We present a real-space formulation and higher-order finite-difference implementation of periodic Orbital-free Density Functional Theory (OF-DFT). Specifically, utilizing a local reformulation of the electrostatic and kernel terms, we develop a generalized framework suitable for performing OF-DFT simulations with different variants of the electronic kinetic energy. In particular, we develop a self-consistent field (SCF) type fixed-point method for calculations involving linear-response kinetic energy functionals. In doing so, we make the calculation of the electronic ground-state and forces on the nuclei amenable to computations that altogether scale linearly with the number of atoms. We develop a parallel implementation of this formulation using the finite-difference discretization, using which we demonstrate that higher-order finite-differences can achieve relatively large convergence rates with respect to mesh-size in both the energies and forces. Additionally, we establish that the fixed-point iteration c...

  7. Peculiarities of morpho-functional condition of young swimmers in the period of basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinichenko I. O.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of optimal moving regime for young children. The aim of the article is to analyze data of morpho-functional condition of young swimmers in the period of basic training. 45 swimmers aged from 8 to 10 years were surveyed in dynamics of two years of their initial training preparation. The harmony, the level of physical development, the dynamics of morpho-functional condition data of young swimmers under the influence of regular swimming training have been defined. It has been defined that 60,00% of swimmers in the first year of training have harmonious physical development which was increased to 76,67% in the second year of training in the investigated group. The number of children with high level of physical development increased from 2,22% to 10,00% with the increase of their sports experience. Positive dynamics of indicators of vital capacity of the lungs, chest circumference at rest, chest circumference at breath, chest circumference at exhalation, chest excursion for children of the second year of training under the influence of systematic swimming training was determined. The moving regime of young swimmers can be considered as means of the improvement of children physical development in younger school age with disharmonious physical development.

  8. Self-flow Refractory Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term and definition,classification, technical requirements, test methods,quality appraisal procedures, packing, marking, transportation, storage, and quality certificate of self-flow refractory castables.

  9. Alumina-magnesia Refractory Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of alumina-magnesia refractory castables.

  10. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T. [Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed.

  11. Musical training heightens auditory brainstem function during sensitive periods in development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eSkoe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Experience has a profound influence on how sound is processed in the brain. Yet little is known about how enriched experiences interact with developmental processes to shape neural processing of sound. We examine this question as part of a large cross-sectional study of auditory brainstem development involving more than 700 participants, 213 of whom were classified as musicians. We hypothesized that experience-dependent processes piggyback on developmental processes, resulting in a waxing-and-waning effect of experience that tracks with the undulating developmental baseline. This hypothesis led to the prediction that experience-dependent plasticity would be amplified during periods when developmental changes are underway (i.e., early and later in life and that the peak in experience-dependent plasticity would coincide with the developmental apex for each subcomponent of the auditory brainstem response. Consistent with our predictions, we reveal that musicians have heightened response features at distinctive times in the life span that coincide with periods of developmental change and climax. The effect of musicianship is also quite specific: we find that only select components of auditory brainstem activity are affected, with musicians having heightened function for onset latency, high frequency phase-locking, and response consistency, and with little effect observed for other measures, including lower frequency phase-locking and non-stimulus-related activity. By showing that musicianship imparts a neural signature that is especially evident during childhood and old age, our findings reinforce the idea that the nervous system’s response to sound is chiseled by how a person interacts with his specific auditory environment, with the effect of the environment wielding its greatest influence during certain privileged windows of development.

  12. Permanence of Periodic Predator-Prey System with General Nonlinear Functional Response and Stage Structure for Both Predator and Prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuming Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the permanence of periodic predator-prey system with general nonlinear functional responses and stage structure for both predator and prey and obtain that the predator and the prey species are permanent.

  13. OPTIMAL EXISTENCE THEORY FOR SINGLE AND MULTIPLE POSITIVE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH FEEDBACK CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using a fixed point theorem in a cone, we obtain some optimal existence results for single and multiple positive periodic solutions to a functional difference system with feedback control. Moreover, we apply our results to a population model.

  14. PERIODIC SOLUTION TO PREDATOR-PREY CHAIN SYSTEM WITH IMPULSIVE EFFECTS AND BEDDINGTON-DEANGELIS FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a predator-prey chain system with impulsive effects and Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is studied. We investigate the existence of periodic solu-tion by coincidence degree theory. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of periodic solution.

  15. Defining refractory migraine and refractory chronic migraine: proposed criteria from the Refractory Headache Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Elliott A; Lake, Alvin E; Goadsby, Peter J; Peterlin, B Lee; Siegel, Sherry E; Markley, Herbert G; Lipton, Richard B

    2008-06-01

    Certain migraines are labeled as refractory, but the entity lacks a well-accepted operational definition. This article summarizes the results of a survey sent to American Headache Society members to evaluate interest in a definition for RM and what were considered necessary criteria. Review of the literature, collaborative discussions and results of the survey contributed to the proposed definition for RM. We also comment on our considerations in formulating the criteria and any issues in making the criteria operational. For the proposed definition for RM and refractory chronic migraine, patients must meet the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Second Edition criteria for migraine or chronic migraine, respectively. Headaches need to cause significant interference with function or quality of life despite modification of triggers, lifestyle factors, and adequate trials of acute and preventive medicines with established efficacy. The definition requires that patients fail adequate trials of preventive medicines, alone or in combination, from at least 2 of 4 drug classes including: beta-blockers, anticonvulsants, tricyclics, and calcium channel blockers. Patients must also fail adequate trials of abortive medicines, including both a triptan and dihydroergotamine (DHE) intranasal or injectable formulation and either nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or combination analgesic, unless contraindicated. An adequate trial is defined as a period of time during which an appropriate dose of medication is administered, typically at least 2 months at optimal or maximum-tolerated dose, unless terminated early due to adverse effects. The definition also employs modifiers for the presence or absence of medication overuse, and with or without significant disability.

  16. Extracorporeal life support for refractory ventricular tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nicholas; Hofmann, James P.; Saranteas, Theodosios; Papadimos, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a very effective bridging therapy in patients with refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) associated with cardiogenic shock. A moribund patient in extremis, is not amenable to optimization by standard ACC/AHA guidelines. New approaches and novel salvage techniques are necessary to improve outcomes in patients with refractory clinical settings such as malignant ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary failure until further management options are explored. Data base searches were done using key words such as ECLS, VT, cardiac arrest, VT ablation, venoarterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). The use of ECLS has been described in a few case reports to facilitate VT ablation for incessant VT refractory to medical therapy. For patients with, out-of- hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) and VT, Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium has implemented emergent advanced perfusion and reperfusion strategy, followed by coronary angiography and primary coronary intervention to improve outcome. The major indications for ECLS are cardiogenic shock related to acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, post embolic acute cor pulmonale, drug intoxication and post cardiac arrest syndrome with the threat of multi-organ failure. ECLS permits the use of negative inotropic antiarrhythmic drug therapy, facilitates the weaning of catecholamine administration, thereby ending the vicious cycle of catecholamine driven electric storm. ECLS provides hemodynamic support during ablation procedure, while mapping and induction of VT is undertaken. ECLS provides early access to cardiac catheterization laboratory in patients with cardiac arrest due to shockable rhythm. The current evidence from literature, supports the use of ECLS to ensure adequate vital organ perfusion in patients with refractory VT. ECLS is a safe, feasible and effective therapeutic option when conventional therapies are insufficient to support

  17. Management of refractory ischemic priapism: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capece M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Capece,1 Arianna Gillo,2 Andrea Cocci,3 Giulio Garaffa,1 Massimiliano Timpano,4 Marco Falcone4 1The Institute of Urology, University College of London Hospital (UCLH, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, “Umberto Parini” Hospital, Aosta, 3Department of Urology, Careggi Hospital, Firenze, 4Department of Urology, University of Turin, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Italy Objectives: The aim of the present manuscript is to review the current literature on priapism, focusing on the state-of-the-art knowledge of both the diagnosis and the treatment of the refractory ischemic priapism (IP.Methods: Pubmed and EMBASE search engines were used to search for words “priapism”, “refractory priapism”, “penile prosthesis”, “diagnosis priapism”, “priapism treatment”, “penile fibrosis”, “priapism therapy”. All the studies were carefully examined by the authors and then included in the review.Results: First-line treatment involves ejaculation, physical exercise and cold shower followed by corporal blood aspiration and injection of α-adrenoceptor agonists. Subsequently, a distal or proximal shunt may be considered. If none of the treatment is effective or the priapism episode lasts >48 hours penile prosthesis implantation could be the only option to solve the priapism and treat the ongoing erectile dysfunction.Conclusion: The management of IP is to achieve detumescence of persistent penile erection and to preserve erectile function after resolution of the priapic episode. On the other hand, penile fibrosis and following shortening should be prevented. Early penile prosthesis implantation in patients with refractory IP is able to solve both the priapic episode and prevent the otherwise certain penile shortening. Penile prosthesis implantation is the actual gold standard of care in cases of refractory IP. Keywords: priapism, ischemic priapism, penile fibrosis, penile prosthesis, shunt 

  18. Sensitive periods for the functional specialization of the neural system for human face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Brigitte; Ley, Pia; Shenoy, Bhamy H; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Bottari, Davide

    2013-10-15

    The aim of the study was to identify possible sensitive phases in the development of the processing system for human faces. We tested the neural processing of faces in 11 humans who had been blind from birth and had undergone cataract surgery between 2 mo and 14 y of age. Pictures of faces and houses, scrambled versions of these pictures, and pictures of butterflies were presented while event-related potentials were recorded. Participants had to respond to the pictures of butterflies (targets) only. All participants, even those who had been blind from birth for several years, were able to categorize the pictures and to detect the targets. In healthy controls and in a group of visually impaired individuals with a history of developmental or incomplete congenital cataracts, the well-known enhancement of the N170 (negative peak around 170 ms) event-related potential to faces emerged, but a face-sensitive response was not observed in humans with a history of congenital dense cataracts. By contrast, this group showed a similar N170 response to all visual stimuli, which was indistinguishable from the N170 response to faces in the controls. The face-sensitive N170 response has been associated with the structural encoding of faces. Therefore, these data provide evidence for the hypothesis that the functional differentiation of category-specific neural representations in humans, presumably involving the elaboration of inhibitory circuits, is dependent on experience and linked to a sensitive period. Such functional specialization of neural systems seems necessary to archive high processing proficiency.

  19. Exploiting the locality of periodic subsystem density-functional theory: efficient sampling of the Brillouin zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-12-01

    In order to approximately satisfy the Bloch theorem, simulations of complex materials involving periodic systems are made {{n}\\text{k}} times more complex by the need to sample the first Brillouin zone at {{n}\\text{k}} points. By combining ideas from Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT) and orbital-free DFT, for which no sampling is needed due to the absence of waves, subsystem DFT offers an interesting middle ground capable of sizable theoretical speedups against Kohn-Sham DFT. By splitting the supersystem into interacting subsystems, and mapping their quantum problem onto separate auxiliary Kohn-Sham systems, subsystem DFT allows an optimal topical sampling of the Brillouin zone. We elucidate this concept with two proof of principle simulations: a water bilayer on Pt[1 1 1]; and a complex system relevant to catalysis—a thiophene molecule physisorbed on a molybdenum sulfide monolayer deposited on top of an α-alumina support. For the latter system, a speedup of 300% is achieved against the subsystem DTF reference by using an optimized Brillouin zone sampling (600% against KS-DFT).

  20. Radiation Effects in Refractory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, Steven J.; Wiffen, F. W.

    2004-02-01

    In order to achieve the required low reactor mass per unit electrical power for space reactors, refractory alloys are essential due to their high operating temperature capability that in turn enables high thermal conversion efficiencies. One of the key issues associated with refractory alloys is their performance in a neutron irradiation environment. The available radiation effects data are reviewed for alloys based on Mo, W, Re, Nb and Ta. The largest database is associated with Mo alloys, whereas Re, W and Ta alloys have the least available information. Particular attention is focused on Nb-1Zr, which is a proposed cladding and structural material for the reactor in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) project. All of the refractory alloys exhibit qualitatively similar temperature-dependent behavior. At low temperatures up to ~0.3TM, where TM is the melting temperature, the dominant effect of radiation is to produce pronounced radiation hardening and concomitant loss of ductility. The radiation hardening also causes a dramatic decrease in the fracture toughness of the refractory alloys. These low temperature radiation effects occur at relatively low damage levels of ~0.1 displacement per atom, dpa (~2×1024 n/m2, E>0.1 MeV). As a consequence, operation at low temperatures in the presence of neutron irradiation must be avoided for all refractory alloys. At intermediate temperatures (0.3 to 0.6 TM), void swelling and irradiation creep are the dominant effects of irradiation. The amount of volumetric swelling associated with void formation in refractory alloys is generally within engineering design limits (>10 dpa). Very little experimental data exist on irradiation creep of refractory alloys, but data for other body centered cubic alloys suggest that the irradiation creep will produce negligible deformation for near-term space reactor applications.

  1. Development Tendency of the Refractories for Iron & Steel Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the developing tendency of refractories for iron and steel industry combined with the new metallurgical techniques applied in iron and steel industry in China. Refractories for blast furnace long service life, smelting reduction iron-making process, secondary refining metallurgies and clean steel making, near net shape continuous casting are described respectively. To meet the requirement of iron and steel industry, the high quality, multi-functions and environment-friendly refractories with long service life will be focused and developed in the future. In addition, high grade refractories in China have great developing space and potential market.

  2. PERIODIC SOLUTIONS FOR A DELAYED ONE-PREDATOR AND TWO-PREY SYSTEM WITH HOLLING TYPE-Ⅱ FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuQiming; XuRui

    2005-01-01

    A delayed one-predator and two-prey system with Holling type-Ⅱ functional response is investigated. By using Gaines and Mawhin's continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and by constructing suitable Lyapunov functional, a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions are derived for the existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions to the system.

  3. Characterizing classical periodic orbits from quantum Green's functions in two-dimensional integrable systems: Harmonic oscillators and quantum billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. F.; Tung, J. C.; Tuan, P. H.; Yu, Y. T.; Liang, H. C.; Huang, K. F.

    2017-01-01

    A general method is developed to characterize the family of classical periodic orbits from the quantum Green's function for the two-dimensional (2D) integrable systems. A decomposing formula related to the beta function is derived to link the quantum Green's function with the individual classical periodic orbits. The practicality of the developed formula is demonstrated by numerically analyzing the 2D commensurate harmonic oscillators and integrable quantum billiards. Numerical analyses reveal that the emergence of the classical features in quantum Green's functions principally comes from the superposition of the degenerate states for 2D harmonic oscillators. On the other hand, the damping factor in quantum Green's functions plays a critical role to display the classical features in mesoscopic regime for integrable quantum billiards, where the physical function of the damping factor is to lead to the coherent superposition of the nearly degenerate eigenstates.

  4. Flow and Flow Decay of Refractory Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhiqiang; Bjom Myhre; Bjorn Sandberg

    2003-01-01

    Installation of refractoty castables depend not only on flow, but also on how soon the flow is lost because of setting. The loss of flow (flow decay) has always been one of the main problems of refractory castable manufacturers,a problem that has not been too well described in literature. The flow decay has been studied for a castable system based on alumina, pointing out some general trends. The flow decay was found very temperature sensitive, being strongly accelerated by termperature increases. To compensate for excessive flow loss, a retarder like citric acid may be used. Thus flow decay was measured as a function of citric acid (retarder) addition at 35 ℃ .

  5. The relation between prepregnancy sexuality and sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  6. Density functional theory for molecular and periodic systems using density fitting and continuous fast multipole method: Analytical gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łazarski, Roman; Burow, Asbjörn Manfred; Grajciar, Lukáš; Sierka, Marek

    2016-10-30

    A full implementation of analytical energy gradients for molecular and periodic systems is reported in the TURBOMOLE program package within the framework of Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Gaussian-type orbitals as basis functions. Its key component is a combination of density fitting (DF) approximation and continuous fast multipole method (CFMM) that allows for an efficient calculation of the Coulomb energy gradient. For exchange-correlation part the hierarchical numerical integration scheme (Burow and Sierka, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 2011, 7, 3097) is extended to energy gradients. Computational efficiency and asymptotic O(N) scaling behavior of the implementation is demonstrated for various molecular and periodic model systems, with the largest unit cell of hematite containing 640 atoms and 19,072 basis functions. The overall computational effort of energy gradient is comparable to that of the Kohn-Sham matrix formation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Principles of functioning of various systems of the human body in the post-aggressive period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakov, V I; Soldatov, A A; Goncharov, V G; Kuts, M Iu; Dymochkin, V N

    1998-01-01

    The authors' investigations provide the conclusion that in a post-aggressive period there are organized cyclic fluctuations in the body hormones, penetrability of vessels, electrolytes and blood cells. The cycle takes 48 hours.

  8. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Frank A.; Clemens Kunz; Stephan Gräf

    2016-01-01

    Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical princip...

  9. Company Profile Dengfeng Chunsheng Refractories Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Dengfeng Chunsheng Refractories Co., Ltd. is an industrial enterprise integrating refractories research, design, manufacturing and engineering service into one and was entitled as one of China's high-quality silica bricks production and export bases.

  10. Magnesia-Chrome Refractories for Flash Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CHEN Kaixian; LU Xinghua; LIU Jianlong; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2002-01-01

    The rapid development of our country's heavy nonferrous metallurgical technology and the revolution in new type of heavynon-ferrous metallurgical furnace have imposed more critical demand on the refractory materials ,i. e. high quality and long service life. This paper presents the domestic status of the refractories for flash furnace , briefly describes the wear of the refractory used , and it is considered that the domestic in refractories for flashfurnace can be surely realized.

  11. Reuse and Reproduction of Used Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyzed the recycle condition and developing trend of used refractories China and other countries, including research achievements of recycles of used refractories such as MgO-C bricks, Al2O3-MgO-C bricks, Al2O3-SiC-C castable and MgO-Cr2O3 bricks. Recycled refractories exhibit the same or even better properties as compared with the original. In addition, prospects for recycle of used refractories are also discusseded.

  12. Post-harvest quality of fresh-marketed tomatoes as a function of harvest periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Marcos David

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses on tomato business chain start at harvest, a two-months period. At the beginning of the harvest, fruits concentrate at the basal part of the plant, then in the middle, and finally at the top, and undergo changes in diameter and maturity indexes as harvest progresses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of handling at three different periods: (I 15 days, (II 30 days, and (III 45 days after the beginning of harvest. Tomatoes were ordinarily grown and harvested in to bamboo baskets, and transferred to plastics boxes. Fruits were classified according to ripening stage and diameter, and evaluated for mechanical damage and external defects caused by harvesting procedures. The time required for the harvest operation was measured; damage to fruits (% and weight loss (%, caused either in the field and/or during the harvesting process, were taken into consideration and related to the final quality of fruit after storage for 21 days. The same methodology was used all through the production and harvest cycle. The highest % fruit damage occurred during period II, a longer harvest time than the other two periods. Fruits not submitted to handling showed lower weight loss than handled fruits. Fruits harvested in period II and stored for 21 days showed higher losses due to mechanical injury.

  13. Paediatric refractory rhinosinusitis secondary to hypertrophied adenoids: management and review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham MK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background /Objectives: Hypertrophied adenoids are the most common cause of refractory sinusitis in paediatric age. We study 42 cases of patients of chronic adenoiditis with adenoid facies and refractory chronic rhinosinusitis managed by endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy (EAA and conventional adenoidectomy (CA. Materials and method: 42 cases of chronic refractory sinusitis with adenoid facies secondary to hypertrophied adenoids were randomized into 2 groups during the study period of 12 months from August 2012 to July 2013. Group A (n=21 underwent endoscope assisted adenoidectomy and Group B(n=21 underwent conventional adenoidectomy. Result: Endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy proves to be more effective in managing adenoid facies and chronic refractory rhinosinusitis with adenoid hyperplasia. Conclusion: Visualization of the adenoid mass using endoscope helps complete removal of the diseased adenoids. Endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy is treatment of choice in adenoid facies and chronic refractory rhinosinusitis with adenoid hyperplasia and more effective than conventional adenoidectomy.

  14. Efficient computation of periodic and nonperiodic Green`s functions in layered media using the MPIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilton, D.R.; Jackson, D.R.; Champagne, N.J.

    1998-03-27

    The mixed potential integral equation (MPIE) formulation is convenient for problems involving layered media because potential quantities involve low order singularities, in comparison to field quantities. For nonperiodic problems, the associated Green`s potentials involve spectral integrals of the Sommerfeld type, in the periodic case, discrete sums over sampled values of the same spectra are required. When source and observation points are in the same or in adjacent layers, the convergence of both representations is enhanced by isolating the direct and quasi-static image contributions associated with the nearby layers. In the periodic case, the convergence of direct and image contributions may be rapidly accelerated by means of the Ewadd method.

  15. Quadratic solitons for negative effective second-harmonic diffraction as nonlocal solitons with periodic nonlocal response function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B.K.; Bache, Morten; Krolikowski, W.;

    2012-01-01

    We employ the formal analogy between quadratic and nonlocal solitons to investigate analytically the properties of solitons and soliton bound states in second-harmonic generation in the regime of negative diffraction or dispersion of the second harmonic. We show that in the nonlocal description t...... this regime corresponds to a periodic nonlocal response function. We then use the strongly nonlocal approximation to find analytical solutions of the families of single bright solitons and their bound states in terms of Mathieu functions....

  16. Management of chronic refractory cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G; Vertigan, Anne E

    2015-12-14

    Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is defined as a cough that persists despite guideline based treatment. It is seen in 20-46% of patients presenting to specialist cough clinics and it has a substantial impact on quality of life and healthcare utilization. Several terms have been used to describe this condition, including the recently introduced term cough hypersensitivity syndrome. Key symptoms include a dry irritated cough localized around the laryngeal region. Symptoms are not restricted to cough and can include globus, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Chronic refractory cough has factors in common with laryngeal hypersensitivity syndromes and chronic pain syndromes, and these similarities help to shed light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Its pathophysiology is complex and includes cough reflex sensitivity, central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, and paradoxical vocal fold movement. Chronic refractory cough often occurs after a viral infection. The diagnosis is made once the main diseases that cause chronic cough have been excluded (or treated) and cough remains refractory to medical treatment. Several treatments have been developed over the past decade. These include speech pathology interventions using techniques adapted from the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders, as well as the use of centrally acting neuromodulators such as gabapentin and pregabalin. Potential new treatments in development also show promise.

  17. Refractory disease in autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos, Carlos; Kallenberg, Cees; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2011-01-01

    Refractory disease (RD) definition has different meanings but it is dynamic, according to knowledge and the availability of new drugs. It should be differentiated from severe disease and damage definitions and it must take into account duration of adequate therapy and compliance of the patient. It c

  18. Improved Refractories for Slagging Gasifiers in IGCC Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2003-04-24

    The gasification of coal and other carbon-containing fuels provides the opportunity to produce energy more efficiently, and with significantly less environmental impact, than more-conventional combustion-based processes. In addition, the synthesis gas that is the product of the gasification process offers the option of ''polygeneration,'' i.e., the production of alternative products instead of power should it be economically favorable to do so. Because of these advantages, gasification is viewed as one of the key processes in the U.S. Department of Energy's Vision 21 power system. However, issues with both the reliability and the economics of gasifier operation will have to be resolved before gasification will be widely adopted by the power industry. Central to both enhanced reliability and economics is the development of materials with longer service lives in gasifier systems that can provide extended periods of continuous, trouble-free gasifier operation. The focus of the Advanced Refractories for Gasification project at the Albany Research Center is to develop improved refractory materials capable of withstanding the harsh, high-temperature environment created by the gasification reaction, and includes both the refractory lining that protects and insulates the slagging gasifier, as well as the thermocouple assemblies that are utilized to monitor gasifier operating temperatures. Current generation refractory liners in slagging gasifiers are typically replaced every four to 18 months, at costs ranging up to $2,000,000, depending upon the size of the gasification vessel. Compounding materials and installation costs are the lost-opportunity costs for the time that the gasifier is off-line for the refractory exchange. Current generation thermocouple devices rarely survive the gasifier start-up process, leaving the operator with no real means of temperature measurement during routine operation. Reliable, efficient, and economical gasifier

  19. ROSA DAMASCENA OIL: AN ADJUNCTIVE THERAPY FOR PEDIATRIC REFRACTORY SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ashrafzadeh MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSeveral investigations have demonstrated that Rosa damascena has an inhibitory effect on the hypothalamus and on pituitary system reactivity in the rat; it has also been shown that the essential oil of Rosa damascena has significant antiepileptic effects on pentylentetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats. We aimed at assessing the effects of the essential oil of Rosa damascena when used as an adjunct treatment to treat children with refractory seizuresMaterials and MethodsIn this double-blind clinical trial, conducted as a pilot study between April 2004 and March 2005, we administered essential oil of Rosa damascena to sixteen children with refractory epilepsy as an adjunct therapy, and evaluated its effects.Results16 patients, age range 3-13 years, were enrolled; 56.3% (n=9 girls and 43.8% (n=7 boys. All has been under treatment for 3-6 weeks (baseline phase. They received either the essential oil or placebo for a period of 4 weeks and in between these periods, they took only their pre-existing antiepileptic drugs for two weeks (washout phase.The mean frequency of seizures in those using essential oil, showed significant decrease as compared to the controls using placeboes (p=0.00.ConclusionIt can be concluded that the essential oil of Rosa Damascena has beneficial antiepileptic effect in children with refractory seizures.Keywords:Rosa damascena, refractory epilepsy, children, oil.

  20. Exact Values of Bernstein -Widths for Some Classes of Periodic Functions with Formal Self-Adjoint Linear Differential Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We consider the classes of periodic functions with formal self-adjoint linear differential operators , which include the classical Sobolev class as its special case. With the help of the spectral of linear differential equations, we find the exact values of Bernstein -width of the classes in the for .

  1. EXISTENCE OF PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO A KIND OF HIGHER ORDER FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH TWO DEVIATING ARGUMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, by the theory of Fourier series, Bernoulli number theory and continu-ation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we study a kind of higher order functional differential equation with two deviating arguments. Some new results on the existence of periodic solutions are obtained.

  2. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  3. Periodic solutions of multispecies-competition predator-prey system with Holling's type III functional response and prey supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a nonautonomous multispecies competition predator-prey system with Holling's type III functional response and prey supplement. It is proved that the system is uniformly persistent under some conditions. Furthermore, we show that the system has a unique positive periodic solution which is globally asymptotically stable.

  4. Subharmonic Solutions with Prescribed Minimal Periodic for a Class of Second-Order Impulsive Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using critical point theory and variational methods, we investigate the subharmonic solutions with prescribed minimal period for a class of second-order impulsive functional differential equations. The conditions for the existence of subharmonic solutions are established. In the end, we provide an example to illustrate our main results.

  5. The formulation and implementation of analytic energy gradients for periodic density functional calculations with STO/NAO Bloch basis set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadantsev, Eugene S.; Klooster, Rob; De Boeij, Paul L.; Ziegler, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Analytic energy gradients with respect to atomic coordinates for systems with translational invariance are formulated within the framework of Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. The energy gradients are implemented in the BAND program for periodic DFT calculations which directly employs a Bloch bas

  6. Changes of cognitive function in patients with refractory schizophrenia before and after modified electric shock therapy%无抽搐电休克治疗精神分裂症前后认知功能的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚世灵; 黄金伟; 陈汉明

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨精神分裂症无抽搐电休克治疗前后认知功能的变化。方法选取收治的急性发作的精神分裂症患者,其中无抽搐电休克(MECT)组(MECT 组)、药物治疗无 MECT 组(对照组)治疗适应症的患者各30例,两组均根据患者病情给予个体化抗精神病药物治疗,MECT 组同时给予 MECT 治疗,共治疗6周12次为一个疗程。以威斯康星卡片分类测验(WCST)观察患者治疗前、治疗6周时认知功能。结果 WCST 测验中正确应答数、错误应答数两组治疗前比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗后错误应答数较治疗前下降(P 0. 05),the number of incorrect response decreased after treatment compared with those before treatment(P < 0. 01)and compared with the con-trol group,the MECT group decreased more obviously(P < 0. 01);in the MECT treatment group the total effective rate (cure rate + significant efficiency)was 83. 33% higher than that of the control group 56. 66%(P < 0. 05). Conclusion:The treatment of refractory schizophrenia without MECT is helpful to improve the cognitive function,and the cognitive func-tion of the patients without MECT treatment is significantly improved.

  7. Arthroscopic capsular release for refractory shoulder stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcos Rassi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the results of the arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder with two to nine years of follow-up, comparing the pre- and postoperative range of motion. This was an observational study (case series) of 18 patients who underwent arthroscopic capsular release for refractory shoulder stiffness. The mean age was of 53.6 years (range: 39 to 68), with female predominance (77.77%) and nine cases left shoulders. There were 6 primary (33.33%) and 12 secondary cases (66.67%). Arthroscopic capsular release was performed in all patients after a mean of 9.33 months of physical therapy (range: 6 to 20 months) with a minimum follow-up of two years (range: 26 to 110 months). The mean active and passive forward flexion, external rotation and internal rotation increased from 94.4°/103.3°, 11.9°/21.9°, and S1/L5 vertebral level, respectively, to 151.1°/153.8°, 57.2°/64.4°, and T12/T10 vertebral level, respectively. There was a significant difference between the pre- and postoperative range of motion (p < 0.001). According to the Constant-Murley functional score (ROM), the value increased from 14 (preoperative mean) to 30 points (postoperative mean). Postoperatively, all patients showed diminished shoulder pain (none or mild/15 or 10 points in the Constant-Murley score). Arthroscopic treatment is an effective treatment for refractory shoulder stiffness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Surgical treatment of partial atrioventricular septal defect: functional analysis of the mitral valve in the postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Viana Castro Neto

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study mitral valve function in the postoperative period after correction of the partial form of atrioventricular septal defect. METHODS: Fifty patients underwent surgical correction of the partial form of atrioventricular septal defect. Their mean age was 11.8 years and 62% of the patients were males. Preoperative echocardiography showed moderate and severe mitral insufficiency in 44% of the patients. The mitral valve cleft was sutured in 45 (90% patients (group II - GII. Echocardiographies were performed in the early postoperative period, and 6 and 12 months after hospital discharge. RESULTS: The patients who had some type of arrhythmia in the postoperative period had ostium primum atrial septal defect of a larger size (2.74 x 2.08 cm. All 5 patients in group I (GI, who did not undergo closure of the cleft, had a competent mitral valve or mild mitral insufficiency in the preoperative period. One of these patients began to have moderate mitral insufficiency in the postoperative period. On the other hand, in GII, 88.8% and 82.2% of the patients had competent mitral valve or mild mitral insufficiency in the early and late postoperative periods, respectively. CONCLUSION: The mitral valve cleft was repaired in 90% of cases. Echocardiography revealed competent mitral valve or mild mitral insufficiency in 88.8% and 82.2% of GII patients in the early and late postoperative periods, respectively.

