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Sample records for functional mating type

  1. Sex in smut fungi: Structure, function and evolution of mating-type complexes.

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    Bakkeren, Guus; Kämper, Jörg; Schirawski, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Smut fungi are basidiomycete plant pathogens that pose a threat to many important cereal crops. In order to be pathogenic on plants, smut fungal cells of compatible mating-type need to fuse. Fusion and pathogenicity are regulated by two loci, a and b, which harbor conserved genes. The functions of the encoded mating-type complexes have been well-studied in the model fungus Ustilago maydis and will be briefly reviewed here. Sequence comparison of the mating-type loci of different smut and related fungi has revealed that these loci differ substantially in structure. These structural differences point to an evolution from tetrapolar to bipolar mating behavior, which might have occurred several independent times during fungal speciation.

  2. Functional convergence and divergence of mating-type genes fulfilling in Cordyceps militaris.

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    Lu, Yuzhen; Xia, Yongliang; Luo, Feifei; Dong, Caihong; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-03-01

    Fungal sexual lives are considerably diversified in terms of the types of mating systems and mating-control gene functions. Sexual fruiting bodies of the ascomycete fungus Cordyceps militaris have been widely consumed as edible and medicinal mushrooms, whereas the regulation of fruiting-body development and sex in this fungus remain elusive. Herein, we performed the comprehensive functional analyses of mating-type (MAT) genes in C. militaris. Interspecies functional convergence was evident that MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 null mutants were sterile and lost the ability to produce stromata in outcrosses with the opposite mating-type partner. In contrast to other fungal species, functional divergence of MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2 was also observed that ΔMAT1-1-1 produced barren stromata in outcrosses, whereas ΔMAT1-1-2 generated fruiting bodies morphologically similar to that of the parental strain but with sterile perithecia. The homothallic-like transformants MAT1-2::MAT1-1-1 (haploidic MAT1-2 isolate transformed with the MAT1-1-1 gene) produced sterile stromata, whereas the MAT1-1::MAT1-2-1 (haploidic MAT1-1 isolate transformed with the MAT1-2-1 gene) mutant was determined to be completely fruitless. The findings relating to the fully fertile gene-complementation mutants suggest that the genomic location is not essential for the MAT genes to fulfill their functions in C. militaris. Comparison of the production of bioactive constituents cordycepin and adenosine provides experimental support that the fungal sexual cycle is an energy consuming process. The results of the present study enrich our knowledge of both convergent and divergent controls of fungal sex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Basidiomycete Mating Type Genes and Pheromone Signaling▿

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    Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. PMID:20190072

  4. Pleiotropic Mutations at the TUP1 Locus That Affect the Expression of Mating-Type-Dependent Functions in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE.

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    Lemontt, J F; Fugit, D R; Mackay, V L

    1980-04-01

    The umr7-1 mutation, previously identified in a set of mutants that had been selected for defective UV-induced mutagenesis at CAN1, affects other cellular functions, including many of those regulated by the mating-type locus (MAT) in heterothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recessive umr7-1 allele, mapping approximately 20 cM distal to thr4 on chromosome III, causes clumpy growth in both a and alpha cells and has no apparent effect on a mating functions. However, alpha umr7 meiotic segregants fail to express several alpha-specific functions (e.g., high-frequency conjugation with a strains, secretion of the hormone alpha-factor and response to the hormone a-factor). In addition, alpha umr7 cells exhibit some a-specific characteristics, such as the barrier phenotype (Bar(+)) that prevents diffusion of alpha-factor and an increased mating frequency with alpha strains. The most striking property of alpha umr7 strains is their altered morphology, in which mitotic cells develop an asymmetric pear shape, like that of normal a cells induced to form "shmoos" by interaction with alpha-factor. Some a/alpha-specific diploid functions are also affected by umr7; instead of polar budding patterns, a/alpha umr7/umr7 diploids have medial budding like a/a, alpha/alpha and haploid strains. Moreover, a/alpha umr7/umr7 diploids have lost the ability to sporulate and are Bar(+) like a or a/a strains. Revertant studies indicate that umr7-1 is a single point mutation. The umr7 mutant fails to complement mutants of both tup1 (selected for deoxythymidine monophosphate utilization) and cyc9 (selected for high iso-2-cytochrome c levels), and all three isolates have similar genetic and phenotypic properties. It is suggested that the product of this gene plays some common central role in the complex regulation of the expression of both MAT-dependent and MAT-independent functions.

  5. What uses are mating types? The "developmental switch" model.

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    Perrin, Nicolas

    2012-04-01

    Why mating types exist at all is subject to much debate. Among hypotheses, mating types evolved to control organelle transmission during sexual reproduction, or to prevent inbreeding or same-clone mating. Here I review data from a diversity of taxa (including ciliates, algae, slime molds, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes) to show that the structure and function of mating types run counter the above hypotheses. I argue instead for a key role in triggering developmental switches. Genomes must fulfill a diversity of alternative programs along the sexual cycle. As a haploid gametophyte, an individual may grow vegetatively (through haploid mitoses), or initiate gametogenesis and mating. As a diploid sporophyte, similarly, it may grow vegetatively (through diploid mitoses) or initiate meiosis and sporulation. Only diploid sporophytes (and not haploid gametophytes) should switch on the meiotic program. Similarly, only haploid gametophytes (not sporophytes) should switch on gametogenesis and mating. And they should only do so when other gametophytes are ready to do the same in the neighborhood. As argued here, mating types have evolved primarily to switch on the right program at the right moment. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Radiation-induced mating-type switching in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Luggen-Hölscher, J; Kiefer, J

    1988-09-01

    Haploid yeast cells possess two different mating types which are controlled genetically by the MAT locus. Information of the opposite mating type is stored on the same chromosome but not expressed. Radiation may initiate a gene conversion event leading to 'mating-type switching'. This was studied by using X-rays and 254 nm ultraviolet light. X-ray-induced mating type switching shows an oxygen enhancement ratio of 2.9 which is higher than that for survival (1.8) and equals that for double-strand break induction. Mating-type switching by UV is not photoreactivable and depends on a functioning excision repair system. The results are compatible with the interpretation that mating type switching is initiated by a double-strand break in the MAT coding region.

  7. Mating type sequences in asexually reproducing Fusarium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenényi, Z.; Moretti, A.; Waalwijk, C.; Oláh, B.; Hornok, L.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the potential for mating in several Fusarium species with no known sexual stage, we developed degenerate and semidegenerate oligonucleotide primers to identify conserved mating type (MAT) sequences in these fungi. The putative and high-mobility-group (HMG) box sequences from Fusarium avena

  8. Evolution of sexes from an ancestral mating-type specification pathway.

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    Sa Geng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with two equal-sized mating types, and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and egg-producing females. Theoretical work predicts genetic linkage of a gamete cell-size regulatory gene(s to an ancestral mating-type locus as a possible step in the evolution of dimorphic gametes, but this idea has not been tested. Here we show that, contrary to predictions, a single conserved mating locus (MT gene in volvocine algae-MID, which encodes a RWP-RK domain transcription factor-evolved from its ancestral role in C. reinhardtii as a mating-type specifier, to become a determinant of sperm and egg development in V. carteri. Transgenic female V. carteri expressing male MID produced functional sperm packets during sexual development. Transgenic male V. carteri with RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdowns of VcMID produced functional eggs, or self-fertile hermaphrodites. Post-transcriptional controls were found to regulate cell-type-limited expression and nuclear localization of VcMid protein that restricted its activity to nuclei of developing male germ cells and sperm. Crosses with sex-reversed strains uncoupled sex determination from sex chromosome identity and revealed gender-specific roles for male and female mating locus genes in sexual development, gamete fitness and reproductive success. Our data show genetic continuity between the mating-type specification and sex determination pathways of volvocine algae, and reveal evidence for gender-specific adaptations in the male and female mating locus haplotypes of Volvox. These findings will enable a deeper understanding of how a master regulator of mating-type determination in an ancestral unicellular species was

  9. Functional pleiotropy and mating system evolution in plants: frequency-independent mating.

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    Jordan, Crispin Y; Otto, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Mutations that alter the morphology of floral displays (e.g., flower size) or plant development can change multiple functions simultaneously, such as pollen export and selfing rate. Given the effect of these various traits on fitness, pleiotropy may alter the evolution of both mating systems and floral displays, two characters with high diversity among angiosperms. The influence of viability selection on mating system evolution has not been studied theoretically. We model plant mating system evolution when a single locus simultaneously affects the selfing rate, pollen export, and viability. We assume frequency-independent mating, so our model characterizes prior selfing. Pleiotropy between increased viability and selfing rate reduces opportunities for the evolution of pure outcrossing, can favor complete selfing despite high inbreeding depression, and notably, can cause the evolution of mixed mating despite very high inbreeding depression. These results highlight the importance of pleiotropy for mating system evolution and suggest that selection by nonpollinating agents may help explain mixed mating, particularly in species with very high inbreeding depression. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Structures of the Mating-Type Loci of Cordyceps takaomontana

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    Yokoyama, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kenzo; Hara, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the mating-type loci MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 of Cordyceps takaomontana were determined, which is the first such report for the clavicipitaceous fungi. MAT1-1 contains two mating-type genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, but MAT1-1-3 could not be found. On the other hand, MAT1-2 has MAT1-2-1. A pseudogene of MAT1-1-1 is located next to MAT1-2. PMID:12902305

  11. Species-specific and mating type-specific DNA regions adjacent to mating type idiomorphs in the genus Neurospora.

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    Randall, T A; Metzenberg, R L

    1995-09-01

    Mating type idiomorphs control mating and subsequent sexual development in Neurospora crassa and were previously shown to be well conserved in other Neurospora species. The centromere-proximal flanks of the A and a idiomorphs, but not the distal flanks from representative heterothallic, pseudohomothallic, and homothallic Neurospora species contain apparent species-specific and/or mating type-specific sequences adjacent to the well-conserved idiomorphs. The variable flank is bordered by regions that are highly homologous in all species. The sequence of approximately 1 kb immediately flanking the conserved idiomorphs of each species was determined. Sequence identity between species ranged from 20% (essentially unrelated) to > 90%. By contrast, the mt-A1 gene shows 88-98% identity. Sequence and hybridization data also show that the centromere-proximal flanks are very different between the two mating types for N. intermedia, N. discreta, and N. tetrasperma, but not for N. sitophila and N. crassa. The data suggest a close evolutionary relationship between several of the species; this is suppported by phylogenetic analysis of their respective mt-A1 genes. The origin of the variable regions adjacent to the evolutionarily conserved mating type idiomorphs is unknown.

  12. The mating type-like loci of Candida glabrata.

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    Yáñez-Carrillo, Patricia; Robledo-Márquez, Karina A; Ramírez-Zavaleta, Candy Y; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Castaño, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid and opportunistic fungal pathogen that has not known sexual cycle, has conserved the majority of the genes required for mating and cell type identity. The C. glabrata genome contains three mating-type-like loci called MTL1, MTL2 and MTL3. The three loci encode putative transcription factors, a1, α1 and α2 that regulate cell type identity and sexual reproduction in other fungi like the closely related Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTL1 can contain either a or α information. MTL2, which contains a information and MTL3 with α information, are relatively close to two telomeres. MTL1 and MTL2 are transcriptionally active, while MTL3 is subject to an incomplete silencing nucleated at the telomere that depends on the silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3, Sir4, yKu70/80, Rif1, Rap1 and Sum1. C. glabrata does not seem to maintain cell type identity, as cell type-specific genes are expressed regardless of the type (or even absence) of mating information. These data highlight important differences in the control of mating and cell type identity between the non-pathogenic yeast S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata, which might explain the absence of a sexual cycle in C. glabrata. The fact that C. glabrata has conserved the vast majority of the genes involved in mating might suggest that some of these genes perhaps have been rewired to control other processes important for the survival inside the host as a commensal or as a human pathogen. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Functionality of the Paracoccidioides mating α-pheromone-receptor system.

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    Jéssica A Gomes-Rezende

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that Paracoccidioides species have the potential to undergo sexual reproduction, although no sexual cycle has been identified either in nature or under laboratory conditions. In the present work we detected low expression levels of the heterothallic MAT loci genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, the α-pheromone (PBα gene, and the α- and a-pheromone receptor (PREB and PREA genes in yeast and mycelia forms of several Paracoccidioides isolates. None of the genes were expressed in a mating type dependent manner. Stimulation of P. brasiliensis MAT1-2 strains with the synthetic α-pheromone peptide failed to elicit transcriptional activation of MAT1-2, PREB or STE12, suggesting that the strains tested are insensitive to α-pheromone. In order to further evaluate the biological functionality of the pair α-pheromone and its receptor, we took advantage of the heterologous expression of these Paracoccidioides genes in the corresponding S. cerevisiae null mutants. We show that S. cerevisiae strains heterologously expressing PREB respond to Pbα pheromone either isolated from Paracoccidioides culture supernatants or in its synthetic form, both by shmoo formation and by growth and cell cycle arrests. This allowed us to conclude that Paracoccidioides species secrete an active α-pheromone into the culture medium that is able to activate its cognate receptor. Moreover, expression of PREB or PBα in the corresponding null mutants of S. cerevisiae restored mating in these non-fertile strains. Taken together, our data demonstrate pheromone signaling activation by the Paracoccidioides α-pheromone through its receptor in this yeast model, which provides novel evidence for the existence of a functional mating signaling system in Paracoccidioides.

  14. Gamete signalling underlies the evolution of mating types and their number

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    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The gametes of unicellular eukaryotes are morphologically identical, but are nonetheless divided into distinct mating types. The number of mating types varies enormously and can reach several thousand, yet most species have only two. Why do morphologically identical gametes need to be differentiated into self-incompatible mating types, and why is two the most common number of mating types? In this work, we explore a neglected hypothesis that there is a need for asymmetric signalling interactions between mating partners. Our review shows that isogamous gametes always interact asymmetrically throughout sex and argue that this asymmetry is favoured because it enhances the efficiency of the mating process. We further develop a simple mathematical model that allows us to study the evolution of the number of mating types based on the strength of signalling interactions between gametes. Novel mating types have an advantage as they are compatible with all others and rarely meet their own type. But if existing mating types coevolve to have strong mutual interactions, this restricts the spread of novel types. Similarly, coevolution is likely to drive out less attractive mating types. These countervailing forces specify the number of mating types that are evolutionarily stable. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction’. PMID:27619695

  15. Heterothallic Type of Mating System for Cordyceps cardinalis

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    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Kim, Soo-Young

    2010-01-01

    Cordyceps cardinalis successfully produced its fruiting bodies from multi-ascospore isolates. However, subcultures of multi-ascospore isolates could not produce fruiting bodies after few generations. Fruiting body production also differed from sector to sector of the same isolate. Single ascospore isolates were then co-inoculated in combinations of two to observe the fruiting characteristics. Combinations of certain isolates produced perithecial stromata formation, whereas other combinations did not produce any fruiting bodies. These results show that C. cardinalis is a heterothallic fungus, requiring two isolates of opposite mating types for fruiting body production. It was also shown that single ascospore isolates are hermaphrodites. PMID:23956667

  16. Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate Development of functional yerba-mate jelly

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    Kleber Alves Santos Berté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU, frutooligossacarídeos (FOS e a polidextrose (PD, avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firmeza, consistência e coesividade, análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejável para uma sobremesa de gelatina, não diferindo (P>0,05 do padrão com sacarose. Pela análise sensorial, a gelatina funcional com INU obteve o maior índice hedônico para sabor e preferência de compra acima de 70%, superior ao padrão. Considerando os resultados obtidos neste estudo, a aplicação tecnológica do extrato de erva-mate verde e das fibras solúveis apresenta evidente potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos saudáveis e funcionais.The objective of this study was to develop formulations for functional jelly with extract of green yerba-mate and soluble fibers as inulin (INU, fructooligosaccharides (FOS and polidextrose (PD, evaluating the effect of those ingredients in the functional jelly through texture physical analysis (firmness, consistence, cohesiveness, sensorial analysis (flavor and purchase preference and chemical composition. The formulations INU, PD and composition INU/PD/FOS presented desirable texture for jelly dessert and not differing (P>0.05 of the reference standard with sucrose. For the sensorial analysis the functional jelly with INU obtained the largest index hedonic for flavor and purchase preference above 70%, higher than the reference standard. Considering the results obtained in this study, the technological application of green yerba-mate extract and of soluble fibers, presents evident potential for the development of healthy and functional foods.

  17. Transcriptome and Functional Analysis of Mating in the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

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    Erdmann, Susann; Freihorst, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Jung, Elke-Martina; Senftleben, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we undertook a functional characterization and transcriptome analysis that enabled a comprehensive study of the mating type loci of the mushroom Schizophyllum commune. Induced expression of both the bar2 receptor and the bap2(2) pheromone gene within 6 to 12 h after mates' contact was demonstrated by quantitative real-time PCR. Similar temporal expression patterns were confirmed for the allelic bbr1 receptor and bbp1 pheromone-encoding genes by Northern hybridization. Interestingly, the fusion of clamp connections to the subterminal cell was delayed in mating interactions in which one of the compatible partners expressed the bar2 receptor with a truncated C terminus. This developmental delay allowed the visualization of a green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labeled truncated receptor at the cell periphery, consistent with a localization in the plasma membrane of unfused pseudoclamps. This finding does not support hypotheses envisioning a receptor localization to the nuclear membrane facilitating recognition between the two different nuclei present in each dikaryotic cell. Rather, Gfp fluorescence observed in such pseudoclamps indicated a role of receptor-pheromone interaction in clamp fusion. Transcriptome changes associated with mating interactions were analyzed in order to identify a role for pheromone-receptor interactions. We detected a total of 89 genes that were transcriptionally regulated in a mating type locus A-dependent manner, employing a cutoff of 5-fold changes in transcript abundance. Upregulation in cell cycle-related genes and downregulation of genes involved in metabolism were seen with this set of experiments. In contrast, mating type locus B-dependent transcriptome changes were observed in 208 genes, with a specific impact on genes related to cell wall and membrane metabolism, stress response, and the redox status of the cell. PMID:22210832

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans glutamylating enzymes function redundantly in male mating.

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    Chawla, Daniel G; Shah, Ruchi V; Barth, Zachary K; Lee, Jessica D; Badecker, Katherine E; Naik, Anar; Brewster, Megan M; Salmon, Timothy P; Peel, Nina

    2016-09-15

    Microtubule glutamylation is an important modulator of microtubule function and has been implicated in the regulation of centriole stability, neuronal outgrowth and cilia motility. Glutamylation of the microtubules is catalyzed by a family of tubulin tyrosine ligase-like (TTLL) enzymes. Analysis of individual TTLL enzymes has led to an understanding of their specific functions, but how activities of the TTLL enzymes are coordinated to spatially and temporally regulate glutamylation remains relatively unexplored. We have undertaken an analysis of the glutamylating TTLL enzymes in C. elegans We find that although all five TTLL enzymes are expressed in the embryo and adult worm, loss of individual enzymes does not perturb microtubule function in embryonic cell divisions. Moreover, normal dye-filling, osmotic avoidance and male mating behavior indicate the presence of functional amphid cilia and male-specific neurons. A ttll-4(tm3310); ttll-11(tm4059); ttll-5(tm3360) triple mutant, however, shows reduced male mating efficiency due to a defect in the response step, suggesting that these three enzymes function redundantly, and that glutamylation is required for proper function of the male-specific neurons.

  19. Maintaining two mating types: structure of the mating type locus and its role in heterokaryosis in Podospora anserina.

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    Grognet, Pierre; Bidard, Frédérique; Kuchly, Claire; Tong, Laetitia Chan Ho; Coppin, Evelyne; Benkhali, Jinane Ait; Couloux, Arnaud; Wincker, Patrick; Debuchy, Robert; Silar, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Pseudo-homothallism is a reproductive strategy elected by some fungi producing heterokaryotic sexual spores containing genetically different but sexually compatible nuclei. This lifestyle appears as a compromise between true homothallism (self-fertility with predominant inbreeding) and complete heterothallism (with exclusive outcrossing). However, pseudohomothallic species face the problem of maintaining heterokaryotic mycelia to fully benefit from this lifestyle, as homokaryons are self-sterile. Here, we report on the structure of chromosome 1 in mat+ and mat- isolates of strain S of the pseudohomothallic fungus Podospora anserina. Chromosome 1 contains either one of the mat+ and mat- mating types of P. anserina, which is mostly found in nature as a mat+/mat- heterokaryotic mycelium harboring sexually compatible nuclei. We identified a "mat" region ∼0.8 Mb long, devoid of meiotic recombination and containing the mating-type idiomorphs, which is a candidate to be involved in the maintenance of the heterokaryotic state, since the S mat+ and S mat- strains have different physiology that may enable hybrid-vigor-like phenomena in the heterokaryons. The mat region contains 229 coding sequences. A total of 687 polymorphisms were detected between the S mat+ and S mat- chromosomes. Importantly, the mat region is colinear between both chromosomes, which calls for an original mechanism of recombination inhibition. Microarray analyses revealed that 10% of the P. anserina genes have different transcriptional profiles in S mat+ and S mat-, in line with their different phenotypes. Finally, we show that the heterokaryotic state is faithfully maintained during mycelium growth of P. anserina, yet mat+/mat+ and mat-/mat- heterokaryons are as stable as mat+/mat- ones, evidencing a maintenance of heterokaryosis that does not rely on fitness-enhancing complementation between the S mat+ and S mat- strains.

  20. Comparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals Widespread Synteny and Recent Inversions

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    van Peer, Arend F.; Park, Soon-Young; Shin, Pyung-Gyun; Jang, Kab-Yeul; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Young-Jin; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Sung, Gi-Ho; James, Timothy Y.; Kong, Won-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Background Mating-type loci of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei, maintenance of compatible nuclei as heterokaryons, and fruiting body development. Regions near mating-type loci in fungi often show adapted recombination, facilitating the generation of novel mating types and reducing the production of self-compatible mating types. Compared to other fungi, mushroom fungi have complex mating-type systems, showing both loci with redundant function (subloci) and subloci with many alleles. The genomic organization of mating-type loci has been solved in very few mushroom species, which complicates proper interpretation of mating-type evolution and use of those genes in breeding programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We report a complete genetic structure of the mating-type loci from the tetrapolar, edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes mating type A3B3. Two matB3 subloci, matB3a that contains a unique pheromone and matB3b, were mapped 177 Kb apart on scaffold 1. The matA locus of F. velutipes contains three homeodomain genes distributed over 73 Kb distant matA3a and matA3b subloci. The conserved matA region in Agaricales approaches 350 Kb and contains conserved recombination hotspots showing major rearrangements in F. velutipes and Schizophyllum commune. Important evolutionary differences were indicated; separation of the matA subloci in F. velutipes was diverged from the Coprinopsis cinerea arrangement via two large inversions whereas separation in S. commune emerged through transposition of gene clusters. Conclusions/Significance In our study we determined that the Agaricales have very large scale synteny at matA (∼350 Kb) and that this synteny is maintained even when parts of this region are separated through chromosomal rearrangements. Four conserved recombination hotspots allow reshuffling of large fragments of this region. Next to this, it was revealed that large distance subloci can exist in matB as

  1. The smt-0 mutation which abolishes mating-type switching in fission yeast is a deletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrkársdóttir, U; Egel, R; Nielsen, O

    1993-01-01

    Mating-type switching in the fission yeast, S. pombe, is initiated by a DNA double-strand break (DSB) between the mat1 cassette and the H1 homology box. The mat1-cis-acting mutant, smt-0, abolishes mating-type switching and is shown here to be a 263-bp deletion. This deletion starts in the middle...

  2. Identification and structure of the mating-type locus and development of PCR-based markers for mating type in powdery mildew fungi.

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    Brewer, Marin Talbot; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Cortesi, Paolo; Spanu, Pietro D; Milgroom, Michael G

    2011-07-01

    In ascomycetes, mating compatibility is regulated by the mating-type locus, MAT1. The objectives of this study were to identify and sequence genes at the MAT1 locus in the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, to develop a PCR-based marker for determining mating type in E. necator, and to develop degenerate primers for amplification by PCR of conserved regions of mating-type idiomorphs in other powdery mildew fungi. We identified MAT1-2-1 of the MAT1-2 idiomorph in E. necator based on the homologous sequence in the genome of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei and we found MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-3 of the MAT1-1 idiomorph from transcriptome sequences of E. necator. We developed and applied a reliable PCR-based multiplex marker to confirm that genotype correlated with mating phenotype, which was determined by pairing with mating-type tester isolates. Additionally, we used the marker to genotype populations of E. necator from different Vitis spp. from throughout the USA. We found both mating types were present in all populations and mating-type ratios did not deviate from 1:1. The mating-type genes in E. necator are similar to those of other Leotiomycetes; however, the structure of the MAT1 locus in E. necator, like the MAT1-2 idiomorph of B. graminis, is markedly different from other ascomycetes in that it is greatly expanded and may contain a large amount of repetitive DNA. As a result, we were unable to amplify and sequence either idiomorph in its entirety. We designed degenerate primers that amplify conserved regions of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 in E. necator, Podosphaera xanthii, Microsphaera syringae, and B. graminis, representing the major clades of the Erysiphales. These degenerate primers or sequences obtained in this study from these species can be used to identify and sequence MAT1 genes or design mating-type markers in other powdery mildew fungi as well.

  3. 4-Dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the sex hormone pathway in Mucor mucedo, is constitutively transcribed but its activity is differently regulated in (+) and (-) mating types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek, Christine; Petzold, Annett; Schultze, Kornelia; Wetzel, Jana; Wolschendorf, Frank; Burmester, Anke; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2005-09-01

    4-Dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase (TDH) converts the (+) mating type sex pheromone 4-dihydromethyltrisporate into methyltrisporate. In Mucor mucedo, this conversion is required only in the (-) mating type. Expression of the TDH encoding TSP1 gene was analyzed qualitatively using reverse-transcribed PCR. TSP1 is constitutively transcribed in the (+) and in the (-) mating type, irrespective of the mating situation. By immunodetection, the translation product is also formed constitutively. In contrast to gene expression, TDH enzyme activity depends on the sexual status of the mycelium. Activity is restricted to the sexually stimulated (-) mating type. Non-stimulated (-), as well as stimulated and non-stimulated (+) mycelia exhibit no activity and do not influence activity in stimulated (-) mycelia. Time course analysis shows strongly increased enzyme activity at 80 min after stimulation. Low activity exists from the onset of stimulation, indicating that additional regulation mechanisms are involved in TDH function.

  4. Cloning and analysis of the mating type idiomorphs from the barley pathogen Septoria passerinii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, S.B.; Cavaletto, J.R.; Zhang, G.; Waalwijk, C.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Septoria contains more than 1000 species of plant pathogenic fungi, most of which have no known sexual stage. Species of Septoria without a known sexual stage could be recent derivatives of sexual species that have lost the ability to mate. To test this hypothesis, the mating-type region o

  5. Biological characteristics and mating type distribution of Phytophthora capsici from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y; Gong, Z-H; Liu, G-Z; Chai, G-X; Li, C

    2014-01-21

    Phytophthora capsici from seven provinces of China were investigated for their mating type, hyphal growth, zoospore production, and virulence. All of the morphological characteristics and the results of polymerase chain reaction confirmed that these isolates were indeed Phytophthora capsici. The test of mating type showed that the mating types of 19 representative isolates from China varied. The hyphal growth and the amount of zoospores produced from these isolates differed and there was no evident relationship between them, which indicated the existence of genetic diversity among the isolates in China. Also, the isolates that were more virulent on the pepper cultivars that we checked produced more zoospores than other isolates.

  6. Dynamic linkage relationships to the mating-type locus in automictic fungi of the genus Microbotryum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, J L; Hood, M E

    2010-08-01

    Regions of the chromosomes determining mating compatibility in some fungi, including Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and Neurospora tetrasperma, exhibit suppressed recombination similar to sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and recent studies have sought to apply basic theories of sex chromosome evolution to fungi. A phylogeny of the MTL1 locus in Microbotryum indicates that it has become part of the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes in multiple independent events, and that recombination may have been subsequently restored in some cases. This illustrates that fungal mating-type chromosomes can exhibit linkage relationship that are quite dynamic, adding to the list of similarities to animal or plant sex chromosomes. However, fungi such as M. lychnidis-dioicae and N. tetrasperma exhibit an automictic mating system, for which an alternate theoretical framework exists to explain the evolution of linkage with the mating-type locus. This study encourages further comparative studies among fungi to evaluate the role of mating systems in determining the evolution of fungal mating-type chromosomes.

  7. Characterization of multiple isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus from patients: genotype, mating type and invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Perez, Sergio; Garcia, Marta E; Bouza, Emilio; Pelaez, Teresa; Blanco, Jose L

    2009-01-01

    The possible co-existence of different genotypes of Aspergillus fumigatus in the same case was studied in five patients colonized or infected by this opportunistic mould. A total of 22 isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsatellite analysis. Differences in the mating type and invasiveness of the isolates were also considered. The combination of four arbitrary primers used in RAPD typing differentiated all the isolates. In microsatellite analysis, at least two different genotypes were identified in four of the five patients. The 22 isolates showed elastase activity after 10 days of incubation at 37 degrees C in an elastin-containing medium. The presence of strains of compatible mating type was observed in one of the colonized patients and one of the individuals with invasive aspergillosis. Some isolates that belonged to the same genotype in microsatellite analysis were of a different mating type. Taken together, our results suggest that multiple isolates of A. fumigatus obtained from colonized or infected patients may differ not only in their genotypes, but also in their invasiveness and mating types. Furthermore, mating type determination may be of great assistance in differentiating some isolates, as two isolates of different mating type cannot be genotypically identical.

  8. Chromosome-refolding model of mating-type switching in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşaroğlu, Barış; Bronk, Gabriel; Li, Kevin; Haber, James E; Kondev, Jane

    2016-10-24

    Chromosomes are folded into cells in a nonrandom fashion, with particular genetic loci occupying distinct spatial regions. This observation raises the question of whether the spatial organization of a chromosome governs its functions, such as recombination or transcription. We consider this general question in the specific context of mating-type switching in budding yeast, which is a model system for homologous recombination. Mating-type switching is induced by a DNA double-strand break (DSB) at the MAT locus on chromosome III, followed by homologous recombination between the cut MAT locus and one of two donor loci (HMLα and HMRa), located on the same chromosome. Previous studies have suggested that in MATa cells after the DSB is induced chromosome III undergoes refolding, which directs the MAT locus to recombine with HMLα. Here, we propose a quantitative model of mating-type switching predicated on the assumption of DSB-induced chromosome refolding, which also takes into account the previously measured stochastic dynamics and polymer nature of yeast chromosomes. Using quantitative fluorescence microscopy, we measure changes in the distance between the donor (HMLα) and MAT loci after the DSB and find agreement with the theory. Predictions of the theory also agree with measurements of changes in the use of HMLα as the donor, when we perturb the refolding of chromosome III. These results establish refolding of yeast chromosome III as a key driving force in MAT switching and provide an example of a cell regulating the spatial organization of its chromosome so as to direct homology search during recombination.

  9. Identification and functional analysis of pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 mating locus of Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Young Min; Im, Chak Han; Ali, Asjad; Kim, Sun Young; Je, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Min-Keun; Rho, Hyun Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kong, Won-Sik; Ryu, Jae-San

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the development of new strains. We isolated and identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and performed a functional analysis of the genes in the mating process by transformation. A genomic DNA library was constructed to map the entire mating-type locus. The B3 locus was found to contain four pheromone precursor genes and four receptor genes. Remarkably, receptor PESTE3.3.1 has just 34 amino acid residues in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region; therefore, it seems likely to be a receptor-like gene. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) revealed that most pheromone and receptor genes showed significantly higher expression in monokaryotic cells than dikaryotic cells. The pheromone genes PEphb3.1 and PEphb3.3 and the receptor gene PESTE3.3.1 were transformed into P5 (A3B4). The transformants were mated with a tester strain (A4B4), and the progeny showed clamp connections and a normal fruiting body, which indicates the proposed role of these genes in mating and fruiting processes. This result also confirms that PESTE3.3.1 is a receptor gene. In this study, we identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and found that some of those genes appear to play a role in the mating and fruiting processes. These results might help elucidate the mechanism of fruiting differentiation and improve breeding efficiency.

  10. Identification and functional analysis of pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 mating locus of Pleurotus eryngii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the development of new strains. We isolated and identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and performed a functional analysis of the genes in the mating process by transformation. A genomic DNA library was constructed to map the entire mating-type locus. The B3 locus was found to contain four pheromone precursor genes and four receptor genes. Remarkably, receptor PESTE3.3.1 has just 34 amino acid residues in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region; therefore, it seems likely to be a receptor-like gene. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR revealed that most pheromone and receptor genes showed significantly higher expression in monokaryotic cells than dikaryotic cells. The pheromone genes PEphb3.1 and PEphb3.3 and the receptor gene PESTE3.3.1 were transformed into P5 (A3B4. The transformants were mated with a tester strain (A4B4, and the progeny showed clamp connections and a normal fruiting body, which indicates the proposed role of these genes in mating and fruiting processes. This result also confirms that PESTE3.3.1 is a receptor gene. In this study, we identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and found that some of those genes appear to play a role in the mating and fruiting processes. These results might help elucidate the mechanism of fruiting differentiation and improve breeding efficiency.

  11. [Hybridization of cells of the same mating type in Saccharomyces yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge-Vechtomov, S G; Repnevskaia, M V; Karpova, T S

    1986-11-01

    The problem of mating-type switches in heterothallic yeast cells was investigated. 93% of non-mating hybrids were obtained in a X a crosses. The hybrids obtained in alpha X alpha crosses expressed alpha-mating type predominantly. Hybrids with no major rearrangements or loss of chromosome III were detected among these hybrids. In the selective system for cytoduction in a X a crosses the significant part of all cytoductants were alpha-maters, i.e. those originated through a----alpha switches. In alpha X alpha crosses alpha cytoductants were predominantly obtained either spontaneously or after UV-irradiation, though the frequency of cytoductants after UV-irradiation exceeded the control value several times. So, we developed the method for selection of mating-type "switchers" (a in equilibrium alpha), avoiding the diploid stage, and demonstrated the possibility of hybridization among the alpha-cells without hereditary changes at the MAT locus.

  12. Molecular basis of Kar9-Bim1 complex function during mating and spindle positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatschal, Cristina; Farcas, Ana-Maria; Degen, Miriam Steiner; Bayer, Mathias; Kumar, Anil; Landgraf, Christiane; Volkmer, Rudolf; Barral, Yves; Steinmetz, Michel O.

    2016-01-01

    The Kar9 pathway promotes nuclear fusion during mating and spindle alignment during metaphase in budding yeast. How Kar9 supports the different outcome of these two divergent processes is an open question. Here, we show that three sites in the C-terminal disordered domain of Kar9 mediate tight Kar9 interaction with the C-terminal dimerization domain of Bim1 (EB1 orthologue). Site1 and Site2 contain SxIP motifs; however, Site3 defines a novel type of EB1-binding site. Whereas Site2 and Site3 mediate Kar9 recruitment to microtubule tips, nuclear movement, and karyogamy, only Site2 functions in spindle positioning during metaphase. Site1 in turn plays an inhibitory role during mating. Additionally, the Kar9-Bim1 complex is involved in microtubule-independent activities during mating. Together, our data reveal how multiple and partially redundant EB1-binding sites provide a microtubule-associated protein with the means to modulate its biochemical properties to promote different molecular processes during cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:27682587

  13. Roles for receptors, pheromones, G proteins, and mating type genes during sexual reproduction in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojeong; Wright, Sara J; Park, Gyungsoon; Ouyang, Shouqiang; Krystofova, Svetlana; Borkovich, Katherine A

    2012-04-01

    Here we characterize the relationship between the PRE-2 pheromone receptor and its ligand, CCG-4, and the general requirements for receptors, pheromones, G proteins, and mating type genes during fusion of opposite mating-type cells and sexual sporulation in the multicellular fungus Neurospora crassa. PRE-2 is highly expressed in mat a cells and is localized in male and female reproductive structures. Δpre-2 mat a females do not respond chemotropically to mat A males (conidia) or form mature fruiting bodies (perithecia) or meiotic progeny (ascospores). Strains with swapped identity due to heterologous expression of pre-2 or ccg-4 behave normally in crosses with opposite mating-type strains. Coexpression of pre-2 and ccg-4 in the mat A background leads to self-attraction and development of barren perithecia without ascospores. Further perithecial development is achieved by inactivation of Sad-1, a gene required for meiotic gene silencing. Findings from studies involving forced heterokaryons of opposite mating-type strains show that presence of one receptor and its compatible pheromone is necessary and sufficient for perithecial development and ascospore production. Taken together, the results demonstrate that although receptors and pheromones control sexual identity, the mating-type genes (mat A and mat a) must be in two different nuclei to allow meiosis and sexual sporulation to occur.

  14. Genetic Analysis of Distorted Segregation Ratio of Mating Types Among Basidiospores in Lentinula edodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shui-ming; LIN Fan-xue

    2008-01-01

    This study prepared 17 strains of Lentinula edodes, including wild and cultivated strains as materials, and statistically analyzed the ratios of spores from different aspects via mating types' analysis and the OWE-SOJ technique. The results from this study first systematically identified skewed expected distribution of mating-type factors segregation in Lentinula edodes spores has commonly statistical meanings in wild and cultivated strains. Genetic analysis of positive and negative parental-recombined fruiting showed that the nuclear type of F1 progeny spores among those strains segregated through theoretical distribution mainly depended on the combined state of parental dikaryons, and the predominant spores were those with the mating type identical to the dikaryotic parent, indicating that the genetic basis of segregation distortion of spores is different from that of protoplast monokaryons in which the B factor takes predominant responsibility for that phenomenon, and it cooperates A factor with B factor to influence the ratio of spores.

  15. Mating Type Loci of Sporisorium reilianum: Novel Pattern with Three a and Multiple b Specificities

    OpenAIRE

    Schirawski, Jan; Heinze, Bernadette; Wagenknecht, Martin; Kahmann, Regine

    2005-01-01

    Sporisorium reilianum and Ustilago maydis are two closely related smut fungi, which both infect maize but differ fundamentally in their mode of plant invasion and site of symptom development. As a prelude to studying the molecular basis of these differences, we have characterized the mating type loci of S. reilianum. S. reilianum has two unlinked mating type loci, a and b. Genes in both loci and adjacent regions show a high degree of synteny to the corresponding genes of U. maydis. The b locu...

  16. Gene conversion occurs within the mating-type locus of Cryptococcus neoformans during sexual reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Sun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination of sex chromosomes is thought to be repressed in organisms with heterogametic sex determination (e.g. mammalian X/Y chromosomes, due to extensive divergence and chromosomal rearrangements between the two chromosomes. However, proper segregation of sex chromosomes during meiosis requires crossing-over occurring within the pseudoautosomal regions (PAR. Recent studies reveal that recombination, in the form of gene conversion, is widely distributed within and may have played important roles in the evolution of some chromosomal regions within which recombination was thought to be repressed, such as the centromere cores of maize. Cryptococcus neoformans, a major human pathogenic fungus, has an unusually large mating-type locus (MAT, >100 kb, and the MAT alleles from the two opposite mating-types show extensive nucleotide sequence divergence and chromosomal rearrangements, mirroring characteristics of sex chromosomes. Meiotic recombination was assumed to be repressed within the C. neoformans MAT locus. A previous study identified recombination hot spots flanking the C. neoformans MAT, and these hot spots are associated with high GC content. Here, we investigated a GC-rich intergenic region located within the MAT locus of C. neoformans to establish if this region also exhibits unique recombination behavior during meiosis. Population genetics analysis of natural C. neoformans isolates revealed signals of homogenization spanning this GC-rich intergenic region within different C. neoformans lineages, consistent with a model in which gene conversion of this region during meiosis prevents it from diversifying within each lineage. By analyzing meiotic progeny from laboratory crosses, we found that meiotic recombination (gene conversion occurs around the GC-rich intergenic region at a frequency equal to or greater than the meiotic recombination frequency observed in other genomic regions. We discuss the implications of these findings with

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of mating-type loci of Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Crous, P.W.; Zwiers, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    The devastating Sigatoka disease complex of banana is primarily caused by three closely related heterothallic fungi belonging to the genus Mycosphaerella: M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. Previous phylogenetic work showing common ancestry led us to analyze the mating-type loci of these

  18. The pat1 protein kinase controls transcription of the mating-type genes in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Egel, R; Nielsen, Olaf

    1990-01-01

    The developmental programme of fission yeast brings about a transition from mitotic cell division to the dormant state of ascospores. In response to nitrogen starvation, two cells of opposite mating type conjugate to form a diploid zygote, which then undergoes meiosis and sporulation. This differ...

  19. Repression of a mating type cassette in the fission yeast by four DNA elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, K; Nielsen, O; Ruusala, T

    1991-01-01

    The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, expresses one of two alternative mating types. They are specified by one of two determinants (M or P) present at the mat1 locus. In addition, silent copies of M and P are present on the same chromosome. In the present work we demonstrate that the diff...... partitioning in mitosis to Schizosaccharomyces pombe ars plasmids....

  20. Characterization and distribution of mating type genes in the Dothistroma needle blight pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, M.; Barnes, I.; Bradshaw, R.E.; Brown, A.V.; Dale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Lewis, K.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini are the two causal agents of Dothistroma needle blight of Pinus spp. in natural forests and plantations. Degenerate primers amplified portions of mating type genes (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2) and chromosome walking was applied to obtain the full-length genes in both

  1. Synteny in toxigenic Fusarium species: the fumonisin gene cluster and the mating type region as examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalwijk, C.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Vries, de P.M.; Hesselink, T.; Arts, J.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative genomic approach was used to study the mating type locus and the gene cluster involved in toxin production ( fumonisin) in Fusarium proliferatum, a pathogen with a wide host range and a complex toxin profile. A BAC library, generated from F. proliferatum isolate ITEM 2287, was used to

  2. Mapping the double-strand breaks at the mating-type locus in fission yeast by genomic sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Egel, R; Nielsen, Olaf

    1989-01-01

    In fission yeast mating-type switching is initiated by the formation of a double-strand DNA break at the mating-type locus. A prerequisite for generation of the break is some 'imprinting' of the DNA in the previous cell cycle. We have used the technique of genomic sequencing to map the position o...

  3. Mating Strategies and Sexual Functioning in Personality Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazzoni, Alberto; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Marucci, Carmela; Mollaioli, Daniele; Di Sante, Stefania; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto; Maggi, Mario; Castellini, Giovanni; Rossi, Alessandro; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2017-10-01

    Personality disorders impair several aspects of intrapsychic and interpersonal life. In particular, mating strategies and sexual functioning could manifest in different and/or dysfunctional ways in people with personality disorders. To describe, through a comprehensive review of the literature, the mating strategies and sexual functioning in patients with personality disorders. We listed and discussed the principal studies on the relation between mating strategies and sexual functioning in personality disorders. The search strategy used search terms in PubMed for the main studies published from January 2000 to December 2016. We considered two main sections for our selection according to the aim of the present review: mating and sexuality. Interesting evidence on mating strategies in personality disorders was found. In particular, the major items were found in the dramatic-unpredictable cluster, with borderline personality disorder being the most studied. In contrast, the bizarre-eccentric cluster had fewer items, with the schizoid personality disorder being the least studied. For sexual behavior, borderline personality seems to be the unique disorder sufficiently studied, with evidence of major histories of child sexual abuse, the presence of sexual dysfunctions, and paraphilic interests. A large spectrum of mating strategies characterizes different personality disorders, although an inconsistent knowledge about the relation between sexual function and personality disorders emerged from our analysis of the literature. Hence, we invite clinicians and researchers to integrate psychodiagnostic and sexual assessments in psychiatric disciplines for people with personality disorders. Collazzoni A, Ciocca G, Limoncin E, et al. Mating Strategies and Sexual Functioning in Personality Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of Literature. Sex Med Rev 2017;5:414-428. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between Monokaryotic Growth Rate and Mating Type in the Edible Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gúmer; Iribarren, Iñaki; Blanco, Juan A.; Alfonso, Mikel; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2001-01-01

    The edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) is an industrially produced heterothallic homobasidiomycete whose mating is controlled by a bifactorial tetrapolar genetic system. Two mating loci (matA and matB) control different steps of hyphal fusion, nuclear migration, and nuclear sorting during the onset and progress of the dikaryotic growth. Previous studies have shown that the segregation of the alleles present at the matB locus differs from that expected for a single locus because (i) new nonparental B alleles appeared in the progeny and (ii) there was a distortion in the segregation of the genomic regions close to this mating locus. In this study, we pursued these observations by using a genetic approach based on the identification of molecular markers linked to the matB locus that allowed us to dissect it into two genetically linked subunits (matBα and matBβ) and to correlate the presence of specific matBα and matA alleles with differences in monokaryotic growth rate. The availability of these molecular markers and the mating type dependence of growth rate in monokaryons can be helpful for marker-assisted selection of fast-growing monokaryons to be used in the construction of dikaryons able to colonize the substrate faster than the competitors responsible for reductions in the industrial yield of this fungus. PMID:11472908

  5. Genome-defence small RNAs exapted for epigenetic mating-type inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepankar Pratap; Saudemont, Baptiste; Guglielmi, Gérard; Arnaiz, Olivier; Goût, Jean-François; Prajer, Malgorzata; Potekhin, Alexey; Przybòs, Ewa; Aubusson-Fleury, Anne; Bhullar, Simran; Bouhouche, Khaled; Lhuillier-Akakpo, Maoussi; Tanty, Véronique; Blugeon, Corinne; Alberti, Adriana; Labadie, Karine; Aury, Jean-Marc; Sperling, Linda; Duharcourt, Sandra; Meyer, Eric

    2014-05-22

    In the ciliate Paramecium, transposable elements and their single-copy remnants are deleted during the development of somatic macronuclei from germline micronuclei, at each sexual generation. Deletions are targeted by scnRNAs, small RNAs produced from the germ line during meiosis that first scan the maternal macronuclear genome to identify missing sequences, and then allow the zygotic macronucleus to reproduce the same deletions. Here we show that this process accounts for the maternal inheritance of mating types in Paramecium tetraurelia, a long-standing problem in epigenetics. Mating type E depends on expression of the transmembrane protein mtA, and the default type O is determined during development by scnRNA-dependent excision of the mtA promoter. In the sibling species Paramecium septaurelia, mating type O is determined by coding-sequence deletions in a different gene, mtB, which is specifically required for mtA expression. These independently evolved mechanisms suggest frequent exaptation of the scnRNA pathway to regulate cellular genes and mediate transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of essential phenotypic polymorphisms.

  6. Aneuploidy as a cause of impaired chromatin silencing and mating-type specification in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Wahid A; Seidel, Chris W; Zhu, Jin; Tsai, Hung-Ji; Smith, Sarah E; Singh, Pushpendra; Bradford, William D; McCroskey, Scott; Nelliat, Anjali R; Conkright, Juliana; Peak, Allison; Malanowski, Kathryn E; Perera, Anoja G; Li, Rong

    2017-08-25

    Aneuploidy and epigenetic alterations have long been associated with carcinogenesis, but it was unknown whether aneuploidy could disrupt the epigenetic states required for cellular differentiation. In this study, we found that ~3% of random aneuploid karyotypes in yeast disrupt the stable inheritance of silenced chromatin during cell proliferation. Karyotype analysis revealed that this phenotype was significantly correlated with gains of chromosomes III and X. Chromosome X disomy alone was sufficient to disrupt chromatin silencing and yeast mating-type identity as indicated by a lack of growth response to pheromone. The silencing defect was not limited to cryptic mating type loci and was associated with broad changes in histone modifications and chromatin localization of Sir2 histone deacetylase. The chromatin-silencing defect of disome X can be partially recapitulated by an extra copy of several genes on chromosome X. These results suggest that aneuploidy can directly cause epigenetic instability and disrupt cellular differentiation.

  7. Automatic Attention towards Face or Body as a Function of Mating Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jing Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because women's faces and bodies carry different cues of reproductive value, men may attend to different perceptual cues as functions of their long-term versus short-term mating motivations. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments on 135 male and 132 female participants. When influenced by short-term rather than long-term mating motivations, men's attention was captured by (Study 1, was shifted to (Study 2, and was distracted by (Study 3 the waist/hip area rather than the face on photographs of attractive women. Similar effects were not found among the female participants in response to photographs of attractive men. These results support the evolutionary view that, similar to the attentional selectivity found in other domains of life, male perceptual attention has evolved to selectively capture and hold reproductive information about the opposite sex as a function of short-term versus long-term mating goals.

  8. Genomewide analysis of MATE-type gene family in maize reveals microsynteny and their expression patterns under aluminum treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HUASHENG ZHU; JIANDONG WU; YINGLI JIANG; JING JIN; WEI ZHOU; YU WANG; GUOMIN HAN; YANG ZHAO; BEIJIU CHENG

    2016-09-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are a group of secondary active transporters, which widely exist in all living organisms and play important role in the detoxication of endogenous secondary metabolites and exogenous agents. However, to date, no systematic and comprehensive study of this family is reported in maize. Here, a total of 49 MATE genes (ZmMATE) were identified and divided into seven groups by phylogenetic analysis. Conserved intro–exon structures and motif compositions were investigated in these genes. Results by gene locations indicated that these genes were unevenly distributed among all 10 chromosomes. Tandem and segmental duplications appeared to contribute to the expansion and evolution of this gene family. The Ka / Ks ratios suggested that the ZmMATE has undergone large-scale purifying selection on the maize genome. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed that there were independent gene duplication events of 10 ZmMATE. In addition, most maize MATE genes exhibited different expression profiles in diverse tissues and developmental stages. Sixteen MATE genes were chosen for further quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed differential expression patterns in response to aluminum treatment. These results provide a useful clue for future studies on the identification of MATE genes and functional analysis of MATE proteins in maize

  9. Fifty years of research on serotypes and mating types in Dileptus anser: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskaya, Zoya I; Yudin, Alexander L

    2016-04-01

    The ciliate Dileptus anser is increasingly used as a laboratory model not only in protozoological research sensu stricto, but also in general biology. However, genetic studies of this ciliate have never been carried out, and this species is new to the comparative genetics of ciliates. This review describes the genetic experiments conducted at the Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the last 50 years. Two characters that are classical for the genetics of ciliates, serotypes and mating types were selected for analysis. The results presented do not fit into conventional genetic schemes and may have epigenetic nature. Features of this model that were revealed earlier (the simplest possible system of multiple mating types, full serial dominance of the alleles in the mat locus, the excretion of pheromones, etc.) are promising with regard to interesting comparisons of breeding systems in ciliates. The results obtained in studies of mating pheromones in D. anser have demonstrated that this model is a perspective one for further exploration of intercellular recognition in lower eukaryotes and of other related issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Mating type loci of Sporisorium reilianum: novel pattern with three a and multiple b specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirawski, Jan; Heinze, Bernadette; Wagenknecht, Martin; Kahmann, Regine

    2005-08-01

    Sporisorium reilianum and Ustilago maydis are two closely related smut fungi, which both infect maize but differ fundamentally in their mode of plant invasion and site of symptom development. As a prelude to studying the molecular basis of these differences, we have characterized the mating type loci of S. reilianum. S. reilianum has two unlinked mating type loci, a and b. Genes in both loci and adjacent regions show a high degree of synteny to the corresponding genes of U. maydis. The b locus occurs in at least five alleles and encodes two subunits of a heterodimeric homeodomain transcription factor, while the a locus encodes a pheromone/receptor system. However, in contrast to that of U. maydis, the a locus of S. reilianum exists in three alleles containing two active pheromone genes each. The alleles of the a locus appear to have arisen through recent recombination events within the locus itself. This has created a situation where each pheromone is specific for recognition by only one mating partner.

