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Sample records for functional conversion patterns

  1. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in predementia late-onset bvFTD

    Morbelli, Silvia; Fiz, Francesco; Bossert, Irene; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Picori, Lorena; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Ferrara, Michela; Dessi, Barbara; Arnaldi, Dario; Picco, Agnese; Accardo, Jennifer; Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Mandich, Paola; Pagani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is challenging during the predementia stage when symptoms are subtle and confounding. Morphological and functional neuroimaging can be particularly helpful during this stage but few data are available. We retrospectively selected 25 patients with late-onset probable bvFTD. Brain structural MRI and FDG PET were performed during the predementia stage (mean MMSE score 27.1 ± 2.5) on average 2 years before. The findings with the two imaging modalities were compared (SPM8) with those in a group of 20 healthy subjects. The bvFTD patients were divided into two subgroups: those with predominant disinhibition (bvFTD+) and those with apathy (bvFTD-). Hypometabolism exceeded grey matter (GM) density reduction in terms of both extension and statistical significance in all comparisons. In the whole bvFTD group, hypometabolism involved the bilateral medial, inferior and superior lateral frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, left temporal and right parietal cortices and the caudate nuclei. GM density reduction was limited to the right frontal cortex and the left medial temporal lobe. In bvFTD+ patients hypometabolism was found in the bilateral medial and basal frontal cortex, while GM reduction involved the left anterior cingulate and left inferior frontal cortices, and the right insula. In bvFTD- patients, atrophy and mainly hypometabolism involved the lateral frontal cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. These findings suggest that hypometabolism is more extensive than, and thus probably precedes, atrophy in predementia late-onset bvFTD, underscoring different topographic involvement in disinhibited and apathetic presentations. If confirmed in a larger series, these results should prompt biomarker operationalization in bvFTD, especially for patient selection in therapeutic clinical trials. (orig.)

  2. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in predementia late-onset bvFTD

    Morbelli, Silvia; Fiz, Francesco; Bossert, Irene; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Picori, Lorena; Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Health Science (DISSAL), Genoa (Italy); Ferrara, Michela; Dessi, Barbara; Arnaldi, Dario; Picco, Agnese; Accardo, Jennifer; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Girtler, Nicola [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Psychology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Mandich, Paola [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Medical Genetics, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-15

    The diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is challenging during the predementia stage when symptoms are subtle and confounding. Morphological and functional neuroimaging can be particularly helpful during this stage but few data are available. We retrospectively selected 25 patients with late-onset probable bvFTD. Brain structural MRI and FDG PET were performed during the predementia stage (mean MMSE score 27.1 ± 2.5) on average 2 years before. The findings with the two imaging modalities were compared (SPM8) with those in a group of 20 healthy subjects. The bvFTD patients were divided into two subgroups: those with predominant disinhibition (bvFTD+) and those with apathy (bvFTD-). Hypometabolism exceeded grey matter (GM) density reduction in terms of both extension and statistical significance in all comparisons. In the whole bvFTD group, hypometabolism involved the bilateral medial, inferior and superior lateral frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, left temporal and right parietal cortices and the caudate nuclei. GM density reduction was limited to the right frontal cortex and the left medial temporal lobe. In bvFTD+ patients hypometabolism was found in the bilateral medial and basal frontal cortex, while GM reduction involved the left anterior cingulate and left inferior frontal cortices, and the right insula. In bvFTD- patients, atrophy and mainly hypometabolism involved the lateral frontal cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. These findings suggest that hypometabolism is more extensive than, and thus probably precedes, atrophy in predementia late-onset bvFTD, underscoring different topographic involvement in disinhibited and apathetic presentations. If confirmed in a larger series, these results should prompt biomarker operationalization in bvFTD, especially for patient selection in therapeutic clinical trials. (orig.)

  3. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Piccini, Alessandra [Cell Biology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa (Italy); Caroli, Anna [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy); Mario Negri Institute, Medical Imaging Unit, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bergamo (Italy); Frisoni, Giovanni [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  4. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Morbelli, Silvia; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero; Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio; Piccini, Alessandra; Caroli, Anna; Frisoni, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  5. Tropical Land Use Conversion Effects on Soil Microbial Community Structure and Function: Emerging Patterns and Knowledge Gaps

    Seeley, M.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2016-12-01

    Modifications in vegetation due to land use conversions (LUC) between primary forests, pasture, cropping systems, tree plantations, and secondary forests drive shifts in soil microbial communities. These microbial community alterations affect carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, aboveground biomass, and numerous other soil processes. Despite their importance, little is known about soil microbial organisms' response to LUC, especially in tropical regions where LUC rates are greatest. This project identifies current trends and uncertainties in tropical soil microbiology by comparing 56 published studies on LUC in tropical regions. This review indicates that microbial biomass and functional groups shifted in response to LUC, supporting demonstrated trends in changing soil carbon stocks due to LUC. Microbial biomass was greatest in primary forests when compared to secondary forests and in all forests when compared to both cropping systems and tree plantations. No trend existed when comparing pasture systems and forests, likely due to variations in pasture fertilizer use. Cropping system soils had greater gram positive and less gram negative bacteria than forest soils, potentially resulting in greater respiration of older carbon stocks in agricultural soils. Bacteria dominated primary forests while fungal populations were greatest in secondary forests. To characterize changes in microbial communities resulting from land use change, research must reflect the biophysical variation across the tropics. A chi-squared test revealed that the literature sites represented mean annual temperature variation across the tropics (p-value=0.66).

  6. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  7. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: the role of ancillary activation.

    Burke, Matthew J; Ghaffar, Omar; Staines, W Richard; Downar, Jonathan; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neuroanatomy of conversion disorder have yielded inconsistent results that may be attributed to small sample sizes and disparate methodologies. The objective of this study was to better define the functional neuroanatomical correlates of conversion disorder. Ten subjects meeting clinical criteria for unilateral sensory conversion disorder underwent fMRI during which a vibrotactile stimulus was applied to anesthetic and sensate areas. A block design was used with 4 s of stimulation followed by 26 s of rest, the pattern repeated 10 times. Event-related group averages of the BOLD response were compared between conditions. All subjects were right-handed females, with a mean age of 41. Group analyses revealed 10 areas that had significantly greater activation (p conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder.

  8. Spatial pattern of agricultural land conversion in West Java Province

    Maryati, S.; Humaira, A. N. S.; Pratiwi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Population growth has an implication on increasing demand for land. The demand for built-up area is filled by land conversion, mostly from agricultural land. On the other hand, population growth requires an increase in food production as well as land for agriculture. Conversion of agricultural land can threaten the availability and food security. The purpose of this study is to identify the spatial pattern of changes in agricultural land in West Java Province as input to improve food security condition in this province. Descriptive statistics and spatial analysis were used to analyse the area of agricultural land, conversion of agricultural land, and spatial pattern of changes in agricultural land in West Java Province. The data used is time series data in the period of 2005-2014. The result of analysis shows that there are still areas with a high percentage of agricultural land in West Java Province. The rate of conversion of agricultural land varies widely. Cities or regions with very high land conversion rate tend to concentrate in metropolitan areas.

  9. Functional Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of Functional Neurological Disorders (Conversion Disorder).

    Voon, Valerie; Cavanna, Andrea E; Coburn, Kerry; Sampson, Shirlene; Reeve, Alya; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-01-01

    Much is known regarding the physical characteristics, comorbid symptoms, psychological makeup, and neuropsychological performance of patients with functional neurological disorders (FNDs)/conversion disorders. Gross neurostructural deficits do not account for the patients' deficits or symptoms. This review describes the literature focusing on potential neurobiological (i.e. functional neuroanatomic/neurophysiological) findings among individuals with FND, examining neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies of patients with the various forms of motor and sensory FND. In summary, neural networks and neurophysiologic mechanisms may mediate "functional" symptoms, reflecting neurobiological and intrapsychic processes.

  10. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study

  11. Mapping the online communication patterns of political conversations

    Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Benito, R. M.; Losada, J. C.

    2014-11-01

    The structure of the social networks in which individuals are embedded influences their political choices and therefore their voting behavior. Nowadays, social media represent a new channel for individuals to communicate, what together with the availability of the data, makes it possible to analyze the online social network resulting from political conversations. Here, by taking advantage of the recently developed techniques to analyze complex systems, we map the communication patterns resulting from Spanish political conversations. We identify the different existing communities, building networks of communities, and finding that users cluster themselves in politically homogeneous networks. We found that while most of the collective attention was monopolized by politicians, traditional media accounts were still the preferred sources from which to propagate information. Finally, we propose methods to analyze the use of different languages, finding a clear trend from sympathizers of several political parties to overuse or infra-use each language. We conclude that, on the light of a social media analysis perspective, the political conversation is constrained by both ideology and language.

  12. Radial Basis Function Networks for Conversion of Sound Spectra

    Carlo Drioli

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In many advanced signal processing tasks, such as pitch shifting, voice conversion or sound synthesis, accurate spectral processing is required. Here, the use of Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN is proposed for the modeling of the spectral changes (or conversions related to the control of important sound parameters, such as pitch or intensity. The identification of such conversion functions is based on a procedure which learns the shape of the conversion from few couples of target spectra from a data set. The generalization properties of RBFNs provides for interpolation with respect to the pitch range. In the construction of the training set, mel-cepstral encoding of the spectrum is used to catch the perceptually most relevant spectral changes. Moreover, a singular value decomposition (SVD approach is used to reduce the dimension of conversion functions. The RBFN conversion functions introduced are characterized by a perceptually-based fast training procedure, desirable interpolation properties and computational efficiency.

  13. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  14. Conversion, Factitious Disorder and Malingering: A Distinct Pattern or a Continuum?