  9. Dependency of calcium alternans on ryanodine receptor refractoriness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Alvarez-Lacalle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid pacing rates induce alternations in the cytosolic calcium concentration caused by fluctuations in calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR. However, the relationship between calcium alternans and refractoriness of the SR calcium release channel (RyR2 remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate how ryanodine receptor (RyR2 refractoriness modulates calcium handling on a beat-to-beat basis using a numerical rabbit cardiomyocyte model. We used a mathematical rabbit cardiomyocyte model to study the beat-to-beat calcium response as a function of RyR2 activation and inactivation. Bi-dimensional maps were constructed depicting the beat-to-beat response. When alternans was observed, a novel numerical clamping protocol was used to determine whether alternans was caused by oscillations in SR calcium loading or by RyR2 refractoriness. Using this protocol, we identified regions of RyR2 gating parameters where SR calcium loading or RyR2 refractoriness underlie the induction of calcium alternans, and we found that at the onset of alternans both mechanisms contribute. At low inactivation rates of the RyR2, calcium alternans was caused by alternation in SR calcium loading, while at low activation rates it was caused by alternation in the level of available RyR2s. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have mapped cardiomyocyte beat-to-beat responses as a function of RyR2 activation and inactivation, identifying domains where SR calcium load or RyR2 refractoriness underlie the induction of calcium alternans. A corollary of this work is that RyR2 refractoriness due to slow recovery from inactivation can be the cause of calcium alternans even when alternation in SR calcium load is present.

  10. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS. In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  11. Burned out cognition - cognitive functioning of burnout patients before and after a period with psychological treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterholt, B.G.; Linden, D. van der; Maes, J.H.R.; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Many employees with burnout report cognitive difficulties. However, the relation between burnout and cognitive functioning has hardly been empirically validated. Moreover, it is unknown whether the putative cognitive deficits in burnout are temporary or permanent. Therefore, the purpose

  12. Locating the Discontinuities of a Bounded Function by the Partial Sums of its Fourier Series I: Periodical Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvernadze, George; Hagstrom,Thomas; Shapiro, Henry

    1997-01-01

    A key step for some methods dealing with the reconstruction of a function with jump discontinuities is the accurate approximation of the jumps and their locations. Various methods have been suggested in the literature to obtain this valuable information. In the present paper, we develop an algorithm based on identities which determine the jumps of a 2(pi)-periodic bounded not-too-highly oscillating function by the partial sums of its differentiated Fourier series. The algorithm enables one to approximate the locations of discontinuities and the magnitudes of jumps of a bounded function. We study the accuracy of approximation and establish asymptotic expansions for the approximations of a 27(pi)-periodic piecewise smooth function with one discontinuity. By an appropriate linear combination, obtained via derivatives of different order, we significantly improve the accuracy. Next, we use Richardson's extrapolation method to enhance the accuracy even more. For a function with multiple discontinuities we establish simple formulae which "eliminate" all discontinuities of the function but one. Then we treat the function as if it had one singularity following the method described above.

  13. Chromia refractory brick with carbon treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    2017-03-21

    The disclosure provides a refractory brick system comprising a chromia refractory brick for operation in the slagging environment of an air-cooled gasifier. The chromia refractory brick comprises a ceramically-bonded porous chromia refractory having a porosity greater than 9% and having carbon deposits residing within the pores. The brick may be further comprised of Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The air-cooled gasifier generates a liquefied slag in contact with the refractory brick and generally operates at temperatures between 1250.degree. C. and 1575.degree. C. and pressures between 300 psi to 1000 psi, with oxygen partial pressures generally between 10.sup.-4 and 10.sup.-10 atm. The refractory brick performs without substantial chromium carbide or chromium metal formation in the low oxygen partial pressure environment. The inclusion of carbon without chromium carbide formation provides for significant mitigation of slag penetration and significantly reduced refractory wear.

  14. The functional model of optimization of the special physical preparation of students in the period of flying practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirpenko V.N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is considered approaches to optimization special physical preparation of students during the period of flying practice. For the construction of functional model of such system new information IDEF technology is utillized (ICAM Definition. The feature of technology is gradual introduction all large levels of working out in detail (decoupligs. It is marked that it is expedient to carry out a decouplig before functions which will realize leaders of physical preparation and instructor of flying preparation. It is well-proven that on the stage of research of function a fundamental place is occupied by a functional design. The result of optimization of maintenance of teaching is systematization of knowledge, abilities, facilities of development and support professionally of meaningful qualities of students. The hierarchical levels of process of systematization of maintenance of teaching are recommended. It is offered directions of realization of functional model through conditioning optimization of pedagogical activity of teacher.

  15. Women Health and Psychological Functioning in Different Periods of Life: Evaluation of Nursing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusun Terzioglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available World Health Organization describes health as the state of being completely fine corporally, socially and psychologically. The state of being completely fine which is indicated in this description of health has been criticised by many scientists and with the idea that noone shall ever realise tha state of being completely fine corporally and psychologically, it was emphasized that individuals could be evaluated to be “healthy” as long as they are productive. Starting from the intrauterine period, woman passes through different periods such as childhood, adolescence, adulthood, elderliness and she experiences some physical, psychological and social differences in each of these periods within the frame of life cycle. While these differences influence productivities and life qualities of women negatively, they also make them more inclined to psychiatric illnesses. Therefore, psychological problems are more common among women and they last longer. Considering the fact that among the medical personnel, it is the nurses who spend time with patients during the phases of diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation the most, it could be said that nurses have a significant role in intervening in problems that affect the psychological health of woman. The nurse has responsibilities such as determining the problem the woman goes through, providing protective care, getting an early diagnosis, making the convenient remedial intervention and consigning, when necessary. In this article, significant woman health problems that could be experienced starting from the intrauterine life until the end of life by woman, the effects of this problem to the psychological health of the woman and nursing approaches in view of these problems are discussed.

  16. The HIF1A functional genetic polymorphism at locus +1772 associates with progression to metastatic prostate cancer and refractoriness to hormonal castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Avelino; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Príncipe, Paulo; Lobato, Carlos; Pina, Francisco; Maurício, Joaquina; Monteiro, Cátia; Sousa, Hugo; Calais da Silva, F; Lopes, Carlos; Medeiros, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1a) is a key regulator of tumour cell response to hypoxia, orchestrating mechanisms known to be involved in cancer aggressiveness and metastatic behaviour. In this study we sought to evaluate the association of a functional genetic polymorphism in HIF1A with overall and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) risk and with response to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The HIF1A +1772 C>T (rs11549465) polymorphism was genotyped, using DNA isolated from peripheral blood, in 1490 male subjects (754 with prostate cancer and 736 controls cancer-free) through Real-Time PCR. A nested group of cancer patients who were eligible for androgen deprivation therapy was followed up. Univariate and multivariate models were used to analyse the response to hormonal treatment and the risk for developing distant metastasis. Age-adjusted odds ratios were calculated to evaluate prostate cancer risk. Our results showed that patients under ADT carrying the HIF1A +1772 T-allele have increased risk for developing distant metastasis (OR, 2.0; 95%CI, 1.1-3.9) and an independent 6-fold increased risk for resistance to ADT after multivariate analysis (OR, 6.0; 95%CI, 2.2-16.8). This polymorphism was not associated with increased risk for being diagnosed with prostate cancer (OR, 0.9; 95%CI, 0.7-1.2). The HIF1A +1772 genetic polymorphism predicts a more aggressive prostate cancer behaviour, supporting the involvement of HIF1a in prostate cancer biological progression and ADT resistance. Molecular profiles using hypoxia markers may help predict clinically relevant prostate cancer and response to ADT.

  17. Research of Refractory Obsessive-compulsive Disorder BDNF Serum Level with Cognitive Function%难治性强迫症患者BDNF浓度水平与认知功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茜; 周朝昀; 唐小伟; 肖文焕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of Refractory obsessive compulsive disorder(ROCD) BDNF serum level with cognitive function. Methods Convenient in July 2012-April 2014 in our hospital clinic of 41 cases of match ROCD and 57 cases of healthy control group as the research object, used the Yale -Brown, obsessive compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and complete sets of neuropsychological state evaluation tool(RBANS) to assess the patient's condition of onset of the age, course of the disease, Y - BOCS score, enzyme league immune method for measuring the concentration of serum BDNF levels. Results The serum BDNF concentration of ROCD was (1.45± 0.33)ng/mL, which was significantly lower than that of healthy controls (P<0.01), and the difference was statistically significant. There are significant differences in cognitive function (P<0.01). The serum BDNF level of ROCD was not related to gender, onset age, course of disease, Y-BOCS total score and RBANS total score. Conclusion There are language dysfunctions in ROCD;BDNF may participate in ROCD's occurrence.%目的:研究难治性强迫症(Refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder,ROCD)脑源性神经营养因子(brain derived neurotrophic factor,BDNF)血清浓度水平与认知功能的研究。方法方便选取2012年7月一2014年4月在该院就诊的41例ROCD组和57名相匹配的健康对照组为研究对象,采用耶鲁-布朗强迫量表(Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive Scale,Y-BOCS)和成套神经心理状态评估工具(RBANS)评定患者的起病年龄、病程、Y-BOCS总分、RBANS总分等状况,用酶联免疫法测定血清BDNF的浓度水平。结果 ROCD的血清BDNF浓度水平为(1.45±0.33)ng/mL,明显比健康对照组要低(P<0.01),差异有统计学意义。认知功能中语言方面差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。ROCD的血清BDNF浓度水平与性别、起病年龄、病程、Y-BOCS总分、RBANS总分无明显相关。结论 ROCD存在语言功能障碍,BDNF可能参与强迫症的发生。

  18. Numerical quadrature methods for integrals of singular periodic functions and their application to singular and weakly singular integral equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, A.; Israeli, M.

    1986-01-01

    High accuracy numerical quadrature methods for integrals of singular periodic functions are proposed. These methods are based on the appropriate Euler-Maclaurin expansions of trapezoidal rule approximations and their extrapolations. They are used to obtain accurate quadrature methods for the solution of singular and weakly singular Fredholm integral equations. Such periodic equations are used in the solution of planar elliptic boundary value problems, elasticity, potential theory, conformal mapping, boundary element methods, free surface flows, etc. The use of the quadrature methods is demonstrated with numerical examples.

  19. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    not increase in response to training. Both before and after the HIT-period fast V̇O2 kinetics (low τ values) was associated with large values for ETFP, electron transport system capacity (ETS) and electron flow specific to complex II (CIIP) (P...The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  20. Multiple periodic solutions of a delayed predator-prey model with non-monotonic functional response and stage structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingyuan; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhou, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a periodic and delayed predator-prey system with non-monotonic functional responses and stage structure. In the system, both the predator and prey are divided into immature individuals and mature individuals by two fixed ages. It is assumed that the immature predators cannot attack preys, and the case of the mature predators attacking the immature preys is also ignored. Based on Mawhin's coincidence degree, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of two positive periodic solutions of the system. An example is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the main results.

  1. Fixed ratio (2:1) prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone combination improves bowel function in patients with moderate-to-severe pain and opioid-induced constipation refractory to at least two classes of laxatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Gineke; Simpson, Karen; De Andrés, Javier; Lux, Eberhard Albert; Wagemans, Michel; Van Megen, Yvonne

    2014-11-01

    The effects of combined oxycodone/naloxone prolonged release tablets (OXN PR) were investigated in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic cancer-related or non-cancer pain. All patients had opioid-induced constipation (OIC) which persisted despite substantial laxative therapy. This pooled analysis included 75 patients with OIC at study entry that was refractory to at least two laxatives with different modes of action. Patients completed randomized, double-blind treatment with OXN PR 20-120 mg/day for either 12 weeks (OXN 9001: non-cancer pain study) or 4 weeks (OXN 2001: cancer-related pain study). Analgesia and bowel function were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form and Bowel Function Index (BFI), respectively. Use of laxative medication and safety were assessed throughout the studies. NCT00513656, EudraCT 2005-002398-57, EudraCT 2005-003510-15. Statistically and clinically significant improvements in bowel function were observed following double-blind treatment with OXN PR. Mean (SD) reduction in BFI score was 21.2 (28.8) and comparable in patients with cancer-related (19.0 [28.9]) and non-cancer pain (23.3.[29.0]; P ≤ 0.0002). Furthermore, the proportion of patients with a BFI score within normal range (≤28.8) increased from 9.5% at screening to 43.1% at Day 15 of OXN PR. While all patients used ≥2 laxatives of different classes at screening, during study treatment 36% stopped using laxatives (P PR provided effective analgesia, evidenced by stable pain scores during study treatment, and there were no unanticipated adverse events. OXN PR significantly improved bowel function and reduced the use of laxatives in patients with OIC, previously unresponsive to at least two different classes of laxatives. OXN also provided effective analgesia for patients with moderate-to-severe cancer-related pain and non-cancer-related pain.

  2. Anti-TNF-Alpha-Adalimumab Therapy Is Associated with Persistent Improvement of Endothelial Function without Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Wall Thickness in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Refractory to Conventional Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gonzalez-Juanatey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether treatment with the anti-TNF-alpha blocker adalimumab yields persistent improvement of endothelial function and prevents from morphological progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA refractory to conventional therapy, a series of 34 consecutive RA patients, attending hospital outpatient clinics and who were switched from disease modifying antirheumatic drug therapy to anti-TNF-alpha-adalimumab treatment because of severe disease, were assessed by ultrasonography techniques before the onset of adalimumab therapy (at day 0 and then at day 14 and at month 12. Values of flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation at day 14 and at month 12 were significantly higher (mean ± standard deviation (SD: 6.1±3.9%; median: 5.7% at day 14, and mean ± SD: 7.4±2.8%; median: 6.9% at month 12 than those obtained at day 0 (mean: 4.5±4.0%; median: 3.6%; P=0.03 and P<0.001, resp.. Endothelium-independent vasodilatation results did not significantly change compared with those obtained at day 0. No significant differences were observed when carotid artery intima-media wall thickness values obtained at month 12 (mean ± SD: 0.69±0.21 mm were compared with those found at day 0 (0.65±0.16 mm (P=0.3. In conclusion, anti-TNF-alpha-adalimumab therapy has beneficial effects on the development of the subclinical atherosclerosis disease in RA.

  3. Hypothermia for pediatric refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Kristin; Rosen, Max; Buttram, Sandra; Zempel, John; Pineda, Jose; Miller, Barbara; Shoykhet, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a life-threatening emergency, demonstrating, by definition, significant pharmacoresistance. We describe five cases of pediatric RSE treated with mild hypothermia. Retrospective chart review was performed of records of children who received hypothermia for RSE at two tertiary-care pediatric hospitals between 2009 and 2012. Five children with RSE received mild hypothermia (32-35°C). Hypothermia reduced seizure burden during and after treatment in all cases. Prior to initiation of hypothermia, four children (80%) received pentobarbital infusions to treat RSE, but relapsed after pentobarbital discontinuation. No child relapsed after treatment with hypothermia. One child died after redirection of care. Remaining four children were discharged. This is the largest pediatric case series reporting treatment of RSE with mild hypothermia. Hypothermia decreased seizure burden during and after pediatric RSE and may prevent RSE relapse. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. [Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The major causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include iron loss due to bleeding, increased iron requirements, and decreased iron absorption by the intestine. The most common cause of IDA in Japanese women is iron loss during menstruation. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection can also cause IDA by reducing intestinal iron absorption. In addition to these common etiologies, germline mutations of TMPRSS6 can cause iron-refractory IDA (IRIDA). TMPRSS6 encodes matriptase-2, a membrane-bound serine protease primarily expressed in the liver. Functional loss of matriptase-2 due to homozygous mutations results in an increase in the expression of hepcidin, which is the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. The serum hepcidin increase in turn leads to a decrease in iron supply from the intestine and macrophages to erythropoietic cells. IRIDA is microcytic and hypochromic, but decreased serum ferritin is not observed as in IDA. IRIDA is refractory to oral iron supplementation, but does respond to intravenous iron supplementation to some extent. Because genetic testing is required for the diagnoses of IRIDA, a considerable number of cases may go undiagnosed and may thus be overlooked.

  5. Equivalence of Green's function and the Fourier series representation of composites with periodic microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kevin P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Freed, Alan D.

    1990-01-01

    A computer program which is being developed to analyze the heterogeneous stress and strain history variation at the 'damage critical' locations of a composite structure operating at elevated temperatures is described. The theoretical foundations behind this program are described. The relationship between Fourier series and Green's function approaches is elucidated.

  6. Manometria anorretal em crianças com constipação intestinal crônica funcional refratária a tratamento Anorectal manometry in children with chronic functional intestinal constipation refractory to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Aleixo O. Cruz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os resultados da manometria anorretal dos pacientes com constipação intestinal crônica funcional (CICF, refratária aos tratamentos habituais, quanto ao tônus esfincteriano, presença do reflexo inibitório retoanal (RIRA, capacidade de expulsão do balão intrarretal e comportamento durante manobra evacuatória. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo por meio de análise de prontuários médicos entre janeiro de 2003 e junho de 2007, avaliando-se 31 pacientes ambulatoriais com CICF refratária a tratamentos convencionais por manometria anorretal com cateter de quatro canais (processador MPX 816 e software Proctomaster 5.0, Dynamed. RESULTADOS: Dos 31 pacientes, 24 (77% eram do sexo masculino. A idade média foi 8,9±2,6 anos. A média de pressão máxima fisiológica do canal anal foi 82±38mmHg. Dos 31 pacientes, 15 (48% apresentaram esfíncter anal normotônico e 16 (52%, hipertônico. O RIRA esteve presente em todos os casos. A prova de expulsão do balão intrarretal foi positiva em 12/31pacientes, sendo 4/12 com esfíncter normotônico e 8/12 com esfíncter hipertônico (p=0,22. Anismo foi detectado em 6/15 pacientes com esfíncter normotônico (40% e em 4/16 com esfíncter hipertônico (25% (p=0,45. CONCLUSÕES: Houve predomínio de esfíncter anal normotônico nos casos de CICF refratária. Pouco mais de 1/3 dos pacientes conseguiram a expulsão do balão durante a prova evacuatória, independentemente da tonicidade do esfíncter anal e cerca de metade dos pacientes apresentavam anismo sem relação com a tonicidade do esfíncter anal. A manometria anorretal é apropriada para o estudo da fisiologia e dinâmica evacuatória e pode ser útil para orientar o tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate anorectal manometry results in children with chronic functional intestinal constipation refractory to conventional treatment regarding mean anal sphincter resting pressure, presence of recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR, expulsion

  7. Alloimmune refractoriness to platelet transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S G

    1997-11-01

    Patients who are transfused on multiple occasions with red cells or platelets may develop platelet-reactive alloantibodies and experience decreased clinical responsiveness to platelet transfusion. This situation, conventionally described as "refractoriness to platelet transfusions," is defined by an unsatisfactory low post-transfusion platelet count increment. If antibodies to HLAs are detected, improved clinical outcomes may result from transfusions of HLA-matched or donor-recipient cross-matched platelets. Because refractoriness is an expected, frequently occurring phenomenon, prevention of HLA alloimmunization is an important management strategy. Prevention strategies include efforts to decrease the number of transfusions, filtration of cellular components to reduce the number of HLA-bearing leukocytes, or pretransfusion ultraviolet B irradiation of cellular components to decrease their immunogenicity. Other investigational approaches include reducing the expression of HLAs on transfused platelets, inducing a transient reticuloendothelial system blockade by infusions of specialized immunoglobulin products, or transfusing semisynthetic platelet substitutes (thromboerythrocytes, thrombospheres) or modified platelets (infusible platelet membranes, lyophilized platelets).

  8. Electrostatic Interactions in Finite Systems treated with Periodic Boundary Conditions: Application to Linear-Scaling Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, N D M; Haynes, P D; Skylaris, C K

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparison of methods for treating the electrostatic interactions of finite, isolated systems within periodic boundary conditions (PBCs), within Density Functional Theory (DFT), with particular emphasis on linear-scaling (LS) DFT. Often, PBCs are not physically realistic but are an unavoidable consequence of the choice of basis set and the efficacy of using Fourier transforms to compute the Hartree potential. In such cases the effects of PBCs on the calculations need to be avoided, so that the results obtained represent the open rather than the periodic boundary. The very large systems encountered in LS-DFT make the demands of the supercell approximation for isolated systems more difficult to manage, and we show cases where the open boundary (infinite cell) result cannot be obtained from extrapolation of calculations from periodic cells of increasing size. We discuss, implement and test three very different approaches for overcoming or circumventing the effects of PBCs: truncation of the Coulomb ...

  9. ASTEROID LIGHT CURVES FROM THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY SURVEY: ROTATION PERIODS AND PHASE FUNCTIONS FROM SPARSE PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waszczak, Adam [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chang, Chan-Kao; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Kinoshita, Daisuke [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Masci, Frank; Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levitan, David; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas, E-mail: waszczak@caltech.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We fit 54,296 sparsely sampled asteroid light curves in the Palomar Transient Factory survey to a combined rotation plus phase-function model. Each light curve consists of 20 or more observations acquired in a single opposition. Using 805 asteroids in our sample that have reference periods in the literature, we find that the reliability of our fitted periods is a complicated function of the period, amplitude, apparent magnitude, and other light-curve attributes. Using the 805-asteroid ground-truth sample, we train an automated classifier to estimate (along with manual inspection) the validity of the remaining ∼53,000 fitted periods. By this method we find that 9033 of our light curves (of ∼8300 unique asteroids) have “reliable” periods. Subsequent consideration of asteroids with multiple light-curve fits indicates a 4% contamination in these “reliable” periods. For 3902 light curves with sufficient phase-angle coverage and either a reliable fit period or low amplitude, we examine the distribution of several phase-function parameters, none of which are bimodal though all correlate with the bond albedo and with visible-band colors. Comparing the theoretical maximal spin rate of a fluid body with our amplitude versus spin-rate distribution suggests that, if held together only by self-gravity, most asteroids are in general less dense than ∼2 g cm{sup −3}, while C types have a lower limit of between 1 and 2 g cm{sup −3}. These results are in agreement with previous density estimates. For 5–20 km diameters, S types rotate faster and have lower amplitudes than C types. If both populations share the same angular momentum, this may indicate the two types’ differing ability to deform under rotational stress. Lastly, we compare our absolute magnitudes (and apparent-magnitude residuals) to those of the Minor Planet Center’s nominal (G = 0.15, rotation-neglecting) model; our phase-function plus Fourier-series fitting reduces asteroid photometric rms

  10. A Study of the Function of Musical Elements in Entezar Poetry (in Contemporary Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Bahramian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature of “Waiting” (Entezar is one of the motives which was considered by poets and literary critiques especially in early sixties but the approach of critiques to it has been mainly journalistic and not academic. Hence, there is space for academic and scientific researches. For studying such genre, it is valuable to explore and investigate it from different perspectives. The main questions of this article are how the musical function of this kind of poetry works and how this function and the theme of the poem are related. Accordingly, the authors analyze statistically ninety poems of this genre written by twenty great poets to find out the answers of these questions. In analyzing external music of waiting poetry, functions of rhythm in this kind of poetry, harmony between rhythm and theme, rising and falling rhythms, and transparent and opaque rhythms are investigated. Then, investigating marginal music of waiting poetry, the function of rhyme and its relation with the theme of waiting, the word rhyme and its musical link with other words of the verse, rhetorical and spiritual rhymes in this kind of poetry and dynamic and static radifs and their relation with the theme are all studied. Finally, internal music of waiting poetry and repetition and music in the titles of this poetry are explored. One of the results and findings of this article is that the poet of waiting poems unconsciously establishes a deep link between the sad concept of waiting and the form of such poems at the moment of composition.

  11. Comparison of biopsychosocial functioning of women of different nationalities in the perimenopausal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The perimenopausal age is a time of many changes in women’s health. Changes in women’s health affect all spheres of life, because health is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity but full psychological, physical and social well-being. Presentation and comparison of the biopsychosocial functioning of women of different races and nationalities in perimenopause, identification of the most common menopause symptoms occurring among women and their needs. Material and methods : Work supported with research examples. Using the PubMed database, the medical literature was searched for works that contain the key words menopause and race or ethnicity published between 1996 and 2013 and available in English. Literature in Polish is a supplementary issue. Results : Various demographic processes taking place in the countries of Africa, North and South America, Asia and Europe are the basis for observing the situation in perimenopausal women in these countries. Caucasian women living in North America and Europe most often experience the negative symptoms of menopause, hindering daily functioning, and women living in urbanized countries in Asia best assess their health condition, both psychosocial and physical. Conclusions : Biopsychosocial functioning of women varies among countries. Developing countries should be given the necessary support and financial information to ensure the health and quality of life in perimenopausal women. In most countries of the world there has been observed the need to promote women’s health, particularly research aimed at prevention, increasing physical activity and attention to nutrition.

  12. Understanding and treating refractory constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio; Bassotti; Corrado; Blandizzi

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a frequently encountered disorder in clinical practice. Most constipated patients benefit from standard medical approaches. However, current therapies may fail in a proportion of patients. These patients deserve better evaluation and thorough investigations before their labeling as refractory to treatment. Indeed, several cases of apparent refractoriness are actually due to misconceptions about constipation, poor basal evaluation (inability to recognize secondary causes of constipation, use of constipating drugs) or inadequate therapeutic regimens. After a careful reevaluation that takes into account the above factors, a certain percentage of patients can be defined as being actually resistant to first-line medical treatments. These subjects should firstly undergo specific diagnostic examination to ascertain the subtype of constipation. The subsequent therapeutic approach should be then tailored according to their underlying dysfunction. Slow transit patients could benefit from a more robust medical treatment, based on stimulant laxatives (or their combination with osmotic laxatives, particularly over the short-term), enterokinetics (such as prucalopride) or secretagogues (such as lubiprostone or linaclotide). Patients complaining of obstructed defecation are less likely to show a response to medical treatment and might benefit from biofeedback, when available. When all medical treatments prove to be unsatisfactory, other approaches may be attempted in selected patients (sacral neuromodulation, local injection of botulinum toxin, anterograde continence enemas), although with largely unpredictable outcomes. A further although irreversible step is surgery (subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis or stapled transanal rectal resection), which may confer some benefit to a few patients with refractoriness to medical treatments.

  13. Doubly Periodic Wave Solutions of Janlent-Miodek Equations Using Variational Iteration Method Combined with Jacobian-function Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; ZHU Jia-Min; WANG Tong-Tong; LU Zhi-Ming; LIU Yu-Lu

    2008-01-01

    One of the advantages of the variational iteration method is the free choice of initial guess. In this paper we use the basic idea of the Jacobian-function method to construct a generalized trial function with some unknown parameters. The Jaulent-Miodek equations are used to illustrate effectiveness and convenience of this method, some new explicit exact travelling wave solutions have been obtained, which include bell-type soliton solution, kink-type soliton solutions, solitary wave solutions, and doubly periodic wave solutions.

  14. Simulation on control of beam halo-chaos by power function in the hackle periodic-focusing channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The K-V beam through a hackle periodic-focusing magnetic field is studied using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and a power function controller is proposed based on mechanism of halo formation and strategy of controlling halo-chaos. Multiparticle simulation was performed to control the halo by using the power function control method. The results show that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively. We also find that the radial particle density evolvement is of uniformity at the beam's centre as long as appropriate paramours are chosen.

  15. Facial growth and oral function in a case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis during an 8-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, S; Bakke, M; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    casts, and roentgencephalometry, and oral function was assessed clinically by electromyography, kinesiography, and bite force. In addition, histological and histochemical analysis was performed on biopsy material from her masseter muscle obtained at the time of surgery. The study showed a clear...... on these observations it is suggested that the conventional treatment strategy with postponement of orthodontic or orthognathic surgical treatment until cessation of growth is abandoned and that early treatment should be undertaken to maintain occlusal stability throughout the growth period....

  16. Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 weeks after...... volume remained reduced in preterm pigs until 26 d although plasma glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulin-trophic peptide (GIP) levels were increased. Preterm pigs also showed reduced hexose absorptive capacity and brush-border enzyme (sucrase, maltase) activities at 26 d, relative...

  17. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peter M; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas; Flück, Daniela; Bangsbo, Jens; Lundby, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age 26 ± 2 yr; mean ± SD) performed six HIT sessions (8-12 × 60 s at incremental test peak power; 271 ± 52 W) over a 2-wk period. Before and after the HIT period, V̇o2 kinetics was modeled during moderate-intensity cycling (110 ± 19 W). Mitochondrial function was assessed with high-resolution respirometry (HRR), and maximal activities of oxidative enzymes citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) were accordingly determined. In response to HIT, V̇o2 kinetics became faster (τ: 20.4 ± 4.4 vs. 28.9 ± 6.1 s; P CIIP) (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings support that selected measures of mitochondrial function obtained with HRR are important for fast V̇o2 kinetics and better markers than maximal oxidative enzyme activity in describing the speed of the V̇o2 response during moderate-intensity exercise.

  18. Adenoid facies and chronic refractory rhinosinusitis managed by endoscopic-assisted adenoidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background /Objectives: To study 30 cases of patients of chronic adenoiditis with adenoid facies and refractory chronic rhinosinusitis managed by endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy. Materials and method: 7 cases of adenoid facies and 23 cases of chronic refractory rhinosinusitis with adenoiditis were managed by endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy during the study period of 12 months from August 2012 to July 2013. Result: endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy proves to be more effective in m...

  19. Cognitive Improvement after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Measured with Functional Neuroimaging during the Acute Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Wylie

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma. The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject's reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D. hours after injury (time 1. At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2, 18 of mTBI subjects (64% reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects

  20. Rehabilitation of executive function: facilitation of effective goal management on complex tasks using periodic auditory alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Tom; Hawkins, Kari; Evans, Jon; Woldt, Karina; Robertson, Ian H

    2002-01-01

    The 'dysexecutive syndrome' represents a major challenge to functional recovery and adaptation following brain injury--and an important target for rehabilitation. Previous reports of everyday difficulties, and performance on complex, life-like tasks, indicate that an adequately represented goal may become neglected as patients become overly engaged in current activity. Here we examine whether the provision of brief auditory stimuli, acting to interrupt current activity and to cue patients to consider their overall goal, would improve performance in a complex task. Ten brain injured patients completed a modification of Shallice and Burgess' Six Elements task under two conditions. In the 'Hotel' test, the patients were asked to try and do some of each of five sub-tasks within 15 min. As the total time to complete all of the tasks would exceed an hour, the measure emphasises patients' ability to monitor the time, switch between the tasks and keep track of their intentions. Without the external auditory cues, the patients performed significantly more poorly than age- and IQ-matched control volunteers, a common error being to continue performing one task to the detriment of beginning or allocating sufficient time to others. When exposed to the interrupting tones, however, their performance was both significantly improved and no longer significantly different from the control group on important variables. The results have value in assessment in helping to attribute poor performance to 'goal neglect' rather than, for example, poor memory or comprehension. They also suggest that providing environmental support to one aspect of executive function may facilitate monitoring and behavioural flexibility--and therefore the useful expression of other skills that may be relatively intact.