  11. Extensive trans-specific polymorphism at the mating type locus of the root decay fungus Heterobasidion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Linda T A; Olson, Ake; Ihrmark, Katarina; Stenlid, Jan; James, Timothy Y

    2013-10-01

    Incompatibility systems in which individuals bearing identical alleles reject each other favor the maintenance of a diversity of alleles. Mushroom mating type loci (MAT) encode for dozens or hundreds of incompatibility alleles whose loss from the population is greatly restricted through negative frequency selection, leading to a system of alleles with highly divergent sequences. Here, we use DNA sequences of homeodomain (HD) encoding genes at the MAT locus of five closely related species of the root rot basidiomycete Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato to show that the extended coalescence time of MAT alleles greatly predates speciation in the group, contrasting loci outside of MAT that show allele divergences largely consistent with the species phylogeny with those of MAT, which show rampant trans-species polymorphism. We observe a roughly 6-fold greater genealogical depth and polymorphism of MAT compared with non-MAT that argues for the maintenance of balanced polymorphism for a minimum duration of 24 My based on a molecular-clock calibrated species phylogeny. As with other basidiomycete HD genes, balancing selection appears to be concentrated at the specificity-determining region in the N-terminus of the protein based on identification of codons under selection and the absence of recombination within the region. However, the elevated polymorphism extends into the nonspecificity determining regions as well as a neighboring non-MAT gene, the mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (MIP). In doing so, increased divergence should decrease recombination among alleles and as a by-product create incompatibilities in the functional domains not involved in allele recognition but in regulating sexual development.

  12. Mating compatibility and competitiveness of transgenic and wild type Aedes aegypti (L.) under contained semi-field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H L; Vasan, Seshadri; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Idris, Iswarti; Hanum, Norhaida; Selvi, S; Alphey, Luke; Murad, Shahnaz

    2013-02-01

    We conducted the world's first experiments under semi-field conditions (ACL-2 field house) to assess the mating competitiveness of genetically sterile RIDL male mosquitoes (513A strain). The field house is a state-of-the-art, fully-contained trial facility, simulating the living space for a household of 2-4 people in Peninsular Malaysia. Ten genetically sterile RIDL male A. aegypti mosquitoes competed with ten wild type males inside this field house to mate with ten wild type females. Hatched larvae from mated females were screened under a fluorescent microscope for genetic markers to determine if they were fathered by RIDL male or wild type male, and all results were cross-checked by PCR. Two such experiments were conducted, each repeated sufficient number of times. All strains were on a Malaysian lab strain background for the first experiment, while the RIDL males alone were on a recently-colonised Mexican strain background for the second experiment. A total of 52 % of the matings were with RIDL males in the first experiment, while 45 % of the matings were with RIDL (Mexican) males in the second experiment. Statistically, this is not significantly different from 50 % of the matings expected to take place with RIDL males if the latter were as competitive as that of the wild type males. This shows that A. aegypti RIDL-513A has excellent mating competitiveness under semi-field conditions, verifying earlier trends obtained in small lab cages. We also observed high mating compatibility between recently-colonised Mexican RIDL males and lab-reared Malaysian wild type females.

  13. Sexual reproduction and mating-type-mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Julia; Hoff, Birgit; O'Gorman, Céline M; Wolfers, Simon; Klix, Volker; Binger, Danielle; Zadra, Ivo; Kürnsteiner, Hubert; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Dyer, Paul S; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-22

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a filamentous fungus of major medical and historical importance, being the original and present-day industrial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has been considered asexual for more than 100 y, and despite concerted efforts, it has not been possible to induce sexual reproduction, which has prevented sexual crosses being used for strain improvement. However, using knowledge of mating-type (MAT) gene organization, we now describe conditions under which a sexual cycle can be induced leading to production of meiotic ascospores. Evidence of recombination was obtained using both molecular and phenotypic markers. The identified heterothallic sexual cycle was used for strain development purposes, generating offspring with novel combinations of traits relevant to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1-1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in governing sexual identity, was also found to control transcription of a wide range of genes with biotechnological relevance including those regulating penicillin production, hyphal morphology, and conidial formation. These discoveries of a sexual cycle and MAT gene function are likely to be of broad relevance for manipulation of other asexual fungi of economic importance.

  14. Geographic Distribution of Mating Types in Magnaporthe grisea and the Relationship Between Fertile Isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Notteghem Jean Loup.; Milazzo Joёlle.; YUAN Xiao-ping; Adreit Henry; ZHAO Xin-hua; WANG Yan-li; Tharreau Didier.

    2002-01-01

    377 isolates of Magnaporthe grisea were collected from 17 provinces in China and their geographic distribution of mating types and their fertility was tested with four standard isolates, KA3 and TH12 (Mat1.1) and Guy11 and TH16 (Mat1.2) provided by CIRAD. 73 fertile isolates were tested with SCAR markers of 13 pairs of primers. Preliminary results showed that the geographic distribution of M. grisea existed among isolates collected from the same location as well as different locations and the genetic relationship between fertile isolates of the fungus in China. The existence of sexual reproduction of M. grisea was explored in the field as well.

  15. The mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma represents a model for early evolution of sex chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Menkis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We combined gene divergence data, classical genetics, and phylogenetics to study the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma. In this species, a large non-recombining region of the mating-type chromosome is associated with a unique fungal life cycle where self-fertility is enforced by maintenance of a constant state of heterokaryosis. Sequence divergence between alleles of 35 genes from the two single mating-type component strains (i.e. the homokaryotic mat A or mat a-strains, derived from one N. tetrasperma heterokaryon (mat A+mat a, was analyzed. By this approach we were able to identify the boundaries and size of the non-recombining region, and reveal insight into the history of recombination cessation. The non-recombining region covers almost 7 Mbp, over 75% of the chromosome, and we hypothesize that the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in this lineage involved two successive events. The first event was contemporaneous with the split of N. tetrasperma from a common ancestor with its outcrossing relative N. crassa and suppressed recombination over at least 6.6 Mbp, and the second was confined to a smaller region in which recombination ceased more recently. In spite of the early origin of the first "evolutionary stratum", genealogies of five genes from strains belonging to an additional N. tetrasperma lineage indicate independent initiations of suppressed recombination in different phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the shared features between the sex chromosomes found in the animal and plant kingdoms and the fungal mating-type chromosome, despite fungi having no separate sexes. As is often found in sex chromosomes of plants and animals, recombination suppression of the mating-type chromosome of N. tetrasperma involved more than one evolutionary event, covers the majority of the mating-type chromosome and is flanked by distal regions with obligate crossovers.

  16. Mating Types of Phytophthora infestans Isolates and Their Responses to Metalaxyl and Dimethomorph in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeom-Soon Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans was isolated from potato leaves collected from main potato producing areas in Korea during 2009-2011. In 2009, 99 isolates tested were all A1 mating type. Two of 64 isolates in 2010 and two of 78 isolates in 2011 were A2 mating type and they were found only in Miryang area. Among 99 isolates examined in 2009, 13.1% was resistant to metalaxyl, 3.1% was intermediate resistant and 83.8% was sensitive. In 2010, 19.4% of 62 isolates was resistant, 4.8% was intermediate and 75.8% was sensitive. Metalaxyl resistant, intermediate and sensitive isolates collected in 2011 were 23.1%, 9.0% and 67.9%, respectively. Metalaxyl resistant isolates increased mainly in winter cropping areas and seed potato producing areas where fungicides were sprayed more often. Frequencies of isolates showing minimum inhibition concentration of dimethomorph at 1.0-5.0 mg/ml were 17.2% in 2009, 19.0% in 2010 and 15.4% in 2011. However, there was no evidence for occurrence of resistant isolate to dimethomorph because no isolate was able to grow at 5.0 mg/ml.

  17. Mating a la Spence: Deriving the Market Demand Function for Status Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Conspicuous consumption of luxuries plays a central role in the work of Thorstein B. Veblen. More recently, interpersonal effects have emerged as an important factor in consumption theory. However, the inadequate modelling of individuals' interaction often leads to questionable results with regard to the market demand function for status goods. Following Spence, who recommended the application of his Job Market Signaling to conspicuous consumption, in Mating a la Spence potential partners are...

  18. A cooperative function for multisensory stimuli in the induction of approach behavior of a potential mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågmo, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Intrasexual competition is an important element of natural selection in which the most attractive conspecific has a considerable reproductive advantage over the others. The conspecifics that are approached first often become the preferred mate partners, and could thus from a biological perspective have a reproductive advantage. This underlines the importance of the initial approach and raises the question of what induces this approach, or what makes a conspecific attractive. Identification of the sensory modalities crucial for the activation of approach is necessary for elucidating the central nervous processes involved in the activation of sexual motivation and eventually copulatory behavior. The initial approach to a potential mate depends on distant stimuli in the modalities of audition, olfaction, vision, and other undefined characteristics. This study investigated the role of the different modalities and the combination of these modalities in the sexual incentive value of a female rat. This study provides evidence that the presence of a single-sensory stimulus with one modality (olfaction, vision, or ‘others’, but not audition) is sufficient to attenuate the preference for a social contact with a male rat. However, a multisensory stimulus of multiple modalities is necessary to induce preference for the stimulus over social contact to a level of an intact receptive female. The initial approach behavior, therefore, seems to be induced by the combination of at least two modalities among which olfaction is crucial. This suggests that there is a cooperative function for the different modalities in the induction of approach behavior of a potential mate. PMID:28306729

  19. Study on the mating compatibility of part pear varieties and wild types of Pyrus ussuriensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To understand the mating compatibility of Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.,we studied the fertility of pollen and conducted a hand-pollination trial in the field on some pear varieties and wild types.The results showed that about 53% of varieties among 32 tested genotypes were male sterile.Not only did the pollen vitalities in normal varieties show distinct differences,but pollen vitalities from flower forcing in a glasshouse were found to be lower than those from natural flowering in the field,which had no apparent effect on fruit setting of tested varieties.Most of the tested genotypes such as Nanguoli,Pingxiangli,and Hanxiangli showed selfincompatibility (SI).Honghuagaili could bear fruit after hand pollination,but there were abnormal seeds in its fruits.So we suggested it was a recessive SI that happened during embryo development.Longxiangli has the capacity of self-compatibility (SC) to some extent,its fruit setting rate of inflorescence could reach 23.3%.Manual self-pollination during bud flowering could improve the fruit setting rate of part tested genotypes with SI,but had no effect on the fruit setting rate 3 days after flowering.Mating between female parents with the variety selected from F1 generation showed that the majority of their combinations were compatible.There was one-way SC when Nanguoli was crossed with Hanhongli,while no fruits could be found after Hanhongli was crossed with Nanguoli.It may be related to the S-genotype or haplotype of Nanguoli.In addition,mating between the varieties derived from bud mutation with the female parent appeared incompatible.We concluded that P.ussuriensis Maxim.is similar to other grown pear systems with the characteristics of SI,the fruit setting rate of self pollination in some varieties and wild types can be improved by artificial self-pollination during bud flowering,and fruit cannot be developed through pollination between the varieties from bud mutation and the female parent.

  20. Population structure and mating-type genes of Colletotrichum graminicola from Agrostis palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fajun; Goodwin, Paul H; Khan, Adalat; Hsiang, Tom

    2002-05-01

    Eighty-seven isolates of Colletotrichum graminicola, mostly from Agrostis palustris, were collected in grass fields, most of which were in Ontario, Canada. Specific primers were designed to amplify the mating-type (MAT) genes and, among 35 isolates tested, all yielded a band of the expected size for MAT2. For six isolates, the MAT2 PCR products were sequenced and found to be similar to that reported for MAT2 of C. graminicola from maize. Based on 119 polymorphic bands from 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA primers, analyses of genetic distances were found to generally cluster isolates by host and geographic origin. Among 42 isolates from a grass field in Ontario, significant spatial autocorrelation was found to occur within a 20-m distance, implying that this is the effective propagule dispersal distance. Although clonal propagation was observed in the 87 isolates with 67 unique genotypes, the extent of genetic variation in local populations implies some occurrence of sexual or asexual recombination.

  1. Distribution of mating types and genetic diversity induced by sexual recombination in Setosphaeria turcica in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yongshan; MA Jifang; GUI Xiumei; AN Xinlong; SUN Shuqin; DONG Jingao

    2007-01-01

    Mature ascocarps and ascospores in the heterothallic ascomycete fungus,Setosphaeria turcica,were successfully produced in Sach's medium with barley culm as the mating stimulator after four weeks' coincubation of two opposite mating type isolates at 25℃ in darkness.A single isolate could not produce ascospores or ascocarps.The ascocarps were produced on the exposed surface and embedded parts of barley culm or in the upper layer of the medium.The asci linked themselves to ascocarp with their short handles and assembled at the bottom of the ascocarp.Many asci had four to six colorless mature ascospores with one to six septa.But asci with eight ascospores were also found.Using isolate 9914 and isolate 9961 as standard testers for mating types (MAT1 and MAT2),respectively,94 isolates of S.turcica collected from northern China in 1999,2003,and 2004 were grouped into three mating types:MAT1 (53 isolates),MAT2 (31 isolates) and MAT12 (10 isolates).The MAT12 isolates,which were first found in China,were compatible with not only MAT1 isolates but also MAT2 isolates.No MAT12 isolates were found in 1999,but 2 MAT12 isolates and 8 MAT12 isolates were found in 2001 and 2003,respectively.The geographic distribution of different mating types was unequal among locations.Generally the frequency of MAT1 was significantly higher than that of MAT2 and MAT12.The unequal distribution of mating types suggested a low frequency of genetic recombination.The pathogenicity of different mating type isolates was tested on the susceptible corn inbred B37 and the results revealed that the disease latency period,disease incidence,lesion area and conidia production were not significantly different among the three mating type groups.However,the pathogenicity of the progeny isolates of isolate 99-12 (MAT2,race 1) and isolate 99-15 (MAT1,race 0) was significantly different from the parent isolates,isolate 99-12 and isolate 99-15,suggesting that sexual recombination could cause significantly virulence

  2. Two tonoplast MATE proteins function as turgor-regulating chloride channels in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiwen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Tang, Ren-Jie; Yu, Yuexuan; Song, Jiali; Wang, Yuan; Li, Legong; Luan, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The central vacuole in a plant cell occupies the majority of the cellular volume and plays a key role in turgor regulation. The vacuolar membrane (tonoplast) contains a large number of transporters that mediate fluxes of solutes and water, thereby adjusting cell turgor in response to developmental and environmental signals. We report that two tonoplast Detoxification efflux carrier (DTX)/Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) transporters, DTX33 and DTX35, function as chloride channels essential for turgor regulation in Arabidopsis. Ectopic expression of each transporter in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells elicited a large voltage-dependent inward chloride current across the tonoplast, showing that DTX33 and DTX35 each constitute a functional channel. Both channels are highly expressed in Arabidopsis tissues, including root hairs and guard cells that experience rapid turgor changes during root-hair elongation and stomatal movements. Disruption of these two genes, either in single or double mutants, resulted in shorter root hairs and smaller stomatal aperture, with double mutants showing more severe defects, suggesting that these two channels function additively to facilitate anion influx into the vacuole during cell expansion. In addition, dtx35 single mutant showed lower fertility as a result of a defect in pollen-tube growth. Indeed, patch-clamp recording of isolated vacuoles indicated that the inward chloride channel activity across the tonoplast was impaired in the double mutant. Because MATE proteins are widely known transporters of organic compounds, finding MATE members as chloride channels expands the functional definition of this large family of transporters. PMID:28202726

  3. The Hos2 Histone Deacetylase Controls Ustilago maydis Virulence through Direct Regulation of Mating-Type Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Villalobos, Alberto; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Moreno-Sánchez, Ismael; Helmlinger, Dominique; Ibeas, José I

    2015-08-01

    Morphological changes are critical for host colonisation in plant pathogenic fungi. These changes occur at specific stages of their pathogenic cycle in response to environmental signals and are mediated by transcription factors, which act as master regulators. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play crucial roles in regulating gene expression, for example by locally modulating the accessibility of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. It has been reported that HDACs play important roles in the virulence of plant fungi. However, the specific environment-sensing pathways that control fungal virulence via HDACs remain poorly characterised. Here we address this question using the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. We find that the HDAC Hos2 is required for the dimorphic switch and pathogenic development in U. maydis. The deletion of hos2 abolishes the cAMP-dependent expression of mating type genes. Moreover, ChIP experiments detect Hos2 binding to the gene bodies of mating-type genes, which increases in proportion to their expression level following cAMP addition. These observations suggest that Hos2 acts as a downstream component of the cAMP-PKA pathway to control the expression of mating-type genes. Interestingly, we found that Clr3, another HDAC present in U. maydis, also contributes to the cAMP-dependent regulation of mating-type gene expression, demonstrating that Hos2 is not the only HDAC involved in this control system. Overall, our results provide new insights into the role of HDACs in fungal phytopathogenesis.

  4. Regulation of Nuclear Positioning and Dynamics of the Silent Mating Type Loci by the Yeast Ku70/Ku80 Complex▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystricky, Kerstin; Van Attikum, Haico; Montiel, Maria-Dolores; Dion, Vincent; Gehlen, Lutz; Gasser, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    We have examined the hypothesis that the highly selective recombination of an active mating type locus (MAT) with either HMLα or HMRa is facilitated by the spatial positioning of relevant sequences within the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) nucleus. However, both position relative to the nuclear envelope (NE) and the subnuclear mobility of fluorescently tagged MAT, HML, or HMR loci are largely identical in haploid a and α cells. Irrespective of mating type, the expressed MAT locus is highly mobile within the nuclear lumen, while silent loci move less and are found preferentially near the NE. The perinuclear positions of HMR and HML are strongly compromised in strains lacking the Silent information regulator, Sir4. However, HMLα, unlike HMRa and most telomeres, shows increased NE association in a strain lacking yeast Ku70 (yKu70). Intriguingly, we find that the yKu complex is associated with HML and HMR sequences in a mating-type-specific manner. Its abundance decreases at the HMLα donor locus and increases transiently at MATa following DSB induction. Our data suggest that mating-type-specific binding of yKu to HMLα creates a local chromatin structure competent for recombination, which cooperates with the recombination enhancer to direct donor choice for gene conversion of the MATa locus. PMID:19047366

  5. The Hos2 Histone Deacetylase Controls Ustilago maydis Virulence through Direct Regulation of Mating-Type Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Elías-Villalobos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological changes are critical for host colonisation in plant pathogenic fungi. These changes occur at specific stages of their pathogenic cycle in response to environmental signals and are mediated by transcription factors, which act as master regulators. Histone deacetylases (HDACs play crucial roles in regulating gene expression, for example by locally modulating the accessibility of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. It has been reported that HDACs play important roles in the virulence of plant fungi. However, the specific environment-sensing pathways that control fungal virulence via HDACs remain poorly characterised. Here we address this question using the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. We find that the HDAC Hos2 is required for the dimorphic switch and pathogenic development in U. maydis. The deletion of hos2 abolishes the cAMP-dependent expression of mating type genes. Moreover, ChIP experiments detect Hos2 binding to the gene bodies of mating-type genes, which increases in proportion to their expression level following cAMP addition. These observations suggest that Hos2 acts as a downstream component of the cAMP-PKA pathway to control the expression of mating-type genes. Interestingly, we found that Clr3, another HDAC present in U. maydis, also contributes to the cAMP-dependent regulation of mating-type gene expression, demonstrating that Hos2 is not the only HDAC involved in this control system. Overall, our results provide new insights into the role of HDACs in fungal phytopathogenesis.

  6. Mating Type Gene (MAT) and Itraconazole Susceptibility of Trichophyton tonsurans Strains Isolated in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Okubo, Miki; Kano, Rui; Kumagawa, Mai; Hiruma, Masataro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2016-06-01

    Infection by Trichophyton tonsurans is an emerging fungal epidemic in Japan. Itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine have been used for the treatment of this infection for 15 years. However, patients with T. tonsurans infections have been shown to remain uncured or to become reinfected, suggesting that subclinical infection or polyphyletic strains and/or antifungal drug-resistant strains might be occurring in Japan. In this study, PCR analysis was performed to confirm the presence of the mating type locus MAT in genomic DNA from 60 Japanese clinical isolates of T. tonsurans, and to assess the previously postulated clonal origin of clinical isolates of this species. Antifungal susceptibility testing on isolates also was performed to confirm the absence of strains resistant to ITZ. PCR analysis proved that all 60 strains contained the MAT1-1 allele, while none contained the MAT1-2 allele. As determined by E-test, the mean MIC of ITZ in the 60 strains was 0.023 mg/L (range 0.002-0.125 mg/L). All strains of T. tonsurans isolated in Japan were clonal and were not resistant to ITZ. Therefore, dermatophytosis due to T. tonsurans is expected to respond to ITZ, since clinical isolates of T. tonsurans tested to date have been susceptible to this antifungal. This infection is proliferating as a subclinical infection in Japan.

  7. Using mating-type gene sequences for improved phylogenetic resolution of Collectotrichum species complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meizhu; Schardl, Christopher L; Nuckles, Etta M; Vaillancourt, Lisa J

    2005-01-01

    Colletotrichum species are defined primarily on the basis of host preference and morphology of the organism in planta and in culture. However the genus contains several species complexes that encompass such a broad range of morphological and pathological variation that the species name is of relatively little use either to the taxonomist or plant pathologist. Phylogenetic analyses, primarily based on variable regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, have indicated that these species complexes comprise a variable number of identifiable monophyletic clades. However rDNA sequences often are insufficiently diverse to fully resolve such closely related lineages. A group of isolates representing three species complexes (C. graminicola, C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum) were analyzed by using the high mobility group (HMG)-encoding sequence of the MAT1-2 mating type sequence, which has been shown in other fungi to be especially suitable for distinguishing relationships among closely related groups. Results were compared with those obtained from analysis of variable regions of the rDNA as well as from standard morphological classification methods. Results achieved through analysis of MAT1-2 sequences correlated well with those obtained by analysis of rDNA sequences but provided significantly better resolution among the various lineages. Morphological traits, including hyphopodia size, colony appearance, spore size, appresorial shape and size and host preference, frequently were unreliable as indicators of phylogenetic association. Spore shape and hyphopodia shape more often were useful for this purpose.

  8. Multiple functions of a multi-component mating pheromone in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.S.; Yun, S.-S.; Buchinger, T.J.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the C24 sulphate in the mating pheromone component, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulphate (3kPZS), to specifically induce upstream movement in ovulated female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus was investigated. 7α,12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-oic acid (3kACA), a structurally similar bile acid released by spermiated males, but lacking the C24 sulphate ester, was tested in bioassays at concentrations between 10−11 and 10−14 molar (M). 3kACA did not induce upstream movement in females or additional reproductive behaviours. In contrast, spermiated male washings induced upstream movement, prolonged retention on a nest and induced an array of nesting behaviours. Differential extraction and elution by solid-phase extraction resins showed that components other than 3kPZS + 3kACA are necessary to retain females on nests and induce nest cleaning behaviours. All pheromone components, including components in addition to 3kPZS + 3kACA that retain females and induce nest cleaning behaviours were released from the anterior region of the males, as had been reported for 3kPZS. It is concluded that the sea lamprey male mating pheromone has multiple functions and is composed of multiple components.

  9. The Functional Significance of Chiral Genitalia: Patterns of Asymmetry, Functional Morphology and Mating Success in the Praying Mantis Ciulfina baldersoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory I Holwell

    Full Text Available Genital asymmetry is relatively common and widespread throughout the animal kingdom. The functional significance of genital asymmetry is however, poorly understood for most species. Male praying mantids of the genus Ciulfina are remarkable in possessing complex and directionally asymmetric genital phallomeres in some species, and chirally dimorphic/antisymmetric genitalia in others. Here we explore the chiral dimorphism in male genitalia of Ciulfina baldersoni which appear to exhibit genital antisymmetry. We test whether genital orientation influences mating success, copulation duration and the attachment duration of spermatophores. Additionally we investigate genital interactions between male and females using x-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Lastly we assess whether genital asymmetry is associated with non-genital morphological asymmetry of a range of traits. Our results highlight the complex functional morphology of genitalia in this praying mantis species and yet demonstrate no functional difference between dextral and sinistral morphs other than the direction of attachment with both morphs enjoying equal levels of mating success. Chiral morphs also did not strongly associate with any other forms of asymmetry. We therefore conclude that genital chirality in Ciulfina baldersoni is a likely case of antisymmetry with no functional significance to genital orientation, and is likely to be selectively neutral.

  10. The function of loud calls in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra): food, mate, or infant defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Sarie; Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    Loud calling (i.e., howling) is the single most distinctive behavioral attribute of the social system of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.), yet no general consensus exists regarding its main function. During a 28-month study of five groups of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) at Palenque National Park, Mexico, we examined whether howling mainly functioned in the defense of food resources, mates, or infants vulnerable to infanticide. We recorded 602 howling bouts. Howling occurred more frequently when monkeys were feeding, particularly on fruits, and less frequently when they were resting than would be expected by chance. Furthermore, howling was concentrated in areas of the home range in which major feeding sites were located. Howling did not occur more frequently when vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females were present versus absent, nor did the howling rate increase with an increasing number of vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females in the group. Howling bouts lasted on average 14.4 ± SE 0.5 min, and call duration was not influenced by the presence of vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females. The duration of spontaneous calls, however, was positively correlated to the percentage of feeding time in the vicinity of howling locations. In addition, vocal displays lasted longer when neighboring groups and extragroup males were within visual contact compared with spontaneous calls and calls in response to nearby calls in which there was no visual contact between callers. Our findings suggest that loud calls in black howler monkeys are multifunctional, but most frequently occur in the defense of major feeding sites. These calls also may function in the defense of infants and mates during encounters with extragroup males. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravi S; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-03-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported. Only two plants Silene latifolia and papaya have been studied until now for the presence of evolutionary strata on their X chromosomes, made possible by the sequencing of sex-linked genes on both the X and Y chromosomes, which is a requirement of all current methods that determine stratum structure based on the comparison of gametologous sex chromosomes. To circumvent this limitation and detect strata even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available, we have developed an integrated segmentation and clustering method. In application to gene sequences on the papaya X chromosome and protein-coding sequences on the S. latifolia X chromosome, our method could decipher all known evolutionary strata, as reported by previous studies. Our method, after validating on known strata on the papaya and S. latifolia X chromosome, was applied to the chromosome 19 of Populus trichocarpa, an incipient sex chromosome, deciphering two, yet unknown, evolutionary strata. In addition, we applied this approach to the recently sequenced sex chromosome V of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. that has a haploid sex determination system (UV system) recovering the sex determining and pseudoautosomal regions, and then to the mating-type chromosomes of an anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae predicting five strata in the non

  12. Mating Type Alleles,Female Fertility and Genetic Diversity of Magnaporthe grisea Populations Pathogenic to Rice from Some Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Joelle Milazzo; YUAN Xiao-ping; Henry Adreit; WANG Yan-li; Jean Loup Notteghem; Didier Tharreau

    2003-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-two isolates of Magnaporthe grisea isolated from rice in 5 Asian countries were characterized for their mating type by crossing them with 4 hermaphroditic isolates (KA3 and TH2: MAT1.1; Guy11 and TH-16: MAT1.2). Among them, 41% were MAT1.1 and 25% were MAT1.2.The remaining 34% did not produce perithecia with any of the 4 hermaphroditic testers. In Bangladesh, India,Nepal, Vietnam and in most provinces of China, both mating types were present. Only one mating type was found in 3 provinces and 1 city of China. Almost all the isolates had very low fertility, as they were in general female sterile and sometimes also male sterile. Hermaphroditic isolates were recovered from the 5 countries. In these countries, they represented between 13% and 75% of the isolates. In Zhejiang, Guizhou, Guangdong,Hunan, Yunnan and H-ubei provinces of China, hermaphroditic isolates represented between 6% and 67%.The genetic diversity of 143 isolates from these countries and provinces, where hermaphroditic isolates had been collected, was analyzed using SCAR markers. Genetic diversity was high and population structure did not resemble classical clonal structure described in most rice growing regions. The existence of sexual reproduction in the field, localization of a center of diversity in China, and migration between countries were discussed in this paper.

  13. Quantification of mutation-derived bias for alternate mating functionalities of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste2p pheromone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Pooja; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-01-01

    Although well documented for mammalian G-protein-coupled receptors, alternate functionalities and associated alternate signalling remain to be unequivocally established for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone Ste2p receptor. Here, evidence supporting alternate functionalities for Ste2p is re-evaluated, extended and quantified. In particular, strong mating and constitutive signalling mutations, focusing on residues S254, P258 and S259 in TM6 of Ste2p, are stacked and investigated in terms of their effects on classical G-protein-mediated signal transduction associated with cell cycle arrest, and alternatively, their impact on downstream mating projection and zygote formation events. In relative dose response experiments, accounting for systemic and observational bias, mutational-derived functional differences were observed, validating the S254L-derived bias for downstream mating responses and highlighting complex relationships between TM6-mutation derived constitutive signalling and ligand-induced functionalities. Mechanistically, localization studies suggest that alterations to receptor trafficking may contribute to mutational bias, in addition to expected receptor conformational stabilization effects. Overall, these results extend previous observations and quantify the contributions of Ste2p variants to mediating cell cycle arrest versus downstream mating functionalities.

  14. White-opaque Switching in Different Mating Type-like Locus Gene Types of Clinical Candida albicans Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hou-Min; Shimizu-Imanishi, Yumi; Tanaka, Reiko; Li, Ruo-Yu; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans (C. albicans) can become a pathogen causing superficial as well as life-threatening systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Many phenotypic attributes contribute to its capacity to colonize human organs. In our study, 93 C. albicans isolates from patients of various candidiasis in a hospital of China were surveyed. We aimed to investigate the white-opaque (WO) switching competence, drug sensitivity, and virulence of mating type-like (MTL) a/α isolates. Methods: Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene and the MTL configuration were detected in all the isolates by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. White/opaque phenotype and doubling time of cell growth were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal agent were measured using broth microdilution method. Results: Sixty-four isolates (69.6%) were classified to serotype A, 19 (20.6%) to serotype B, and 9 (9.8%) to serotype C. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates were divided into four different subgroups of ITS genotypes. Most of our clinical isolates were MTLa/α type, while 6.8% remained MTLa or MTLα type. The frequency of opaque phenotype was 71.0% (66 isolates). Following the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3, all isolates were susceptible to caspofungin and a few (0.6–3.2%) of them showed resistance against amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Conclusions: From these analyses, there were comparatively more C. albicans strains classified into serotype B, and the frequency of opaque phase strains was significant in the clinical isolates from China. Genetic, phenotypic, or drug susceptibility patterns were not significantly different from previous studies. MTLa/α isolates could also undergo WO switching which facilitates their survival. PMID:27824006

  15. Recombination hotspots flank the Cryptococcus mating-type locus: implications for the evolution of a fungal sex chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Hsueh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombination increases dramatically during meiosis to promote genetic exchange and generate recombinant progeny. Interestingly, meiotic recombination is unevenly distributed throughout genomes, and, as a consequence, genetic and physical map distances do not have a simple linear relationship. Recombination hotspots and coldspots have been described in many organisms and often reflect global features of chromosome structure. In particular, recombination frequencies are often distorted within or outside sex-determining regions of the genome. Here, we report that recombination is elevated adjacent to the mating-type locus (MAT in the pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans. Among fungi, C. neoformans has an unusually large MAT locus, and recombination is suppressed between the two >100-kilobase mating-type specific alleles. When genetic markers were introduced at defined physical distances from MAT, we found the meiotic recombination frequency to be approximately 20% between MAT and a flanking marker at 5, 10, 50, or 100 kilobases from the right border. As a result, the physical/genetic map ratio in the regions adjacent to MAT is distorted approximately 10- to 50-fold compared to the genome-wide average. Moreover, recombination frequently occurred on both sides of MAT and negative interference between crossovers was observed. MAT heterozygosity was not required for enhanced recombination, implying that this process is not due to a physical distortion from the two non-paired alleles and could also occur during same-sex mating. Sequence analysis revealed a correlation between high G + C content and these hotspot regions. We hypothesize that the presence of recombinational activators may have driven several key events during the assembly and reshaping of the MAT locus and may have played similar roles in the origins of both metabolic and biosynthetic gene clusters. Our findings suggest that during meiosis the MAT locus may be exchanged onto

  16. Binding of the Fkh1 Forkhead Associated Domain to a Phosphopeptide within the Mph1 DNA Helicase Regulates Mating-Type Switching in Budding Yeast.

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    Antoinette M Dummer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fkh1 protein has roles in cell-cycle regulated transcription as well as a transcription-independent role in recombination donor preference during mating-type switching. The conserved FHA domain of Fkh1 regulates donor preference by juxtaposing two distant regions on chromosome III to promote their recombination. A model posits that this Fkh1-mediated long-range chromosomal juxtaposition requires an interaction between the FHA domain and a partner protein(s, but to date no relevant partner has been described. In this study, we used structural modeling, 2-hybrid assays, and mutational analyses to show that the predicted phosphothreonine-binding FHA domain of Fkh1 interacted with multiple partner proteins. The Fkh1 FHA domain was important for its role in cell-cycle regulation, but no single interaction partner could account for this role. In contrast, Fkh1's interaction with the Mph1 DNA repair helicase regulated donor preference during mating-type switching. Using 2-hybrid assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and fluorescence anisotropy, we mapped a discrete peptide within the regulatory Mph1 C-terminus required for this interaction and identified two threonines that were particularly important. In vitro binding experiments indicated that at least one of these threonines had to be phosphorylated for efficient Fkh1 binding. Substitution of these two threonines with alanines (mph1-2TA specifically abolished the Fkh1-Mph1 interaction in vivo and altered donor preference during mating-type switching to the same degree as mph1Δ. Notably, the mph1-2TA allele maintained other functions of Mph1 in genome stability. Deletion of a second Fkh1-interacting protein encoded by YMR144W also resulted in a change in Fkh1-FHA-dependent donor preference. We have named this gene FDO1 for Forkhead one interacting protein involved in donor preference. We conclude that a phosphothreonine-mediated protein-protein interface between Fkh1-FHA and

  17. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; an...

  18. Selection against spermatozoa with fragmented DNA after postovulatory mating depends on the type of damage

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    Pintado Belén

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before ovulation, sperm-oviduct interaction mechanisms may act as checkpoint for the selection of fertilizing spermatozoa in mammals. Postovulatory mating does not allow the sperm to attach to the oviduct, and spermatozoa may only undergo some selection processes during the transport through the female reproductive tract and/or during the zona pellucida (ZP binding/penetration. Methods We have induced DNA damage in spermatozoa by two treatments, (a a scrotal heat treatment (42 degrees C, 30 min and (b irradiation with 137Cs gamma-rays (4 Gy, 1.25 Gy/min. The effects of the treatments were analyzed 21-25 days post heat stress or gamma-radiation. Postovulatory females mated either with treated or control males were sacrificed at Day 14 of pregnancy, and numbers of fetuses and resorptions were recorded. Results Both treatments decreased significantly implantation rates however, the proportion of fetuses/resorptions was only reduced in those females mated to males exposed to radiation, indicating a selection favoring fertilization of sperm with unfragmented DNA on the heat treatment group. To determine if DNA integrity is one of the keys of spermatozoa selection after postovulatory mating, we analyzed sperm DNA fragmentation by COMET assay in: a sperm recovered from mouse epididymides; b sperm recovered from three different regions of female uterine horns after mating; and c sperm attached to the ZP after in vitro fertilization (IVF. Similar results were found for control and both treatments, COMET values decreased significantly during the transit from the uterine section close to the uterotubal junction to the oviduct, and in the spermatozoa attached to ZP. However, fertilization by IVF and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI showed that during sperm ZP-penetration, a stringent selection against fragmented-DNA sperm is carried out when the damage was induced by heat stress, but not when DNA fragmentation was induced by

  19. BOTH MAT1-1 AND MAT1-2 MATING TYPES OF MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA OCCUR AT EQUAL FREQUENCIES IN ALGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allioui, N; Siah, A; Brinis, L; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P

    2014-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is currently the most devastating disease on wheat crops worldwide. Mycosphaerella graminicola sexual reproduction involves two mating type idiomorphs that were previously studied in several areas around the world, but not in Algeria so far. The objective of this study was thus to determine the frequencies and distribution of M. graminicola mating types in this country. One hundred and twenty monoconidial isolates of this fungus (60 from bread wheat and 60 from durum wheat) were collected during the 2012 growing season from five distinct geographical locations in Algeria. The mating type of each isolate was identified using a multiplex PCR that amplifies either MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 fragment from mating type loci. Both idiomorphs were found at equal frequencies according to the chi-square test at the whole country level (46% MAT1-1 and 54% MAT1-2) and in each of the sampled locations. The two mating types were also detected at equal frequencies on both host species (47% MAT1-1 vs 53% MAT1-2 on bread wheat and 45% MAT1-1 vs 55% MAT1-2 on durum wheat). Our study showed that the two mating types of M. graminicola occur at equal proportions in Algeria and suggests a strong potential for sexual reproduction of the pathogen in this country that may eventually lead to either adaptation to local conditions, plant resistance overcoming or the emergence of resistance to fungicides.

  20. Effect of mating method, sex and birth type on growth of lambs

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Estrus synchronization methods was use to control the reproductive traits of sheep, as well as bringing more females at the same stage of estrus and ovulation. According to the points mentioned above, the aim of the present study was to investigate and compare mating method and influence of fixed factors on birth and weaning weight of lambs. Statistical analysis showed that exist difference in the body weights between genotypes of lambs. In the first group,...

  1. A single mating-type locus composed of homeodomain genes promotes nuclear migration and heterokaryosis in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Timothy Y; Lee, Maria; van Diepen, Linda T A

    2011-02-01

    The white-rot basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Agaricomycetes) is a model species that produces potent wood-degrading enzymes. The mating system of the species has been difficult to characterize due to its cryptic fruiting habit and lack of clamp connections in the heterokaryotic phase. By exploiting the draft genome sequence, we reevaluated the mating system of P. chrysosporium by studying the inheritance and segregation of putative mating-type gene homologues, the homeodomain transcription factor genes (MAT-A) and the pheromone receptors (MAT-B). A pattern of mating incompatibility and fructification consistent with a bipolar system with a single MAT locus was observed, but the rejection response was much weaker than that seen in other agaricomycete species, leading to stable heterokaryons with identical MAT alleles. The homeodomain genes appear to comprise the single MAT locus because they are heterozygous in wild strains and hyperpolymorphic at the DNA sequence level and promote aspects of sexual reproduction, such as nuclear migration, heterokaryon stability, and basidiospore formation. The pheromone receptor loci that might constitute a MAT-B locus, as in many other Agaricomycetes, are not linked to the MAT-A locus and display low levels of polymorphism. This observation is inconsistent with a bipolar mating system that includes pheromones and pheromone receptors as mating-type determinants. The partial uncoupling of nuclear migration and mating incompatibility in this species may be predicted to lead to parasexual recombination and may have contributed to the homothallic behavior observed in previous studies.

  2. Identification and expression analysis of MATE genes involved in flavonoid transport in blueberry plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    Full Text Available Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477-517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10-12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1-84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars.

  3. Identification and expression analysis of MATE genes involved in flavonoid transport in blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477-517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10-12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1-84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars.

  4. The Effect of GnRH Given on Day of Mating on Ovarian Function and Reproductive Performance in Lohi Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq H. Lashari* and Zahida Tasawar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of GnRH (Dalmeralin treatment given on the day of mating on reproductive performance in Lohi sheep. Seventy six ewes 3-5 year old, weighing 44 ± 0.4 Kg were put to rams at synchronized estrus using two intramuscular injections of 2 ml PGF2α analogue (Dalmazin 11 days apart. These animals were divided into two equal groups through random stratification by body weight and were given either saline (group 1 or 2 ml GnRH (group 11 on day of mating. A total of 16 ewes were slaughtered on day 25 of pregnancy (eight ewes from each treatment group. GnRH administration on the day of mating increased (P0.05. Pregnancy rate was higher in GnRH treated group (83.3% than control (60% group (P<0.05. The ewes in GnRH administered group had more twins (P<0.05 than those in control group (28 v 10. In conclusion, GnRH administration improved reproductive performance of ewes when administered on the day of mating, probably through its beneficial effect on embryo survival by enhancing luteal function.

  5. Mating type locus of Chinese black truffles reveals heterothallism and the presence of cryptic species within the T. indicum species complex.

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    Beatrice Belfiori

    Full Text Available Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T

  6. A novel function for the Hox gene Abd-B in the male accessory gland regulates the long-term female post-mating response in Drosophila.

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    Dragan Gligorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR. The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B, we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa, CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a

  7. Maintenance of sex-related genes and the co-occurrence of both mating types in Verticillium dahliae.

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    Dylan P G Short

    Full Text Available Verticillium dahliae is a cosmopolitan, soilborne fungus that causes a significant wilt disease on a wide variety of plant hosts including economically important crops, ornamentals, and timber species. Clonal expansion through asexual reproduction plays a vital role in recurring plant epidemics caused by this pathogen. The recent discovery of recombination between clonal lineages and preliminary investigations of the meiotic gene inventory of V. dahliae suggest that cryptic sex appears to be rare in this species. Here we expanded on previous findings on the sexual nature of V. dahliae. Only 1% of isolates in a global collection of 1120 phytopathogenic V. dahliae isolates contained the MAT1-1 idiomorph, whereas 99% contained MAT1-2. Nine unique multilocus microsatellite types comprised isolates of both mating types, eight of which were collected from the same substrate at the same time. Orthologs of 88 previously characterized sex-related genes from fungal model systems in the Ascoymycota were identified in the genome of V. dahliae, out of 93 genes investigated. Results of RT-PCR experiments using both mating types revealed that 10 arbitrarily chosen sex-related genes, including MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1, were constitutively expressed in V. dahliae cultures grown under laboratory conditions. Ratios of non-synonymous (amino-acid altering to synonymous (silent substitutions in V. dahliae MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were indistinguishable from the ratios observed in the MAT genes of sexual fungi in the Pezizomycotina. Patterns consistent with strong purifying selection were also observed in 18 other arbitrarily chosen V. dahliae sex-related genes, relative to the patterns in orthologs from fungi with known sexual stages. This study builds upon recent findings from other laboratories and mounts further evidence for an ancestral or cryptic sexual stage in V. dahliae.

  8. Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-07-07

    Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry.

  9. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes.

  10. The transcription factor Rbf1 is the master regulator for b-mating type controlled pathogenic development in Ustilago maydis.

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    Kai Heimel

    Full Text Available In the phytopathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, sexual and pathogenic development are tightly connected and controlled by the heterodimeric bE/bW transcription factor complex encoded by the b-mating type locus. The formation of the active bE/bW heterodimer leads to the formation of filaments, induces a G2 cell cycle arrest, and triggers pathogenicity. Here, we identify a set of 345 bE/bW responsive genes which show altered expression during these developmental changes; several of these genes are associated with cell cycle coordination, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. 90% of the genes that show altered expression upon bE/bW-activation require the zinc finger transcription factor Rbf1, one of the few factors directly regulated by the bE/bW heterodimer. Rbf1 is a novel master regulator in a multilayered network of transcription factors that facilitates the complex regulatory traits of sexual and pathogenic development.

  11. The transcription factor Rbf1 is the master regulator for b-mating type controlled pathogenic development in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimel, Kai; Scherer, Mario; Vranes, Miroslav; Wahl, Ramon; Pothiratana, Chetsada; Schuler, David; Vincon, Volker; Finkernagel, Florian; Flor-Parra, Ignacio; Kämper, Jörg

    2010-08-05

    In the phytopathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, sexual and pathogenic development are tightly connected and controlled by the heterodimeric bE/bW transcription factor complex encoded by the b-mating type locus. The formation of the active bE/bW heterodimer leads to the formation of filaments, induces a G2 cell cycle arrest, and triggers pathogenicity. Here, we identify a set of 345 bE/bW responsive genes which show altered expression during these developmental changes; several of these genes are associated with cell cycle coordination, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. 90% of the genes that show altered expression upon bE/bW-activation require the zinc finger transcription factor Rbf1, one of the few factors directly regulated by the bE/bW heterodimer. Rbf1 is a novel master regulator in a multilayered network of transcription factors that facilitates the complex regulatory traits of sexual and pathogenic development.

  12. A Macrocyclic Peptide that Serves as a Cocrystallization Ligand and Inhibits the Function of a MATE Family Transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Suga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The random non-standard peptide integrated discovery (RaPID system has proven to be a powerful approach to discover de novo natural product-like macrocyclic peptides that inhibit protein functions. We have recently reported three macrocyclic peptides that bind to Pyrococcus furiosus multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (PfMATE transporter and inhibit the transport function. Moreover, these macrocyclic peptides were successfully employed as cocrystallization ligands of selenomethionine-labeled PfMATE. In this report, we disclose the details of the RaPID selection strategy that led to the identification of these three macrocyclic peptides as well as a fourth macrocyclic peptide, MaD8, which is exclusively discussed in this article. MaD8 was found to bind within the cleft of PfMATE’s extracellular side and blocked the path of organic small molecules being extruded. The results of an ethidium bromide efflux assay confirmed the efflux inhibitory activity of MaD8, whose behavior was similar to that of previously reported MaD5.

  13. Impact of the competition between mating types on the cultivation of Tuber melanosporum: Romeo and Juliet and the matter of space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; Belfiori, Beatrice; Paolocci, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Major breakthroughs in our understanding of the life cycles of the symbiotic ascomycetes belonging to the genus Tuber have occurred over the last several years. A number of Tuber species produce edible fruiting bodies, known as truffles, that are marketed worldwide. A better understanding of the basic biological characteristics of Tuber spp. is likely to have tremendous practical relevance for their cultivation. Tuber melanosporum produces the most valuable black truffles and its genome has been recently sequenced. This species is now serving as a model for studying the biology of truffles. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of sexual reproduction modalities in T. melanosporum. The practical relevance of these findings is outlined. In particular, the discoveries that T. melanosporum is heterothallic and that strains of different mating types compete to persist on the roots of host plants suggest that the spatial and temporal distributional patterns of strains of different mating types are key determinants of truffle fructification. The spatial segregation of the two mating types in areas where T. melanosporum occurs likely limits truffle production. Thus, host plant inoculation techniques and agronomic practices that might be pursued to manage T. melanosporum orchards with a balanced presence of the two mating partners are described.

  14. Flirting with disaster: short-term mating orientation and hostile sexism predict different types of sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Charlotte; Rees, Jonas; Bohner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    We combine evolutionary and sociocultural accounts of sexual harassment, proposing that sexuality-related and hostility-related motives lead to different types of harassment. Specifically, men's short-term mating orientation (STMO) was hypothesized to predict only unwanted sexual attention but not gender harassment, whereas men's hostile sexism (HS) was hypothesized to predict both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. As part of an alleged computer-chat task, 100 male students could send sexualized personal remarks (representing unwanted sexual attention), sexist jokes (representing gender harassment), or nonharassing material to an attractive female target. Independently, participants' STMO, HS, and sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) were assessed. Correlational and path analyses revealed that STMO specifically predicted unwanted sexual attention, whereas HS predicted both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. Furthermore, SHMA fully mediated the effect of HS on gender harassment, but did not mediate effects of STMO or HS on unwanted sexual attention. Results are discussed in relation to motivational explanations for sexual harassment and antiharassment interventions.

  15. Mating type regulates the radiation-associated stimulation of reciprocal translocation events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasullo, M; Dave, P

    1994-04-01

    Both ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation were observed to stimulate mitotic, ectopic recombination between his3 recombinational substrates, generating reciprocal translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). The stimulation was greatest in diploid strains competent for sporulation and depends upon both the ploidy of the strain and heterozygosity at the MATlocus. The difference in levels of stimulation between MATa/MAT alpha diploid and MAT alpha haploid strains increases when cells are exposed to higher levels of UV radiation (sevenfold at 150 J/m2), whereas when cells are exposed to higher levels of ionizing radiation (23.4 krad), only a twofold difference is observed. When the MAT alpha gene was introduced by DNA transformation into a MATa/mat alpha::LEU2+ diploid, the levels of radiation-induced ectopic recombination approach those obtained in a strain that is heterozygous at MAT. Conversely, when the MATa gene was introduced by DNA transformation into a MAT alpha haploid, no enhanced stimulation of ectopic recombination was observed when cells were irradiated with ionizing radiation but a threefold enhancement was observed when cells were irradiated with UV. The increase in radiation-stimulated ectopic recombination resulting from heterozygosity at MAT correlated with greater spontaneous ectopic recombination and higher levels of viability after irradiation. We suggest that MAT functions that have been previously shown to control the level of mitotic, allelic recombination (homolog recombination) also control the level of mitotic, radiation-stimulated ectopic recombination between short dispersed repetitive sequences on non-homologous chromosomes.

  16. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    . The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft...

  17. Yerba Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with this combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)The body breaks down the caffeine in yerba mate to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  18. The evolutionary trajectory of the mating-type (mat genes in Neurospora relates to reproductive behavior of taxa

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    Johannesson Hanna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative sequencing studies among a wide range of taxonomic groups, including fungi, have led to the discovery that reproductive genes evolve more rapidly than other genes. However, for fungal reproductive genes the question has remained whether the rapid evolution is a result of stochastic or deterministic processes. The mating-type (mat genes constitute the master regulators of sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and here we present a study of the molecular evolution of the four mat-genes (mat a-1, mat A-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 of 20 Neurospora taxa. Results We estimated nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates of genes to infer their evolutionary rate, and confirmed that the mat-genes evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the evolutionary trajectories are related to the reproductive modes of the taxa; likelihood methods revealed that positive selection acting on specific codons drives the diversity in heterothallic taxa, while among homothallic taxa the rapid evolution is due to a lack of selective constraint. The latter finding is supported by presence of stop codons and frame shift mutations disrupting the open reading frames of mat a-1, mat A-2 and mat A-3 in homothallic taxa. Lower selective constraints of mat-genes was found among homothallic than heterothallic taxa, and comparisons with non-reproductive genes argue that this disparity is not a nonspecific, genome-wide phenomenon. Conclusion Our data show that the mat-genes evolve rapidly in Neurospora. The rapid divergence is due to either adaptive evolution or lack of selective constraints, depending on the reproductive mode of the taxa. This is the first instance of positive selection acting on reproductive genes in the fungal kingdom, and illustrates how the evolutionary trajectory of reproductive genes can change after a switch in reproductive behaviour of an organism.

  19. Sporothrix schenckii (sensu strict S. globosa) mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2013-09-01

    Sporotix schenckii is a pathogenic fungus that causes human and animal sporotrichosis, and based on morphology of the sessile conidia and molecular analysis, it was recently recognized as a species complex comprising at least the following six sibling species: S. albicans, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, S. mexicana and S. schenckii. However, apart from S. schenckii sensu strict, only S. brasiliensis, S. globosa and S. luriei are associated with human and animal infection. S. globosa has been most commonly isolated in Asia, Europe and the USA; therefore, molecular epidemiological study for S. globosa is important in relation to human sporotrichosis in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene of Sporothrix schenckii with the aim of understanding the taxonomy of the genus Sporothrix. The MAT1-2 gene (1618 bp) encodes a protein sequence of 198 amino acids. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis also detected MAT1-2 gene mRNA expression in all of the S. schenckii strains examined, indicating that this gene is expressed in S. schenckii cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the MAT1-2 gene fragments of Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, O. ulmi and S. schenckii indicated that these isolates could be classified into four clusters. MAT1-1 gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive in 15 isolates, but negative in four human isolates and one feline isolate.

  20. Large-scale introgression shapes the evolution of the mating-type chromosomes of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma.