    Galli, Silvio; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Aybek, Selma

    2018-01-01

    This chapter is aimed at highlighting the recent findings concerning physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of conversion, factitious disorder, and malingering. Conversion disorder is the unintentional production of neurological symptom, whereas malingering and factitious disorder represent the voluntary production of symptoms with internal or external incentives. They have a close history and this has been frequently confounded. Practitioners are often confronted to medically unexplained symptoms; they represent almost 30% of neurologist's consultation. The first challenge is to detect them, and recent studies have confirmed the importance of "positive" clinical bedside signs based on incoherence and discordance, such as the Hoover's sign for the diagnosis of conversion disorder. Functional neuroimaging has allowed a better understanding of the pathophysiology, and highlighted abnormal cerebral activation patterns in conversion disorder in relation to motor, emotional, and limbic networks, different from feigners. This supports the theory evoked by Charcot of a "psychodynamic lesion," which is also reflected by the new term introduced in the DSM-5: functional neurological disorder. Multidisciplinary therapy is recommended with behavioral cognitive therapy, antidepressant to treat frequent comorbid anxiety or depression, and physiotherapy. Factitious disorder and malingering should be clearly delineated from conversion disorder. Factitious disorder should be considered as a mental illness and more research on its physiopathology and treatment is needed, when malingering is a non-medical condition encountered in medico-legal cases. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A functional-pragmatic analysis of conversation management ...

    Nonetheless, they have a communicative function and their role of giving the conversations a structure by encoding the emotive aspects of interpersonal interaction are of a pragmatic nature, hence their interpretation is derived from the contexts in which they are applied. They regulate the structure of the conversations by ...

  16. Proposal for functional conversions - Bucharest Faur

    Camelia Teodorescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study consists of the active involvement in what concerns finding sustainable solutions in terms of cohesion and dynamics of urban space in Bucharest. Bucharest has a particular character, is a living organism, where inevitably, at some point, there will exist the need to intervene in maintaining a balance, to function or to find a remedy, within the system of relationships, of its functions. Amid a confused political and social context (with economic interests, there have occurred in the late 25 years, the expansion tendencies which have been installed, without however being taken into account the demographic factors of landscape, the architectonic ones, the ones regarding the landscapes and last, but not least, the urbanistic ones. The partial results obtained underline the outstanding impact of the occurrence of residential assemblies and public function constructions (mainly office building in Bucharest, especially in the areas that were occupied in the Communist period by industrial platforms. Improving the quality of life can be achieved by a comprehensive rethinking of space organizing and by providing solutions in order to ensure the optimum ratio between built space, green space and visual accessibility of those living in the new residential spaces proposed instead of former industrial areas.

  17. Motor and somatosensory conversion disorder: a functional unawareness syndrome?

    Perez, David L; Barsky, Arthur J; Daffner, Kirk; Silbersweig, David A

    2012-01-01

    Although conversion disorder is closely connected to the origins of neurology and psychiatry, it remains poorly understood. In this article, the authors discuss neural and clinical parallels between lesional unawareness disorders and unilateral motor and somatosensory conversion disorder, emphasizing functional neuroimaging/disease correlates. Authors suggest that a functional-unawareness neurobiological framework, mediated by right hemisphere-lateralized, large-scale brain network dysfunction, may play a significant role in the neurobiology of conversion disorder. The perigenual anterior cingulate and the posterior parietal cortices are detailed as important in disease pathophysiology. Further investigations will refine the functional-unawareness concept, clarify the role of affective circuits, and delineate the process through which functional neurologic symptoms emerge.

  18. Theory of mind understanding and conversational patterns in middle childhood.

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2013-01-01

    The author investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding and perceptions of self and social conversations in 17 school-aged children (12 girls, 5 boys, age 8-12 years). ToM was assessed at Time 1 (T1; M age = 8 years 5 months, SD = 8.7 months, and perceptions of self and conversational experiences assessed two years later at Time 2 (T2; M age = 10 years 4 months, SD = 7.9 months. Most importantly, longitudinal findings showed that children who scored relatively high on ToM at T1 reported relatively lower perceptions of self-worth and higher number of mental states verbs in their perceptions of peer and family conversations at T2. Significant negative longitudinal associations were found between children's number of siblings and their perceptions of self-worth (T1) and number of cognitive terms in their perceptions of peer and family conversations (T2). Frequency analysis suggested that girls' perceptions of conversations referred to more social and psychological aspects of self and relationships, whereas boys focused mainly on physical activities. Most children were more likely to prefer listening to talking during social conversations. The majority of children reported feelings of mixed or ambiguous emotions during experiences of silence. Implications for socioemotional and cognitive development in early adolescents are discussed.

  19. Asymmetric Functional Conversion of Eubacterial Light-driven Ion Pumps*

    Inoue, Keiichi; Nomura, Yurika; Kandori, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the well-known light-driven outward proton pumps, novel ion-pumping rhodopsins functioning as outward Na+ and inward Cl− pumps have been recently found in eubacteria. They convert light energy into transmembrane electrochemical potential difference, similar to the prototypical archaeal H+ pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and Cl− pump halorhodopsin (HR). The H+, Na+, and Cl− pumps possess the conserved respective DTE, NDQ, and NTQ motifs in the helix C, which likely serve as their functional determinants. To verify this hypothesis, we attempted functional interconversion between selected pumps from each category by mutagenesis. Introduction of the proton-pumping motif resulted in successful Na+ → H+ functional conversion. Introduction of the respective characteristic motifs with several additional mutations leads to successful Na+ → Cl− and Cl− → H+ functional conversions, whereas remaining conversions (H+ → Na+, H+ → Cl−, Cl− → Na+) were unsuccessful when mutagenesis of 4–6 residues was used. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that a H+ pump is the common ancestor of all of these rhodopsins, from which Cl− pumps emerged followed by Na+ pumps. We propose that successful functional conversions of these ion pumps are achieved exclusively when mutagenesis reverses the evolutionary amino acid sequence changes. Dependence of the observed functional conversions on the direction of evolution strongly suggests that the essential structural mechanism of an ancestral function is retained even after the gain of a new function during natural evolution, which can be evoked by a few mutations. By contrast, the gain of a new function needs accumulation of multiple mutations, which may not be easily reproduced by limited mutagenesis in vitro. PMID:26929409

  20. Functional possibilities of nonlinear crystals for frequency conversion: uniaxial crystals

    Andreev, Yu M [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Arapov, Yu D; Kasyanov, I V [E.I. Zababakhin All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Technical Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Centre, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region (Russian Federation); Grechin, S G; Nikolaev, P P [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    The method and results of the analysis of phase-matching and nonlinear properties for all point groups of symmetry of uniaxial crystals that determine their functional possibilities for solving various problems of nonlinear frequency conversion of laser radiation are presented. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  1. Visual Iconic Patterns of Instant Messaging: Steps Towards Understanding Visual Conversations

    Bays, Hillary

    An Instant Messaging (IM) conversation is a dynamic communication register made up of text, images, animation and sound played out on a screen with potentially several parallel conversations and activities all within a physical environment. This article first examines how best to capture this unique gestalt using in situ recording techniques (video, screen capture, XML logs) which highlight the micro-phenomenal level of the exchange and the macro-social level of the interaction. Of particular interest are smileys first as cultural artifacts in CMC in general then as linguistic markers. A brief taxonomy of these markers is proposed in an attempt to clarify their frequency and patterns of their use. Then, focus is placed on their importance as perceptual cues which facilitate communication, while also serving as emotive and emphatic functional markers. We try to demonstrate that the use of smileys and animation is not arbitrary but an organized interactional and structured practice. Finally, we discuss how the study of visual markers in IM could inform the study of other visual conversation codes, such as sign languages, which also have co-produced, physical behavior, suggesting the possibility of a visual phonology.

  2. Patterns in Parent-Child Conversations about Animals at a Marine Science Center

    Rigney, Jennifer C.; Callanan, Maureen A.

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child conversations are a potential source of children's developing understanding of the biological domain. We investigated patterns in parent-child conversations that may inform children about biological domain boundaries. At a marine science center exhibit, we compared parent-child talk about typical sea animals with faces (fish) with…

  3. Functionalization of graphene for efficient energy conversion and storage.

    Dai, Liming

    2013-01-15

    As global energy consumption accelerates at an alarming rate, the development of clean and renewable energy conversion and storage systems has become more important than ever. Although the efficiency of energy conversion and storage devices depends on a variety of factors, their overall performance strongly relies on the structure and properties of the component materials. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. As a building block for carbon materials of all other dimensionalities (such as 0D buckyball, 1D nanotube, 3D graphite), the two-dimensional (2D) single atomic carbon sheet of graphene has emerged as an attractive candidate for energy applications due to its unique structure and properties. Like other materials, however, a graphene-based material that possesses desirable bulk properties rarely features the surface characteristics required for certain specific applications. Therefore, surface functionalization is essential, and researchers have devised various covalent and noncovalent chemistries for making graphene materials with the bulk and surface properties needed for efficient energy conversion and storage. In this Account, I summarize some of our new ideas and strategies for the controlled functionalization of graphene for the development of efficient energy conversion and storage devices, such as solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, and batteries. The dangling bonds at the edge of graphene can be used for the covalent attachment of various chemical moieties while the graphene basal plane can be modified via either covalent or noncovalent functionalization. The asymmetric functionalization of the two opposite surfaces of individual graphene sheets with different moieties can lead to the self-assembly of graphene sheets into hierarchically structured materials. Judicious

  4. Collaborative role construction in a conversation with dementia: an application of systemic functional linguistics.

    Müller, Nicole; Wilson, Brent T

    2008-01-01

    This study applies the tools provided by Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) to the description of patterns in a conversation between a person with dementia and a person without. It shows how, in the presence of, on the one hand, considerable communicative and cognitive deficits, and on the other, a collaborative interlocutor, a person with dementia succeeds in leading and sustaining a lengthy conversation, and of constructing for himself a positive role in the interaction, namely that of the elder advising a much younger man.