  1. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  2. Semiclassical wave functions in billiards built on classical trajectories. Energy quantization, scars and periodic orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Giller, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A way of construction of semiclassical wave function (SWF) based on the Maslov - Fedoriuk approach is proposed which appears to be appropriate also for systems with chaotic classical limits. Some classical constructions called skeletons are considered. The skeletons are generalizations of Arnolds' tori able to gather chaotic dynamics. SWF's are continued by caustic singularities in the configuration space rather then in the phase space using complex time method. The skeleton formulation provides us with a new algorithm for the semiclassical approximation method which is applied to construct SWF's as well as to calculate energy spectra for the circular and rectangular billiards as well as to construct the simplest SWF's and the respective spectrum for the Bunimovich stadium. The scar phenomena are considered and a possibility of their description by the skeleton method is discussed. PACS number(s): 03.65.-w, 03.65.Sq, 02.30.Jr, 02.30.Lt, 02.30.Mv Key Words: Schr\\"odinger equation, semiclassical expansion, Lagr...

  3. 周期冲激函数与黎曼引理%Period impulse function and Riemann lemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊元新; 刘涤尘

    2001-01-01

    证明了周期冲激函数展开所得到的傅里叶级数收敛于冲激函数,冲激函数不满足黎曼引理,因此由黎曼引理导出的傅里叶级数的性质不适合于周期冲激函数.对由黎曼引理推出的傅里叶级数的系数的性质进行了修正.%In the paper,it is proved that period impulse function is dividedinto Fourier series is convergent.As Riemann lemma do not adapt to impulse function,the quality that Riemann lemma guides Fourier series is not usedperiod impulse function.The quality of Fourier series coefficient that Riemann lemma guides is revised.

  4. Refractory, Abrasive and Other Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  5. Neurometabolic therapy in the recovery period of ischemic stroke: impact on quality of life and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zakharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some recovery of impaired neurological functions (a stroke recovery period is almost always observed within the first 6–24 months after ischemic stroke (IS. The paper discusses the mechanisms responsible for this process (neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and readaptation and possible approaches to the drug support of cerebral reparative processes. It presents data on the rate and etiology of poststroke cognitive impairments (CI that are one of the important factors that negatively influence the outcome of rehabilitation measures. The results obtained from a recent study of the efficacy of the neurometabolic agent citicoline in the recovery period of IS are given. The use of citicoline is shown to cause a significant regression of CI and to improve quality of life in patients who have sustained IS for the first time. 

  6. Effect of the Nerve Growth Factor Mimetic GK-2 on Brain Structural and Functional State in the Early Postresuscitation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Avrushchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 used to improve the structural and functional state of the brain in the early postresuscitation period. Material and methods. Cardiac arrest was induced in mature male albino rats for 12 minutes, followed by resuscitation. The neurological state of the resuscitated animals was assessed by a scoring scale. On postresuscitation day 7, the density and composition of neuronal populations of Purkinje cells in the lateral cerebellar region and pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 sector were determined by a differential morphometric analysis. The results were statistically processed using the ANOVA method. Results. The use of GK-2 was found to accelerate neurological recovery in the resuscitated animals. On day 7 after 12-minute cardiac arrest, the resuscitated animals showed neuronal dystrophic changes and death in the neuronal populations highly susceptible to ischemia. It was shown that the systemic administration of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 contributed to a reduction in the magnitude and depth of postresuscitation changes in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and prevented dystrophic changes in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampal CA1 sector. The findings suggest that GK-2 has a neuroprotective effect in the recovery period after total body ischemia. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the efficiency of the systemic administration of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 in improving the brain structural and functional state in the early postresuscitation period. This determines perspectives for the use of GK-2 to prevent and correct posthypoxic encephalopathies. Key words: the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2, postresuscitation period, neuronal dystrophic changes and death, neurological status.

  7. Periodic Solutions and Homoclinic Bifurcations of Two Predator-Prey Systems with Nonmonotonic Functional Response and Impulsive Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two predator-prey models with nonmonotonic functional response and state-dependent impulsive harvesting are formulated and analyzed. By using the geometry theory of semicontinuous dynamic system, we obtain the existence, uniqueness, and stability of the periodic solution and analyse the dynamic phenomenon of homoclinic bifurcation of the first system by choosing the harvesting rate β as control parameter. Besides, we also study the homoclinic bifurcation of the second system about parameter δ on the basis of the theory of rotated vector field. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the results.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  9. Dynamic patterns in a two-dimensional neural field with refractoriness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yang; Gong, Pulin

    2015-08-01

    The formation of dynamic patterns such as localized propagating waves is a fascinating self-organizing phenomenon that happens in a wide range of spatially extended systems including neural systems, in which they might play important functional roles. Here we derive a type of two-dimensional neural-field model with refractoriness to study the formation mechanism of localized waves. After comparing this model with existing neural-field models, we show that it is able to generate a variety of localized patterns, including stationary bumps, localized waves rotating along a circular path, and localized waves with longer-range propagation. We construct explicit bump solutions for the two-dimensional neural field and conduct a linear stability analysis on how a stationary bump transitions to a propagating wave under different spatial eigenmode perturbations. The neural-field model is then partially solved in a comoving frame to obtain localized wave solutions, whose spatial profiles are in good agreement with those obtained from simulations. We demonstrate that when there are multiple such propagating waves, they exhibit rich propagation dynamics, including propagation along periodically oscillating and irregular trajectories; these propagation dynamics are quantitatively characterized. In addition, we show that these waves can have repulsive or merging collisions, depending on their collision angles and the refractoriness parameter. Due to its analytical tractability, the two-dimensional neural-field model provides a modeling framework for studying localized propagating waves and their interactions.

  10. Understanding Characteristic of Abrasion of Refractory Lining Caused by Bath Oscillation in BOF Steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Li, Mingming; Kuang, S. B.; Zou, Zongshu

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the refractory abrasion occurring widely inside basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. The mechanism of refractory abrasion is examined numerically referring to the bath oscillation with regard to flows, turbulence and wall shear stress inside a BOF. The simulation results reveal that the refractory abrasion tends to occur on the wall region between the slag/atmosphere and slag/metal interfaces due to the oscillation of the bath in the blowing process, which generally promotes slag-line erosion. The decreased nozzle angle, and either increased lance height or operation pressure can lead to more serious refractory erosion that occurs more likely during the slag-making period in the operation of BOF.

  11. Adenoid facies and chronic refractory rhinosinusitis managed by endoscopic-assisted adenoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir M Naik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background /Objectives: To study 30 cases of patients of chronic adenoiditis with adenoid facies and refractory chronic rhinosinusitis managed by endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy. Materials and method: 7 cases of adenoid facies and 23 cases of chronic refractory rhinosinusitis with adenoiditis were managed by endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy during the study period of 12 months from August 2012 to July 2013. Result: endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy proves to be more effective in managing adenoid facies and chronic refractory rhinosinusitis with adenoid hyperplasia. Conclusion: visualization of the adenoid mass using endoscope helps complete removal of the diseased adenoids. Endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy is treatment of choice in adenoid facies and chronic refractory rhinosinusitis with adenoid hyperplasia and more effective than conventional adenoidectomy.

  12. Selectivity for CO2 over CH4 on a functionalized periodic mesoporous phenylene-silica explained by transition state theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Christian; Viñes, Francesc; Lourenço, Mirtha A. O.; Ferreira, Paula; Gomes, José R. B.; Illas, Francesc

    2017-03-01

    Efficient separation of CO2/CH4 is critical in biogas upgrading, requiring highly selective adsorbents. Based on the adsorption energies of -0.30 and -0.14 eV, previously calculated by dispersion corrected density functional theory for adsorption/desorption of CO2 and CH4 on the functionalized periodic mesoporous phenylene-silica material APTMS@Ph-PMO, respectively, transition state theory rates were derived and used to simulate the adsorption/desorption rates of these two gases on APTMS@Ph-PMO. The latter yielded an estimation of initial CO2/CH4 selectivity at various temperatures. At T = 298 K, selectivity of 32.2 agrees to an experimental value of 26.1, which validates the method used for evaluating CO2/CH4 adsorption selectivities.

  13. Control of Beam Halo-Chaos by Fraction Power-Law Function in Hackle Periodic-Focusing Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-Jun; BAI Long; WENG Jia-Qiang; LUO Xiao-Shu; FANG Jin-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The Kapehinsky-Vladimirsky (K-V) beam through a hackle periodic-focusing magnetic field is studied using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and an idea of fraction power-law function controller is proposed based on the mechanism of halo formation and the strategy of controlling halo-chaos. The method is applied to the multi-particle simulation to control the halo. The numerical results show that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively by using the fraction power-law function control method. At the same time, the radial particle density is uniform at the beam's center as long as the control method and appropriate parameter are chosen.

  14. Rapidly convergent quasi-periodic Green functions for scattering by arrays of cylinders---including Wood anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Oscar P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a full-spectrum Green function methodology (which is valid, in particular, at and around Wood-anomaly frequencies) for evaluation of scattering by periodic arrays of cylinders of arbitrary cross section-with application to wire gratings, particle arrays and reflectarrays and, indeed, general arrays of conducting or dielectric bounded obstacles under both TE and TM polarized illumination. The proposed method, which, for definiteness is demonstrated here for arrays of perfectly conducting particles under TE polarization, is based on use of the shifted Green-function method introduced in the recent contribution (Bruno and Delourme, Jour. Computat. Phys. pp. 262--290 (2014)). A certain infinite term arises at Wood anomalies for the cylinder-array problems considered here that is not present in the previous rough-surface case. As shown in this paper, these infinite terms can be treated via an application of ideas related to the Woodbury-Sherman-Morrison formulae. The resulting approach, which i...

  15. Management of refractory cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyentovich, Alex; Barghash, Maya H; Hochman, Judith S

    2016-08-01

    Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs in response to reduced cardiac output in the presence of adequate intravascular volume and results in tissue hypoxia. Cardiogenic shock has several underlying aetiologies, with the most common being acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Refractory cardiogenic shock presents as persistent tissue hypoperfusion despite administration of adequate doses of two vasoactive medications and treatment of the underlying aetiology. Investigators of the SHOCK trial reported a long-term mortality benefit of emergency revascularization for shock complicating AMI. Since the publication of the SHOCK trial and subsequent guideline recommendations, the increase in community-based use of percutaneous coronary intervention for this condition has resulted in a significant decline in mortality. Despite these successes in the past 15 years, mortality still remains exceptionally high, particularly in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. In this Review, we discuss the aetiology and pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock and summarize the data on the available therapeutics and their limitations. Although new mechanical circulatory support devices have been shown to improve haemodynamic variables in patients with shock complicating AMI, they did not improve clinical outcomes and are associated with high costs and complications.

  16. Histopathological Verification of Osteoimmunological Mediators in Peri-Implantitis and Correlation to Bone Loss and Implant Functional Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, Anna; Götz, Werner; Le, Michael; Dirk, Cornelius; Lossdörfer, Stefan; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2016-02-01

    Peri-implantitis (PI) is characterized by inflammation and bone resorption eventually leading to implant failure, but the characteristic pathologic determinants are undefined to date. This study aims to elucidate the parameters involved in PI pathogenesis, including intraoral implant retention time, extent of bone loss, smoking history, and identification of osteoimmunological markers for inflammation and bone loss. Peri-implant tissues (n = 21) displaying clinically diagnosed PI from patients with vertical bone loss ranging from 0-12 mm and implant function period between 1 and 60 months were evaluated by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for TRAP, CD3, RANK, RANKL, OPG, and TNF-α. Statistical analyses were performed with the Welch test and correlation coefficients were calculated. Most bone resorption occurred during the first 12 months of implant function and correlated with the extent of inflammation, although histological signs of inflammation strongly varied between samples from minimal appearance of inflammatory cells to extended infiltrates. Implant function period and smoking history did not significantly affect the degree of inflammation. Higher RANK levels emerged in the first 12 months of implant function compared to longer retention times and were negatively correlated to the occurrence of RANKL. Additionally, histological signs of inflammation were about two-fold higher in specimens with bone resorption up from 5 mm compared to under 5 mm. CD3(+) cells were more prevalent in extensive inflammatory infiltrates and samples derived from smokers. Our analyses proved that PI-induced bone loss is differentially influenced by the parameters evaluated in this study, but a distinct interconnection between disease severity and implant retention time can be established.

  17. Refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus : a guide to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälviäinen, Reetta; Eriksson, Kai; Parviainen, Ilkka

    2005-01-01

    be continued (these agents having been administered during earlier phases of GCSE) to ensure an adequate baseline of antiepileptic medication so as to prevent the recurrence of status epilepticus. If additional medication is needed, the most appropriate antiepileptic drugs are gabapentin for focal seizures and levetiracetam and topiramate for all seizure types, as these drugs can be started at high doses with a low risk of idiosyncratic reactions. Even with current best practice, mortality in patients who experience refractory GCSE is about 50% and only the minority return to their premorbid functional baseline. Therefore, new treatment options are urgently needed. The ideal new drug for refractory GCSE would be one that has the ability to stop seizures more effectively and safely than current drugs, and that has neuroprotective properties to prevent the brain damage and neurological morbidity caused by GCSE.

  18. Greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈余明; 沈祖尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds. Methods: From August 1988 to May 2001, 20 patients with refractory wound underwent pedicle or microvascular free transfer of the greater omentum. Indications of surgery were electrical injury of the wrist and hand in 9 patients, electrical injury of the scalp and cranial bones in 3, avulsion injury of the scalp in 2, radiation-related ulcer of the chest wall in 2, ulcer and osteomyelitis following resection of the sternum sarcoma in 1, electrical injury of the abdomen in 1, bone and soft tissue defects following compound fracture of the leg in 1, and extensive scar and ulcer of the leg and footdrop following trauma in 1. Severe infection and extensive tissue necrosis were present prior to surgical operation in 12 patients. Eleven patients were treated with pedicled omental flaps, and 9 patients with free omental flaps. The size of the omental flaps ranged from 20 cm×12 cm to 38 cm×23 cm. Results: All the omental flaps survived. Healing at the first intention of the wounds was achieved in 17 cases. The on-top skin grafts resulted in partial necrosis of lipid liquefaction developed in the omentum and healed with dressing change in 2 cases. A sinus tract of osteomyelitis occurred in one case and healed after delayed excision of the necrosed bone. Follow-up study of all cases from 3 to 24 months showed no recurrent wounds and post-operative abdominal complication. Recovery with acceptable appearance and restoration of function was satisfactory. Conclusions: Greater omentum provides a well-vascularized tissue with lymphatic ducts for wound coverage. It has strong resistance against infection. It is very malleable and can be molded easily. Therefore it is an ideal tissue in filling cavities and repairing defects, especially in covering large and irregular defects that can not be treated with skin or muscle flaps.

  19. Pegloticase: in treatment-refractory chronic gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2011-11-12

    Intravenous pegloticase offers a novel approach to treating chronic gout refractory to conventional therapy. Pegloticase is a recombinant polyethylene glycol-conjugated form of uricase (a uric acid-specific enzyme lacking in humans) that catalyses the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin. In randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 6-month, phase III trials, intravenous pegloticase 8 mg every 2 or 4 weeks provided sustained reductions in plasma uric acid levels to less than the therapeutic target of 6 mg/dL in a substantial proportion of patients with chronic gout who were refractory to, or intolerant of, conventional urate-lowering therapy. Pegloticase 8 mg every 2 weeks was associated with disease-modifying benefits relative to placebo, as shown by significant improvements from baseline in tophi resolution, frequency of gout flares and tender joint count, and clinically relevant and statistically significant improvements from baseline in health-related quality-of-life parameters related to disability, pain and physical function. Pegloticase 8 mg every 4 weeks was also significantly more effective than placebo with regard to most, but not all, of these endpoints. Preliminary data from an open-label extension of the phase III trials indicate that long-term treatment with pegloticase 8 mg every 2 or 4 weeks may maintain plasma uric acid normalization in patients who experienced a sustained uric acid response during the phase III trials. The most common serious adverse events associated with pegloticase are gout flares, infusion reactions and anaphylaxis. In addition, exacerbation of pre-existing congestive heart failure was reported in 2% of patients receiving pegloticase 8 mg every 2 weeks in the phase III trials.

  20. Refractory Pellet for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,specification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of refractory pellet for hot blast stove.This standard is applicable to refractory pellet for hot blast stove.

  1. Spectral reflecting characteristics of dinas refractory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapechnikov, V.N.; Pushkin, V.T.; Zen' kovskii, A.G.

    1987-09-01

    This article outlines a nondestructive testing format which uses spectral reflectance to assess the remaining service life, the thermal degradation, and the insulating effectiveness of refractories used as insulating liners in glass melters. Thermal as well as mechanical influences on the reflectance behavior of several refractories are discussed.

  2. Modern technologies of refractory glaucoma treatment. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Rascheskov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available this article presents a review of available literature concerning basic directions of refractory glaucoma treatment. the surgical management of refractory glaucoma is presented by two main groups of surgical techniques: filtering surgery (including surgery with the use of antimetabolites and implants and cyclodestructive procederes. types of glaucoma drainages are described, modern valve drainage system is presented.

  3. Research on High Performance New Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Xiangchong

    2007-01-01

    @@ At the age of 86,Prof.Zhong Xiangchong has his new book-"Research on High Performance New Refractories" published by Henan Science and Technology Publishing House to commemorate his 65 years service in the refractories science and technology including the recent 6 years at High Temperature Ceramics Institute which he founded in Zhengzhou University in 2001.

  4. The Calculation of NMR Chemical Shifts in Periodic Systems Based on Gauge Including Atomic Orbitals and Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkov, Dmitry; Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Kadantsev, Eugene; Ziegler, Tom

    2010-05-11

    We present here a method that can calculate NMR shielding tensors from first principles for systems with translational invariance. Our approach is based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory and gauge-including atomic orbitals. Our scheme determines the shielding tensor as the second derivative of the total electronic energy with respect to an external magnetic field and a nuclear magnetic moment. The induced current density due to a periodic perturbation from nuclear magnetic moments is obtained through numerical differentiation, whereas the influence of the responding perturbation in terms of the external magnetic field is evaluated analytically. The method is implemented into the periodic program BAND. It employs a Bloch basis set made up of Slater-type or numeric atomic orbitals and represents the Kohn-Sham potential fully without the use of effective core potentials. Results from calculations of NMR shielding constants based on the present approach are presented for isolated molecules as well as systems with one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity. The reported values are compared to experiment and results from calculations on cluster models.

  5. Electrostatic interactions in finite systems treated with periodic boundary conditions: application to linear-scaling density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Nicholas D M; Dziedzic, Jacek; Haynes, Peter D; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2011-11-28

    We present a comparison of methods for treating the electrostatic interactions of finite, isolated systems within periodic boundary conditions (PBCs), within density functional theory (DFT), with particular emphasis on linear-scaling (LS) DFT. Often, PBCs are not physically realistic but are an unavoidable consequence of the choice of basis set and the efficacy of using Fourier transforms to compute the Hartree potential. In such cases the effects of PBCs on the calculations need to be avoided, so that the results obtained represent the open rather than the periodic boundary. The very large systems encountered in LS-DFT make the demands of the supercell approximation for isolated systems more difficult to manage, and we show cases where the open boundary (infinite cell) result cannot be obtained from extrapolation of calculations from periodic cells of increasing size. We discuss, implement, and test three very different approaches for overcoming or circumventing the effects of PBCs: truncation of the Coulomb interaction combined with padding of the simulation cell, approaches based on the minimum image convention, and the explicit use of open boundary conditions (OBCs). We have implemented these approaches in the ONETEP LS-DFT program and applied them to a range of systems, including a polar nanorod and a protein. We compare their accuracy, complexity, and rate of convergence with simulation cell size. We demonstrate that corrective approaches within PBCs can achieve the OBC result more efficiently and accurately than pure OBC approaches.

  6. Periodic density functional theory study of structural and electronic properties of single-walled zinc oxide and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marana, Naiara L. [Modeling and Molecular Simulations Group, São Paulo State University, UNESP, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, Anderson R. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertão Pernambucano, 56400-000 Floresta, PE (Brazil); La Porta, Felipe A. [Chemistry Department, Federal Technological University of Paraná, 86036-370 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Longo, Elson [São Paulo State University, Chemistry Institute, UNESP, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Sambrano, Julio R. [Modeling and Molecular Simulations Group, São Paulo State University, UNESP, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Periodic density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP hybrid functional and all-electron Gaussian basis set were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of single-walled ZnO nanotubes (SWZnONTs) and Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. For all SWZnONTs, the band gap, strain energy, and formation energy converge to ~4.5 eV, 0.0 eV/atom, and 0.40 eV/atom, respectively. This result suggests that the nanotubes are formed more easily from the surface than from the bulk. For SWCNTs, the strain energy is always positive, while the formation energy is negative for armchair and zigzag nanotubes, therefore suggesting that these types of nanotubes can be preferentially formed from the bulk. The electronic properties of SWCNTs depend on the chirality; all armchair nanotubes are metallic, while zigzag and chiral nanotubes can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on the n and m vectors. - Graphical abstract: DFT/B3LYP were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of SWZnONTs and SWCNTs with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. - Highlights: • The energies of SWZnONTs converge for chirality with diameters up 20 Å. • SWCNTs electronic properties depend on the chirality. • The properties of SWZnONTs are very similar to those of monolayer surface.

  7. Trigonometric Function Periodic Wave Solutions and Their Limit Forms for the KdV-Like and the PC-Like Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    study the periodic wave solutions and their limit forms for the KdV-like equation ut+a(1+buuux+uxxx=0, and PC-like equation vtt - vttxx - (a1v+a2v2+a3v3xx=0, respectively. Via some special phase orbits, we obtain some new explicit periodic wave solutions which are called trigonometric function periodic wave solutions because they are expressed in terms of trigonometric functions. We also show that the trigonometric function periodic wave solutions can be obtained from the limits of elliptic function periodic wave solutions. It is very interesting that the two equations have similar periodic wave solutions. Our work extend previous some results.

  8. R package climwin : climwin: Climate Window Analysis. Contains functions to detect and visualise periods of climate sensitivity (climate windows) for a given biological response.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Liam; Van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Contains a number of functions used to detect a period of climate sensitivity (climate window) for a given biological response, and visualise the detected climate window. The functions provided in climwin allow users to select meaningful time periods over which to investigate the impacts of climate,

  9. Cognitive functions after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus: changes during silent period precede appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, J; Broźek, G; Mares, P; Langmeier, M; Komárek, V

    1999-09-01

    To study the possible relation between spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and the derangement of cognitive memory. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced in adult Long-Evans rats by pilocarpine (320 mg/kg, i.p.) and interrupted after 2 h by clonazepam (CZPs mg/kg, i.p.). In addition to the animals that were given pilocarpine and CZP (group P), two groups received ketamine (100 mg/kg, i.p.): the first group 15 minutes after SE onset (group K15), and the second immediately after the CZP (group K120). Control groups were formed from animals not treated with pilocarpine as well as animals that received pilocarpine but did not develop motor seizures. Spatial cognitive memory was tested in the Morris water maze. Testing was impossible for more than 6 days after SE in group P. Ketamine shortened this period for the two groups that received it. During the silent period, deteriorated cognitive memory progressively improved, but the performance of group P started to worsen before the appearance of SRS. Group K120 only expressed a tendency toward declining performance, whereas group K15 never developed SRS, and the behavior of these animals did not differ from that of the controls after the postseizure period was over. Histologically, massive hippocampal cell loss was seen in group P. Ketamine protected hippocampal cells in a time-dependent manner; group K15 did not exhibit any obvious necrosis in the hippocampus. There is no close relation between cognitive functions and the appearance of SRS, because ketamine, administered 120 min after the beginning of SE, prevented the derangment of cognitive functions but not the appearance of SRSs.

  10. Etanercept in the treatment of refractory SAPHO syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Zhaomeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the application and efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of SAPHO syndrome. Methods: Two cases of refractory SAPHO syndrome were successfully treated with etanercept. And pain scores, laboratory parameters and functional index were used to judge the efficacies. Literature was also systemically reviewed. Results: Both patients achieved marked clinical remission. There was no obvious toxic or adverse response. Conclusion: Etanercept has rapid and definite efficaci...

  11. Clearance of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) from the rat lung: development of a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C P; Zhang, L; Oberdörster, G; Mast, R W; Glass, L R; Utell, M J

    1994-05-01

    Chronic exposure and postexposure experiments have been recently performed in rats to evaluate the biological responses of inhaled refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) at different concentration levels. The lung burden data in the accessory lobe of the rat lung were collected during and after different exposure and postexposure periods. The size distribution of retained fibers in the lung at different time points was also measured. We used these data to develop a mathematical model of fiber clearance from the rat lung. It was found that the clearance rate did not depend significantly upon fiber size but there was a clear dependence on lung burden. As lung burden increased, the clearance rate was found to decrease. An empirical equation was derived for the clearance rate as a function of lung burden. At low burdens, rats had a retention half-time of about 126 days for RCF compared to a typical half-time of about 60 days for insoluble nonfibrous particles.

  12. Periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Periodic paralyses are rare diseases characterized by severe episodes of muscle weakness concomitant to variations in blood potassium levels. It is thus usual to differentiate hypokalemic, normokalemic, and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Except for thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis and periodic paralyses secondary to permanent changes of blood potassium levels, all of these diseases are of genetic origin, transmitted with an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance. Periodic paralyses are channelopathies, that is, diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels. The culprit genes encode for potassium, calcium, and sodium channels. Mutations of the potassium and calcium channel genes cause periodic paralysis of the same type (Andersen-Tawil syndrome or hypokalemic periodic paralysis). In contrast, distinct mutations in the muscle sodium channel gene are responsible for all different types of periodic paralyses (hyper-, normo-, and hypokalemic). The physiological consequences of the mutations have been studied by patch-clamp techniques and electromyography (EMG). Globally speaking, ion channel mutations modify the cycle of muscle membrane excitability which results in a loss of function (paralysis). Clinical physiological studies using EMG have shown a good correlation between symptoms and EMG parameters, enabling the description of patterns that greatly enhance molecular diagnosis accuracy. The understanding of the genetics and pathophysiology of periodic paralysis has contributed to refine and rationalize therapeutic intervention and will be without doubts the basis of further advances.

  13. Site-selective functionalization of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with macrocyclic host for specific and reversible recognition of heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Gang; Leng, Yuxiao; Bai, Feifei; Wei, Jichao; Wang, Jianchen; Chen, Jing

    2013-07-01

    A novel kind of macrocyclic-host-functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with excellent and reversible recognition of Pb(II) was developed. The macrocyclic host molecule cis-dicyclohexano[18]crown-6, with strong affinity to Pb(II), was carefully modified as a bridged precursor to build the PMO material. To break down the limit of the functionalization degree for PMOs incorporated with large-sized moieties, a site-selective post-functionalization method was proposed to further decorate the external surface of the PMO material. The selective recognition ability of the upgraded PMO material towards Pb(II) was remarkably enhanced without destroying the mesoporous ordering. Solid-state (13)C and (29)Si NMR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), XRD, TEM, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements were utilized for a full characterization of the structure, micromorphology, and surface properties. Reversible binding of Pb(II) was realized in the binding-elution cycle experiments. The mechanism of the supramolecular interaction between the macrocyclic host and metal ion was discussed. The synthetic strategy can be considered a general way to optimize the properties of PMOs as binding materials for practical use while preserving the mesostructure. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide exposure during the early postnatal period adversely affects the structure and function of the developing rat carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zankhana R; Porzionato, Andrea; Kesavan, Kalpashri; Mason, Ariel; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Shirahata, Machiko; Gauda, Estelle B

    2016-09-01

    The carotid body (CB) substantially influences breathing in premature infants by affecting the frequency of apnea and periodic breathing. In adult animals, inflammation alters the structure and chemosensitivity of the CB, yet it is not known if this pertains to neonates. We hypothesized that early postnatal inflammation leads to morphological and functional changes in the developing rat CB, which persists for 1 wk after the initial provoking insult. To test our hypothesis, we exposed rat pups at postnatal day 2 (P2) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) or saline (SAL) intraperitoneally. At P9-10 (1 wk after treatment), LPS-exposed animals had significantly more spontaneous intermittent hypoxic (IH) events, attenuated ventilatory responses to changes in oxygen tension (measured by whole body plethysmography), and attenuated hypoxic chemosensitivity of the carotid sinus nerve (measured in vitro), compared with SAL-exposed controls. These functional changes were associated with the following: 1) increased inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels; 2) decreased volume of supportive type II cells; and 3) elevated dopamine levels (a major inhibitory neuromodulator) within the CB. These findings suggest that early postnatal inflammation in newborn rats adversely affects the structure and function of the CB and is associated with increased frequency of intermittent desaturations, similar to the phenomenon observed in premature infants. Furthermore, this is the first newborn model of spontaneous intermittent desaturations that may be used to understand the mechanisms contributing to IH events in newborns.

  15. Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

    2008-02-20

    Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

  16. Cell type-specific functions of period genes revealed by novel adipocyte and hepatocyte circadian clock models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidambaram Ramanathan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In animals, circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior result from coherent rhythmic interactions between clocks in the brain and those throughout the body. Despite the many tissue specific clocks, most understanding of the molecular core clock mechanism comes from studies of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus and a few other cell types. Here we report establishment and genetic characterization of three cell-autonomous mouse clock models: 3T3 fibroblasts, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and MMH-D3 hepatocytes. Each model is genetically tractable and has an integrated luciferase reporter that allows for longitudinal luminescence recording of rhythmic clock gene expression using an inexpensive off-the-shelf microplate reader. To test these cellular models, we generated a library of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs against a panel of known clock genes and evaluated their impact on circadian rhythms. Knockdown of Bmal1, Clock, Cry1, and Cry2 each resulted in similar phenotypes in all three models, consistent with previous studies. However, we observed cell type-specific knockdown phenotypes for the Period and Rev-Erb families of clock genes. In particular, Per1 and Per2, which have strong behavioral effects in knockout mice, appear to play different roles in regulating period length and amplitude in these peripheral systems. Per3, which has relatively modest behavioral effects in knockout mice, substantially affects period length in the three cellular models and in dissociated SCN neurons. In summary, this study establishes new cell-autonomous clock models that are of particular relevance to metabolism and suitable for screening for clock modifiers, and reveals previously under-appreciated cell type-specific functions of clock genes.