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    Yu Sun

    Full Text Available The significance of introgression as an evolutionary force shaping natural populations is well established, especially in animal and plant systems. However, the abundance and size of introgression tracts, and to what degree interspecific gene flow is the result of adaptive processes, are largely unknown. In this study, we present medium coverage genomic data from species of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora, and we use comparative genomics to investigate the introgression landscape at the genomic level in this model genus. We revealed one large introgression tract in each of the three investigated phylogenetic lineages of Neurospora tetrasperma (sizes of 5.6 Mbp, 5.2 Mbp, and 4.1 Mbp, respectively. The tract is located on the chromosome containing the locus conferring sexual identity, the mating-type (mat chromosome. The region of introgression is confined to the region of suppressed recombination and is found on one of the two mat chromosomes (mat a. We used Bayesian concordance analyses to exclude incomplete lineage sorting as the cause for the observed pattern, and multilocus genealogies from additional species of Neurospora show that the introgression likely originates from two closely related, freely recombining, heterothallic species (N. hispaniola and N. crassa/N. perkinsii. Finally, we investigated patterns of molecular evolution of the mat chromosome in Neurospora, and we show that introgression is correlated with reduced level of molecular degeneration, consistent with a shorter time of recombination suppression. The chromosome specific (mat and allele specific (mat a introgression reported herein comprise the largest introgression tracts reported to date from natural populations. Furthermore, our data contradicts theoretical predictions that introgression should be less likely on sex-determining chromosomes. Taken together, the data presented herein advance our general understanding of introgression as a force shaping eukaryotic

  1. Genotype and mating type distribution within clinical Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates from patients with cryptococcal meningitis in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Delio José; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Leite Maffei, Claudia Maria; Trilles, Luciana; Dos Santos Lazéra, Márcia; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2010-06-01

    We molecularly characterized 81 cryptococcal isolates recovered from cerebrospinal fluid samples of 77 patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2007 as having cryptococcal meningitis in Uberaba Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fifty-seven (74%) were male with a mean age 35.6 years. Seventy-two (88.9%) of the isolates were from 68 AIDS patients and cryp-tococcosis was the first AIDS-defining condition in 38 (55.9%) patients. Cryptococcosis and AIDS were simultaneously diagnosed in 25 (65.8%) of these 38 patients. Genotypes were characterized through the use of URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis, the genetic variability was determined using PCR-fingerprinting with the minisatellite-specific primer M13, and the mating type and serotypes were established by PCR. Seventy-six of the 81 isolates were Cryptococcus neoformans (93.8%), while the remaining five were C. gattii (6.1%), but all were mating type alpha. C. neoformans isolates were genotype VNI (serotype A), while C. gattii isolates were VGII. Four of the latter isolates were identical, but only two were from AIDS patients. Six of the nine isolates from non-AIDS patients were VNI. PCR fingerprints of the isolates from two of the three AIDS patients with clinical relapse were 100% identical. The predominance of VNI and mating type alpha is in accordance with data from other parts of the world. The occurrence of VGII in Minas Gerais indicates a geographical expansion within Brazil.

  2. White cells facilitate opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells in Candida albicans.

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    Li Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1 impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans.

  3. Hepatitis C virus core protein induces energy metabolism disorders of hepatocytes by down-regulation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1 and adenosine monophosphate-acti vated protein kinase signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建武

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the role of silent mating type information regulation2homotog-1(SIRT1)-adenosine monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK) signaling pathway in hepatitis C virus core protein(HCV-core)induced energy metabolism disorders

  4. Regulation of budding yeast mating-type switching donor preference by the FHA domain of Fkh1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Coïc, Eric; Lee, Kihoon; Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Kim, Jung-Ae; Wu, Qiuqin; Haber, James E

    2012-01-01

    During Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating-type switching, an HO endonuclease-induced double-strand break (DSB) at MAT is repaired by recombining with one of two donors, HMLα or HMRa, located at opposite ends of chromosome III. MATa cells preferentially recombine with HMLα; this decision depends on the Recombination Enhancer (RE), located about 17 kb to the right of HML. In MATα cells, HML is rarely used and RE is bound by the MATα2-Mcm1 corepressor, which prevents the binding of other proteins to RE. In contrast, in MATa cells, RE is bound by multiple copies of Fkh1 and a single copy of Swi4/Swi6. We report here that, when RE is replaced with four LexA operators in MATa cells, 95% of cells use HMR for repair, but expression of a LexA-Fkh1 fusion protein strongly increases HML usage. A LexA-Fkh1 truncation, containing only Fkh1's phosphothreonine-binding FHA domain, restores HML usage to 90%. A LexA-FHA-R80A mutant lacking phosphothreonine binding fails to increase HML usage. The LexA-FHA fusion protein associates with chromatin in a 10-kb interval surrounding the HO cleavage site at MAT, but only after DSB induction. This association occurs even in a donorless strain lacking HML. We propose that the FHA domain of Fkh1 regulates donor preference by physically interacting with phosphorylated threonine residues created on proteins bound near the DSB, thus positioning HML close to the DSB at MAT. Donor preference is independent of Mec1/ATR and Tel1/ATM checkpoint protein kinases but partially depends on casein kinase II. RE stimulates the strand invasion step of interchromosomal recombination even for non-MAT sequences. We also find that when RE binds to the region near the DSB at MATa then Mec1 and Tel1 checkpoint kinases are not only able to phosphorylate histone H2A (γ-H2AX) around the DSB but can also promote γ-H2AX spreading around the RE region.

  5. Regulation of budding yeast mating-type switching donor preference by the FHA domain of Fkh1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available During Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating-type switching, an HO endonuclease-induced double-strand break (DSB at MAT is repaired by recombining with one of two donors, HMLα or HMRa, located at opposite ends of chromosome III. MATa cells preferentially recombine with HMLα; this decision depends on the Recombination Enhancer (RE, located about 17 kb to the right of HML. In MATα cells, HML is rarely used and RE is bound by the MATα2-Mcm1 corepressor, which prevents the binding of other proteins to RE. In contrast, in MATa cells, RE is bound by multiple copies of Fkh1 and a single copy of Swi4/Swi6. We report here that, when RE is replaced with four LexA operators in MATa cells, 95% of cells use HMR for repair, but expression of a LexA-Fkh1 fusion protein strongly increases HML usage. A LexA-Fkh1 truncation, containing only Fkh1's phosphothreonine-binding FHA domain, restores HML usage to 90%. A LexA-FHA-R80A mutant lacking phosphothreonine binding fails to increase HML usage. The LexA-FHA fusion protein associates with chromatin in a 10-kb interval surrounding the HO cleavage site at MAT, but only after DSB induction. This association occurs even in a donorless strain lacking HML. We propose that the FHA domain of Fkh1 regulates donor preference by physically interacting with phosphorylated threonine residues created on proteins bound near the DSB, thus positioning HML close to the DSB at MAT. Donor preference is independent of Mec1/ATR and Tel1/ATM checkpoint protein kinases but partially depends on casein kinase II. RE stimulates the strand invasion step of interchromosomal recombination even for non-MAT sequences. We also find that when RE binds to the region near the DSB at MATa then Mec1 and Tel1 checkpoint kinases are not only able to phosphorylate histone H2A (γ-H2AX around the DSB but can also promote γ-H2AX spreading around the RE region.

  6. Rules of donor preference in saccharomyces mating-type gene switching revealed by a competition assay involving two types of recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Wu, C; Haber, J E

    1997-10-01

    Mating type (MAT) switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) created at MAT by HO endonuclease. MATa cells activate the entire left arm of chromosome III; thus MATa preferentially recombines with the silent donor HML. In contrast, MAT alpha cells inactivate the left arm, including HML, and thus preferentially recombine with HMR, 100 kb to the right of MAT. We present a novel competition assay, in which the DSB at MAT can be repaired either by MAT switching or by single-strand annealing (SSA) between two URA3 genes flanking MAT. With preferred donors, MATa or MAT alpha switching occurs 65-70% of the time in competition with SSA. When HML is deleted, 40% of MATa cells recombine with the "wrong" donor HMR; however, when HMR is deleted, only 18% of MAT alpha cells recombine with HML. In interchromosomal switching, with donors on chromosome III and MAT on chromosome V, MATa retains its strong preference for HML and switching is efficient, when the chromosome III recombination enhancer is present. However, MAT alpha donor preference is lost and interchromosomal switching is very inefficient. These experiments demonstrate the utility of using competition between two outcomes to measure the relative efficiency of recombination.

  7. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  8. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Conroy-Beam

    Full Text Available Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294 we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  9. The sxa2-dependent inactivation of the P-factor mating pheromone in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladds, G; Rasmussen, E M; Young, T

    1996-01-01

    Haploid cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe exist in one of two mating types, referred to as M and P. Conjugation occurs between cells of opposite mating type and is controlled by the reciprocal action of diffusible pheromones. Loss of function of the sxa2 gene in M cells causes...... hypersensitivity to the P-factor mating pheromone and a reduction in mating efficiency. Here we demonstrate the secretion of an sxa2-dependent carboxypeptidase that inactivates P-factor by removal of the C-terminal leucine residue....

  10. Mating competitiveness and life-table comparisons between transgenic and Indian wild-type Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prabhakargouda B; Reddy, B P Niranjan; Gorman, Kevin; Reddy, K V Seshu; Barwale, Shirish R; Zehr, Usha B; Nimmo, Derric; Naish, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-07-01

    OX513A is a genetically engineered strain of Aedes aegypti carrying a repressible, dominantly inherited transgene that confers lethality in immature heterozygous progeny. Released male OX513A adults have proven to be effective for the localised suppression of wild Ae. aegypti, highlighting its potential in vector control. Mating and life-table assessments were used to compare OX513A with reared Ae. aegypti strains collected from New Delhi and Aurangabad regions in India. Mating proportions of New Delhi females versus males of OX513A or New Delhi strains were 0.52 and 0.48 respectively, indicating no discrimination by females against either strain, and males of both strains were equally competitive. Developmental time from first instar to adult emergence was significantly longer for OX513A (10.7 ± 0.04 days) than for New Delhi (9.4 ± 0.04 days) and Aurangabad strains (9.1 ± 0.04 days). Differences in mean longevities, female reproductive parameters and population growth parameters between the strains were non-significant. The laboratory study demonstrates that only minor life-table variations of limited biological relevance exist between OX513A and Indian Ae. aegypti populations, and males had equal potential for mating competitiveness. Thus, results support the OX513A strain as a suitable candidate for continued evaluation towards sustainable management of Ae. aegypti populations in India. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Mating behaviour in laevicaudatan clam shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda and functional morphology of male claspers in a phylogenetic context: a video-based analysis.

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    Zandra M S Sigvardt

    Full Text Available Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males. Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata. It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable "finger" of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable "finger", possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the "finger" position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding.

  12. Sacrifical sites, types and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örnulv Vorren

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written and said about Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. There is, however, considerably less documentation of concrete cultural elements in scholarly descriptions. These investigations are considered important not only because they aim to provide documentation that can be used for studies of Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. They also provide material that can throw light on the function of the holy places in a social context through analysis of their origin, their connections with certain families and persons, their associations with the siidas, their location within the areas where the Saamis from these siidas gained their livelihood, etc. The materials collected about the sacrificial sites also play an important role in studying the course of events leading up to the differentiation of Saami hunting and gathering culture. A question that has frequently arisen in the course of this work is with what powers or deities the different sacrificial sites were associated. This is naturally connected with their origin and their form. This, in turn, is reflected in the traditions and legends recounted concerning them. It is also reflected in their location in the physical environment and in the kinds of offerings that have been found. In the materials so far collected it is possible to distinguish between about eight different types of sacrificial site and holy mountain or fell according to their form and location: holy fells, rock formations, stone boulders, holes, cracks in fells, springs, lakes, ring-shaped sacrificial sites. Missionaries were urged to destroy the offering sites.

  13. Evolution of mating within the Candida parapsilosis species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M; McGee, Conor F; Lynch, Denise B; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MTLα, and 2 were MTLa/α heterozygotes. The C. orthopsilosis isolates belonged to two divergent groups, as characterized by restriction patterns at MTL, which probably represent subspecies. We sequenced both idiomorphs from each group and showed that they are 95% identical and that the regulatory genes are intact. In contrast, 18 isolates of C. metapsilosis contain only MTLα idiomorphs. Our results suggest that the role of MTL in determining cell type is being eroded in the C. parapsilosis species complex. The population structure of C. orthopsilosis indicates that mating may occur. However, expression of genes in the mating signal transduction pathway does not respond to exposure to alpha factor. C. parapsilosis is also nonresponsive, even when the GTPase-activating protein gene SST2 is deleted. In addition, splicing of introns in MTLa1 and MTLa2 is defective in C. orthopsilosis. Mating is not detected. The alpha factor peptide, which is the same sequence in C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis, can induce a mating response in Candida albicans. It is therefore likely either that mating of C. orthopsilosis takes place under certain unidentified conditions or that the mating pathway has been adapted for other functions, such as cross-species communication.

  14. Functional overlap among distinct G1/S inhibitory pathways allows robust G1 arrest by yeast mating pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Patricia A; Pryciak, Peter M

    2013-12-01

    In budding yeast, mating pheromones arrest the cell cycle in G1 phase via a pheromone-activated Cdk-inhibitor (CKI) protein, Far1. Alternate pathways must also exist, however, because deleting the cyclin CLN2 restores pheromone arrest to far1 cells. Here we probe whether these alternate pathways require the G1/S transcriptional repressors Whi5 and Stb1 or the CKI protein Sic1, whose metazoan analogues (Rb or p27) antagonize cell cycle entry. Removing Whi5 and Stb1 allows partial escape from G1 arrest in far1 cln2 cells, along with partial derepression of G1/S genes, which implies a repressor-independent route for inhibiting G1/S transcription. This route likely involves pheromone-induced degradation of Tec1, a transcriptional activator of the cyclin CLN1, because Tec1 stabilization also causes partial G1 escape in far1 cln2 cells, and this is additive with Whi5/Stb1 removal. Deleting SIC1 alone strongly disrupts Far1-independent G1 arrest, revealing that inhibition of B-type cyclin-Cdk activity can empower weak arrest pathways. Of interest, although far1 cln2 sic1 cells escaped G1 arrest, they lost viability during pheromone exposure, indicating that G1 exit is deleterious if the arrest signal remains active. Overall our findings illustrate how multiple distinct G1/S-braking mechanisms help to prevent premature cell cycle commitment and ensure a robust signal-induced G1 arrest.

  15. Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Guo, Dong [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Dong, Zhongqi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Wei [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei [Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Polli, James E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Shu, Yan, E-mail: yshu@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1−/− mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1−/− mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1−/− mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT{sub 3}) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic

  16. Strategies of Human Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

  17. Distribution of mating-type alleles and M13 PCR markers in the black leaf spot fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis of bananas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, C B; Miranda, E C; Hanada, R E; Sousa, N R; Gasparotto, L; Soares, M A; Silva, G F

    2013-02-08

    The fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causative agent of black sigatoka, which is one of the most destructive diseases of banana plants. Infection with this pathogen results in underdeveloped fruit, with no commercial value. We analyzed the distribution of the M. fijiensis mating-type system and its genetic variability using M13 phage DNA markers. We found a 1:1 distribution of mating-type alleles, indicating MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs. A polymorphism analysis using three different primers for M13 markers showed that only the M13 minisatellite primers generated polymorphic products. We then utilized this polymorphism to characterize 40 isolates from various Brazilian states. The largest genetic distances were found between isolates from the same location and between isolates from different parts of the country. Therefore, there was no correlation between the genetic similarity and the geographic origin of the isolates. The M13 marker was used to generate genetic fingerprints for five isolates; these fingerprints were compared with the band profiles obtained from inter-simple sequence repeat (UBC861) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism analyses. We found that the M13 marker was more effective than the other two markers for differentiating these isolates.

  18. Variations in sexual behavior among capuchin monkeys function for conspecific mate recognition: a phylogenetic analysis and a new hypothesis for female proceptivity in tufted capuchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J

    2012-04-01

    Researchers of capuchin monkeys have noted stereotyped body postures, facial expressions, and vocalizations that accompany copulations in this genus. Notable variations in these sexual behaviors are observed across capuchin species. Although several hypotheses exist to explain variation in the duration and vigor of sexual behaviors across species, there is no proposed explanation for variation in the forms of these behaviors. I hypothesized that the forms of sexual behaviors function as recognition signals of conspecific mates. Such signals are adaptive when F1 hybrids exhibit reduced fitness compared with nonhybrid offspring. Recent evidence from nonprimate taxa supports the existence of species recognition signals during mating. Using newly observed sexual behaviors for Cebus albifrons and a recent phylogeny of capuchins, I found significant support for a key prediction of the conspecific mate recognition hypothesis: evolutionary changes in sexual behaviors were associated with speciation. Given the resultant best model for evolution of sexual behaviors, I reconstructed the ancestral pattern of sexual behaviors for extant capuchin species (genera Cebus and Sapajus). This reconstruction suggests that the extreme female proceptivity of tufted capuchin monkeys may function to increase female reproductive choices in the context of sperm-limited males (genus Sapajus). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Who Finds Bill Gates Sexy? Creative Mate Preferences as a Function of Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Creative Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kozbelt, Aaron; Silvia, Paul; Kaufman, James C.; Ramesh, Sheela; Feist, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is sexy, but are all creative behaviors equally sexy? We attempted to clarify the role of creativity in mate selection among an ethnically diverse sample of 815 undergraduates. First we assessed the sexual attractiveness of different forms of creativity: ornamental/aesthetic, applied/technological, and everyday/domestic creativity. Both…

  20. Alternative mating type configurations (a/α versus a/a or α/α of Candida albicans result in alternative biofilms regulated by different pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Similar multicellular structures can evolve within the same organism that may have different evolutionary histories, be controlled by different regulatory pathways, and play similar but nonidentical roles. In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, a quite extraordinary example of this has occurred. Depending upon the configuration of the mating type locus (a/α versus a/a or α/α, C. albicans forms alternative biofilms that appear similar morphologically, but exhibit dramatically different characteristics and are regulated by distinctly different signal transduction pathways. Biofilms formed by a/α cells are impermeable to molecules in the size range of 300 Da to 140 kDa, are poorly penetrated by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs, and are resistant to antifungals. In contrast, a/a or α/α biofilms are permeable to molecules in this size range, are readily penetrated by PMNs, and are susceptible to antifungals. By mutational analyses, a/α biofilms are demonstrated to be regulated by the Ras1/cAMP pathway that includes Ras1→Cdc35→cAMP(Pde2-|→Tpk2(Tpk1→Efg1→Tec1→Bcr1, and a/a biofilms by the MAP kinase pathway that includes Mfα→Ste2→ (Ste4, Ste18, Cag1→Ste11→Hst7→Cek2(Cek1→Tec1. These observations suggest the hypothesis that while the upstream portion of the newly evolved pathway regulating a/a and α/α cell biofilms was derived intact from the upstream portion of the conserved pheromone-regulated pathway for mating, the downstream portion was derived through modification of the downstream portion of the conserved pathway for a/α biofilm formation. C. albicans therefore forms two alternative biofilms depending upon mating configuration.

  1. Mate choice turns cognitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F; Todd, P M

    1998-05-01

    Evolutionary psychology has revolutionized research on human mate choice and sexual attraction in recent years, combining a rigorous Darwinian framework based on sexual selection theory with a loosely cognitivist orientation to task analysis and mechanism modelling. This hard Darwinian, soft computational approach has been most successful at revealing the adaptive logic behind physical beauty, demonstrating that many sexual cues computed from face and body shape are not arbitrary, but function as reliable indicators of phenotypic and genetic quality. The same approach could be extended from physical to psychological cues if evolutionary psychology built stronger ties with personality psychology, psychometrics and behavioral genetics. A major challenge for mate choice research is to develop more explicit computational models at three levels, specifying: (1) the perceptual adaptations that register sexual cues given sensory input, (2) the judgment adaptations that integrate multiple cues into assessments of overall attractiveness, and (3) the search strategies that people follow in trying to form mutually attracted pairs. We describe both recent efforts and possible extensions in these directions. The resulting confluence between evolutionary principles, cognitive models and game-theoretic insights can put mate choice research at the vanguard of an emerging `evolutionary cognitive science' more concerned with domain-specific mental adaptations than with domain-general intelligence.

  2. Mating type and ploidy effect on the β-glucosidase activity and ethanol-producing performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with multiple δ-integrated bgl1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Huajun; Liu, Cheng; Zou, Shaolan; Hong, Jiefang; Zhang, Minhua

    2016-08-10

    In order to investigate the effect of mating type and ploidy on enzymatic activity and fermentation performance in yeast with multiple δ-integrated foreign genes, eight ploidy series strains were constructed. The initial haploid strain BGL-a was shown to contain about 19 copies of the bgl1 gene. In rich media containing 2% (w/v) sugar the specific activities of BGL-aα were lower than those of BGL-aa or BGL-αα, which indicates the existence of mating type effects. While the maximum OD660 decreased with rising ploidy, the biomass yield showed no significant difference between the eight strains and the specific activities (expressed as U/mL or U/mg DCW) showed little to no variation. When cellobiose was used as the carbon source and β-glucosidase substrate, β-glucosidase was expressed more quickly and at higher levels than in glucose-containing media. The maximum specific activitiy values obtained were 19.07U/mL and 19.39U/mL for BGL-αα and BGL-aa, repsectively. The anaerobic biomass and ethanol-producing performance in rich media containing 10% cellobiose showed no significant difference among the eight strains. Their maximal ethanol concentrations and corresponding yields ranged from 40.27 to 43.46g/L and 77.56 to 83.71%, respectively. When the acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob (10% solids content) was used, the diploid BGL-aα fermented the best. When urea was used as the only supplemented nutrient, the ethanol titer and yield were 35.65g/L and 83.69%, respectively, while a control experiment using industrial Angel yeast with exogenous β-glucosidase addition gave values of 37.93g/L and 89.04%. The combined effects of δ-integration of bgl1, ploidy and mating type result in BGL-aa or BGL-αα being the optimal choice for enzyme production and BGL-aα being more suitable for cellulosic ethanol fermentation. These results provide valuable information for future yeast breeding and utilization efforts.

  3. On -Functions for Laguerre Function Expansions of Hermite Type

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Błażej Jan Wróbel

    2011-02-01

    We examine weighted $L^p$ boundedness of -functions based on semi-groups related to multi-dimensional Laguerre function expansions of Hermite type. A technique of vector-valued Calderón–Zygmund operators is used.

  4. Bernstein-type approximations of smooth functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pallini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bernstein-type approximation for smooth functions is proposed and studied. We propose the Bernstein-type approximation with definitions that directly apply the binomial distribution and the multivariate binomial distribution. The Bernstein-type approximations generalize the corresponding Bernstein polynomials, by considering definitions that depend on a convenient approximation coefficient in linear kernels. In the Bernstein-type approximations, we study the uniform convergence and the degree of approximation. The Bernstein-type estimators of smooth functions of population means are also proposed and studied.

  5. 黑龙江省发现马铃薯晚疫病菌(Phytophthora infestans)A2交配型%Presence of A2 Mating-type of Phytophthora infestans in Heilongjiang Province is Confirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梅; César Vincent; 闵凡祥; 吕军; 高云飞; 杨帅; 王晓丹; Rolot Jean-louis

    2015-01-01

    A total of 133 isolates of Phytophthora infestans col ected from Harbin, Wangkui, Mohe, Tahe, Huma, Jiagedaqi, Nenjiang, Keshan, Gannan, Hegang, Zhaodong and Linkou from 2005 to 2012 were tested for mating type. Al 51 isolates col ected from 2005 to 2010 are A1 mating type, and no A2 mating type was detected. Among the 52 isolates col ected from 2011, 12 isolates (23.08%) were A2 mating type. Among the 30 isolates tested in 2012, nine isolates (30%) were A2 mating type. No report was available about the presence of A2 mating type in Heilongjian Province until 2010 when Jiehua Zhu reported the presence of A2 mating type in 2004. This is the first report after six years of Zhu's report that confirms the A2 mating type presence in Gannan, Harbin and Zhaodong in Heilongjiang Province.%对2005~2012年间采集自黑龙江省哈尔滨、望奎、漠河、塔河、呼玛、加格达奇、嫩江、克山、甘南、鹤岗、肇东、林口12个市县的133个马铃薯晚疫病菌株进行了交配型鉴定。结果表明,采集自2005~2010年间的51个菌株均为A1交配型,未发现A2交配型;采集自2011年的52个菌株中12个为A2交配型,占23.08%;2012年鉴定的30个菌株中9个为A2交配型,占30%。这是自2004年朱杰华报道发现一株A2交配型六年后,黑龙江省首次确认在甘南、哈尔滨、肇东发现马铃薯晚疫病菌A2交配型。

  6. Mating-type suppression of the DNA-repair defect of the yeast rad6 delta mutation requires the activity of genes in the RAD52 epistasis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y X; Schiestl, R H; Prakash, L

    1995-06-01

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for post-replication repair of UV-damaged DNA, UV mutagenesis, and sporulation. Here, we show that the radiation sensitivity of a MATa rad6 delta strain can be suppressed by the MAT alpha 2 gene carried on a multicopy plasmid. The a1-alpha 2 suppression is specific to the RAD6 pathway, as mutations in genes required for nucleotide excision repair or for recombinational repair do not show such mating-type suppression. The a1-alpha 2 suppression of the rad6 delta mutation requires the activity of the RAD52 group of genes, suggesting that suppression occurs by channelling of post-replication gaps present in the rad6 delta mutant into the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway. The a1-alpha 2 repressor could mediate this suppression via an enhancement in the expression, or the activity, of recombination genes.

  7. The fission yeast ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UbcP3, Ubc15, and Rhp6 affect transcriptional silencing of the mating-type region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inga Sig; Nielsen, Olaf; Murray, Johanne M

    2002-01-01

    in a screen for high-copy-number disruptors of silencing. Expression of cDNAs encoding the putative E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UbcP3, Ubc15 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), or Rhp6 (Rad homolog pombe) from the strong nmt1 promoter derepressed the silent mating-type loci mat2 and mat3 and reporter genes...... was not suppressed by a mutation in the 26S proteasome, suggesting that loss of silencing is not due to an increased degradation of silencing factors but rather to the posttranslational modification of proteins by ubiquitination. We discuss the implications of these results for the possible modes of action of UbcP3...

  8. The five functions of psychological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2016-04-01

    From the mid-1930s to the end of his life, Jung complained that most readers misunderstood the main point of his book Psychological Types. He viewed being a type as one-sided and problematic for a variety of reasons. His symbol-based solution to the 'type problem' involved developing a transcendent function to become the new dominant function of consciousness. However, this function has not featured in the popular use of his typology and Isabel Briggs Myers believed that the one-sidedness of Jung's eight types could be balanced by the auxiliary function. This has led to the transcendent function being widely ignored, and to a developmental philosophy that encourages a degree of one-sidedness. This divergence of popular type theory and analytical psychology is the result of various factors, such as Jung describing typology as containing four functions, and a letter in 1950 where Jung apparently supported Myers' version of type theory. This hinders the application of analytical psychology to normal psychology, and particularly individual and cultural development. If we refer to Jung's typology as containing five functions not four, this more accurately represents both the content of the book Psychological Types and the primary value Jung saw in typology.

  9. A deviation from the bipolar-tetrapolar mating paradigm in an early diverged basidiomycete.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In fungi, sexual identity is determined by specialized genomic regions called MAT loci which are the equivalent to sex chromosomes in some animals and plants. Usually, only two sexes or mating types exist, which are determined by two alternate sets of genes (or alleles at the MAT locus (bipolar system. However, in the phylum Basidiomycota, a unique tetrapolar system emerged in which four different mating types are generated per meiosis. This occurs because two functionally distinct molecular recognition systems, each encoded by one MAT region, constrain the selection of sexual partners. Heterozygosity at both MAT regions is a pre-requisite for mating in both bipolar and tetrapolar basidiomycetes. Tetrapolar mating behaviour results from the absence of genetic linkage between the two regions bringing forth up to thousands of mating types. The subphylum Pucciniomycotina, an early diverged lineage of basidiomycetes encompassing important plant pathogens such as the rusts and saprobes like Rhodosporidium and Sporidiobolus, has been so far poorly explored concerning the content and organization of MAT loci. Here we show that the red yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor has a mating system unlike any previously described because occasional disruptions of the genetic cohesion of the bipolar MAT locus originate new mating types. We confirmed that mating is normally bipolar and that heterozygosity at both MAT regions is required for mating. However, a laboratory cross showed that meiotic recombination may occur within the bipolar MAT locus, explaining tetrapolar features like increased allele number and evolution rates of some MAT genes. This pseudo-bipolar system deviates from the classical bipolar-tetrapolar paradigm and, to our knowledge, has never been observed before. We propose a model for MAT evolution in the Basidiomycota in which the pseudo-bipolar system may represent a hitherto unforeseen gradual form of transition from an ancestral tetrapolar

  10. A novel mating approach for genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Severino F; Mengshoel, Ole J; Pinter, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Genetic algorithms typically use crossover, which relies on mating a set of selected parents. As part of crossover, random mating is often carried out. A novel approach to parent mating is presented in this work. Our novel approach can be applied in combination with a traditional similarity-based criterion to measure distance between individuals or with a fitness-based criterion. We introduce a parameter called the mating index that allows different mating strategies to be developed within a uniform framework: an exploitative strategy called best-first, an explorative strategy called best-last, and an adaptive strategy called self-adaptive. Self-adaptive mating is defined in the context of the novel algorithm, and aims to achieve a balance between exploitation and exploration in a domain-independent manner. The present work formally defines the novel mating approach, analyzes its behavior, and conducts an extensive experimental study to quantitatively determine its benefits. In the domain of real function optimization, the experiments show that, as the degree of multimodality of the function at hand grows, increasing the mating index improves performance. In the case of the self-adaptive mating strategy, the experiments give strong results for several case studies.

  11. Mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, A

    1991-03-01

    In lek-breeding animals, males defend tiny territories clustered into arenas, where females come to mate. Typically, most lek males secure relatively few copulations while a small number are highly successful. Recent studies suggest that the skewed distribution of matings seen at leks may be the result of females using a variety of criteria to select particular mating partners. Nevertheless, the possible benefits to females of mate choice at leks, where males offer neither resources nor paternal care, remain obscure.

  12. Genetic basis for MHC-dependent mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2007-01-01

    Genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), best known for their role in immune recognition and transplantation success, are also involved in modulating mate choice in mice. Early studies with inbred, congenic mouse lines showed that mate choice tended to favor nonself MHC types. A similar phenomenon was demonstrated with semi-wild mice as well. Subsequent studies showed that, rather than nonself choices, it was more accurate to say that mice chose nonparental MHC types for mates since preferences for nonself could be reversed if mice were fostered from birth on parents with nonself MHC types. Other studies have demonstrated that parent-offspring recognition is also regulated by MHC-determined signals suggesting that this system is one of general importance for mouse behavior. Many studies have now demonstrated that volatile mouse body odors are regulated by MHC genes and it is presumably these odor differences that underlie mate choice and familial recognition. Recent studies have shown that many odorants are controlled by the MHC but the mechanism by which MHC genes exert their influence has not been identified. Surprisingly, not only are volatile body odors influenced by MHC genes but so too are nonvolatile signals. Peptides bound to the MHC protein may also function in individual recognition. The extent to which this system is involved in mate choice of other species is unclear although there are some suggestive studies. Indeed, there is tentative evidence that MHC differences, presumably acting via odor changes, may influence human partner selection. Further studies should clarify both the mechanism underlying MHC influence on body odors as well as the generality of their importance in mate selection.

  13. Comparative evaluation and its implications for mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Healy, Susan D

    2005-12-01

    Experiments on decision making by humans show that the choices that we make can be very labile. The magnitude of our preferences, and even our rank ordering of options, can vary according to the number and type of alternatives available for comparison. This apparent irrationality has been argued to result from our use of decision heuristics that have evolved to enable us to choose quickly and efficiently between options differing in multiple attributes. Here, we argue that, because there is also selective pressure for animals to make mating decisions quickly, and because potential mates also differ in multiple attributes, similar decision heuristics might have evolved for mate choice. Following this reasoning, the attractiveness of a given mate will depend on the others with whom he or she is being compared, rather than being an absolute function of his or her underlying quality. We describe some of the ramifications of such comparative evaluation, and argue that it could offer new insights into some of the biggest outstanding problems in mate choice and sexual selection.

  14. Condition-dependent mate choice: A stochastic dynamic programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Alicia M; Mills, Alex F

    2014-09-01

    We study how changing female condition during the mating season and condition-dependent search costs impact female mate choice, and what strategies a female could employ in choosing mates to maximize her own fitness. We address this problem via a stochastic dynamic programming model of mate choice. In the model, a female encounters males sequentially and must choose whether to mate or continue searching. As the female searches, her own condition changes stochastically, and she incurs condition-dependent search costs. The female attempts to maximize the quality of the offspring, which is a function of the female's condition at mating and the quality of the male with whom she mates. The mating strategy that maximizes the female's net expected reward is a quality threshold. We compare the optimal policy with other well-known mate choice strategies, and we use simulations to examine how well the optimal policy fares under imperfect information.

  15. Variation in mate-recognition pheromones of the fungal genus Microbotryum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Petit, E; Hood, M E

    2016-01-01

    Mate recognition is an essential life-cycle stage that exhibits strong conservation in function, whereas diversification of mating signals can contribute directly to the integrity of species boundaries through assortative mating. Fungi are simple models, where compatibility is based on the recognition of pheromone peptides by corresponding receptor proteins, but clear patterns of diversification have not emerged from the species examined, which are few compared with mate signaling studies in plant and animal systems. In this study, candidate loci from Microbotryum species were used to characterize putative pheromones that were synthesized and found to be functional across multiple species in triggering a mating response in vitro. There is no significant correlation between the strength of a species' response and its genetic distance from the pheromone sequence source genome. Instead, evidence suggests that species may be strong or weak responders, influenced by environmental conditions or developmental differences. Gene sequence comparisons reveals very strong purifying selection on the a1 pheromone peptide and corresponding receptor, but significantly less purifying selection on the a2 pheromone peptide that corresponds with more variation across species in the receptor. This represents an exceptional case of a reciprocally interacting mate-recognition system in which the two mating types are under different levels of purifying selection.

  16. Sex Differences in Relationship Regret: The Role of Perceived Mate Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coats

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current set of studies examined regret involving action and inaction in the realm of romantic relationships by testing whether such regret is associated with the characteristics of one's mate. In study 1, 394 participants reported on a previous casual sexual encounter, and in study 2, 358 participants reported on a previous romantic relationship. In both, instances of actual engagement and instances of passing up opportunities were studied. Study 3 was experimental and elicited reactions to hypothetical scenarios from 201 participants. Regret reported by men in both study 1 and study 2 varied as a function of the perceived attractiveness of the participants' actual and potential mate. Regret reported by women in study 2 varied as a function of the perceived stinginess of the participant's mate and perceived wealth of the participants' potential mate. Study 3 found that sex differences in type of regret (with men regretting inaction more than women occurred only when the mate presented in the scenario was described in ways consistent with mate preferences. Together these findings suggest that regret differs between the sexes in ways consistent with sex differences in mate preferences.

  17. Galaxy luminosity function and the morphological type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz, J.L.

    1988-09-01

    The morphological luminosity function is obtained assuming that galaxies form only at high-density regions with the matter distribution represented by a filtered Gaussian random field. The results obtained for cold dark matter spectra (adiabatic and isocurvature fluctuations) with Omega = 1 are compared with observations for galaxies of different Hubble types, finding that both scenarios provide distributions that are close to the observations for global thresholds between the values of 2.5 and 3 and standard mass-luminosity ratios for each type. In every case, a bell-shaped luminosity function was found, which looks similar for each morphological type but differing in the mean luminosity. 33 references.

  18. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubanek Julia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the product of a chemosensory gene, a glycoprotein on the body surface of females called the mate recognition pheromone. The mate recognition pheromone has been biochemically characterized, but little was known about the gene(s. We describe the isolation and characterization of the mate recognition pheromone gene through protein purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, identification of the mate recognition pheromone gene from a cDNA library, sequencing, and RNAi knockdown to confirm the functional role of the mate recognition pheromone gene in rotifer mating. Results A 29 kD protein capable of eliciting rotifer male circling was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two transcript types containing the N-terminal sequence were identified in a cDNA library; further characterization by screening a genomic library and by polymerase chain reaction revealed two genes belonging to each type. Each gene begins with a signal peptide region followed by nearly perfect repeats of an 87 to 92 codon motif with no codons between repeats and the final motif prematurely terminated by the stop codon. The two Type A genes contain four and seven repeats and the two Type B genes contain three and five repeats, respectively. Only the Type B gene with three repeats encodes a peptide with a molecular weight of 29 kD. Each repeat of the Type B gene products contains three asparagines as potential sites for N-glycosylation; there are no asparagines in the Type A genes. RNAi with Type A double-stranded RNA did not result in less circling than in the phosphate-buffered saline control, but transfection with Type B double-stranded RNA significantly reduced male circling by 17%. The very low divergence between repeat units

  19. Generalizing Fisher's “reproductive value”: “Incipient” and “penultimate” reproductive-value functions when environment limits growth; linear approximants for nonlinear Mendelian mating models†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Paul A.

    1978-01-01

    In the usual Darwinian case in which struggle for existence leads to density limitations on the environment's carrying capacity, R. A. Fisher's reproductive-value concept reduces to zero for every initial age group. To salvage some meaning for Fisher's notion, two variant reproductive-value concepts are defined here: an “incipient reproductive-value function,” applicable to a system's early dilute stage when density effects are still ignorable; and a “second-order penultimate reproductive-value function,” linking to a system's initial conditions near equilibrium its much later small deviations from carrying-capacity equilibrium. Also, slowly changing age-structured mortality and fertility parameters of Lotka and Mendelian mating systems are shown to suggest linear reproductive-value surrogates that provide approximations for truly nonlinear diploid and haploid models. PMID:16592600

  20. Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2007-11-01

    A food (ingredient) is regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially 1 or more target functions in the body beyond adequate nutritional effects. The term inulin-type fructans covers all beta(2inulin (DP 2-60, DP(av) = 12), oligofructose (DP 2-8, DP(av) = 4), and inulin HP (DP 10-60, DP(av) = 25) as well as Synergy 1, a specific combination of oligofructose and inulin HP. Inulin-type fructans resist digestion and function as dietary fiber improving bowel habits. But, unlike most dietary fibers, their colonic fermentation is selective, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora with increased and reduced numbers of potentially health-promoting bacteria and potentially harmful species, respectively. Both oligofructose and inulin act in this way and thus are prebiotic: they also induce changes in the colonic epithelium and in miscellaneous colonic functions. In particular, the claim "inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption" is scientifically substantiated, and the most active product is oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1). A series of studies furthermore demonstrate that inulin-type fructans modulate the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation as well as lipid metabolism. Moreover, a large number of animal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Inulin-type fructans are thus functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated.

  1. Immunomodulatory functions of type I interferons

    OpenAIRE

    González-Navajas, José M.; Lee, Jongdae; David, Michael; Raz, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-α (IFNα) and IFNβ, collectively known as type I IFNs, are the major effector cytokines of the host immune response against viral infections. However, the production of type I IFNs is also induced in response to bacterial ligands of innate immune receptors and/or bacterial infections, indicating a broader physiological role for these cytokines in host defence and homeostasis than was originally assumed. The main focus of this Review is the underappreciated immunomodulatory functions...

  2. No evidence for MHC class I-based disassortative mating in a wild population of great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepil, I; Radersma, R; Santure, A W; De Cauwer, I; Slate, J; Sheldon, B C

    2015-03-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are regarded as a potentially important target of mate choice due to the fitness benefits that may be conferred to the offspring. According to the complementary genes hypothesis, females mate with MHC dissimilar males to enhance the immunocompetence of their offspring or to avoid inbreeding depression. Here, we investigate whether selection favours a preference for maximally dissimilar or optimally dissimilar MHC class I types, based on MHC genotypes, average amino acid distances and the functional properties of the antigen-binding sites (MHC supertypes); and whether MHC type dissimilarity predicts relatedness between mates in a wild great tit population. In particular, we explore the role that MHC class I plays in female mate choice decisions while controlling for relatedness and spatial population structure, and examine the reproductive fitness consequences of MHC compatibility between mates. We find no evidence for the hypotheses that females select mates on the basis of either maximal or optimal MHC class I dissimilarity. A weak correlation between MHC supertype sharing and relatedness suggests that MHC dissimilarity at functional variants may not provide an effective index of relatedness. Moreover, the reproductive success of pairs did not vary with MHC dissimilarity. Our results provide no support for the suggestion that selection favours, or that mate choice realizes, a preference for complimentary MHC types.

  3. Mate-Choice Copying in Single and Coupled Women: The Influence of Mate Acceptance and Mate Rejection Decisions of other Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of humans and non-human animals indicate that females tend to change the likelihood of choosing a potential mate based on the decisions of other females; this is known as mate-choice copying. In a sample of both single and coupled women, we examined the influence of other women's (model mate-choice decisions, including mate acceptance and mate rejection, on participants' attractiveness ratings of men (target and willingness of mate selection. We also examined whether different types of relationships between the target men and the model women affected mate-choice copying. We found that both the single and coupled women showed mate-choice copying, but their response patterns differed. The significant effects for single women were dependent on a decrease in attractiveness ratings when they perceived the models' mate rejection. However, the significant findings for coupled women relied on an increase in attractiveness ratings when they observed the models' mate acceptance. Furthermore, the relationship status between the target men and the model women affected the magnitude of mate-choice copying effects for the single women. Specifically, they showed less mate-choice copying when the targets and models were in a committed romantic relationship than when in a temporary relationship.

  4. Mate-choice copying in single and coupled women: the influence of mate acceptance and mate rejection decisions of other women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-26

    Studies of humans and non-human animals indicate that females tend to change the likelihood of choosing a potential mate based on the decisions of other females; this is known as mate-choice copying. In a sample of both single and coupled women, we examined the influence of other women's (model) mate-choice decisions, including mate acceptance and mate rejection, on participants' attractiveness ratings of men (target) and willingness of mate selection. We also examined whether different types of relationships between the target men and the model women affected mate-choice copying. We found that both the single and coupled women showed mate-choice copying, but their response patterns differed. The significant effects for single women were dependent on a decrease in attractiveness ratings when they perceived the models' mate rejection. However, the significant findings for coupled women relied on an increase in attractiveness ratings when they observed the models' mate acceptance. Furthermore, the relationship status between the target men and the model women affected the magnitude of mate-choice copying effects for the single women. Specifically, they showed less mate-choice copying when the targets and models were in a committed romantic relationship than when in a temporary relationship.

  5. Mating type gene homologues and putative sex pheromone-sensing pathway in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a presumably asexual plant root symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halary, Sébastien; Daubois, Laurence; Terrat, Yves; Ellenberger, Sabrina; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Hijri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG) transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT) and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle.

  6. Mating type gene homologues and putative sex pheromone-sensing pathway in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a presumably asexual plant root symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Halary

    Full Text Available The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle.

  7. Mate choice on fallow deer leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M; Robertson, A

    1989-08-10

    Leks, on which males defend small clustered mating territories, may have evolved because of the unusual opportunities they provide for female choice of mating partners, and several studies of lek-breeding animals have demonstrated correlations between the mating success of males and their phenotype or behaviour. However, these could arise because (1) females select mates on the basis of male phenotypic traits; (2) males interfere with each other's mating attempts; or (3) females show preferences for particular mating territories, and larger or stronger males are more likely to win access to these territories. Here we report that when fallow bucks on a traditional lek were experimentally induced to change their territories, differences in the mating success of bucks persisted, whereas differences in the position of their territories relative to the centre of the lek did not. The observation that bucks rarely interfered with their neighbours' harems and females moved freely between bucks suggests that females choose their mates on the basis of male phenotype rather than territory type or location. In this population, the immediate factor affecting the movements of females between males was the size of a buck's harem.

  8. A Typed Functional Calculus With State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Müllhäuser, M.

    1997-01-01

    We extend the simple typed \\lambda-calculus with statements. A statement (which can also be thought of as a method or transition) is an abstraction similar to function abstraction: it can be instantiated by providing it with a source state, whereafter it yields a pair of values consisting of an

  9. Status and mating success amongst visual artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Helen; Nettle, Daniel; Miell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. Initially, we derived a measure of artistic success that covered a broad range of artistic behaviors and beliefs. As predicted by Miller's evolutionary theory, more successful male artists had more sexual partners than less successful artists but this did not hold for female artists. Also, male artists with greater artistic success had a mating strategy based on longer term relationships. Overall the results provide partial support for the sexual selection hypothesis for the function of visual art.

  10. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  11. Mitochondrial oxidative function and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Boushel, Robert; Dela, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    oxidative phosphorylation. This review will cover the present knowledge and literature on the topics of the activity of oxidative enzymes and the electron transport chain (ETC) in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes. Different methods of studying mitochondrial function are described, including......The cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is unknown. The major part of insulin-mediated glucose disposal takes place in the skeletal muscle, and increased amounts of intramyocellular lipid has been associated with insulin resistance and linked to decreased activity of mitochondrial...... discussed. Several studies show reduced activity of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetics. The reductions are independent of muscle fiber type, and are accompanied by visual evidence of damaged mitochondria. In most studies, the reduced oxidative enzyme activity is explained by decreases...

  12. Assortative mating and directional or stabilizing selection for a non-linear function of traits in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Gil, M G

    1993-01-12

    Assortative or random mating following selection in either direction on a non-linear index (experiment 1) or stabilizing selection for pupal length (experiment 2) were carried out for five generations in two lines of Tribolium castaneum (A and R, respectively), with three replicates each. The selected proportion was 25% in all lines. In experiment 1, the selection criterion was designed to increase the aggregate value of adult weight and the first- and second-order powers of pupal length. The A and R lines gave significant responses for the aggregate value (184 ± 6 and 161 ± 14, respectively), pupal length (0.74 ± 0.02 and 0.64 ± 0.05, respectively), and adult weight (0.79 ± 0.03 and 0.78 ± 0.12, respectively). Although the A line was not significantly better than the R line, there was a consistent advantage for assortative mating over random mating, the mean response for aggregate value and pupal length being approximately 1.15 times greater for the A line. In experiment 2 the selection criterion was the square of the deviation from the mean pupal length (stabilizing selection); both lines did not show any change for pupal length. The phenotypic variance showed a significant decrease in the A and R lines, due to a decrease in between-family variance. The assortatively and randomly mated lines were similar for these changes in phenotypic variation. RESUMEN: Aparemiento clasificado y selección direccional o estabilizante para una función no lineal en Tribolium. Dos líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas direccionalmente para un índice no lineal (experimento 1) o estabilizantemente para longitud de pupa (experimento 2), apareando los animales seleccionados clasificadamente (A) o aleatoriamente (R). Había tres repeticiones por experimento y línea, siendo la proporción de selección el 25%. En el experimento 1, el objetivo de selección incluía el peso adulto así como la longitud de pupa y su cuadrado. Ambas líneas dieron respuesta

  13. Homosexual mating preferences from an evolutionary perspective: sexual selection theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrogge, Kyle L; Perkins, Patrick S; Baker, Jessica H; Balcer, Kristen D; Breedlove, S Marc; Klump, Kelly L

    2007-10-01

    Studies in evolutionary psychology and sexual selection theory show that heterosexual men prefer younger mating partners than heterosexual women in order to ensure reproductive success. However, previous research has generally not examined differences in mating preferences as a function of sexual orientation or the type of relationship sought in naturalistic settings. Given that homosexual men seek partners for reasons other than procreation, they may exhibit different mating preferences than their heterosexual counterparts. Moreover, mating preferences may show important differences depending on whether an individual is seeking a long-term versus a short-term relationship. The purpose of the present study was to examine these issues by comparing partner preferences in terms of age and relationship type between homosexual and heterosexual men placing internet personal advertisements. Participants included 439 homosexual and 365 heterosexual men who placed internet ads in the U.S. or Canada. Ads were coded for the participant's age, relationship type (longer-term or short-term sexual encounter) sought, and partner age preferences. Significantly more homosexual than heterosexual men sought sexual encounters, although men (regardless of sexual orientation) seeking sexual encounters preferred a significantly wider age range of partners than men seeking longer-term relationships. These findings suggest that partner preferences are independent of evolutionary drives to procreate, since both types of men preferred similar ages in their partners. In addition, they highlight the importance of examining relationship type in evolutionary studies of mating preferences, as men's partner preferences show important differences depending upon the type of relationship sought.

  14. Pleiotropic effects of heterozygosity at the mating-type locus of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on repair, recombination and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J; Birdsell, J; Wills, C

    1993-12-01

    Sexual (MAT a/alpha) and asexual (MAT a/a) strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are completely isogenic except at the MAT locus, were compared in their response to ultraviolet radiation. The effects of UV on survival, mitotic intragenic recombination, photoreactivation, and transformation efficiency with UV-irradiated plasmid DNA were examined. The sexual strain had enhanced survival and higher rates of mitotic intragenic recombination compared with the asexual strain. Exposure to visible light subsequent to irradiation increased the survival of both sexual and asexual strains, and decreased their rates of mitotic intragenic recombination. Similar results were obtained by Haladus and Zuk (1980) in their examination of sexual strains homozygous for rad6-1, and wild-type sexuals. Our sexual strain was also consistently more proficient at transforming plasmid DNA, whether that DNA had been irradiated or not. When pre-irradiated with 25 J/m2 of UV, MAT a/alpha cells transformed more efficiently than MAT a/a cells. When subsequently exposed to light, the ability of these pre-irradiated cells to transform decreased for both strains with increasing irradiation of the plasmid. A smaller decrease in transformation efficiency occurred when cells of both strains were kept in the dark. When pre-irradiated with 100 J/m2, the MAT a/alpha cells showed a 2-fold increase in their transformation efficiency of both irradiated and unirradiated plasmids by up to 2-fold, a phenomenon not seen in the MAT a/a cells even when pre-irradiated with much higher doses of UV. This increase in transformation efficiency was not, however, seen in the MAT a/alpha cells when they were exposed to visible light after UV irradiation. These results suggest that cells with the MAT a/alpha genotype have a UV-inducible system that increases the efficiency of transformation in the absence of visible light. This increase in transformation is not an induced increase in the repair of plasmid DNA

  15. Molecular determinants of ligand selectivity for the human multidrug and toxin extruder proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Bethzaida; Ekins, Sean; Morales, Mark; Wright, Stephen H

    2012-06-01

    The present study compared the selectivity of two homologous transport proteins, multidrug and toxin extruders 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K), and developed three-dimensional pharmacophores for inhibitory ligand interaction with human MATE1 (hMATE1). The human orthologs of MATE1 and MATE2-K were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and transport function was determined by measuring uptake of the prototypic organic cation (OC) substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Both MATEs had similar apparent affinities for MPP, with K(tapp) values of 4.4 and 3.7 μM for MATE1 and MATE2-K, respectively. Selectivity was assessed for both transporters from IC(50) values for 59 structurally diverse compounds. Whereas the two transporters discriminated markedly between a few of the test compounds, the IC(50) values for MATE1 and MATE2-K were within a factor of 3 for most of them. For hMATE1 there was little or no correlation between IC(50) values and the individual molecular descriptors LogP, total polar surface area, or pK(a). The IC(50) values were used to generate a common-features pharmacophore, quantitative pharmacophores for hMATE1, and a bayesian model suggesting molecular features favoring and not favoring the interaction of ligands with hMATE1. The models identified hydrophobic regions, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor sites, and an ionizable (cationic) feature as key determinants for ligand binding to MATE1. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, MATE1 and MATE2-K were found to have markedly overlapping selectivities for a broad range of cationic compounds, including representatives from seven novel drug classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs.

  16. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. WIEGMANN, Lisa M. ANGELONI, Steven M. SEUBERT, J. Gordon WADE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades rudimentary versions of the fixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers. The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period. In this paper, we review and extend results derived from these models, with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior. The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers—and, for applied purposes, researchers—assess prospective mates based on their quality, the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions. Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful, reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters. For some organisms, it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se. But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically, regardless of how the models are formulated. Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished. In addition, we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model. More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed [Current Zoology 59 (2: 184–199, 2013].

  17. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel D.WIEGMANN; Lisa M.ANGELONI; Steven M.SEUBERT; J.Gordon WADE

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades rudimentary versions of thefixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers.The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period.In this paper,we review and extend results derived from these models,with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior.The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers-and,for applied purposes,researchers-assess prospective mates based on their quality,the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions.Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful,reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters.For some organisms,it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se.But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically,regardless of how the models are formulated.Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished.In addition,we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model.More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed.