  5. Functional neuroimaging of recovery from motor conversion disorder: A case report

    Dogonowski, A M; Andersen, Kasper W.; Sellebjerg, F

    2018-01-01

    A patient with motor conversion disorder presented with a functional paresis of the left hand. After exclusion of structural brain damage, she was repeatedly examined with whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging, while she performed visually paced finger-tapping tasks. The dorsal premotor...... cortex showed a bilateral deactivation in the acute-subacute phase. Recovery from unilateral hand paresis was associated with a gradual increase in task-based activation of the dorsal premotor cortex bilaterally. The right medial prefrontal cortex displayed the opposite pattern, showing initial task...... that an excessive 'veto' signal generated in medial prefrontal cortex along with decreased premotor activity might constitute the functional substrate of conversion disorder. This notion warrants further examination in a larger group of affected patients....

  6. Forms and Functions of Idiomatic Expressions in Conversational Interaction

    Schmale, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a study of the conversational treatment of idiomatic expressions of German talk shows, the present treaty examines in which form and in which way idiomatic expressions are being employed and treated by participants in authentic conversations. Based on four conversational corpora from various domains seven different types of auto- and hetero-rephrasals and paraphrases are described. For each type general and specific functions are then analyzed. The article also deals with idiomatic expressions which remain untreated, i. e. where no subsequent activity might provide a clue as to the understanding of the idiom in question. The study thus concentrates on co(ntextual or semantic indicators which might facilitate the understanding and interpretation of untreated idioms. Finally the hypothesis is put forward that not the correct understanding of an idiom is decisive but rather the production of a next activity meeting the idiom producer's expectations. The idiom may even be misinterpreted as long as its host turn can be interpreted adequately in order to produce a conditionally relevant following turn.

  7. Alteration of gene conversion patterns in Sordaria fimicola by supplementation with DNA bases.

    Kitani, Y; Olive, L S

    1970-08-01

    Supplementation with DNA bases in crosses of Sordaria fimicola heterozygous for spore color markers (g(1), h(2)) within the gray-spore (g) locus has been found to cause significant alterations in patterns of gene conversion at the two mutant sites. Each base had its own characteristic effect in altering the conversion pattern, and responses of the two mutant sites to the four bases were different in several ways. Also, the responses of the two involved chromatids of the meiotic bivalent were different.

  8. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    Ejareh dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard AA

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. PMID:26834476

  9. Communication Patterns, Contradictions, and Family Functions.

    Yerby, Janet; Buerkel-Rothfuss, Nancy L.

    Families are rule-governed systems of interdependent individuals whose interaction follows an intricate pattern of behavior. Communication patterns in a family reflect and emerge from contradictions in rules. A function may be defined as something that a system does and must do if it is not to break down. For instance identity and stability…

  10. Derivation of pulse height to exposure rate conversion functions for aerial radiological surveys

    Artuso, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for deriving conversion functions that can be used to convert pulse height spectra taken at altitude to the exposure rate at the 1-m level. An integral equation is set up which involves the integration of a calculated pulse height spectrum multiplied by an unknown conversion function and then set equal to the exposure rate at ground level. This equation is then solved for the conversion function by assuming as a solution a three-term polynomial. Conversion functions have been derived for various source distributions, including surface, uniform, and exponentially distributed sources. These conversion functions are independent of source energy, which means that a conversion can be made without any knowledge of the isotopic content of the source. In the case of a uniform distribution, these conversion functions provide conversions that agree to within 10% with ground truth measurements

  11. Selective functionalization of patterned glass surfaces

    Ploetz, E.; Visser, B.; Slingenbergh, W.; Evers, K.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Pei, Y. T.; Feringa, B. L.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Cordes, T.; van Dorp, W. F.

    2014-01-01

    Tailored writing and specific positioning of molecules on nanostructures is a key step for creating functional materials and nano-optical devices, or interfaces for synthetic machines in various applications. We present a novel approach for the selective functionalization of patterned glass surfaces

  12. Functional neuroimaging of recovery from motor conversion disorder: A case report.

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Kasper W; Sellebjerg, Finn; Schreiber, Karen; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2018-03-27

    A patient with motor conversion disorder presented with a functional paresis of the left hand. After exclusion of structural brain damage, she was repeatedly examined with whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging, while she performed visually paced finger-tapping tasks. The dorsal premotor cortex showed a bilateral deactivation in the acute-subacute phase. Recovery from unilateral hand paresis was associated with a gradual increase in task-based activation of the dorsal premotor cortex bilaterally. The right medial prefrontal cortex displayed the opposite pattern, showing initial task-based activation that gradually diminished with recovery. The inverse dynamics of premotor and medial prefrontal activity over time were found during unimanual finger-tapping with the affected and non-affected hand as well as during bimanual finger-tapping. These observations suggest that reduced premotor and increased medial prefrontal activity reflect an effector-independent cortical dysfunction in conversion paresis which gradually disappears in parallel with clinical remission of paresis. The results link the medial prefrontal and dorsal premotor areas to the generation of intentional actions. We hypothesise that an excessive 'veto' signal generated in medial prefrontal cortex along with decreased premotor activity might constitute the functional substrate of conversion disorder. This notion warrants further examination in a larger group of affected patients. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intravenous to oral conversion of fluoroquinolones: knowledge versus clinical practice patterns.

    Conort, Ornella; Gabardi, Steven; Didier, Marie-Pauline; Hazebroucq, Georges; Cariou, Alain

    2002-04-01

    To assess the knowledge of prescribers regarding intravenous to oral conversions of fluoroquinolones, the frequency and time until conversion, and to compare prescriber knowledge with the data collected concerning the reasons stated for continuation of intravenous fluoroquinolones. Prospective chart review and questionnaire. Large teaching hospital in Paris, France. Fifty-one males and females. Data were collected on in-patients receiving intravenous fluoroquinolone for at least three days and hospitalized in one of six in-patient units. Patients receiving intravenous fluoroquinolone for less than three days were excluded. A questionnaire to assess the awareness of a potential conversion was distributed to those practitioners who had patients reviewed during the data-collection phase. The questionnaire revealed the ten most common reasons for continuing intravenous administration for more than three days. However, the physicians agreed that most patients should be converted as soon as possible. Practice patterns differed, with only 17 of 51 patients actually converted to oral therapy. In theory, the clinicians were aware of when to perform the conversion. However, in practice, the frequency of conversion was lower than optimum. Changes in clinical practice are needed to decrease the costs of intravenous therapy, without jeopardizing quality of care.

  14. On the conversion of functional models : Bridging differences between functional taxonomies in the modeling of user actions

    Van Eck, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a methodology for the conversion of functional models between functional taxonomies developed by Kitamura et al. (2007) and Ookubo et al. (2007). They apply their methodology to the conversion of functional models described in terms of the Functional Basis taxonomy into

  15. Functional networks of motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients and feigning subjects

    Thomas Hassa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of motor inhibition leading to paresis in conversion disorder are not well known. The key question is whether they are different of those of normal subjects feigning the symptoms. Thirteen conversion disorder patients with hemiparesis and twelve healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance tomography under conditions of passive motor stimulation of the paretic/feigned paretic and the non-paretic hand. Healthy controls were also investigated in a non-feigning condition. During passive movement of the affected right hand conversion disorder patients exhibited activations in the bilateral triangular part of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG, with a left side dominance compared to controls in non-feigning condition. Feigning controls revealed for the same condition a weak unilateral activation in the right triangular part of IFG and an activity decrease in frontal midline areas, which couldn't be observed in patients. The results suggest that motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients is mediated by the IFG that was also involved in inhibition processes in normal subjects. The activity pattern in feigning controls resembled that of conversion disorder patients but with a clear difference in the medial prefrontal cortex. Healthy controls showed decreased activity in this region during feigning compared to non-feigning conditions suggesting a reduced sense of self-agency during feigning. Remarkably, no activity differences could be observed in medial prefrontal cortex for patients vs healthy controls in feigning or non-feigning conditions suggesting self-agency related activity in patients to be in between those of non-feigning and feigning healthy subjects.

  16. Functional networks of motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients and feigning subjects.

    Hassa, Thomas; de Jel, Esther; Tuescher, Oliver; Schmidt, Roger; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of motor inhibition leading to paresis in conversion disorder are not well known. The key question is whether they are different of those of normal subjects feigning the symptoms. Thirteen conversion disorder patients with hemiparesis and twelve healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance tomography under conditions of passive motor stimulation of the paretic/feigned paretic and the non-paretic hand. Healthy controls were also investigated in a non-feigning condition. During passive movement of the affected right hand conversion disorder patients exhibited activations in the bilateral triangular part of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), with a left side dominance compared to controls in non-feigning condition. Feigning controls revealed for the same condition a weak unilateral activation in the right triangular part of IFG and an activity decrease in frontal midline areas, which couldn't be observed in patients. The results suggest that motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients is mediated by the IFG that was also involved in inhibition processes in normal subjects. The activity pattern in feigning controls resembled that of conversion disorder patients but with a clear difference in the medial prefrontal cortex. Healthy controls showed decreased activity in this region during feigning compared to non-feigning conditions suggesting a reduced sense of self-agency during feigning. Remarkably, no activity differences could be observed in medial prefrontal cortex for patients vs healthy controls in feigning or non-feigning conditions suggesting self-agency related activity in patients to be in between those of non-feigning and feigning healthy subjects.