  17. SPARC: Accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory. Part II: Periodic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Swarnava

    2016-01-01

    As the second component of SPARC (Simulation Package for Ab-initio Real-space Calculations), we present an accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for periodic systems. Specifically, employing a local formulation of the electrostatics, the Chebyshev polynomial filtered self-consistent field iteration, and a reformulation of the non-local force component, we develop a finite-difference framework wherein both the energy and atomic forces can be efficiently calculated to within chemical accuracies. We demonstrate using a wide variety of materials systems that SPARC obtains high convergence rates in energy and forces with respect to spatial discretization to reference plane-wave result; energies and forces that are consistent and display negligible `egg-box' effect; and accurate ground-state properties. We also demonstrate that the weak and strong scaling behavior of SPARC is similar to well-established and optimized plane-wave implementa...

  18. Large molecule protein feeding during the suckling period is required for the development of pancreatic digestive functions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Toshi; Koyama, Satomi; Harada, Etsumori; Yajima, Takaji

    2012-12-15

    We examined if large molecule protein feeding during the suckling period is prerequisite for the proper development of pancreatic digestive functions. Most amino acids in breast milk exist as the constituent of large proteins and not as oligopeptides or free amino acids. Accumulating evidence indicates the nutritional importance of large protein feeding for suckling infants; however, evidence on the physiological significance remains small. We thus artificially reared rat pups on a standard rat formula with milk protein or a formula with milk protein hydrolysate from 7 to 21 days of age, and thereafter, fed a standard solid diet until 42 days of age. Pancreas weight and the stock of pancreatic digestive enzymes in the hydrolysate-fed rats were significantly lower than those in the protein-fed rats during and also after the suckling period. Plasma insulin, a stimulator of amylase synthesis, was also significantly low in the hydrolysate-fed rats compared with the protein-fed rats. At 28 days of age, we evaluated the pancreatic secretory ability in response to dietary protein and cholecystokinin (CCK) by means of pancreatic duct cannulation. Pancreatic secretion stimulated by dietary protein in the hydrolysate-fed rats was significantly weaker than that in the protein-fed rats. No significant difference was observed in the increasing rate of pancreatic enzyme secretion in response to CCK between the two groups. These results suggest that the presence of large proteins in breast milk is significant for the development of pancreatic digestive functions and the outcomes could remain even later on in life.

  19. Characterization of refractory behaviour of complex gold/silver ore by diagnostic leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. CELEP; (I).ALP; H. DEVEC(I); M. VICIL

    2009-01-01

    The amenability of a refractory ore to the extraction of gold and silver by cyanide leaching was investigated. Diagnostic leaching tests were also performed to shed light on the refractory characteristics of ore. The leaching tests show that the extraction of gold and silver is consistently low, i.e. ≤47% and ≤19.2%, respectively, over a leaching period of 24 h. Even fine grinding (e.g. <38 μm) does not improve the recovery of gold and silver. Diagnostic leaching approach provides information into the cause of the refractoriness of the ore. The findings suggest that the refractoriness is induced by the dissemination and encapsulation of the very fine gold and silver particles largely in the carbonates, oxides and sulfides and, to a small extent, with silicates present in the ore matrix. These findings highlight the practical importance of diagnostic leaching for the understanding of the refractory characteristic of such an ore and for the identification of possible pretreatment options to overcome its refractoriness prior to cyanide leaching.

  20. Long-term outcome of refractory status epilepticus in adults: A retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Reinikainen, Matti; Parviainen, Ilkka; Kälviäinen, Reetta

    2017-07-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a neurological emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to analyze the long-term outcome of intensive care unit (ICU)-treated RSE and super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) patients in a population based cohort. A retrospective study of ICU- and anesthesia-treated RSE patients in Kuopio University Hospital's (KUH) special responsibility area hospitals in the central and eastern part of Finland from Jan. 1, 2010 to Dec. 31, 2012 was conducted. KUH's catchment area consists of five hospitals-one university hospital and four central hospitals-and covers a population of 840 000. We included all consecutive adult (16 years or older) RSE patients admitted in the participating ICUs during the 3-year period and excluded patients with postanoxic etiologies. We used a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as a long-term (1-year) outcome measure: good (mRS 0-3, recovered to baseline function) or poor (mRS 4-6, major functional deficit or death). We identified 75 patients with ICU- and anesthesia-treated RSE, corresponding to an annual incidence of 3.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-3.8). 21% of the patients were classified as SRSE, with the annual incidence being 0.6/100 000 (95% CI 0.4-1.0). For RSE, the ICU mortality was 0%, hospital mortality was 7% (95% CI 1.2%-12.8%) (n=5), and one-year mortality was 23% (CI 95% 13.4%-32.5%) (n=17). 48% (n=36) of RSE patients recovered to baseline, and 29% (n=22) showed neurological deficit at 1year. Poor outcome (mRS 4-6) was recorded for 52% (n=39) of the patients. Older age was associated with poorer outcome at 1year (p=0.03). For SRSE, hospital mortality was 6% (n=1) and 1-year mortality was 19% (n=3) (95%CI 0%-38.2%). During 1-year follow-up, nearly 50% of the ICU-treated RSE patients recovered to baseline function, whereas 30% showed new functional defects and 20% died. SRSE does not have a necessarily poorer outcome. The outcome is worse in older patients and in patients with

  1. Levetiracetam in children with refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallentine, William B; Hunnicutt, Addie S; Husain, Aatif M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of levetiracetam (LEV) in children with refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Records of children with RSE who received LEV as adjunctive therapy were reviewed. Over a 7-year period, 11 children had received LEV for RSE. Age ranged from 2 days to 9 years (median = 2.5 months). Prior to administration of LEV, the number of anticonvulsants used to treat RSE ranged from 2 to 7 (median = 3). Starting doses of LEV ranged from 15 to 70 mg/kg (median = 30 mg/kg). LEV was felt to be of benefit in 45% (5/11) of cases, resulting in either resolution of RSE or successful weaning of patients off continuous infusions of other anticonvulsants. In 27% (3/11), response to LEV was unclear as other medications were either added or increased concomitantly with LEV use. The median latency to cessation of RSE following LEV initiation was 1.5 days (range = 1-8 days). All responding patients were on LEV doses >or= 30 mg/kg/day (median 40 mg/kg/day). No significant adverse effects of LEV were reported. LEV may be an effective and safe adjuvant therapy in children with RSE.

  2. High Doses of Caffeine during the Peripubertal Period in the Rat Impair the Growth and Function of the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minji Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal caffeine exposure adversely affects the development of the reproductive organs of male rat offspring. Thus, it is conceivable that peripubertal caffeine exposure would also influence physiologic gonadal changes and function during this critical period for sexual maturation. This study investigated the impact of high doses of caffeine on the testes of prepubertal male rats. A total of 45 immature male rats were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and 2 groups fed 120 and 180 mg/kg/day of caffeine, respectively, via the stomach for 4 weeks. Caffeine caused a significant decrease in body weight gain, accompanied by proportional decreases in lean body mass and body fat. The caffeine-fed animals had smaller and lighter testes than those of the control that were accompanied by negative influences on the histologic parameters of the testes. In addition, stimulated-testosterone ex vivo production was reduced in Leydig cells retrieved from the caffeine-fed animals. Our results demonstrate that peripubertal caffeine consumption can interfere with the maturation and function of the testis, possibly by interrupting endogenous testosterone secretion and reducing the sensitivity of Leydig cells to gonadotrophic stimulation. In addition, we confirmed that pubertal administration of caffeine reduced testis growth and altered testis histomorphology.

  3. Platelets in the neonatal period: developmental differences in platelet production, function, and hemostasis and the potential impact of therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Visner, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common problem among sick neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Frequently, platelet transfusions are given to thrombocytopenic infants in an attempt to decrease the incidence or severity of hemorrhage, which is often intracranial. Whereas there is very limited evidence to guide platelet transfusion practices in this population, preterm infants in the first week of life (the highest risk period for bleeding) are nearly universally transfused at higher platelet counts than older infants or children. To a large extent, this practice has been influenced by the observation that neonatal platelets are hyporeactive in response to multiple agonists in vitro, although full-term infants exhibit normal to increased primary hemostasis. This apparently paradoxical finding is due to factors in the neonatal blood that enhance the platelet-vessel wall interaction and counteract the platelet hyporeactivity. Relatively few studies have evaluated the platelet function and primary hemostasis of preterm infants, the subset of neonates at highest risk of bleeding and those most frequently transfused. Current understanding of platelet production and function in preterm and full-term neonates, how these factors affect their response to thrombocytopenia and their primary hemostasis, and the implications of these developmental differences to transfusion medicine are reviewed herein.

  4. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayden, H. Wayne [Metals Manufacture Process and Controls Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Robert E. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Headrick, William L. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  5. Periodic behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Napp, Diego; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R^n. These properties - in particular the Nullstellensatz describing the Willems closure - are closely related to integral and rational points on affine algebraic varieties.

  6. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the Nullste

  7. Effect of autologous bone mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on neurological function in rehabilitation period of multifocal cerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of autologous bone mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on neurological function in rehabilitation period of multifocal cerebral hemorrhage.Methods:A total of 48 patients with multifocal cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in our hospital from April 2012 to December 2014 were selected as the research subjects, the therapy was made according to the illness and the patients’ will, combined treatment group received minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma combined with autologous bone mesenchymal stem cell transplantation therapy, surgical treatment group received regular minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma, and then imaging features, endothelial progenitor cell activation in peripheral blood as well as the content of nerve injury molecules and neurotrophic factors in serum of two groups were compared.Results:According to the result of head CT scan, the degree of brain edema of both groups was reduced 14 days after treatment, and the reducing degree of brain edema of combined treatment group was more significant than that of surgical treatment group; the 7th day, 14th day, 21st day and 28th day after treatment, CD34+CD133+endothelial progenitor cell levels in peripheral blood of combined treatment group were higher than those of surgical treatment group; 7th day and 14th day after treatment, serum S100β and NSE levels of combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of surgical treatment group; 21st day and 28th day after treatment, serum BDNF and NGF levels of combined treatment group were significantly higher than those of surgical treatment group. Conclusions:Autologous bone mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can relieve cerebral edema, increase the content of endothelial progenitor cells and neurotrophic factors and decrease neurological function injury in patients with multifocal cerebral hemorrhage, and it is conducive to the recovery of neurological function in patients with cerebral hemorrhage.

  8. Effects of Temperature, Oxygen Partial Pressure, and Materials Selection on Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractories for Entrained-Flow Gasifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth

    partial pressure of the operating atmosphere regulates the penetration of slag into refractory. The viscosity of the slag, which dictates its penetration rate, is influenced by the oxidation state of the Fe cation. Slag penetrations are shallower in oxidizing conditions than they are in reducing conditions because the iron-oxide from the slag solutions into the corundum-structured refractory and the slag is depleted of iron-oxide, increasing the viscosity of slags. Equally, the chemistries of both the refractory and slag materials dictate the course of penetration. Cr2O3-Al2O3 refractory limits mixed feedstock slag penetration through formation of a chromium spinel layer that functions as a physical obstacle against fluid flow. Al2O 3-SiO2 refractory limits eastern coal feedstock slag penetration as a result of refractory dissolution of SiO2, which increases the viscosity of slags. A physical model, which considers unidirectional fluid flow of slag through each pore of the porous microstructure of the refractory, sufficiently approximates the penetration depth of the slag into the refractory. Agreement between experiments and the physical model demonstrates that the slag is driven into the refractory by capillary pressure. Since the viscosity of the slag continuously changes as the slag travels through the inherent temperature gradient of the refractory lining, the model incorporates dynamic viscosities that are dependent on both temperature and composition to project depths that are unique to the experimental parameters. The significantly different length scales of the radial and penetration directions of the pores allows for the application of a lubrication approximation onto the momentum equation. This process produces an analytical solution that effectively envelopes the variable viscosity into a single term.

  9. Intravenous sodium valproate versus diazepam infusion for the control of refractory status epilepticus in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vishal; Singhi, Pratibha; Singhi, Sunit

    2007-10-01

    An open-label, randomized controlled study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital to compare efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate versus diazepam infusion for control of refractory status epilepticus. Forty children with refractory status epilepticus were randomized to receive either intravenous sodium valproate or diazepam infusion. Refractory status epilepticus was controlled in 80% of the valproate and 85% of the diazepam patients. The median time to control refractory status epilepticus was less in the valproate group (5 minutes) than the diazepam group (17 minutes; P diazepam group 60% required ventilation and 50% developed hypotension after starting diazepam infusion. No adverse effects on liver functions were seen with valproate. It is concluded that intravenous sodium valproate is an effective alternative to diazepam infusion in controlling refractory status epilepticus in children and is free of respiratory depression and hypotension.

  10. Fireclay Refractory Bricks for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Zhang Yongfang; Chai Junlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification, shape, dimension, technical requirements, test method,inspection rules, packing, marking,transportation,storage and quality certification of fireclay refractory bricks for hot blast stove.

  11. Spalling Resistance Fast-drying Refractory Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term and definition,classification, technical requirements, test methods,quality appraisal procedures, packing, marking, transportation, storage, and quality certificate of spalling resistance fast-drying refractory castables.

  12. Ultra High Temperature Refractory Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Legacy refractory materials that have origins dating to the original Saturn program are commonly used in current launch facilities. Although they failure to meet the...

  13. Ultra High Temperature Refractory Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Legacy refractory materials that have origins dating to the original Saturn program are commonly used in current launch facilities. Although they fail to meet the...

  14. Alumina Carbon Refractory Products for Continuous Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification.techni-cal requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage and quality certificate of alumina carbon refractory products for continuous casting.

  15. Testing Consent Order on Refractory Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice announces that EPA has signed signed an enforceable testing consent order under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. section 2601 at seq., with three of the primary producers of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF).

  16. Emergency coronary angioplasty in refractory unstable angina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); K. Balakumaran (Kulasekaram); A.L. Soward; P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred); B. Mochtar (Bas)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe performed percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty as an emergency procedure in 60 patients with unstable angina pectoris that was refractory to treatment with maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and intravenous nitroglycerin. The initial success

  17. Prognostic Factors for Refractory Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN studied the outcome and identified prognostic factors for refractory status epilepticus (RSE in 54 adult patients, median age 52 years [range 18-93].

  18. Interobserver agreement on the echocardiographic parameters that estimate right ventricular systolic function in the early postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Temois, S G; Santos-Martínez, L E; Álvarez-Álvarez, R; Gutiérrez-Delgado, L G; Baranda-Tovar, F M

    2016-11-01

    To know the variability of transthoracic echocardiographic parameters that assess right ventricular systolic function by analyzing interobserver agreement in the early postoperative period of cardiovascular surgery. To assess the feasibility of these echocardiographic measurements. A cross-sectional study, double-blind pilot study was carried out from May 2011 to February 2013. Cardiovascular postoperative critical care at the National Institute of Cardiology "Ignacio Chávez", Mexico City, Mexico. Consecutive, non-probabilistic sampling. Fifty-six patients were studied in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. The first echocardiographic parameters were obtained between 6-8hours after cardiac surgery, followed by blinded second measurements. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging (VSPAT), diameters and right ventricular outflow area, tract fractional shortening. The agreement was analyzed by the Bland-Altman method, and its magnitude was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval). Both observers evaluated TAPSE and VSPAT in 48 patients (92%). The average TAPSE was 11.68±4.53mm (range 4-27mm). Right ventricular systolic dysfunction was observed in 41 cases (85%) and normal TAPSE in 7 patients (15%). The average difference and its limits according to TAPSE were -0.917±2.95 (-6.821, 4.988), with a magnitude of 0.725 (0.552, 0.837); the tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging was -0.001±0.015 (-0.031, 0.030), and its magnitude 0.825 (0.708, 0.898), respectively. VSPAT and TAPSE were estimated by both observers in 92% of the patients, these parameters exhibiting the lowest interobserver variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Situation of China's Refractories Industry in Last Sixty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Jiangping; PAN Shangxin; LI Chaowen

    2009-01-01

    The annual output of China's refractories in 1949 was 74 thousand tons, and was 29.11 million tons in 2007, which was 65% of the world total refractories output. The export of China's refractory products and raw materials in 2008 was 6.18 million tons, which were exported to hundreds of countries and regions in the world. China is a big country in the field of refractories production and refractories export, which has devoted a lot to relative high temperature industry.

  20. Method of making a composite refractory material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Marvin S.; Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1995-01-01

    A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000.degree. C. to form a composite refractory material.

  1. The modified atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

  2. Neuromodulation in refractory epilepsy: Brazilian specialists consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Cristina Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Epilepsy is a potentially devastating brain disorder characterized by a predisposition to spontaneous epileptic seizures. In patients with medically refractory epilepsy, new non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches may be considered. In this scenario, palliative surgery such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS or deep brain stimulation (DBS may be indicated in a subset of patients. In this paper we make recommendations for the use of VNS and DBS in patients in Brazil with refractory epilepsy.

  3. The Modified Atkins Diet in Refractory Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

  4. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  5. Periodic Boundary Value Problems for Functional Differential Equations%带滞后项的非线性微分方程的周期边值问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁爱琴; 高丽; 张全信

    2009-01-01

    The periodic boundary value problems for nonlinear functional differential equa-tions was discussed.The existence of maximal and minimal solutions was obtained when the lower and upper solutions satisfied the formal or reverse order.

  6. Resolution of chronic severe refractory thrombocytopenia after treatment of hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, K M; Turner, G E; Wimperis, J Z

    2004-01-01

    The case of a 52 year old woman with chronic severe refractory thrombocytopenia is presented. Over a three year period, her platelet count was persistently less than 20 × 109/litre (normal range, 150–400). She required repeated hospital admission for management of bleeding and received multiple blood transfusions. She was given repeated courses of steroids, immunosuppression, immunoglobulin, and splenectomy, without success, in an attempt to stop the chronic blood loss. Eventually, she was found to be profoundly hypothyroid. On correction of her thyroid deficiency the platelet count returned to the normal range and all bleeding stopped. The platelet count remains in the normal range three years later. PMID:15333667

  7. REFRACTORY THROMBOCYTOPENIA AND NEUTROPENIA: A DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gyan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2008 WHO classification identified refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD as a composite entity encompassing refractory anemia, refractory thrombocytopenia (RT, and refractory neutropenia (RN, characterized by 10% or more dysplastic cells in the bone marrow respective lineage. The diagnosis of RT and RN is complicated by several factors.  Diagnosing RT first requires exclusion of familial thrombocytopenia, chronic auto-immune thrombocytopenia, concomitant medications, viral infections, or hypersplenism. Diagnosis of RN should also be made after ruling out differential diagnoses such as ethnic or familial neutropenia, as well as acquired, drug-induced, infection-related or malignancy-related neutropenia. An accurate quantification of dysplasia should be performed in order to distinguish RT or RN from the provisional entity named idiopathic cytopenia of unknown significance (ICUS. Cytogenetic analysis, and possibly in the future somatic mutation analysis (of genes most frequently mutated in MDS, and flow cytometry analysis aberrant antigen expression on myeloid cells may help in this differential diagnosis. Importantly, we and others found that, while isolated neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are not rare in MDS, those patients can generally be classified (according to WHO 2008 classification as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia or refractory anemia with excess blasts, while RT and RN (according to WHO 2008 are quite rare.These results suggest in particular that identification of RT and RN as distinct entities could be reconsidered in future WHO classification updates.

  8. Synthesis of Refractory Materials by Skull Melting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Borik, Mikhail A.; Lomonova, Elena E.

    This chapter discusses methods of growing refractory oxide single crystals and synthesis of refractory glasses by skull melting technique in a cold crucible. It shows the advantages of radiofrequency (RF) heating of dielectric materials in a cold crucible and points out some specific problems regarding the process of growing crystals by directional crystallization from the melt and by pulling on a seed from the melt. The distinctive features of the method of directional crystallization from the melt are discussed in detail on the example of technology of materials based on zirconia, i.e., cubic single crystals and partly stabilized single crystals. It is shown that the size and quality of crystals are functions of the process conditions, such as thermal conditions under crystallization, growth rate, and chemical composition. We provide an overview of research on the structure, phase composition, and physicochemical properties of crystals based on zirconia. The optical, mechanical, and electric properties of these crystals make them suitable for a number of technical and industrial applications in optics, electronics, materials processing, and medicine. In this chapter, we also consider some problems regarding the synthesis of refractory glasses by skull melting technique. The physicochemical and optical properties of glasses are given and their practical applications in technology are discussed. We note that one of the better developed and most promising applications of skull melting technique is the immobilization of liquid and solid waste (also radioactive waste) into solid-state materials by vitrification.

  9. Advances in Modern Refractory Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ningsheng; HU Shuhe; ZHANG Sanhua

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in terms of binding system, new material system, installation method and pre-cast shapes of refractory castables are introduced and discussed. In authors view, binding system is advancing on the one hand towards "purification" to minimize impurity components from binder materials, and on the other hand "stabilization" to minimize the structure destroy by volatility and decomposition of binder materials. Challenges of higher service temperature, slag resistance, clean steel production and better thermal shock resistance have promoted the booming of new varieties of castables including MgObased, natural flake graphite containing and non-oxides like Si3 N4, AlON and SiAlON containing castables. Installation technique is developing towards convenience,simplification and high efficiency. Advancement in installation and dry-out is of an incentive to the boost of selfflow castables, shotcreting castables, infiltration casting,quick dry-out castables and pre-cast shapes. Along with the increased adoption of pre-cast shapes of castables, the boundary between "shaped" and "unshaped" is becoming vague.

  10. Advances in Modern Refractory Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUNingsheng; HUShuhe; ZHANGSanhua

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in terms of binding system, new material system, installation method and pre-cast shapes of refractory castables are introduced and discussed. In authors' view, binding system is advancing on the one hand towards "purification" to minimize impurity components from binder materials, and on the other hand "stabilization" to minimize the structure destroy by volatility and decomposition of binder materials. Challenges of higher service temperature, slag resistance, clean steel production and better thermal shock resistance have promoted the booming of new varieties of castables including MgO based, natural flake graphite containing and non-oxides like Sis N4, AION and SIMON containing castables. Installation technique is developing towards convenience, simplification and high efficiency. Advancement in installation and dry-out is of an incentive to the boost of selfflow castables, shotcreting castables, infiltration casting, quick dry-out castables and pre-cast shapes. Along wit hthe increased adoption of pre-cast shapes of castables, the boundary between "shaped" and " unshaped " is becoming vague.

  11. VNS for refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, F A; Zeiler, K J; Teitelbaum, J; Gillman, L M; West, M

    2015-05-01

    Our goal was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the insertion of vagal nerve stimulators (VNS) for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and its impact on the control of RSE. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, HealthStar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, clinicaltrials.gov (inception to June 2014), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and GRADE methodology by two independent reviewers (FZ and MW). Overall, 17 studies were identified, with 7 manuscripts and 10 meeting abstracts. A total of 28 patients were treated. In those with generalized RSE, 76% displayed cessation of RSE with VNS insertion. In cases of focal RSE, 25% responded to VNS insertion. Few adverse effects related to VNS insertion were described. We currently cannot recommend the use of VNS for RSE. Oxford level 4, GRADE D evidence exists to suggest improvement in seizure control with the use of urgent VNS in generalized RSE. No comments can be made on the utility of VNS in focal RSE. Further prospective study is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mean-square Almost Periodic Random Functions%均方概周期随机函数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江利娜; 张传义

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a basic theory of mean-square almost periodicity, apply the theory in random differential equation, and obtain mean-square almost periodic solution of some types stochastic differential equation.

  13. Variation in maternal urinary cortisol profiles across the peri-conceptional period: a longitudinal description and evaluation of potential functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnaschy, P A; Salvante, K G; Zeng, L; Pyles, C; Ma, H; Blais, J C; Wen, L; Barha, C K

    2015-06-01

    How do women's first morning urinary cortisol levels, a marker of stress axis activity, vary during the peri-conceptional period (the 12 weeks around conception)? First morning urinary cortisol follows an overall increasing trajectory across the peri-conceptional period, interrupted by 2 week-long decreases during the week preceding conception and the fifth week following conception. Later gestational stages (i.e. second and third trimesters) are characterized by increasing levels of circulating cortisol. This increase is hypothesized to constitute a response to the energy demands imposed by fetal growth, and the development of energy reserves in preparation for nursing and performing regular activities while carrying pregnancy's extra weight and volume. This study is based on a data set collected as part of a longitudinal, naturalistic investigation into the interactions between the stress (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA)) and reproductive (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA)) axes. Biomarkers of HPAA and HPGA function were quantified in first morning urinary specimens collected every other day from 22 healthy women who conceived a pregnancy during the study. We analyzed the longitudinal within- and between-individual variation in first morning urinary cortisol levels across the 12-week peri-conceptional period. Participants were recruited from two rural, aboriginal, neighboring communities in Guatemala. Cortisol, estradiol and progesterone metabolites (estrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol glucuronide, respectively) and hCG levels were quantified in first morning urinary specimens using immunoassays to determine time of conception and confirm pregnancy maintenance. Linear mixed-effects models with regression splines were used to evaluate the magnitude and significance of changes in cortisol trajectories. Overall, maternal first morning urinary cortisol increased from 6 weeks prior to conception (geometric mean ± SD = 58.14 ± 36.00 ng/ml) to 6

  14. Airway refractoriness to inhaled mannitol after repeated challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong In; Lee, Ju Kyung; Kim, Jin-Tack; Koh, Young Yull

    2011-10-01

    Exercise and inhaled mannitol are thought to cause bronchoconstriction through a similar mechanism in asthma. The response to exercise becomes refractory with repeated challenges. This study aimed to investigate whether repeated challenge with mannitol induces refractoriness, as with exercise. Forty-one children with asthma underwent two consecutive dose-response mannitol challenges (Phase 1); the second challenge proceeded after recovery (FEV(1) : 95% or more of baseline value) from the first. The response to mannitol was expressed as a provocative dose causing a 15% fall in FEV(1) (PD(15) ) and the response-dose ratio (RDR) (% fall in FEV(1) /cumulative dose). In 18 subjects who were deemed to have mannitol refractoriness in Phase 1, a mannitol challenge was performed before and after a methacholine challenge (Phase 2). In Phase 1, the time taken for the FEV(1) to recover after the first mannitol challenge ranged from 20 to 100 min with a median of 50 min. In the 23 subjects with a measurable mannitol PD(15) in both challenges, the geometric mean (95%CI) PD(15) in the second challenge (163 mg [114-232]) was significantly higher than that in the first challenge (66 mg [50-88], P value of 0.083%/mg (0.055-0.125) in the first challenge to 0.029%/mg (0.017-0.048) in the second challenge (P challenge with methacholine or mannitol did not significantly alter subsequent bronchoconstriction to the opposite challenge. Repeated challenge with mannitol resulted in less bronchoconstriction when compared with the initial challenge. This refractoriness seems not to be attributable to functional loss of responsiveness or non-specific effect of prior bronchoconstriction.

  15. Geometrical correction for the inter- and intramolecular basis set superposition error in periodic density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Alessio, Maristella; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Peintinger, Michael F; Bredow, Thomas; Grimme, Stefan

    2013-09-26

    We extend the previously developed geometrical correction for the inter- and intramolecular basis set superposition error (gCP) to periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We report gCP results compared to those from the standard Boys-Bernardi counterpoise correction scheme and large basis set calculations. The applicability of the method to molecular crystals as the main target is tested for the benchmark set X23. It consists of 23 noncovalently bound crystals as introduced by Johnson et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 137, 054103) and refined by Tkatchenko et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 139, 024705). In order to accurately describe long-range electron correlation effects, we use the standard atom-pairwise dispersion correction scheme DFT-D3. We show that a combination of DFT energies with small atom-centered basis sets, the D3 dispersion correction, and the gCP correction can accurately describe van der Waals and hydrogen-bonded crystals. Mean absolute deviations of the X23 sublimation energies can be reduced by more than 70% and 80% for the standard functionals PBE and B3LYP, respectively, to small residual mean absolute deviations of about 2 kcal/mol (corresponding to 13% of the average sublimation energy). As a further test, we compute the interlayer interaction of graphite for varying distances and obtain a good equilibrium distance and interaction energy of 6.75 Å and -43.0 meV/atom at the PBE-D3-gCP/SVP level. We fit the gCP scheme for a recently developed pob-TZVP solid-state basis set and obtain reasonable results for the X23 benchmark set and the potential energy curve for water adsorption on a nickel (110) surface.

  16. Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas for use as efficient dye adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Juti Rani; Liu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Kao, Hsien-Ming, E-mail: hmkao@cc.ncu.edu.tw

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged PMOs. • Phosphonic acid loaded PMOs as adsorbent for cationic and anionic dyes. • Due to electrostatic interaction the adsorbent has high dye adsorption capacity. • π–π stacking interaction between benzene and dye enhances adsorption capacity. • Intraparticle diffusion played a dominant role in the adsorption process. - Abstract: Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with benzene bridging groups in the silica wall were functionalized with a tunable content of phosphonic acid groups. These bifunctional materials were synthesized by co-condensation of two different organosilane precursors, that is, 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) and sodium 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methyl phosphate (SPMP), under acidic conditions using nonionic surfactant Brij-S10 as template. The materials exhibited well-ordered mesostructures and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and solid-state NMR measurements. The materials thus obtained were employed as adsorbents to remove different types of dyes, for example, cationic dyes methylene blue and phenosafranine, anionic orange II, and amphoteric rhodamine B, from aqueous solutions. The materials exhibited a remarkably high adsorption capacity than activated carbon due to their ordered mesostructures, a large number of phosphonic acid groups, and high surface areas. The adsorption was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, but also involved π–π stacking interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. The adsorption kinetics can be better fitted by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption process was controlled by the mechanisms of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. The materials retained more than 97% dye removal efficiency after use for five consecutive cycles.