  18. Plasma membrane aminoglycerolipid flippase function is required for signaling competence in the yeast mating pheromone response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorel, Elodie; Barrey, Evelyne; Lau, Rebecca K; Thorner, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The class 4 P-type ATPases ("flippases") maintain membrane asymmetry by translocating phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine from the outer leaflet to the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five related gene products (Dnf1, Dnf2, Dnf3, Drs2, and Neo1) are implicated in flipping of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylcholine. In MAT A: cells responding to α-factor, we found that Dnf1, Dnf2, and Dnf3, as well as the flippase-activating protein kinase Fpk1, localize at the projection ("shmoo") tip where polarized growth is occurring and where Ste5 (the central scaffold protein of the pheromone-initiated MAPK cascade) is recruited. Although viable, a MAT A: dnf1∆ dnf2∆ dnf3∆ triple mutant exhibited a marked decrease in its ability to respond to α-factor, which we could attribute to pronounced reduction in Ste5 stability resulting from an elevated rate of its Cln2⋅Cdc28-initiated degradation. Similarly, a MAT A: dnf1∆ dnf3∆ drs2∆ triple mutant also displayed marked reduction in its ability to respond to α-factor, which we could attribute to inefficient recruitment of Ste5 to the plasma membrane due to severe mislocalization of the cellular phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate pools. Thus proper remodeling of plasma membrane aminoglycerolipids and phosphoinositides is necessary for efficient recruitment, stability, and function of the pheromone signaling apparatus. © 2015 Sartorel et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Low-impact mating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Robertson, Brandan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An androgynous mating system for mating two exoatmospheric space modules comprising a first mating assembly capable of mating with a second mating assembly; a second mating assembly structurally identical to said first mating assembly, said first mating assembly comprising; a load ring; a plurality of load cell subassemblies; a plurality of actuators; a base ring; a tunnel; a closed loop control system; one or more electromagnets; and one or more striker plates, wherein said one or more electomagnets on said second mating assembly are capable of mating with said one or more striker plates on said first mating assembly, and wherein said one or more striker plates is comprised of a plate of predetermined shape and a 5-DOF mechanism capable of maintaining predetermined contact requirements during said mating of said one or more electromagnets and said one or more striker plates.

  20. Stk2, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase fromSetosphaeria turcica, Specifically Complements the Functions of the Fus3and Kss1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Filamentation, Invasive Growth, and Mating Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Shou-qin; GONG Xiao-dong; FAN Yong-shan; HAN Jian-min; DONG Jin-gao; YANG Yang; LI Po; ZHANG Chang-zhi; FAN Yu; ZHANG Xiao-yu; TIAN Lan; HAO Zhi-min; CAO Zhi-yan

    2013-01-01

    Setosphaeria turcica, an essential phytopathogenic fungus, is the primary cause of serious yield losses in corn; however, its pathogenic mechanism is poorly understood. We cloned STK2, a newly discovered mitogen-activated protein kinase gene with a deduced amino acid sequence that is 96% identical toMAK2 fromPhaeosphaeria nodorum, 56% identical to KSS1 and 57% identical to FUS3 fromSaccharomyces cerevisiae. To deduce Stk2 function inS. turcicaand to identify the genetic relationship betweenSTK2 and KSS1/FUS3fromS. cerevisiae, a restructured vector containing the open reading frame ofSTK2 was transformed into afus3/kss1double deletion mutant ofS. cerevisiae. The results show that theSTK2 complementary strain clearly formed pseudohyphae and ascospores, and the strain grew on the surface of the medium after rinsing with sterile water and the characteristics of the complementary strain was the same as the wild-type strain. Moreover, STK2complemented the function ofKSS1 in iflamentation and invasive growth, as well as the mating behavior ofFUS3 in S. cerevisiae, however, its exact functions inS. turcica will be studied in the future research.

  1. Pulmonary function test in type 1 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Gajbhiye

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study was undertaken to find out the effect of diabetes on the respiratory system. Background: Diabetes is a disease with multiple organ involvement. Glycosylation of tissue proteins occur when blood glucose level remain elevated for a prolonged duration. Due to this, there occur irreversible changes in the chemical structure of tissue proteins. Basement membrane and connective tissues in skin, muscles, respiratory system, vascular bed, kidney, peripheral nervous system, etc. are the targets for glycosylation. Pulmonary function testing (P.F.T. is a valuable tool for evaluating the respiratory system, representing an important adjunct to the patient history, various lung imaging studies, and invasive testing such as bronchoscopy and open-lung biopsy. Material and Method: 64 type 1 diabetic subjects and 60 controls were selected for the study. Anthropometric parameters, blood investigations and P.F.T. were performed on all subjects. Result and Discussion: Fasting and Post Meal blood glucose levels as well as HbA1c% were significantly higher in type 1 diabetics as compared to controls. All P.F.T. parameters excepting FEV1 % were also significantly reduced in type 1 diabetics. Decreased values of P.F.T parameters in type 1 diabetics can be attributed to biochemical alteration of connective tissue constituents particularly collagen and elastin as well as by microangiopathy due to nonenzymatic protein glycosylation induced by chronic hyperglycemia.

  2. Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

    2005-01-01

    There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sampl...

  3. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Functional Hypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Atmaca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the effect of blood sugar regulation and vitamin D levels on calcium metabolism and parathormone levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Method: We included 132 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented to our outpatient clinic for regular check up between August 2013 and October 2013. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, albumin, creatinine, parathormone, 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD], spot urinary calcium and creatinine levels were studied for each patient. Results: Vitamin D levels were below 30 ng/mL in 96.9% (n=128 and below 20 ng/mL in 78.7% (n=102 of the patients included in the study. Patients with impaired blood sugar regulation (HbA1c >10% had lower levels of PTH, albumin and 25(OHD levels and higher phosphorus levels compared to patients with HbA1c levels below 10% (p=0.018, p=0.043, p=0.002, p=0.01, respectively. The rates of functional hypoparathyroidism (parathormone <65 ng/mL in patients with vitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL and 20 ng/mL were 63.2% and 59.6%, respectively. Among the diabetic patients with vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL, magnesium levels were significantly lower in those with functional hypoparathyroidism (parathormone <65 ng/mL compared to those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (p=0.015. Comparative statistical analysis of patients with HbA1c levels above and below 10% demonstrated higher proportion of patients with functional hypoparathyroidism in the group with impaired blood sugar regulation (p=0.035 for patients with vitamin levels below 30 ng/mL, and p=0.031 for patients with vitamin levels below 20 ng/mL. Discussion: Impaired blood sugar regulation leads to functional hypoparathyroidism with secondary hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus, as was previously described for subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  5. Mate choice: from sexual cues to cognitive adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have successfully combined sexual selection theory and empirical research to compile lists of sexual attractiveness cues used in human mate choice. But a list of inputs is not the same as a normative or descriptive model of a psychological adaptation. We need to shift from cataloguing sexual cues to modelling cognitive adaptations for mate choice. This theoretical chapter addresses how to make this transition in three parts. The introduction discusses four general problems with cue cataloguing as an evolutionary psychology research strategy: animals' promiscuous flexibility of cue use; cue use being marginal to cognition; cue use being marginal to the hard game-theoretical aspects of mate choice; and cue use being uninformative about the exact adaptive functions of mate choice. The middle section develops six critiques of current mate choice research: the obsession with sex difference; the over-emphasis on physical rather than behavioural cues; the assumption of weighted linear models of cue integration; the avoidance of game-theoretical problems of mutual choice and assortative mating; the neglect of co-evolution between mate choice heuristics and the cues that they select; and the failure to understand that mate choice is only worth doing if potential mates show significant genetic variance. The conclusion outlines a new normative and descriptive framework for mate choice, centred on the use of brutally efficient search heuristics that exploit the informational structure of human genotypes, phenotypes and populations to make good mate choices.

  6. Global GPP based on Plant Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroustraete, Frank; Balzarolo, Manuela

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation variables like Gross Primary productivity (GPP) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are key variables in vegetation carbon exchange studies. Field measurements of the NDVI are time consuming due to landscape heterogeneity across time. Typically a sampling protocol adopted during field campaigns is based on the VALERI protocol in that case toe estimate LAI. Field campaign GPP or NDVI measurements can be scaled up to using in-situ FLUXNET radiation raster maps. Regression analysis can then be applied to construct transfer functions for the determination of GPP raster maps raster imagery from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) raster maps derived from in-situ FLUXNET radiation raster maps. Subsequently, in the VALERI approach the scaling up of raster maps is performed by aggregation of high resolution in-situ FLUXNET radiation raster maps data into high resolution raster maps and subsequently aggregating these to 1x1 km MODIS NDVI raster maps by calculating average NDVI values for the low resolution data. The up-scaled 1x1 km pixels are then used to validate the MODIS GPP and NVI products. Hence up scaling based on in-situ FLUXNET radiation measurements are not a luxury for large and heterogeneous sites. Therefore this paper tackles the problem of up scaling using in-situ FLUXNET radiation measurements. Key Words: FLUXNET, GPP, Plant Functional Types, Up-scaling

  7. 云南省马铃薯晚疫病菌交配型及生物学特性研究(英文)%MATING TYPE AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Phytophthora infestans ISOLATES FROM YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国立耘; 杨艳丽; 罗文富

    2002-01-01

    作者对1998~2000年间采自云南省13个县、23个地点的马铃薯晚疫病菌的交配型、菌落形态、燕麦培养基上生长情况、生长速度和产孢量进行了测定.结果显示,采自云南13个县、23个地点的共157个菌株全部为A1交配型,表明云南马铃薯主产区的晚疫病菌以A1交配型为主,同时,被测的代表菌株在生长速度和产孢量上存在显著差异,表明这一地区的晚疫病菌种群内存在丰富的遗传多样性.此外,结果还显示,晚疫病菌菌株在燕麦培养基上的生长情况与其菌落形态和交配型不相关.%Phytophthora infestans from potatoes collected from Yunnan Province during 1998 to 2000 were investigated for their mating type, colony growth pattern, ability to grow on oatmeal agar, linear growth rate and amount of sporangia produced. A total of 157 isolates from 23 locations in 13 counties in Yunnan were all A1 mating type. Representative isolates showed significant variation in growth rate and amount of sporangia produced, which indicate the existence of genetic diversity among the population of P. infestans in Yunnan. Results also show that colony growth pattern and the growth on oatmeal agar did not relate to the mating type of the isolate.

  8. Sex roles and mutual mate choice matter during mate sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Lise Cats; de Jong, Karen; Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond

    2012-06-01

    The roles of females and males in mating competition and mate choice have lately proven more variable, between and within species, than previously thought. In nature, mating competition occurs during mate search and is expected to be regulated by the numbers of potential mates and same-sex competitors. Here, we present the first study to test how a temporal change in sex roles affects mating competition and mate choice during mate sampling. Our model system (the marine fish Gobiusculus flavescens) is uniquely suitable because of its change in sex roles, from conventional to reversed, over the breeding season. As predicted from sex role theory, courtship was typically initiated by males and terminated by females early in the breeding season. The opposite pattern was observed late in the season, at which time several females often simultaneously courted the same male. Mate-searching females visited more males early than late in the breeding season. Our study shows that mutual mate choice and mating competition can have profound effects on female and male behavior. Future work needs to consider the dynamic nature of mating competition and mate choice if we aim to fully understand sexual selection in the wild.

  9. Genotyping, serotyping and determination of mating-type of Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from São Paulo State, Brazil Genotipagem, sorotipagem e determinação de mating-type de isolados clínicos de Cryptococcus neoformans do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Teruyuki Matsumoto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is an important fungal pathogen mainly in immunocompromised patients. In this study, 47 clinical isolates of C. neoformans from regions of São Paulo State were studied serologically by using the Crypto Check Iatron RM 304-K kit, their genetic diversity was estimated by PCR-fingerprinting with a microsatellite-specific sequence (GACA4, RAPD with primer 6 (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of the phospholipase B gene (PLB1 digested with AvaI and mating type analysis by PCR. All 47 strains isolated from HIV positive patients included in this study were serotype A and MATalpha. The majority of the isolates (45/47 were VNI and only two were VNII by PCR-fingerprinting and PCR-RFLP analysis. High degree of homogeneity was observed when (GACA4 was used, being highly correlated (> 0.9. In contrast, the RAPD analysis was more heterogeneous with higher number of molecular profiles. By PCR-RFLP, no new molecular type was found, enhancing the suggestion that the differences based on conserved gene as PLB1, can be resultant of ongoing divergent evolution within the C. neoformans complex, into the current eight subtypes. Our results furnish new information on the molecular epidemiology of C. neoformans in the southeast region of Brazil.Cryptococcus neoformans, pertencente à classe dos basidiomicetos, é um importante patógeno, principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Neste estudo, 47 isolados clínicos de C. neoformans de várias regiões do Estado de São Paulo foram avaliados quanto aos sorotipos e ao mating-type por PCR. A diversidade genética foi analisada por PCR-fingerprinting com a seqüência iniciadora específica para regiões microssatélite (GACA4, RAPD com o iniciador 6 (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech e por RFLP do gene PLB1 digerido com AvaI. Todos os isolados foram obtidos de pacientes HIV positivos e identificados como sorotipo A e

  10. Wetlands - different types, their properties and functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Erik [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences/Hydrology

    2003-08-01

    In this report, different Swedish wetland types are presented with emphasis on their occurrence, vegetation cover, soil physical and chemical properties and functions. Three different main groups of wetlands are identified: bogs, fens and marshes. The former two are peat forming environments while the term 'marshes' covers all non-peat forming wetlands. Poor fens are the most common type in Sweden but (tree-covered) marshes would probably be dominating large areas in Southern Sweden if not affected by human activity such as drainage for farming. Fens and bogs are often coexisting next to each other and bogs are often seen to be the next step after fens in the natural succession. However, the development of wetlands and processes of succession between different wetland types are resulting from complicated interactions between climate, vegetation, geology and topography. For description of the development at individual sites, the hydrological settings which determine the water flow paths seem to be most crucial, emphasizing the importance of geology and topography. For modelling the growth of peat, simple models have so far dominated, but these are often restricted in general use. Therefore, more physical-based models have been developed, but the natural heterogeneity and climate shifts bring uncertainty of how they should be parameterised. The use of coupled groundwater-substance transport models have shown to help understand how water flows and soil chemistry are developing in response to different peat forms. The peat is characterised by a high porosity (80-95%) which is decreasing with decomposition and depth. The most important change is then that the actively conducting pores are getting clogged and closed. The storage coefficient of the peat is then decreasing with decomposition as well as the hydraulic conductivity. The variation of hydraulic conductivity (k) can be large and current understanding of the connections between hydraulic conductivity

  11. Weighted hardy type integral inequalities involving many functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Hussain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to derive some new weighted Hardy type integral inequalities involving many functions and to obtain a classical weighted Hardy type inequality involving many functions.

  12. New Differential Properties of Sup-type Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-chuan Zhou; Chang-yu Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the directional derivative, subderivative, and subdifferential of sup-type functions without any compactness assumption on the index set. As applications, we provide an estimate of the Lipschitz modulus for sup-type functions.

  13. The mating type locus (MAT and sexual reproduction of Cryptococcus heveanensis: insights into the evolution of sex and sex-determining chromosomal regions in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Metin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mating in basidiomycetous fungi is often controlled by two unlinked, multiallelic loci encoding homeodomain transcription factors or pheromones/pheromone receptors. In contrast to this tetrapolar organization, Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii have a bipolar mating system, and a single biallelic locus governs sexual reproduction. The C. neoformans MAT locus is unusually large (>100 kb, contains >20 genes, and enhances virulence. Previous comparative genomic studies provided insights into how this unusual MAT locus might have evolved involving gene acquisitions into two unlinked loci and fusion into one contiguous locus, converting an ancestral tetrapolar system to a bipolar one. Here we tested this model by studying Cryptococcus heveanensis, a sister species to the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex. An extant sexual cycle was discovered; co-incubating fertile isolates results in the teleomorph (Kwoniella heveanensis with dikaryotic hyphae, clamp connections, septate basidia, and basidiospores. To characterize the C. heveanensis MAT locus, a fosmid library was screened with C. neoformans/C. gattii MAT genes. Positive fosmids were sequenced and assembled to generate two large probably unlinked MAT gene clusters: one corresponding to the homeodomain locus and the other to the pheromone/receptor locus. Strikingly, two divergent homeodomain genes (SXI1, SXI2 are present, similar to the bE/bW Ustilago maydis paradigm, suggesting one or the other homeodomain gene was recently lost in C. neoformans/C. gattii. Sequencing MAT genes from other C. heveanensis isolates revealed a multiallelic homeodomain locus and at least a biallelic pheromone/receptor locus, similar to known tetrapolar species. Taken together, these studies reveal an extant C. heveanensis sexual cycle, define the structure of its MAT locus consistent with tetrapolar mating, and support the proposed evolutionary model for the bipolar Cryptococcus MAT locus revealing

  14. Distress about mating rivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    2000-01-01

    This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =

  15. Distress about mating rivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    2000-01-01

    This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =

  16. Transcription factors Mat2 and Znf2 operate cellular circuits orchestrating opposite- and same-sex mating in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that undergoes a dimorphic transition from a unicellular yeast to multicellular hyphae during opposite sex (mating and unisexual reproduction (same-sex mating. Opposite- and same-sex mating are induced by similar environmental conditions and involve many shared components, including the conserved pheromone sensing Cpk1 MAPK signal transduction cascade that governs the dimorphic switch in C. neoformans. However, the homeodomain cell identity proteins Sxi1alpha/Sxi2a encoded by the mating type locus that are essential for completion of sexual reproduction following cell-cell fusion during opposite-sex mating are dispensable for same-sex mating. Therefore, identification of downstream targets of the Cpk1 MAPK pathway holds the key to understanding molecular mechanisms governing the two distinct developmental fates. Thus far, homology-based approaches failed to identify downstream transcription factors which may therefore be species-specific. Here, we applied insertional mutagenesis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and transcription analysis using whole genome microarrays to identify factors involved in C. neoformans differentiation. Two transcription factors, Mat2 and Znf2, were identified as key regulators of hyphal growth during same- and opposite-sex mating. Mat2 is an HMG domain factor, and Znf2 is a zinc finger protein; neither is encoded by the mating type locus. Genetic, phenotypic, and transcriptional analyses of Mat2 and Znf2 provide evidence that Mat2 is a downstream transcription factor of the Cpk1 MAPK pathway whereas Znf2 functions as a more terminal hyphal morphogenesis determinant. Although the components of the MAPK pathway including Mat2 are not required for virulence in animal models, Znf2, as a hyphal morphology determinant, is a negative regulator of virulence. Further characterization of these elements and their target circuits will reveal genes controlling biological

  17. Female fitness optimum at intermediate mating rates under traumatic mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanda Lange

    Full Text Available Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner's gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species.

  18. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Morgado-Santos

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation. In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction.

  19. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado-Santos, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation) or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation). In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction. PMID:26181664

  20. Interpolation Functions of -Extensions of Apostol's Type Euler Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Young-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present new -extensions of Apostol's type Euler polynomials using the fermionic -adic integral on . We define the - -Euler polynomials and obtain the interpolation functions and the Hurwitz type zeta functions of these polynomials. We define -extensions of Apostol type's Euler polynomials of higher order using the multivariate fermionic -adic integral on . We have the interpolation functions of these - -Euler polynomials. We also give -extensions of Apostol's type Euler polynomials of higher order and have the multiple Hurwitz type zeta functions of these - -Euler polynomials.

  1. Prioritisation of Marketing Investments in Different Types of Marketing Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate how the marketing function's efforts influence the company's results, marketing functions are classified according to their role mix. The impact of the types is studied on the basis of an empirical study among 395 marketing managers. The study identifies four types of marketing...... functions based on the efforts they dedicate to seven generic marketing roles. The four types of marketing functions are denoted as follows: (1) the broadly-based; (2) the hesitant; (3) the traditional and (4) the market-creating marketing function. All four types of marketing functions directly influence...... the company's results, but there is considerable variation in the composition of the roles within each type of marketing function, their use and impact on the company's results. The findings of this study indicate that marketing functions are heterogeneous, and the effect achieved from investing in any given...

  2. Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

    2006-03-07

    There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sample of British poets, visual artists, and other adults. We show that two components of schizotypy are positively correlated with mating success. For one component, this relationship is mediated by creative activity. Results are discussed in terms of the evolution of human creativity and the genesis of schizophrenia.

  3. L-Functions of Jacobi forms with Shimura type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巨平

    2002-01-01

    For every Jacobi form of Shimura type over H × C, a system of L-functions associated to it is given. These L-functions can be analytically continued to the whole complex plane and satisfy a kind of functional equation. As a consequence, Hecke's inverse theorem on modular forms is extended to the context of Jacobi forms with Shimura type.

  4. Lung function abnormalities in children with type I diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R; Brackel, HJL; de Vroede, M; van der Ent, CK

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in intrabronchial administration of insulin raise lung function in patients with type I diabetes as important issue. Several studies in adults report abnormalities of lung function of these patients, The aim of this study was to investigate lung function in children with type I d

  5. Weak type estimates of intrinsic square functions on the weighted Herz-type Hardy spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, by using the atomic decomposition theory of weighted Herz-type Hardy spaces, we will obtain some weighted weak type estimates for intrinsic square functions including the Lusin area function, Littlewood-Paley $g$-function and $g^*_\\lambda$-function on these spaces.

  6. Indirect mate choice, direct mate choice and species recognition in a bower-building cichlid fish lek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genner, M J; Young, K A; Haesler, M P; Joyce, D A

    2008-09-01

    Sexual selection arising through female mate choice typically favours males with larger, brighter and louder signals. A critical challenge in sexual selection research is to determine the degree to which this pattern results from direct mate choice, where females select individual males based on variation in signalling traits, or indirect mate choice, where male competition governs access to reproductively active females. We investigated female mate choice in a lekking Lake Malawi cichlid fish, Hemitilapia oxyrhynchus, in which males build and aggressively defend sand 'bowers'. Similar to previous studies, we found that male reproductive success was positively associated with bower height and centrality on the lek. However, this pattern resulted from males holding these territories encountering more females, and thus their greater success was due to indirect mate choice. Following initial male courtship, an increase in the relative mating success of some males was observed, but this relative increase was unrelated to bower size or position. Crucially, experimentally manipulating bowers to resemble those of a co-occurring species had no appreciable effect on direct choice by females or male spawning success. Together, these results suggest indirect mate choice is the dominant force determining male-mating success in this species, and that bowers are not signals used in direct mate choice by females. We propose that, in this species, bowers have a primary function in intraspecific male competition, with the most competitive males maintaining larger and more central bowers that are favoured by sexual selection due to higher female encounter rates.

  7. Hypergeometric type functions and their symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We give a systematic and unified discussion of various classes of hypergeometric type equations: the hypergeometric equation, the confluent equation, the F_1 equation (equivalent to the Bessel equation), the Gegenbauer equation and the Hermite equation. In particular, we discuss recurrence relations of their solutions, their integral representations and discrete symmetries.

  8. Mating success follows duet dancing in the Java sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Midori

    2017-01-01

    Mutual interactions between sexes have multiple signalling functions. Duet singing in songbirds is related to mutual mate guarding, joint resource defence, and signalling commitment. Coordinated visual displays of mating pairs are thought to perform similar functions, but are less well understood. The current study evaluated mutual interactions in an Estrildid species to explore the relative importance of duet dancing and male singing in mating success of pairs in a first encounter. When Java sparrows (Lonchura oryzivora) court prospective mates, only males sing. However, both males and females perform courtship dances, often in a duet-like manner. These dances are typically terminated by female copulation solicitation displays (CSDs). In the current study, we observed higher mating success when courtship dances were mutually exchanged, and when males sang. However, the sex initiating the courtship did not affect mating success. Most females produced CSDs after duet dancing but before hearing the entire song, indicating that duet dancing played a crucial role in mating. This finding highlights an unexplored aspect of duetting behaviour in the process of mutual mate choice. These results conflict with the majority of past songbird research, which has interpreted songs as primary behavioural sexual signals. PMID:28273111

  9. Negative public information in mate choice copying helps the spread of a novel trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mauro; Matos, Margarida; Varela, Susana A M

    2014-11-01

    Numerous field and laboratory experiments have shown that many species have the capacity for social learning, including mate choice decisions that can be influenced by witnessing the mating decisions of others. Here we develop a numerical model of mate choice copying that follows the population genetics tradition, consisting in tracking allele frequencies in a population over time under various scenarios. In contrast to previous evolutionary models, we consider both positive social information and negative social information because many mating systems are driven by males in pursuit of a mate and female refusal of copulation may provide negative social information. The inclusion of negative social information to mate choice copying helps the spread of a novel trait, even if female innate mate choice preference is biased toward the common male type. We argue that the presence or absence of copying might simply mirror the associated cost-benefit relationship of the mating system of a given species and suggest how to test this prediction.

  10. The relationship between health and mating success in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian 

    2017-01-01

    Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans. PMID:28280558

  11. The relationship between health and mating success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Simmons, Leigh W; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans.

  12. Social exclusion and female mating behavior: rejected women show strategic enhancement of short-term mating interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Donald F; Young, Steven G; Brown, Christina M; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2012-08-22

    Because cost asymmetries in sexual reproduction have historically enabled women to exchange sexual access for other resources, including social resources, we tested the possibility that social exclusion would lead women to display an elevated preference for short-term mating strategies in the service of reaffiliation. In Study 1, women were given false feedback to manipulate social inclusion or exclusion prior to indicating their endorsement of short and long-term mating behaviors. Socially excluded women indicated greater interest in short-term mating and reduced interest in long-term mating. In Study 2, women wrote about a social inclusion, social exclusion, or control experience and then indicated their preference for different male body types. Women in the social exclusion condition preferred more muscular male partners--a pattern of preference typical of short-term mating--than women in the other conditions. Collectively, these results are consistent with a social exchange theory of women's sexual behavior following social exclusion.

  13. SynchroMate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, M.; Vetere, F.; Bunyan, M

    2005-01-01

    – that are less concerned with capturing and communicating information and more about the establishment and maintenance of social connection. Drawing on insights and inspiration gleaned from a recent field-based study of the role of interactive technologies within intimate relationships we outline our preliminary...... ideas concerning technologies to support phatic interaction. Using the materials collected during our fieldwork as design inspirations, we developed design sketches for phatic technologies intended to support playful connection between intimates. One of these sketches – SynchroMate – is presented...

  14. Experimental evidence for chemical mate guarding in a moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; van Wijk, Michiel; Ke, Gao; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Schal, Coby; Groot, Astrid T.

    2016-01-01

    In polyandrous species, males seek to maximize their reproductive output by monopolizing their mate. Often the male transfers substances to the female that suppress her sexual receptivity or antagonize the behavior of competing males; both are usually transferred in seminal fluids and represent forms of chemical mate guarding. In moths, more long-range female sex pheromones have been identified than in any other animal group, and males often display with close-range sex pheromones, yet odor-based post-copulatory mate guarding has not been described in moths so far. We tested the hypothesis that the male sex pheromone in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens perfumes the female and functions as an anti-aphrodisiac. Indeed, virgin females perfumed with male pheromone extract, or with its main component, mated significantly less than control virgin females, and this effect persisted for two successive nights. This chemical mate guarding strategy was disadvantageous for H. virescens females, because the reproductive output of twice-mated females was significantly higher than that of once-mated females. Since the female and male sex pheromones are biosynthetically related in this and other moth species, chemical mate guarding may also impose selection pressure on the long-range female sex pheromone channel and consequently affect the evolution of sexual communication. PMID:27934963

  15. Prioritisation of Marketing Investments in Different Types of Marketing Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate how the marketing function's efforts influence the company's results, marketing functions are classified according to their role mix. The impact of the types is studied on the basis of an empirical study among 395 marketing managers. The study identifies four types of marketing...... the company's results, but there is considerable variation in the composition of the roles within each type of marketing function, their use and impact on the company's results. The findings of this study indicate that marketing functions are heterogeneous, and the effect achieved from investing in any given...... role therefore varies. The primary managerial implication is a need for prioritisation of the marketing roles with a view to maximise the marginal impact on the company's results, but also to decide if the marketing function would benefit from shifting between different types of marketing functions...

  16. Female Mate Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Li-Wen Long

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about prospective mates is typically acquired in a sequential and cumulative fashion. The aim of this study was to examine whether a reject-the-worst strategy is more efficient than an accept-the-best strategy for women in response to serial information and to identify the point at which a woman will terminate her assessment of a prospective mate’s attributes. A pilot survey was conducted to determine the chronological order in which attribute information typically becomes available during the early stages of a relationship. Using this order of presentation, attributes were presented to participants one at a time. After participants specified their minimum acceptable percentile level for each attribute, they were given numerical feedback about the extent to which the prospect exceeded or failed to meet their standard. Participants were randomly assigned to either the accept-the-best condition (accept a date or request more information or the reject-the-worst condition (reject a date or request more information. Participants in the reject-the-worst condition requested more trait information before making a decision than those in the accept-the-best condition. This suggests that the costs of a false-negative error exceed those of a false-positive error and that in actively accepting a mate, women satisfice rather than optimize.

  17. i-mate6150

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    近日,i-mate Ultimate6150正式在香港开卖。作为i-mate Ultimate系列中唯一一款没有配备物理键盘的产品,当然也就成为了Ultimate系列四款机型中最具个性的产品。这款机型,从它黑色轮廓分明的外观也可以看出浓厚的商务氛围。Ultimate6150的键盘处设计很有特点,导航摇杆并没有像一般手机一样处于正中位置,而是偏右一些的不对称设计,这样的设计并没有影响操作的便利性,反而用左手托起手机背部,

  18. H\\"ormander Type Functional Calculus and Square Function Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Kriegler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We investigate H\\"ormander spectral multiplier theorems as they hold on $X = L^p(\\Omega),\\: 1 < p < \\infty,$ for many self-adjoint elliptic differential operators $A$ including the standard Laplacian on $\\R^d.$ A strengthened matricial extension is considered, which coincides with a completely bounded map between operator spaces in the case that $X$ is a Hilbert space. We show that the validity of the matricial H\\"ormander theorem can be characterized in terms of square function estimates for imaginary powers $A^{it}$, for resolvents $R(\\lambda,A),$ and for the analytic semigroup $\\exp(-zA).$ We deduce H\\"ormander spectral multiplier theorems for semigroups satisfying generalized Gaussian estimates.

  19. Variation in mating systems of salamanders: mate guarding or territoriality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitloff, Jennifer; Alcorn, Michael A; Graham, Sean P

    2014-07-01

    Two of the most common mating tactics in vertebrates are mate guarding and territoriality, yet much of the research on these strategies has focused on mating systems in birds, despite novel insights gained from studying less traditional systems. North American stream salamanders that comprise the Eurycea bislineata complex represent an excellent nontraditional system for comparing mating strategies because these species exhibit a continuum of male morphologies, diverse habitat associations, and various potential mating strategies. We studied two species within this complex that exhibit the extremes of this continuum, Eurycea aquatica (robust morph) and Eurycea cirrigera (slender morph). The larger head in males of E. aquatica is due to larger musculature around the jaw and may be associated with aggressive behavior. Therefore, we hypothesized that the robust morphology exhibited by males of E. aquatica provides benefits during either territorial defense or mate defense and that males of E. cirrigera would not exhibit aggression in either scenario. We found that neither species exhibited aggressive behavior to defend a territory. However, in the presence of a female, males of E. aquatica were significantly more aggressive toward intruding males than were males of E. cirrigera. Therefore, mate-guarding behavior occurs in E. aquatica, and the enlarged head of males likely aids in deterring rivals. This is the first demonstration of mate-guarding behavior in a plethodontid, the most speciose family of salamanders.

  20. Mate guarding and parental influence on mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Castro Solano, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that the degree to which parents control the mate choice of their children may explain differences in mate guarding across and within cultures was tested. Study 1, in a sample of 80 students from 30 different countries studying in The Netherlands, showed that the perceived level of pa

  1. Acasalamento entre ovelhas deslanadas e reprodutores especializados para corte: desempenho produtivo até a desmama Hairsheep females mated to specialized meat-type rams: productive performance up to weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Machado

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho produtivo de ovelhas deslanadas do Nordeste do Brasil acasaladas com machos de raças especializadas para corte. Dados de 305 parições oriundas de 134 matrizes dentro de três períodos de monta foram usados para determinar as taxas de desmame e sobrevivência das crias, o peso vivo ao desmame e o peso vivo total desmamado por ovelha acasalada. As fêmeas foram acasaladas, em sistema de rodízio de uso dos machos das raças Santa Inês, Hampshire-Down, Ile-de-France, Suffolk e Texel. O peso das crias ao desmame não diferiu entre genótipos. A taxa de desmame foi mais baixa para crias de Suffolk e de Texel, ao passo que crias de Hampshire-Down e Ile-de-France tiveram as taxas de sobrevivência mais baixas. Houve efeito compensatório entre os pesos ao nascer e ao desmame e as taxas de sobrevivência e desmame, de modo que o peso total de cordeiro desmamado não diferiu entre genótipos, à exceção para o grupo F1 de Hampshire-Down, devido à baixa taxa de sobrevivência dos cordeiros (71,4%, se comparado com as crias de Ile-de-France. Os acasalamentos ocorridos durante a estação chuvosa foram responsáveis pela menor produtividade das ovelhas. O desempenho das crias Santa Inês comparou-se ao das raças especializadas para o corte, podendo ser indicada como raça parental em programas de cruzamento com ovelhas deslanadas do Nordeste do Brasil.This trial was conducted to evaluate production levels of native breed ewes of Northeast Brazil mated to rams of specialized meat-type breeds. A total of 305 lambings from 134 ewes over three periods of mating were used to determine weaning rate, survival rate and live weight at weaning and total weight of weaned lamb. The hairsheep ewes were mated in a rotational scheme of the use of rams from Santa Inês, Hampshire-Down, Ile-de-France, Suffolk and Texel breeds. Live weight at weaning did not differ among lamb genotypes. Weaning rate was

  2. Asymmetry in sexual pheromones is not required for ascomycete mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Sá, Joana; Murray, Andrew

    2011-08-23

    We investigated the determinants of sexual identity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The higher fungi are divided into the ascomycetes and the basidiomycetes. Most ascomycetes have two mating types: one (called α in yeasts and MAT1-1 in filamentous fungi) produces a small, unmodified, peptide pheromone, and the other (a in yeasts and MAT1-2 in filamentous fungi) produces a peptide pheromone conjugated to a C-terminal farnesyl group that makes it very hydrophobic. In the basidiomycetes, all pheromones are lipid-modified, and this difference is a distinguishing feature between the phyla. We asked whether the asymmetry in pheromone modification is required for successful mating in ascomycetes. We cloned receptor and pheromone genes from a filamentous ascomycete and a basidiomycete and expressed these in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to generate novel, alternative mating pairs. We find that two yeast cells can mate even when both cells secrete a-like or α-like peptides. Importantly, this is true regardless of whether the cells express the a- or α-mating-type loci, which control the expression of other, sex-specific genes, in addition to the pheromones and pheromone receptors. We demonstrate that the asymmetric pheromone modification is not required for successful mating of ascomycete fungi and confirm that, in budding yeast, the primary determinants of mating are the specificity of the receptors and their corresponding pheromones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Husband's Esteem Predicts his Mate Retention Tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Holden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available delity or prevent their defection from the relationship. These tactics include low-risk acts that render the current relationship more attractive by bestowing benefits on the woman, as well as cost-inflicting acts that render defection from the relationship risky or dangerous for her. Previous research has linked men's mate retention behavior with men's mate value (value as a current or potential partner using women's reports. The current research addresses limitations of that research using self-reports and cross-spousal reports from 107 married couples concerning their self-esteem and their esteem for their partner. The results indicate that the level of esteem that wives have for their husbands is positively associated with their perception of their husband's use of positive inducements and negatively associated with their husband's self-reported use of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors (i.e., Direct Guarding, Intersexual Negative Inducements, and Intrasexual Negative Inducements. The level of self-esteem reported by men was negatively associated with their self-reported direct guarding behavior. Discussion explores the possibility that esteem—both self-esteem and esteem from one's partner—functions as an internal gauge of relative mate value.

  4. Mate choice and human stature: homogamy as a unified framework for understanding mating preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Raymond, Michel; Godelle, Bernard; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-08-01

    Assortative mating for human height has long attracted interest in evolutionary biology, and the phenomenon has been demonstrated in numerous human populations. It is often argued that mating preferences generate this pattern, but other processes can also induce trait correlations between mates. Here, we present a methodology tailored to quantify continuous preferences based on choice experiments between pairs of stimuli. In particular, it is possible to explore determinants of interindividual variations in preferences, such as the height of the chooser. We collected data from a sample of 200 individuals from France. Measurements obtained show that the perception of attractiveness depends on both the height of the stimuli and the stature of the individual who judged them. Therefore, this study demonstrates that homogamy is present at the level of preferences for both sexes. We also show that measurements of the function describing this homogamy are concordant with several distinct mating rules proposed in the literature. In addition, the quantitative approach introduced here fulfills metrics that can be used to compare groups of individuals. In particular, our results reveal an important disagreement between sexes regarding height preferences in the context of mutual mate choice. Finally, both women and men prefer individuals who are significantly taller than average. All major findings are confirmed by a reanalysis of previously published data.

  5. Mate Choice Copying in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waynforth, D

    2007-09-01

    There is substantial evidence that in human mate choice, females directly select males based on male display of both physical and behavioral traits. In non-humans, there is additionally a growing literature on indirect mate choice, such as choice through observing and subsequently copying the mating preferences of conspecifics (mate choice copying). Given that humans are a social species with a high degree of sharing information, long-term pair bonds, and high parental care, it is likely that human females could avoid substantial costs associated with directly searching for information about potential males by mate choice copying. The present study was a test of whether women perceived men to be more attractive when men were presented with a female date or consort than when they were presented alone, and whether the physical attractiveness of the female consort affected women's copying decisions. The results suggested that women's mate choice decision rule is to copy only if a man's female consort is physically attractive. Further analyses implied that copying may be a conditional female mating tactic aimed at solving the problem of informational constraints on assessing male suitability for long-term sexual relationships, and that lack of mate choice experience, measured as reported lifetime number of sex partners, is also an important determinant of copying.

  6. On $p$-adic Hurwitz-type Euler zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Min-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Henri Cohen and Eduardo Friedman constructed the $p$-adic analogue for Hurwitz zeta functions, and Raabe-type formulas for the $p$-adic gamma and zeta functions from Volkenborn integrals satisfying the modified difference equation. In this paper, we define the $p$-adic Hurwitz-type Euler zeta functions. Our main tool is the fermionic $p$-adic integral on $\\mathbb Z_p$. We find that many interesting properties for the $p$-adic Hurwitz zeta functions are also hold for the $p$-adic Hurwitz-type Euler zeta functions, including the convergent Laurent series expansion, the distribution formula, the functional equation, the reflection formula, the derivative formula, the $p$-adic Raabe formula and so on.

  7. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Imroze; N. G. Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-103 ERG-like potassium channel regulates contractile behaviors of sex muscles in males before and during mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L Rene; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-04-01

    During mating behavior the Caenorhabditis elegans male must regulate periodic and prolonged protractor muscle contractions to insert his copulatory spicules into his mate. The protractors undergo periodic contractions to allow the spicules to reattempt insertion if a previous thrust failed to breach the vulva. When the spicule tips penetrate the vulva, the protractors undergo prolonged contraction to keep the spicules inside the hermaphrodite until sperm transfer is complete. To understand how these contractions are regulated, we isolated EMS-induced mutations that cause males to execute prolonged contraction inappropriately. Loss-of-function mutations in the unc-103 ERG-like K(+) channel gene cause the protractor muscles to contract in the absence of mating stimulation. unc-103-induced spicule protraction can be suppressed by killing the SPC motor neurons and the anal depressor muscle: cells that directly contact the protractors. Also, reduction in acetylcholine suppresses unc-103-induced protraction, suggesting that UNC-103 keeps cholinergic neurons from stimulating the protractors before mating behavior. UNC-103 also regulates the timing of spicule protraction during mating behavior. unc-103 males that do not display mating-independent spicule protraction show abnormal spicule insertion behavior during sex. In contrast to wild-type males, unc-103 mutants execute prolonged contractions spontaneously within sequences of periodic protractor contractions. The premature prolonged contractions cause the spicules to extend from the male tail before the spicule tips penetrate the vulva. These observations demonstrate that unc-103 controls various aspects of spicule function.

  9. Bergman kernel function on Hua construction of the fourth type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the Hua construction and presents the holomorphic automorphism group of the Hua construction of the fourth type. Utilizing the Bergman kernel function, under the condition of holomorphic automorphism and the standard complete orthonormal system of the semi-Reinhardt domain, the infinite series form of the Bergman kernel function is derived. By applying the properties of polynomial and Γ functions, various identification relations of the aforementioned form are developed and the explicit formula of the Bergman kernel function for the Hua construction of the fourth type is obtained, which suggest that many of the previously-reported results are only the special cases of our findings.

  10. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone...... that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article, Olaf...... Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts....

  11. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone...... that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article, Olaf...... Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts....

  12. On a Generalized Hankel Type Convolution of Generalized Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Malgonde; G S Gaikawad

    2001-11-01

    The classical generalized Hankel type convolution are defined and extended to a class of generalized functions. Algebraic properties of the convolution are explained and the existence and significance of an identity element are discussed.

  13. Luminosity function of optically-selected type II QSOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For a sample of 411 type II QSOs with redshifts less then 0.3,we use the Balmer decrements to do the reddening correction of the [O III] luminosities and then derive the intrinsic [O III] luminosity function.We find that the host reddening correction of the [O III] 5007 luminosity for type II QSOs cannot be neglected.The median Balmer decrement of Hα/Hβ=4.0 corresponds to an extinction of 0.94 mag for the [O III] 5007 line,which is consistent with the result derived from the median Hβ/Hγ.Comparing the intrinsic luminosity function of type II QSOs with that of type I QSOs,we find that the upper limit of the type II QSO’s fraction in the total QSOs is 80% for type II QSOs with z < 0.3 and 8.6≤log(L[O III]/L)≤9.4.

  14. The selection and function of cell type-specific enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Sven; Romanoski, Casey E; Benner, Christopher; Glass, Christopher K

    2015-03-01

    The human body contains several hundred cell types, all of which share the same genome. In metazoans, much of the regulatory code that drives cell type-specific gene expression is located in distal elements called enhancers. Although mammalian genomes contain millions of potential enhancers, only a small subset of them is active in a given cell type. Cell type-specific enhancer selection involves the binding of lineage-determining transcription factors that prime enhancers. Signal-dependent transcription factors bind to primed enhancers, which enables these broadly expressed factors to regulate gene expression in a cell type-specific manner. The expression of genes that specify cell type identity and function is associated with densely spaced clusters of active enhancers known as super-enhancers. The functions of enhancers and super-enhancers are influenced by, and affect, higher-order genomic organization.

  15. Mating type, mefenoxam sensitivity, and pathotype diversity in Phytophthora infestans isolates from tomato in Brazil Grupo de compatibilidade, sensibilidade ao mefenoxam e diversidade de patótipos de isolados de Phytophthora infestans de tomate no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Eduardo Cardozo de Miranda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize 79 Phytophthora infestans isolates collected in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fields, as to mating type, mefenoxam sensitivity, and pathotype composition. The isolates were sampled in 2006 and 2007 in seven Brazilian states as well as in the Distrito Federal. They were characterised as to mating type (n=79, sensitivity to fungicide mefenoxam (n=79, and virulence to three major resistance genes Ph-1, Ph-2, and Ph-3/Ph-4 (n=62. All isolates were of the mating type A1. Resistant isolates were detected in all sampled states, and its average frequency was superior to 50%. No difference was detected in pathotype diversity, neither between subpopulations collected in 2006 and 2007 nor between isolates grouped as resistant or intermediately sensitive to mefenoxam. All major resistance genes were overcome at different frequencies: Ph-1, 88.7%; Ph-2, 64.5%; and Ph-3/Ph-4, 25.8%. Isolates with virulence genes able to overcome all major resistance genes were detected at low frequencies. Tomato breeding programs in Brazil must avoid the development of cultivars with resistance based exclusively on major genes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar 79 isolados de Phytophthora infestans, coletados em campos de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum, quanto ao grupo de compatibilidade, à sensibilidade ao mefenoxan, e à diversidade de patótipos. Os isolados foram obtidos em coletas realizadas nos anos de 2006 e 2007, em sete Estados do Brasil e no Distrito Federal. Os isolados foram usados para determinação do grupo de compatibilidade sexual (n=79, resistência ao fungicida mefenoxam (n=79 e espectro de virulência aos genes de efeito principal Ph-1, Ph-2 e Ph-3/Ph-4 (n=62. Todos os isolados foram classificados no grupo de compatibilidade A1. Isolados insensíveis ao fungicida mefenoxam foram detectados em todos os Estados amostrados, e apresentaram frequência média superior a 50%. Não houve diferença de

  16. UV-induced endonuclease III-sensitive sites at the mating type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are repaired by nucleotide excision repair: RAD7 and RAD16 are not required for their removal from HML alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S H; Boiteux, S; Waters, R

    1996-03-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation of DNA induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) 6-4'-(pyrimidine 2'-one) pyrimidines and pyrimidine hydrates. The dimer is the major photoproduct, and is specifically recognized by endonuclease V of phage T4. Pyrimidine hydrates represent a small fraction of the total photoproducts, and are substrates for endonuclease III of Escherichia coli. We used these enzymes to follow the fate of their substrates in the mating type loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a RAD strain, CPSs in the transcriptionally active MAT alpha locus are preferentially repaired relative to the inactive HML alpha locus, whilst repair of endonuclease III-sensitive sites is not preferential. The rad1, 2, 3 and 4 mutants, which lack factors that are essential for the incision step of nucleotide excision repair (NER), repair neither CPDs nor endonuclease III-sensitive sites, clearly showing that these lesions are repaired by by NER pathway. Previously it had been shown that the products of the RAD7 and RAD16 genes are required for the NER of CPDs from the HML alpha locus. We show that, in the same locus, these gene products are not needed for removal of endonuclease III-sensitive sites by the same mechanism. This indicates that the components required for NER differ depending on either the type of lesion encountered or on the specific location of the lesion within the genome.

  17. On the Fractional Calculus of a Type of Weierstrass Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚奎; 张霞

    2002-01-01

    @@ I Introduction In recent years, fractals have shown important applications in many fields. [1, 2] and [3] havedone some excellent initial and conclusion work on fractal and it's mathematical foundations.However, a fractal function: a type of Weierstrass functions defined bybecause of it's special fractal properties, [1,2, 4, 5] have given some detailed discussion about it'sgraph, fractal dimension, etc.

  18. Level two string functions and Rogers Ramanujan type identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arel Genish

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The level two string functions are calculated exactly for all simply laced Lie algebras, using a ladder coset construction. These are the characters of cosets of the type G/U(1r, where G is the algebra at level two and r is its rank. This coset is a theory of generalized parafermions. A conjectured Rogers Ramanujan type identity is described for these characters. Using the exact string functions, we verify the Rogers Ramanujan type expressions, that are the main focus of this work.

  19. Single Wall Nanotube Type-Specific Functionalization and Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter; Nikolaev, Pavel; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram; Yowell, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes were selectively solubilized in THF and separated from semiconducting nanotubes. Once separated, the functionalized metallic tubes were de-functionalized to restore their metallic band structure. Absorption and Raman spectroscopy of the enriched samples support conclusions of the enrichment of nanotube samples by metallic type. A scalable method for enriching nanotube conductive type has been developed. Raman and UV-Vis data indicate SWCNT reaction with dodecylbenzenediazonium results in metallic enrichment. It is expected that further refinement of this techniques will lead to more dramatic separations of types and diameters.

  20. RAZUMIKHIN-TYPE THEOREMS OF NEUTRAL STOCHASTIC FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shaobo; Hu Shigeng

    2009-01-01

    The stability of stochastic functional differential equation with Markovian switching was studied by several authors, but there was almost no work on the stability of the neutral stochastic functional differential equations with Markovian switching. The aim of this article is to close this gap. The authors establish Razumikhin-type theorem of the neutral stochastic functional differential equations with Markovian switching, and those without Markovian switching.

  1. Surface nanobubbles as a function of gas type

    CERN Document Server

    van Limbeek, Michiel; 10.1021/la2005387

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the nucleation of surface nanobubbles on PFDTS-coated silicon as a function of the specific gas dissolved in the water. In each case we restrict ourselves to equilibrium conditions ($c=100%$, $T_{liquid} = T_{substrate}$). Not only is nanobubble nucleation a strong function of gas type, but there also exists an optimal system temperature of $\\sim 35-40\\mathrm{^oC}$ where nucleation is maximized, which is weakly dependent on gas type. We also find that contact angle is a function of nanobubble radius of curvature for all gas types investigated. Fitting this data allows us to describe a line tension which is dependent on the type of gas, indicating that the nanobubbles are sat on top of adsorbed gas molecules. The average line tension was $\\tau \\sim -0.8 \\mathrm{nN}$.

  2. Reproductive and productive efficiencies of Etawah Grade goats under various mating managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sunadi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah Grade (PE goats were treated with three type of mating managements, i.e. mated at the first oestrous (A, mated at the second oestrous (B, and mated at the third oestrous (C after parturition, respectively . Results showed that average first estrous was 56 days (26-99 d after parturition with estrous cycle of 21 days . Conception rate at the first and second oestrous mating managements (A and B were 50 and 70%, respectively . Variability of birth weight (3,4 - 3,5 kg under three mating managements were not significantly different (P>0 .05, but the weaning weight of kids of B (16 .4 kg was higher (P<0.05 than A (11 .8 kg and C (12.9 kg, respectively. Does productivity (total weaning weight was not significantly affected by mating management, i.e. at fisrt, second or third oestrous after parturition .

  3. Role of T-type channels in vasomotor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuo, Ivana Y-T; Howitt, Lauren; Sandow, Shaun L

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels play an important role in regulating cellular excitability and are implicated in conditions, such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. T-type channels, especially Cav3.1 and Cav3.2, are also expressed in the vasculature, although patch clamp studies......-type channel function following decrease in nitric oxide bioavailability and increase in oxidative stress, which occurs during cardiovascular disease, suggests that a more important role could be played by these channels in pathophysiological situations. The ability of T-type channels to be rapidly recruited...

  4. Coordinate control of initiative mating device for autonomous underwater vehicle based on TDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhe-ping; HOU Shu-ping

    2005-01-01

    A novel initiative mating device, which has four 2-degree manipulators around the mating skirt, is proposed to mate between a skirt of AUV (autonomons underwater vehicle) and a disabled submarine. The primary function of the device is to keep exact mating between skirt and disabled submarine in a badly sub sea environment. According to the characteristic of rescue, an automaton model is brought forward to describe the mating proceed between AUV and manipulators. The coordinated control is implemented by the TDES(time discrete event system).After taking into account the time problem, it is a useful method to control mating by simulation testing. The result shows that it reduces about 70 seconds after using intelligent co-ordinate control based on TDES through the whole mating procedure.

  5. Mating strategy, disgust, and food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith; Lewis, David M G; Alley, Thomas R; Buss, David M

    2015-02-01

    Food neophobia and disgust are commonly thought to be linked, but this hypothesis is typically implicitly assumed rather than directly tested. Evidence for the connection has been based on conceptually and empirically unsound measures of disgust, unpublished research, and indirect findings. This study (N = 283) provides the first direct evidence of a relationship between trait-level food neophobia and trait-level pathogen disgust. Unexpectedly, we also found that food neophobia varies as a function of sexual disgust and is linked to mating strategy. Using an evolutionary framework, we propose a novel hypothesis that may account for these previously undiscovered findings: the food neophilia as mating display hypothesis. Our discussion centers on future research directions for discriminatively testing this novel hypothesis.