  17. Conversational Repair in School-Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Pei-Mei Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the conversational repair skills of Mandarin Chinese-speaking children with high-functioning autism (HFA as compared with those of typically developing children (TD. Ten school-aged children (age 9 to 12 with HFA were recruited and matched against ten TD children in the control group based on age, gender, and verbal intelligence level. During three different conversation situations (free talk, story picture description, play, an examiner engineered 9 episodes of communicative breakdowns. Each consisted of a stacked series of three prompts for responding to requests for clarification (RQCLs (i.e.‘What?’, ‘I don’t understand’, ‘I still don’t know’. Verbal responses to each RQCL were then coded for further analyses. The results showed that (1 In response to the stacked series RQCLs, children with HFA were similar to the control group children in evidencing repetition, revision, and addition types of repair. Furthermore, children with HFA showed fewer cue type of repair and more inappropriate type of repair than TD group. (2For both groups, the pattern of responding over the series of RQCLs was similar in varying the repetition and revision types of repair strategies. However, the pattern in the addition, cue, and inappropriate types of repair strategies were different. Children with HFA were significantly more likely to respond to an RQCL with an inappropriate response than the language and age-matched controls. It is suggested that teachers and parents could facilitate the conversational repair skills of children with high-functioning autism by offering them opportunities to manage different types of communicative breakdowns.

  18. Chemomechanical functionalization and patterning of silicon.

    Yang, Li; Lua, Yit-Yian; Lee, Michael V; Linford, Matthew R

    2005-12-01

    The chemomechanical method has emerged as a straightforward and convenient tool for simultaneously functionalizing and patterning silicon. This technique simply consists of wetting (or exposing) a silicon surface to a reactive chemical and then scribing. Scribing activates the surface and leads to monolayer formation. The properties of the monolayers are dependent on the reactive chemicals used, and mixed monolayers and funtionalized monolayers are easily produced with mixed chemicals or alpha,omega-bifunctional compounds, respectively. Both micrometer and nanometer sized functionalized features have been created. It has been shown that this technique has potential in a variety of applications.

  19. Automatic conversational scene analysis in children with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism and typically developing peers.

    Tavano, Alessandro; Pesarin, Anna; Murino, Vittorio; Cristani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded as interacting Markov processes, operating on novel speech/silence patterns, termed Steady Conversational Periods (SCPs). SCPs assume that whenever an agent's process changes state (e.g., from silence to speech), it causes a general transition of the entire conversational process, forcing inter-actant synchronization. SCPs fed into observed influence models, which captured the conversational dynamics of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism, and age-matched typically developing participants. Analyzing the parameters of the models by means of discriminative classifiers, the dialogs of patients were successfully distinguished from those of control participants. We conclude that meaning-free speech/silence sequences, reflecting inter-actant synchronization, at least partially encode typical and atypical conversational dynamics. This suggests a direct influence of theory of mind abilities onto basic speech initiative behavior.

  20. Automatic conversational scene analysis in children with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism and typically developing peers.

    Alessandro Tavano

    Full Text Available Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded as interacting Markov processes, operating on novel speech/silence patterns, termed Steady Conversational Periods (SCPs. SCPs assume that whenever an agent's process changes state (e.g., from silence to speech, it causes a general transition of the entire conversational process, forcing inter-actant synchronization. SCPs fed into observed influence models, which captured the conversational dynamics of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism, and age-matched typically developing participants. Analyzing the parameters of the models by means of discriminative classifiers, the dialogs of patients were successfully distinguished from those of control participants. We conclude that meaning-free speech/silence sequences, reflecting inter-actant synchronization, at least partially encode typical and atypical conversational dynamics. This suggests a direct influence of theory of mind abilities onto basic speech initiative behavior.

  1. Characterizing brain patterns in conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease

    Silva R., Santiago S.; Giraldo, Diana L.; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Structural Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain images should provide quantitative information about the stage and progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, the use of MRI is limited and practically reduced to corroborate a diagnosis already performed with neuropsychological tools. This paper presents an automated strategy for extraction of relevant anatomic patterns related with the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) using T1-weighted MR images. The process starts by representing each of the possible classes with models generated from a linear combination of volumes. The difference between models allows us to establish which are the regions where relevant patterns might be located. The approach searches patterns in a space of brain sulci, herein approximated by the most representative gradients found in regions of interest defined by the difference between the linear models. This hypothesis is assessed by training a conventional SVM model with the found relevant patterns under a leave-one-out scheme. The resultant AUC was 0.86 for the group of women and 0.61 for the group of men.

  2. Chemical Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Functional Schwann Cells

    Eva C. Thoma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells is a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. However, conversion across germ-layer borders often requires ectopic gene expression with unpredictable side effects. Here, we present a gene-free approach that allows efficient conversion of human fibroblasts via a transient progenitor stage into Schwann cells, the major glial cell type of peripheral nerves. Using a multikinase inhibitor, we transdifferentiated fibroblasts into transient neural precursors that were subsequently further differentiated into Schwann cells. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs expressed numerous Schwann cell-specific proteins and displayed neurosupportive and myelination capacity in vitro. Thus, we established a strategy to obtain mature Schwann cells from human postnatal fibroblasts under chemically defined conditions without the introduction of ectopic genes.

  3. Conversion Disorder, Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder, and Chronic Pain: Comorbidity, Assessment, and Treatment.

    Tsui, Patricia; Deptula, Andrew; Yuan, Derek Y

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the overlap of conversion disorder with chronic pain conditions, describes ways to assess for conversion disorder, and provides an overview of evidence-based treatments for conversion disorder and chronic pain, with a focus on conversion symptoms. Conversion disorder is a significant problem that warrants further study, given that there are not many well-established guidelines. Accurate and timely assessment should help move treatment in a more fruitful direction and avoid unnecessary medical interventions. Advances in neuroimaging may also help further our understanding of conversion disorder. Creating a supportive environment and a collaborative treatment relationship and improving understanding of conversion symptoms appear to help individuals diagnosed with conversion disorder engage in appropriate treatments. Novel uses of earlier treatments, such as hypnosis and psychodynamic approaches, could potentially be beneficial and require a more vigorous and systematic study. There are treatments that produce significant improvements in functioning and reduction of physical symptoms from conversion disorder even for very severe cases. Hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and inpatient multidisciplinary treatment with intensive physiotherapy for severe cases have the most evidence to support reduction of symptoms. Components of treatment for conversion disorder overlap with treatments for chronic pain and can be used together to produce therapeutic effects for both conditions. Treatment needs to be tailored for each individual's specific symptoms.

  4. Echolalia or functional repetition in conversation--a case study of an individual with Huntington's disease.

    Saldert, Charlotta; Hartelius, Lena

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, we investigated the use of repetition in an individual with a neurogenic communication disorder. We present an analysis of interaction in natural conversations between a woman with advanced Huntington's disease (HD), whose speech had been described as sometimes characterised by echolalia, and her personal assistant. The conversational interaction is analysed on a sequential level, and recurrent patterns are explored. Although the ability of the person with HD to interact is affected by chorea, word retrieval problems and reduced comprehension, she takes an active part in conversation. The conversational partner's contributions are often adapted to her communicative ability as they are formulated as questions or suggestions that can be elaborated on or responded to with a simple 'yes' or 'no'. The person with HD often repeats the words of her conversational partner in a way that extends her contributions and shows listenership, and this use of repetition is also frequent in ordinary conversations between non-brain-damaged individuals. The results show that the conversation partners in this case cooperate in making the conversation proceed and evolve, and that verbal repetition is used in a way that works as a strategy for compensating for the impairment.

  5. Patterned functional carbon fibers from polyethylene

    Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Rebecca H [ORNL; Kumbhar, Amar S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Patterned, continuous carbon fibers with controlled surface geometry were produced from a novel melt-processible carbon precursor. This portends the use of a unique technique to produce such technologically innovative fibers in large volume for important applications. The novelties of this technique include ease of designing and fabricating fibers with customized surface contour, the ability to manipulate filament diameter from submicron scale to a couple of orders of magnitude larger scale, and the amenable porosity gradient across the carbon wall by diffusion controlled functionalization of precursor. The geometry of fiber cross-section was tailored by using bicomponent melt-spinning with shaped dies and controlling the melt-processing of the precursor polymer. Circular, trilobal, gear-shaped hollow fibers, and solid star-shaped carbon fibers of 0.5 - 20 um diameters, either in self-assembled bundle form, or non-bonded loose filament form, were produced by carbonizing functionalized-polyethylene fibers. Prior to carbonization, melt-spun fibers were converted to a char-forming mass by optimizing the sulfonation on polyethylene macromolecules. The fibers exhibited distinctly ordered carbon morphologies at the outside skin compared to the inner surface or fiber core. Such order in carbon microstructure can be further tuned by altering processing parameters. Partially sulfonated polyethylene-derived hollow carbon fibers exhibit 2-10 fold surface area (50-500 m2/g) compared to the solid fibers (10-25 m2/g) with pore sizes closer to the inside diameter of the filaments larger than the sizes on the outer layer. These specially functionalized carbon fibers hold promise for extraordinary performance improvements when used, for example, as composite reinforcements, catalyst support media, membranes for gas separation, CO2 sorbents, and active electrodes and current collectors for energy storage applications.

  6. The effects of enactment on communicative competence in aphasic casual conversation: a functional linguistic perspective.

    Groenewold, Rimke; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2018-05-14

    Previous research has shown that speakers with aphasia rely on enactment more often than non-brain-damaged language users. Several studies have been conducted to explain this observed increase, demonstrating that spoken language containing enactment is easier to produce and is more engaging to the conversation partner. This paper describes the effects of the occurrence of enactment in casual conversation involving individuals with aphasia on its level of conversational assertiveness. To evaluate whether and to what extent the occurrence of enactment in speech of individuals with aphasia contributes to its conversational assertiveness. Conversations between a speaker with aphasia and his wife (drawn from AphasiaBank) were analysed in several steps. First, the transcripts were divided into moves, and all moves were coded according to the systemic functional linguistics (SFL) framework. Next, all moves were labelled in terms of their level of conversational assertiveness, as defined in the previous literature. Finally, all enactments were identified and their level of conversational assertiveness was compared with that of non-enactments. Throughout their conversations, the non-brain-damaged speaker was more assertive than the speaker with aphasia. However, the speaker with aphasia produced more enactments than the non-brain-damaged speaker. The moves of the speaker with aphasia containing enactment were more assertive than those without enactment. The use of enactment in the conversations under study positively affected the level of conversational assertiveness of the speaker with aphasia, a competence that is important for speakers with aphasia because it contributes to their floor time, chances to be heard seriously and degree of control over the conversation topic. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  7. Neural Conversion and Patterning of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Developmental Perspective.