  17. Insight into thiophene hydrodesulfurization on clean and S-modified MoP(010): a periodic density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixia; Zhao, Lianming; Zhu, Houyu; Liu, Xiuping; Ma, Huifang; Yu, Yanchen; Guo, Wenyue

    2017-07-05

    The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene on clean and S-modified MoP(010) is investigated to understand the HDS mechanism as well as the surface sulfur (S) atom effect using periodic density functional theory (DFT). The results show that thiophene prefers strongly flat adsorption on both the clean and S-modified surfaces, in either the molecular state or the dissociative state breaking simultaneously one C-S bond, and the adsorption of thiophene can be slightly weakened by the surface S atom. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis indicates that the HDS of thiophene in both the molecular and dissociative adsorption states prefers to take place along the direct desulfurization (DDS) pathway rather than hydrogenation on both the clean and S-modified MoP(010) surfaces. Surface S shows a promotion effect on the HDS catalytic activity of MoP(010), because the energy barrier/rate constant of the rate-determining step on the DDS pathway is decreased/enlarged under the S modification. Compared with the situation of MoP(001), MoP(010) should have relatively low HDS activity, since a higher energy barrier as well as weaker exothermicity is involved in the reaction on the latter surface.

  18. Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas for use as efficient dye adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Juti Rani; Liu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-08-15

    Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with benzene bridging groups in the silica wall were functionalized with a tunable content of phosphonic acid groups. These bifunctional materials were synthesized by co-condensation of two different organosilane precursors, that is, 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) and sodium 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methyl phosphate (SPMP), under acidic conditions using nonionic surfactant Brij-S10 as template. The materials exhibited well-ordered mesostructures and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and solid-state NMR measurements. The materials thus obtained were employed as adsorbents to remove different types of dyes, for example, cationic dyes methylene blue and phenosafranine, anionic orange II, and amphoteric rhodamine B, from aqueous solutions. The materials exhibited a remarkably high adsorption capacity than activated carbon due to their ordered mesostructures, a large number of phosphonic acid groups, and high surface areas. The adsorption was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, but also involved π-π stacking interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. The adsorption kinetics can be better fitted by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption process was controlled by the mechanisms of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. The materials retained more than 97% dye removal efficiency after use for five consecutive cycles.

  19. 难治性癫痫患者楔前叶功能连接的静息态功能磁共振成像研究%Study of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of functional connectivity of precuneus in patients with refractory epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋; 钱若兵; 傅先明; 林彬; 李顺利; 彭楠; 夏春生; 牛朝诗; 汪业汉

    2016-01-01

    目的:应用静息态功能磁共振成像( rs-fMRI)探讨难治性癫痫患者楔前叶与全脑功能连接的改变及其意义。方法对23例难治性癫痫患者(癫痫组)及23名健康人(对照组)进行rs-fMRI检查,采集数据后采用功能连接的方法,分别计算以左侧楔前叶和右侧楔前叶为感兴趣区与全脑的功能连接,运用双样本t检验的统计学方法发现两组的显著性差异并进行分析。结果癫痫组左侧楔前叶与双侧顶下小叶、双侧岛叶、右侧缘上回、右侧额中回和双侧额下回的功能连接较对照组减弱(均P<0.05);癫痫组左侧楔前叶与双侧海马旁回、双侧额上回、左侧后扣带回的功能连接较对照组增强(均P<0.05)。癫痫组右侧楔前叶与左侧顶下小叶、右侧缘上回、右侧额中回、右侧额下回的功能连接较对照组减弱(均P<0.05);癫痫组右侧楔前叶与双侧楔叶、左侧后扣带回的功能连接较对照组增强(均P<0.05)。结论难治性癫痫患者静息状态下楔前叶与全脑的功能连接存在异常,“默认网络”功能的抑制可能是癫痫患者意识及认知等功能损害的重要原因。%Objective To explore the changes and significance of functional connectivity between precuneus and the whole brain in refractory epilepsy patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging ( rs-fMRI) technology.Methods Twenty-three patients with refractory epilepsy ( epilepsy group ) and 23 healthy controls ( control group) were recruited to take a rs-fMRI scan.After which functional connectivity methods were used to calculate and analyze in both side of precuneus for the region of interest with the whole brain.Using the statistical method of two samples t test, it attempted to seek and discuss the significant difference of functional connectivity in two groups.Results Compared with the control group, epilepsy group showed decreased

  20. Non-invasive technology that improves cardiac function after experimental myocardial infarction: Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Uryash

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI may produce significant inflammatory changes and adverse ventricular remodeling leading to heart failure and premature death. Pharmacologic, stem cell transplantation, and exercise have not halted the inexorable rise in the prevalence and great economic costs of heart failure despite extensive investigations of such treatments. New therapeutic modalities are needed. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz is a non-invasive technology that increases pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium thereby producing several beneficial cardiovascular effects as demonstrated in animal models, normal humans and patients with heart disease. pGz upregulates endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and its phosphorylation (p-eNOS to improve myocardial function in models of myocardial stunning and preconditioning. Here we test whether pGz applied chronically after focal myocardial infarction in rats improves functional outcomes from MI. Focal MI was produced by left coronary artery ligation. One day after ligation animals were randomized to receive daily treatments of pGz for four weeks (MI-pGz or serve as controls (MI-CONT, with an additional group as non-infarction controls (Sham. Echocardiograms and invasive pressure volume loop analysis were carried out. Infarct transmurality, myocardial fibrosis, and markers of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined along with protein analysis of eNOS, p-eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS.At four weeks, survival was 80% in MI-pGz vs 50% in MI-CONT (p< 0.01. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening and invasive pressure volume relation indices of afterload and contractility were significantly better in MI-pGz. The latter where associated with decreased infarct transmurality and decreased fibrosis along with increased eNOS, p-eNOS. Additionally, MI-pGz had significantly lower levels of iNOS, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and higher level of anti

  1. Non-Invasive Technology That Improves Cardiac Function after Experimental Myocardial Infarction: Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlansky, Paul; Altamirano, Francisco; Lopez, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) may produce significant inflammatory changes and adverse ventricular remodeling leading to heart failure and premature death. Pharmacologic, stem cell transplantation, and exercise have not halted the inexorable rise in the prevalence and great economic costs of heart failure despite extensive investigations of such treatments. New therapeutic modalities are needed. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz) is a non-invasive technology that increases pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium thereby producing several beneficial cardiovascular effects as demonstrated in animal models, normal humans and patients with heart disease. pGz upregulates endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its phosphorylation (p-eNOS) to improve myocardial function in models of myocardial stunning and preconditioning. Here we test whether pGz applied chronically after focal myocardial infarction in rats improves functional outcomes from MI. Focal MI was produced by left coronary artery ligation. One day after ligation animals were randomized to receive daily treatments of pGz for four weeks (MI-pGz) or serve as controls (MI-CONT), with an additional group as non-infarction controls (Sham). Echocardiograms and invasive pressure volume loop analysis were carried out. Infarct transmurality, myocardial fibrosis, and markers of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined along with protein analysis of eNOS, p-eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).At four weeks, survival was 80% in MI-pGz vs 50% in MI-CONT (p< 0.01). Ejection fraction and fractional shortening and invasive pressure volume relation indices of afterload and contractility were significantly better in MI-pGz. The latter where associated with decreased infarct transmurality and decreased fibrosis along with increased eNOS, p-eNOS. Additionally, MI-pGz had significantly lower levels of iNOS, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), and higher level of anti

  2. 左乙拉西坦添加疗法治疗青年难治性部分性癫痫疗效及对患者认知功能的影响%Levetiracetam Additive Treatment for Refractory Partial Epilepsy in Young People and its Effects on Cogni-tive Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕志芳; 胡海涛; 李妍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of levetiracetam( LEV)in the treatment of refractory partial epilepsy in young peo-ple and its effect on cognitive function. Methods:Totally 62 young patients with refractory partial epilepsy were randomly divided into the levetiracetam group(group A,n=32)and routine treatment group(group B,n=30). Group B was treated with phenobarbital tablets plus carbamazepine tablets,and group A was given LEV tablets additionally. After 6-month treatment,the clinical curative effect,cogni-tive function,quality of life and adverse drug reactions were compared between the two groups. Results:After the treatment,the total ef-fective rate at the 12th and 24th week in the group A was significantly higher than that in the group B(P0. 05). Conclusion:Routine medicine combined with LEV in the treatment of refractory partial epilepsy in young patients shows definite curative effect and positive significance for the promotion of cognitive function,which is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:探讨左乙拉西坦( LEV)添加疗法治疗青年难治性部分性癫痫的疗效,及对患者认知功能的影响。方法:62例难治性部分性癫痫青年患者随机分为A组(n=32)和B组(n=30)。B组给予苯巴比妥片+卡马西平片治疗,A组在B组基础上加用左乙拉西坦片。均持续给药6个月后,比较两组临床疗效、患者认知功能及生活质量差异,以及药品不良反应发生情况。结果:治疗后,A组治疗后12周与24周的总有效率均明显高于B组(P0.05)。结论:对患难治性部分性癫痫的青年患者给予常规药物联合LEV疗法,疗效确切,对其认知功能的提升具有积极意义,值得临床推广。

  3. Low-carbohydrate diet combined with SGLT2 inhibitor for refractory hyperglycemia caused by insulin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Riyoko; Horie, Ichiro; Ando, Takao; Abiru, Norio; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet is effective to improve hyperglycemia via insulin-independent actions. We report here that a low-carbohydrate diet combined with an SGLT2 inhibitor was effective and safe to treat refractory hyperglycemia in the perioperative period in a type 2 diabetes patient complicated with a high titer of insulin antibodies.

  4. Bilateral native nephrectomy for refractory hypertension in kidney transplant and kidney pancreas transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Lerman

    2015-01-01

    We found laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomy to be beneficial in renal and simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant patients with severe and refractory hypertension. Our patients with better baseline renal allograft function at time of nephrectomy received the most benefit. No decrease in allograft function could be attributed to acute rejection.

  5. Surgical treatment for medically refractory myasthenic blepharoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Y

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Shimizu,1 Shigeaki Suzuki,2 Tomohisa Nagasao,1 Hisao Ogata,1 Masaki Yazawa,1 Norihiro Suzuki,2 Kazuo Kishi1 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2Department of Neurology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Currently, only a few reports have recommended surgery as a suitable treatment for blepharoptosis associated with myasthenia gravis. The present study aims to introduce our surgical criteria, surgical options, outcomes, and precautions for medically refractory myasthenic blepharoptosis. Patients and methods: Eight patients who failed to respond to at least 2 years of medical treatment and who underwent blepharoptosis surgery, from January 2008 to December 2011, were enrolled in this study. Medical records, photographs, and questionnaire results regarding postoperative status were evaluated. Of the eleven procedures performed, four involved frontal suspension, four involved external levator advancement, one involved nonincisional transconjunctival levator advancement, and two involved subbrow blepharoplasty with orbicularis oculi muscle tucking. The margin reflex distance improved postoperatively in seven patients. Results: Seven patients had very minimal scarring, and one had minimal scarring. Five patients showed no eyelid asymmetry, one had subtle asymmetry, and two had obvious asymmetry. Seven patients were very satisfied, and one patient was satisfied with the overall result. Postoperative complications included mild lid lag with incomplete eyelid closure, prolonged scar redness, and worsened heterophoria. No patient experienced postoperative exposure keratitis or recurrent blepharoptosis during the study period. Conclusion: Our results indicate that blepharoptosis surgery is effective for patients with myasthenia gravis, especially those with residual blepharoptosis despite multiple sessions of medical treatments. We recommend that neurologists and surgeons collaborate more systematically and

  6. Dynamics of soil diazotrophic community structure, diversity, and functioning during the cropping period of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sandhya; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Annapurna, Kannepalli

    2015-01-01

    The soil sampled at different growth stages along the cropping period of cotton were analyzed using various molecular tools: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and cloning-sequencing. The cluster analysis of the diazotrophic community structure of early sampled soil (0, 15, and 30 days) was found to be more closely related to each other than the later sampled one. Phylogenetic and diversity analysis of sequences obtained from the first (0 Day; C0) and last soil sample (180 day; C180) confirmed the data. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that C0 was having more unique sequences than C180 (presence of γ-Proteobacteria exclusively in C0). A relatively higher richness of diazotrophic community sequences was observed in C0 (S(ACE) : 30.76; S(Chao1) : 20.94) than C180 (S(ACE) : 18.00; S(Chao1) : 18.00) while the evenness component of Shannon diversity index increased from C0 (0.97) to C180 (1.15). The impact of routine agricultural activities was more evident based on diazotrophic activity (measured by acetylene reduction assay) than its structure and diversity. The nitrogenase activity of C0 (1264.85 ± 35.7 ηmol of ethylene production g(-1) dry soil h(-1) ) was statistically higher when compared to all other values (p structure/diversity and N2 fixation rates. Thus, considerable functional redundancy of nifH was concluded to be existing at the experimental site.

  7. Source time functions of the 1999, Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake from GDSN long period waveform data using aftershocks as empirical Green(s functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A large earthquake (MW=7.6) occurred in Jiji (Chi-Chi), Taiwan, China on September 20, 1999, and was followed by many moderate-size shocks in the following days. Two of the largest aftershocks with the magnitudes of MW=6.1 and MW=6.2, respectively, were used as empirical Green(s functions (EGFs) to obtain the source time functions (STFs) of the main shock from long-period waveform data of the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) including IRIS, GEOSCOPE and CDSN. For the MW=6.1 aftershock of September 22, there were 97 pairs of phases clear enough from 78 recordings of 26 stations; for the MW=6.2 aftershock of September 25, there were 81 pairs of phases clear enough from 72 recordings of 24 stations. For each station, 2 types of STFs were retrieved, which are called P-STF and S-STF due to being from P and S phases, respectively. Totally, 178 STF individuals were obtained for source-process analysis of the main shock. It was noticed that, in general, STFs from most of the stations had similarities except that those in special azimuths looked different or odd due to the mechanism difference between the main shock and the aftershocks; and in detail, the shapes of the STFs varied with azimuth. Both of them reflected the stability and reliability of the retrieved STFs. The comprehensive analysis of those STFs suggested that this event consisted of two sub-events, the total duration time was about 26 s, and on the average, the second event was about 7 s later than the first one, and the moment-rate amplitude of the first event was about 15% larger than that of the second one.

  8. Rufinamide for refractory epilepsy in a pediatric and young adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob R; Schultz, Rebecca J; Wilfong, Angus A

    2011-01-01

    This chart review investigated the efficacy and safety of rufinamide in 45 children and young adults who experienced a broad spectrum of partial and generalized seizure/epilepsy types which have been refractory to therapy. Of these patients, 19 (46%) achieved a >50% decrease in seizure frequency on rufinamide, and 7 patients achieved a >75% decrease in seizure frequency. While 17 (37.8%) patients stopped their trial of rufinamide prior to the end of the review period, only 2 (4.4%) were due to adverse effects. Although additional research must be done, this data shows promise that rufinamide is a safe and efficacious adjunct for cases of refractory epilepsy.

  9. Analysis on the Causes for Refractory GERD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婕; 许军英; 徐勇; 谢小平; 易粹琼; 侯晓华

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the causes of failure in conventional treatment to refractory gastroesophageal reflux diseases (GERD) patients, 16 refractory GERD patients (group R) and 16 eases of GERD primarily diagnosed (group P) were studied. Endoscopy, pathologic examination and 14C urea breath test were conducted in every patient. 24 h ambulatory pH and bilirubin monitoring were performed with Digitrapper MI Ⅲ and Synetics Bilitec 2000. It was found that esophagitis in group R was more severe than in group P. The rate of Helicobacter pylori infection in group R was significantly lower than in group P. Fraction time pH below 4. 00 was not longer while the bile reflux represented by fraction time abs above 0. 14 was greater for patients in the group R as compared with those in the group P. The mixed refluxes and pure bile refluxes between the two groups had significant difference. The reflux episodes in the group R mainly occurred during nights. These results indicated that severe esophagitis, especially Barrett's esophagus with complications makes it difficult to control GERD. Severe duodenogastroesophageal refluxes (DGER) are often accompanied by refractory GERD. Mixed refluxes aggravate the esophageal injuries. Pure bile refluxes and nocturnal refluxes may cause failure of administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in the morning. Helicobacter pylori infection and acid refluxes may not be the direct cause of refractoriness. Individual refractory GERD patient without abnormal results on pH or bile reflux recently should be diagnosed again.

  10. Identification of platelet refractoriness in oncohematologic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aparecida Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify the occurrence and the causes of platelet refractoriness in oncohematologic patients. INTRODUCTION: Platelet refractoriness (unsatisfactory post-transfusion platelet increment is a severe problem that impairs the treatment of oncohematologic patients and is not routinely investigated in most Brazilian services. METHODS: Forty-four episodes of platelet concentrate transfusion were evaluated in 16 patients according to the following parameters: corrected count increment, clinical conditions and detection of anti-platelet antibodies by the platelet immunofluorescence test (PIFT and panel reactive antibodies against human leukocyte antigen class I (PRA-HLA. RESULTS: Of the 16 patients evaluated (median age: 53 years, nine (56% were women, seven of them with a history of pregnancy. An unsatisfactory increment was observed in 43% of the transfusion events, being more frequent in transfusions of random platelet concentrates (54%. Platelet refractoriness was confirmed in three patients (19%, who presented immunologic and non-immunologic causes. Alloantibodies were identified in eight patients (50% by the PIFT and in three (19% by the PRA-HLA. Among alloimmunized patients, nine (64% had a history of transfusion, and three as a result of pregnancy (43%. Of the former, two were refractory (29%. No significant differences were observed, probably as a result of the small sample size. CONCLUSION: The high rate of unsatisfactory platelet increment, refractoriness and alloimmunization observed support the need to set up protocols for the investigation of this complication in all chronically transfused patients, a fundamental requirement for the guarantee of adequate management.

  11. Vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan M.R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS represents one of the main surgical options for the treatment of the refractory epilepsy in pediatric and adult patients. There are several mechanism involved in vagal nerve stimulation which could influence the pathophysiology of seizures like neuromodulation of the thalamic and subthalamic nuclei involved in seizure initiation and the modulation of the neurotransmitters pattern norepinefrin, GABA, and serotonin. The VNS system is composed of the implanted components (the generator, the lead with the electrodes attached and the programming system components (programming wand and handheld computer. The authors present their experience with 81 patients diagnosed with refractory epilepsy, investigated, selected and implanted with vagal neurostimulators between December 2012 and January 2015 in Neurosurgery Clinic, "Bagdasar-Arseni" Emergency Hospital. The surgical technique and the potential pitfalls are described in detail. There were 20 children (24,7% and 61 (75,3% adults in this series. There was no death in this series and no intraoperative incidence. One patient presented dysphagia postoperatively which completely remitted after two months of follow-up. The outcome in term of seizure frequency and severity was better for patients under 30 years compared with patients older than 30 years. VNS represents now a safe, quick and efficient surgical procedure with a minimum period of hospitalization and a short recovery period. The good results on long term improve the quality of life of the patients and facilitate the social and professional reinsertion

  12. ROSA DAMASCENA OIL: AN ADJUNCTIVE THERAPY FOR PEDIATRIC REFRACTORY SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rakhshandeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSeveral investigations have demonstrated that Rosa damascena has aninhibitory effect on the hypothalamus and on pituitary system reactivityin the rat; it has also been shown that the essential oil of Rosa damascenahas significant antiepileptic effects on pentylentetrazole (PTZ inducedseizures in rats. We aimed at assessing the effects of the essential oil ofRosa damascena when used as an adjunct treatment to treat children withrefractory seizuresMaterials and MethodsIn this double-blind clinical trial, conducted as a pilot study between April2004 and March 2005, we administered essential oil of Rosa damascenato sixteen children with refractory epilepsy as an adjunct therapy, andevaluated its effects.Results16 patients, age range 3-13 years, were enrolled; 56.3% (n=9 girls and43.8% (n=7 boys.All has been under treatment for 3-6 weeks (baseline phase. They receivedeither the essential oil or placebo for a period of 4 weeks and in betweenthese periods, they took only their pre-existing antiepileptic drugs for twoweeks (washout phase.The mean frequency of seizures in those using essential oil, showedsignificant decrease as compared to the controls using placeboes (p=0.00.ConclusionIt can be concluded that the essential oil of Rosa Damascena has beneficialantiepileptic effect in children with refractory seizures.

  13. Clinical observation of coordinated treatment of psychological language, acupuncture point stimulation and gastric pacing on refractory functional dyspepsia%心理语言、穴位刺激和胃电起搏协同治疗难治性功能性消化不良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英; 张洪领; 杨春敏; 杜斌; 范勤; 唐合兰; 韩全力; 李静; 贾敏; 于妍

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究心理语言、穴位刺激、胃电起搏同步协同治疗方法(coordinated treatment of psychological language,acupuncture point stimulation and gastric pacing,CTPAG)治疗难治性功能性消化不良的临床疗效.方法 根据罗马Ⅲ标准选取80例难治性功能性消化不良患者,随机分为两组:口服药物组(n=38)和CTPAG组(n=42),比较两组受试者在症状评分、焦虑评分、抑郁评分中的差异.结果 与口服药物组比较,CTPAG组临床症状评分明显下降,疗效显著率明显升高;焦虑、抑郁评分也明显下降,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 心理语言、穴位刺激和胃电起搏协同治疗难治性功能性消化不良疗效优于常规口服药物,是功能性消化不良非药物治疗的一种新选择.%Objective To investigate a new method for treating refractory functional dyspepsia ( FD) with coordinated treatment of psychological language, acupuncture point stimulation and gastric pacing (CTPAG). Methods Eighty refractory FD patients were selected according to the Rome III criteria. These patients were randomly divided into oral application group (n =38) and CTPAG group (n =42). The scores of clinical symptom, anxiety and depression were e-valuated and analyzed. Results Compared with the oral application group, the scores of clinical symptom were descended , the ratios of therapeutic effect were elevated, and the scores of anxiety and depression were also descended in CTPAG group (P <0. 05 ). Conclusion CTPAG, a new non-drug method for treating refractory functional dyspepsia is effective and reliable. The curative effect surpasses the traditionary method of oral application.

  14. Oscillations in the power spectra of motor unit signals caused by refractoriness variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. L.; Tong, K. Y.; Hung, L. K.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory period of a motor unit is an important mechanism that regulates the motor unit firing, and its variation has been found in many physiological cases. In this study, a new observation that an increase in the motor unit refractoriness results in an enhancement of oscillations, or ripple effects, in the motor unit output power density spectra (PDS) has been identified and studied. The effects of the refractoriness variation on the PDS of motor unit firing were investigated on three levels: theoretical modeling, simulation and electromyographic (EMG) experimentation on human subjects. Both theoretical modeling and simulation showed the enhanced oscillations, ripple effects, in MUAPT PDS, given the increase in the refractoriness. It was also found that the extent of the increment in output PDS oscillation could be related to the motor unit size and the mean firing rate of the stimulation. A needle EMG experiment on biceps brachii muscles of five healthy human subjects was carried out during isometric contraction at 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 20 s with a fatigue effort proceeded by MVC. The increased oscillations in the PDS of the real MUAPTs were observed with the rising of the motor unit refractoriness due to fatigue. The study gives new information for EMG spectra interpretation, and also provides a potential method for accessing neuromuscular transmission failure (NTF) due to fatigue during voluntary contraction.

  15. Monitoring of Refractory Wall recession using high temperature impact echo instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Dayton

    2004-04-30

    Regression of refractory linings of furnaces occurs due to a variety of mechanisms. The specific mechanism selected for investigation during this program is the regression of refractories which are in direct contact with a liquid corrodant. Examples include the melting of glass, the production of pig iron and steel, and the melting of aluminum. The rates of regression to a wall thickness which requires reline or extensive reconstruction vary widely, from less than a year to over ten years depending on the specific service environment. This program investigated the feasibility of measuring refractory wall thickness with an impact-echo method while at operating temperature (wall temperatures exceeding 500 C). The impact-echo method uses the impact of a small sphere with the surface of the test object to send a stress wave into the object. In a plate-like structure, the stress wave reflects back to the front surface, reverberating in the structure and causing a periodic surface displacement whose frequency is inversely proportional to the thickness of the test object. Impact-echo testing was chosen because it requires access to only one side of the test object and could be performed during the operation of a refractory structure. Commercially-available impact-echo instrumentation is available for room temperature use for a variety of tests on concrete. The enabling technology for this work was to use a high-temperature piezoelectric material, aluminum nitride, as the receiving sensor for the stress waves, allowing its use on refractories during furnace operation.

  16. Combined arteriovenous thrombolytic infusion for refractory renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Thomas A; Scott, Daniel; Watson, J Devin; Propper, Brandon; Johnson, Chatt; Arthurs, Zachary M

    2014-08-01

    Acute renal vein thrombosis can rapidly lead to significant impairment and eventual loss of renal function. Classically presenting with flank pain, hematuria, and laboratory markers consistent with acute kidney injury, therapeutic anticoagulation is the mainstay of treatment. However, endovascular surgery offers a safe and effective alternative for renal salvage in the setting of acute renal vein thrombosis. Described is the use of combined arteriovenous thrombolytic infusion for refractory renal vein thromboses to quickly and effectively decrease clot burden in the micro- and macrovenous circulations while limiting systemic exposure.

  17. Refractory Behaviors of Magnetite-Kaolin Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Taiwo, O. O.; Eke, I. J.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the suitability of using kaolin-magnetite-plastic clay to produce refractory bricks has been experimentally explored. Thirty bricks of different compositions were produced and fired at 1200°C. The density, shrinkage moisture content, loss on ignition, porosity and permeability of the bricks were examined. Results show that the bricks remained stable during firing and thus possess good insulating characteristics. The highest (2.23 g/cm3) and lowest (2.00 g/cm3) bulk densities obtained in this study are higher than the highest bulk density reported for Al dross-filled refractories (1.23 g/cm3). The bricks also possessed very low effective moisture content (10-23%) and very high compression modulus (16-100 MPa) desirable in insulating refractory bricks with high resistance to abrasion.

  18. Dramatic response to infliximab in refractory neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamaneni Sreekanth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. Neurologic manifestations involving the central and/or peripheral nervous system occur in about 5% of patients. Neurosarcoidosis is often refractory to conventional treatment and therefore more effective treatment options are needed. While the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there is now a better understanding of its pathogenesis on a molecular level. It is clear that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα plays a pivotal role in the development of the granulomas and it is believed to be a key cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Taking advantage of this better understanding of disease pathogenesis, anti-TNFα agents are being increasingly used to treat refractory sarcoidosis. We report a patient with refractory neurosarcoidosis who showed dramatic improvement in the clinical and radiological manifestations following treatment with infliximab; he suffered a relapse upon discontinuation of the medication.

  19. Topical cidofovir for refractory verrucae in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Monique; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R

    2013-01-01

    Warts are common and are a challenge to treat in some children, especially immunocompromised children and those who fail or cannot tolerate salicylic acid preparations and cryotherapy. Cidofovir, a nucleotide analogue with antiviral activity, has demonstrated promising results when compounded into a topical form to treat refractory warts. We present a retrospective institutional review of 12 children with refractory verrucae treated with 1% to 3% topical cidofovir compounded in an unscented moisturizing cream, applied every other day to daily. In our institutional series, only three patients (25%) demonstrated complete clearance of their verrucae. An additional four patients (33%) demonstrated partial clearance. Our experience using topical cidofovir has been less successful than previous institutional reviews, possibly because we used a lower concentration and less-frequent dosing. More studies are needed to better characterize the efficacy, safety, and dosing of topical cidofovir for the treatment of refractory warts.

  20. Efficacy of multiple biliary stenting for refractory benign biliary strictures due to chronic calcifying pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Hiroshi; Mikata, Rintaro; Ishihara, Takeshi; Sakai, Yuji; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Yasui, Shin; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate endoscopic therapy efficacy for refractory benign biliary strictures (BBS) with multiple biliary stenting and clarify predictors. METHODS Ten consecutive patients with stones in the pancreatic head and BBS due to chronic pancreatitis who underwent endoscopic therapy were evaluated. Endoscopic insertion of a single stent failed in all patients. We used plastic stents (7F, 8.5F, and 10F) and increased stents at intervals of 2 or 3 mo. Stents were removed approximately 1 year after initial stenting. BBS and common bile duct (CBD) diameter were evaluated using cholangiography. Patients were followed for ≥ 6 mo after therapy, interviewed for cholestasis symptoms, and underwent liver function testing every visit. Patients with complete and incomplete stricture dilations were compared. RESULTS Endoscopic therapy was completed in 8 (80%) patients, whereas 2 (20%) patients could not continue therapy because of severe acute cholangitis and abdominal abscess, respectively. The mean number of stents was 4.1 ± 1.2. In two (20%) patients, BBS did not improve; thus, a biliary stent was inserted. BBS improved in six (60%) patients. CBD diameter improved more significantly in the complete group than in the incomplete group (6.1 ± 1.8 mm vs 13.7 ± 2.2 mm, respectively, P = 0.010). Stricture length was significantly associated with complete stricture dilation (complete group; 20.5 ± 3.0 mm, incomplete group; 29.0 ± 5.1 mm, P = 0.011). Acute cholangitis did not recur during the mean follow-up period of 20.6 ± 7.3 mo. CONCLUSION Sequential endoscopic insertion of multiple stents is effective for refractory BBS caused by chronic calcifying pancreatitis. BBS length calculation can improve patient selection procedure for therapy. PMID:28101303

  1. The rehabilitation care of island- like skin flap prothesis in the refractory wound surface%难愈性创面岛状(肌)皮瓣修复术康复护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐西宁; 刘毅; 高山

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore whether the combined interventions of preoperative period rehabilitation care can promote the primary healing of refractory wound surfaces(enormous bad sore, radioactive ulcers, carcinomatous wound surfaces, diabetic ulcers, etc.) Methods Adapt combined rehabilitation care such as preoperative psychological care, dealing with the wound surfaces standardly, improving general nutritional states, keeping functional positions after operation and sports training. Results In the 34 cases of this group, the wound surfaces of 33 cases had no contracture and deformity, and got primary healing except 1 case of secondary healing after skin retransplantation because of the subcutaneous necrosis. Conclusion The combined interventions of rehabilitation care in the skin flap prothesis of refractory wound surfaces are effective in preventing the dysfunction of joints and muscles after healing.

  2. ℬ𝒞-total stability and almost periodicity for some partial functional differential equations with infinite delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhai Elazzouzi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence of an almost periodic solution for some partial functional differential equation with infinite delay. We assume that the linear part is nondensely defined and satisfies the known Hille-Yosida condition. We prove if the null solution of the homogeneous equation is ℬ𝒞-total stable, then the nonhomogeneous equation has an almost periodic solution.