  6. Size-assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism are predictable from simple mechanics of mate-grasping behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonski Piotr G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the typically complex interactions between diverse counter-balancing factors of Darwinian selection for size assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism. It appears that rarely a simple mechanism could provide a major explanation of these phenomena. Mechanics of behaviors can predict animal morphology, such like adaptations to locomotion in animals from various of taxa, but its potential to predict size-assortative mating and its evolutionary consequences has been less explored. Mate-grasping by males, using specialized adaptive morphologies of their forelegs, midlegs or even antennae wrapped around female body at specific locations, is a general mating strategy of many animals, but the contribution of the mechanics of this wide-spread behavior to the evolution of mating behavior and sexual size dimorphism has been largely ignored. Results Here, we explore the consequences of a simple, and previously ignored, fact that in a grasping posture the position of the male's grasping appendages relative to the female's body is often a function of body size difference between the sexes. Using an approach taken from robot mechanics we model coercive grasping of females by water strider Gerris gracilicornis males during mating initiation struggles. We determine that the male optimal size (relative to the female size, which gives the males the highest grasping force, properly predicts the experimentally measured highest mating success. Through field sampling and simulation modeling of a natural population we determine that the simple mechanical model, which ignores most of the other hypothetical counter-balancing selection pressures on body size, is sufficient to account for size-assortative mating pattern as well as species-specific sexual dimorphism in body size of G. gracilicornis. Conclusion The results indicate how a simple and previously overlooked physical mechanism

  7. Fisetin up-regulates the expression of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the activation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1)-deacetylase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Taewon; Kim, Oh Yoen; Shin, Min-Jeong; Choi, Eun Young; Lee, Sung Sook; Han, Ye Sun; Chung, Ji Hyung

    2014-10-29

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, has been described as showing physiological benefits against obesity-related malfunctions and vascular dysfunction. Several natural compounds that promote the expression and secretion of adipokines in adipocytes could be useful for treating metabolic disorders. This study investigated the effect of fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, on the regulation of adiponectin in adipocytes using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The expression and secretion of adiponectin increased in 3T3-L1 cells upon treatment with fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. Fisetin-induced adiponectin secretion was inhibited by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) antagonists. It was also revealed that fisetin increased the activities of PPARs and silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the up-regulation of adiponectin and the activation of PPARs induced by fisetin were prevented by a SIRT1 inhibitor. Fisetin also promoted deacetylation of PPAR γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1) and its interaction with PPARs. SIRT knockdown by siRNA significantly decreased both adiponectin production and PPARs-PGC-1 interaction. These results provide evidence that fisetin promotes the gene expression of adiponectin through the activation of SIRT1 and PPARs in adipocytes.

  8. Prioritising Marketing Activities in Different Types of Marketing Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    are not equally important to practise. Moreover, all roles are not equally important to all marketing functions, but depend on the marketing function's unique starting point. Since MFs differ, relevant investments in marketing roles also differ, making it beneficial to prioritise them. However, management......Marketing functions (MFs) differ in how they practise marketing roles. The purpose of this article is to differentiate between MFs that practice marketing roles in a particular manner and then study how these different types of MFs differ with regard to the marketing roles’ effect on business...... performance (BP) and top management's respect. An empirical survey identifies four types of MFs: (1) the broad spectrum; (2) the hesitant; (3) the traditional and (4) the market-creating. Findings show that for each of the four types, the effect of investing in a particular role varies: all roles...

  9. 沉默信息调节因子2同源蛋白1(SIRT1)与阿尔茨海默病研究进展%Silent mating-type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) in Alzheimer’ s disease:an update on potential mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董世芬; 张胜威; 孙建宁

    2016-01-01

    沉默信息调节因子2同源蛋白1( SIRT1)激动可通过抑制β淀粉样蛋白沉积、tau蛋白磷酸化、炎症反应,调节突触可塑性,以及与Akt/蛋白激酶B通路共同作用,改善阿尔茨海默病( AD)的认知功能障碍。该文就SIRT1与AD研究进展进行综述。%Alzheimer ’ s disease ( AD ) is characterized by pro-gressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions .With re-cent discoveries , activation of silent mating-type information reg-ulator 2 homolog 1 ( SIRT1 ) could attenuate the cognitive dys-function of AD via reducing amyloid-βaggregation and tau pro-tein phosphorylation , inhibiting inflammatory reaction , and regu-lating synaptic plasticity .This review aims to highlight the in-volvement of these new discoveries of SIRT 1, and Akt/protein kinase B(PKB) signaling pathways, for their potential therapeu-tic effect against AD .

  10. Social discrimination of cage-mates and non-cage-mates by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samantha; Burman, Oliver; Mendl, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The ability to discriminate between group-mates and non-group-mates likely underpins the occurrence of affiliative and aggressive behaviour towards 'in-group' and 'out-group' individuals. Here we present two experiments aimed at testing the ability of rats (Rattus norvegicus) to discriminate between cage-mate (CM: animals residing in the subject's home cage) and non-cage-mate (NCM) conspecifics. In experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate between different exemplars of CM and NCM using a lever pressing task employing symmetrical reinforcement. Subjects did not reach performance criterion, but they did show some evidence of discrimination between the two types of stimuli. In experiment 2, we employed a digging task to determine if rats can discriminate between odour cues from CM and NCM presented simultaneously on two sand-filled bowls. Subjects reached performance criterion on the first pair of odours, and on three more different pairs of CM and NCM odours. The results of a reversal task, using a fifth pair of odours, indicate that the rats were using a common factor to discriminate between social cues from CM and NCM conspecifics, rather than learning each pair independently. Possible candidates include a group-specific odour cue, or the development of a CM/NCM category concept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears

  12. Molecular genetic analyses of mating pheromones reveal intervariety mating or hybridization in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Fan, Jinjiang; Stein, Birgit; Behr, Melissa J; Samsonoff, William A; Wickes, Brian L; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2002-09-01

    The sexual mating of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is important for pathogenesis studies because the fungal virulence is linked to the alpha mating type (MAT(alpha)). We characterized C. neoformans mating pheromones (MF(alpha) 1 and MFa1) from 122 strains to understand intervariety hybridization or mating and intervariety virulence. MF(alpha) 1 in three C. neoformans varieties showed (a) specific nucleotide polymorphisms, (b) different copy numbers and chromosomal localizations, and (c) unique deduced amino acids in two geographic populations of C. neoformans var. gattii. MF(alpha) 1 of different varieties cross-hybridized in Southern hybridizations. Their phylogenetic analyses showed purifying selection (neutral evolution). These observations suggested that MAT(alpha) strains from any of the three C. neoformans varieties could mate or hybridize in nature with MATa strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans. A few serotype A/D diploid strains provided evidence for mating or hybridization, while a majority of A/D strains tested positive for haploid MF(alpha) 1 identical to that of C. neoformans var. grubii. MF(alpha) 1 sequence and copy numbers in diploids were identical to those of C. neoformans var. grubii, while their MFa1 sequences were identical to those of C. neoformans var. neoformans; thus, these strains were hybrids. The mice survival curves and histological lesions revealed A/D diploids to be highly pathogenic, with pathogenicity levels similar to that of the C. neoformans var. grubii type strain and unlike the low pathogenicity levels of C. neoformans var. neoformans strains. In contrast to MF(alpha) 1 in three varieties, MFa1 amplicons and hybridization signals could be obtained only from two C. neoformans var. neoformans reference strains and eight A/D diploids. This suggested that a yet undiscovered MFa pheromone(s) in C. neoformans var. gattii and C. neoformans var. grubii is unrelated to, highly divergent from, or rarer than that in C

  13. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  14. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L, alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline.

  15. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E. Cain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc. or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts.

  16. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P

    2015-01-07

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most 'model' species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions.

  17. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most ‘model’ species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions. PMID:25411448

  18. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle

    2005-08-01

    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  19. Gene genealogies indicates abundant gene conversions and independent evolutionary histories of the mating-type chromosomes in the evolutionary history of Neurospora tetrasperma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whittle Carrie A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The self-fertile filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma contains a large (~7 Mbp and young (mat chromosomes. The objective of the present study is to reveal the evolutionary history, including key genomic events, associated with the various regions of the mat chromosomes among ten strains representing all the nine known species (lineages contained within the N. tetrasperma species complex. Results Comparative analysis of sequence divergence among alleles of 24 mat-linked genes (mat A and mat a indicates that a large region of suppressed recombination exists within the mat chromosome for each of nine lineages of N. tetrasperma sensu latu. The recombinationally suppressed region varies in size and gene composition among lineages, and is flanked on both ends by normally recombining regions. Genealogical analyses among lineages reveals that eight gene conversion events have occurred between homologous mat A and mat a-linked alleles of genes located within the region of restricted recombination during the evolutionary history of N. tetrasperma. Conclusions We conclude that the region of suppressed recombination in the mat chromosomes has likely been subjected to independent contraction and/or expansion during the evolutionary history of the N. tetrasperma species complex. Furthermore, we infer that gene conversion events are likely a common phenomenon within this recombinationally suppressed genomic region. We argue that gene conversions might provide an efficient mechanism of adaptive editing of functional genes, including the removal of deleterious mutations, within the young recombinationally suppressed region of the mat chromosomes.

  20. Sport Participation Influences Perceptions of Mate Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extracurricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.

  1. Sport participation influences perceptions of mate characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Eys, Mark A; Emond, Michael; Buzdon, Michael

    2012-02-22

    Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extra-curricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a) athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b) females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.

  2. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or

  3. Developing empirical collapse fragility functions for global building types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.; Wald, D.; D'Ayala, D.

    2011-01-01

    Building collapse is the dominant cause of casualties during earthquakes. In order to better predict human fatalities, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program requires collapse fragility functions for global building types. The collapse fragility is expressed as the probability of collapse at discrete levels of the input hazard defined in terms of macroseismic intensity. This article provides a simple procedure for quantifying collapse fragility using vulnerability criteria based on the European Macroseismic Scale (1998) for selected European building types. In addition, the collapse fragility functions are developed for global building types by fitting the beta distribution to the multiple experts’ estimates for the same building type (obtained from EERI’s World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE)-PAGER survey). Finally, using the collapse probability distributions at each shaking intensity level as a prior and field-based collapse-rate observations as likelihood, it is possible to update the collapse fragility functions for global building types using the Bayesian procedure.

  4. Pupils' Humour Directed at Teachers: Its Types and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedová, Klára

    2013-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 137 texts written by pupils, this paper examines pupils' humour directed at teachers, its types and social functions. The collected data are divided into three categories that describe different modes of teachers as targets of pupils' humour. The first mode describes teachers as unintentionally comical, the second as duped…

  5. Bergman kernel function on Hua Construction of the second type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liyou

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we give an explicit formula of the Bergman kernel function on Hua Construction of the second type when the parameters 1/p1,…, 1/pr-1 are positive integers and 1/pr is an arbitrary positive real number.

  6. Prioritising Marketing Activities in Different Types of Marketing Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Marketing functions (MFs) differ in how they practise marketing roles. The purpose of this article is to differentiate between MFs that practice marketing roles in a particular manner and then study how these different types of MFs differ with regard to the marketing roles’ effect on business per...

  7. The Initial Mass Function of Early-Type Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Bolton, Adam S.

    2010-01-01

    We determine an absolute calibration of the initial mass function (IMF) of early-type galaxies, by studying a sample of 56 gravitational lenses identified by the Sloan Lenses ACS Survey. Under the assumption of standard Navarro, Frenk, and White dark matter halos, a combination of lensing, dynamical

  8. A note on aggregation of CES-type production functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Loeff (Sybrand Schim); R. Harkema

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn this note we shall be concerned with the aggregation of the constant elasticity of substitution (CES) type of production function. In particular we will derive the error made by using the arithmetic averages as they are usually published, rather than the theoretically required average

  9. Female mate-choice behavior and sympatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzijden, Machteld N; Lachlan, Robert F; Servedio, Maria R

    2005-10-01

    Many models have investigated how the process of speciation may occur in sympatry. In these models, individuals are either asexual or mate choice is determined by very simple rules. Females, for example, may be assumed either to compare their phenotype to that of a potential mate, preferring to mate with similar males (phenotype matching), or to possess preference genes that determine which male phenotype they prefer. These rules often do not reflect the mate-choice rules found in empirical studies. In this paper, we compare these two modes of female choice with various types of sexual imprinting. We examine the efficacy of different mate-choice behavior in causing divergence in male traits under simple deterministic one-locus population genetic models as well as under polygenic, individual-based simulations based on the models of Dieckmann and Doebeli (1999). We find that the inheritance mechanism of mate choice can have a large effect on the ease of sympatric speciation. When females imprint on their mothers, the result of the model is similar to phenotype matching, where speciation can occur fairly easily. When females imprint on their fathers or imprint obliquely, speciation becomes considerably less likely. Finally, when females rely on preference genes, male trait evolution occurs easily, but the correlation between trait and preference can be weak, and interpreting these results as speciation may be suspect.

  10. Both geography and ecology contribute to mating isolation in guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K Schwartz

    Full Text Available Local adaptation to different environments can promote mating isolation--either as an incidental by-product of trait divergence, or as a result of selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Numerous recent empirical examples point to the common influence of divergent natural selection on speciation based largely on evidence of strong pre-mating isolation between populations from different habitat types. Accumulating evidence for natural selection's influence on speciation is therefore no longer a challenge. The difficulty, rather, is in determining the mechanisms involved in the progress of adaptive divergence to speciation once barriers to gene flow are already present. Here, we present results of both laboratory and field experiments with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata from different environments, who do not show complete reproductive isolation despite adaptive divergence. We investigate patterns of mating isolation between populations that do and do not exchange migrants and show evidence for both by-product and reinforcement mechanisms depending on female ecology. Specifically, low-predation females discriminate against all high-predation males thus implying a by-product mechanism, whereas high-predation females only discriminate against low-predation males from further upstream in the same river, implying selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Our study thus confirms that mechanisms of adaptive speciation are not necessarily mutually exclusive and uncovers the complex ecology-geography interactions that underlie the evolution of mating isolation in nature.

  11. Male Seminal Relaxin Contributes to Induction of the Post-mating Cytokine Response in the Female Mouse Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle J. Glynn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hormone relaxin is important in female reproduction for embryo implantation, cardiovascular function, and during labor and lactation. Relaxin is also synthesized in males by organs of the male tract. We hypothesized that relaxin might be one component of seminal plasma responsible for eliciting the female cytokine response induced in the uterus at mating. When recombinant relaxin was injected into the uterus of wild-type (Rln+/+ mice at estrus, it evoked the production of Cxcl1 mRNA and its secreted protein product CXCL1 in four of eight animals. Mating experiments were then conducted using mice with a null mutation in the relaxin gene (Rln−/− mice. qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression in wild-type females showed diminished uterine expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the absence of male relaxin. Similar differences were also noted comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated to wild-type males. Quantification of uterine luminal fluid cytokine content confirmed that male relaxin provokes the production of CXCL10 and CSF3 in Rln+/+ females. Differences were also seen comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated with Rln−/− males for CXCL1, CSF3, and CCL5, implying that endogenous relaxin in females might prime the uterus to respond appropriately to seminal fluid at coitus. Finally, pan-leukocyte CD45 mRNA was increased in wild-type matings compared to other combinations, implying that male and female relaxin may trigger leukocyte expansion in the uterus. We conclude that male and/or female relaxin may be important in activating the uterine cytokine/chemokine network required to initiate maternal immune adaptation to pregnancy.

  12. The Morphological Type Dependence of K-band Luminosity Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick; Willner, S P; Ashby, M L N; Willmer, C N A

    2009-01-01

    Differential 2.2um (K-band) luminosity functions are presented for a complete sample of 1570 nearby Vgsr < 3000 km/s, where Vgsr is the velocity measured with respect to the Galactic standard of rest), bright (K < 10 mag), galaxies segregated by visible morphology. The K-band luminosity function for late-type spirals follows a power law that rises towards low luminosities whereas the K-band luminosity functions for ellipticals, lenticulars and bulge-dominated spirals are peaked with a fall off at both high and low luminosities. However, each morphological type (E, S0, S0/a-Sab, Sb-Sbc, Sc-Scd) contributes approximately equally to the overall K-band luminosity density in the local universe, and by inference, the stellar mass density as well.

  13. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  14. The evolution of mate choice and mating biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Robert; Jennions, Michael D; Morley, Josephine

    2003-03-22

    We review the current status of three well-established models (direct benefits, indirect benefits and sensory drive) and one newcomer (antagonistic chase-away) of the evolution of mate choice and the biases that are expressed during choice. We highlight the differences and commonalities in the underlying genetics and evolutionary dynamics of these models. We then argue that progress in understanding the evolution of mate choice is currently hampered by spurious distinctions among models and a misguided tendency to test the processes underlying each model as mutually exclusive alternatives. Finally, we suggest potentially fruitful directions for future theoretical and empirical research.

  15. The urethral glands of male mice in relation to depletion of secretory granules upon mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, M B; de França, L R; Kepple, L; Ying, L; Parr, E L; Russell, L D

    1994-08-01

    The present study describes the effects of mating on urethral gland acinar cells in male mice. Histological and morphometric analysis demonstrated that there was a depletion of secretory granules in the urethral glands during mating. However, no change occurred in the rough endoplasmic reticulum containing tubular elements. The results indicate that the urethral glands are functional during mating. The timing of their granule depletion suggests that urethral gland secretions may contribute to the formation of semen or the copulation plug.

  16. The Structure and Function of Type III Secretion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notti, Ryan Q; Stebbins, C Erec

    2016-02-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) afford Gram-negative bacteria an intimate means of altering the biology of their eukaryotic hosts--the direct delivery of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to that of the eukaryote. This incredible biophysical feat is accomplished by nanosyringe "injectisomes," which form a conduit across the three plasma membranes, peptidoglycan layer, and extracellular space that form a barrier to the direct delivery of proteins from bacterium to host. The focus of this chapter is T3SS function at the structural level; we will summarize the core findings that have shaped our understanding of the structure and function of these systems and highlight recent developments in the field. In turn, we describe the T3SS secretory apparatus, consider its engagement with secretion substrates, and discuss the posttranslational regulation of secretory function. Lastly, we close with a discussion of the future prospects for the interrogation of structure-function relationships in the T3SS.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim and objective of this study is to compare the pulmonary function variables with the help of spirometer among beedi smokers, cigarette smokers and subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette. BACKGROUND Smoking is a major public health problem and a major cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths all over the world. Pulmonary function variables will differ based on the type of smoking i.e. Beedi smokers, cigarette smokers, subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette. METHODS Cross sectional study done on 90 male smokers attending the Pulmonary Outpatient Department of Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital. Spirometry was done to assess the pulmonary function. CONCLUSION Pulmonary function values showed significant reduction in beedi smokers than people who smoke both beedi and cigarette, followed by subjects who smoked cigarette alone.

  18. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and functional foods of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone Insulin or resistance in function faced by insulin. Low levels of Insulin causes decreased utilization of glucose by body cells, increased mobilization of fats from fat storage cells and depletion of proteins in the tissues of the body, keeping the body in crisis. The functional foods help achieving optimal physiological metabolism and cellular functions helping the body to come out of these crises. The mechanism of the functional foods is envisaged to act via optimizing vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This paper reviews role of functional foods of plant origin in the regulation of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus and also discusses some vital patents in this area. The article aims at creating awareness about key food ingredients in order to prevent most acute effects of diabetes mellitus and to greatly delay the chronic effects as well.

  19. Pummerer-type Functionalization of Aryl and Alkenyl Selenoxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuaki Shimada; Yutaka Kikuta; Keni-chi Satake; Takahiro Suzuki; Yukiko Inoue; Shigenobu Aoyagi; Yuji Takikawa

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Heteroatom-stabilized carbenium ions have been widely recognized as potential electrophilic reagents.However, in contrast with the extensive works on thionium ion series, the highly labile character of selenoxide functionalities has caused serious limitation in the synthetic use in spite of their wide potentiality as synthetic equivalents of electrophilic selonium ions. In this paper, novel generation of selonium ions and the synthetic uses of the species for Pummerer-type α-functionalization and for cycloaddition by using the novel dienophilic behavior of π-conjugated selonium cations.

  20. Mate choice and uncertainty in the decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Angeloni, Lisa M

    2007-12-21

    The behavior of females in search of a mate determines the likelihood that a high quality male is encountered in the search process and alternative search strategies provide different fitness returns to searchers. Models of search behavior are typically formulated on an assumption that the quality of prospective mates is revealed to searchers without error, either directly or by inspection of a perfectly informative phenotypic character. But recent theoretical developments suggest that the relative performance of a search strategy may be sensitive to any uncertainty associated with the to-be-realized fitness benefit of mate choice decisions. Indeed, uncertainty in the decision process is inevitable whenever unobserved male attributes influence the fitness of searchers. In this paper, we derive solutions to the sequential search strategy and the fixed sample search strategy for the general situation in which observed and unobserved male attributes affect the fitness consequences of female mate choice decisions and we determine how the magnitude of various parameters that are influential in the standard models alter these more general solutions. The distribution of unobserved attributes amongst prospective mates determines the uncertainty of mate choice decisions-the reliability of an observed male character as a predictor of male quality-and the realized functional relationship between an observed male character and the fitness return to searchers. The uncertainty of mate choice decisions induced by unobserved male attributes has no influence on the generalized model solutions. Thus, the results of earlier studies of these search models that rely on the use of a perfectly informative male character apply even if an observed male trait does not reveal the quality of prospective mates with certainty. But the solutions are sensitive to any changes of the distribution of unobserved male attributes that alter the realized functional relationship between an observed

  1. Elucidating Functional Aspects of P-type ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, Henriette Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    similar to that of the wild type (WT) protein. The discrepancy between the newly determined crystal structure of LpCopA and the functional manifestations of the missense mutation in human CopA, could indicate that LpCopA is insufficient in structurally elucidating the effect of disease-causing mutations...... cancer and pathogenic microbes. The goal of this Ph.D. dissertation was to functionally characterize SERCA1a and CopA from Legionella pneumophila (LpCopA) through a range of different methods within structural biology. Crystallographic studies of SERCA1a led to a newly determined crystal structure......P-type ATPases are proteins that act to maintain ion homeostasis and electrochemical gradients through the translocation of cations across cell membranes. Underscoring their significance in humans, dysfunction of the ATPases can lead to crucial diseases. Dysfunction of the sarco...

  2. Cognitive Functions in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Péter eKlivényi; Dezso eNemeth; Tamás eSefcsik; Karolina eJanacsek; Ildiko eHoffmann; Gábor Péter Háden; Zsuzsa eLonde; László eVécsei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with ...

  3. Types and Functions of Hedges: A Pragmatic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振

    2009-01-01

    @@ 0. Introduction Pragmatic vagueness is a very common phenomenon in human verbalcommunications.A very important reason for this is that people often usehedges while communicating.Based on different criteria,hedges can begrouped into different types,thus performing various functions.Thesefunctions can be associated with Cooperative Principle and PolitenessPrinciples in pragmatics.Hedges can also be seen as a kind of LooseTalk.

  4. Olfactory contribution to Fos expression during mating in inexperienced male hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fewell, G D; Meredith, M

    1998-06-01

    Male hamsters are very dependent on chemosensory cues for normal mating behavior. We have previously reported that central, vomeronasal pathways are intensely and selectively activated during mating or pheromonal stimulation. The contribution of main olfactory sensory input to the patterns of c-fos activation was investigated in this study. Sexually inexperienced male hamsters were either made anosmic by intranasal infusion of zinc sulfate or remained intact. Fos protein immunoreactivity was analyzed in main olfactory and vomeronasal pathways of the zinc sulfate-treated, anosmic animals after mating with receptive females for 45 min, and compared with Fos patterns seen in intact mating animals, some of which have been described in a previous publication. The zinc sulfate-treated anosmic males described here all mated when given access to receptive females. Whether mated or unstimulated, anosmic males had little or no Fos expression in main olfactory pathways; significantly less even than in unstimulated intact animals. Mating did not increase Fos expression in main olfactory pathways of intact animals over that of unstimulated intact controls. However, Fos expression in central vomeronasal pathways was significantly higher in mating anosmic males, as in intact males, compared with appropriate non-mating controls. Fos expression was significantly different between intact and zinc sulfate-treated anosmic mating males in only one area studied. The rostral anterior medial amygdala, known to receive a small olfactory terminal field, had significantly lower Fos expression in zinc sulfate-treated anosmic males that mated when compared with intact-mating animals. Thus, functional main olfactory input to the rostral vomeronasal amygdala can be demonstrated but does not appear to be critical for mating behavior in previously inexperienced male hamsters with intact vomeronasal organs. Other main olfactory input appears to have a negligible contribution to Fos-patterns in such

  5. Endocrine function in 97 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P; Duno, M

    2012-01-01

    . We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma......The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine function and its association to number of CTG repeats in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Concentration of various hormones and metabolites in venous blood was used to assess the endocrine function in 97 patients with DM1...... LH, but normal testosterone levels, indicating relative insufficiency. Numbers of CTG repeats correlated directly with plasma PTH, phosphate, LH, and tended to correlate with plasma testosterone for males. This is the largest study of endocrine dysfunction in a cohort of Caucasian patients with DM1...

  6. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Multilocus Sequence Typing & Recombination Analyses of Nucleus Genes, Mating Type Locus & Mitochondria Genes of Cryptococcus gattii%格特隐球菌核基因、交配型位点和线粒体基因的多位点序列分型及重组分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓博; 凌波; 付小花; 王磊; 廖万清; 姚志荣

    2013-01-01

    研究格特隐球菌VGI和VGII基因型菌株间线粒体基因重组与核基因、交配型位点重组间的关系。采用分子鉴定区分受试格特隐球菌的血清型、基因型和交配型;选取包含核基因和线粒体基因10个位点的多位点序列分型( MLST)进行基因型和系统发育分析;采用同质性检验评价基因系谱间的一致性。多位点的序列和系统发育分析结合同质性检验表明,受试位点中,仅ATP6位点发现VGI和VGII菌株间基因的杂交和重组,该基因系谱与其余位点的基因系谱呈现不一致性。结果显示,受试的部分VGI菌株中的ATP6位点含有VGII菌株的基因序列,表明VGI和VGII菌株间线粒体基因的重组;没有发现核基因及交配型位点中两者间的重组,提示VGI和VGII菌株间线粒体基因的重组现象与交配行为无关。%Relationship among recombination of mitochondria genes, nucleus genes and mating type locus among Cryptococcus gattii VGI and VGII genotypic strains was studied. Molecular methods were adopted to identify and dis-tinguish serotype, genotype and mating types of the tested C. gattii, ten loci were selected from nucleus and mitochon-dria genes for multilocus sequence typing ( MLST) and phylogenetic analysis. Homogeneity test was conducted for the evaluation of the congruence among various gene genealogies. The multilocus sequences and phylogenetic analyses, combined with homogeneity test, indicated that among the tested loci, only at ATP6 locus VGI and VGII inter-strain genes hybridation and recombination was found, and the genealogy of the gene was incongruent with genealogies of oth-er genes. The results indicate that partial tested VGI strains in this study were found to have gene sequence from VGII strains at ATP6 locus, indicating it was an inter-strain recombination of VGI and VGII mitochondria genes;no recom-bination between both loci of nucleus genes and mating type was found, prompting that

  8. Functional identification of islet cell types by electrophysiological fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Vergari, Elisa; Kellard, Joely A.; Rodriguez, Blanca; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Rorsman, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    The α-, β- and δ-cells of the pancreatic islet exhibit different electrophysiological features. We used a large dataset of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from cells in intact mouse islets (N = 288 recordings) to investigate whether it is possible to reliably identify cell type (α, β or δ) based on their electrophysiological characteristics. We quantified 15 electrophysiological variables in each recorded cell. Individually, none of the variables could reliably distinguish the cell types. We therefore constructed a logistic regression model that included all quantified variables, to determine whether they could together identify cell type. The model identified cell type with 94% accuracy. This model was applied to a dataset of cells recorded from hyperglycaemic βV59M mice; it correctly identified cell type in all cells and was able to distinguish cells that co-expressed insulin and glucagon. Based on this revised functional identification, we were able to improve conductance-based models of the electrical activity in α-cells and generate a model of δ-cell electrical activity. These new models could faithfully emulate α- and δ-cell electrical activity recorded experimentally. PMID:28275121

  9. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants...

  10. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' pr...

  11. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons revisited: mating status alters cuticular profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Everaerts

    Full Text Available Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs, or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA, affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i reciprocal in the two sexes, suggesting a passive mechanical transfer during mating, (ii parallel in both sexes, such as for cVA which strikingly appeared during mating, or (iii unilateral, presumably as a result of sexual interaction. We provide a complete reassessment of all Drosophila CHs and suggest that the chemical conversation between male and female flies is far more complex than is generally accepted. We conclude that focusing on individual compounds will not provide a satisfactory understanding of the evolution and function of chemical communication in Drosophila.

  12. Mitochondrial cereblon functions as a Lon-type protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kosuke; Nakamura, China; Asahi, Toru; Sawamura, Naoya

    2016-07-15

    Lon protease plays a major role in the protein quality control system in mammalian cell mitochondria. It is present in the mitochondrial matrix, and degrades oxidized and misfolded proteins, thereby protecting the cell from various extracellular stresses, including oxidative stress. The intellectual disability-associated and thalidomide-binding protein cereblon (CRBN) contains a large, highly conserved Lon domain. However, whether CRBN has Lon protease-like function remains unknown. Here, we determined if CRBN has a protective function against oxidative stress, similar to Lon protease. We report that CRBN partially distributes in mitochondria, suggesting it has a mitochondrial function. To specify the mitochondrial role of CRBN, we mitochondrially expressed CRBN in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The resulting stable SH-SY5Y cell line showed no apparent effect on the mitochondrial functions of fusion, fission, and membrane potential. However, mitochondrially expressed CRBN exhibited protease activity, and was induced by oxidative stress. In addition, stably expressed cells exhibited suppressed neuronal cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that CRBN functions specifically as a Lon-type protease in mitochondria.

  13. Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, M Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L; White, Neil H; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time.

  14. Parent-offspring conflict in mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Dubbs, Shelli L.

    2008-01-01

    Prevailing evolutionary approaches to human mating have largely ignored the fact that mating decisions are heavily influenced by parents and other kin. This is significant because parents and children often have conflicting mate preferences. We provide a brief review of how parents have influenced t

  15. Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

  16. Correlation between Diastolic Function and Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedirian, Ricardo; Neves, Mario Fritsch; Oigman, Wille; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg Odebrecht Curi; Pozzobon, Cesar Romaro; Ladeira, Marcia Cristina Boaventura; Castier, Marcia Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endothelial dysfunction may be involved in the pathophysiology of cardiac abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). A correlation between endothelial dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 1 DM has been demonstrated, but this relationship has not been well investigated in type 2 DM. Objective: Compare groups of patients with type 2 DM and hypertension with and without diastolic dysfunction using endothelial function indexes, and to assess whether correlations exist between the diastolic function and the endothelial function indexes. Method: This was a cross-sectional study of 34 men and women with type 2 DM and hypertension who were aged between 40 and 70 years and were categorized based on assessments of their Doppler echocardiographic parameters as having normal (14 patients) and abnormal (20 patients) diastolic function. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) assessments of the brachial artery evaluated the patients’ endothelial function. Results: The mean maximum FMD was 7.15 ± 2.80% for the patients with diastolic dysfunction and it was 11.85 ± 4.77% for the patients with normal diastolic function (p = 0.004). Correlations existed between the maximum FMD and the E/e' ratio (p = 0.040, r = -0.354) and the early wave velocity (e') at the lateral mitral annulus (p = 0.002, r = 0.509). Conclusion: The endothelial function assessed by FMD was worse in hypertensive diabetic patients with diastolic dysfunction. There were correlations between the diastolic function indexes and the endothelial function indexes in our sample. PMID:27867429

  17. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

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    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  18. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna QVARNSTR(O)M; Niclas VALLIN; Andreas RUDH

    2012-01-01

    Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice.In particular,much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating.However,male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection.We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice.For example,biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources.Moreover,male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance,protection against predators and general stress tolerance.Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities.In resource based breeding systems,a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence.We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways.Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored.

  19. Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, K R; Sinervo, B

    2000-12-19

    Alternative male mating strategies within populations are thought to be evolutionarily stable because different behaviors allow each male type to successfully gain access to females. Although alternative male strategies are widespread among animals, quantitative evidence for the success of discrete male strategies is available for only a few systems. We use nuclear microsatellites to estimate the paternity rates of three male lizard strategies previously modeled as a rock-paper-scissors game. Each strategy has strengths that allow it to outcompete one morph, and weaknesses that leave it vulnerable to the strategy of another. Blue-throated males mate-guard their females and avoid cuckoldry by yellow-throated "sneaker" males, but mate-guarding is ineffective against aggressive orange-throated neighbors. The ultradominant orange-throated males are highly polygynous and maintain large territories; they overpower blue-throated neighbors and cosire offspring with their females, but are often cuckolded by yellow-throated males. Finally, yellow-throated sneaker males sire offspring via secretive copulations and often share paternity of offspring within a female's clutch. Sneaker males sire more offspring posthumously, indicating that sperm competition may be an important component of their strategy.

  20. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

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    Isabel Perea-Martinez

    Full Text Available Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  1. Cognitive Functions in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2

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    Péter eKlivényi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2 is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. Methods: A broad range of neuropsychological examination protocol was administered including the following domains: short-term, working- and episodic- memories, executive functions, implicit sequence learning, and the temporal parameters of speech. Results: The performance on the Listening Span, Letter Fluency, Serial Reaction Time Task and pause ratio in speech was 2 or more standard deviations (SD lower compared to controls, and 1 SD lower on Backward Digit Span, Semantic Fluency, articulation rate and speech tempo. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of the cerebrocerebellar circuit in AOA2 is responsible for the weaker coordination of complex cognitive functions such as working memory, executive functions, speech and sequence learning.

  2. The evolution of phenotypes and genetic parameters under preferential mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Derek A; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2014-01-01

    This article extends and adds more realism to Lande's analytical model for evolution under mate choice by using individual-based simulations in which females sample a finite number of males and the genetic architecture of the preference and preferred trait evolves. The simulations show that the equilibrium heritabilities of the preference and preferred trait and the genetic correlation between them (rG), depend critically on aspects of the mating system (the preference function, mode of mate choice, choosiness, and number of potential mates sampled), the presence or absence of natural selection on the preferred trait, and the initial genetic parameters. Under some parameter combinations, preferential mating increased the heritability of the preferred trait, providing a possible resolution for the lek paradox. The Kirkpatrick–Barton approximation for rG proved to be biased downward, but the realized genetic correlations were also low, generally <0.2. Such low values of rG indicate that coevolution of the preference and preferred trait is likely to be very slow and subject to significant stochastic variation. Lande's model accurately predicted the incidence of runaway selection in the simulations, except where preferences were relative and the preferred trait was subject to natural selection. In these cases, runaways were over- or underestimated, depending on the number of males sampled. We conclude that rapid coevolution of preferences and preferred traits is unlikely in natural populations, but that the parameter combinations most conducive to it are most likely to occur in lekking species. PMID:25077025

  3. Individual differences in valuing mates' physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory.

  4. Prenatal exposure to low doses of atrazine affects mating behaviors in male guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Kausalya

    2014-07-01

    Performing appropriate mating behaviors is crucial to male reproductive success, especially in species where mating is predominantly via female mate choice. Mating behaviors are hormonally regulated and may be sexually selected traits: courtship displays are selected via mate choice, while forced copulations and aggressive behaviors are selected for via intrasexual competition. Endocrine disrupting compounds interfere with proper hormonal functioning in exposed animals. Exposures during developmentally crucial life stages can have irreversible effects lasting through adulthood. I tested the effects of prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of a commonly used herbicide, atrazine (1 and 13.5μg/L) on mating behaviors in male guppies. Guppies were used as a model organism to test the effects of atrazine exposure on wildlife reproductive health. Adult female guppies were mated and exposed to the treatments throughout the gestation period, and offspring born to them were raised without further treatment. At adulthood, the males were tested for the effects of prenatal exposure on their mating behaviors such as courtship displays, gonopodium swings, forced copulatory attempts, and competitive and aggressive behaviors towards rivals who were not exposed to atrazine. I also tested female preference for treated males compared to control males. Atrazine-exposed males were less likely to perform the mating behaviors, and performed them less frequently, than control males. Atrazine exposure also made males less aggressive towards rivals. Females preferred untreated males over atrazine-treated males. In all cases, a non-monotonic pattern was seen, highlighting the significance of low-dose exposures.

  5. Choosy Wolves? Heterozygote Advantage But No Evidence of MHC-Based Disassortative Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaverni, Marco; Caniglia, Romolo; Milanesi, Pietro; Lapalombella, Silvana; Fabbri, Elena; Randi, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    A variety of nonrandom mate choice strategies, including disassortative mating, are used by vertebrate species to avoid inbreeding, maintain heterozygosity and increase fitness. Disassortative mating may be mediated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important gene cluster controlling immune responses to pathogens. We investigated the patterns of mate choice in 26 wild-living breeding pairs of gray wolf (Canis lupus) that were identified through noninvasive genetic methods and genotyped at 3 MHC class II and 12 autosomal microsatellite (STR) loci. We tested for deviations from random mating and evaluated the covariance of genetic variables at functional and STR markers with fitness proxies deduced from pedigree reconstructions. Results did not show evidences of MHC-based disassortative mating. Rather we found a higher peptide similarity between mates at MHC loci as compared with random expectations. Fitness values were positively correlated with heterozygosity of the breeders at both MHC and STR loci, whereas they decreased with relatedness at STRs. These findings may indicate fitness advantages for breeders that, while avoiding highly related mates, are more similar at the MHC and have high levels of heterozygosity overall. Such a pattern of MHC-assortative mating may reflect local coadaptation of the breeders, while a reduction in genetic diversity may be balanced by heterozygote advantages. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. What’s in a Kiss? The Effect of Romantic Kissing on Mate Desirability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research suggests that various courtship rituals, such as romantic kissing, may convey useful mate quality information. Two studies were carried out to examine how purported romantic kissing abilities, as a potential cue to some form of mate information, affect appraisals of potential mating partners. In Experiment 1, 724 participants were presented with vignette descriptions of potential mating partners and were asked to rate partner desirability for various mating-related situations. The primary result of this experiment was that purported kissing ability increased mate desirability in “casual sex” mating situations for women to a greater extent than for men. Experiment 2 repeated the same procedure with another 178 participants, this time including visual information alongside vignette descriptions containing kissing-related information to examine the relative effects of these two modalities. It was found that the presence of a picture alongside a descriptive vignette negated the effect of kissing-related information only when rating potential partners on attractiveness or desirability for further courtship, though not when evaluating partners for casual sex or long-term relationship scenarios. Visual information containing “attractive” photos of potential partners was also found to have a greater effect on men’s ratings of partner desirability than on women’s ratings of partner desirability. The results are discussed in light of romantic kissing’s potential function of conveying important mate quality and desirability information, and its relative role in the presence of additional visual mate cues. PMID:25299759

  7. What's in a Kiss? The Effect of Romantic Kissing on Mate Desirability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wlodarski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Past research suggests that various courtship rituals, such as romantic kissing, may convey useful mate quality information. Two studies were carried out to examine how purported romantic kissing abilities, as a potential cue to some form of mate information, affect appraisals of potential mating partners. In Experiment 1, 724 participants were presented with vignette descriptions of potential mating partners and were asked to rate partner desirability for various mating-related situations. The primary result of this experiment was that purported kissing ability increased mate desirability in “casual sex” mating situations for women to a greater extent than for men. Experiment 2 repeated the same procedure with another 178 participants, this time including visual information alongside vignette descriptions containing kissing-related information to examine the relative effects of these two modalities. It was found that the presence of a picture alongside a descriptive vignette negated the effect of kissing-related information only when rating potential partners on attractiveness or desirability for further courtship, though not when evaluating partners for casual sex or long-term relationship scenarios. Visual information containing “attractive” photos of potential partners was also found to have a greater effect on men's ratings of partner desirability than on women's ratings of partner desirability. The results are discussed in light of romantic kissing's potential function of conveying important mate quality and desirability information, and its relative role in the presence of additional visual mate cues.

  8. What's in a kiss? The effect of romantic kissing on mating desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2014-03-19

    Past research suggests that various courtship rituals, such as romantic kissing, may convey useful mate quality information. Two studies were carried out to examine how purported romantic kissing abilities, as a potential cue to some form of mate information, affect appraisals of potential mating partners. In Experiment 1, 724 participants were presented with vignette descriptions of potential mating partners and were asked to rate partner desirability for various mating-related situations. The primary result of this experiment was that purported kissing ability increased mate desirability in "casual sex" mating situations for women to a greater extent than for men. Experiment 2 repeated the same procedure with another 178 participants, this time including visual information alongside vignette descriptions containing kissing-related information to examine the relative effects of these two modalities. It was found that the presence of a picture alongside a descriptive vignette negated the effect of kissing-related information only when rating potential partners on attractiveness or desirability for further courtship, though not when evaluating partners for casual sex or long-term relationship scenarios. Visual information containing "attractive" photos of potential partners was also found to have a greater effect on men's ratings of partner desirability than on women's ratings of partner desirability. The results are discussed in light of romantic kissing's potential function of conveying important mate quality and desirability information, and its relative role in the presence of additional visual mate cues.

  9. Impact of type 2 diabetes and duration of type 2 diabetes on cardiac structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter G; Jensen, Magnus T; Mogelvang, Rasmus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has improved patient outcome and may also have affected myocardial structure and function. We aimed to describe the effect of T2D and T2D duration on cardiac structure and function in a large outpatient population. METHODS: We performed...... dysfunction persisted after multivariable adjustment (P=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D, LV structural and functional alterations persist and are accentuated with increasing diabetes duration despite reductions in overall risk of cardiovascular disease in this patient population....... comprehensive echocardiography on a representative sample of 1004 persons including a representative sample of 770 patients with T2D without known heart disease and 234 age- and sex-matched controls. RESULTS: T2D was associated with increased left ventricular (LV) wall thicknesses and decreased LV internal...

  10. Functional type 1 secretion system involved in Legionella pneumophila virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuche, Fabien; Vianney, Anne; Andrea, Claire; Doublet, Patricia; Gilbert, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative pathogen found mainly in water, either in a free-living form or within infected protozoans, where it replicates. This bacterium can also infect humans by inhalation of contaminated aerosols, causing a severe form of pneumonia called legionellosis or Legionnaires' disease. The involvement of type II and IV secretion systems in the virulence of L. pneumophila is now well documented. Despite bioinformatic studies showing that a type I secretion system (T1SS) could be present in this pathogen, the functionality of this system based on the LssB, LssD, and TolC proteins has never been established. Here, we report the demonstration of the functionality of the T1SS, as well as its role in the infectious cycle of L. pneumophila. Using deletion mutants and fusion proteins, we demonstrated that the repeats-in-toxin protein RtxA is secreted through an LssB-LssD-TolC-dependent mechanism. Moreover, fluorescence monitoring and confocal microscopy showed that this T1SS is required for entry into the host cell, although it seems dispensable to the intracellular cycle. Together, these results underline the active participation of L. pneumophila, via its T1SS, in its internalization into host cells.

  11. The evolution of male mate choice in insects: a synthesis of ideas and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonduriansky, R

    2001-08-01

    Mate choice by males has been recognized at least since Darwin's time, but its phylogenetic distribution and effect on the evolution of female phenotypes remain poorly known. Moreover, the relative importance of factors thought to underlie the evolution of male mate choice (especially parental investment and mate quality variance) is still unresolved. Here I synthesize the empirical evidence and theory pertaining to the evolution of male mate choice and sex role reversal in insects, and examine the potential for male mating preferences to generate sexual selection on female phenotypes. Although male mate choice has received relatively little empirical study, the available evidence suggests that it is widespread among insects (and other animals). In addition to 'precopulatory' male mate choice, some insects exhibit 'cryptic' male mate choice, varying the amount of resources allocated to mating on the basis of female mate quality. As predicted by theory, the most commonly observed male mating preferences are those that tend to maximize a male's expected fertilization success from each mating. Such preferences tend to favour female phenotypes associated with high fecundity or reduced sperm competition intensity. Among insect species there is wide variation in mechanisms used by males to assess female mate quality, some of which (e.g. probing, antennating or repeatedly mounting the female) may be difficult to distinguish from copulatory courtship. According to theory, selection for male choosiness is an increasing function of mate quality variance and those reproductive costs that reduce, with each mating, the number of subsequent matings that a male can perform ('mating investment') Conversely, choosiness is constrained by the costs of mate search and assessment, in combination with the accuracy of assessment of potential mates and of the distribution of mate qualities. Stronger selection for male choosiness may also be expected in systems where female fitness

  12. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsayin, Fulya; Polat, Mustafa

    2011-06-01

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  13. The Phytophthora mating hormone α2 is an antagonist of the counterhormone α1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yajima, Arata; Ojika, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    The crop destroyer Phytophthora uses mating hormones α1 and α2 to commence its sexual reproduction. The α1-induced sexual reproduction of the A2 mating type was unexpectedly found to be interfered with by the counterhormone α2 that the A2 type itself produces to induce the sexual reproduction of the A1 type. A plausible mechanism is proposed based on structure-activity relationships.

  14. Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

    2010-02-01

    Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research.

  15. Male Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) vary mate-searching behavior but not signaling behavior in response to spider silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Finn, Kasey D.; Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Cruz, Daniel; Al-Wathiqui, Mishal; Rodríguez, Rafael L.

    2014-03-01

    Finding and attracting mates can impose costs on males in terms of increased encounters with, and attraction of, predators. To decrease the likelihood of predation, males may modify mate-acquisition efforts in two main ways: they may reduce mate-searching efforts or they may reduce mate-attraction efforts. The specific behavior that males change in the presence of predator cues should depend upon the nature of risk imposed by the type of predator present in the environment. For example, sit-and-wait predators impose greater costs to males moving in search of mates. Here, we test whether cues of the presence of a sit-and-wait predator lead to a reduction in mate-searching but not mate-acquisition behavior. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers—a clade of vibrationally communicating insects in which males fly in search of mates and produce mate-attraction signals when they land on plant stems. We tested for changes in mate-searching and signaling behaviors when silk from a web-building spider was present or absent. We found that males delayed flight when spider silk was present but only if they were actively searching for mates. These results suggest that males have been selected to reduce predation risk by adjusting how they move about their environment according to the cues of sit-and-wait predators.

  16. Sequence of the Gonium pectorale Mating Locus Reveals a Complex and Dynamic History of Changes in Volvocine Algal Mating Haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hamaji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex-determining regions (SDRs or mating-type (MT loci in two sequenced volvocine algal species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, exhibit major differences in size, structure, gene content, and gametolog differentiation. Understanding the origin of these differences requires investigation of MT loci from related species. Here, we determined the sequences of the minus and plus MT haplotypes of the isogamous 16-celled volvocine alga, Gonium pectorale, which is more closely related to the multicellular V. carteri than to C. reinhardtii. Compared to C. reinhardtii MT, G. pectorale MT is moderately larger in size, and has a less complex structure, with only two major syntenic blocs of collinear gametologs. However, the gametolog content of G. pectorale MT has more overlap with that of V. carteri MT than with C. reinhardtii MT, while the allelic divergence between gametologs in G. pectorale is even lower than that in C. reinhardtii. Three key sex-related genes are conserved in G. pectorale MT: GpMID and GpMTD1 in MT–, and GpFUS1 in MT+. GpFUS1 protein exhibited specific localization at the plus-gametic mating structure, indicating a conserved function in fertilization. Our results suggest that the G. pectorale–V. carteri common ancestral MT experienced at least one major reformation after the split from C. reinhardtii, and that the V. carteri ancestral MT underwent a subsequent expansion and loss of recombination after the divergence from G. pectorale. These data begin to polarize important changes that occurred in volvocine MT loci, and highlight the potential for discontinuous and dynamic evolution in SDRs.

  17. On the Superstability of the Pexider Type Trigonometric Functional Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim GwangHui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We will investigate the superstability of the (hyperbolic trigonometric functional equation from the following functional equations: and , which can be considered the mixed functional equations of the sine function and cosine function, the hyperbolic sine function and hyperbolic cosine function, and the exponential functions, respectively.

  18. Invariant graphs of functions for the mean-type mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matkowski Janusz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Let I be a real interval, J a subinterval of I, p ≥ 2 an integer number, and M1, ... , Mp : Ip → I the continuous means. We consider the problem of invariance of the graphs of functions ϕ : Jp−1 → I with respect to the mean-type mapping M = (M1, ... , Mp. Applying a result on the existence and uniqueness of an M -invariant mean [7], we prove that if the graph of a continuous function ϕ : Jp−1 → I is M-invariant, then ϕ satisfies a simple functional equation. As a conclusion we obtain a theorem which, in particular, allows to determine all the continuous and decreasing in each variable functions ϕ of the M-invariant graphs. This improves some recent results on invariant curves [8] where the case p = 2 is considered. Soit I un intervalle réel, J un sous-intervalle de I, p ≥ 2 un entier, et M1, ... , Mp : Ip → I les moyennes continues. Nous considérons le problème de l’invariance des graphes des fonctions ϕ : Jp−1 → I par rapport aux applications de type moyenne M = (M1, ... , Mp. En appliquant un résultat d’existence et unicité d’une moyenne M-invariante [7], nous montrons que si le graphe d’une fonction continue ϕ : Jp−1 → I est M-invariant, alors ϕ vérifie une équation fonctionnelle simple. En conclusion, nous obtenons un théorème qui, en particulier, permet de déterminer toutes les fonctions ϕ des graphes M-invariant continues et décroissantes en chaque variable. Ceci améliore les résultats récents sur les courbes invariantes [8] où le cas p = 2 était considéré.

  19. Universality of the Phytophthora mating hormones and diversity of their production profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomura, Tomohiko; Molli, Shylaja D; Murata, Ryo; Ojika, Makoto

    2017-07-10

    Sexual reproduction of the plant pest Phytophthora is regulated by two mating hormones α1 and α2, which are acyclic oxygenated diterpenes first isolated from P. nicotianae A1 and A2 mating types, respectively. A previous report suggested the universality of these factors within this genus. To confirm this concept, we investigated 80 strains (19 species) of Phytophthora and a related genus, not only for the responsiveness to mating hormones but also for their productivity. The results indicated that among the 55 heterothallic strains, 24 (44%) responded to a mating hormone and 40 (73%) produced one or both hormones. These findings demonstrate the interspecies universality of mating hormones within the genus Phytophthora. Hormone productivity was found to be highly diverse and dependent on the strains used. Although the A2 mating type has been regarded as the α2 producer, 19 (59%) of the 32 A2-type strains produced both the hormones and two A2-type strains exclusively produced α1 in high yields. These results indicate that hormone biosynthesis in Phytophthora is universal but highly diverse and complex, and varies with culture conditions, providing us valuable information for future studies on the mechanism of mating hormone biosynthesis of Phytophthora.