    Zirra, Alexandra; Wiethoff, Sarah; Patani, Rickie

    2016-01-01

    Since the reprogramming of adult human terminally differentiated somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) became a reality in 2007, only eight years have passed. Yet over this relatively short period, myriad experiments have revolutionized previous stem cell dogmata. The tremendous promise of hiPSC technology for regenerative medicine has fuelled rising expectations from both the public and scientific communities alike. In order to effectively harness hiPSCs to uncover fundamental mechanisms of disease, it is imperative to first understand the developmental neurobiology underpinning their lineage restriction choices in order to predictably manipulate cell fate to desired derivatives. Significant progress in developmental biology provides an invaluable resource for rationalising directed differentiation of hiPSCs to cellular derivatives of the nervous system. In this paper we begin by reviewing core developmental concepts underlying neural induction in order to provide context for how such insights have guided reductionist in vitro models of neural conversion from hiPSCs. We then discuss early factors relevant in neural patterning, again drawing upon crucial knowledge gained from developmental neurobiological studies. We conclude by discussing open questions relating to these concepts and how their resolution might serve to strengthen the promise of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine.

  8. Neural Conversion and Patterning of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Developmental Perspective

    Alexandra Zirra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the reprogramming of adult human terminally differentiated somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs became a reality in 2007, only eight years have passed. Yet over this relatively short period, myriad experiments have revolutionized previous stem cell dogmata. The tremendous promise of hiPSC technology for regenerative medicine has fuelled rising expectations from both the public and scientific communities alike. In order to effectively harness hiPSCs to uncover fundamental mechanisms of disease, it is imperative to first understand the developmental neurobiology underpinning their lineage restriction choices in order to predictably manipulate cell fate to desired derivatives. Significant progress in developmental biology provides an invaluable resource for rationalising directed differentiation of hiPSCs to cellular derivatives of the nervous system. In this paper we begin by reviewing core developmental concepts underlying neural induction in order to provide context for how such insights have guided reductionist in vitro models of neural conversion from hiPSCs. We then discuss early factors relevant in neural patterning, again drawing upon crucial knowledge gained from developmental neurobiological studies. We conclude by discussing open questions relating to these concepts and how their resolution might serve to strengthen the promise of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine.

  9. Conservation of small-airway function by tacrolimus/cyclosporine conversion in the management of bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation.

    Revell, M P; Lewis, M E; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Wilson, I C; Bonser, R S

    2000-12-01

    We studied serial lung function in 11 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome who were treated with tacrolimus conversion following lung or heart-lung transplantation. Our results show that tacrolimus conversion slows the decline of lung function in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The attenuation continues for at least 1 year following conversion.

  10. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function.......In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function....

  11. Conversational assessment in memory clinic encounters: interactional profiling for differentiating dementia from functional memory disorders.

    Jones, Danielle; Drew, Paul; Elsey, Christopher; Blackburn, Daniel; Wakefield, Sarah; Harkness, Kirsty; Reuber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In the UK dementia is under-diagnosed, there is limited access to specialist memory clinics, and many of the patients referred to such clinics are ultimately found to have functional (non-progressive) memory disorders (FMD), rather than a neurodegenerative disorder. Government initiatives on 'timely diagnosis' aim to improve the rate and quality of diagnosis for those with dementia. This study seeks to improve the screening and diagnostic process by analysing communication between clinicians and patients during initial specialist clinic visits. Establishing differential conversational profiles could help the timely differential diagnosis of memory complaints. This study is based on video- and audio recordings of 25 initial consultations between neurologists and patients referred to a UK memory clinic. Conversation analysis was used to explore recurrent communicative practices associated with each diagnostic group. Two discrete conversational profiles began to emerge, to help differentiate between patients with dementia and functional memory complaints, based on (1) whether the patient is able to answer questions about personal information; (2) whether they can display working memory in interaction; (3) whether they are able to respond to compound questions; (4) the time taken to respond to questions; and (5) the level of detail they offer when providing an account of their memory failure experiences. The distinctive conversational profiles observed in patients with functional memory complaints on the one hand and neurodegenerative memory conditions on the other suggest that conversational profiling can support the differential diagnosis of functional and neurodegenerative memory disorders.

  12. Analyzing animal movement patterns using potential functions

    H. K. Preisler; A. A. Ager; M. J. Wisdom

    2013-01-01

    The advent of GPS technology has made it possible to study human-wildlife interactions on large landscapes and quantify behavioral responses to recreation and other anthropogenic disturbances at increasingly fine scales. Of particular interest are the potential impacts on habitat use patterns, energetics, and cascading impacts on fecundity and other life history traits...

  13. The Function of Gesture in Lexically Focused L2 Instructional Conversations

    Smotrova, Tetyana; Lantolf, James P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediational function of the gesture-speech interface in the instructional conversation that emerged as teachers attempted to explain the meaning of English words to their students in two EFL classrooms in the Ukraine. Its analytical framework is provided by Vygotsky's sociocultural psychology…

  14. Deficient gaze pattern during virtual multiparty conversation in patients with schizophrenia.

    Han, Kiwan; Shin, Jungeun; Yoon, Sang Young; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Virtual reality has been used to measure abnormal social characteristics, particularly in one-to-one situations. In real life, however, conversations with multiple companions are common and more complicated than two-party conversations. In this study, we explored the features of social behaviors in patients with schizophrenia during virtual multiparty conversations. Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed the virtual three-party conversation task, which included leading and aiding avatars, positive- and negative-emotion-laden situations, and listening and speaking phases. Patients showed a significant negative correlation in the listening phase between the amount of gaze on the between-avatar space and reasoning ability, and demonstrated increased gaze on the between-avatar space in the speaking phase that was uncorrelated with attentional ability. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have active avoidance of eye contact during three-party conversations. Virtual reality may provide a useful way to measure abnormal social characteristics during multiparty conversations in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. BFLCRM: A BAYESIAN FUNCTIONAL LINEAR COX REGRESSION MODEL FOR PREDICTING TIME TO CONVERSION TO ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.

    Lee, Eunjee; Zhu, Hongtu; Kong, Dehan; Wang, Yalin; Giovanello, Kelly Sullivan; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a Bayesian functional linear Cox regression model (BFLCRM) with both functional and scalar covariates. This new development is motivated by establishing the likelihood of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 346 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 1 (ADNI-1) and the early markers of conversion. These 346 MCI patients were followed over 48 months, with 161 MCI participants progressing to AD at 48 months. The functional linear Cox regression model was used to establish that functional covariates including hippocampus surface morphology and scalar covariates including brain MRI volumes, cognitive performance (ADAS-Cog), and APOE status can accurately predict time to onset of AD. Posterior computation proceeds via an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. A simulation study is performed to evaluate the finite sample performance of BFLCRM.

  16. Teaching Functional Patterns through Robotic Applications

    J. Boender

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present our approach to teaching functional programming to First Year Computer Science students at Middlesex University through projects in robotics. A holistic approach is taken to the curriculum, emphasising the connections between different subject areas. A key part of the students' learning is through practical projects that draw upon and integrate the taught material. To support these, we developed the Middlesex Robotic plaTfOrm (MIRTO, an open-source platform built using Raspberry Pi, Arduino, HUB-ee wheels and running Racket (a LISP dialect. In this paper we present the motivations for our choices and explain how a number of concepts of functional programming may be employed when programming robotic applications. We present some students' work with robotics projects: we consider the use of robotics projects to have been a success, both for their value in reinforcing students' understanding of programming concepts and for their value in motivating the students.

  17. Patterns and predictors of conversion to bipolar disorder in 91 587 individuals diagnosed with unipolar depression.

    Musliner, K L; Østergaard, S D

    2018-05-01

    Conversion from unipolar depression (UD) to bipolar disorder (BD) is a clinically important event that should lead to treatment modifications. Unfortunately, recognition of this transition is often delayed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify predictors of diagnostic conversion from UD to BD. Historical prospective cohort study based on 91 587 individuals diagnosed with UD in Danish hospital psychiatry between 1995 and 2016. The association between a series of potential predictors and the conversion from UD to BD during follow-up (702 710 person-years) was estimated by means of Cox regression with death as competing risk. During follow-up, 3910 individuals with UD developed BD. The cumulative incidence of conversion was slightly higher in females (8.7%, 95% CI: 8.2-9.3) compared to males (7.7%, 95% CI: 7.0-8.4). The strongest predictor of conversion from UD to BD was parental history of BD (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.20-3.07)). Other predictors included psychotic depression at the index UD episode (aHR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.02), a prior/concomitant non-affective psychosis (aHR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.51-1.99), and in-patient treatment at the index episode (aHR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.63-1.91). Diagnostic conversion from UD to BD is predicted by severe depression requiring in-patient treatment, psychotic symptomatology, and parental history of BD. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  19. Paradigmatic List Constructions. Patterns and Functions

    Valentina Benigni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with listing as a useful conceptual tool for categorization and offers an overview of the different types of lists in Russian, highlighting both universal and language-specific characteristics of this kind of construction. The data-driven approach adopted in this study allows you to identify the main criteria according to which lists can be classified (exhaustiveness of the enumeration, conjunction, types of constituents, compositionality, and so on. Particular attention is paid to paradigmatic lists, i.e. lists whose items are in a paradigmatic relationship with each other as either synonyms, co-hyponyms or co-meronyms. The features of this family of lists are dealt with in the framework of Construction Grammar, which accounts for both similarities in structure and meaning and differences in pragmatic and communicative functions.