  3. Office Procedures in Refractory Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamboo, Andrew; Patel, Zara M

    2017-02-01

    Office procedures in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) can be considered before and after medical management, as well as before and after surgical management. This article focuses specifically on refractory CRS, meaning those patients who have failed medical and surgical management already. The options available in the management of refractory CRS depend on the personnel, equipment, and instrumentation available in the office setting; surgeon experience; and patient suitability and tolerability. This article provides readers with possible procedural options that can be done in their clinics with indications, patient selection, potential complications, and postoperative considerations.

  4. Morphological and functional features of the thymus of rats of different age periods in health and at experimental immunostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrysheva I.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data on the structure of the thymus of white rats with experimental immunostimulation in age aspect presented only in a few publications. Objective. Morphofunctional features of the thymus of white male rats of three age periods: pubertal, reproductive and of expressed age-related changes, administered immunomodulator imunofan were studied. Methods. Features of the histological structure of the thymus were studied using an image analyzer based on microscope Olympus CX-41. Areas of subcapsular zone, the cortex and medulla, the total number of cells, lymphocytes and epitelioreticular cells conditional on a standard area (104 μm2 were determined; limphoepitelial index was calculated. Results. The thymus has specific morphological features of the structure in each age group of animals. The thymus of rats of pubertal period has the highest morphometric parameters which somewhat decreased in animals of reproductive period. Animals with expressed age-related changes have signs of age involution of the thymus (replacing of parenchyme of the organ by adipose and connective tissue, a sharp decline in morphometric parameters of morphofunctional zones. Conclusion. Application of imunofan causes unidirectional positive changes of morphometric parameters of the thymus in the rats of all age periods on 7-60 day of observation. In animals of the reproductive period and the period of expressed age-related changes injections of immunomodulator cause a decrease in the intensity of the involutive processes in the thymus.

  5. Treatment of refractory hemodialysis ascites with maintenance peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, T S; Daugirdas, J T; Popli, S; Kheirbek, A O; Humayun, H M; Gandhi, V C; Chapa, S M

    1981-04-01

    In 5 patients who were receiving maintenance hemodialysis, ascites developed that was refractory to treatment by ultrafiltration during hemodialysis. Use of sequential isolated ultrafiltration and hemodialysis therapy either precipitated side effects or else required prolongation of total treatment time which the patients declined to accept. In 4 of the patients, ascites was believed to be primarily responsible for severe, progressive cachexia. Maintenance peritoneal dialysis was instituted in all patients, and abdominal fluid was removed gradually, over a period of 2 to 3 days. Ascites resolved promptly in each case. Three patients noted a dramatic improvement in appetite after relief of abdominal distension. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 4 1/2 years. Our results suggest that maintenance peritoneal dialysis can successfully control hemodialysis ascites.

  6. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Refractory Ceramics Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Stephen; Whitten, Mary C.; Trejo, David; Zidek, Jason; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramics can be defmed as a material consisting of hard brittle properties produced from inorganic and nonmetallic minerals made by firing at high temperatures. These materials are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements and are either totally ionic, or predominately ionic but having some covalent character. This definition allows for a large range of materials, not all applicable to refractory applications. As this report is focused on potential ceramic materials for high temperature, aggressive exposure applications, the ceramics reviewed as part of this report will focus on refractory ceramics specifically designed and used for these applications. Ceramic materials consist of a wide variety of products. Callister (2000) 1 characterized ceramic materials into six classifications: glasses, clay products, refractories, cements, abrasives, and advanced ceramics. Figure 1 shows this classification system. This review will focus mainly on refractory ceramics and cements as in general, the other classifications are neither applicable nor economical for use in large structures such as the flame trench. Although much work has been done in advanced ceramics over the past decade or so, these materials are likely cost prohibitive and would have to be fabricated off-site, transported to the NASA facilities, and installed, which make these even less feasible. Although the authors reviewed the literature on advanced ceramic refractories 2 center dot 3 center dot 4 center dot 5 center dot 6 center dot 7 center dot 8 center dot 9 center dot 10 center dot 11 center dot 12 after the review it was concluded that these materials should not be ' the focus of this report. A review is in progress on materials and systems for prefabricated refractory ceramic panels, but this review is focusing more on typical refractory materials for prefabricated systems, which could make the system more economically feasible. Refractory ceramics are used for a wide variety of applications

  7. Effectiveness of infliximab in refractory FDG PET-positive sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorselaars, Adriane D M; Crommelin, Heleen A; Deneer, Vera H M; Meek, Bob; Claessen, Anke M E; Keijsers, Ruth G M; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Grutters, Jan C

    2015-07-01

    Inconclusive evidence for the efficacy of infliximab in sarcoidosis hinders the global use of this potentially beneficial drug. To study infliximab efficacy in a clinical setting, we performed a prospective open-label trial in patients refractory to conventional treatment. Patients (n=56) received eight infusions of 5 mg·kg(-1) infliximab. Pulmonary function, disease activity measured by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by positron emission tomography (PET) and quality of life were part of the clinical work-up. Infliximab levels were measured before every infusion. After 26 weeks of infliximab treatment, mean improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) was 6.6% predicted (p=0.0007), whereas in the 6 months before start of treatment, lung function decreased. Maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of pulmonary parenchyma on (18)F-FDG PET decreased by 3.93 (pinfliximab trough level (mean 18.0 µg·mL(-1)) and initial response was found. In conclusion, infliximab causes significant improvement in FVC in refractory (18)F-FDG PET positive sarcoidosis. Especially in pulmonary disease, high (18)F-FDG PET SUVmax values at treatment initiation predict clinically relevant lung function improvement. These results suggest that inclusion of (18)F-FDG PET is useful in therapeutic decision-making in complex sarcoidosis.

  8. Refractory disease in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Kallenberg, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Induction treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is not always successful and nonresponding patients are considered refractory. Recent findings Refractory disease should be subdefined to the treatment that was received. Cyclophosphamid

  9. Recent advances in silica-alumina refractory: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouki Sadik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the elaboration and the characterization of silica-alumina refractory have been reviewed. Refractory oxides encompass a broad range of unary, binary, and ternary ceramic compounds that can be used in structural, insulating, and other applications. This paper provides a historical perspective on the elaboration and the use of silica-alumina refractory, reviews applications for refractory oxides, describes typical processing routes, overviews fundamental structure–property relations, and summarizes the properties of these materials.

  10. Tungsten and other refractory metals for VLSI applications II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on tungsten and other refractory metals for VLSI applications. Topics include the following: Selectivity loss and nucleation on insulators, fundamental reaction and growth studies, chemical vapor deposition of tungsten, chemical vapor deposition of molybdenum, reactive ion etching of refractory metal films; and properties of refractory metals deposited by sputtering.

  11. An Overview on China's Refractories-Market and New Demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiehua; ZHOU Ningsheng

    2004-01-01

    Based on the authors' information sources and personal viewpoints, this paper provides updated information on China s refractories situation in terms of output, consumption in main refractory using sectors, exportation and importation of refractory products and raw materials,structural change, future prosperity and new demands .From authors understanding, some analyses have also been given.

  12. Export and Import Situation of Refractories in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China has been the biggest country in production and exporting of refractories. The article describes the problems in the export and import and suggestions on development of refractories. In the future, China will expand its cooperation with world refractories community in science, technology, economy and trade to play a more important role in the international and domestic markets.

  13. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  14. Synthetic Raw Materials for Refractories in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIGan; YUEWeidong

    2001-01-01

    The development and status of synthetic raw materials for refractories in China are reviewed,including magne-site-based materials,alumina ,ullite,calcium alumi-nate cement ,ultrafine powder,spinel,silicon carbide and cordierite.The research work on calcium zirconate and sialon materials are also introduced.

  15. Centromedian thalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation in refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Antonio; Nguyen, Huy Q; Skupenova, Alena M; Agirre-Arrizubieta, Zaloa; Jewell, Sharon; Mullatti, Nandini; Moran, Nicholas F; Richardson, Mark P; Selway, Richard P; Alarcón, Gonzalo

    2012-10-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is associated with high mortality. We report a potential treatment alternative. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian thalamic nuclei (CMN) can be effective in the treatment of RSE. Report of the evolution of RSE after DBS of the CMN in a 27-year-old man. In the course of an encephalopathy of unknown origin, and after a cardiac arrest, the patient developed RSE with myoclonic jerks and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The EEG showed continuous generalized periodic epileptiform discharges (GPEDS). Five weeks after RSE onset, bilateral DBS of the CMN was started. This treatment was immediately followed by disappearance of tonic-clonic seizures and GPEDS, suggesting a resolution of RSE. The patient continued having multifocal myoclonic jerks, probably subcortical in origin, which resolved after 4 weeks. The patient remained clinically stable for 2 months in a persistent vegetative state. The remission of RSE, the abolition of GPEDS, and the patient survival suggest that DBS of the CMN may be efficacious in the treatment of refractory, generalized status epilepticus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clobazam therapy of refractory epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennesson, Melanie; van Eeghen, Agnies M; Caruso, Paul A; Paolini, Jan L; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2013-05-01

    Clobazam (CLB) was recently approved by the FDA, but has not been evaluated in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of patients with TSC and refractory epilepsy who started CLB over a 5-year period. Clinical characteristics and number of tubers on MRI were assessed. Duration of therapy, therapeutic response and adverse events were recorded. CLB was prescribed in 29 adults and children of whom 72% were cognitively impaired, with a median age at seizure onset of 5 months. Mean duration of CLB therapy was 17.3 months with a 12 and 24-month estimated retention rate of 82% and 68%, respectively. Twenty patients (69%) reported a good response (>50% seizure reduction) at the end of the titration, and six patients (21%) remained good responders after 12 months of CLB therapy. Adverse events occurred in 13 patients, predominantly somnolence and behavioral disorders. One quarter of the responders reported improvement in behavior. No predictive factor for a good response could be identified. CLB appears to be a well-tolerated and valuable option for treatment of refractory epilepsy in TSC.

  17. Simple Analytic Formula for the Period of the Nonlinear Pendulum via the Struve Function: Connection to Acoustical Impedance Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvropoulos, Theodosios G.

    2012-01-01

    An approximate formula for the period of pendulum motion beyond the small amplitude regime is obtained based on physical arguments. Two different schemes of different accuracy are developed: in the first less accurate scheme, emphasis is given on the non-quadratic form of the potential in connection to isochronism, and a specific form of a generic…

  18. Surgical Approaches in Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: From Leukotomy to Gamma Knife Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Altintas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a chronic and debilitating disorder that can cause significant distress and interference with daily functioning and impairment in quality of life, social and familial relationship. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral therapy are currently viewed as the first line treatments of choice for OCD. Approximately 30-40% OCD patients fail to respond to these treatments. Anterior capsulotomy, cingulotomy, limbic leucotomy, subcaudate tractotomy are used for the treatment of refractory OCD. The studies suggested that gamma knife capsulotomy caused improvements in 55-70% refractory OCD patients. Many studies suggest that psychosurgery is a beneficial, well tolerated and safe method. This study aimed to report efficacy, adverse effects and long term effects of surgery techniques especially gamma knife and deep brain stimulation in refractory OCD patients . [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(2.000: 239-250

  19. Periodic Hartree-Fock and hybrid density functional calculations on the metallic and the insulating phase of (EDO-TTF)(2)PF6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linker, Gerrit-Jan; Loosdrecht , van Paul H.M.; van Duijnen, Piet Th.; Broer, Ria

    2015-01-01

    The insulating and conducting phases of (EDO-TTF)(2)PF6 were studied by all electron, periodic Hartre-Fock and hybrid density functional calculations. Electronic properties, such as the electronic band structure, the density of states and the Fermi surface are discussed in relation to the metal-insu

  20. Renal function parameters during early and late recovery periods following an all-out 21-km run in trained adolescent runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Tong, Tom K; Lippi, Giuseppe; Huang, Chuanye; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the changes in biomarkers of renal function and the corresponding estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in 10 male adolescent (16.2±0.6 years) trained runners during early and late recovery periods after an all-out 21-km run. Venous blood samples were taken immediately before, and at 2-h, 4-h, and 24-h following the 21-km run. Samples were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), and serum urea (U), creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). U/Cr ratio, eGFR, and plasma volume change (%ΔPV) were calculated based on the associated measured variables. At 2-h and 4-h, there were increases (26%-146%) in U, Cr, U/Cr, CK, and LDH, and decreases (8%-13%) in Hb and Hct, as compared with the corresponding pre-exercise values. The calculated %ΔPV increased by 17% while the eGFR decreased 20% from the corresponding pre-exercise value, respectively. At 24-h, the changes of the blood variables and renal function parameters observed at early recovery period were sustained. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that mild decline in renal function occurred during the early recovery period following the 21-km run. The decline in renal function did not return to normal during the later recovery period.

  1. RETREATMENT WITH FLUDARABINE AND CYCLOSPORINE FOR ONE CASE OF REFRACTORY PURE RED CELL APLASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-sheng He; Xiang Zhang; De-pei Wu; Ai-ning Sun; Miao Miao; Xiu-li Wang; Zheng-ming Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ MANY cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) were mediated by over-function of immune cells, and responded well to immunosuppres-sive therapy.1 Sometimes refractory cases also arose. Fludara-bine is an analogue of adenosine resistant to deamination which is widely used for B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other hematological malignancies.

  2. Chemical mass balance of refractory particles (T=300 °C) at the tropospheric research site Melpitz, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, L.; Birmili, W.; Canonaco, F.; Crippa, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Nordmann, S.; Spindler, G.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2013-10-01

    In the fine particle mode (aerodynamic diameter MAAP), and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). The data were collected during two atmospheric field experiments in May/June 2008 as well as February/March 2009. As a basic result, we detected average refractory particle volume fractions of 11±3% (2008) and 17±8% (2009). In both periods, BC was in close linear correlation with the refractory fraction, but not sufficient to quantitatively explain the refractory particle mass concentration. Based on the assumption that BC is not altered by the heating process, the refractory particle mass fraction could be explained by the sum of black carbon BC (47% in summer, 59% in winter) and a refractory organic contribution estimated as part of the Low-Volatility Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (LV-OOA) (53% in summer, 41% in winter); the latter was identified from AMS data by factor analysis. Our results suggest that organics were more volatile in summer (May-June 2008) than in winter (February/March 2009). Although carbonaceous compounds dominated the sub-μm refractory particle mass fraction most of the time, a cross-sensitivity to partially volatile aerosol particles of maritime origin could be seen. These marine particles could be distinguished, however, from the carbonaceous particles by a characteristic particle volume size distribution. The paper discusses the uncertainty of the volatility measurements and outlines the possible merits of volatility analysis as part of continuous atmospheric aerosol measurements.

  3. Chemical mass balance of refractory particles (T=300 °C at the tropospheric research site Melpitz, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the fine particle mode (aerodynamic diameter <1 μm refractory material has been associated with black carbon (BC and low-volatile organics and, to a lesser extent, with sea salt and mineral dust. This work analyses refractory particles at the tropospheric research station Melpitz (Germany, combining experimental methods such as a mobility particle size spectrometer (3–800 nm, a thermodenuder operating at 300 °C, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP, and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. The data were collected during two atmospheric field experiments in May/June 2008 as well as February/March 2009. As a basic result, we detected average refractory particle volume fractions of 11±3% (2008 and 17±8% (2009. In both periods, BC was in close linear correlation with the refractory fraction, but not sufficient to quantitatively explain the refractory particle mass concentration. Based on the assumption that BC is not altered by the heating process, the refractory particle mass fraction could be explained by the sum of black carbon BC (47% in summer, 59% in winter and a refractory organic contribution estimated as part of the Low-Volatility Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (LV-OOA (53% in summer, 41% in winter; the latter was identified from AMS data by factor analysis. Our results suggest that organics were more volatile in summer (May–June 2008 than in winter (February/March 2009. Although carbonaceous compounds dominated the sub-μm refractory particle mass fraction most of the time, a cross-sensitivity to partially volatile aerosol particles of maritime origin could be seen. These marine particles could be distinguished, however, from the carbonaceous particles by a characteristic particle volume size distribution. The paper discusses the uncertainty of the volatility measurements and outlines the possible merits of volatility analysis as part of continuous atmospheric aerosol measurements.

  4. 2011 China's Refractories Raw Materials Symposium Held in Zhengzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ On April 20-22,2011,China's Refractories Raw Materials Symposium,co-sponsored by Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals and China Henan Refractory Industry Association,was held successfully in Zhengzhou,Henan Province.Over 150 delegates from 100 refractory raw materials and products enterprises,testing equipment manufacturers,raw materials trade companies,institutes,universities,testing institutions,and industrial organizations attended the symposium.Wang Shouye,secretary-general of Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals and vice president of Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Research Co.,Ltd.,made the address of welcome.Zhang Yazhong,vice chairman of Henan Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and honorary chairman of China Henan Refractory Industry Association,gave a speech.

  5. Identification and functional characterization of Kir2.6 mutations associated with non-familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Lin, Shih-Hua; Lo, Yi-Fen; Yang, Sung-Sen; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Cannon, Stephen C; Huang, Chou-Long

    2011-08-05

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP) is characterized by episodic flaccid paralysis of muscle and acute hypokalemia during attacks. Familial forms of hypoKPP are predominantly caused by mutations of either voltage-gated Ca(2+) or Na(+) channels. The pathogenic gene mutation in non-familial hypoKPP, consisting mainly of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) and sporadic periodic paralysis (SPP), is largely unknown. Recently, mutations in KCNJ18, which encodes a skeletal muscle-specific inwardly rectifying K(+) channel Kir2.6, were reported in some TPP patients. Whether mutations of Kir2.6 occur in other patients with non-familial hypoKPP and how mutations of the channel predispose patients to paralysis are unknown. Here, we report one conserved heterozygous mutation in KCNJ18 in two TPP patients and two separate heterozygous mutations in two SPP patients. These mutations result in V168M, R43C, and A200P amino acid substitution of Kir2.6, respectively. Compared with the wild type channel, whole-cell currents of R43C and V168M mutants were reduced by ∼78 and 43%, respectively. No current was detected for the A200P mutant. Single channel conductance and open probability were reduced for R43C and V168M, respectively. Biotinylation assays showed reduced cell surface abundance for R43C and A200P. All three mutants exerted dominant negative inhibition on wild type Kir2.6 as well as wild type Kir2.1, another Kir channel expressed in the skeletal muscle. Thus, mutations of Kir2.6 are associated with SPP as well as TPP. We suggest that decreased outward K(+) current from hypofunction of Kir2.6 predisposes the sarcolemma to hypokalemia-induced paradoxical depolarization during attacks, which in turn leads to Na(+) channel inactivation and inexcitability of muscles.

  6. Characteristics of the functional parameters of children of different somatotype during the period between 8 and 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sljusarchuk Viktor Vasil'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studied the expression and change in functional parameters of the same girls and boys of different somatotypes between 8 and 10 years. In ascertaining experiment was attended by 80 girls and boys who at baseline was 8 years old. Found that girls and boys the same age but different somatotypes. They are similar trends: a high level of features to ensure aerobic metabolic reactions, higher aerobic and anaerobic capacity lower, below the required functionality to most of the studied systems. The features associated primarily with the age in which the possibility of a deteriorating system. The above must be considered when choosing the optimal parameters of physical activity and develop programs to improve the functionality of primary school children during physical education.

  7. Period Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Period Cramps KidsHealth > For Kids > Period Cramps Print A ... re a girl who gets them. What Are Period Cramps? Lots of girls experience cramps before or ...

  8. Analytic form for a nonlocal kinetic energy functional with a density-dependent kernel for orbital-free density functional theory under periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gregory S.; Lignères, Vincent L.; Carter, Emily A.

    2008-07-01

    We derive an analytic form of the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC) [Wang , Phys. Rev. B 60, 16350 (1999)] kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) with the density-dependent response kernel. A real-space aperiodic implementation of the WGC KEDF is then described and used in linear scaling orbital-free density functional theory (OF-DFT) calculations.

  9. Successful treatment of refractory Trichomonas vaginalis infection using intravenous metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Isobel; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher; Carmichael, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted protozoan infection resulting in a vulvo-vaginitis and altered vaginal discharge in symptomatic women. Since its introduction in the 1960 s, metronidazole has been the first-line drug for trichomonal infection. Other nitroimidazoles, such as tinidazole, are used as alternative regimens with similar activity but at a greater expense. Treatment failure usually represents patient non-compliance or reinfection, although metronidazole resistance has previously been documented. Sensitivity testing is currently not available in the UK. Patients with disease unresponsive to first-line treatments pose a major challenge, as therapeutic options are limited. This case looks at a patient with refractory disease over an 18-month period, where intravenous infusion of metronidazole resulted in cure after multiple previous therapy failures. There is limited evidence to endorse the use of intravenous metronidazole, and this case report provides further support for its efficacy.

  10. Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and RARS with thrombocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Mrinal M; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2015-06-01

    Ring sideroblasts (RS) are erythroid precursors with abnormal perinuclear mitochondrial iron accumulation. Two myeloid neoplasms defined by the presence of RS, include refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) and RARS with thrombocytosis (RARS-T). RARS is a lower risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with dysplasia limited to the erythroid lineage, thrombocytosis. Both RARS and RARS-T have a low risk of leukemic transformation. Anemia and iron overload are complications in both diseases and are managed similar to lower risk MDS. Aspirin therapy is reasonable in RARS-T, especially in the presence of JAK2V617F, but the value of platelet-lowering drugs is uncertain. Case reports of RARS-T therapy with lenalidomide warrant additional studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A multiyear workplace-monitoring program for refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L D; Kelly, W P; Walters, T; Waugh, R

    1994-12-01

    This paper summarizes interim results of a 5-year workplace monitoring program conducted by firms belonging to the Refractory Ceramic Fibers Coalition (RCFC) pursuant to a Consent Agreement with the U.S. EPA. The exposure monitoring program is part of a model Product Stewardship Program (PSP) developed by RCFC. This paper reviews the refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) industry, findings of animal bioassay and epidemiological investigations, and the regulatory approach used by EPA. The scope, protocols, sample collection budgets, and experimental design of the monitoring program are summarized. In brief, the program will gather 720 time-weighted average (TWA) workplace concentration measurements annually, partitioned among 8 functional job classifications, both from plants that manufacture and from those that process or use RCF. Statistical analyses reveal that: workplace airborne RCF concentration data are approximately log-normally distributed, 93% of workplace TWAs are beneath the industry's recommended exposure guideline of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc), there are significant differences in average workplace RCF concentrations among job types, and PSP activities are effective in lowering workplace exposure. Results of this effort provide an interesting illustration of a successful cooperative effort between a responsible industry and regulatory agencies.

  12. A plasmapheresis protocol for refractory pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Bryan; Albores, Jeffrey; Wang, Tisha; Neville, Thanh H

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease characterized by the accumulation of proteinaceous material within the lungs. While typically managed with whole lung lavage (WLL), more recent PAP therapies aimed at reducing granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor autoantibodies (anti-GM-CSF) have reduced symptoms and improved lung function. We present a patient with PAP refractory to WLL, exogenous GM-CSF and rituximab who underwent a novel plasmapheresis protocol as a therapeutic trial. While previously reported regimens have utilized plasmapheresis sessions distributed over months, our patient underwent five consecutive days of plasmapheresis, followed by rituximab. Anti-GM-CSF levels decreased from 24.8 to 2.7 mcg/mL post-plasmapheresis. This reduction of autoantibody correlated with reduction in WLL frequency, increase in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and subjective improvement in dyspnea. Our case suggests that five consecutive days of plasmapharesis results in increased clearance of anti-GM-CSF and may be potentially efficacious in cases of refractory PAP.

  13. A prospective study of mastectomy patients with and without delayed breast reconstruction: long-term psychosocial functioning in the breast cancer survivorship period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kelly A; Zhong, Toni; Narod, Steven A; Quan, May-Lynn; Holloway, Claire; Hofer, Stefan; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Semple, John

    2015-03-01

    For women who have mastectomy, breast reconstruction is an option which may improve psychosocial functioning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in psychosocial functioning over a long follow-up period after mastectomy, specifically examining the differences between those with mastectomy alone and those who underwent postmastectomy delayed breast reconstruction (DBR). This was a prospective longitudinal survey study of women with mastectomy in which a repeated measures design was used to compare psychosocial function scores over 3 timepoints: 1) pre-mastectomy; 2) one year post-mastectomy; and 3) long-term post-mastectomy (mean 6.3 years). In addition, psychosocial functioning was compared between the mastectomy alone group and the group who elected for DBR. 67 women who completed questionnaires at all three time points were included. The long-term follow-up time post-mastectomy was 75.2 months (6.3 years). Twenty-eight women (41.8%) underwent DBR in the study period. For the entire cohort, between one-year and long-term post-mastectomy, there were significant improvements in scores for body concerns (P = 0.03), cancer-related distress (P = 0.01), and total distress (P = 0.04). At long-term follow-up, women with DBR had significantly higher levels of total distress (P = 0.01), obsessiveness (P = 0.03), and cancer-related distress (P = 0.02) compared to those with mastectomy alone. There were no differences in quality of life between the two groups at any time point. Psychosocial functioning improves over time in patients treated with mastectomy in the long-term breast cancer survivorship period, which may be related to the effect of time post-treatment, rather than an effect of choice for or against DBR. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Heart beats rate indicators and structure of elite football referees’ and their assistants’ motor functioning in competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopilko T. G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze structure of motor functioning and heart beats rate indicators in elite football referees’ and their assistants’ competition activity. Material: in the research 15 referees and referees’ assistants of Ukrainian Prime League, 30 referees and referees’ assistants of first and second professional leagues of Ukraine participated. Observations over referees’ movements in 21 professional matches of Ukrainian professional leagues were fulfilled. Distance, passed by a referee in one match was determined. Results: It was found that during one match referee (depending on his functions - referee or referee’s assistant passes distance from 6000 to 12 000 meters. This scope of motor functioning depends also on motor activity of players and qualification level of teams-participants in the match. Motor actions of referees’ assistants change every 5 seconds during a match. During one match referee’s assistants fulfill about 20 sprints and 74 accelerations. A high temp of match total distance makes 1.2 km. Conclusions: Referees’ and referee assistants’ motor functioning and heart beats rate indicators can vary from aerobic-restoration to anaerobic-glycolytic zone. This fact shall be considered when planning program on special physical training. It should be noted that with heart beats rate of more than 180 bpm concentration of attention significantly weakens as well as ability to take prompt and correct decisions. In such cases probability of mistakes significantly increases.

  15. [Remodelling of right heart chambers in patients with occupational respiratory diseases in post-contact period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of occupational respiratory diseases and functional cardiorespiratory state in workers were studied in thorough examination of 329 workers including main occupations of refractory metals alloys production, who are exposed to polymetallic highly dispersed aerosols in concentrations exceeding the MACs. The data obtained prove changes in intracardial hemodynamics, lower myocardial contractility and lung hypertension even at early stages of the process, progressing in the advanced disease and in post-contact period. Heart remodelling underlies frequent cardiac arrhythmias in occupational respiratory diseases. With that, intensity of the changes reliably increases with higher degree of bronchial obstruction in the patients and could serve as a marker of respiratory failure severity.

  16. Midazolam and pentobarbital for refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, G L; Riviello, J J

    1999-04-01

    Status epilepticus, a serious, life-threatening emergency characterized by prolonged seizure activity, occurs most commonly in pediatric patients. Although initial therapies with agents such as diazepam, phenytoin, or phenobarbital generally terminate seizure activity within 30-60 minutes, patients with refractory status epilepticus (RSE) lasting longer require additional intervention. High-dose pentobarbital has been the most commonly prescribed agent for the management of RSE in children; however, midazolam has emerged as a new treatment option. This review compares the use of midazolam with pentobarbital in published reports of pediatric RSE. Both drugs effectively terminated refractory seizure activity, although pentobarbital use was complicated by hypotension, delayed recovery, pneumonia, and other adverse effects. Midazolam use was effective and well tolerated, affirming its value in pediatric RSE management.

  17. EXTRASOLAR REFRACTORY-DOMINATED PLANETESIMALS: AN ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jura, M.; Xu, S., E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Previously published observations of 60 externally polluted white dwarfs show that none of the stars have accreted from intact refractory-dominated parent bodies composed mainly of Al, Ca, and O, although planetesimals with such a distinctive composition have been predicted to form. We propose that such remarkable objects are not detected by themselves because, unless they are scattered outward from their initial orbit, they are engulfed and destroyed during the star's asymptotic giant branch evolution. As yet, there is at most only weak evidence supporting a scenario where the composition of any extrasolar minor planet can be explained by blending of an outwardly scattered refractory-dominated planetesimal with an ambient asteroid.

  18. [Liposteroid therapy for refractory epileptic spasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Kuriko Kagitani; Imai, Katsumi; Idoguchi, Rie; Kamio, Noriko; Okinaga, Takeshi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2003-11-01

    Liposteroid was administered intravenously to 6 patients with refractory epileptic spasms. In one case, the spasms initially disappeared but then reappeared after three months. Another case had a transient and slight decrease of epileptic spasms. In the only patient in whom spasms disappeared, EEG abnormalities were greatly improved with diffuse spikes and waves changing into focal spikes. Two cases displayed hyperexcitability, insomnia and acting out behavior, and the therapy was discontinued in one of them. One case had appetite loss and another showed an increase in tonic seizures. No patient had serious adverse effects such as infection, edema, subdural hematoma and brain shrinkage. Although liposteroid therapy has been recommended as an easy, useful and safe alternative for ACTH, we found considerable adverse effects and only a small effect on refractory spasms, and conclude that the regimen should be modified.

  19. Arrhythmogenic channelopathy syndromes presenting as refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazle, Matthew A; Shellhaas, Renée A; Bradley, David J; Dick, Macdonald; Lapage, Martin J

    2013-08-01

    Children and young adults with potentially lethal cardiac channelopathies often present to medical care with a history of syncope or seizures due to episodic ventricular arrhythmias and associated cerebral hypoperfusion. Two important types of genetic arrhythmia syndromes-long QT syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia-are discussed using relevant case examples. The pathophysiology and distinguishing clinical features of these conditions are reviewed. The patients in each case were ultimately diagnosed with a cardiac channelopathy as the cause for their syncope and refractory seizures. With appropriate medical management, no further events have occurred to date. Cardiac channelopathies can be misdiagnosed as refractory epilepsy when in fact these events represent convulsive syncopes. Knowledge of and suspicion for these arrhythmogenic conditions may expedite diagnosis and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and optical properties of titanium functionalized periodic mesostructured organosilica framework via evaporation-induced self-assembly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, M; He, Chaobin

    2013-04-01

    We describe an evaporation-induced self-assembly method for incorporating Ti into framework of ethane-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), solid-state 29Si and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to elucidate the optical and structural properties of Ti-incorporated PMO materials. The degree of mesopore ordering and the structural properties were found to be dependent on the loading of Ti into the framework of PMO materials, as confirmed by XRD, and surface structural properties. UV-vis spectra also support the incorporation of Ti into framework of PMO. TEM analyses suggested the formation of mesopores for the pure PMO and Ti-incorporated PMO samples. The solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectra have confirmed the presence of organic fragment in the final PMO framework.