  20. Functional assessment of feet of patients with type II diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Saura Cardoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the incidence of functional changes and risk of developing ulcers in type II diabetic patients seen in Primary Healthcare Units (Unidades Básicas de Saúde- UBS. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study comprising 80patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM aged between 41 to 85 years and attended inthe UBS in the city of Parnaíba-PI. Volunteers responded to the identification form and theMichigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI, followed by an evaluation of the lowerlimbs, as follows: achilles and patellar reflex, palpation of arterial pulses (dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial, tactile sensitivity (Monofilament 10g and vibration sensitivity (128Hz tuning fork; identification of the presence of changes such as ingrown toenails, calluses,claw toes and hair loss. Finally, using the information acquired from the assessment, subjects were classified according to the risk of developing wounds. Results: The sample consisted of 76 diabetic patients, with average age of 63.8 ± 10.4 years, 63 (82.8% were female, mean diagnostic time 8.8 ± 7.2 years, average body mass index (BMI 28.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2, with 15.7% of the sample being smokers. The myotatic reflexes and arterial pulses were reduced. Tactile sensitivity was identified in 81.5% and 13.1% did not feel the vibration of the tuning fork. The most dominant changes identified were calluses, 76.3% (n = 58. Risk level 2 of developing ulcers stood out, 52.6% (n = 40. Conclusion: Functional changes were detected in the sample and a classification of risk 2 for developing wounds was found in more than 50% of the assessed patients. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p563

  1. Pairomics, the omics way to mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; März, Winfried; Neves, Paulo Mauricio Serrano; Walter, Gerhard Franz

    2013-10-01

    The core aspects of the biology and evolution of sexual reproduction are reviewed with a focus on the diploid, sexually reproducing, outbreeding, polymorphic, unspecialized, altricial and cultural human species. Human mate choice and pair bonding are viewed as central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, and genetic assistance in reproduction is viewed as a universal human right. Pairomics is defined as an emerging branch of the omics science devoted to the study of mate choice at the genomic level and its consequences for present and future generations. In pairomics, comprehensive genetic information of individual genomes is stored in a database. Computational tools are employed to analyze the mating schemes and rules that govern mating among the members of the database. Mating models and algorithms simulate the outcomes of mating any given genome with each of a number of genomes represented in the database. The analyses and simulations may help to understand mating schemes and their outcomes, and also contribute a new cue to the multicued schemes of mate choice. The scientific, medical, evolutionary, ethical, legal and social implications of pairomics are far reaching. The use of genetic information as a search tool in mate choice may influence our health, lifestyle, behavior and culture. As knowledge on genomics, population genetics and gene-environment interactions, as well as the size of genomic databases expand, so does the ability of pairomics to investigate and predict the consequences of mate choice for the present and future generations.

  2. Several types of groupoids induced by two-variable functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P J; Kim, Hee Sik; Neggers, J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of several types of groupoids related to semigroups, viz., twisted semigroups for which twisted versions of the associative law hold. Thus, if [Formula: see text] is a groupoid and if [Formula: see text] is a function [Formula: see text], then [Formula: see text] is a left-twisted semigroup with respect to [Formula: see text] if for all [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. Other types are right-twisted, middle-twisted and their duals, a dual left-twisted semigroup obeying the rule [Formula: see text] for all [Formula: see text]. Besides a number of examples and a discussion of homomorphisms, a class of groupoids of interest is the class of groupoids defined over a field [Formula: see text] via a formula [Formula: see text], with [Formula: see text], fixed structure constants. Properties of these groupoids as twisted semigroups are discussed with several results of interest obtained, e.g., that in this setting simultaneous left-twistedness and right-twistedness of [Formula: see text] implies the fact that [Formula: see text] is a semigroup.

  3. THE WETLAND TYPES, FUNCTIONS AND CONSERVATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to preliminary statistics, there are 9. 4 × 106ha of mire, 8.0 × 106ha of lake, 2. 1 × 106ha of salt marsh, 2. 7 × 107ha of shallow sea (0 - Sm), and 3.8 × 107ha of paddyfield, their total area amounts to 8.45 ×107ha. Wetland consists of natural wetland system and man-made wetland system. According to hydrology, landform,soil and vegetation etc., natural wetland can be divided into the following types: marine, esturine, riverine, lacustrine,palustrine subsystems. On the basis of the wetland bottom compound, waterlogged state and vegetation forms, it can be subdivided into 26 wetland classes. Man-made wetland can be subdivided into 4 wetland classes. Wetland is a unique landscape in the earth and one of the most important living environment with rich resources and many functions. At present, 262 different types of Wetland Natural Reserves have been established in China, in which 7 Wetland Nature Reserves have been listed in international important wetlands of "The Wetland Convention".

  4. Female mate choice across mating stages and between sequential mates in flour beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, T Y; Lewis, S M

    2007-11-01

    Few studies have examined how female premating choice correlates with the outcome of copulatory and post-copulatory processes. It has been shown that polyandrous Tribolium castaneum females discriminate among males before mating based on olfactory cues, and also exert cryptic choice during mating through several mechanisms. This study tested whether a male's relative attractiveness predicted his insemination success during copulation. Bioassays with male olfactory cues were used to rank two males as more and less attractive to females; each female was then mated to either her more attractive male followed by less attractive male, or vice versa. Dissections immediately after second copulations revealed a significantly higher percent of successful inseminations for females that remated with more attractive males compared with those that remated with less attractive males. These results indicate that cryptic female choice during copulation reinforces precopulatory female choice in T. castaneum, and suggest that females could use cryptic choice to trade up to more attractive males, possibly gaining better phenotypic or genetic quality of sires.

  5. Direct mating between diploid sake strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shinji; Aritomi, Kazuo; Minohara, Takafumi; Nishizawa, Yoshinori; Hoshida, Hisashi; Kashiwagi, Susumu; Akada, Rinji

    2006-02-01

    Various auxotrophic mutants of diploid heterothallic Japanese sake strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were utilized for selecting mating-competent diploid isolates. The auxotrophic mutants were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and crossed with laboratory haploid tester strains carrying complementary auxotrophic markers. Zygotes were then selected on minimal medium. Sake strains exhibiting a MATa or MATalpha mating type were easily obtained at high frequency without prior sporulation, suggesting that the UV irradiation induced homozygosity at the MAT locus. Flow cytometric analysis of a hybrid showed a twofold higher DNA content than the sake diploid parent, consistent with tetraploidy. By crossing strains of opposite mating type in all possible combinations, a number of hybrids were constructed. Hybrids formed in crosses between traditional sake strains and between a natural nonhaploid isolate and traditional sake strains displayed equivalent fermentation ability without any apparent defects and produced comparable or improved sake. Isolation of mating-competent auxotrophic mutants directly from industrial yeast strains allows crossbreeding to construct polyploids suitable for industrial use without dependence on sporulation.

  6. Vocal neighbour-mate discrimination in female great tits despite high song similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumenrath, Sandra H.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination between conspecifics is important in mediating social interactions between several individuals in a network environment. In great tits, Parus major, females readily distinguish between the songs of their mate and those of a stranger. The high degree of song sharing among neighbouring...... males, however, raises the question of whether females are also able to perceive differences between songs shared by their mate and a neighbour. The great tit is a socially monogamous, hole-nesting species with biparental care. Pair bond maintenance and coordination of the pair's reproductive efforts...... are important, and the female's ability to recognize her mate's song should therefore be adaptive. In a neighbour-mate discrimination playback experiment, we presented 13 incubating great tit females situated inside nestboxes with a song of their mate and the same song type from a neighbour. Each female...

  7. Can simple songs express useful signals for mate choice?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Lyu; Jinlin Li; Yue?Hua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background:As one of the most elaborate and diverse sexual signals,bird songs are prominent among mate choice criteria.Females generally prefer mates with larger repertoire size,which promotes the evolution of song complex?ity.However,there are also some songbirds that have far simpler and less diverse vocalizations,which have not been the focus of scientific scrutiny.Most Phylloscopus warblers are accomplished singers with complex songs.In contrast,Hume’s Warbler(P.humei) has extremely simple songs.In order to explore the song’s function,its evolutionary sig?nificance and particularly to assess its possible relationship with parental investment,we studied mate choice of the subspecies P.h.mandellii in Lianhuashan National Nature Reserve,Gansu,China.Methods:We recorded body measurements and songs of breeding males and then explored their relationships with the date of clutch initiation,reasoning that the characteristics of males that are involved with early nesting activities reflect female mate preferences.We also recorded egg size and body measurements of nestlings to assess the rela?tionship between parental investment and mate choice.Results:We found that male wing and tail lengths were positively correlated with early clutch initiation as were songs characterized by short duration and rapid rise to maximum amplitude.We also found that early?breeding females did not lay large eggs,but produced more surviving young,which grew up faster.Conclusions:Female mate choice criteria in this bird include both visual signals and song characteristics.Our study supports the hypothesis that females may judge male quality from quite subtle differences.In order to reduce the risk of predation,a preference for such inconspicuous male characteristics may be partially driven by high vulnerability of this warbler to predators as a ground?nesting species.

  8. Future of Plant Functional Types in Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Iversen, C. M.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models describe the physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modelers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review the PFT concept is traced from its origin in the early 1800s to its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current, and future distribution of vegetation. Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration, and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially belowground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait-environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water, and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography, ecology, and remote sensing will be

  9. RNA gain-of-function in spinocerebellar ataxia type 8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy S Daughters

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite expansions cause a number of dominantly-inherited neurological diseases. Expansions in coding-regions cause protein gain-of-function effects, while non-coding expansions produce toxic RNAs that alter RNA splicing activities of MBNL and CELF proteins. Bi-directional expression of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8 CTG CAG expansion produces CUG expansion RNAs (CUG(exp from the ATXN8OS gene and a nearly pure polyglutamine expansion protein encoded by ATXN8 CAG(exp transcripts expressed in the opposite direction. Here, we present three lines of evidence that RNA gain-of-function plays a significant role in SCA8: 1 CUG(exp transcripts accumulate as ribonuclear inclusions that co-localize with MBNL1 in selected neurons in the brain; 2 loss of Mbnl1 enhances motor deficits in SCA8 mice; 3 SCA8 CUG(exp transcripts trigger splicing changes and increased expression of the CUGBP1-MBNL1 regulated CNS target, GABA-A transporter 4 (GAT4/Gabt4. In vivo optical imaging studies in SCA8 mice confirm that Gabt4 upregulation is associated with the predicted loss of GABAergic inhibition within the granular cell layer. These data demonstrate that CUG(exp transcripts dysregulate MBNL/CELF regulated pathways in the brain and provide mechanistic insight into the CNS effects of other CUG(exp disorders. Moreover, our demonstration that relatively short CUG(exp transcripts cause RNA gain-of-function effects and the growing number of antisense transcripts recently reported in mammalian genomes suggest unrecognized toxic RNAs contribute to the pathophysiology of polyglutamine CAG CTG disorders.

  10. PROBLEMS OF TEAM FUNCTIONING AS SPECIAL TYPE OF SOCIAL GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. VASILYEV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article examines the question about correlation of concepts "team" and "team". A comparison of their characteristics reveals that they are extremely close to each other. Identified problems in the functioning of the team as a special type of social group. The features of leadership in the team, in particular, the possibility and feasibility of a divided leadership. Divided leadership implies that at different stages of achieving the team purpose leadership position is given to those team members who are most competent in solving a particular task, but the final decisions are made by joint efforts of the group. The presence of a clearly defined leader in the team is imperative. On the other hand, many teams are able to function effectively using only one type of influence ‒ vertical, when a mutual influence on each other have a leader and his associate, boss and employee. The presence of horizontal influence that occurs in the process of interaction between team members (excluding leader among themselves, it is necessary to perform tasks that require synchronous operation of several (or all team members. In the end, formulated the following conclusion: the presence of vertical interactions is a necessary condition for the existence of the team.

  11. Mating order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard Lacerta vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitze, Patrick S; Cote, Julien; Clobert, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that directional female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice importantly contribute to non-random mating patterns. In species where females prefer larger sized males, disentangling different hypotheses leading to non-random mating patterns is especially difficult, given that male size usually correlates with behaviours that may lead to non-random mating (e.g. size-dependent emergence from hibernation, male fighting ability). Here we investigate female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). By sequentially presenting males in random order to females, we exclude non-random mating patterns potentially arising due to intra-sexual selection (e.g. male-male competition), trait-dependent encounter probabilities, trait-dependent conspicuousness, or trait-dependent emergence from hibernation. To test for order-dependent female mate choice we investigate whether the previous mating history affects female choice. We show that body size and body condition of the male with which a female mated for the first time were bigger and better, respectively, than the average body size and body condition of the rejected males. There was a negative correlation between body sizes of first and second copulating males. This indicates that female mate choice is dependent on the previous mating history and it shows that the female's choice criteria are non-static, i.e. non-directional. Our study therefore suggests that context-dependent female mate choice may not only arise due to genotype-environment interactions, but also due to other female mating strategies, i.e. order-dependent mate choice. Thus context-dependent female mate choice might be more frequent than previously thought.

  12. Prior mating success can affect allocation towards future sexual signaling in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiswell, Rachel; Girard, Madeline; Fricke, Claudia; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Fitness is often correlated with the expression level of a sexually selected trait. However, sexually selected traits are costly to express such that investment in their expression should be optimised to maximize their overall fitness gains. Social interactions, in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings, may offer males one type of feedback allowing them to gauge how to allocate their resources towards sexual signaling. Here we tested whether adult male black field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) modify the extent of their calling effort (the sexually selected trait) in response to successful and unsuccessful matings with females. To examine the effect that mating interactions with females have on investment into sexual signaling, we monitored male calling effort after maturation and then provided males with a female at two points within their life, manipulating whether or not males were able to successfully mate each time. Our results demonstrate that males alter their investment towards sexual signaling in response to successful matings, but only if the experience occurs early in their life. Males that mated early decreased their calling effort sooner than males that were denied a mating. Our results demonstrate that social feedback in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings has the potential to alter the effort a male places towards sexual signaling.

  13. Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Vanessa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating in Trypanosoma brucei is a non-obligatory event, triggered by the co-occurrence of different strains in the salivary glands of the vector. Recombinants that result from intra- rather than interclonal mating have been detected, but only in crosses of two different trypanosome strains. This has led to the hypothesis that when trypanosomes recognize a different strain, they release a diffusible factor or pheromone that triggers mating in any cell in the vicinity whether it is of the same or a different strain. This idea assumes that the trypanosome can recognize self and non-self, although there is as yet no evidence for the existence of mating types in T. brucei. Results We investigated intraclonal mating in T. b. brucei by crossing red and green fluorescent lines of a single strain, so that recombinant progeny can be detected in the fly by yellow fluorescence. For strain 1738, seven flies had both red and green trypanosomes in the salivary glands and, in three, yellow trypanosomes were also observed, although they could not be recovered for subsequent analysis. Nonetheless, both red and non-fluorescent clones from these flies had recombinant genotypes as judged by microsatellite and karyotype analyses, and some also had raised DNA contents, suggesting recombination or genome duplication. Strain J10 produced similar results indicative of intraclonal mating. In contrast, trypanosome clones recovered from other flies showed that genotypes can be transmitted with fidelity. When a yellow hybrid clone expressing both red and green fluorescent protein genes was transmitted, the salivary glands contained a mixture of fluorescent-coloured trypanosomes, but only yellow and red clones were recovered. While loss of the GFP gene in the red clones could have resulted from gene conversion, some of these clones showed loss of heterozygosity and raised DNA contents as in the other single strain transmissions. Our observations suggest

  14. How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. The boundedness of intrinsic square functions on the weighted Herz-type Hardy spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the boundedness properties are obtained for intrinsic square functions including the Lusin area function, Littlewood-Paley $g$-function and $g^*_\\lambda$-function on the weighted Herz-type Hardy spaces.

  16. The influence of pleiotropy between viability and pollen fates on mating system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y

    2015-02-01

    Floral displays are functionally and genetically integrated structures, so modifications to display will likely affect multiple fitness components (pleiotropy), including pollen export and self-pollination, and therefore selfing rate. Consequently, the great diversities of floral displays and of mating systems found among angiosperms have likely co-evolved. I extend previous models of mating system evolution to determine how pleiotropy that links viability (e.g., probability of survival to reproduction) and the allocation of pollen for export and selfing affects the evolution of selfing, outcrossing, and in particular, mixed mating. I show that the outcome depends on how pollen shifts from being exported, unused, or used for selfing. Furthermore, pleiotropy that affects viability can explain observations not addressed by previous theory, including the evolution of mixed mating despite high inbreeding depression in the absence of pollen-limitation. Therefore, pleiotropy may play a key role in explaining selfing rates for such species that exhibit otherwise enigmatic mating systems.

  17. Plant functional type mapping for earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Poulter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of global carbon and water cycling to climate variability is coupled directly to land cover and the distribution of vegetation. To investigate biogeochemistry-climate interactions, earth system models require a representation of vegetation distributions that are either prescribed from remote sensing data or simulated via biogeography models. However, the abstraction of earth system state variables in models means that data products derived from remote sensing need to be post-processed for model-data assimilation. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM rely on the concept of plant functional types (PFT to group shared traits of thousands of plant species into just several classes. Available databases of observed PFT distributions must be relevant to existing satellite sensors and their derived products, and to the present day distribution of managed lands. Here, we develop four PFT datasets based on land-cover information from three satellite sensors (EOS-MODIS 1 km and 0.5 km, SPOT4-VEGETATION 1 km, and ENVISAT-MERIS 0.3 km spatial resolution that are merged with spatially-consistent Köppen-Geiger climate zones. Using a beta (β diversity metric to assess reclassification similarity, we find that the greatest uncertainty in PFT classifications occur most frequently between cropland and grassland categories, and in dryland systems between shrubland, grassland and forest categories because of differences in the minimum threshold required for forest cover. The biogeography-biogeochemistry DGVM, LPJmL, is used in diagnostic mode with the four PFT datasets prescribed to quantify the effect of land-cover uncertainty on climatic sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP and transpiration fluxes. Our results show that land-cover uncertainty has large effects in arid regions, contributing up to 30 % (20 % uncertainty in the sensitivity of GPP (transpiration to precipitation. The availability of plant functional type datasets that

  18. Cardiac Autonomic Function Is Associated With the Coronary Microcirculatory Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Hansen, Christian Stevns; Hasbak, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic dysfunction and cardiac microvascular dysfunction are diabetic complications associated with increased mortality, but the association between these has been difficult to assess. We applied new and sensitive methods to assess this in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM...... (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy was conducted in a subgroup of 29 patients and 14 control subjects and evaluated as the late heart-to-mediastinum ratio and washout rate. Impaired function of all the cardiac autonomic measures (except the washout rate) was associated with reduced CFR....... A heart rate variability index, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic function (low-frequency power), and the late heart-to-mediastinum ratio, reflecting the function of adrenergic receptors and sympathetic activity, were positively correlated with CFR after adjustment for age and heart rate...

  19. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up...

  20. A functional type I topoisomerase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roper Benjamin J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a putative topoisomerase with sequence similarity to the eukaryotic type IB topoisomerase from Vaccinia virus. Residues in the active site are conserved, notably Tyr292 which would be predicted to form the transient covalent bond to DNA. Results The gene encoding the P. aeruginosa topoisomerase I was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The enzyme relaxes supercoiled DNA, while a mutant containing a Tyr292 to Phe substitution at the active site was found to be catalytically inert. This is consistent with the role of Tyr in forming the covalent intermediate. Like Vaccinia topoisomerase, the P. aeruginosa topoisomerase relaxes DNA in the absence of ATP, but unlike Vaccinia topoisomerase, P. aeruginosa topoisomerase does not relax supercoiled DNA without MgCl2 present. In addition, high concentration of NaCl is not able to substitute for MgCl2 as seen for Vaccinia topoisomerase. A truncated derivative of the topoisomerase lacking residues 1–98 relaxes DNA, with both full length and truncated enzyme exhibiting equivalent requirements for divalent cations and the ability to relax DNA to completion, suggesting a shared domain organization. DNA-binding assays suggest an only modest preference for the CCCTT pentameric sequence required for transesterification by Vaccinia topoisomerase IB. Conclusion P. aeruginosa encodes a functional topoisomerase with significant similarity to the type IB enzyme encoded by poxviruses. In contrast to the Vaccinia-encoded homolog, the P. aeruginosa-encoded enzyme requires divalent cations for catalytic activity, relaxes DNA to completion, and does not exhibit a strong preference for the pentameric sequence stringently required by the Vaccinia-encoded homolog. A comparison with the structure of poxviral topoisomerase in complex with DNA suggests that bacterial homologs of the eukaryotic type IB topoisomerase may exhibit a relaxed sequence preference due to the lack of

  1. Effects of food and mates on time budget in Aplysia fasciata: integration of feeding, reproduction, and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, I; Markovich, S; Lustig, C; Susswein, A J

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the time budgeted to different behaviors in Aplysia fasciata under three conditions: (1) animals have constant access to food and mates: (2) there is access to food, but not to mates; (3) neither food nor mates are present. The data suggest a number of rules underlying behavioral integration: (1) Feeding, reproductive behaviors, and activity seem to be natural categories for behavioral choice. Feeding and reproductive behaviors are controlled in tandem by a common arousal mechanism, while time left over after animals feed and reproduce is distributed in a fixed ratio between locomotion (crawling and swimming) and inactivity (immobility and movement in place). (2) Relative distribution between different forms of locomotion and inactivity is modified by changes in motivational state. More time is spent swimming than crawling when feeding and/or mating is prevented, while more time is spent moving in place than immobile when the arousal level is increased. (3) Feedback control of feeding and reproduction is asymmetric. Satiation of feeding inhibits the common arousal. In the absence of food, time spent on reproductive behaviors increases due to disinhibition of the common arousal. By contrast, positive feedback arising from sexual behavior excites the common arousal. When mating is prevented by removing potential mates, time spent feeding decreases. (4) Generally, animals choose between performing the three main categories of behavior. Although Aplysia simultaneously can feed and mate, or locomote and mate, they do so infrequently. By contrast, different types of reproductive behaviors (male mating, female mating, egg-laying) are commonly performed simultaneously.

  2. ON THE C.CHANG TYPE INEQUALITY OF ALGEBROID FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Daochun; Gao Zongsheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the growth relations between algebroid functions and their derivatives, and extend famous C. Chang inequality (see [1, 4]) of meromorphic functions to algebroid functions.

  3. The universal cut function and type II metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozameh, Carlos [FaMaF, University of Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina); Newman, E T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Santiago-Santiago, J G [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas de la Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, 72001, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas de la Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, 72001, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2007-04-21

    In analogy with classical electromagnetic theory, where one determines the total charge and both electric and magnetic multipole moments of a source from certain surface integrals of the asymptotic (or far) fields, it has been known for many years-from the work of Hermann Bondi-that the energy and momentum of gravitational sources could be determined by similar integrals of the asymptotic Weyl tensor. Recently, we observed that there were certain overlooked structures, defined at future null infinity, that allowed one to determine (or define) further properties of both electromagnetic and gravitating sources. These structures, families of complex 'slices' or 'cuts' of Penrose's I{sup +}, are referred to as universal cut functions. In particular, one can define from these structures a (complex) centre of mass (and centre of charge) and its equations of motion-with rather surprising consequences. It appears as if these asymptotic structures contain, in their imaginary part, a well-defined total spin-angular momentum of the source. We apply these ideas to the type II algebraically special metrics, both twisting and twist free.

  4. Polyandry and alternative mating tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D; Svensson, Erik I

    2013-03-05

    Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research.

  5. Mating System of Free-Ranging Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen females belonging to five groups were selected for the study of mating system in free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris All the matings occurred between August and December with a peak in late monsoon months (September to November. Both males and females differed in their degree of attractiveness to the opposite sex. The duration of courting association increased with the number of courting males in an association. The females exhibited selectivity by readily permitting some males to mate and avoiding, or even attacking others, if they attempted to mount. Frequency of mounting in courting association increased with the number of males present. There was a positive correlation between the duration of courting association and the frequency of mounting. The young adult males were more likely to copulate successfully than the old adult males. There was a negative correlation between the number of males present in an association and the number of successful copulations. In this study, six types of mating (monogamy, polygyny, promiscuity, polyandry, opportunity and rape were recorded. Mean (±S.E. duration of copulatory ties was 25.65 (±1.43 min. Several natural factors influencing the duration of copulatory ties were identified.

  6. Variation in human mate choice: simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsch, Brendan P; Verweij, Karin J H; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Human mate choice is central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we looked at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents ([Formula: see text] individuals) to test for genetic and family environmental influences on mate choice, while controlling for and not controlling for the effects of assortative mating. Key traits were analyzed, including height, body mass index, age, education, income, personality, social attitudes, and religiosity. This revealed near-zero genetic influences on male and female mate choice over all traits and no significant genetic influences on mate choice for any specific trait. A significant family environmental influence was found for the age and income of females' mate choices, possibly reflecting parental influence over mating decisions. We also tested for evidence of sexual imprinting, where individuals acquire mate-choice criteria during development by using their opposite-sex parent as the template of a desirable mate; there was no such effect for any trait. The main discernible pattern of mate choice was assortative mating; we found that partner similarity was due to initial choice rather than convergence and also at least in part to phenotypic matching.

  7. Direct costs and benefits of multiple mating: Are high female mating rates due to ejaculate replenishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Amy M; Kelly, Clint D

    2016-03-01

    Females often mate more than is necessary to ensure reproductive success even when they incur significant costs from doing so. Direct benefits are hypothesized to be the driving force of high female mating rates, yet species in which females only receive an ejaculate from their mate still realize increased fitness from multiple mating. Using the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis, we experimentally test the hypothesis that multiple mating via monandry or polyandry increases female fitness by replenishing ejaculates, thereby allowing females to produce more offspring for a longer period of time. We found that higher rates of female mating significantly increased lifetime fecundity and oviposition independent of whether females mated with one or two males. Further, although interactions with males significantly increased rates of injury or death, females that replenished ejaculates experienced an increased rate and duration of oviposition, demonstrating that the immediate benefits of multiple mating may greatly outweigh the long-term costs that mating poses to female condition and survival. We suggest that ejaculate replenishment is a driving factor of high mating rates in females that do not receive external direct benefits from mating and that a comparative study across taxa will provide additional insight into the role that ejaculate size plays in the evolution of female mating rates.

  8. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts.

  9. Male coercion and the costs of promiscuous mating for female chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For reasons that are not yet clear, male aggression against females occurs frequently among primates with promiscuous mating systems. Here, we test the sexual coercion hypothesis that male aggression functions to constrain female mate choice. We use 10 years of behavioural and endocrine data from a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) to show that sexual coercion is the probable primary function of male aggression against females. Specifically, we show that male aggr...

  10. Human Pheromone Detection by the Vomeronasal Organ: Unnecessary for Mate Selection?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Foltan and Sedy proposed a hypothesis stating that the adult human VNO is integral to the prevention of inappropriate mate selection. In this commentary, we address the authors’ assumption that humans have a functional VNO, that pheromones are detected exclusively by the VNO, and that human pheromones are responsible for negative stimuli during mate selection. After examining the published literature on human vomeronasal function, we argue that their hypothesis is critically flawed....

  11. DMPD: Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17502368 Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. de Wee...(.html) (.csml) Show Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. PubmedID 17502368 T...itle Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. Authors

  12. Beyond designed functional margins in CANDU type NPP. Radioactive nuclei assessment in an LOCA type accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budu Andrei Razvan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union's energy roadmap up to year 2050 states that in order to have an efficient and sustainable economy, with minimum or decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, along with use of renewable resources, each constituent state has the option for nuclear energy production as one desirable option. Every scenario considered for tackling climate change issues, along with security of supply positions the nuclear energy as a recommended option, an option that is highly competitive with respect to others. Nuclear energy, along with other renewable power sources are considered to be the main pillars in the energy sector for greenhouse gas emission mitigation at European level. European Union considers that nuclear energy must be treated as a highly recommended option since it can contribute to security of energy supply. Romania showed excellent track-records in operating in a safe and economically sound manner of Cernavoda NPP Units 1&2. Both Units are in top 10 worldwide in terms of capacity factor. Due to Romania's need to ensure the security of electricity supply, to meet the environmental targets and to move to low carbon generation technologies, Cernavoda Units 3&4 Project appears as a must. This Project was started in 2010 and it is expected to have the Units running by 2025. Cost effective and safety operation of a Nuclear Power Plant is made taking into consideration functional limits of its equipment. As common practice, every nuclear reactor type (technology used is tested according to the worse credible accident or equipment failure that can occur. For CANDU type reactor, this is a Loss of Cooling Accident (LOCA. In a LOCA type accident in a CANDU NPP, using RELAP/SCDAP code for fuel bundle damage assessment the radioactive nuclei are to be quantified. Recently, CANDU type NPP accidents are studied using the RELAP/SCDAP code only. The code formerly developed for PWR type reactors was adapted for the CANDU geometry and can assess the

  13. Electrician's Mate 3 & 2: Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual provides information related to the tasks assigned to the Electrician's Mate Third and Second Class who operate and maintain power and lighting systems and associated equipment. Individual chapters deal with: career challenges for the Electrician's Mate, safety precautions, test equipment, electrical installations, A-C power…

  14. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  15. SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR FUNCTIONS TO BE IN A CLASS OF MEROMORPHIC MULTIVALENT SAKAGUCHI TYPE SPIRAL-LIKE FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad ARIF; Janusz SOK ól; Muhammad AYAZ

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we define a subclass of meromorphic multivalent Sakaguchi type functions and obtain certain sufficient conditions for functions to be in this class. The main result presented here includes a number of consequences as its special cases.

  16. Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line S.; Gonzalez, Sofía F.; Toft, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    (death feigning). Thanatosis in a sexual context is exceptional and was suggested to function as an antipredation strategy toward potentially cannibalistic females. If thanatosis serves as a protection strategy, males should death feign in response to female aggression or when they are more vulnerable...... to attack. We tested these predictions in a factorial design: males that were handicapped (1 leg removed) and hence vulnerable and control males were paired with females that were more or less aggressive intrinsically (measured toward prey). In mating trials, we recorded the tendency of males to death feign......, copulation success, and copulation duration. In addition, we investigated the effect of female mating status (virgin or mated) on these male mating components. Intrinsically aggressive females showed increased mating aggression toward males. Neither female aggressiveness, mating status, nor male...

  17. MATE1 has an external COOH terminus, consistent with a 13-helix topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wright, Stephen H

    2009-08-01

    The mammalian members of the Multidrug And Toxin Extruder family, i.e., MATE1 and MATE2-K, are suspected of mediating the luminal step in renal secretion of organic cations. The 1,000+ prokaryotic/fungal/plant MATE family members are predicted to have 12 transmembrane helices (TMHs), whereas MATE1/2-K appear to have an additional (13th) COOH-terminal helix. Here, we determined whether rabbit MATE1 has an external COOH terminus, consistent with the presence of 13 TMHs. A V5 epitope tag at the COOH terminus of MATE1 was freely accessible to external V5 antibody, whereas tags at the NH(2) terminus, or at sites of truncation within the long cytoplasmic loop between predicted TMHs 12 and 13, were only accessible to the V5 antibody following permeabilization of the membrane. The truncated mutants that lacked TMH13 still retained transport activity, indicating that the terminal helix was not necessary for transport function. Cells that expressed a mutant lacking only TMH13 displayed similar K(t) and J(max) values to those of the full-length protein, although when normalized to protein expressed at the plasma membrane, the transport rate of the mutant was COOH terminus was freely accessible to maleimide biotin. These data are consistent with a mammalian MATE topology that includes 13 TMHs and indicate that the terminal TMH, although not necessary for transport function, may influence the turnover characteristics of the transporter.

  18. Signaling of human frizzled receptors to the mating pathway in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Dirnberger

    Full Text Available Frizzled receptors have seven membrane-spanning helices and are considered as atypical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. The mating response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by a GPCR signaling system and this model organism has been used extensively in the past to study mammalian GPCR function. We show here that human Frizzled receptors (Fz1 and Fz2 can be properly targeted to the yeast plasma membrane, and that they stimulate the yeast mating pathway in the absence of added Wnt ligands, as evidenced by cell cycle arrest in G1 and reporter gene expression dependent on the mating pathway-activated FUS1 gene. Introducing intracellular portions of Frizzled receptors into the Ste2p backbone resulted in the generation of constitutively active receptor chimeras that retained mating factor responsiveness. Introducing intracellular portions of Ste2p into the Frizzled receptor backbone was found to strongly enhance mating pathway activation as compared to the native Frizzleds, likely by facilitating interaction with the yeast Galpha protein Gpa1p. Furthermore, we show reversibility of the highly penetrant G1-phase arrests exerted by the receptor chimeras by deletion of the mating pathway effector FAR1. Our data demonstrate that Frizzled receptors can functionally replace mating factor receptors in yeast and offer an experimental system to study modulators of Frizzled receptors.

  19. Signaling of human frizzled receptors to the mating pathway in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnberger, Dietmar; Seuwen, Klaus

    2007-09-26

    Frizzled receptors have seven membrane-spanning helices and are considered as atypical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The mating response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by a GPCR signaling system and this model organism has been used extensively in the past to study mammalian GPCR function. We show here that human Frizzled receptors (Fz1 and Fz2) can be properly targeted to the yeast plasma membrane, and that they stimulate the yeast mating pathway in the absence of added Wnt ligands, as evidenced by cell cycle arrest in G1 and reporter gene expression dependent on the mating pathway-activated FUS1 gene. Introducing intracellular portions of Frizzled receptors into the Ste2p backbone resulted in the generation of constitutively active receptor chimeras that retained mating factor responsiveness. Introducing intracellular portions of Ste2p into the Frizzled receptor backbone was found to strongly enhance mating pathway activation as compared to the native Frizzleds, likely by facilitating interaction with the yeast Galpha protein Gpa1p. Furthermore, we show reversibility of the highly penetrant G1-phase arrests exerted by the receptor chimeras by deletion of the mating pathway effector FAR1. Our data demonstrate that Frizzled receptors can functionally replace mating factor receptors in yeast and offer an experimental system to study modulators of Frizzled receptors.

  20. Causes and consequences of variability in peptide mating pheromones of ascomycete fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon H; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Steenkamp, Emma T

    2011-07-01

    The reproductive genes of fungi, like those of many other organisms, are thought to diversify rapidly. This phenomenon could be associated with the formation of reproductive barriers and speciation. Ascomycetes produce two classes of mating type-specific peptide pheromones. These are required for recognition between the mating types of heterothallic species. Little is known regarding the diversity or the extent of species specificity in pheromone peptides among these fungi. We compared the putative protein-coding DNA sequences of the 2 pheromone classes from 70 species of Ascomycetes. The data set included previously described pheromones and putative pheromones identified from genomic sequences. In addition, pheromone genes from 12 Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex were amplified and sequenced. Pheromones were largely conserved among species in this complex and, therefore, cannot alone account for the reproductive barriers observed between these species. In contrast, pheromone peptides were highly diverse among many other Ascomycetes, with evidence for both positive diversifying selection and relaxed selective constraint. Repeats of the α-factor-like pheromone, which occur in tandem arrays of variable copy number, were found to be conserved through purifying selection and not concerted evolution. This implies that sequence specificity may be important for pheromone reception and that interspecific differences may indeed be associated with functional divergence. Our findings also suggest that frequent duplication and loss causes the tandem repeats to experience "birth-and-death" evolution, which could in fact facilitate interspecific divergence of pheromone peptide sequences.

  1. MATING BEHAVIOUR AND CANNIBALISM IN PRAYING MANTIS (MANTIS RELIGIOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel – Ionuţ BOGDAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study the reproductive behaviour of praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L., describing the whole sequences of mating behaviour, approaching wholeness behavioural sequences related to reproduction of species, with special reference to cannibalistic behaviour, observed both in laboratory and natural environment of the insect. The investigations undertaken deduce the complexity of the problem and the need for further studies to elucidate and other aspects reguarding this type of behaviour.

  2. Construction of `Wachspress Type' Rational Basis Functions over Rectangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P L Powar; S S Rana

    2000-02-01

    In the present paper, we have constructed rational basis functions of 0 class over rectangular elements with wider choice of denominator function. This construction yields additional number of interior nodes. Hence, extra nodal points and the flexibility of denominator function suggest better approximation.

  3. Inequalities of Čebyšev Type for Lipschitzian Functions in Banach Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldea Marius V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give some Čebyšev type norm inequalities for two Lipschitzian functions on Banach algebras. Some examples for power function, exponential and the resolvent functions are also provided

  4. Functional outcome 5 years after non-operative treatment of type A spinal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, RB; Keizer, HJE; Leferink, VJM; van der Sluis, CK

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to study the functional outcome after non-operative treatment of type A thoracolumbar spinal fractures without neurological deficit. Functional outcome was determined following the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, measuring restrictions in

  5. Age Variation in Mating Strategies and Mate Preferences: Beliefs versus Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Bleske-Rechek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted three studies to (1 investigate individuals' beliefs about change in mating desires over the course of emerging adulthood and (2 determine whether those beliefs reflect actual variation in mating desires among emerging adults of varied ages (late teens through twenties. In Study 1, 103 men and women gave their thoughts on how college students change, if at all, in what they most desire in a relationship and relationship partner as they move from being incoming freshmen to graduating seniors. In Studies 2 and 3, using a college sample and then an internet sample (n s = 288 and 307, men and women between the ages of 18 and 26 completed mating strategies inventories and allotted a limited number of “mate dollars” to 10 mate characteristics. Findings suggest that although emerging adults believe that their peers' mating desires change systematically over time, emerging adults' self-reported mating desires vary little with age.

  6. Polymer functionalized n-type single wall carbon nanotube photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongrui; Saini, Viney; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Zhang, Jianhui; Xu, Yang; Biris, Alexandru R.; Salamo, Gregory J.; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2010-01-01

    Photovoltaic conversion was achieved from high-density p-n heterojunctions formed between polymer functionalized n-type single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and underlying p-type Si substrate. Functionalization of SWNTs by amine-rich polymers results in the evolution of tubes from p-type to n-type, and the polyethylene imine (PEI) functionalized SWNT film can serve as both photogeneration sites and a charge carrier collecting/transport layer. Photoremoval of oxygen adsorbed on the nanotubes prior to PEI functionalization can increase the conversion efficiency of the polymer functionalized n-type SWNT photovoltaic devices.

  7. The evolution of multiple mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowaty, Patricia Adair

    2012-01-01

    Polyandry is a paradox: why do females mate multiple times when a single ejaculate often provides enough sperm for lifetime egg production? Gowaty et al. addressed explanations for polyandry in Drosophila pseudoobscura from the perspective of hypotheses based on sex differences in costs of reproduction (CoR). Contrary to CoR, Gowaty et al. showed that (1) a single ejaculate was inadequate for lifetime egg production; (2) polyandry provided fitness benefits to females beyond provision of adequate sperm and (3) fitness benefits of polyandry were not offset by costs. Here, I discuss predictions of the ad hoc hypotheses of CoR and three alternative hypotheses to CoR to facilitate a discussion and further development of a strong inference approach to experiments on the adaptive significance of polyandry for females. Each of the hypotheses makes testable predictions; simultaneous tests of the predictions will provide a strong inference approach to understanding the adaptive significance of multiple mating. I describe a sex-symmetric experiment meant to evaluate variation in fitness among lifelong virgins (V); monogamous females and males with one copulation (MOC); monogamous females and males with multiple copulations (MMC); PAND, polyandrous females; and PGYN, polygynous males. Last, I recommend the study of many different species, while taking care in choice of study species and attention to the assumptions of specific hypotheses. I particularly urge the study of many more Drosophila species both in laboratory and the wild to understand the “nature of flies in nature,” where opportunities and constraints mold evolutionary responses. PMID:22223093

  8. Conformal field theory and functions of hypergeometric type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-03-15

    Conformal field theory provides a universal description of various phenomena in natural sciences. Its development, swift and successful, belongs to the major highlights of theoretical physics of the late XX century. In contrast, advances of the theory of hypergeometric functions always assumed a slower pace throughout the centuries of its existence. Functional identities studied by this mathematical discipline are fascinating both in their complexity and beauty. This thesis investigates the interrelation of two subjects through a direct analysis of three CFT problems: two-point functions of the 2d strange metal CFT, three-point functions of primaries of the non-rational Toda CFT and kinematical parts of Mellin amplitudes for scalar four-point functions in general dimensions. We flash out various generalizations of hypergeometric functions as a natural mathematical language for two of these problems. Several new methods inspired by extensions of classical results on hypergeometric functions, are presented.

  9. Plant functional type mapping for earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Poulter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of global carbon and water cycling to climate variability is coupled directly to land cover and the distribution of vegetation. To investigate biogeochemistry-climate interactions, earth system models require a representation of vegetation distributions that are either prescribed from remote sensing data or simulated via biogeography models. However, the abstraction of earth system state variables in models means that data products derived from remote sensing need to be post-processed for model-data assimilation. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM rely on the concept of plant functional types (PFT to group shared traits of thousands of plant species into usually only 10–20 classes. Available databases of observed PFT distributions must be relevant to existing satellite sensors and their derived products, and to the present day distribution of managed lands. Here, we develop four PFT datasets based on land-cover information from three satellite sensors (EOS-MODIS 1 km and 0.5 km, SPOT4-VEGETATION 1 km, and ENVISAT-MERIS 0.3 km spatial resolution that are merged with spatially-consistent Köppen-Geiger climate zones. Using a beta (ß diversity metric to assess reclassification similarity, we find that the greatest uncertainty in PFT classifications occur most frequently between cropland and grassland categories, and in dryland systems between shrubland, grassland and forest categories because of differences in the minimum threshold required for forest cover. The biogeography-biogeochemistry DGVM, LPJmL, is used in diagnostic mode with the four PFT datasets prescribed to quantify the effect of land-cover uncertainty on climatic sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP and transpiration fluxes. Our results show that land-cover uncertainty has large effects in arid regions, contributing up to 30% (20% uncertainty in the sensitivity of GPP (transpiration to precipitation. The availability of PFT datasets that are consistent

  10. The Macrophage Galactose-Type C-Type Lectin (MGL Modulates Regulatory T Cell Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Grazia Zizzari

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are physiologically designed to prevent autoimmune disease and maintain self-tolerance. In tumour microenvironments, their presence is related to a poor prognosis, and they influence the therapeutic outcome due to their capacity to suppress the immune response by cell-cell contact and to release immunosuppressive cytokines. In this study, we demonstrate that Treg immunosuppressive activity can be modulated by the cross-linking between the CD45RA expressed by Tregs and the C-type lectin MGL. This specific interaction strongly decreases the immunosuppressive activity of Tregs, restoring the proliferative capacity of co-cultured T lymphocytes. This effect can be attributed to changes in CD45RA and TCR signalling through the inhibition of Lck and inactivation of Zap-70, an increase in the Foxp3 methylation status and, ultimately, the reduced production of suppressive cytokines. These results indicate a role of MGL as an immunomodulator within the tumour microenvironment interfering with Treg functions, suggesting its possible use in the design of anticancer vaccines.

  11. Inositols affect the mating circadian rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Kazuki; Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ito, Kumpei; Negishi, Osamu; Tsuno, Takuo; Tsuno, Hiromi; Yamazaki, Youta; Ishida, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the molecular circadian clock underlies the mating behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. However, information about which food components affect circadian mating behavior is scant. The ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum has recently become a popular functional food. Here, we showed that the close-proximity (CP) rhythm of D. melanogaster courtship behavior was damped under low-nutrient conditions, but significantly enhanced by feeding the flies with powdered ice plant. Among various components of ice plants, we found that myo-inositol increased the amplitude and slightly shortened the period of the CP rhythm. Real-time reporter assays showed that myo-inositol and D-pinitol shortened the period of the circadian reporter gene Per2-luc in NIH 3T3 cells. These data suggest that the ice plant is a useful functional food and that the ability of inositols to shorten rhythms is a general phenomenon in insects as well as mammals. PMID:26097456

  12. Inositols affect the mating circadian rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki eSakata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that the molecular circadian clock underlies the mating behavior of D. melanogaster. However, information about which food components affect circadian mating behavior is scant. The ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum has recently become a popular functional food. Here, we showed that the close-proximity (CP rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster courtship behavior was damped under low-nutrient conditions, but significantly enhanced by feeding the flies with powdered ice plant. Among various components of ice plants, we found that myo-inositol increased the amplitude and slightly shortened the period of the CP rhythm. Real-time reporter assays showed that myo-inositol and D-pinitol shortened the period of the circadian reporter gene Per2-luc in NIH 3T3 cells. These data suggest that the ice plant is a useful functional food and that the ability of inositols to shorten rhythms is a general phenomenon in insects as well as mammals.

  13. Mated Female Mate Choice in Relation to Male Mating Status in Crayfish Procambarus clarkii%已交配雌性克氏原螯虾的择偶行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 乔出; 刘国兴; 黄成

    2014-01-01

    动物在繁殖期间会随自身繁殖状态的变化而调整择偶行为,这会导致它们择偶的多样性.本文研究具交配经验的雌性克氏原螯虾( Procambarus clarkii)在Y型水迷宫中对不同婚配状态的潜在配偶的择偶行为.雌虾对空白与原配、童子、非童子3种信息源虾的访问总时间P值均小于0.05,结果表明雌性克氏原螯虾与原交配雄体有再次交配的显著倾向,对该现象本文从螯虾繁殖成功率方面进行了探讨;面对3种信息源虾的选择差异性的P值均大于0.05,表明雌虾不区分潜在配偶的婚配状态,本文就螯虾的择偶偏好进行了讨论,此外对螯虾定向配种方面的应用进行了初步探讨.本研究以期为克氏原螯虾的繁殖行为学的理论研究及生产实践积累具参考意义的基础数据.%Animals can make adaptive adjustment of selectivity as a function of their own reproductive value which may cause variation in mate choice over the course of reproduction. Here,we examined the mate choice of mated females in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii. We used a Y-maze,in which mated females made selection between potential mates with different mating status. When faced with primary partners, virgin or unfamiliar mated males and a blank control,females showed significantly preferences for males in terms of the total duration of visits(P0. 05). Females may mate as frequently as possibly out of re-productive success. Besides,we discussed mated female indiscriminating between males’ mating status in terms of their mate preferences. The present study not only provides theoretical basis for reproductive biology and ethology,but it is also of great practical significance to crayfish aquaculture.

  14. Sufficient Optimality Conditions for Multiobjective Programming Involving (V, ρ) h,ψ-typeFunctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-xiang; JIANG Yan; KANG Rui-rui

    2012-01-01

    New classes of functions namely (V,ρ)h,ψ-type Ⅰ,quasi (V,ρ)h,ψ-type Ⅰ and pseudo (V,ρ)h,ψ-typefunctions are defined for multiobjective programming problem by using BenTal's generalized algebraic operation.The examples of (V,ρ)h.ψ-typefunctions are given.The sufficient optimality conditions are obtained for multi-objective programming problem involving above new generalized convexity.

  15. Evolution of Mating within the Candida parapsilosis Species Group▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M.; McGee, Conor F.; Lynch, Denise B.; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MT...

  16. Mating plugs in polyandrous giants: which sex produces them, when, how and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Kuntner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Males usually produce mating plugs to reduce sperm competition. However, females can conceivably also produce mating plugs in order to prevent unwanted, superfluous and energetically costly matings. In spiders-appropriate models for testing plugging biology hypotheses-mating plugs may consist of male genital parts and/or of amorphous covers consisting of glandular or sperm secretions. In the giant wood spider Nephila pilipes, a highly sexually dimorphic and polygamous species, males are known to produce ineffective embolic plugs through genital damage, but nothing is known about the origin and function of additional conspicuous amorphous plugs (AP covering female genitals. METHODOLOGY: We tested alternative hypotheses of the nature and function of AP in N. pilipes by staging mating trials with varying degrees of polyandry. No APs were ever formed during mating trials, which rules out the possibility of male AP formation. Instead, those females that oviposited produced the AP from a liquid secreted during egg sac formation. Polyandrous females were more likely to lay eggs and to produce the AP, as were those that mated longer and with more total insertions. Our further tests revealed that, in spite of being a side product of egg sac production, AP, when hardened, prevented any subsequent copulation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in the giant wood spider (Nephila pilipes, the amorphous mating plugs are not produced by the males, that repeated copulations (most likely polyandrous are necessary for egg fertilization and AP formation, and that the AP represents a female adaptation to sexual conflict through prevention of unwanted, excessive copulations. Considering the largely unknown origin of amorphous plugs in spiders, we predict that a similar pattern might be detected in other clades, which would help elucidate the evolutionary interplay of various selection pressures responsible for the origin and maintenance of mating plugs.

  17. fullfact: an R package for the analysis of genetic and maternal variance components from full factorial mating designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Aimee Lee S; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2016-03-01

    Full factorial breeding designs are useful for quantifying the amount of additive genetic, nonadditive genetic, and maternal variance that explain phenotypic traits. Such variance estimates are important for examining evolutionary potential. Traditionally, full factorial mating designs have been analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance, which may produce negative variance values and is not suited for unbalanced designs. Mixed-effects models do not produce negative variance values and are suited for unbalanced designs. However, extracting the variance components, calculating significance values, and estimating confidence intervals and/or power values for the components are not straightforward using traditional analytic methods. We introduce fullfact - an R package that addresses these issues and facilitates the analysis of full factorial mating designs with mixed-effects models. Here, we summarize the functions of the fullfact package. The observed data functions extract the variance explained by random and fixed effects and provide their significance. We then calculate the additive genetic, nonadditive genetic, and maternal variance components explaining the phenotype. In particular, we integrate nonnormal error structures for estimating these components for nonnormal data types. The resampled data functions are used to produce bootstrap-t confidence intervals, which can then be plotted using a simple function. We explore the fullfact package through a worked example. This package will facilitate the analyses of full factorial mating designs in R, especially for the analysis of binary, proportion, and/or count data types and for the ability to incorporate additional random and fixed effects and power analyses.

  18. A Darboux-type theorem for slowly varying functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, BLJ; Stark, D

    1997-01-01

    For functions g(z) satisfying a slowly varying condition in the complex plane, we iind asymptotics For the Taylor coefficients of the function f(z) = g(z)(1-z)(-alpha) when alpha > 0. As applications we find asymptotics for the number of permutations with cycle lengths all lying in a given set S, an

  19. Silencing of the Hsf gene, the transcriptional regulator of A. gambiae male accessory glands, inhibits the formation of the mating plug in mated females and disrupts their monogamous behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Discovering the molecular factors that shape the mating behaviour and the fertility of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, is regarded as critical to better understand its reproductive success as well as for identifying new leads for malaria control measures. In A. gambiae mating induces complex behavioural and physiological changes in the females, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and induction of egg-laying. In other insects including Drosophila a group of proteins named Accessory gland proteins (Acps), produced by males and transferred with sperm to the female reproductive tract, have been implicated in this post-mating response. Although Acps represent a set of promising candidates for unravelling the mating physiology, their role in inducing behavioural changes in mated A. gambiae females remains largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that a down-regulation of a large fraction of Acp genes via silencing of the Acp regulating transcription factor Hsf, abolishes the formation of mating plug in mated females and fails to induce refractoriness of mated female to subsequent inseminations. A significant fraction of females mated to Hsf silenced males (66%) failed to receive the mating plug though seminal fluid had been transferred as documented by the presence of spermatozoa in the female sperm storage organ. Furthermore, nearly all females (95%) mated to HSF-silenced males were re-inseminated when exposed to males carrying EGPF marked sperm. Our findings provide evidence showing that Acp genes regulated by the transcription factor HSF play a key role in the function of the male accessory glands.

  20. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  1. The evolution of genital complexity and mating rates in sexually size dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Liao, Chen-Pan; Schneider, Jutta M; Elgar, Mark A

    2016-11-09

    Genital diversity may arise through sexual conflict over polyandry, where male genital features function to manipulate female mating frequency against her interest. Correlated genital evolution across animal groups is consistent with this view, but a link between genital complexity and mating rates remains to be established. In sexually size dimorphic spiders, golden orbweaving spiders (Nephilidae) males mutilate their genitals to form genital plugs, but these plugs do not always prevent female polyandry. In a comparative framework, we test whether male and female genital complexity coevolve, and how these morphologies, as well as sexual cannibalism, relate to the evolution of mating systems. Using a combination of comparative tests, we show that male genital complexity negatively correlates with female mating rates, and that levels of sexual cannibalism negatively correlate with male mating rates. We also confirm a positive correlation between male and female genital complexity. The macroevolutionary trajectory is consistent with a repeated evolution from polyandry to monandry coinciding with the evolution towards more complex male genitals. These results are consistent with the predictions from sexual conflict theory, although sexual conflict may not be the only mechanism responsible for the evolution of genital complexity and mating systems. Nevertheless, our comparative evidence suggests that in golden orbweavers, male genital complexity limits female mating rates, and sexual cannibalism by females coincides with monogyny.