  20. Assessing elders using the functional health pattern assessment model.

    Beyea, S; Matzo, M

    1989-01-01

    The impact of older Americans on the health care system requires we increase our students' awareness of their unique needs. The authors discuss strategies to develop skills using Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment for assessing older clients.

  1. Differentiability of Palmer's linearization Theorem and converse result for density functions

    Castañeda, Alvaro; Robledo, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    We study differentiability properties in a particular case of the Palmer's linearization Theorem, which states the existence of an homeomorphism $H$ between the solutions of a linear ODE system having exponential dichotomy and a quasilinear system. Indeed, if the linear system is uniformly asymptotically stable, sufficient conditions ensuring that $H$ is a $C^{2}$ preserving orientation diffeomorphism are given. As an application, we generalize a converse result of density functions for a non...

  2. A conversation analysis of the function of silence in writing conferences

    Milad Mirzaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the recent issues in English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL writing instruction has been the quest for a more effective way to give feedback to L2 learners’ writing drafts. Although teacher- learner writing conferences have been increasingly used for providing ample opportunity for negotiating revisions, relatively little attention has been given to actual teacher-learner conversation. Drawing on sociocultural theory, which holds that all cognitive developments are results of ‘social interactions’, and drawing on conversation analysis as an analytical tool, this study attempts to explore the different functions of ‘silence’ in writing conferences during teacher-learner conversation. The data comes from transcripts of six 1-hour writing conferences video-recorded in a graduate program with 7 candidates in Iran. During the writing conferences, learners’ drafts were discussed. Findings of the study demonstrated that teacher’s silence can play a key role in the management of turns in writing conferences, thereby providing the parties with various opportunities for accomplishing intersubjectivity: the teacher used silence to rethink the information provided during writing conferences, and the learner exploited silence to revise the writing draft. The current study, reporting a range of functions of silence in writing conferences, offers an extension to the existing literature and draws language teachers’, specifically writing instructors’, attention to different functions of silence in writing conferences.

  3. Jigsaw puzzle metasurface for multiple functions: polarization conversion, anomalous reflection and diffusion.

    Zhao, Yi; Cao, Xiangyu; Gao, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Li, Sijia

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrate a simple reconfigurable metasurface with multiple functions. Anisotropic tiles are investigated and manufactured as fundamental elements. Then, the tiles are combined in a certain sequence to construct a metasurface. Each of the tiles can be adjusted independently which is like a jigsaw puzzle and the whole metasurface can achieve diverse functions by different layouts. For demonstration purposes, we realize polarization conversion, anomalous reflection and diffusion by a jigsaw puzzle metasurface with 6 × 6 pieces of anisotropic tile. Simulated and measured results prove that our method offers a simple and effective strategy for metasurface design.

  4. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  5. Spatial pattern enhances ecosystem functioning in an African savanna.

    Pringle, Robert M; Doak, Daniel F; Brody, Alison K; Jocqué, Rudy; Palmer, Todd M

    2010-05-25

    The finding that regular spatial patterns can emerge in nature from local interactions between organisms has prompted a search for the ecological importance of these patterns. Theoretical models have predicted that patterning may have positive emergent effects on fundamental ecosystem functions, such as productivity. We provide empirical support for this prediction. In dryland ecosystems, termite mounds are often hotspots of plant growth (primary productivity). Using detailed observations and manipulative experiments in an African savanna, we show that these mounds are also local hotspots of animal abundance (secondary and tertiary productivity): insect abundance and biomass decreased with distance from the nearest termite mound, as did the abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of insect-eating predators. Null-model analyses indicated that at the landscape scale, the evenly spaced distribution of termite mounds produced dramatically greater abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of consumers across trophic levels than would be obtained in landscapes with randomly distributed mounds. These emergent properties of spatial pattern arose because the average distance from an arbitrarily chosen point to the nearest feature in a landscape is minimized in landscapes where the features are hyper-dispersed (i.e., uniformly spaced). This suggests that the linkage between patterning and ecosystem functioning will be common to systems spanning the range of human management intensities. The centrality of spatial pattern to system-wide biomass accumulation underscores the need to conserve pattern-generating organisms and mechanisms, and to incorporate landscape patterning in efforts to restore degraded habitats and maximize the delivery of ecosystem services.

  6. Design of Stratified Functional Nanoporous Materials for CO2 Capture and Conversion

    Johnson, J. Karl [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ye, Jingyun [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-10-03

    The objective of this project is to develop novel nanoporous materials for CO2 capture and conversion. The motivation of this work is that capture of CO2 from flue gas or the atmosphere coupled with catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 into valuable chemicals and fuels can reduce the net amount of CO2 in the atmosphere while providing liquid transportation fuels and other commodity chemicals. One approach to increasing the economic viability of carbon capture and conversion is to design a single material that can be used for both the capture and catalytic conversion of CO2, because such a material could increase efficiency through process intensification. We have used density functional theory (DFT) methods to design catalytic moieties that can be incorporated into various metal organic framework (MOF) materials. We chose to work with MOFs because they are highly tailorable, can be functionalized, and have been shown to selectively adsorb CO2 over N2, which is a requirement for CO2 capture from flue gas. Moreover, the incorporation of molecular catalytic moieties into MOF, through covalent bonding, produces a heterogeneous catalytic material having activities and selectivities close to those of homogeneous catalysts, but without the draw-backs associated with homogeneous catalysis.

  7. An Investigation of Pragmatic Functions and Position of Prevalent Persian Discourse Markers Used in Casual Conversations among Tehrani Speakers

    Manizheh Alami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that a systematic treatment of Persian Discourse Markers (hereafter DMs is almost absent in modern Persian linguistics and to bridge this gap, the audio-recorded data comprising 14 face to face casual conversations involving two-party and multi-party interactions among family members, acquaintances and close friends are used to shed light on these ‘frequently used’ but ‘frequently unnoticed’ linguistic elements. To document a list of the most common DMs typically used in Tehrani dialect of Persian language and to have a detailed description of their discoursal functions in talk, Brinton’s (1996 binary classification of DMs functions (textual and interpersonal was developed to provide an empirically-supported account of the functions and position of Persian DMs in interaction among Tehrani speakers. The present account of DMs which is basically ‘analytical description’ provides the reader with the knowledge about how Persian DMs operate in actual usage. The findings are built upon a 3105-word corpus including 14 audio-recorded conversations among 50 participants. Altogether 34 tokens of Persian DMs with an overall 254 occurrences were identified among which na/na baba (no/no daddy with the total of 33 (12.84% occurrences were the most frequently used Persian DM in the data which are followed by dige (no English equivalent, aare/ba’ale (yep/yes, yani (I mean, vali (but, haalaa/ alaan (now, bebin/nega kon (look and aslan (by no means/ never.To the author, research on the functions and distributional patterns of Persian DMs will broaden our knowledge of their discoursal behavior in language in general and contribute to the already growing cross-linguistic body of work on DMs.

  8. Concordance and discordance between taxonomic and functional homogenization: responses of soil mite assemblages to forest conversion.

    Mori, Akira S; Ota, Aino T; Fujii, Saori; Seino, Tatsuyuki; Kabeya, Daisuke; Okamoto, Toru; Ito, Masamichi T; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Hasegawa, Motohiro

    2015-10-01

    The compositional characteristics of ecological assemblages are often simplified; this process is termed "biotic homogenization." This process of biological reorganization occurs not only taxonomically but also functionally. Testing both aspects of homogenization is essential if ecosystem functioning supported by a diverse mosaic of functional traits in the landscape is concerned. Here, we aimed to infer the underlying processes of taxonomic/functional homogenization at the local scale, which is a scale that is meaningful for this research question. We recorded species of litter-dwelling oribatid mites along a gradient of forest conversion from a natural forest to a monoculture larch plantation in Japan (in total 11 stands), and collected data on the functional traits of the recorded species to quantify functional diversity. We calculated the taxonomic and functional β-diversity, an index of biotic homogenization. We found that both the taxonomic and functional β-diversity decreased with larch dominance (stand homogenization). After further deconstructing β-diversity into the components of turnover and nestedness, which reflect different processes of community organization, a significant decrease in the response to larch dominance was observed only for the functional turnover. As a result, there was a steeper decline in the functional β-diversity than the taxonomic β-diversity. This discordance between the taxonomic and functional response suggests that species replacement occurs between species that are functionally redundant under environmental homogenization, ultimately leading to the stronger homogenization of functional diversity. The insights gained from community organization of oribatid mites suggest that the functional characteristics of local assemblages, which support the functionality of ecosystems, are of more concern in human-dominated forest landscapes.

  9. Functional patterned coatings by thin polymer film dewetting.

    Telford, Andrew M; Thickett, Stuart C; Neto, Chiara

    2017-12-01

    An approach for the fabrication of functional polymer surface coatings is introduced, where micro-scale structure and surface functionality are obtained by means of self-assembly mechanisms. We illustrate two main applications of micro-patterned polymer surfaces obtained through dewetting of bilayers of thin polymer films. By tuning the physical and chemical properties of the polymer bilayers, micro-patterned surface coatings could be produced that have applications both for the selective attachment and patterning of proteins and cells, with potential applications as biomaterials, and for the collection of water from the atmosphere. In all cases, the aim is to achieve functional coatings using approaches that are simple to realize, use low cost materials and are potentially scalable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relating neuronal firing patterns to functional differentiation of cerebral cortex.

    Shigeru Shinomoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns may also vary among cytoarchitectonically unique cortical areas. To examine how neuronal signaling patterns are related to innate cortical functions, we detected intrinsic features of cortical firing by devising a metric that efficiently isolates non-Poisson irregular characteristics, independent of spike rate fluctuations that are caused extrinsically by ever-changing behavioral conditions. Using the new metric, we analyzed spike trains from over 1,000 neurons in 15 cortical areas sampled by eight independent neurophysiological laboratories. Analysis of firing-pattern dissimilarities across cortical areas revealed a gradient of firing regularity that corresponded closely to the functional category of the cortical area; neuronal spiking patterns are regular in motor areas, random in the visual areas, and bursty in the prefrontal area. Thus, signaling patterns may play an important role in function-specific cerebral cortical computation.