  1. Prediction of the interaction between a simple moving vehicle and an infinite periodically supported rail - Green's functions approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilu, Traian

    2010-09-01

    This paper herein describes the interaction between a simple moving vehicle and an infinite periodically supported rail, in order to signalise the basic features of the vehicle/track vibration behaviour in general, and wheel/rail vibration, in particular. The rail is modelled as an infinite Timoshenko beam resting on semi-sleepers via three-directional rail pads and ballast. The time-domain analysis was performed applying Green's matrix of the track method. This method allows taking into account the nonlinearities of the wheel/rail contact and the Doppler effect. The numerical analysis is dedicated to the wheel/rail response due to two types of excitation: the steady-state interaction and rail irregularities. The study points out to certain aspects regarding the parametric resonance, the amplitude-modulated vibration due to corrugation and the Doppler effect.

  2. High-frequency limit of non-autonomous gradient flows of functionals with time-periodic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazotta, Simon; Zinsl, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    We study the high-frequency limit of non-autonomous gradient flows in metric spaces of energy functionals comprising an explicitly time-dependent perturbation term which might oscillate in a rapid way. On grounds of the existence results by Ferreira and Guevara (2015) on non-autonomous gradient flows (which we also extend to a broader range of energy functionals), we prove that the associated solution curves converge to a solution of the time-averaged evolution equation in the limit of infinite frequency. Under additional assumptions on the energy, we obtain an explicit rate of convergence. Furthermore, we specifically investigate nonlinear drift-diffusion equations with time-dependent drift which formally are gradient flows with respect to the L2-Wasserstein distance. We prove that a family of weak solutions obtained as a limit of the Minimizing Movements scheme exhibits the above-mentioned behavior in the high-frequency limit.

  3. Molecular sidebands of refractory elements for ISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, A. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge (United States)], E-mail: kronenberga@ornl.gov; Spejewski, E.H.; Carter, H.K.; Mervin, B.; Jost, C. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge (United States); Stracener, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831 (United States); Lapi, S. [TRIUMF (Canada); Bray, T. [Auburn University (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The formation of molecular sidebands of refractory elements, such as V, Re, Zr, Mo, Tc, is discussed. The focus is on in situ sideband formation and its advantage for the release process. An atomic {sup 48}V beam has been produced in a two step process, forming the oxide in situ, transporting it through the target-ion source as a chloride and destroying the chlorine sideband in the ion source. The sideband formation of Re, Zr, Mo, Tc is discussed.

  4. Molecular Sidebands of Refractory Elements for ISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, Andreas [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Spejewski, Eugene H. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Carter, H Kennon [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Mervin, Brenden T. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Jost, Cara [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Lapi, Suzanne [TRIUMF, Canada; Bray, T. H. [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

    2008-01-01

    The formation of molecular sidebands of refractory elements, such as V, Re, Zr, Mo, Tc, is discussed. The focus is on in situ sideband formation and its advantage for the release process. An atomic 48V beam has been produced in a two step process, forming the oxide in situ, transporting it through the target-ion source as a chloride and destroying the chlorine sideband in the ion source. The sideband formation of Re, Zr, Mo, Tc is discussed.

  5. Review of the United States Refractories Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles E.Semler

    2003-01-01

    Factors affecting the U. S. Refractories industry,such us decreasing demand, mergers, and decreased education are discussed, along with manufacturing statistics (I. E., annual value and product trends ), indicating that the U. S. Market has declined for five straight years.Research activities have changed, with more emphasis on practical, applied projects, which have continued to produce important advances. Many challenges and opportunities remain, based on the current and future business requirements.

  6. Slave-boson mean-field theory versus variational-wave-function approach for the periodic Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Fong; Sun, Shih-Jye; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    1993-12-01

    We show that a special kind of slave-boson mean-field approximation, which allows for the symmetry-broken states appropriate for a bipartite lattice, can give essentially the same results as those by the variational-wave-function approach proposed by Gula´csi, Strack, and Vollhardt [Phys. Rev. B 47, 8594 (1993)]. The advantages of our approach are briefly discussed.

  7. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  8. Posaconazole treatment of refractory eumycetoma and chromoblastomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Ricardo; Tobón, Angela; Bustamante, Beatriz; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Patino, Hernando; Restrepo, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Eumycetoma and chromoblastomycosis are chronic, disfiguring fungal infections of the subcutaneous tissue that rarely resolve spontaneously. Most patients do not achieve sustained long-term benefits from available treatments; therefore, new therapeutic options are needed. We evaluated the efficacy of posaconazole, a new extended-spectrum triazole antifungal agent, in 12 patients with eumycetoma or chromoblastomycosis refractory to existing antifungal therapies. Posaconazole 800 mg/d was given in divided doses for a maximum of 34 months. Complete or partial clinical response was considered a success; stable disease or failure was considered a nonsuccess. All 12 patients had proven infections refractory to standard therapy. Clinical success was reported for five of six patients with eumycetoma and five of six patients with chromoblastomycosis. Two patients were reported to have stable disease. As part of a treatment-use extension protocol, two patients with eumycetoma who initially had successful outcome were successfully retreated with posaconazole after a treatment hiatus of > 10 months. Posaconazole was well tolerated during long-term administration (up to 1015 d). Posaconazole therapy resulted in successful outcome in most patients with eumycetoma or chromoblastomycosis refractory to standard therapies, suggesting that posaconazole may be an important treatment option for these diseases.

  9. Angiotensin II in Refractory Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Elio; Gleeson, Patrick J; Annoni, Filippo; Agosta, Sara; Orlando, Sergio; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Velissaris, Dimitrios; Scolletta, Sabino

    2017-05-01

    Refractory septic shock is defined as persistently low mean arterial blood pressure despite volume resuscitation and titrated vasopressors/inotropes in patients with a proven or suspected infection and concomitant organ dysfunction. Its management typically requires high doses of catecholamines, which can induce significant adverse effects such as ischemia and arrhythmias. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, is a vasopressor agent that could be used in conjunction with other vasopressors to stabilize critically ill patients during refractory septic shock, and reduce catecholamine requirements. However, very few clinical data are available to support Ang II administration in this setting. Here, we review the current literature on this topic to better understand the role of Ang II administration during refractory septic shock, differentiating experimental from clinical studies. We also consider the potential role of exogenous Ang II administration in specific organ dysfunction and possible pitfalls with Ang II in sepsis. Various issues remain unresolved and future studies should investigate important topics such as: the optimal dose and timing of Ang II administration, a comparison between Ang II and the other vasopressors (epinephrine; vasopressin), and Ang II effects on microcirculation.

  10. Refractory status epilepticus: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Jan; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2010-02-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) that is resistant to two antiepileptic compounds is defined as refractory status epilepticus (RSE). In the few available retrospective studies, estimated RSE frequency is between 31% and 43% of patients presenting an SE episode; almost all seem to require a coma induction for treatment. We prospectively assessed RSE frequency, clinical predictors, and outcome in a tertiary clinical setting. Over 2 years we collected 128 consecutive SE episodes (118 patients) in adults. Clinical data and their relationship to outcome (mortality and return to baseline clinical conditions) were analyzed. Twenty-nine of 128 SE episodes (22.6%) were refractory to first- and second-line antiepileptic treatments. Severity of consciousness impairment and de novo episodes were independent predictors of RSE. RSE showed a worse outcome than non-RSE (39% vs. 11% for mortality; 21% vs. 63% for return to baseline clinical conditions). Only 12 patients with RSE (41%) required coma induction for treatment. This prospective study identifies clinical factors predicting the onset of SE refractoriness. RSE appears to be less frequent than previously reported in retrospective studies; furthermore, most RSE episodes were treated outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Nonetheless, we confirm that RSE is characterized by high mortality and morbidity.

  11. [Renal replacement therapy for refractory heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, V; Remppis, A B

    2012-07-01

    After broad cardiological and nephrological evaluation and consideration of optimal conservative options according to national and international guidelines, renal replacement therapy might be helpful in patients with refractory heart failure even if they are not dialysis-dependent. This is even more important as renal failure is a strong predictor for mortality in patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and CHF is one of the fastest growing morbidities in western countries. Although peritoneal dialysis (PD) is frequently used in patients with CHF its role remains unclear. Acute chronic volume overload in refractory CHF is still an unresolved clinical problem. In patients with acute heart and renal failure with need of management in an intensive care unit, extracorporeal ultrafiltration or a dialysis modality should be preferred. In patients with chronic refractory CHF, volume overload and renal failure, peritoneal dialysis should be the therapy of choice. Due to the limited data available, treatment and outcome parameters should be recorded in the registry of the German Society of Nephrology (http://www.herz-niere.de).

  12. Tacrolimus Ointment for Refractory Posterior Blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakassegawa-Naves, Fernando Eiji; Ricci, Helena Maria Moraes; Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Miyamoto, Daniela Akemi; Chiacchio, Brenda Biagio; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Santo, Ruth Muyuki; Hida, Richard Yudi

    2017-09-18

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind interventional case series was designed to evaluate the short-term efficacy of 0.03% tacrolimus ointment as a new therapeutic approach for refractory cases of posterior blepharitis. Forty eyes (20 patients) with posterior blepharitis refractory to previous treatment were randomized. Eighteen eyes (9 patients) were treated with 0.03% tacrolimus ointment and 20 eyes (10 patients) with placebo ointment twice daily. Patients were evaluated with a questionnaire and slit-lamp examination 14 days and 28 days after treatment, and symptoms and signs of blepharitis were compared to those observed at baseline. We could observe statistical difference in the outcome measurements of meibomian gland secretion, conjunctival hyperemia, telangiectasia of inferior lid, Rose Bengal, and fluorescein scoring for the study group. As for the symptoms score, we observed statistical difference in the symptoms scoring for pruritus and dry eye sensation in the tacrolimus group. This study suggests that topical administration of 0.03% tacrolimus ointment can improve some symptoms and some ocular surface status in patients with refractory posterior blepharitis.

  13. Non-Markovian spiking statistics of a neuron with delayed feedback in presence of refractoriness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, Kseniia; Vidybida, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Spiking statistics of a self-inhibitory neuron is considered. The neuron receives excitatory input from a Poisson stream and inhibitory impulses through a feedback line with a delay. After triggering, the neuron is in the refractory state for a positive period of time. Recently, [35,6], it was proven for a neuron with delayed feedback and without the refractory state, that the output stream of interspike intervals (ISI) cannot be represented as a Markov process. The refractory state presence, in a sense limits the memory range in the spiking process, which might restore Markov property to the ISI stream. Here we check such a possibility. For this purpose, we calculate the conditional probability density P (tn+1 l tn,...,t1,t0), and prove exactly that it does not reduce to P (tn+1 l tn,...,t1) for any n ⋝0. That means, that activity of the system with refractory state as well cannot be represented as a Markov process of any order. We conclude that it is namely the delayed feedback presence which results in non-Markovian statistics of neuronal firing. As delayed feedback lines are common for any realistic neural network, the non-Markovian statistics of the network activity should be taken into account in processing of experimental data.

  14. Quinidine elicits proarrhythmic changes in ventricular repolarization and refractoriness in guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2013-04-01

    Quinidine is a class Ia Na(+) channel blocker that prolongs cardiac repolarization owing to the inhibition of I(Kr), the rapid component of the delayed rectifier current. Although quinidine may induce proarrhythmia, the contributing mechanisms remain incompletely understood. This study examined whether quinidine may set proarrhythmic substrate by inducing spatiotemporal abnormalities in repolarization and refractoriness. The monophasic action potential duration (APD), effective refractory periods (ERPs), and volume-conducted electrocardiograms (ECGs) were assessed in perfused guinea-pig hearts. Quinidine was found to produce the reverse rate-dependent prolongation of ventricular repolarization, which contributed to increased steepness of APD restitution. Throughout the epicardium, quinidine elicited a greater APD increase in the left ventricular chamber compared with the right ventricle, thereby enhancing spatial repolarization heterogeneities. Quinidine prolonged APD to a greater extent than ERP, thus extending the vulnerable window for ventricular re-excitation. This change was attributed to increased triangulation of epicardial action potential because of greater APD lengthening at 90% repolarization than at 30% repolarization. Over the transmural plane, quinidine evoked a greater ERP prolongation at endocardium than epicardium and increased dispersion of refractoriness. Premature ectopic beats and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia were observed in 50% of quinidine-treated heart preparations. In summary, abnormal changes in repolarization and refractoriness contribute greatly to proarrhythmic substrate upon quinidine infusion.

  15. [Outpatient reinduction therapy with gemcitabine, dexamethasone, Cisplatin (GDP) for patients with relapsed and refractory lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aota, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masaru; Watanabe, Naoki; Tomomatu, Jyunichi; Gotoh, Akihiko; Komatu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    For younger patients with relapsed or refractory lymphomas who respond to salvage therapy, autologous stem cell trans- plantation(ASCT)is the standard of care. Recently, it was demonstrated that the gemcitabine/dexamethasone/cisplatin (GDP) regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) prior to ASCT was not inferior to the standard dexamethasone/cytarabine/cisplatin (DHAP) regimen for patients with relapsed and refractory aggressive lymphoma. In Japan, most patients who receive CDDP-containing regimens are hospitalized because of the substantial transfusions required for preventing renal dysfunction. We initiated GDP therapy combined with a short period of hydration and the administration of a magnesium agent and mannitol for 5 patients with relapsed and refractory aggressive lymphoma. In 4 cases, GDP was safely administered on an outpatient basis. Furthermore, peripheral blood stem cells were successfully collected in 2 patients. After stem cell harvest, ASCT was performed in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with the patient remaining in complete remission (CR) after ASCT.

  16. Effect of thymopetidum in refractory mycoplasma pneumonia and influence on immune function%胸腺五肽治疗难治性肺炎支原体肺炎临床疗效及对免疫状态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 赵涛; 郭建光; 孙文娟; 毕长柏

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To observe thymopentin in adjuvant therapy for refractory mycoplasma pneumonia and influence on the immune function in children,with a view to find a safe and effective clinical treatment.Methods The study involved 1 10 cases of children with refractory mycoplasma pneumonia who were randomly divided into observation group and control group ,55 cases in each group.Control group received sequential treatment of macrolide antibiotics,while observation group was given thymopetidum on the basis of conventional treatment.The improvement of clinical symptoms was observed,the T cell subsets and immunoglobulin levels and adverse reactions were detected. Results Compared with control group,treatment group showed significantly decrease in cough time,breathing spell time,body temperature returned to normal,pulmonary rales time and chest X-ray shadow time(P 0.05).The two groups of children did not showed significant adverse reactions.Conclusion Thymopentin in adjuvant treatment of refractory mycoplasma pneumonia of children can significantly enhance immune function, improve clinical outcomes,which is worthy of clinical popularization.%目的:观察胸腺五肽辅助治疗难治性肺炎支原体肺炎的临床疗效及对机体免疫功能的影响,以期为临床寻找一种安全有效的治疗方案。方法选取110例难治性肺炎支原体肺炎患儿为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组各55例,对照组给予大环内酯类抗生素序贯治疗,观察组在此基础上给予胸腺五肽治疗,观察患儿临床症状改善情况,检测 T 细胞亚群和免疫球蛋白水平及不良反应。结果与对照组比较,治疗组患儿在咳嗽消失时间、喘息消失时间、体温恢复正常时间、肺部啰音消失时间和胸部 X 线阴影消失时间明显降低(均 P 0.05),两组患儿均未发生明显的不良反应。结论胸腺五肽辅助治疗难治性肺炎支原体肺炎可显著增强患儿免疫功能,提高临床

  17. Biomarkers for Refractory Lupus Nephritis: A Microarray Study of Kidney Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjachat, Thitima; Tongyoo, Pumipat; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen; Somparn, Poorichaya; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Prom-On, Santitham; Pisitkun, Prapaporn; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Townamchai, Natavudh

    2015-06-23

    The prognosis of severe lupus nephritis (LN) is very different among individual patients. None of the current biomarkers can be used to predict the development of refractory LN. Because kidney histology is the gold standard for diagnosing LN, the authors hypothesize that molecular signatures detected in kidney biopsy tissue may have predictive value in determining the therapeutic response. Sixty-seven patients with biopsy-proven severely active LN by International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classification III/IV were recruited. Twenty-three kidney tissue samples were used for RNA microarray analysis, while the remaining 44 samples were used for validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene expression analysis. From hundreds of differential gene expressions in refractory LN, 12 candidates were selected for validation based on gene expression levels as well as relevant functions. The candidate biomarkers were members of the innate immune response molecules, adhesion molecules, calcium-binding receptors, and paracellular tight junction proteins. S100A8, ANXA13, CLDN19 and FAM46B were identified as the best kidney biomarkers for refractory LN, and COL8A1 was identified as the best marker for early loss of kidney function. These new molecular markers can be used to predict refractory LN and may eventually lead to novel molecular targets for therapy.

  18. Biomarkers for Refractory Lupus Nephritis: A Microarray Study of Kidney Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitima Benjachat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of severe lupus nephritis (LN is very different among individual patients. None of the current biomarkers can be used to predict the development of refractory LN. Because kidney histology is the gold standard for diagnosing LN, the authors hypothesize that molecular signatures detected in kidney biopsy tissue may have predictive value in determining the therapeutic response. Sixty-seven patients with biopsy-proven severely active LN by International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS classification III/IV were recruited. Twenty-three kidney tissue samples were used for RNA microarray analysis, while the remaining 44 samples were used for validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR gene expression analysis. From hundreds of differential gene expressions in refractory LN, 12 candidates were selected for validation based on gene expression levels as well as relevant functions. The candidate biomarkers were members of the innate immune response molecules, adhesion molecules, calcium-binding receptors, and paracellular tight junction proteins. S100A8, ANXA13, CLDN19 and FAM46B were identified as the best kidney biomarkers for refractory LN, and COL8A1 was identified as the best marker for early loss of kidney function. These new molecular markers can be used to predict refractory LN and may eventually lead to novel molecular targets for therapy.

  19. Indium gallium nitride-based ultraviolet, blue, and green light-emitting diodes functionalized with shallow periodic hole patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun; Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Lerondel, Gilles; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2017-04-04

    In this study, we investigated the improvement in the light output power of indium gallium nitride (InGaN)-based ultraviolet (UV), blue, and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by fabricating shallow periodic hole patterns (PHPs) on the LED surface through laser interference lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. Noticeably, different enhancements were observed in the light output powers of the UV, blue, and green LEDs with negligible changes in the electrical properties in the light output power versus current and current versus voltage curves. In addition, confocal scanning electroluminescence microscopy is employed to verify the correlation between the enhancement in the light output power of the LEDs with PHPs and carrier localization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Light propagation through the PHPs on the UV, blue, and green LEDs is simulated using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to confirm the experimental results. Finally, we suggest optimal conditions of PHPs for improving the light output power of InGaN LEDs based on the experimental and theoretical results.

  20. Indium gallium nitride-based ultraviolet, blue, and green light-emitting diodes functionalized with shallow periodic hole patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun; Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Lerondel, Gilles; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the improvement in the light output power of indium gallium nitride (InGaN)-based ultraviolet (UV), blue, and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by fabricating shallow periodic hole patterns (PHPs) on the LED surface through laser interference lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. Noticeably, different enhancements were observed in the light output powers of the UV, blue, and green LEDs with negligible changes in the electrical properties in the light output power versus current and current versus voltage curves. In addition, confocal scanning electroluminescence microscopy is employed to verify the correlation between the enhancement in the light output power of the LEDs with PHPs and carrier localization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Light propagation through the PHPs on the UV, blue, and green LEDs is simulated using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to confirm the experimental results. Finally, we suggest optimal conditions of PHPs for improving the light output power of InGaN LEDs based on the experimental and theoretical results.

  1. Single and multiple scattering XAFS Debye-Waller factors for crystalline materials using periodic Density Functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimakis, N; Mion, T [Department of Physics and Geology, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78539 (United States); Bunker, G, E-mail: dimakis@utpa.ed [Department of Biological Chemical and Physical Sciences, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    We present an accurate and efficient technique for calculating thermal X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) Debye-Waller factors (DWFs) applicable to crystalline materials. Using Density Functional Theory on a 3x3x3 supercell pattern of MnO structure, under the nonlocal hybrid B3LYP functional paired with Gaussian local basis sets, we obtain the normal mode eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors; these parameters are in turn used to calculate single and multiple scattering XAFS DWFs. The DWFs obtained via this technique are temperature dependent expressions and can be used to substantially reduce the number of fitting parameters, when experimental spectra are fitted with a hypothetical structure. The size of the supercell size limits the R-space range that these parameters could be used. Therefore corresponding DWFs for paths outside of this range are calculated using the correlated Debye model. Our method is compared with prior cluster calculations and with corresponding values obtained from fitting experimental XAFS spectra on manganosite with simulated spectra.

  2. Analysis of frequency and duration of the functional periods on the basis of long-term variability of limnetic processes within the Bug River valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain lakes (FPLs) constitute a very important element of river valleys, both in terms of ecology and hydrology. Dynamic physicochemical, morphometric and biological changes of lake waters are determined by the variability of the functional periods of lakes: limnophases, potamophases and inundations. This paper presents factors that shape long-term dynamics of the frequencies and durations of potamophases and limnophases in 20 selected FPLs. The study area included the left fraction of the Bug River valley located at the European Union's eastern border stretched along countries like Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus. The analysis covered the water years 1952 to 2013. Assigning the value of Limnological Effective Rise (LER) was essential for determining the functional periods for each of the study lakes. The dynamics of the phenomenon was analysed using volatility indicators, while factors determining functional periods were distinguished using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results showed that short (0-8 days) and medium-length limnophases were observed most frequently during the study period. In the case of potamophases they most often lasted from 8 to 30 days, continuously. Double-mass curves showed four periods of increasing significance of one of the functional phases: 1952-1962 (limnophases), 1963-1982 (potamophases), 1983-1997 (limnophases) and 1998-2013 (potamophases). A variability that was observed in each floodplain lake under study resulted from two main factors: water input and lake basin morphometry. The major role in FPLs' input was played by potamic supply (inflow of water from the parent river), which was a derivative of Bug River water stages and discharge. Atmospheric precipitation played a smaller role. However, the role of local precipitation was marginal in relation to precipitation in the upper part of the Bug River catchment. Spatial variability of the frequencies and durations of potamophases and limnophases was also associated with the

  3. Dendroclimatic transfer functions revisited: Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period summer temperatures reconstructed using artificial neural networks and linear algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helama, S.; Holopainen, J.; Eronen, M. [Department of Geology, University of Helsinki, (Finland); Makarenko, N.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory; Karimova, L.M.; Kruglun, O.A. [Institute of Mathematics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Timonen, M. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit (Finland); Merilaeinen, J. [SAIMA Unit of the Savonlinna Department of Teacher Education, University of Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    Tree-rings tell of past climates. To do so, tree-ring chronologies comprising numerous climate-sensitive living-tree and subfossil time-series need to be 'transferred' into palaeoclimate estimates using transfer functions. The purpose of this study is to compare different types of transfer functions, especially linear and nonlinear algorithms. Accordingly, multiple linear regression (MLR), linear scaling (LSC) and artificial neural networks (ANN, nonlinear algorithm) were compared. Transfer functions were built using a regional tree-ring chronology and instrumental temperature observations from Lapland (northern Finland and Sweden). In addition, conventional MLR was compared with a hybrid model whereby climate was reconstructed separately for short- and long-period timescales prior to combining the bands of timescales into a single hybrid model. The fidelity of the different reconstructions was validated against instrumental climate data. The reconstructions by MLR and ANN showed reliable reconstruction capabilities over the instrumental period (AD 1802-1998). LCS failed to reach reasonable verification statistics and did not qualify as a reliable reconstruction: this was due mainly to exaggeration of the low-frequency climatic variance. Over this instrumental period, the reconstructed low-frequency amplitudes of climate variability were rather similar by MLR and ANN. Notably greater differences between the models were found over the actual reconstruction period (AD 802-1801). A marked temperature decline, as reconstructed by MLR, from the Medieval Warm Period (AD 931-1180) to the Little Ice Age (AD 1601-1850), was evident in all the models. This decline was approx. 0.5 C as reconstructed by MLR. Different ANN based palaeotemperatures showed simultaneous cooling of 0.2 to 0.5 C, depending on algorithm. The hybrid MLR did not seem to provide further benefit above conventional MLR in our sample. The robustness of the conventional MLR over the calibration

  4. Ex-PRESS miniature glaucoma shunt in treatment of refractory glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Suzana; Čanović, Samir; Didović, Ana; Kolega, Marija Škara; Bašić, Jadranka Katušić

    2015-03-01

    Refractory glaucoma in a complicated type of glaucoma of different ethyologies with one same characteristic--intraocular pressure of great resistance to therapy. There are different methods of treatment in such glaucomas, primary surgical options. Ex-PRESS miniature glaucoma shunt implantation was our treatment of choice. In our group of patients we achieved stabile intraocular pressure values in 4 month period of time with no serious or unexpected complications.

  5. Refractory epilepsy and basal ganglia: the role of seizure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleret, V.; Trebossen, R.; Mantzerides, M.; Semah, F.; Ribeiro, M.J. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouilleret, V. [CHU Bicetre, Unite de Neurophysiologie et d' Epileptologie, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Hopital Saint Anne, Service de Neurochirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Biraben, A. [CHU, Service de Neurologie, Hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2008-02-15

    Objectives. - A decrease of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake in basal ganglia (B.G.) was recently reported in medically refractory epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (T.L.E.) and its relationship to glucose metabolism and morphological changes. Methods. - Twelve T.L.E. patients were studied using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA PET and MRI and compared with healthy control volunteers. Morphological cerebral changes were assessed using Voxel-Based Morphometry (V.B.M.). Student t test statistical maps of functional and morphological differences between patients and controls were obtained using a general linear model. Results. - In T.L.E. patients, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was reduced to the same extent in caudate and putamen in both cerebral hemispheres as well as in the substantia nigra (S.N.). These dopaminergic functional alterations occurred without any glucose metabolism changes in these areas. The only mild morphological abnormality was found in striatal regions without any changes in the S.N.. Conclusion. - The present study provides support for dopaminergic neurotransmission involvement in T.L.E.. The discrepancies between G.M.V. atrophy and the pattern of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA suggest that B.G. involvement is not related to structural subcortical abnormalities. A functional decrease can be ruled out as there was no change of the glycolytic pathway metabolism in these areas. (authors)

  6. Comprehensive Creep and Thermophysical Performance of Refractory Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferber, M.K.; Wereszczak, A.; Hemrick, J.A.

    2006-06-29

    Furnace designers and refractory engineers recognize that optimized furnace superstructure design and refractory selection are needed as glass production furnaces are continually striving toward greater output and efficiencies. Harsher operating conditions test refractories to the limit, while changing production technology (such as the conversion to oxy-fuel from traditional air-fuel firing) can alter the way the materials perform [1-3]. Refractories for both oxy- and air-fuel fired furnace superstructures (see Fig. 1) are subjected to high temperatures that may cause them to creep excessively or subside during service if the refractory material is not creep resistant, or if it is subjected to high stress, or both. Furnace designers can ensure that superstructure structural integrity is maintained if the creep behavior of the refractory material is well understood and well represented by appropriate engineering creep models. Several issues limit the abilities of furnace designers to (1) choose the optimum refractory for their applications, (2) optimize the engineering design, or (3) predict the service mechanical integrity of their furnace superstructures. Published engineering creep data are essentially nonexistent for almost all commercially available refractories used for glass furnace superstructures. The limited data that do exist are supplied by the various refractory suppliers. Unfortunately, the suppliers generally have different ways of conducting their mechanical testing, and they interpret and report their data differently. This inconsistency makes it hard for furnace designers to draw fair comparisons between competing grades of candidate refractories. Furthermore, the refractory suppliers' data are often not available in a form that can be readily used for furnace design or for the prediction and design of long-term structural integrity of furnace superstructures. As a consequence, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technology Program

  7. CHALLENGES REGARDING THE ELITE ISSUES IN ROMANIA DURING THE PERIOD OF ACHIEVING THE FUNDAMENTALS OF A FUNCTIONAL MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan DONE

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional market economy, characterised firstly by competitiveness cannot be achieved but with the immediate involvement of elite within all structures and all levels. This appreciation is largely confirmed by the economic-social successes of several states, called more and more meritocracy states.The road from chances to realities is strewn in all cases with difficulties and lacks, and each time the success is for individuals who are simultaneously aware and motivated. Romania has a high potential of elite’s generation, the share of over-endowed of total population being double in comparison to the world average. For our country a development strategy built on promoting elite and ensuring the conditions for reforms and professional achievement is necessary.