  2. Life at the margin: the mating system of Mediterranean conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Restoux

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixed mating, where a single tree progeny results from a mixture of selfing and outcrossing, is widespread in conifers and could be an evolutionary advantage at ecological margins when mating partners become scarce. This study analyzes how the mating system responds to bioclimate and density variations. We surveyed published data on the mating system of Abies, Picea and Pinus species when information on bioclimate and stand density was available. Our survey revealed that Mediterranean species demonstrate a lower selfing rate than other species and that the proportion of selfed versus outcrossed progeny is not fixed within species. The highest variability in mating types within populations was found when stand density was the most variable.

    To show how density affects the proportion of selfed versus outcrossed progeny, we used isozymes to genotype single tree seeds from a marginal Abies alba forest in Mediterranean France (Mont Ventoux where low-to high-density stands are found. We then tested the adaptive potential of the different high and low density progenies by sowing them under controlled nursery conditions and measuring germination rate and seedling survival after 4 yr under 3 different water regimes. Although the mean value of outcrossing rate was typical for mixed mating conifers (tm = 0.85, individual outcrossing rates varied from 0.05 to 0.99 and were strongly correlated with stand type and density (tm from 0.87 in high-density to 0.43 in low-density marginal stands. Significantly fewer seeds from the low density marginal stand germinated (32% vs. 53% in the high density mature stand, although seedlings from the marginal stand had a better 4-yr survival (81% than seedlings from the high-density mature stand (63% when the three water regimes (from least to most stressful were averaged.

    Trees from low density stands may be at a selective disadvantage because they produce

  3. Flexible mate choice when mates are rare and time is short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghitella, Robin M; Weigel, Emily G; Head, Megan; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-09-01

    Female mate choice is much more dynamic than we once thought. Mating decisions depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and these two may interact with one another. In this study, we investigate how responses to the social mating environment (extrinsic) change as individuals age (intrinsic). We first conducted a field survey to examine the extent of natural variation in mate availability in a population of threespine sticklebacks. We then manipulated the sex ratio in the laboratory to determine the impact of variation in mate availability on sexual signaling, competition, and mating decisions that are made throughout life. Field surveys revealed within season heterogeneity in mate availability across breeding sites, providing evidence for the variation necessary for the evolution of plastic preferences. In our laboratory study, males from both female-biased and male-biased treatments invested most in sexual signaling late in life, although they competed most early in life. Females became more responsive to courtship over time, and those experiencing female-biased, but not male-biased sex ratios, relaxed their mating decisions late in life. Our results suggest that social experience and age interact to affect sexual signaling and female mating decisions. Flexible behavior could mediate the potentially negative effects of environmental change on population viability, allowing reproductive success even when preferred mates are rare.

  4. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nudes whose facial characteristics were computer-modified to resemble either the participant or another participant, or were not modified, while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by noise probes. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant, and reduced startle magnitude compared with neutral pictures. In the control group, startle magnitude was smaller during foreground presentation of photographs of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to self-resembling mates. In the stress group, startle magnitude was larger during foreground presentation of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to dissimilar mates. Our findings show that stress affects human mating preferences: unstressed individuals showed the expected preference for similar mates, but stressed individuals seem to prefer dissimilar mates. PMID:20219732

  5. Female mate fidelity in a Lek mating system and its implications for the evolution of cooperative lekking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, E H

    2013-02-01

    The extent and importance of female mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems are poorly known. Fidelity may contribute to high variance in male reproductive success when it favors attractive mates or may stabilize social interactions if females are faithful to mating sites rather than males. Using 12 years of data on genetic mate choice in the cooperatively lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), I investigated the frequency of fidelity within and between years, whether females were faithful to individual males or to mating sites across years, and whether fidelity favored attractive males. Mate fidelity occurred in 41.7% of 120 between-year comparisons and was observed for 41.1% of 73 individual females that had the opportunity to mate faithfully. Females were not more likely to mate at prior mating sites when previous mates were replaced. Faithful females mated with the same male in up to four consecutive years but were not disproportionately faithful to attractive partners. Mating history influences current mate choice, and fidelity in this lekking system apparently represents active mate choice by females but little is not cited in the text. Please provide a citation or mark this reference for deletion.consensus in mate choices among faithful females. This study underscores the prevalence of mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems and emphasizes the need to consider the larger context of lifetime reproductive behavior when interpreting patterns of female choice.

  6. Hybrid female mate choice as a species isolating mechanism: environment matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E M; Pfennig, K S

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental goal of biology is to understand how new species arise and are maintained. Female mate choice is potentially critical to the speciation process: mate choice can prevent hybridization and thereby generate reproductive isolation between potentially interbreeding groups. Yet, in systems where hybridization occurs, mate choice by hybrid females might also play a key role in reproductive isolation by affecting hybrid fitness and contributing to patterns of gene flow between species. We evaluated whether hybrid mate choice behaviour could serve as such an isolating mechanism using spadefoot toad hybrids of Spea multiplicata and Spea bombifrons. We assessed the mate preferences of female hybrid spadefoot toads for sterile hybrid males vs. pure-species males in two alternative habitat types in which spadefoots breed: deep or shallow water. We found that, in deep water, hybrid females preferred the calls of sterile hybrid males to those of S. multiplicata males. Thus, maladaptive hybrid mate preferences could serve as an isolating mechanism. However, in shallow water, the preference for hybrid male calls was not expressed. Moreover, hybrid females did not prefer hybrid calls to those of S. bombifrons in either environment. Because hybrid female mate choice was context-dependent, its efficacy as a reproductive isolating mechanism will depend on both the environment in which females choose their mates as well as the relative frequencies of males in a given population. Thus, reproductive isolation between species, as well as habitat specific patterns of gene flow between species, might depend critically on the nature of hybrid mate preferences and the way in which they vary across environments.

  7. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  8. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2016-11-17

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes.

  9. Representation of spectra of algebras of block-symmetric analytic functions of bounded type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravtsiv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of symmetric convolution of the algebra of block-symmetric analytic functions of bounded type on $\\ell_{1}$-sum of the space $\\mathbb{C}^{2}.$ We show that the specrum of such algebra does not coincide of point evaluation functionals and described characters of the algebra as functions of exponential type with plane zeros.

  10. Retention of Ejaculate by Drosophila melanogaster Females Requires the Male-Derived Mating Plug Protein PEBme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Frank W; Cohen, Allie B; Ameerudeen, Fatima S; Duneau, David; Suresh, Shruthi; Mattei, Alexandra L; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-08-01

    Within the mated reproductive tracts of females of many taxa, seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) coagulate into a structure known as the mating plug (MP). MPs have diverse roles, including preventing female remating, altering female receptivity postmating, and being necessary for mated females to successfully store sperm. The Drosophila melanogaster MP, which is maintained in the mated female for several hours postmating, is comprised of a posterior MP (PMP) that forms quickly after mating begins and an anterior MP (AMP) that forms later. The PMP is composed of seminal proteins from the ejaculatory bulb (EB) of the male reproductive tract. To examine the role of the PMP protein PEBme in D. melanogaster reproduction, we identified an EB GAL4 driver and used it to target PEBme for RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown. PEBme knockdown in males compromised PMP coagulation in their mates and resulted in a significant reduction in female fertility, adversely affecting postmating uterine conformation, sperm storage, mating refractoriness, egg laying, and progeny generation. These defects resulted from the inability of females to retain the ejaculate in their reproductive tracts after mating. The uncoagulated MP impaired uncoupling by the knockdown male, and when he ultimately uncoupled, the ejaculate was often pulled out of the female. Thus, PEBme and MP coagulation are required for optimal fertility in D. melanogaster. Given the importance of the PMP for fertility, we identified additional MP proteins by mass spectrometry and found fertility functions for two of them. Our results highlight the importance of the MP and the proteins that comprise it in reproduction and suggest that in Drosophila the PMP is required to retain the ejaculate within the female reproductive tract, ensuring the storage of sperm by mated females. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Beta-cell function and mass in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Marianne O

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the work described here was to improve our understanding of beta-cell function (BCF) and beta-cell mass (BCM) and their relationship in vivo using the minipig as a model for some of the aspects of human type 2 diabetes (T2DM). More specifically, the aim was to evaluate the following questions: How is BCF, especially high frequency pulsatile insulin secretion, affected by a primary reduction in BCM or by primary obesity or a combination of the two in the minipig? Can evaluation of BCF in vivo be used as a surrogate measure to predict BCM in minipigs over a range of BCM and body weight? We first developed a minipig model of reduced BCM and mild diabetes using administration of a combination of streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide (NIA) as a tool to study effects of a primary reduction of BCM on BCF. The model was characterized using a mixed-meal oral glucose tolerance test and intravenous stimulation with glucose and arginine as well as by histology of the pancreas after euthanasia. It was shown that stable, moderate diabetes can be induced and that the model is characterized by fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, reduced insulin secretion and reduced BCM. Several defects in insulin secretion are well documented in human T2DM; however, the role in the pathogenesis and the possible clinical relevance of high frequency (rapid) pulsatile insulin secretion is still debated. We therefore investigated this phenomenon in normal minipigs and found easily detectable pulses in peripheral vein plasma samples that were shown to be correlated with pulses found in portal vein plasma. Furthermore, the rapid kinetics of insulin in the minipig strongly facilitates pulse detection. These characteristics make the minipig particularly suitable for studying the occurrence of disturbed pulsatility in relation to T2DM. Disturbances of rapid pulsatile insulin secretion have been reported to be a very early event in the development of T2DM and include disorderliness of pulses

  12. Inulin-Type Fructans: Functional Food Ingredients1,2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcel B Roberfroid

    2007-01-01

    .... The term inulin-type fructans covers all β(2 [arrow left] 1 ) linear fructans including native inulin (DP 2-60, DP^sub av^ = 12), oligofructose (DP 2-8, DP^sub av^ = 4), and inulin HP (DP 10-60, DP^sub av^ = 25...

  13. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior.

  14. Mate choice among yeast gametes can purge deleterious mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzyman, S J; Seymour, R M; Pomiankowski, A; Greig, D

    2012-08-01

    Meiosis in Saccharomyces yeast produces four haploid gametes that usually fuse with each other, an extreme form of self-fertilization among the products of a single meiosis known as automixis. The gametes signal to each other with sex pheromone. Better-quality gametes produce stronger signals and are preferred as mates. We suggest that the function of this signalling system is to enable mate choice among the four gametes from a single meiosis and so to promote the clearance of deleterious mutations. To support this claim, we construct a mathematical model that shows that signalling during automixis (i) improves the long-term fitness of a yeast colony and (ii) lowers its mutational load. We also show that the benefit to signalling is greater with larger numbers of segregating mutations.

  15. Some Perturbed Ostrowski Type Inequalities for Functions Whose First Derivatives Are of Bounded Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin Budak; Mehmet Zeki Sarikaya

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to establish some new perturbed Ostrowski type integral inequalities for functions whose first derivatives are of bounded variation. Some perturbed Ostrowski type inequalities for Lipschitzian and monotonic mappings are also obtained.

  16. Molecular determinants of angiotensin II type 1 receptor functional selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aplin, Mark; Bonde, Marie Mi; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2008-01-01

    -independent recruitment of beta-arrestin-scaffolded signalling complexes that activate protein kinase pathways. Different states of receptor activation with preference for individual downstream pathways (functional selectivity) have been demonstrated in mutational studies of the AT(1) receptor and by pharmacological...... that selective blockade of G protein actions and simultaneous activation of G protein-independent signalling will prove to be a feasible strategy for improved cardiovascular therapy. The pharmacological perspectives of functional selectivity by receptors, such as the AT(1) receptor, urge the elucidation...

  17. HOW MATE AVAILABILITY INFLUENCES FILIAL CANNIBALISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deal, Nicholas D S; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-01-01

    .... To explain this, we hypothesize that sexual selection against filial cannibalism and/or the tendency to acquire larger broods under conditions of high mate availability discourages filial cannibalism...

  18. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  19. Generating Functions for q-Apostol Type Frobenius–Euler Numbers and Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Simsek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to construct generating functions, related to nonnegative real parameters, for q-Eulerian type polynomials and numbers (or q-Apostol type Frobenius–Euler polynomials and numbers. We derive some identities for these polynomials and numbers based on the generating functions and functional equations. We also give multiplication formula for the generalized Apostol type Frobenius–Euler polynomials.

  20. Attenuated purinergic receptor function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaning, Pia; Bune, Laurids T.; Hellsten, Ylva

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Extra cellular nucleotides and nucleosides are involved in regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow. Diabetes induces cardiovascular dysregulation but the extent to which the vasodilatatory capacity of nucleotides and nucleosides are affected in type 2 diabetes is unknown. The present......) was measured during intrafemoral artery infusion of ATP, UTP, and ADO eliciting a blood flow equal to knee-extensor exercise at 12 watts ( approximately 2.6 L/min). Results: The vasodilatatory effect of the purinergic system was 50 % lower in the diabetic group as exemplified by a LBF increase by 274+/-37 vs......-DM (1.5). The distribution and mRNA-expression of receptors were similar in the two groups. Conclusions: The vasodilatatory effect of the purinergic system is severely reduced in type 2 diabetic patients. The potency of nucleotides varies with the following rank order: UTP>ATP>>>ADO. This is not due...

  1. Fuzzy stability of a mixed type functional equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we investigate a fuzzy version of stability for the functional equation f ( x + y + z - f ( x + y - f ( y + z - f ( x + z + f ( x + f ( y + f ( z = 0 in the sense of Mirmostafaee and Moslehian. 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 46S40; Secondary 39B52.

  2. Adolescent type 1 diabetes eating and gastrointestinal function

    OpenAIRE

    Lodefalk, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are given nutritional education, but the knowledge about their adherence to the food recommendations and associations between dietary intake and metabolic control is poor. Gastrointestinal symptoms are more prevalent in adults with T1DM than in healthy controls, which may be due to disturbed gastrointestinal motility. The meal content affects the gastric emptying rate and the postprandial glycaemia in healthy adults and adults with typ...

  3. Structural and functional salivary disorders in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Carmen; Mosquera-Lloreda, Nezly; Salom, Lucas; Gomez de Ferraris, Maria Elsa; Peydró, Amando

    2006-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common metabolic disorder and it causes an important morbimortality. The structural modifications in the parotid gland (sialosis) had already been described in these patients and could result in variations in the salivary composition, as well as an increase in periodontal and dental pathology. To compare the biochemical findings in the saliva and to correlate these biochemical disturbances with the morphologic findings previously described. Clinical information were gathered about 33 patients, 17 had type 2 diabetes. Samples of whole saliva were obtained for biochemical analysis and serum samples to determine metabolic control. In the diabetics saliva we found urea and total proteins increased and reduced levels of microalbumina. Salivary glucose was only augmented in patients with poor metabolic control. Clinical symptoms of xerostomia were present in 76,4% and dental and periodontal disease in 100%. The parotid gland was characterised by the presence of small acini, lipid intracytoplasmic droplets, as well as adipose stroma infiltration. The acinar cytoqueratins expression was heterogeneous and very positive in the hyperplasic ducts. These biochemical disorders in the saliva of the type 2 diabetic patients would be related with the structural changes previously observed in parotid glands.

  4. DIRECT EXPANSIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AND DENSITY FUNCTIONS OF x2-TYPE AND t-TYPE DISTRIBUTED RANDOM VARIABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGZUKANG

    1996-01-01

    Suppose that Z1,Z2…,Zn are independent normal random variables with common mean μ and variance σ2. Then S2=∑n n=1 (zi-z)2/σ2 and T =(n-1的平方根)-Z/(S2/n的平方根) have x2n-1 distribution and tn-1 distribution respectively. If the normal assumption fails, there will be the remainders of the distribution functions and density functions. This paper gives the direct expansions of distribution functions and density functions of S2 and T up to o(n-1). They are more intuitive and convenient than usual Edgeworth expansions.

  5. Associations between body morphology, mating success and mate preferences among Slovak males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Fedor, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Human body morphology is thought to be correlated with sexual behaviour and sociosexuality (defined as an increased willingness to engage in sex without commitment) influences the perception of certain cues of physical attractiveness. Based on a sample of Slovak university students, we investigated relationships between 1) male and female mating success and reported body morphology (body mass index, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and 2) mate preference characteristics and mating success. Both males and females reported a similar number of long-term sexual partners and frequency of engaging in extra-pair copulation (EPC). The mating success of both sexes was positively mediated by self-perceived attractiveness. However, female BMI was inversely associated with mating success whereas increasing BMI was positively associated with male mating success (the total number of lifetime sexual partners) as well as with the likelihood of engaging in EPC. Unrestricted sociosexuality positively correlated with direct and indirect benefits from mating and negatively with the religious/political background of a potential mate and with the desire for a home/ children. These results confirm the hypothesis that human body morphology is associated with sexual behaviour and that cues of direct/indirect benefits in a potential mate positively correlate with sociosexuality.

  6. Mating scars reveal mate size in immature female blue shark Prionace glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calich, H J; Campana, S E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the size and maturity status of the male blue sharks Prionace glauca attempting to mate with small, immature females in the north-west Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between male curved fork length (LFC ) and jaw gape was used in conjunction with the diameter of the mating scar to estimate the LFC and infer the maturity status of the male shark that produced the mating scar. The results indicate that mature males with a mean ± s.d. LFC of 218 cm ± 23 cm were attempting to mate with sexually immature females. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  8. PDF-1 neuropeptide signaling modulates a neural circuit for mate-searching behavior in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Arantza; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Fang, Chunhui; Emmons, Scott W; Barr, Maureen M

    2012-12-01

    Appetitive behaviors require complex decision making that involves the integration of environmental stimuli and physiological needs. C. elegans mate searching is a male-specific exploratory behavior regulated by two competing needs: food and reproductive appetite. We found that the pigment dispersing factor receptor (PDFR-1) modulates the circuit that encodes the male reproductive drive that promotes male exploration following mate deprivation. PDFR-1 and its ligand, PDF-1, stimulated mate searching in the male, but not in the hermaphrodite. pdf-1 was required in the gender-shared interneuron AIM, and the receptor acted in internal and external environment-sensing neurons of the shared nervous system (URY, PQR and PHA) to produce mate-searching behavior. Thus, the pdf-1 and pdfr-1 pathway functions in non-sex-specific neurons to produce a male-specific, goal-oriented exploratory behavior. Our results indicate that secretin neuropeptidergic signaling is involved in regulating motivational internal states.

  9. Boosting beauty in an economic decline: mating, spending, and the lipstick effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Rodeheffer, Christopher D; Griskevicius, Vladas; Durante, Kristina; White, Andrew Edward

    2012-08-01

    Although consumer spending typically declines in economic recessions, some observers have noted that recessions appear to increase women's spending on beauty products--the so-called lipstick effect. Using both historical spending data and rigorous experiments, the authors examine how and why economic recessions influence women's consumer behavior. Findings revealed that recessionary cues--whether naturally occurring or experimentally primed--decreased desire for most products (e.g., electronics, household items). However, these cues consistently increased women's desire for products that increase attractiveness to mates--the first experimental demonstration of the lipstick effect. Additional studies show that this effect is driven by women's desire to attract mates with resources and depends on the perceived mate attraction function served by these products. In addition to showing how and why economic recessions influence women's desire for beauty products, this research provides novel insights into women's mating psychology, consumer behavior, and the relationship between the two.

  10. Function Interface Models for Hardware Compilation: Types, Signatures, Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ghica, Dan R

    2009-01-01

    The problem of synthesis of gate-level descriptions of digital circuits from behavioural specifications written in higher-level programming languages (hardware compilation) has been studied for a long time yet a definitive solution has not been forthcoming. The argument of this essay is mainly methodological, bringing a perspective that is informed by recent developments in programming-language theory. We argue that one of the major obstacles in the way of hardware compilation becoming a useful and mature technology is the lack of a well defined function interface model, i.e. a canonical way in which functions communicate with arguments. We discuss the consequences of this problem and propose a solution based on new developments in programming language theory. We conclude by presenting a prototype implementation and some examples illustrating our principles.

  11. Amos-type bounds for modified Bessel function ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina

    2013-12-01

    We systematically investigate lower and upper bounds for the modified Bessel function ratio [Formula: see text] by functions of the form [Formula: see text] in case [Formula: see text] is positive for all [Formula: see text], or equivalently, where [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] is a negative integer. For [Formula: see text], we give an explicit description of the set of lower bounds and show that it has a greatest element. We also characterize the set of upper bounds and its minimal elements. If [Formula: see text], the minimal elements are tangent to [Formula: see text] in exactly one point [Formula: see text], and have [Formula: see text] as their lower envelope. We also provide a new family of explicitly computable upper bounds. Finally, if [Formula: see text] is a negative integer, we explicitly describe the sets of lower and upper bounds, and give their greatest and least elements, respectively.

  12. Mitochondrial cereblon functions as a Lon-type protease

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuke Kataoka; China Nakamura; Toru Asahi; Naoya Sawamura

    2016-01-01

    Lon protease plays a major role in the protein quality control system in mammalian cell mitochondria. It is present in the mitochondrial matrix, and degrades oxidized and misfolded proteins, thereby protecting the cell from various extracellular stresses, including oxidative stress. The intellectual disability-associated and thalidomide-binding protein cereblon (CRBN) contains a large, highly conserved Lon domain. However, whether CRBN has Lon protease-like function remains unknown. Here, we ...

  13. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  14. A Role of DLPFC in the Learning Process of Human Mate Copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ying eZhuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we conducted a behavioral experiment to test the mate coping effect and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment to test the neural basis involved in the social learning process of mate copying. In the behavioral experiment, participants were asked to rate the attractiveness of isolated opposite-sex (potential mates facial photographs, then shown the targets associating with a neutral-faced model with textual cues indicating the models’ attitude (interested vs. not-interested towards the potential mates, and then asked to re-evaluate the potential mates’ attractiveness. Using a similar procedure as the behavioral experiment, participants were scanned while observing the compound images in the fMRI experiment. The mate copying effect was confirmed in the behavioral experiment –greater increase in attractiveness ratings was observed for opposite-sex photographs in the interested than in the not-interested condition. The fMRI results showed that the dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus (DLPFC was significantly active in the comparison of interested  not-interested condition, suggesting that a cognitive integration and selection function may be involved when participants process information from conditions related to mate copying.

  15. Weak type estimates of intrinsic square functions on the weighted Hardy spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, by using the atomic decomposition theory of weighted Hardy spaces, we will give some weighted weak type estimates for intrinsic square functions including the Lusin area function, Littlewood-Paley $g$-function and $g^*_\\lambda$-function on these spaces.

  16. Mating-related behaviour of grizzly bears inhabiting marginal habitat at the periphery of their North American range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E

    2015-02-01

    In comparison to core populations, peripheral populations have low density and recruitment, and are subject to different selective pressures, such as environmental conditions, food type and availability, predation, disease, etc., which may result in behavioural modifications to mating. We test the roam-to-mate hypothesis for a peripheral population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) at the northern extent of their North American range, in Canada's Arctic. If bears are roaming-to-mate, we predicted greater range size and daily displacement, and more linear movements for receptive animals during the mating period compared to post-mating. In contrast to our predictions, we found that in general range size and displacement increased from mating to post-mating regardless of reproductive status. When considered across both periods, females with cubs-of-the-year had smaller range use metrics than other reproductive groups, which we attribute to a counter-strategy against sexually selected infanticide and the reduced mobility of cubs. Linearity of movements remained near zero during both periods across all groups, suggesting tortuous movements more characteristic of foraging than of mate-searching. We suggest that for this population, finding quality habitat takes precedence over mate-searching in this marginal Arctic landscape. Alternatively, a more monogamous mating system and sequestering behaviour may have obscured movement differences between the two periods. The behavioural differences in mating that we observed from what is typical of core populations may reflect local adaptation to marginal conditions and could benefit the species in the face of ongoing environmental change.

  17. PROBLEMS OF TEAM FUNCTIONING AS SPECIAL TYPE OF SOCIAL GROUP

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. VASILYEV

    2016-01-01

    In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article...

  18. Computing mating bull fertility from DHI nonreturn data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J S; McDaniel, B T

    2001-05-01

    Animal model methodology was used to compute yearly measures of relative fertility of Holstein AI mating bulls based upon 70-d nonreturn of first breedings as reported to U.S. DHIA from 1988 through 1997. Estimated Relative Conception Rates (ERCR) were computed for bulls with a minimum of 50 first breedings in a single year using variance ratios 45.5 for mating bull, 45.5 for animal genetic effects, and 31 for permanent environment. The model assumed repeatability across lactations of 0.05 and included fixed effects of herd-year-month bred and classes of parity, early lactation energy-corrected milk and days open when bred. Estimates of fertility were greater for breedings to cows that were young, had low early lactation production, and were in late stages of lactation. ERCR were expressed as difference in nonreturn from the average AI mating bull of herdmates. Values ranged from -18 to +13. For ERCR computed from a minimum of 1000 breedings, 90% were within four units of zero. Early ERCR computed from a few breedings in a single year were tested for ability to predict later ERCR computed from a minimum of 1000 different breedings. Early ERCR computed from 300 or more matings accurately predicted later independent ERCR. For yearly estimates each based upon a minimum of 1000 breedings, 8% changed more than three units, and 4% declined more than three units. Correlations between ERCR and predicted transmitting abilities protein and type production index were significant but accounted for little variance. Correlations between ERCR and other traits were not significant.

  19. Immune Function of Vitamin D in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a well-known fat-soluble vitamin which is essential in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D deficiency causes skeletal disorders, including rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. However, recent studies revealing the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D have opened up a new understanding and possibility in this field. It has been proved that vitamin D is related to a variety of autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, being generally accepted as autoimmune mediated, is also proposed to be associated with the vitamin D status of the human body. Here, we reviewed briefly the epidemiological correlation between the vitamin D status and prevalence of T1DM, the possible mechanisms underlying this correlation, and clinical trials focusing on the therapeutic prospects of vitamin D in the treatment of T1DM.

  20. Genes affecting β-cell function in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløyel, Tina; Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial disease resulting from an immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Several environmental and genetic risk factors predispose to the disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified around 50 genetic regions...... that affect the risk of developing T1D, but the disease-causing variants and genes are still largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes with focus on the β cell. At least 40 % of the genes in the T1D susceptibility loci are expressed in human...... islets and β cells, where they according to recent studies modulate the β-cell response to the immune system. As most of the risk variants map to noncoding regions of the genome, i.e., promoters, enhancers, intergenic regions, and noncoding genes, their possible involvement in T1D pathogenesis as gene...

  1. Herkogamy and its effects on mating patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghai Luo

    Full Text Available The evolution of mating systems, which exhibit an extraordinary diversity in flowering plants, is of central interest in plant biology. Herkogamy, the spatial separation of sexual organs within flowers, is a widespread floral mechanism that is thought to be an adaptive trait reducing self-pollination in hermaphroditic plants. In contrast with previous studies of herkogamy that focused on plants with relatively large floral displays, we here characterized herkogamy in Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant with a strong selfing syndrome. Developmental features, reproductive consequences, and genetic architecture of herkogamy were exploited using naturally variable A. thaliana accessions, under both greenhouse and natural conditions. Our results demonstrate that the degree of herkogamy can strongly influence the mating patterns of A. thaliana: approach herkogamy can effectively promote outcrossing, no herkogamy is also capable of enhancing the opportunity for outcrossing, and reverse herkogamy facilitates efficient self-pollination. In addition, we found that the expression of herkogamy in A. thaliana was environment-dependent and regulated by multiple quantitative trait loci. This study reveals how minor modifications in floral morphology may cause dramatic changes in plant mating patterns, provides new insights into the function of herkogamy, and suggests the way for dissecting the genetic basis of this important character in a model plant.

  2. APPROXIMATION OF CONVEX TYPE FUNCTION BY PARTIAL SUMS OF FOURIER SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuGuohua

    2004-01-01

    The concept of convex type function is introduced in this paper,from which a kind of convex-decomposition approach is proposed. As one of applications of this approach, the approximation of the convex type function by the partial sum of its Fourier series is investigated. Moreover,the order of approximation is described with the 2th continuous modulus.

  3. Tubular markers are associated with decline in kidney function in proteinuric type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine; Reinhard, Henrik; Zdunek, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate u-NGAL, u-KIM1 and p-FGF23 and prediction of decline in kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria.......Our aim was to investigate u-NGAL, u-KIM1 and p-FGF23 and prediction of decline in kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria....

  4. Retinal function in relation to improved glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, S K; Nørgaard, K; Jackson, George

    2011-01-01

    To study long-term changes in retinal function in response to sustained glycaemia reduction in participants with type 1 diabetes.......To study long-term changes in retinal function in response to sustained glycaemia reduction in participants with type 1 diabetes....

  5. Variable mating behaviors and tropical biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Cannon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current theoretical studies on mechanisms promoting species co-existence in diverse communities assume that species are fixed in their mating behavior. Each species is a discrete evolutionary unit, even though most empirical evidence indicates that inter-specific gene flow occurs in plant and animal groups. Here, in a data-driven meta-community model of species co-existence, we allow mating behavior to respond to local species composition and abundance. While individuals primarily out-cross, species maintain a diminished capacity for selfing and hybridization. Mate choice is treated as a variable behavior, which responds to intrinsic traits determining mate choice and the density and availability of sympatric inter-fertile individuals. When mate choice is strongly limited, even low survivorship of selfed offspring can prevent extinction of rare species. With increasing mate choice, low hybridization success rates maintain community level diversity for extended periods of time. In high diversity tropical tree communities, competition among sympatric congeneric species is negligible, because direct spatial proximity with close relatives is infrequent. Therefore, the genomic donorship presents little cost. By incorporating variable mating behavior into evolutionary models of diversification, we also discuss how participation in a syngameon may be selectively advantageous. We view this behavior as a genomic mutualism, where maintenance of genomic structure and diminished inter-fertility, allows each species in the syngameon to benefit from a greater effective population size during episodes of selective disadvantage. Rare species would play a particularly important role in these syngameons as they are more likely to produce heterospecific crosses and transgressive phenotypes. We propose that inter-specific gene flow can play a critical role by allowing genomic mutualists to avoid extinction and gain local adaptations.

  6. Cognitive functions in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients and unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan-Bakar, Emel; Cinbiş, Mine; Ozyürek, Hamit; Kiriş, Nurcihan; Altunbaşak, Sakir; Anlar, Banu

    2009-01-01

    Attention, learning, and perceptual problems have been reported at various degrees and rates in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We aimed to define the cognitive profiles frequently associated with NF1. Children and adolescents with NF1 (n=58) were tested using Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Judgment of Line Orientation, and Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt tests. Comparison groups were unaffected siblings of NF1 patients (n=20), children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n=40), and normal children (n=40). No difference was found between familial or sporadic NF1 cases. Seventeen/58 (29%) of NF1 cases had a full scale IQ80 (n=27) scored lower in WISC-R subtests measuring visual perception when compared to a healthy control group of similar intelligence, and lower in arithmetic but better in Bender-Gestalt and Judgment of Line Orientation tests when compared to an ADHD group of similar intelligence. These results indicate a high prevalence of mental retardation in a clinical NF1 series. NF1 patients who have normal intelligence may have impaired visual perception, but their visual perceptual problems are less than in ADHD. The tendency of unaffected siblings of NF1 patients to have mildly but consistently low test scores compared to healthy controls needs to be studied further for underlying genetic or environmental factors.

  7. Variation in human mate choice: Simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Heath, A.C.; Martin, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Human mate choice is central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we looked at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents (N > 20,000 individuals) to test for genetic and famil

  8. Pancreatic Function, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolism in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Gong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Of the reported 25.8 million Americans estimated to have diabetes, 26.9% are over the age of 65. In certain ethnic groups, the proportion is even higher; almost 1 in 3 older Hispanics and African Americans and 3 out of 4 Pima Indian elders have diabetes. As per the NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey, the percentage of physician-diagnosed diabetes increased from 3.9% in middle-aged adults (40–49 years to 13.2% in elderly adults (≥75 years. The higher incidence of diabetes is especially alarming considering that diabetes in itself increases the risk for multiple other age-related diseases such as cancer, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In this review, we summarize the current evidence on how aging affects pancreatic β cell function, β cell mass, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. We also review the effects of aging on the relationship between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to impaired glucose homeostasis and T2D in the elderly will lead to development of novel treatments that will prevent or delay diabetes, substantially improve quality of life and ultimately increase overall life span.

  9. Damage Pattern as a Function of Various Types of Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of reports on the effects of various types of radiation is gradually increasing because of weakening of the immune system. Radiation can penetrate into living cells and result in the transfer of radiation energy to the biological material. The absorbed energy can increase the reactive oxygen species and break chemical bonds and cause ionization of different biologically essential macromolecules, such as DNA membrane lipids and proteins. Damage to the cellular membrane release the hydrolytic enzymes responsible for various catabolic processes in the tissues and leads to cell death. An understanding of the pattern in critical cellular structures such as DNA is an important prerequisite for a mechanistic assessment of primary radiation injury. The DNA damage induced by radiation such as base alterations, cross linking, strands breaker chromosomal aberration which may in turn lead to mutations. In order to further explore the harmful effects of radiation. I have produced a variety of effects of radiation on the apoptosis and necrosis. Indeed, the present review has shown that the increase in the oxidative stress (increased endogenous production of the free radicals due to radiation may be a reason for such a damage of the cell membrane, and may lead to harming the cellular elements (such as DNA. Here, one can hypothesize that, the cells with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress may be more susceptible to damage by radiation compared to normal cells. The ultimate biological consequences of this effect are subsequently processed by these cells. Much work remains to be done to firmly establish this concept.

  10. 77 FR 76426 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... organizations that are not functionally integrated. The withdrawal affects Type III supporting organizations... ``Type III Supporting Organizations''). Those regulations reflect changes to the law made by the Pension... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG 155929-06] RIN 1545-BL44 Payout Requirements for Type III...

  11. Baker-Akhiezer function as iterated residue and Selberg-type integral

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    A simple integral formula as an iterated residue is presented for the Baker-Akhiezer function related to $A_n$ type root system both in the rational and trigonometric cases. We present also a formula for the Baker-Akhiezer function as a Selberg-type integral and generalise it to the deformed $A_{n,1}$-case. These formulas can be interpreted as new cases of explicit evaluation of Selberg-type integrals.

  12. Sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Satoh, Ryohei; Hata, Yuka; Yamasaki, Marika; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Okamoto, Yasuharu; Miyamoto, Takenori; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2016-01-04

    Vocalisation in songbirds and parrots has become a prominent model system for speech and language in humans. We investigated possible sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in the budgerigar, a vocally-learning parrot. Males and females were paired for 5 weeks and then separated, after which we measured vocal responsiveness to playback calls (a call of their mate versus a call of an unfamiliar conspecific). Both sexes learned to recognise mate calls during the pairing period. In males, but not females, mate calls evoked significantly fewer vocal responses than unfamiliar calls at one month after separation. Furthermore, in females, there was significantly greater molecular neuronal activation in response to mate calls compared to silence in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), a higher-order auditory region, in both brain hemispheres. In males, we found right-sided dominance of molecular neuronal activation in response to mate calls in the CMM. This is the first evidence suggesting sex differences in functional asymmetry of brain regions related to recognition of learned vocalisation in birds. Thus, sex differences related to recognition of learned vocalisations may be found at the behavioural and neural levels in avian vocal learners as it is in humans.

  13. K-Dimension and H(o)lder Exponent for Bush Type Fractal Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongyong

    2006-01-01

    Bush type fractal functions were defined by means of the expression of Cantor series of real numbers. The upper and lower bound estimates for the K-dimension of such functions were given. In a typical case, the fractal dimensional relations in which the K-dimension equals the box dimension and packing dimension were presented; moreover, the exact H(o)lder exponent were obtained for such Bush type functions.

  14. Anomalous Type I Error Rates for Identifying One Type of Differential Item Functioning in the Presence of the Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, W. Holmes; French, Brian F.

    2008-01-01

    A number of statistical methods exist for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF). The performance of DIF methods has been widely studied and generally found to be effective in the detection of both uniform and nonuniform DIF. Anecdotal reports suggest that these techniques may too often incorrectly detect the presence of one type of…

  15. HOW MATE AVAILABILITY INFLUENCES FILIAL CANNIBALISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Nicholas D S; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-03-01

    Parents sometimes eat their young to reduce the consequences of brood overcrowding, for nutritional gain, and/or to redirect investment toward future reproduction. It has been predicted that filial cannibalism should be more prevalent when mate availability is high as parents can more easily replace consumed young. Reviewing the available evidence--which comes almost exclusively from studies of paternal caring fish--we find support in some species, but not others. To explain this, we hypothesize that sexual selection against filial cannibalism and/or the tendency to acquire larger broods under conditions of high mate availability discourages filial cannibalism. Additionally, filial cannibalism might occur when mate availability is low to facilitate survival until access to mates improves. Since attractiveness can also influence remating opportunities, we review its effect on filial cannibalism, finding that attractive parents engage in less filial cannibalism. More research is needed to determine if this relationship is a result of individuals showing adaptive plasticity in filial cannibalism based on self-perceived attractiveness, or if the attractiveness of individuals is reduced by their propensity to commit filial cannibalism. More generally, to advance our understanding of how mate availability influences filial cannibalism, future studies should also focus on a wider range of taxa.

  16. Social Inclusion Facilitates Interest in Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a life history framework, variability across an organism's lifespan necessitates trade-offs between behaviors that promote survival and those that promote reproduction. Adopting this perspective, the current work investigates how social acceptance or rejection can influence the differential priority placed on mating and survival motivations. Because social acceptance is an important survival-related cue (i.e., group living provides protection from predators and sharing of resources, we predicted that recent experiences of social acceptance should increase people's motivation to mate. In support of this prediction, Study 1 found that participants who were included in an electronic ball-toss game showed more interest in mating (regardless of the potential mate's attractiveness than excluded and control participants. In Study 2, participants who recalled an experience of social acceptance viewed sexual affiliation as more important than did participants in rejection and control conditions. Collectively, these results suggest an adaptive trade-off such that interest in mating increases upon satiation of affiliative needs. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that the experience of social acceptance can have unique effects and should not be treated as the sole comparison condition when studying social rejection.

  17. Relationship of Adrenocortical Function and TCM Syndrome Typing in Elderly Patients with Severe Sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海云; 危成筠; 朱广卿; 许强; 张健; 王士雯

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between TCM Syndrome typing and adrenocortical function in elderly patients with severe sepsis, and to see whether TCM Syndrome Differentiation can provide clinical clues in identifying relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) in patients with severe sepsis. Methods: Six ty-one old patients with severe sepsis were classified into four types according to TCM Syndrome Differentiation: The severe invasion of toxic-heat type (Type SITH, n = 21 ); the Qi stagnation and blood stasis type ( Type QSBS, n = 11); the sudden depletion of Yang-Qi type ( Type SDYQ, n = 16); and the exhaustion of Qi-Yin type (Type EOQY, n = 13). The base-line level of plasma cortisol in patients of different types and their response to corticotropin stimulation were compared, which were also compared with those of 12 healthy elderly persons synchronously. Results: The base-line level of plasma cortisol was not significantly different between patients of different Syndrome types (P>0.05), but they were all sgnificantly higher than that in the healthy persons ( P<0.05). Compared with Type QSBS and Type EOQY, Type SITH and Type SDYQ showed less cortisol concentration increment after corticotropin stimulation ( P<0.05). RAI was more prevalent in patients of Type SITH and Type SDYQ than in patients of Type QSBS and Type EOQY (57% vs 25 %, P<0.01). Conclusion: In old patients with severe sepsis, different TCM Syndrome types are associated with different adrenocortical function status. TCM Syndrome differentiation can provide clinical clues in identifying old patients with severe sepsis who have also RAI.

  18. Mate sampling and choosiness in the sand goby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Kai; Lehtonen, Topi K

    2013-08-22

    To date, mate choice studies have mostly focused on establishing which mates are chosen or how the choices are performed. Here, we combined these two approaches by empirically testing how latency to mate is affected by various search costs, variation in mate quality and female quality in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Our results show that females adjust their mating behaviour according to the costs and benefits of the choice situation. Specifically, they mated sooner when access to males was delayed and when the presence of other females presented a mate sampling cost. We also found a positive link between size variation among potential mating partners and spawning delay in some (but not all) experimental conditions. By contrast, we did not find the number of available males or the females' own body size ('quality') to affect mating latency. Finally, female mating behaviour varied significantly between years. These findings are notable for demonstrating that (i) mate sampling time is particularly sensitive to costs and, to a lesser degree, to variation among mate candidates, (ii) females' mating behaviour is sensitive to qualitative rather than to quantitative variation in their environment, and (iii) a snapshot view may describe mate sampling behaviour unreliably.

  19. Rate of Convergence of Modified Baskakov-Durrmeyer Type Operators for Functions of Bounded Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantkumar Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a certain integral modification of well-known Baskakov operators with weight function of beta basis function. We establish rate of convergence for these operators for functions having derivative of bounded variation. Also, we discuss Stancu type generalization of these operators.

  20. Hermite-Hadamard and Simpson Type Inequalities for Differentiable P-GA-Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmdat İşcan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author introduces the concept of the P-GA-functions, gives Hermite-Hadamard's inequalities for P-GA-functions, and defines a new identity. By using this identity, the author obtains new estimates on generalization of Hadamard and Simpson type inequalities for P-GA-functions. Some applications to special means of real numbers are also given.

  1. Subharmonic functions of finite (γ,ε -type in a half-plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Malyutin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We obtain criterions for delta-subharmonic function to belong to the class of functions of finite (γ,ε -type in a half-plane. These criterions are formulated in terms of Fourier coefficients of a function.

  2. Patterns of Nonrandom Mating Within and Across 11 Major Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsletten, Ashley E.; Larsson, Henrik; Crowley, James J.; Almqvist, Catarina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Psychiatric disorders are heritable, polygenic traits, which often share risk alleles and for which nonrandom mating has been suggested. However, despite the potential etiological implications, the scale of nonrandom mating within and across major psychiatric conditions remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To quantify the nature and extent of nonrandom mating within and across a broad range of psychiatric conditions at the population level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Population-based cohort using Swedish population registers. Participants were all Swedish residents with a psychiatric diagnosis of interest (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia, or substance abuse), along with their mates. Individuals with select nonpsychiatric disorders (Crohn’s disease, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, or rheumatoid arthritis) were included for comparison. General population samples were also derived and matched 1:5 with each case proband. Inpatient and outpatient diagnostic data were derived from the Swedish National Patient Register (1973-2009), with analyses conducted between June 2014 and May 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Correlation in the diagnostic status of mates both within and across disorders. Conditional logistic regression was used to quantify the odds of each diagnosis in the mates of cases relative to matched population controls. RESULTS Across cohorts, data corresponded to 707 263 unique case individuals, with women constituting 45.7% of the full population. Positive correlations in diagnostic status were evident between mates. Within-disorder correlations were marginally higher (range, 0.11-0.48) than cross-disorder correlations (range, 0.01-0.42). Relative to matched populations, the odds of psychiatric case probands having an affected mate were

  3. Female guppies agree to differ: phenotypic and genetic variation in mate-choice behavior and the consequences for sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R; Endler, J A

    2001-08-01

    Variation among females in mate choice may influence evolution by sexual selection. The genetic basis of this variation is of interest because the elaboration of mating preferences requires additive genetic variation in these traits. Here we measure the repeatability and heritability of two components of female choosiness (responsiveness and discrimination) and of female preference functions for the multiple ornaments borne by male guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We show that there is significant repeatable variation in both components of choosiness and in some preference functions but not in others. There appear to be several male ornaments that females find uniformly attractive and others for which females differ in preference. One consequence is that there is no universally attractive male phenotype. Only responsiveness shows significant additive genetic variation. Variation in responsiveness appears to mask variation in discrimination and some preference functions and may be the most biologically relevant source of phenotypic and genetic variation in mate-choice behavior. To test the potential evolutionary importance of the phenotypic variation in mate choice that we report, we estimated the opportunity for and the intensity of sexual selection under models of mate choice that excluded and that incorporated individual female variation. We then compared these estimates with estimates based on measured mating success. Incorporating individual variation in mate choice generally did not predict the outcome of sexual selection any better than models that ignored such variation.

  4. A study of postgraduate students' endogamous preference in mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroja, K; Surendra, H S

    1991-01-01

    Researchers distributed questionnaires to 395 21-28 year old postgraduate students at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Dharwad and Karnataka University both in Dharwad, India, to determine their endogamous preferences in selecting a mate and to examine the relationship between these preferences and their sex, desired type of marriage, and discipline of postgraduate studies. 64.3% preferred limited mate selection within their caste. Specifically, 32.4% favored subcaste endogamy, 19.5% caste endogamy, and 12.4% kinship endogamy. 24.1% wanted to marry someone from another caste but someone of the same religion. 11.6% wished to marry someone of another religion. Female students were more likely to prefer caste endogamy than male students (76.0% vs. 53.5%; p .01): kinship endogamy (14.8% vs. 10.3%), subcaste endogamy (38.5% vs. 27.2%), and caste endogamy (23.6% vs. 16%) than male students. Male students were more likely to prefer a mate from either the same or different religion than female students (29.6% vs. 17.6% and 16.9% vs. 5.5%, respectively; p .01). Even though most students (58%) preferred arranged marriages, a considerable percentage (42%) preferred to marry for love. 41.6% of those who preferred love marriages wanted to marry someone from another caste compared with only 11.4% of those who preferred arranged marriage (p .01). Students who wanted to marry for love were 3 times more likely to want to marry someone from another religion than were those who preferred arranged marriage (18.6% vs. 6.5%; p .01). 45.4% of students who preferred arranged marriage wanted to choose their mate from the same subcaste compared with only 14.5% of those who wanted a love marriage (p .01). 41.2% of applied science students preferred to marry someone of the same religion compared with 21.7% for basic science students and 16.3% for humanities students (p .01). 50% of applied science students, 75.2% of basic science students, and 66.3% of humanities students preferred

  5. Interpolation Functions of q-Extensions of Apostol's Type Euler Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Hwang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present new q-extensions of Apostol's type Euler polynomials using the fermionic p-adic integral on ℤp. We define the q-λ-Euler polynomials and obtain the interpolation functions and the Hurwitz type zeta functions of these polynomials. We define q-extensions of Apostol type's Euler polynomials of higher order using the multivariate fermionic p-adic integral on ℤp. We have the interpolation functions of these q-λ-Euler polynomials. We also give (h,q-extensions of Apostol's type Euler polynomials of higher order and have the multiple Hurwitz type zeta functions of these (h,q-λ-Euler polynomials.

  6. The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Suzanne Hruska; Henriksen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image...... of its Julia set. Whether these approximations converge is answered using Thurston's topological characterization of rational maps. This algorithm was designed by John Hamal Hubbard, and implemented in 1998 by Christian Henriksen and REU students David Farris and Kuon Ju Liu. In this paper we describe...... the algorithm and its implementation, discuss some output from the program (including many pictures) and related questions. Specifically, we include images and a discussion for some shared matings, Lattès examples, and tuning sequences of matings....

  7. Not Only Single Mating in Stingless Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Robert J.; Weißschuh, Nicole; Engels, Wolf; Hartfelder, Klaus; Quezada-Euan, J. Javier G.

    Queens of the large, pantropical and fully eusocial taxon Meliponinae (stingless bees) are generally considered to be singly mated. We indirectly estimated queen mating frequency in two meliponids, Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona postica, by examining genotypes of workers at microsatellite DNA loci. Microsatellites were highly variable, providing suitable markers with which to assign patrilinial origin of workers within colonies headed by single queens. Queen mating frequency varied between 1 and 3 (M. beecheii) and 1 and 6 (S. postica), representing the first clear documentation of polyandry in the Meliponinae. Effective paternity frequency, me, was lower, although above 2 for S. postica. Stingless bees may provide suitable subjects for the testing of recent inclusive fitness arguments describing intracolony kin conflict in social Hymenoptera.

  8. Mixed type symmetric and self duality for multiobjective variational problems with support functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a pair of mixed type symmetric dual multiobjective variational problems containing support functions is formulated. This mixed formulation unifies two existing pairs Wolfe and Mond-Weir type symmetric dual multiobjective variational problems containing support functions. For this pair of mixed type nondifferentiable multiobjective variational problems, various duality theorems are established under convexity-concavity and pseudoconvexity-pseudoconcavity of certain combination of functionals appearing in the formulation. A self duality theorem under additional assumptions on the kernel functions that occur in the problems is validated. A pair of mixed type nondifferentiable multiobjective variational problem with natural boundary values is also formulated to investigate various duality theorems. It is also pointed that our duality theorems can be viewed as dynamic generalizations of the corresponding (static symmetric and self duality of multiobjective nonlinear programming with support functions.

  9. THEOREMS OF PEANO'S TYPE FOR BIVARIATE FUNCTIONS AND OPTIMAL RECOVERY OF LINEAR FUNCTIONALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.K. Dicheva

    2001-01-01

    The best recovery of a linear functional Lf , f =f (x,y), on thebasis of given linear functionals Ljf ,j=1,2, … ,N in a sense of Sard has been investigated, using analogy of Peano's theorem. The best recovery of a bivariate function by given scattered data has been obtained in a simple analytical form as a special case.CLC Number:O17 Document ID:AAuthor Resume:Natasha K. Dicheva ,e-mail: dichevan_fgs@uacg, acad. bg References:[1]Rudin,W. ,Principles of Mathematical Analysis,2ed. ,McGraw-Hill Book Co. ,New York,1964.[2]Rudin,W. ,Real and Complex Analysis,McGraw-Hill publishing Co. ,New York,1976.[3]Hewitt,E. and Stromberg,K. ,Real and Abstract Analysis,Springer-Verlag,New York,Berlin,1965.[4]Lusternik,L. and Sobolev,V. ,Elements of the Functional Analysis,Izd. Nauka,Moskva,1965 (in Russian).[5]Sard,A.,Integral Representation of Remainders Duke Math. J.,15(1948),333-345.[6]Sard,A. ,Linear Approximation,Amer. Math. Soc. ,Math. Surverys,9,1963.[7]Smolyak,S.A. ,On the optimal reconvery of Functions and Functionals of Them,Ph. D. Thesis,Moscow State University,1965.[8]Nielson,G.,Bivariate Spline Functions and the Approximation of Linear Functionals,Numer.Math.,21(1973),138-160.[9]Mansfield,L.E. ,Optimal Approximations and Error Bounds in Spaces of Bivariate Functions,J. Approx. Theory 5(1972),77-96.[10]Mansfield,L.E. ,On the Optimal Approximation of Linear Functionals in Spaces of Bivariate Functions,SIAM J. Numer. Anal ,8(1971),115-126.[11]Ritter,D. ,Two Dimensional Spline Functions and best Approximation of Linear Functionals,J. Approx. Theory,3(1970),352-368.[12]Laurent,P.J. ,Approximation et optimisation,Hermann,Paris,1972.[13]Bojanov,B. ,Hakopian,H.A. and Sahakian,A.A. ,Spline Functions and Multivariate Interpolations,Kluwer Academic Publishers,Dordrecht,1993.[14]Dicheve,N.K.,On the best Recovery of Linear Functional and its Applications,Boundary Elements XXI,eds. C.A. Brebbia and H. Power,WIT Press,Southampton,Boston,(1999),739-747.Manuscript Received

  10. An extension of the compression-expansion fixed point theorem of functional type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. Avery

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use an interval of functional type as the underlying set in our compression-expansion fixed point theorem argument which can be used to exploit properties of the operator to improve conditions that will guarantee the existence of a fixed point in applications. An example is provided to demonstrate how intervals of functional type can improve conditions in applications to boundary value problems. We also show how one can use suitable $k$-contractive conditions to prove that a fixed point in a functional-type interval is unique.