  11. Conversion of palatal rugae pattern to scanable Quick Response code in an Arabian population

    Sadatullah Syed

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The alphanumeric and QR code of the rugae pattern are unique for each individual and can be used for digital record keeping and person identification. A high degree of sexual dimorphism in PR exists in the studied Arab population studied.

  12. On the applicability of the critical safety function concept to a uranium hexafluoride conversion unit

    Santos, F.C.; Goncalves, J.S.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e; Medeiros, J.A.C.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the applicability on the critical safety function (CSF) concept as a design criterion for the new UF 6 conversion plant of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil (INB). This discussion is in the context of accident management, under the safety function oriented management. Safety functions may be understood as those whose loss may lead to releases of radioactive material or highly toxic chemicals, having possible radiological and/or occupational consequences for workers, the public or the environment. They should be designed to prevent criticality and to ensure adequate process confinement, thus preventing radioactive material releases that might lead to internal or external exposure and highly toxic chemical releases and exposure. The main hazards is the potential release of chemicals, especially HF and UF 6 . A criticality hazard exists only if the conversion facility processes uranium with a 235 U concentration greater than 1% Industrial activities for UF 6 production include handling and processing explosive, toxic and lethal chemicals, such as HF, H 2 and elemental F 2 , besides intermediate compounds containing uranium. State trees and definition of logical arrangements to construct an annunciation system are the next development stages, resulting form the establishment of applicable CSFs as representative of the next development stages, resulting from the establishment of applicable CSFs as representative of the various systems that make up the conversion plant. Discussed also in the biggest challenge of the development of this innovation, that is, the uncertainties related to the impact of human factors (not subject to monitoring by sensors or process conventional instrumentation). (author)

  13. On the applicability of the critical safety function concept to a uranium hexafluoride conversion unit

    Santos, F.C.; Goncalves, J.S.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e; Medeiros, J.A.C.C., E-mail: fcruz@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: jsgoncalves@inb.gov.br, E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: canedo@imp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the applicability on the critical safety function (CSF) concept as a design criterion for the new UF{sub 6} conversion plant of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil (INB). This discussion is in the context of accident management, under the safety function oriented management. Safety functions may be understood as those whose loss may lead to releases of radioactive material or highly toxic chemicals, having possible radiological and/or occupational consequences for workers, the public or the environment. They should be designed to prevent criticality and to ensure adequate process confinement, thus preventing radioactive material releases that might lead to internal or external exposure and highly toxic chemical releases and exposure. The main hazards is the potential release of chemicals, especially HF and UF{sub 6}. A criticality hazard exists only if the conversion facility processes uranium with a {sup 235}U concentration greater than 1% Industrial activities for UF{sub 6} production include handling and processing explosive, toxic and lethal chemicals, such as HF, H{sub 2} and elemental F{sub 2}, besides intermediate compounds containing uranium. State trees and definition of logical arrangements to construct an annunciation system are the next development stages, resulting form the establishment of applicable CSFs as representative of the next development stages, resulting from the establishment of applicable CSFs as representative of the various systems that make up the conversion plant. Discussed also in the biggest challenge of the development of this innovation, that is, the uncertainties related to the impact of human factors (not subject to monitoring by sensors or process conventional instrumentation). (author)

  14. Progranulin facilitates conversion and function of regulatory T cells under inflammatory conditions.

    Fanhua Wei

    Full Text Available The progranulin (PGRN is known to protect regulatory T cells (Tregs from a negative regulation by TNF-α, and its levels are elevated in various kinds of autoimmune diseases. Whether PGRN directly regulates the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (iTreg, and whether PGRN affects the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, however, remain unknown. In this study we provide evidences demonstrating that PGRN is able to stimulate the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into iTreg in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, PGRN showed synergistic effects with TGF-β1 on the induction of iTreg. PGRN was required for the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, since PGRN-deficient Tregs have a significant decreased ability to suppress the proliferation of effector T cells (Teff. In addition, PGRN deficiency caused a marked reduction in Tregs number in the course of inflammatory arthritis, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of Tregs between wild type and PGRN deficient mice during development. Furthermore, PGRN deficiency led to significant upregulation of the Wnt receptor gene Fzd2. Collectively, this study reveals that PGRN directly regulates the numbers and function of Tregs under inflammatory conditions, and provides new insight into the immune regulatory mechanism of PGRN in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune-related diseases.

  15. Applying systemic functional linguistics to conversations with dementia: the linguistic construction of relationships between participants.

    Müller, Nicole; Mok, Zaneta

    2012-02-01

    Social isolation in dementia is a growing concern as the incidence and prevalence of dementing conditions is on the rise in many societies. Positive social interactions, which foster the construction and enactment of positive interpersonal relationships and therefore positive discursive identities, make an important contribution to emotional well-being. In this article, we investigate how two women diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer's type use language to relate to each other and two visiting graduate students. We use Systemic Functional Linguistics as an analytical framework, specifically investigating the use of vocatives and naming, and conversational moves and exchanges. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Renal function three years after early conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor to everolimus

    Mjörnstedt, Lars; Schwartz Sørensen, Søren; von Zur Mühlen, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    In a 36-month, open-label, multicenter trial, 202 kidney transplant recipients were randomized at week 7 post-transplant to convert to everolimus or remain on cyclosporine: 182 were analyzed to month 36 (92 everolimus, 90 controls). Mean (SD) change in measured GFR (mGFR) from randomization to mo......, but discontinuation was more frequent with everolimus (33.7% vs. 10.0%). Conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus at 7 weeks post-transplant was associated with a significant benefit in renal function at 3 years when everolimus was continued....

  17. The classification of conversion disorder (functional neurologic symptom disorder) in ICD and DSM.

    Levenson, J L; Sharpe, M

    2016-01-01

    The name given to functional neurologic symptoms has evolved over time in the different editions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), reflecting a gradual move away from an etiologic conception rooted in hysterical conversion to an empiric phenomenologic one, emphasizing the central role of the neurologic examination and testing in demonstrating that the symptoms are incompatible with recognized neurologic disease pathophysiology, or are internally inconsistent. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analyzing a problem-solution pattern in the transcription of a conversation: suggestions for the ELF classroom

    Navas Brenes, César A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a problem-solution pattern shown in the transcription of a conversation. This analysis is based on a conversation that has been elicited from three native speakers of English. These speakers were given a topic that dealt with the problem of children being constantly exposed to violent video games. As a result, the writer recorded an oral text that contains several elements related to a problem-solution pattern such as the main issue, opinions, personal examples, possible solutions, and the evaluation of these solutions. The writer analyzed this pattern in terms of discourse analysis using idea units from the transcription. Moreover, the writer will point out how appropriate this transcription is for preparing teaching tasks for the EFL classroom. Este artículo analiza el patrón estructural de la solución de un problema evidente en la transcripción de una conversación. El análisis esta basado en un diálogo obtenido de tres hablantes nativos de la lengua inglesa. El autor suministró a dichas personas un tema relacionado con el problema de la exposición de niños al contenido violento de los juegos de video. Como resultado, el escritor obtuvo una grabación del texto oral que contiene varios elementos relacionados con el patrón estructural de la solución de un problema. Algunos de estos elementos son el problema principal, opiniones, ejemplos personales, soluciones viables al problema, y la evaluación de dichas soluciones. El autor analizó algunas líneas de la transcripción con la ayuda de algunos conceptos relacionados con el análisis del discurso. Cabe destacar que el uso de tales trascripciones es muy apropiado en la preparación de actividades para una clase de inglés como lengua extranjera.

  19. Spatial pattern enhances ecosystem functioning in an African savanna.

    Robert M Pringle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The finding that regular spatial patterns can emerge in nature from local interactions between organisms has prompted a search for the ecological importance of these patterns. Theoretical models have predicted that patterning may have positive emergent effects on fundamental ecosystem functions, such as productivity. We provide empirical support for this prediction. In dryland ecosystems, termite mounds are often hotspots of plant growth (primary productivity. Using detailed observations and manipulative experiments in an African savanna, we show that these mounds are also local hotspots of animal abundance (secondary and tertiary productivity: insect abundance and biomass decreased with distance from the nearest termite mound, as did the abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of insect-eating predators. Null-model analyses indicated that at the landscape scale, the evenly spaced distribution of termite mounds produced dramatically greater abundance, biomass, and reproductive output of consumers across trophic levels than would be obtained in landscapes with randomly distributed mounds. These emergent properties of spatial pattern arose because the average distance from an arbitrarily chosen point to the nearest feature in a landscape is minimized in landscapes where the features are hyper-dispersed (i.e., uniformly spaced. This suggests that the linkage between patterning and ecosystem functioning will be common to systems spanning the range of human management intensities. The centrality of spatial pattern to system-wide biomass accumulation underscores the need to conserve pattern-generating organisms and mechanisms, and to incorporate landscape patterning in efforts to restore degraded habitats and maximize the delivery of ecosystem services.

  20. The pattern of educator voice in clinical counseling in an educational hospital in Shiraz, Iran: a conversation analysis.

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Doctor-patient interaction (DPI) includes different voices, of which the educator voice is of considerable importance. Physicians employ this voice to educate patients and their caregivers by providing them with information in order to change the patients' behavior and improve their health status. The subject has not yet been fully understood, and therefore the present study was conducted to explore the pattern of educator voice. For this purpose, conversation analysis (CA) of 33 recorded clinical consultations was performed in outpatient educational clinics in Shiraz, Iran between April 2014 and September 2014. In this qualitative study, all utterances, repetitions, lexical forms, chuckles and speech particles were considered and interpreted as social actions. Interpretations were based on inductive data-driven analysis with the aim to find recurring patterns of educator voice. The results showed educator voice to have two general features: descriptive and prescriptive. However, the pattern of educator voice comprised characteristics such as superficiality, marginalization of patients, one-dimensional approach, ignoring a healthy lifestyle, and robotic nature. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated a deficiency in the educator voice and inadequacy in patient-centered dialogue. In this setting, the educator voice was related to a distortion of DPI through the physicians' dominance, leading them to ignore their professional obligation to educate patients. Therefore, policies in this regard should take more account of enriching the educator voice through training medical students and faculty members in communication skills.