  8. Separating refractory and non-refractory particulate chloride and estimating chloride depletion by aerosol mass spectrometry in a marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nuaaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol composition and concentration measurements along the coast of California were obtained using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS onboard the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex study in 2010. This paper focuses on the measurement of aerosol chloride using the HR-AMS that can be ambiguous in regions with significant quantities of sea salt aerosols. This ambiguity arises due to large differences in the sensitivity of the HR-AMS to refractory chloride species (i.e., NaCl and non refractory chloride species (i.e., NH4Cl, HCl, etc.. Using the HR-AMS, the aerosol chloride signal is typically quantified using ion signals for 35Cl+, H35Cl+, 37Cl+ and H37Cl+ (HxCl+. During this study, the highest aerosol chloride signal was observed during sea sweep experiments when the source of the aerosol chloride was NaCl present in artificially generated sea salt aerosols even though the HR-AMS has significantly lower sensitivity to such refractory species. Other prominent ion signals that arise from NaCl salt were also observed at m/z 22.99 for Na+ and m/z 57.96 for Na35Cl+ during both sea sweep experiments and during periods of ambient measurements. Thus, refractory NaCl contributes significantly to the HxCl+ signal, interfering with attempts to quantify non sea salt chloride (nssCl. It was found that during ambient aerosol measurements, the interference in the HxCl+ signal from sea salt chloride (ssCl was as high as 89%, but with a study wide average of 10%. The Na35Cl+ ion signal was found to be a good tracer for NaCl. We outline a method to establish nssCl in the ambient aerosols by subtracting the sea salt chloride (ssCl signal from the HxCl+ signal. The ssCl signal is derived from the Na35Cl+ ion tracer signal and the HxCl+ to Na35Cl+ ratio established from the sea sweep experiments. Ambient submicron concentrations of ssCl were also established using the

  9. Surgical versus medical treatment for refractory epilepsy: outcomes beyond seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M Scott; Duchowny, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one third of patients with epilepsy become medically intractable, and the likelihood of achieving seizure freedom decreases with each additional medication trial. For appropriately chosen patients, epilepsy surgery affords the opportunity to achieve seizure freedom and potentially wean off medications. Epilepsy surgery, as with medical management, is not without adverse effects; to counsel patients wisely, practitioners need to understand the advantages and disadvantages of both. Randomized controlled trials in temporal lobe epilepsy reveal that epilepsy surgery achieves superior outcome compared to continued medical management. Although seizure freedom is the ultimate goal of any therapy, it represents a single outcome measure among a variety of other domains that affect patient welfare. It is imperative that providers understand the patient variables that affect these outcome measures and how these measures impact each other. Because the data comparing surgical therapy versus medical management for refractory epilepsy are limited, we review the available evidence comparing outcomes beyond seizure freedom including quality of life, cognition, psychosocial function, mortality, and financial costs. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Surgical treatment of refractory epilepsy, secondary to central nervous system infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunpeng Wang; Guojun Zhang; Lixin Cai; Yongjie Li

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on medial temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to central nervous system infections.Several large-sample analyses of multi-lobe injuries or complications of medial temporal lobe epilepsy have been reported.The present study selected 29 patients (10 males and 19 females with a mean age of 18 years) with refractory epilepsy secondary to central nervous system infections (meningitis in 8, encephalitis in 21)from Beijing Functional Neurosurgical Institute from May 2006 to August 2008.All patients underwent computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, as well as electroencephalogram examinations; cortical electrodes were embedded in 11 patients.In addition, 13 (45%) patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy,and 16 (56%) underwent extratemporal corcticectomy.Results showed that 18 (62%) patients obtained favorable outcomes following surgical treatment, including 80% with temporal lobe epilepsy and 50% with extratemporal epilepsy.Central nervous system infection was not a contraindication for epilepsy treatment, and identification of epileptic foci proved to be crucial.In addition, a young age at infection, as well as prolonged latent period from time of infection to initial afebrile seizure, were 2 predictive factors for all patients.Cortical electrodes significantly increased the detection rate of epileptic foci, but did not improve prognosis of foci excision.

  11. Export and Import Situation of Refractories and Refractory Raw Materials in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANShangxin; ZHANGZhongqi; 等

    2000-01-01

    The article states China is a great nation in producing and exporting refractories and refractory raw materials,which, has earned much foreign exchange for our country ,only a few advanced refactory material, zircon and chrome ore are needed to be imported.The ar-ticle points out the problems in the export and import,and raises suggestions on development.After the entry of WTO,China will expand its co-operations with other countries in science,technology,economy and trade to play a more important role in the world market.

  12. Formulating the spring discharge-function for the recession period by analyzing its recession curve: A case study of the Ranichauri spring (India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Vashisht; B Bam

    2013-10-01

    The Greater Himalayan region is witnessing a changing rainfall pattern from the last few decades. Low-intensity longer-duration rainfall events have now been replaced with intense and shorter-duration events that are further responsible for the reduced recharging of the spring catchments. Consequently, the natural springs are either drying up or becoming seasonal. Prediction of spring water availability during the recession period is the key to its proper management. The spring discharge-rate can be forecasted by studying its behaviour for the past recession periods. Expressing recession curve in mathematical terms requires its quantitative analyses in priori. It was found that the fitting of recession-curve (of the Ranichauri spring under study) with two exponential components gives accurate results. The maximum value of exponential coefficient (i.e., 0.0206) represents the major contribution to drainage from the spring-catchment’s portion with highest permeability, whereas the minimum value (i.e., 0.0016) represents the major contribution to spring discharge from the portion with lowest permeability. Analyses show that the permeability of the porous medium is responsible for discharge rate and its capacity is responsible for perennial or seasonal behaviour of the spring. Using the mean values of the recession parameters, the master discharge-function of the spring for the recession period is formulated for calculating its discharge-rate during the recession period of any year. Apart from the year 2001, its predictions are in close agreement with the actually monitored data. The efficiency of the formulated master discharge function of the spring for the recession period has been evaluated equal to 0.965 using the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency criterion.

  13. Development and Application of Refractory Materials for Molten Aluminum Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Headrick, William [University of Missouri, Rolla; Peters, Klaus-Markus [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Two new refractory materials have been developed for use in molten aluminum contact applications which exhibit improved corrosion and wear resistance, along with improved thermal management through reduced heat losses. The development of these materials was based on understanding of the corrosion and wear mechanisms associated with currently used aluminum contact refractories through physical, chemical, and mechanical characterization and analysis performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri, Rolla (UMR) along with their industrial partners, under the ITP Materials project "Multifunctional Metallic and Refractory Materials for Energy Efficient Handling of Molten Metals". Spent castable refractories obtained from a natural gas fired reverberatory aluminum alloy melting furnace were analyzed leading to identification of several refractory degradation mechanisms and strategies to produce improved materials. The newly developed materials have been validated through both R&D industrial trials and independent commercial trials by the refractory manufacturers.

  14. Serum neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin during the early postoperative period predicts the recovery of graft function after kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Mamoru; Iwamatsu, Fumi; Kuroyanagi, Yoko; Nakaya, Miho; Ichino, Manabu; Marubashi, Shigeru; Nagano, Hiroaki; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka

    2012-06-01

    Kidneys procured from donors after cardiac death hold great potential to expand the donor pool. However, they have not yet been fully used, in part due to the high incidence of delayed graft function. Although urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a well-known early biomarker for renal injury after kidney transplantation, its usefulness is limited in cases with delayed graft function because of the unavailability of a urine sample. We evaluated serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a potential biomarker to predict the functional recovery of kidneys transplanted from donors after cardiac death. Consecutive patients transplanted with a kidney from a living related (39), brain dead (1) or post-cardiac death (27) donor were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected serially before and after kidney transplantation. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was measured using the ARCHITECT® assay. Average serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was markedly high during the pre transplantation period. It decreased rapidly after transplantation. The slope of the decrease correlated well with the recovery period. By analyzing ROC curves we determined cutoffs to predict immediate, slow or delayed graft function requiring hemodialysis for longer than 1 week with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that serial monitoring of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin may allow us to predict graft recovery and the need for hemodialysis after kidney transplantation from a donor after cardiac death. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fusion Techniques for the Oxidation of Refractory Actinide Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-04-15

    Small-scale experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of fusing refractory actinide oxides with a series of materials commonly used to decompose minerals, glasses, and other refractories as a pretreatment to dissolution and subsequent recovery operations. In these experiments, 1-2 g of plutonium or neptunium oxide (PuO2 or NpO2) were calcined at 900 degrees Celsius, mixed and heated with the fusing reagent(s), and dissolved. For refractory PuO2, the most effective material tested was a lithium carbonate (Li2CO3)/sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7) mixture which aided in the recovery of 90 percent of the plutonium. The fused product was identified as a lithium plutonate (Li3PuO4) by x-ray diffraction. The use of a Li2CO3/Na2B4O7 mixture to solubilize high-fired NpO2 was not as effective as demonstrated for refractory PuO2. In a small-scale experiment, 25 percent of the NpO2 was oxidized to a neptunium (VI) species that dissolved in nitric acid. The remaining neptunium was then easily recovered from the residue by fusing with sodium peroxide (Na2O2). Approximately 70 percent of the neptunium dissolved in water to yield a basic solution of neptunium (VII). The remainder was recovered as a neptunium (VI) solution by dissolving the residue in 8M nitric acid. In subsequent experiments with Na2O2, the ratio of neptunium (VII) to (VI) was shown to be a function of the fusion temperature, with higher temperatures (greater than approximately 400 degrees C) favoring the formation of neptunium (VII). The fusion of an actual plutonium-containing residue with Na2O2 and subsequent dissolution was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of a pretreatment process on a larger scale. Sodium peroxide was chosen due

  16. The need for seasonal correction functions when calculating the annual electricity use of appliances based on shorter period measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennich, Peter (Testlab, The Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Oefverholm, Egil; Bjoern, Torgny (The Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Norstedt, Inger (The Swedish Consumer Agency, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    Along with the increasing number of smart electricity meters in the homes - both meters installed by the utilities and simpler ones installed by the household owners themselves - the interest in reliable methods for scaling up data measured during a limited time of the year to annual values, will most likely increase. For example, by measuring some specific loads for some time in a home, an inhabitant may assess possible annual savings when replacing old appliances with new ones. However, a straight forward scaling up calculation to annual values is not always appropriate. An obvious example is lighting, which displays a clear seasonal effect due to the difference in daylight: annual values based on measured summer data will strongly underestimate the annual consumption whereas winter data will lead to an overestimate. Another example going in the opposite direction is cold appliances, where the increase in ambient temperature during the summer increases the electricity consumption. This paper discusses an analysis of a set of appliances which nearly all display different seasonal effects. Apart from lighting and cold appliances, also washing machines, dish washers, TVs and PCs are analysed. Factors influencing the seasonality are discussed; either it is due to behaviour and/or technical parameters as well. Our analysis is based on 10 min measurements of appliances in 400 randomly selected households in Sweden. 40 households were measured during a full year and provided data for establishing seasonal correction functions. (See Appendix 1 for more details on the methodology.)

  17. Adsorption of Methanol and Methoxy on Cu(111) Surface: A First-principles Periodic Density Functional Theory Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Wen-Kai; LIU, Shu-Hong; CAO, Mei-Juan; LU, Chun-Hai; XU, Ying; LI, Jun-Qian

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption of methanol and methoxy at four selected sites (top, bridge, hcp, fcc) on Cu(111) surface has been investigated by density functional theory method at the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level. The calculation on adsorption energies, geometry and electronic structures, Mulliken charges, and vibrational frequencies of CH3OH and CH3O on clean Cu(111) surface was performed with full-geometry optimization, and compared with the experimental data. The obtained results are in agreement with available experimental data. The most favorite adsorption site for methanol on Cu(111) surface is the top site, where C-O axis is tilted to the surface. Moreover,the preferred adsorption site for methoxy on Cu(111) surface is the fcc site, and it adsorbs in an upright geometry with pseudo-C3v local symmetry. Possible decomposition pathways also have been investigated by transition-state searching methods. Methoxy radical, CH3O, was found to be the decomposition intermediate. Methanol can be adsorbed on the surface with its oxygen atom directly on a Cu atom, and weakly chemisorbed on Cu(111) surface. In contrast to methanol, methoxy is strongly chemisorbed to the surface.

  18. Technology Progress of Refractories for Iron Making in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Junlan; CHENG Qingxian; SHEN Keyin

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the present development situation of refractories for iron making system in China, which includes blast furnace, hot blast stove and coke dry quenching, etc. Varieties and performances of refractories used by the top steel and iron groups such as Baosteel, Wuhan I&S Group and Anshan I&S Group for iron making were exemplified and concerned problems were analyzed,together with solutions and suggestions for future refractories R&D work.

  19. 具非凸右端项泛函微分包含的周期解%Periodic Solutions for Functional Differential Inclusion with Nonconvex Right Hand Sides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕显瑞; 史少云; 李晓光

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a general existence result of periodic solutions for functional differential inclusions with nonconvex right hand sides,by using the asymptotic fixed point theory.In our result,the uniform boundedness and ultimate boundedness are only assumed to the solutions with bounded initial functions.On the other hand,the dissipativity is sought on a suitable bounded convex subset of the state space of solutions.This becomes difficult for the systems with infinite delay since in this case the subset is probably not forward invariant for the orbits of solutions.These arealso considerable even for the usual functional differential equations with infinite delay.As an application,we answer an open problem on the existence of an equilibrium state for multivalued permanent systems.

  20. Refractory absorber/emitter using monolayer of ceramic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, P. N.; do Rosário, J. J.; Leib, E. W.; Petrov, A. Y.; Störmer, M.; Weller, H.; Vossmeyer, T.; Schneider, G. A.; Eich, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present a self-assembled refractory absorber/emitter without the necessity to structure the metallic surface itself, still retaining the feature of tailored optical properties for visible light emission and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. We have demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that monolayers of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) microparticles on a tungsten layer can be used as large area, efficient and thermally stable selective absorbers/emitters. The band edge of the absorption is based on critically coupled microsphere resonances. It can be tuned from visible to near-infrared range by varying the diameter of the microparticles. We demonstrated the optical functionality of the structure after annealing up to temperatures of 1000°C under vacuum conditions. In particular it opens up the route towards high efficiency TPV systems with emission matched to the photovoltaic cell.

  1. Exophiala oligosperma involved in a refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H; Hedayati, M T; Bahoosh, M; Kasir, A; Ghasemi, M; Motahari, J; Meis, J F; De Hoog, G S

    2011-03-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis refers to a wide variety of conditions caused by fungal infections of the paranasal sinuses. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and sinus fungus balls are mostly noted in healthy individuals. Aspergillus species are supposed to be the most common etiologic agents of the disorder, but melanized fungi also occur, and these potentially are able to lead to fatal dissemination into brain parenchyma. We report on a case of fungus ball in a 20-year-old female with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (RCRS) and bronchial asthma due to the black yeast Exophiala oligosperma which was confirmed by mycological and molecular (sequences of ITS rDNA) investigations. Exophiala oligosperma has previously not been reported to cause fungus balls or invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Patient underwent functional endoscopic sinusitis surgery and the hypertrophic mucosa was removed completely. Without antifungal therapy, successful cure was achieved after spray therapy with corticosteroids for 1 month, without any relapse after a 6 month-follow up.

  2. Understanding the ε and ζ High-Pressure Solid Phases of Oxygen. Systematic Periodic Density Functional Theory Studies Using Localized Atomic Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Calle, A J; Zicovich-Wilson, C M; Hernández-Lamoneda, R; Ramírez-Solís, A

    2015-03-10

    The experimentally characterized ε and ζ phases of solid oxygen are studied by periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory calculations at pressures from 10 to 160 GPa using different types of exchange-correlation functionals with Gaussian atomic basis sets. Full geometry optimizations of the monoclinic C2/m (O2)4 unit cell were done to study the evolution of the structural and electronic properties with pressure. Vibrational calculations were performed at each pressure. While periodic HF does not predict the ε-ζ phase transition in the considered range, Local Density approximation and Generalized Gradient approximation methods predict too low transition pressures. The performance of hybrid functional methods is dependent on the amount of non-local HF exchange. PBE0, M06, B3PW91, and B3LYP approaches correctly predict the structural and electronic changes associated with the phase transition. GGA and hybrid functionals predict a pressure range where both phases coexist, but only the latter type of methods yield results in agreement with experiment. Using the optimized (O2)4 unit cell at each pressure we show, through CASSCF(8,8) calculations, that the greater accuracy of the optimized geometrical parameters with increasing pressure is due to a decreasing multireference character of the unit cell wave function. The mechanism of the transition from the non-conducting to the conducting ζ phase is explained through the Electron Pair Localization Function, which clearly reveals chemical bonding between O2 molecules in the ab crystal planes belonging to different unit cells due to much shorter intercell O2-O2 distances.

  3. Supplemental Smartamine M or MetaSmart during the transition period benefits postpartal cow performance and blood neutrophil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J S; Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Luchini, D; Loor, J J

    2013-10-01

    The onset of lactation in dairy cows is characterized by severe negative energy and protein balance. Methionine availability during this time for milk production, hepatic lipid metabolism, and immune function may be limiting. Supplementing Met to peripartal diets with adequate Lys in metabolizable protein (MP) to fine-tune the Lys:Met ratio may be beneficial. Fifty-six multiparous Holstein cows were fed the same basal diet from 50 d before expected calving to 30 d in milk. From -50 to -21 d before expected calving, all cows received the same diet [1.24 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 10.3% rumen-degradable protein, and 4% rumen-undegradable protein] with no Met supplementation. From -21 d to expected calving, the cows received diets (1.54 Mcal/kg of DM, 10% rumen-degradable protein, and 5.1% rumen-undegradable protein) with no added Met (control, CON; n=14), CON plus MetaSmart (MS; Adisseo Inc., Antony, France; n=12), or CON plus Smartamine M (SM; Adisseo Inc.; n=12). From calving through 30 d in milk, the cows received the same postpartum diet (1.75 Mcal/kg of DM and 17.5% CP; CON), or the CON plus MS or CON plus SM. The Met supplements were adjusted daily and top-dressed over the total mixed ration at a rate of 0.19 or 0.07% (DM) of feed for MS or SM. Liver tissue was collected on -10, 7, and 21 d, and blood samples more frequently, from -21 through 21 d. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with the preplanned contrasts CON versus SM + MS and SM versus MS. No differences in prepartal DM intake (DMI) or body condition score were observed. After calving, body condition score was lower (2.6 vs. 2.8), whereas DMI was greater (15.4 vs. 13.3 kg/d) for Met-supplemented cows. Postpartal diet × time interactions were observed for milk fat percentage, milk fat yield, energy-corrected milk:DMI ratio, and energy balance. These were mainly due to changes among time points across all treatments. Cows supplemented with either Met

  4. Properties of Refractory Concrete in Tension and Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Refractory concrete on the LC-39A Flame Deflector has been damaged during multiple Space Shuttle launches (e.g. STS-124, STS-126, STS-119, and STS-125, STS-127). These events have prompted a better understanding of the system via an analytical model of the Flame Deflector assembly to include the Fondu Fyre refractory concrete. This model requires test data inputs of the refractory concrete's mechanical properties, which include stress versus strain curves in tension and compression, modulus of elasticity, and Poisson's ratio. Sections of Fondu Fyre refractory concrete removed from the LC-39A Flame Deflector were provided for this testing.

  5. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  6. Ketogenic diet therapy is effective in encephalitis with refractory seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzono, Kosuke; Kurata, Tomoko; Deguchi, Shoko; Yamashita, Toru; Deguchi, Kentaro; Abe, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Although ketogenic diet therapy is effective in refractory seizures in childhood, its effect on adult encephalitis with similar refractory seizures and prolonged encephalopathy has not been well reported. We report here a case of a 22-year-old man with acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS). Partial seizures of the face developed to repeated generalized convulsions, which were refractory against anti-epileptic drugs and a high dose of propofol. After struggling for 9 months, he dramatically recovered after ketogenic diet therapy. Ketogenic diet therapy may be an important tool to help cure AERRPS.

  7. Refractory Coated/Lined Low Density Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses the development of refractory coated or lined low density structures applicable for advanced future propulsion system technologies. The...

  8. Handbook of industrial refractories technology principles, types, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Caniglia, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Encompasses the entire range of industrial refractory materials and forms: properties and their measurement, applications, manufacturing, installation and maintenance techniques, quality assurance, and statistical process control.

  9. Outcomes of Ahmed valve surgery for refractory glaucoma in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tariq; Alasbali; Abdullah; Ali; Alghamdi; Rajiv; Khandekar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve(AGV) implantation surgery for refractory glaucoma.METHODS: This one-armed historical cohort study was conducted in 2011. Refractory glaucoma was defined as eyes with an intraocular pressure(IOP) greater than21 mm Hg with maximally tolerated glaucoma medications, failed surgeries, or both. For all eyes with refractory glaucoma that underwent AGV implantation,data were collected on IOP, the best corrected visual acuity(BCVA) and glaucoma medications preoperatively and 4, 6, 12, 24 and 56 wk postoperatively. Logarithm values of IOP were calculated and compared. RESULTS: The study group was comprised of 30patients(30 eyes, 16 males and 14 females) with refractory glaucoma. Mean preoperative IOP was 39.3 ±13.8 mm Hg. Postoperative mean IOP was 15.7±7.1 mm Hg,19.6 ±12.8 mm Hg and 13.9 ±14.2 mm Hg at 12, 24 and56 wk respectively. BCVA was ≥6/60 in 11 eyes preoperatively, and five eyes had BCVA ≥6/60 at 56 wk postoperatively. Preoperatively, more than four medications were used to treat glaucoma in 21 eyes. At12 wk postoperatively, no medications were required to control IOP in 20 eyes. At 56 wk postoperatively, at least one medication was required to control IOP in 10 eyes.Over the entire follow up period, four eyes were treated with yttrium aluminium garnet(YAG) laser and 14 eyes required a second surgery. The AGV was removed in four eyes.CONCLUSION: AGV implantation reduced IOP and the number of medications required to control refractory glaucoma. However, there was a higher risk of decreased vision. Long-term follow up and prompt intervention are recommended.

  10. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  11. Arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

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    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the results of arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder associated as for improved range of motion after a minimum follow up of six years. METHODS: from August 2002 to December 2004, ten patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment underwent arthroscopic surgery. One interscalene catheter was placed for postoperative analgesia before the procedure. All were in Phase II, with a minimum follow up of two years. The mean age was 52.9 years (39-66, predominantly female (90%, six on the left shoulder. The time between onset of symptoms and surgical treatment ranged from six to 20 months. Four adhesive capsulitis were found to be primary (40% and six secondary (60%. RESULTS: the preoperative mean of active anterior elevation was 92°, of external rotation was 10.5° of the L5 level internal rotation; the postoperative ones were 149°, 40° and T12 level, respectively. Therefore, the average gain was 57° for the anterior elevation, 29.5° for external rotation in six spinous processes. There was a significant difference in movements' gains between the pre and post-operative periods (p<0.001. By the Constant Score (range of motion, there was an increase of 13.8 (average pre to 32 points (average post. CONCLUSION: the arthroscopic treatment proved effective in refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment, improving the range of joint movements of patients evaluated after a minimum follow up of six years.

  12. Modulation of cardiac autonomic balance with adjuvant yoga therapy in patients with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyaprabha, T N; Satishchandra, P; Pradhan, C; Sinha, S; Kaveri, B; Thennarasu, K; Murthy, B T C; Raju, T R

    2008-02-01

    The practice of yoga regulates body physiology through control of posture, breathing, and meditation. Effects of yoga on autonomic functions of patients with refractory epilepsy, as quantified by standardized autonomic function tests (AFTs), were determined. The yoga group (n=18) received supervised training in yoga, and the exercise group (n=16) practiced simple routine exercises. AFTs were repeated after 10 weeks of daily sessions. Data were compared with those of healthy volunteers (n=142). The yoga group showed significant improvement in parasympathetic parameters and a decrease in seizure frequency scores. There was no improvement in blood pressure parameters in either group. Two patients in the yoga group achieved normal autonomic functions at the end of 10 weeks of therapy, whereas there were no changes in the exercise group. The data suggest that yoga may have a role as an adjuvant therapy in the management of autonomic dysfunction in patients with refractory epilepsy.

  13. ABCB5 identifies a therapy-refractory tumor cell population in colorectal cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brian J.; Schatton, Tobias; Zhan, Qian; Gasser, Martin; Ma, Jie; Saab, Karim R.; Schanche, Robin; Waaga-Gasser, Ana-Maria; Gold, Jason S.; Huang, Qin; Murphy, George F.; Frank, Markus H.; Frank, Natasha Y.

    2012-01-01

    Identification and reversal of treatment resistance mechanisms of clinically refractory tumor cells is critical for successful cancer therapy. Here we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5) identifies therapy-refractory tumor cells in colorectal cancer patients following fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation therapy and provide evidence for a functional role of ABCB5 in colorectal cancer 5-FU resistance. Examination of human colon and colorectal cancer specimens revealed ABCB5 to be expressed only on rare cells within healthy intestinal tissue, whereas clinical colorectal cancers exhibited substantially increased levels of ABCB5 expression. Analysis of successive, patient-matched biopsy specimens obtained prior to and following neoadjuvant 5-FU-based chemoradiation therapy in a series of colorectal cancer patients revealed markedly enhanced abundance of ABCB5-positive tumor cells when residual disease was detected. Consistent with this finding, the ABCB5-expressing tumor cell population was also treatment-refractory and exhibited resistance to 5-FU-induced apoptosis in a colorectal cancer xenograft model of 5-FU monotherapy. Mechanistically, shRNA-mediated ABCB5 knockdown significantly inhibited tumorigenic xenograft growth and sensitized colorectal cancer cells to 5-FU-induced cell killing. Our results identify ABCB5 as a novel molecular marker of therapy-refractory tumor cells in colorectal cancer patients and point to a need for consistent eradication of ABCB5-positive resistant tumor cell populations for more effective colorectal cancer therapy. PMID:21652540

  14. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  15. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  16. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children with Refractory Asthma

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    Alaa S. Deeb

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the association between clinical and macroscopic findings of GER and severity of refractory asthma (statistical study.Methods: A prospective study in a university-based practice of 75 children who were diagnosed with refractory asthma because they exhibited no satisfactory response for at least three months of treatment. Medical history, physical examination, spirometrical measurements and prick skin test were conducted on all patients. Endoscopic and macroscopic evaluations for esophagitis were performed on all patients regardless of the presence of GER symptoms.Results: Endoscopy was done for 75 children with refractory asthma. GER was symptomatic in 65% of all patients with no statistical significance (p>0.05 and the most frequent symptom was abdominal pain (67%. The frequency of these symptoms was 50% in mild asthma, 58% in moderate asthma and 72% in severe asthma with no statistical significance (p>0.05. The frequency of macroscopic esophagitis was 71%, distributed in three asthmatic groups as in order of 75% in mild asthma, 58.3% in moderate asthma and 76.6% in severe asthma (p>0.05. Regarding the relationship between GER and nocturnal attacks or spasmodic cough, the frequency of the latest was 66.7%. The differences have no statistical significance regarding GER symptoms (p>0.05, but they are statistically significant regarding the reflux esophagitis (p<0.05. Also endoscopic reflux was as frequent as76.3% in non allergic patients, and this result is statistically significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: In spite of the fact that there was no relationship between the severity of asthma and the symptoms of GER, or its endoscopic findings, the frequency of GER in asthmatic children was higher than its frequency in other children.

  17. Refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebisa Bekele; Bethel Shiferaw; Alexandra Sokolova; Arpan Shah; Phillip Saunders; Alida Podrumar; Javed Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare blood disorder with an estimated incidence of 4–5 cases per million people per year. It is characterized by small-vessel platelet-rich thrombi that cause thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and organ damage. There are reports in literature that TTP and acute pancreatitis are associated, indicating each can be the cause of the other. However, acute pancreatitis triggering TTP is very rare. A 71 years old female presented with abdominal pain of 3 days, followed by dark urine. She had icteric sclera, petechial rash and mild epigastric tenderness. Lab findings were significant for hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and elevated lipase. CT of abdomen showed evidence of pancreatitis and cholelithiasis. After admission, patient developed symptoms of stroke. Further investigation showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase and normal coagulation studied with peripheral blood smear showed 5–6 schistocytes/high power field. Disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-13 (ADAMTS13) activity showed less than 3% with high ADAMTS13 inhibitor 2.2. Patient required 6–7 weeks of daily plasmapheresis until she showed complete response. Our patient presented with clinical features of pancreatitis prior to having dark urine and petechial rash. Therefore, we strongly believe that our patient had pancreatitis which was followed by TTP. Patient's ADMTS13 activity was 6%after 10 plasma exchanges, signifying refractory TTP and higher risk for morbidity and mortality. There are limited data and consensus on the management of refractory TTP. TTP and acute pancreatitis are associated. However, refractory TTP following acute pancreatitis is rarely mentioned in the literature. We would like to emphasize the importance of having higher clinical suspicion of the association of both disease entities.

  18. Refractory leg ulcers associated with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuno, Yuto; Tosa, Mamiko; Iwakiri, Itaru; Nomoto, Shunichi; Kaneko, Mayuko; Kuwahara, Kousuke; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Murakami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a man with refractory leg ulcers, bilateral varicosis of the lower extremities, and Buerger disease. Autoimmune work-up was negative. However, chromosome analysis showed Klinefelter syndrome (48 XXY). Ulcerative lesions of the lower extremities are a complication of Klinefelter syndrome. To date, the pathogenesis of ulcers in Klinefelter syndrome has not been clarified, but several factors, such as abnormalities of fibrinolysis and prothrombotic states, might be involved. Our present case emphasizes the importance of considering Klinefelter syndrome in the differential diagnosis of a male patient with nonhealing ulcers of the lower extremities.

  19. Refractory overactive bladder: Beyond oral anticholinergic therapy

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    Ronald W Glinski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this review, we discuss the treatment of refractory overactive bladder (OAB that has not adequately responded to medication therapy and we propose an appropriate care pathway to the treatment of OAB. We also attempt to address the cost of OAB treatments. Materials and Methods: A selective expert review of the current literature on the subject of refractory OAB using MEDLINE was performed and the data is summarized. We also review our experience in treating refractory OAB. The role and outcomes of various treatment options for refractory OAB are discussed and combined therapy with oral anticholinergics is explored. Emerging remedies including intravesical botulinum toxin injection and pudendal neuromodulation are also reviewed, along with conventional surgical options. Results: In general behavioral therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, magnetic therapy and posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS, have shown symptom decreases in 50-80% of patients with OAB. Depending on the study, combination therapy with oral anticholinergics seems to improve efficacy of behavioral therapy and PTNS in approximately 10-30%. In multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials, sacral neuromodulation has been shown to improve symptoms of OAB and OAB incontinence in up to 80% of the patients treated. Studies involving emerging therapies such as pudendal serve stimulation suggest that there may be a 15-20% increase in efficacy over sacral neuromodulation, but long-term studies are not yet available. Another emerging therapy, botulinum toxin, is also showing similar success in reducing OAB symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Surgical approaches, such as bladder augmentation, are a last resort in the treatment of OAB and are rarely used at this point unless upper tract damage is a concern and all other treatment options have been exhausted. Conclusion: The vast majority of OAB patients can be managed successfully by behavioral options with or

  20. Management in refractory epilepsy: Beyond epilepsy surgery...

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    Roop Gursahani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although definititions of refractory epilepsy vary, about 40% of prevalent cases of epilepsy are not controlled by anti-epileptic drugs. A substantial proportion of this population requires palliative therapy since only a minority are candidates for epilepsy surgery. Drug therapy can be optimised after accurate classification of the epilepsy. Monotherapy is often as effective as polytherapy with fewer adverse effects. Depression and CNS adverse effects significantly impact quality of life and must be systematically screened for and treated. The ketogenic diet and vagal nerve stimulation provide substantial seizure control in a significant number of cases and may be used synergistically. Deep brain stimulation is another promising modality.