  11. Adjustable under-expression of yeast mating pathway proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a programmed ribosomal frameshift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Yeon; Park, Sang-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Experimental research in molecular biology frequently relies on the promotion or suppression of gene expression, an important tool in the study of its functions. Although yeast is among the most studied model systems with the ease of maintenance and manipulation, current experimental methods are mostly limited to gene deletion, suppression or overexpression of genes. Therefore, the ability to reduce protein expressions and then observing the effects would promote a better understanding of the exact functions and their interactions. Reducing protein expression is mainly limited by the difficulties associated with controlling the reduction level, and in some cases, the initial endogenous abundance is too low. For the under-expression to be useful as an experimental tool, repeatability and stability of reduced expression is important. We found that cis-elements in programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1RFS) of beet western yellow virus (BWYV) could be utilized to reduced protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The two main advantages of using -1RFS are adjustable reduction rates and ease of use. To demonstrate the utility of this under-expression system, examples of reduced protein abundance were shown using yeast mating pathway components. The abundance of MAP kinase Fus3 was reduced to approximately 28-75 % of the wild-type value. Other MAP kinase mating pathway components, including Ste5, Ste11, and Ste7, were also under-expressed to verify that the -1RFS system works with different proteins. Furthermore, reduced Fus3 abundance altered the overall signal transduction outcome of the mating pathway, demonstrating the potential for further studies of signal transduction adjustment via under-expression.

  12. [Mating success and courtship ritual in strains of Drosophila melanogaster carrying mutation flamenco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, L G; Romanova, N I; Subocheva, E A; Kim, A I

    2000-04-01

    Mating success was examined in groups of Drosophila melanogaster carrying mutation flamMS (SS, MSn1-2, and MSn1-3) and in wild-type flies. The proportion of normally copulating males was significantly lower in the mutant strains. The reduction in mating efficiency was caused by changes in male behavior rather than in female attractiveness. Individual analyses showed that male mating behavior in strains carrying flamMS was qualitatively and quantitatively different from that in the wild-type strain Canton S. The proportion of males that performed consecutive courtship stages was significantly lower in the mutant strains. The sequence and duration of some courtship stages (in particular, orientation and wing vibration) in mutant flies was shown to be altered. The significance of the flamenco locus in regulation of processes occurring at the organismal level are discussed.

  13. Functional conservation of MIKC*-Type MADS box genes in Arabidopsis and rice pollen maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Cui, Shaojie; Wu, Feng; Yan, Shuo; Lin, Xuelei; Du, Xiaoqiu; Chong, Kang; Schilling, Susanne; Theißen, Günter; Meng, Zheng

    2013-04-01

    There are two groups of MADS intervening keratin-like and C-terminal (MIKC)-type MADS box genes, MIKC(C) type and MIKC* type. In seed plants, the MIKC(C) type shows considerable diversity, but the MIKC* type has only two subgroups, P- and S-clade, which show conserved expression in the gametophyte. To examine the functional conservation of MIKC*-type genes, we characterized all three rice (Oryza sativa) MIKC*-type genes. All three genes are specifically expressed late in pollen development. The single knockdown or knockout lines, respectively, of the S-clade MADS62 and MADS63 did not show a mutant phenotype, but lines in which both S-clade genes were affected showed severe defects in pollen maturation and germination, as did knockdown lines of MADS68, the only P-clade gene in rice. The rice MIKC*-type proteins form strong heterodimeric complexes solely with partners from the other subclade; these complexes specifically bind to N10-type C-A-rich-G-boxes in vitro and regulate downstream gene expression by binding to N10-type promoter motifs. The rice MIKC* genes have a much lower degree of functional redundancy than the Arabidopsis thaliana MIKC* genes. Nevertheless, our data indicate that the function of heterodimeric MIKC*-type protein complexes in pollen development has been conserved since the divergence of monocots and eudicots, roughly 150 million years ago.

  14. Some Fejer Type Inequalities for Harmonically-Convex Functions with Applications to Special Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Latif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the notion of harmonic symmetricity of functions is introduced. A new identity involving harmonically symmetric functions is established and some new Fejer type integral inequalities are presented for the class of harmonically convex functions. The results presented in this paper are better than those established in recent literature concerning harmonically convex functions. Applications of our results to special means of positive real numbers are given as well.

  15. Generation of diploid Pichia pastoris strains by mating and their application for recombinant protein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming-Tang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast mating provides an efficient means for strain and library construction. However, biotechnological applications of mating in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris have been hampered because of concerns about strain stability of P. pastoris diploids. The aim of the study reported here is to investigate heterologous protein expression in diploid P. pastoris strains and to evaluate diploid strain stability using high cell density fermentation processes. Results By using a monoclonal antibody as a target protein, we demonstrate that recombinant protein production in both wild-type and glycoengineered P. pastoris diploids is stable and efficient during a nutrient rich shake flask cultivation. When diploid strains were cultivated under bioreactor conditions, sporulation was observed. Nevertheless, both wild-type and glycoengineered P. pastoris diploids showed robust productivity and secreted recombinant antibody of high quality. Specifically, the yeast culture maintained a diploid state for 240 h post-induction phase while protein titer and N-linked glycosylation profiles were comparable to that of a haploid strain expressing the same antibody. As an application of mating, we also constructed an antibody display library and used mating to generate novel full-length antibody sequences. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this study reports for the first time a comprehensive characterization of recombinant protein expression and fermentation using diploid P. pastoris strains. Data presented here support the use of mating for various applications including strain consolidation, variable-region glycosylation antibody display library, and process optimization.

  16. Mate value asymmetry and relationship satisfaction in female opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Natalia; Danel, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of studies highlight positive assortative mating in terms of various aspects of mate value. However, there is a lack of studies that directly show how both partners' mate value and mate value differences are related to the satisfaction in heterosexual relationship. In the present study, the authors focused on women and analyzed how their mate value self-assessment and perception of their partners' mate value are related to female relationship satisfaction. The authors also classified them under 3 categories of couples defined by partners' mate value discrepancy, that is, in which a woman has higher, lower, and equal mate value than does her male partner. Women's relationship satisfaction was positively related to the perception of their partners' mate value but negatively correlated to their mate value self-assessment. Moreover, relationship satisfaction was the lowest in the category where woman has higher self-assessed mate value. The level of women's relationship satisfaction did not differ in 2 other categories of relationships. Our results suggest that women's perception of mate value and mate value asymmetry may significantly affect women's satisfaction from their relationships. The authors provide several possible, evolutionary-based explanatory mechanisms.

  17. 栗疫菌营养体亲和型多样性比较及野生栗栗疫菌交配型的分子检测%Comparison of Vegetative Compatibility Diversity of Cryphonectria parasitica from Wild and Cultivated Chestnut and Molecular Detection of Mating-type of the Pathogens from Wild Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘琪; 张国珍; 贺伟; 费松林; 陈余朝; 张海旺

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica in the regions of Beijing, Hubei and Shaanxi was investigated and the pathogen strains collected from these regions were used to detect their vegetative compatibility groups ( VCGs) . The results showed that the incidence of chestnut blight in Beijing and Shaanxi, varying according to different site conditions, was higher than that in Hubei. The Shannon-Wiener's diversity indexes of the VCGs of strains collected from Hubei and Shaanxi were statistically higher than that of strains from Beijing, whereas no statistical difference between the indexes of Shaanxi and Hubei. In addition, the mating-types of the representative strains selected randomly from Shaanxi and Hubei populations were detected by means of primary and nested PCR with specific primers. The results showed that both populations had two mating-types. Meanwhile, the strains with two mating-types in a single strain were detected as well, showing higher proportion in Shaanxi population than in Hubei population.%在北京周边县区、湖北大老岭山区以及陕西安康地区分别调查栗疫病发生情况,采集病原栗疫菌(Cryphonectria parasitica)菌株并进行营养体亲和性试验.结果表明:北京板栗栽培区和陕西安康地区野生栗栗疫病发病率较高,局部地区危害严重;湖北大老岭山区栗疫病发病率低,危害轻微.北京地区菌株群体营养体亲和型多样性指数(Shannon-Wiener's diversity index)极显著低于湖北菌株群体和陕西菌株群体,而陕西与湖北菌株群体营养体亲和型多样性指数差异不显著.随机选取湖北、陕西野生栗栗疫菌部分菌株,利用特异性引物,通过普通PCR和巢氏PCR,对其交配型进行测定,发现陕西与湖北野生栗菌株群体中均存在MAT-1与MAT-2两种交配型的菌株.通过PCR扩增,在两地的野生菌株群体里均发现同时具有两种交配型基因的菌株,其中,陕西

  18. Human pheromone detection by the vomeronasal organ: unnecessary for mate selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Thomas G; Samuelsen, Chad L

    2009-07-01

    Recently, Foltan and Sedy proposed a hypothesis stating that the adult human VNO is integral to the prevention of inappropriate mate selection. In this commentary, we address the authors' assumption that humans have a functional VNO, that pheromones are detected exclusively by the VNO, and that human pheromones are responsible for negative stimuli during mate selection. After examining the published literature on human vomeronasal function, we argue that their hypothesis is critically flawed. We offer a brief review of the adult human VNO in support of our argument.

  19. Impaired vascular function during short-term poor glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V R; Mathiesen, E R; Clausen, P

    2005-01-01

    in Type 1 diabetic patients may disturb vascular function, possibly mediated through smooth muscle cell dysfunction as well as endothelial dysfunction. We suggest that prolonged and repeated episodes of hyperglycaemia could possibly lead to permanent vascular dysfunction and thereby development...

  20. Evaluation of pulmonary function changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamad, Ismail L; Saad, Khaled; Abdel-Azeem, Ali; Mohamed, Sherif A.A; Othman, Hisham A.K; Abdel Baseer, Khaled A; Thabet, Ahmad F; El-Houfey, Amira A

    2015-01-01

    .... However, limited data are available on lung dysfunction in children with diabetes. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary function changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods...

  1. CONNECTION BETWEEN THE ORDER OF FRACTIONAL CALCULUS AND FRACTIONAL DIMENSIONS OF A TYPE OF FRACTAL FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The linear relationship between fractal dimensions of a type of generalized Weierstrass functions and the order of their fractional calculus has been proved. The graphs and numerical results given here further indicate the corresponding relationship.

  2. Sharp Estimates for Green’s Functions of Cone-Type Planar Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amine Ben Boubaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish sharp estimates for Green’s functions of cone-type planar domains. Our work generalizes all estimates given by Zhao in 1988 and Selmi in 2000. Our principal idea is to use conformal mappings.

  3. Origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Murat, Altynbek

    2014-02-13

    The microscopic origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated using first-principles self-interaction corrected density functional theory (DFT). Recent DFT calculations suggest that the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized CNTs is due to the Cl atoms adsorbed on the CNTs. We test this hypothesis and show that adsorbed Cl atoms only lead to a p-type character for very specific concentrations and arrangements of the Cl atoms, which furthermore are not the lowest energy configurations. We therefore investigate alternative mechanisms and conclude that the p-type character is due to the adsorption of AuCl4 molecules. The unraveling of the exact nature of the p-doping adsorbates is a key step for further development of AuCl3 functionalized CNTs in water sensor applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. PERMANENCE OF A PERIODIC PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM WITH DISPERSAL AND GENERAL HOLLING TYPE FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a set of sufficient conditions which ensure the permanence of a periodic predator-prey system with dispersal and general Holling type functional response are obtained. Our results generalize some known results.

  5. Some Hermite–Hadamard Type Inequalities for Geometrically Quasi-Convex Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Qi; Bo-Yan Xi

    2014-08-01

    In the paper, we introduce a new concept ‘geometrically quasi-convex function’ and establish some Hermite–Hadamard type inequalities for functions whose derivatives are of geometric quasi-convexity.

  6. Gap Phenomenon of an Abstract Willmore Type Functional of Hypersurface in Unit Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqi Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For an n-dimensional hypersurface in unit sphere, we introduce an abstract Willmore type called Wn,F-Willmore functional, which generalizes the well-known classic Willmore functional. Its critical point is called the Wn,F-Willmore hypersurface, for which the variational equation and Simons’ type integral equalities are obtained. Moreover, we construct a few examples of Wn,F-Willmore hypersurface and give a gap phenomenon characterization by use of our integral formula.

  7. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mating: The Case of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In pre-industrial societies parents exercise a strong influence over the mating decisions of their offspring. As modern pre-industrial societies approximate the way of life in ancestral human societies, human mating behavior should be seen as the outcome of a co-evolutionary process between parental and offspring's mating choice. Both parents and offspring have evolved mating preferences, which enable them to select those mates and in-laws who maximize their inclusive fitness. Following Trivers' (1974 theory of parent-offspring conflict, it is hypothesized that in-law and mating preferences substantially overlap, but also differ with respect to the beauty trait of a mating candidate. This hypothesis is tested on a sample of 292 parents. It is found that the two sets of preferences are strongly correlated, while beauty is preferred significantly more in a mating partner than in an in-law.

  8. Practical Type Checking of Functions Defined on Context-Free Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ming Chen; Yun-Mei Dong

    2004-01-01

    A type checking method for the functional language LFC is presented. A distinct feature of LFC is that it uses Context-Free (CF) languages as data types to represent compound data structures. This makes LFC a dynamically typed language. To improve efficiency, a practical type checking method is presented, which consists of both static and dynamic type checking. Although the inclusion relation of CF languages is not decidable, a special subset of the relation is decidable, i.e., the sentential form relation, which can be statically checked. Moreover, most of the expressions in actual LFC programs appear to satisfy this relation according to the statistic data of experiments. So, despite that the static type checking is not complete, it undertakes most of the type checking task. Consequently the run-time efficiency is effectively improved. Another feature of the type checking is that it converts the expressions with implicit structures to structured representation. Structure reconstruction technique is presented.

  9. Unconscious Factors in Choice of a Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer, Lilly

    1971-01-01

    If the selection of a spouse is based on the unconscious wish to correct disturbances which previously existed in the parent child relationship, the marriage is threatened from the start. This article examines motivations derived from early developmental phases which form convictions which later become the nucleus for mate choice. (Author/CJ)

  10. Heterozygosity-based assortative mating in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus): implications for the evolution of mate choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Ortego, Joaquín; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    The general hypothesis of mate choice based on non-additive genetic traits suggests that individuals would gain important benefits by choosing genetically dissimilar mates (compatible mate hypothesis) and/or more heterozygous mates (heterozygous mate hypothesis). In this study, we test these hypotheses in a socially monogamous bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We found no evidence for a relatedness-based mating pattern, but heterozygosity was positively correlated between social mates, suggesting that blue tits may base their mating preferences on partner's heterozygosity. We found evidence that the observed heterozygosity-based assortative mating could be maintained by both direct and indirect benefits. Heterozygosity reflected individual quality in both sexes: egg production and quality increased with female heterozygosity while more heterozygous males showed higher feeding rates during the brood-rearing period. Further, estimated offspring heterozygosity correlated with both paternal and maternal heterozygosity, suggesting that mating with heterozygous individuals can increase offspring genetic quality. Finally, plumage crown coloration was associated with male heterozygosity, and this could explain unanimous mate preferences for highly heterozygous and more ornamented individuals. Overall, this study suggests that non-additive genetic traits may play an important role in the evolution of mating preferences and offers empirical support to the resolution of the lek paradox from the perspective of the heterozygous mate hypothesis. PMID:19474042

  11. Structures and Corresponding Functions of Five Types of Picornaviral 2A Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyao; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Sun, Kunfeng; Pan, Kangcheng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Liu, Mafeng; Zhao, Xin-Xin; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2017-01-01

    Among the few non-structural proteins encoded by the picornaviral genome, the 2A protein is particularly special, irrespective of structure or function. During the evolution of the Picornaviridae family, the 2A protein has been highly non-conserved. We believe that the 2A protein in this family can be classified into at least five distinct types according to previous studies. These five types are (A) chymotrypsin-like 2A, (B) Parechovirus-like 2A, (C) hepatitis-A-virus-like 2A, (D) Aphthovirus-like 2A, and (E) 2A sequence of the genus Cardiovirus. We carried out a phylogenetic analysis and found that there was almost no homology between each type. Subsequently, we aligned the sequences within each type and found that the functional motifs in each type are highly conserved. These different motifs perform different functions. Therefore, in this review, we introduce the structures and functions of these five types of 2As separately. Based on the structures and functions, we provide suggestions to combat picornaviruses. The complexity and diversity of the 2A protein has caused great difficulties in functional and antiviral research. In this review, researchers can find useful information on the 2A protein and thus conduct improved antiviral research.

  12. Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chang-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Methods This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC (% predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (% predicted quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles. Results The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P 1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]. Conclusions Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.

  13. Some Perturbed Ostrowski Type Inequalities for Functions Whose First Derivatives Are of Bounded Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Budak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to establish some new perturbed Ostrowski type integral inequalities for functions whose first derivatives are of bounded variation. Some perturbed Ostrowski type inequalities for Lipschitzian and monotonic mappings are also obtained.

  14. Organizational Culture as a Function of Institutional Type in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jason A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether organizational culture varies as a function of institutional type in higher education, and to identify whether there exists congruence between organizational culture type and leader behavior. Utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) developed by Cameron and Quinn…

  15. 78 FR 9802 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... requirements to qualify as a Type III supporting organization that is operated in connection with one or more... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG31; 1545-BL38 Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS),...

  16. Influence of mating frequency on sow reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, J; Dial, G D; Trigg, T; Davies, P; King, V L

    1998-12-01

    Gilts and sows were bred one, two, or three times during a single estrous period in a commercial herd for evaluating the effect of mating frequency on reproductive performance. Estrus detection started at approximately 0630 daily by applying back pressure to females with the presence of a mature boar. Natural mating was used. Gilts detected in estrus were mated in the morning of d 1 (AM), the morning of d 1 and 2 (AM-AM), and the morning and afternoon of d 1 and morning of d 2 (AM-PM-AM) for mating frequencies 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Sows were bred in the AM, AM-AM, AM-PM-AM (1), and morning of d 1 and morning and afternoon of d 2 [AM-AM-PM (2)] for mating frequency 1, 2, 3 (1), and 3 (2), respectively. Breeding events in the morning and afternoon started at approximately 0730 and 1530. Females were randomly assigned to a mating frequency. Boars were randomly assigned to each breeding event. In total, 256 gilts and 766 sows were involved in the study. Gilts with a single mating (76.5%, P = .06) and triple matings (80.4%, P .1) in the farrowing rates of sows were observed between mating frequencies 1, 2, 3 (1), and 3 (2). Double-mated gilts had more (P .3) in total born and pigs born alive in sows between mating frequencies. We concluded that triple-mating gilts and sows did not improve farrowing rate and litter size compared with single and double matings. There were no differences in farrowing rate and litter size between double- and single-mated sows. Gilts with double matings had a larger litter size than those with a single mating.

  17. Assortative mating by unwed biological parents of adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C; Roberts, M K

    1977-04-22

    Analyses of data obtained from 662 unwed couples whose children were relinquished for adoption reveal that biological parents of adopted children mate assortatively. For physical characters, assortative mating of unwed parents was similar to that of wed parents; for behavior characters, however, there was less assortative mating by the unwed parents. Because assortative mating inflates estimates of genetic parameters in adoption studies, future studies should collect information on both biological parents.

  18. Muscle fibre type distribution of the thoracolumbar and hindlimb regions of horses: relating fibre type and functional role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyytiäinen, Heli K; Mykkänen, Anna K; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K; Stubbs, Narelle C; McGowan, Catherine M

    2014-01-27

    Although the majority of equine muscles have a mixed fibre type distribution indicative of diverse functional roles, the predominance of a fibre type can indicate the primary function of a muscle. The deep epaxial musculature has an important role in core spinal stability in humans, reflected as a predominantly muscle fibre type (MFT) I or postural fibre type. The fibre type of the deep epaxial musculature has not been determined in horses. The objective of the study was to determine the MFT distribution in selected muscles of thoracolumbar and hindlimb region of horses. This included deep epaxial and hypaxial muscles that were hypothesised to have a postural stabilising role. A second objective was to examine differences in MFT distribution between horses bred for endurance (Arabian) and sprinting (Quarter horse). Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from selected thoracolumbar and hind limb muscles of 5 Quarter horses, 4 Arabians, and 2 Thoroughbreds. The myosin heavy chain distribution was determined by gel electrophoresis. Mann-Whitney rank test was used to compare the proportional MFT and differences between breeds. Mm. sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and diaphragm had the highest proportion of MFT-I. The remaining deep epaxial muscles and the hypaxial muscle m. psoas minor had approximately equal MFT I and II proportions. Mm. psoas major, iliocostalis, longissimus dorsi and the hind limb muscles contained mostly MFT-IIX. The fibre type distribution was similar between Arabians and Quarter horses, although Quarter horses had more MFT-IIX fibres in psoas major (P = 0.02) while Arabians had more MFT-I fibres in m. longissimus dorsi (P = 0.03). The fibre type distribution of the deep epaxial muscles, mm psoas minor and diaphragm varied from approximately equal MFT-I and II proportions to predominantly MFT-I suggesting a postural stabilising role possibly important in core spinal stability. In contrast the fibre type proportions of mm psoas major

  19. Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Gamon, John A.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow, AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013 plus or minus 0.0002, 0.0018 plus or minus 0.0002, and 0.0012 plus or minus 0.0001 mol C mol (exp -1) absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Along the transect, area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. The patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance data collected along the transect successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. The unmixing functions, developed from the transect data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types for an area near Barrow, AK. Spatial variability of LUE was derived from the observed functional type distributions. Across this landscape, a

  20. Mating first, mating more: biological market fluctuation in a wild prosimian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Norscia

    Full Text Available In biology, economics, and politics, distributive power is the key for understanding asymmetrical relationships and it can be obtained by force (dominance or trading (leverage. Whenever males cannot use force, they largely depend on females for breeding opportunities and the balance of power tilts in favour of females. Thus, males are expected not only to compete within their sex-class but also to exchange services with the opposite sex. Does this mating market, described for humans and apes, apply also to prosimians, the most ancestral primate group? To answer the question, we studied a scent-oriented and gregarious lemur, Propithecus verreauxi (sifaka, showing female dominance, promiscuous mating, and seasonal breeding. We collected 57 copulations involving 8 males and 4 females in the wild (Berenty Reserve, South Madagascar, and data (all occurrences on grooming, aggressions, and marking behaviour. We performed the analyses via exact Spearman and matrix correlations. Male mating priority rank correlated with the frequency of male countermarking over female scents but not with the proportion of fights won by males over females. Thus, males competed in an olfactory tournament more than in an arena of aggressive encounters. The copulation frequency correlated neither with the proportion of fights won by males nor with the frequency of male countermarking on female scents. Male-to-female grooming correlated with female-to-male grooming only during premating. Instead, in the mating period male-to-female grooming correlated with the copulation frequency. In short, the biological market underwent seasonal fluctuations, since males bargained grooming for sex in the mating days and grooming for itself in the premating period. Top scent-releasers gained mating priority (they mated first and top groomers ensured a higher number of renewed copulations (they mated more. In conclusion, males maximize their reproduction probability by adopting a double

  1. Mating first, mating more: biological market fluctuation in a wild prosimian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Antonacci, Daniela; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    In biology, economics, and politics, distributive power is the key for understanding asymmetrical relationships and it can be obtained by force (dominance) or trading (leverage). Whenever males cannot use force, they largely depend on females for breeding opportunities and the balance of power tilts in favour of females. Thus, males are expected not only to compete within their sex-class but also to exchange services with the opposite sex. Does this mating market, described for humans and apes, apply also to prosimians, the most ancestral primate group? To answer the question, we studied a scent-oriented and gregarious lemur, Propithecus verreauxi (sifaka), showing female dominance, promiscuous mating, and seasonal breeding. We collected 57 copulations involving 8 males and 4 females in the wild (Berenty Reserve, South Madagascar), and data (all occurrences) on grooming, aggressions, and marking behaviour. We performed the analyses via exact Spearman and matrix correlations. Male mating priority rank correlated with the frequency of male countermarking over female scents but not with the proportion of fights won by males over females. Thus, males competed in an olfactory tournament more than in an arena of aggressive encounters. The copulation frequency correlated neither with the proportion of fights won by males nor with the frequency of male countermarking on female scents. Male-to-female grooming correlated with female-to-male grooming only during premating. Instead, in the mating period male-to-female grooming correlated with the copulation frequency. In short, the biological market underwent seasonal fluctuations, since males bargained grooming for sex in the mating days and grooming for itself in the premating period. Top scent-releasers gained mating priority (they mated first) and top groomers ensured a higher number of renewed copulations (they mated more). In conclusion, males maximize their reproduction probability by adopting a double tactic and by

  2. Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wittert Gary; Cumming Robert; Pitts Marian; McLachlan Robert I; Holden Carol A; Ehsani Johnathon P; de Kretser David M; Handelsman David J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED), prostate disease (PD), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD) in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS). Methods ...

  3. Still and Moving Image Evidences for Mating of Echinococcus granulosus Reared in Culture Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mohammadzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus cultivation is very important for improvement of different aspect of medical and veterinary researches. Despite many advances in this case, there is a missing link for in vitro life cycle of adult worms and it is fertilization. Regarding the researchers' observations, self-fertilization can be done in worms living in dog intestine, but despite all sorts of experimental techniques, this phenomenon has never been observed in reared worms in culture media. Furthermore, cross fertilization has not been observed in vitro and even in parasites with dog intestinal origin; although it theoretically is possible. During a follow-up of cultivated adult worms, evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in our lab which will be presented here.Protoscoleces were aseptically removed from sheep hydatid cysts, washed twice with PBS and then cultivated in S.10E.H culture medium. The stages of parasite growth were observed using an inverted microscope for two months and all stages and behaviors were microscopically photographed. Different movies have also been made from these behavioral features.After around 55 days post cultivation, some evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in some of the mature adult worms. However, fertile eggs in these parasites have never been observed.Regarding the above observations, these parasites show tendency to unsuccessful self-mating/fertilization (type 2 which failure could be due to anatomical position and physiological maturation. Also lack of suitable conditions for self-fertilization causes the worms try to do unsuccessful cross- mating/fertilization in culture media.

  4. Origin and occurrence of sexual and mating systems in Crustacea: A progression towards communal living and eusociality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Subramoniam

    2013-12-01

    Crustaceans are known for their unrivalled diversity of sexual systems, as well as peculiar mating associations to achieve maximum mating success and fertilization accomplishment. Although sexes are separate in most species, various types of hermaphroditism characterize these predominantly aquatic arthropods. A low operational sex ratio between female and male, together with temporally limited receptivity of females towards males, imposes restrictions on the structuring of mating systems in crustaceans. The basic mating systems consist of monogamy, polygamy, mate guarding and pure searching. Understandably, ecological influences may also play a determinative role in the evolution of such sexual and mating systems in crustaceans. An important outcome of the crustacean sexual biology is the development of complex social structures in many aquatic species, in much the same way insects have established them in terrestrial conditions. In addition, groups like isopods and certain families of brachyuran crabs have shown terrestrial adaptation, exhibiting peculiar reproductive modes, sometimes reminiscent of their terrestrial counterparts, insects. Many caridean shrimps, living in symbiotic relationship with other marine invertebrates in the coral reef habitats, have reached pinnacle of complexity in sexuality and peculiar mating behaviours, resulting in communal living and establishing advanced social systems, such as eusociality.

  5. Evidence for mate guarding behavior in the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria J. Bennett; Winston P. Smith; Matthew G. Betts

    2011-01-01

    Discerning the intricacies of mating systems in butterflies can be difficult, particularly when multiple mating strategies are employed and are cryptic and not exclusive. We observed the behavior and habitat use of 113 male Taylor's checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas editha taylori). We confirmed that two distinct mating strategies were...

  6. The malleability of mate selection in speed-dating events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, G.; Nelemans, S.A.; Karremans, J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined to what extent individual mate selectivity could be explained by characteristics of the mating market. Specifically, we hypothesized that females’ selectivity would be more malleable, or context-dependent, than males’ mate selectivity (cf. Baumeister, 2000; Gangestad & Simpson,

  7. Cultural Variation in Parental Influence on Mate Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Duncan, Lesley A.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to assumptions underlying current psychological theories of human mating, throughout much of human history parents often controlled the mating behavior of their children. In the present research, the authors tested the hypothesis that the level of parental influence on mating is associated

  8. Cultural Variation in Parental Influence on Mate Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Duncan, Lesley A.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to assumptions underlying current psychological theories of human mating, throughout much of human history parents often controlled the mating behavior of their children. In the present research, the authors tested the hypothesis that the level of parental influence on mating is associated

  9. Post-mating clutchy piracy in an amphibian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Vieites, D.; Nieto-Roman, S.; Barluenga, M.; Palanca, A.; Vences, M.; Meyer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition after multiple mating has been observed in many animals1,4-7 and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple p

  10. Post-mating clutchy piracy in an amphibian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Vieites, D.; Nieto-Roman, S.; Barluenga, M.; Palanca, A.; Vences, M.; Meyer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition after multiple mating has been observed in many animals1,4-7 and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple

  11. On the Rational Approximation of Analytic Functions Having Generalized Types of Rate of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the rational approximation of functions holomorphic on a domain G⊂C, having generalized types of rates of growth. Moreover, we obtain the characterization of the rate of decay of product of the best approximation errors for functions f having fast and slow rates of growth of the maximum modulus.

  12. Zeros of nonpositive type of generalized Nevanlinna functions with one negative square

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Snoo, Henk; Winkler, Henrik; Wojtylak, Michal

    2011-01-01

    A generalized Nevanlinna function Q(z) with one negative square has precisely one generalized zero of nonpositive type in the closed extended upper halfplane. The fractional linear transformation defined by Qτ(z) = (Q(z) − τ )/(1 + τQ(z)), τ ∈ R ∪ {∞}, is a generalized Nevanlinna function with one n

  13. SANDWICH-TYPE THEOREMS FOR MEROMORPHIC MULTIVALENT FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE LIU-SRIVASTAVA OPERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nak Eun Cho

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to obtain some subordination and superordination preserving properties of meromorphic multivalent functions in the punctured open unit disk associated with the Liu-Srivastava operator.The sandwich-type results for these meromorphic multivalent functions are also considered.

  14. Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for GA-s-convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmdat İşcan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, The author introduces the concepts of the GA-s-convex functions in the first sense and second sense and establishes some integral inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard type related to the GA-s-convex functions. Some applications to special means of real numbers are also given.

  15. Inequalities of Hadamard Type for r-Convex Functions in Carnot Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-bao Sun; Xiao-ping Yang

    2004-01-01

    For a Carnot group G,we establish the relationship between extended mean values and r-convex functions which is introduced in this paper,which is a class of inequalities of Hadamard type for r-convex function on G.

  16. Growth of frequently Birkhoff-universal functions of exponential type on rays

    OpenAIRE

    Beise, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    We consider growth conditions for (frequently) Birkhoff-universal functions of exponential type with respect to the different rays emanating from the origin. For that purpose, we investigate their (conjugate) indicator diagram or, equivalently, their indicator function. Some known results, where growth is measured with respect to the maximum modulus, are extended.

  17. Hermite-Hadamard and Simpson-Like Type Inequalities for Differentiable Harmonically Convex Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmdat İşcan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new identity for differentiable functions is derived. A consequence of the identity is that the author establishes some new general inequalities containing all of the Hermite-Hadamard and Simpson-like types for functions whose derivatives in absolute value at certain power are harmonically convex. Some applications to special means of real numbers are also given.

  18. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana, a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J Valdez

    Full Text Available Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana, a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July, whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes. Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period.

  19. Gompertz type dechanneling functions for protons in , and Si crystal channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, S.; Erić, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Nešković, N.

    2007-03-01

    In this work the energy dependences of the Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function parameters for protons in , and Si crystal channels is investigated theoretically. The proton energy range considered is between 1 and 10 MeV. The original dechanneling functions are generated using a realistic Monte Carlo computer simulation code. We show that the Gompertz type dechanneling function, having two parameters, lc and k, representing the dechanneling range and rate, respectively, approximate accurately the original dechanneling function. It is also shown that the energy dependences of parameters lc and k can be approximated by a linear function and a sum of two exponential functions, respectively. The results obtained can be used for accurate reproduction of experimental proton channeling spectra recorded in the backscattering geometry.

  20. Positive convolution structure for a class of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions of type BC

    CERN Document Server

    Rösler, Margit

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we derive explicit product formulas and positive convolution structures for three continuous classes of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions of type $BC$. For specific discrete series of multiplicities these hypergeometric functions occur as the spherical functions of non-compact Grassmann manifolds $G/K$ over one of the (skew) fields $\\mathbb F= \\mathbb R, \\mathbb C, \\mathbb H.$ We write the product formula of these spherical functions in an explicit form which allows analytic continuation with respect to the parameters. In each of the three cases, we obtain a series of hypergroup algebras which include the commutative convolution algebras of $K$-biinvariant functions on $G$.

  1. Confluent hypergeometric functions and two variables Laguerre polynomials as a solutions of Wilczynski type system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmambetov, Zhaxylyk

    2016-08-01

    In this work, it is considered the system of Wilczynski type, and from this system it is defined a range of systems having the solutions in the form of confluent hypergeometric functions and two variables Laguerre polynomials. It is shown that two variables confluent hypergeometric functions being the main tool of investigation of Laguerre polynomials and two variables Whittaker functions. This aspects still remaining little-investigated.

  2. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Campillo Navarro, Azucena; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    of matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this paper we provide a number of examples on how to execute the formal arguments.......The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions...

  3. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Navarro, Azucena Campillo; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-01-01

    of matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this article we provide a number of examples of how to execute the formal arguments.......The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions...

  4. Traveling wavefronts in nonlocal diffusive predator-prey system with Holling type II functional response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of traveling wavefronts for a nonlocal diffusive predator-prey system with functional response of Holling type II. We first establish the existence principle for the system with a general functional response by using a fixed point theorem and upper-lower solution technique. We apply this result to a predator-prey model with Holling type II functional response. We deduce the existence of traveling wavefronts that connect the zero equilibrium and the positive equilibrium.

  5. PMC Control Design Principle and Program Implementation of Auxiliary Function M Commands in CNC Machine Tool Based on FANUC Oi Mate-MD System%基于FANUC Oi Mate-MD 系统的数控辅助功能M指令的PMC控制设计原理和程序实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼刚义; 杨新刚; 杨鹏

    2013-01-01

    数控机床辅助功能指令由CNC和PMC共同处理,但其具体运算处理过程国内还未见文献系统报道。用一具体实例对冷却液M指令的运行机制、PMC程序设计及加载、辅助功能M指令机床验证进行了详细阐述,有助于更好地使用、维护机床和利用系统提供的PMC梯形图来快速诊断故障,特别是对理解PMC程序、扩展开发机床控制功能提供了参考。%CNC machine tool auxiliary function commands are handled by CNC and PMC,but their concrete operation processes have not been reported in domestic literature system. Based on the specific examples,the operation mechanism of coolant M instruc-tion,the design and load of PMC program,the auxiliary function commands machine validation,were elaborated in detail. This will contribute to a better use and maintenance,and using PMC ladder diagram interface of NC system to diagnose fault quickly,especially it provides reference for understanding the PMC program,extending the development of machine control function.

  6. Behavioral Analysis and Ethogram of Mating in the Wasp Sphex latreillei (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandujano, V; Flores-Prado, L; Chiappa, E

    2016-08-01

    The present study reevaluates mating in Sphex latreillei (Lepeletier) based on the analysis of 69 filmed reproductive interactions from a population in central Chile. Behaviors recorded before, during, and after copulation were analyzed through Markov chains, identifying statistically significant behavioral transitions that are summarized in a mating ethogram. The results suggest that females exercise choice either during copulation by the means of an internal courtship, or via a post-copulation selection. Both types of inter-sexual selection proposed would explain, in both female and male, the dynamics of a sexual behavior crucial for a reproductive success.

  7. Relative effectiveness of mating success and sperm competition at eliminating deleterious mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C A Clark

    Full Text Available Condition-dependence theory predicts that sexual selection will facilitate adaptation by selecting against deleterious mutations that affect the expression of sexually selected traits indirectly via condition. Recent empirical studies have provided support for this prediction; however, their results do not elucidate the relative effects of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection on deleterious mutations. We used the Drosophila melanogaster model system to discern the relative contributions of pre- and postcopulatory processes to selection against deleterious mutations. To assess second-male ejaculate competition success (P2; measured as the proportion of offspring attributable to the experimental male and mating success, mutant and wild-type male D. melanogaster were given the opportunity to mate with females that were previously mated to a standard competitor male. This process was repeated for males subjected to a diet quality manipulation to test for effects of environmentally-manipulated condition on P2 and mating success. While none of the tested mutations affected P2, there was a clear effect of condition. Conversely, several of the mutations affected mating success, while condition showed no effect. Our results suggest that precopulatory selection may be more effective than postcopulatory selection at removing deleterious mutations. The opposite result obtained for our diet manipulation points to an interesting discrepancy between environmental and genetic manipulations of condition, which may be explained by the multidimensionality of condition. Establishing whether the various stages of sexual selection affect deleterious mutations differently, and to what extent, remains an important issue to resolve.

  8. Multiple Signaling Pathways Regulate Yeast Cell Death during the Response to Mating Pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan-Nan; Dudgeon, Drew D.; Paliwal, Saurabh; Levchenko, Andre; Grote, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Mating pheromones promote cellular differentiation and fusion of yeast cells with those of the opposite mating type. In the absence of a suitable partner, high concentrations of mating pheromones induced rapid cell death in ∼25% of the population of clonal cultures independent of cell age. Rapid cell death required Fig1, a transmembrane protein homologous to PMP-22/EMP/MP20/Claudin proteins, but did not require its Ca2+ influx activity. Rapid cell death also required cell wall degradation, which was inhibited in some surviving cells by the activation of a negative feedback loop involving the MAP kinase Slt2/Mpk1. Mutants lacking Slt2/Mpk1 or its upstream regulators also underwent a second slower wave of cell death that was independent of Fig1 and dependent on much lower concentrations of pheromones. A third wave of cell death that was independent of Fig1 and Slt2/Mpk1 was observed in mutants and conditions that eliminate calcineurin signaling. All three waves of cell death appeared independent of the caspase-like protein Mca1 and lacked certain “hallmarks” of apoptosis. Though all three waves of cell death were preceded by accumulation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial respiration was only required for the slowest wave in calcineurin-deficient cells. These findings suggest that yeast cells can die by necrosis-like mechanisms during the response to mating pheromones if essential response pathways are lacking or if mating is attempted in the absence of a partner. PMID:16738305

  9. Female mate choice by chemical signals in a semi-terrestrial crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sal Moyano, María Paz; Silva, Paola; Luppi, Tomás; Gavio, María Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Information about the roles of both sexes in pair formation is required to better understand the mechanisms involved in sexual selection. Mate choice could depend on the courtship behavior, involving chemical, tactile and visual signals. We determined if Neohelice granulata mate choice is based on female or male choice, considering visual and chemical with contact and without contact signals between partners and different categories of individuals: receptive and unreceptive females; and large, small, mated or unmated males. Experiments showed that mate selection was based on receptive female's choice using chemical signals, but not visual ones. Since copulation occurs during high and low tides, water-borne chemical signals would be preferentially used during high tide, while contact ones during low tide. Females preferred large and unmated males, while males did not seem to recognize receptive females using chemical neither visual signals. Females were capable of detecting the presence of the chemical signals released by large and unmated males, but not its amount. It is proposed that small and mated males are probably releasing different types of chemical signals, not attractive to females, or that they are not emitting any signal.

  10. Ageing, mate preferences and sexuality: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionary constraints that lead to the evolution of sexual reproduction are framed by the better repair mechanisms that repair fatal mutations, as well as the need for variable immune systems imposed on large organisms by parasites, such as viruses and bacteria. Besides the evolution of sexual reproduction, these factors also affect mate choice, especially as regards the gene complex that encodes the immune system. The need to increase both the likelihood of gametes to encounter each other as well as sufficient provision of nutrition for the offspring then leads to the evolution of two sexes: large numbers of small mobile sperms ensure that gametes meet, whereas large egg cells full of energy provide for the zygote, thus leading to a developmental advantage. The asymmetric investment in the offspring then affects not only mate choice criteria, but also cognitive strategies. Men place more importance on youthfulness and fertility than women, who regard resource holding potential as a more relevant criterion. Consequently, female jealousy is connected to endangered access to resources, whereas male jealousy is rooted in paternal uncertainty. Cognitive adaptations developed to ensure reproductive success show sex differences, such as in error management. The most obvious function of sexual behavior is reproduction. To foster the benefits for the offspring, reproduction partners should also develop an emotional bond, which is mediated by hormones connected to sexual intercourse. With increasing age, reproduction loses importance, while pair bonding functions remain relevant. Therefore, sexuality never ceases to be part of a relationship. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Differential Allocation Revisited: When Should Mate Quality Affect Parental Investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Thomas R; Wright, Jonathan; Kuijper, Bram; Ratikainen, Irja I

    2017-10-01

    Differential allocation (DA) is the adaptive adjustment of reproductive investment (up or down) according to partner quality. A lack of theoretical treatments has led to some confusion in the interpretation of DA in the empirical literature. We present a formal framework for DA that highlights the nature of reproductive benefits versus costs for females mated to males of different quality. Contrary to popular belief, analytical and stochastic dynamic models both show that additive benefits of male quality on offspring fitness have no effect on optimal levels of female investment and thus cannot produce DA. Instead, if offspring fitness is affected multiplicatively by male quality, or male quality affects the female cost function, DA is expected because of changes in the marginal benefits or costs of extra investment. Additive male quality effects on the female cost function can cause a novel form of weak DA, because reduced costs can slightly favor current over future reproduction. Combinations of these distinct effects in more realistic model scenarios can explain various patterns of positive and negative DA reported for different species and mating systems. Our model therefore sheds new light on the diversity of empirical results by providing a strong conceptual framework for the DA hypothesis.

  12. Male-male and male-female aggression may influence mating associations in wild octopuses (Abdopus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffard, Christine L; Caldwell, Roy L; Boneka, Farnis

    2010-02-01

    Abdopus aculeatus engages in frequent aggression and copulation, exhibits male mate-choice, and employs multiple mating tactics. Here we draw upon established hypotheses to compare male-male aggression (MMA) and male-female aggression (MFA), as they relate to their mating behavior in the wild. When contesting for females, males appear to balance mate preference (resource value) with perceived chances of winning contests (resource holding potential). Although males spent more time mating with and contesting for large "Adjacent Guarded" females (those occupying a den within arm's reach of a large "Adjacent Guarding" male), they exhibited higher rates of aggression over nonadjacent "Temporarily Guarded" females that may be more accessible. The major determinant of male-male aggressive success was size, and this factor may dictate the expression of conditional mating tactics in males. "Adjacent Guarding" males were the largest and most aggressively successful males, earning the most time copulating with females. They are considered to have the highest resource holding potential (RHP) in MMA. By contrast, in MFA, some larger individuals fled from smaller individuals, indicating that RHP appears to be a function of both size and sex in intersexual aggression. This result suggests variation in aggressiveness, or potential for severe injury-even sexual cannibalism during MFA. Male-female aggression may also be influenced by the sexual nonreceptivity of some individuals, or attempts by both sexes to increase foraging behavior by delaying mate-guarding activity.

  13. Irregular sampling, Toeplitz matrices, and the approximation of entire functions of exponential type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröchenig, Karlheinz

    In many applications one seeks to recover an entire function of exponential type from its non-uniformly spaced samples. Whereas the mathematical theory usually addresses the question of when such a function in L^2(R) can be recovered, numerical methods operate with a finite-dimensional model. The numerical reconstruction or approximation of the original function amounts to the solution of a large linear system. We show that the solutions of a particularly efficient discrete model in which the data are fit by trigonometric polynomials converge to the solution of the original infinite-dimensional reconstruction problem. This legitimatizes the numerical computations and explains why the algorithms employed produce reasonable results. The main mathematical result is a new type of approximation theorem for entire functions of exponential type from a finite number of values. From another point of view our approach provides a new method for proving sampling theorems.

  14. Type I and Type II Interferon Coordinately Regulate Suppressive Dendritic Cell Fate and Function during Viral Persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron R Cunningham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent viral infections are simultaneously associated with chronic inflammation and highly potent immunosuppressive programs mediated by IL-10 and PDL1 that attenuate antiviral T cell responses. Inhibiting these suppressive signals enhances T cell function to control persistent infection; yet, the underlying signals and mechanisms that program immunosuppressive cell fates and functions are not well understood. Herein, we use lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection (LCMV to demonstrate that the induction and functional programming of immunosuppressive dendritic cells (DCs during viral persistence are separable mechanisms programmed by factors primarily considered pro-inflammatory. IFNγ first induces the de novo development of naive monocytes into DCs with immunosuppressive potential. Type I interferon (IFN-I then directly targets these newly generated DCs to program their potent T cell immunosuppressive functions while simultaneously inhibiting conventional DCs with T cell stimulating capacity. These mechanisms of monocyte conversion are constant throughout persistent infection, establishing a system to continuously interpret and shape the immunologic environment. MyD88 signaling was required for the differentiation of suppressive DCs, whereas inhibition of stimulatory DCs was dependent on MAVS signaling, demonstrating a bifurcation in the pathogen recognition pathways that promote distinct elements of IFN-I mediated immunosuppression. Further, a similar suppressive DC origin and differentiation was also observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, HIV infection and cancer. Ultimately, targeting the underlying mechanisms that induce immunosuppression could simultaneously prevent multiple suppressive signals to further restore T cell function and control persistent infections.

  15. On the type species of the genus Aetius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896: The first description of male with notes on cymbial notch and mating plug (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhin, Puthoor Pattammal; Nafin, Karunnappilli Shamsudheen; Simmons, Zoë; Sudhikumar, Ambalaparambil Vasu

    2016-08-23

    The rare ant mimicking sac spider genus Aetius was erected by O. Pickard-Cambridge in 1896 based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s) collected from Sri Lanka. The type species of the genus, A. decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896, has been redescribed twice based on the holotype (Majumder & Tikader 1991; Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). Reimoser (1934) recorded the genus for the first time from India, who collected a male specimen from Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu State of southern India. This specimen was identified as A. decollatus, but it was never formally described and was later recognised to be a penultimate male (Dankittipakul & Singtripop 2013). Deeleman-Reinhold (2001) described the second representative of the genus, A. nocturnus, based on a single female specimen from Borneo, 105 years after the establishment of the genus. Dankittipakul & Singtripop (2013) described the male of A. nocturnus, thereby revealing the male genitalia of the genus, but the type species was still known only from the female sex.

  16. Mating system affects population performance and extinction risk under environmental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesnar-Bielak, Agata; Skrzynecka, Anna M; Prokop, Zofia M; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-11-22

    Failure of organisms to adapt to sudden environmental changes may lead to extinction. The type of mating system, by affecting fertility and the strength of sexual selection, may have a major impact on a population's chances to adapt and survive. Here, we use experimental evolution in bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini) to examine the effects of the mating system on population performance under environmental change. We demonstrate that populations in which monogamy was enforced suffered a dramatic fitness decline when evolving at an increased temperature, whereas the negative effects of change in a thermal environment were alleviated in polygamous populations. Strikingly, within 17 generations, all monogamous populations experiencing higher temperature went extinct, whereas all polygamous populations survived. Our results show that the mating system may have dramatic effects on the risk of extinction under environmental change.

  17. Integrating resource defence theory with a neural nonapeptide pathway to explain territory-based mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Ronald G; Harris, Rayna M; Hofmann, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate-level factors that drive the evolution of mating systems have been well studied, but an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism involved in shaping behaviour and social organization across species has remained elusive. Here, we review studies that have investigated the role of neural arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasotocin (AVT), and their receptor V1a in mediating variation in territorial behaviour. First, we discuss how aggression and territoriality are a function of population density in an inverted-U relationship according to resource defence theory, and how territoriality influences some mating systems. Next, we find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression, especially in one particular neural circuit involving the lateral septum of the forebrain, are associated with territorial behaviour in males of diverse species, most likely due to their role in enhancing social cognition. Then we review studies that examined multiple species and find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression is associated with territory size in mammals and fishes. Because territoriality plays an important role in shaping mating systems in many species, we present the idea that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression that is selected to mediate territory size may also influence the evolution of different mating systems. Future research that interprets proximate-level neuro-molecular mechanisms in the context of ultimate-level ecological theory may provide deep insight into the brain-behaviour relationships that underlie the diversity of social organization and mating systems seen across the animal kingdom.

  18. Spermless males elicit large-scale female responses to mating in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thailayil, Janis; Magnusson, Kalle; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Crisanti, Andrea; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is the major vector of malaria, a disease with devastating consequences for human health. Given the constant spread of the disease, alternative approaches to the use of insecticides are urgently needed to control vector populations. Females of this species undergo large behavioral changes after mating, which include a life-long refractoriness to further insemination and the induction of egg laying in blood-fed individuals. Genetic control strategies aimed at impacting Anopheles fertility through the release of sterile males are being advocated to reduce the size of mosquito field populations. Such strategies depend on the ability of the released sterile males to mate successfully with wild females and to switch off the female receptivity to further copulation. Here we evaluate the role of sperm in regulating female behavioral responses after mating in An. gambiae. We developed spermless males by RNAi silencing of a germ cell differentiation gene. These males mated successfully and preserved standard accessory gland functions. Females mated to spermless males exhibited normal postcopulatory responses, which included laying large numbers of eggs upon blood feeding and becoming refractory to subsequent insemination. Moreover, spermless males induced transcriptional changes in female reproductive genes comparable to those elicited by fertile males. Our data demonstrate that, in contrast to Drosophila, targeting sperm in An. gambiae preserves normal male and female reproductive behavior for the traits and time frame analyzed and validate the use of approaches based on incapacitation or elimination of sperm for genetic control of vector populations to block malaria transmission. PMID:21825136

  19. Global land model development: time to shift from a plant functional type to a plant functional trait approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, P. B.; Butler, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    This project will advance global land models by shifting from the current plant functional type approach to one that better utilizes what is known about the importance and variability of plant traits, within a framework of simultaneously improving fundamental physiological relations that are at the core of model carbon cycling algorithms. Existing models represent the global distribution of vegetation types using the Plant Functional Typeconcept. Plant Functional Types are classes of plant species with similar evolutionary and life history withpresumably similar responses to environmental conditions like CO2, water and nutrient availability. Fixedproperties for each Plant Functional Type are specified through a collection of physiological parameters, or traits.These traits, mostly physiological in nature (e.g., leaf nitrogen and longevity) are used in model algorithms to estimate ecosystem properties and/or drive calculated process rates. In most models, 5 to 15 functional types represent terrestrial vegetation; in essence, they assume there are a total of only 5 to 15 different kinds of plants on the entire globe. This assumption of constant plant traits captured within the functional type concept has serious limitations, as a single set of traits does not reflect trait variation observed within and between species and communities. While this simplification was necessary decades past, substantial improvement is now possible. Rather than assigning a small number of constant parameter values to all grid cells in a model, procedures will be developed that predict a frequency distribution of values for any given grid cell. Thus, the mean and variance, and how these change with time, will inform and improve model performance. The trait-based approach will improve land modeling by (1) incorporating patterns and heterogeneity of traits into model parameterization, thus evolving away from a framework that considers large areas of vegetation to have near identical trait

  20. PROXiMATE: a database of mutant protein-protein complex thermodynamics and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemimah, Sherlyn; Yugandhar, K; Michael Gromiha, M

    2017-09-01

    We have developed PROXiMATE, a database of thermodynamic data for more than 6000 missense mutations in 174 heterodimeric protein-protein complexes, supplemented with interaction network data from STRING database, solvent accessibility, sequence, structural and functional information, experimental conditions and literature information. Additional features include complex structure visualization, search and display options, download options and a provision for users to upload their data. The database is freely available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/PROXiMATE/ . The website is implemented in Python, and supports recent versions of major browsers such as IE10, Firefox, Chrome and Opera. gromiha@iitm.ac.in. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.