  1. Differential response of Acidobacteria subgroups to forest-to-pasture conversion and their biogeographic patterns in the western Brazilian Amazon

    Acacio Aparecido Navarrete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion - particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability - we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6 was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils.

  2. Current evidence on dietary pattern and cognitive function.

    Cheung, Bernice H K; Ho, Ivan C H; Chan, Ruth S M; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    With global aging population, age-related cognitive decline becomes epidemic. Lifestyle-related factor is one of the key preventative measures. Dietary pattern analysis which considers dietary complexity has recently used to examine the linkage between nutrition and cognitive function. A priori approach defines dietary pattern based on existing knowledge. Results of several dietary pattern scores were summarized. The heterogeneity of assessment methods and outcome measurements lead to inconsistent results. Posteriori approach derives a dietary pattern independently of the existing nutrition-disease knowledge. It showed a dietary pattern abundant with plant-based food, oily fish, lower consumption of processed food, saturated fat, and simple sugar which appears to be beneficial to cognitive health. Despite inconclusive evidence from both approaches, diet and exercise, beneficial for other diseases, remains to be the two key modifiable factors for cognitive function. Large-scale prospective studies in multiethics population are required to provide stronger evidence in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Attachment Patterns and Reflective Functioning in traumatised refugees

    Riber, Karin

    2013-01-01

    psychotherapy research has shown is central to change and effect. Aims: 1) To examine attachment patterns and reflective functioning in traumatised refugees with PTSD, and 2) shed light on their significance to therapeutic alliance and treatment effect. Methods: All Arabic speaking patients in the study......Traumatized refugees have often suffered severe, prolonged, repeated traumas and pose a challenge to treatment. Attachment patterns and level of mentalizing seem to work as protection mechanisms in traumatizing events and to be important for positively utilizing the therapeutic alliance which...

  4. LDRD final report : energy conversion using chromophore-functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    Vance, Andrew L.; Zifer, Thomas; Zhou, Xinjian; Leonard, Francois Leonard; Wong, Bryan Matthew; Kane, Alexander; Katzenmeyer, Aaron Michael; Krafcik, Karen Lee

    2010-09-01

    With the goal of studying the conversion of optical energy to electrical energy at the nanoscale, we developed and tested devices based on single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with azobenzene chromophores, where the chromophores serve as photoabsorbers and the nanotube as the electronic read-out. By synthesizing chromophores with specific absorption windows in the visible spectrum and anchoring them to the nanotube surface, we demonstrated the controlled detection of visible light of low intensity in narrow ranges of wavelengths. Our measurements suggested that upon photoabsorption, the chromophores isomerize to give a large change in dipole moment, changing the electrostatic environment of the nanotube. All-electron ab initio calculations were used to study the chromophore-nanotube hybrids, and show that the chromophores bind strongly to the nanotubes without disturbing the electronic structure of either species. Calculated values of the dipole moments supported the notion of dipole changes as the optical detection mechanism.

  5. Navigating Glycerol Conversion Roadmap and Heterogeneous Catalyst Selection Aided by Density Functional Theory: A Review

    Bin Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol has been utilized in an extremely diversified manner throughout human civilization—ranging from food, to various consumer products, to pharmaceuticals, and even explosives. Large surplus in glycerol supply thanks to biodiesel production and biomass processing has created a demand to further boost its utility. One growing area is to expand the use of glycerol as an alternative feedstock to supplement fuels and chemicals production. Various catalytic processes have been developed. This review summarizes catalytic materials for glycerol reforming, hydrodeoxygenation, and oxidation. In particular, rationale for catalyst selection and new catalyst design will be discussed aided by the knowledge of reaction mechanisms. The role of theoretical density functional theory (DFT in elucidating complex glycerol conversion chemistries is particularly emphasized.

  6. Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis of Functional Oxide Nanomaterials Used in Energy Conversion Devices

    Xu, Yu

    Continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) was used to prepare functional oxide nanoparticles. Materials synthesized include NiO, Y-doped ZrO2, Gd-doped CeO2, LaCrO3 and Ni-substituted CoFe2O4. These types of oxides can be applied in several energy conversion devices, e.g. as active materials...... as materials are continuously produced, and the technology can be scaled-up to an industrial-relevant production capacity. The thesis starts with investigating the most appropriate mixer design for a novel two-stage reactor by computational fluid dynamics modelling. On basis of the modelling results, a two......, dense continuous layers (

  7. Experimental analysis of bidirectional reflectance distribution function cross section conversion term in direction cosine space.

    Butler, Samuel D; Nauyoks, Stephen E; Marciniak, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Of the many classes of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models, two popular classes of models are the microfacet model and the linear systems diffraction model. The microfacet model has the benefit of speed and simplicity, as it uses geometric optics approximations, while linear systems theory uses a diffraction approach to compute the BRDF, at the expense of greater computational complexity. In this Letter, nongrazing BRDF measurements of rough and polished surface-reflecting materials at multiple incident angles are scaled by the microfacet cross section conversion term, but in the linear systems direction cosine space, resulting in great alignment of BRDF data at various incident angles in this space. This results in a predictive BRDF model for surface-reflecting materials at nongrazing angles, while avoiding some of the computational complexities in the linear systems diffraction model.

  8. POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION FUNCTIONING PATTERNS OF TOURISM SPHERE SPECIALISTS IN SWITZERLAND

    Наталія Закордонець

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Functioning patterns of postgraduate education of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been established. The competences of tourism sphere specialist, the formation of which programs of postgraduate education are focused on have been considered. The benefits of educational qualification of Masters in Business Administration with a major specialization in tourism have been outlined. The characteristics of the core curriculum of the Doctor of Management of leading universities in the field of tourism education have been determined. The performance criteria of postgraduate education system functioning of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been revealed.

  9. The zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (Zeb1) promotes the conversion of mouse fibroblasts into functional neurons.

    Yan, Long; Li, Yue; Shi, Zixiao; Lu, Xiaoyin; Ma, Jiao; Hu, Baoyang; Jiao, Jianwei; Wang, Hongmei

    2017-08-04

    The zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor Zeb1 plays a pivotal role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Numerous studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms by which Zeb1 contributes to this process. However, the functions of Zeb1 beyond the epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain largely elusive. Using a transdifferentiation system to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional neurons via the neuronal transcription factors achaete-scute family bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor1 ( Ascl1 ), POU class 3 homeobox 2 (POU3F2/ Brn2 ), and neurogenin 2 (Neurog2, Ngn2 ) (ABN), we found that Zeb1 was up-regulated during the early stages of transdifferentiation. Knocking down Zeb1 dramatically attenuated the transdifferentiation efficiency, whereas Zeb1 overexpression obviously increased the efficiency of transdifferentiation from MEFs to neurons. Interestingly, Zeb1 improved the transdifferentiation efficiency induced by even a single transcription factor ( e.g. Asc1 or Ngn2 ). Zeb1 also rapidly promoted the maturation of induced neuron cells to functional neurons and improved the formation of neuronal patterns and electrophysiological characteristics. Induced neuron cells could form functional synapse in vivo after transplantation. Genome-wide RNA arrays showed that Zeb1 overexpression up-regulated the expression of neuron-specific genes and down-regulated the expression of epithelial-specific genes during conversion. Taken together, our results reveal a new role for Zeb1 in the transdifferentiation of MEFs into neurons. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Functional connectome fingerprinting: identifying individuals using patterns of brain connectivity.

    Finn, Emily S; Shen, Xilin; Scheinost, Dustin; Rosenberg, Monica D; Huang, Jessica; Chun, Marvin M; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies typically collapse data from many subjects, but brain functional organization varies between individuals. Here we establish that this individual variability is both robust and reliable, using data from the Human Connectome Project to demonstrate that functional connectivity profiles act as a 'fingerprint' that can accurately identify subjects from a large group. Identification was successful across scan sessions and even between task and rest conditions, indicating that an individual's connectivity profile is intrinsic, and can be used to distinguish that individual regardless of how the brain is engaged during imaging. Characteristic connectivity patterns were distributed throughout the brain, but the frontoparietal network emerged as most distinctive. Furthermore, we show that connectivity profiles predict levels of fluid intelligence: the same networks that were most discriminating of individuals were also most predictive of cognitive behavior. Results indicate the potential to draw inferences about single subjects on the basis of functional connectivity fMRI.

  11. The changing patterns of cropland conversion to built-up land in China from 1987 to 2010

    Ju, H.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Wu, W.; Wang, X.; Zuo, L.

    2017-12-01

    With the rapid urbanization, industrialization and rural area construction in China, the expansions of built-up land encroached upon a large amount of cropland, and thus placed great challenges on national food security. Previous studies have primarily been focused on the whole effects of built-up land expansion, however, the individual effect of different types of built-up land (urban areas, rural settlements and industrial/transportation land) on cropland loss remains unclear. Based on land use maps interpreted from remote sensing imagery in 1987-2010, we illustrated the spatio-temporal patterns of the speed and the structure of cropland conversion to built-up land. Then, we quantitatively measured the influence of different built-up land on cropland loss from three aspects: the contribution of built-up land expansion to cropland loss, the dependence of built-up land expansion on cropland loss and the conversion's impacts on cropland quality. It was found 42,822 km2 of cropland were converted into built-up land in China, accounting for 43.8% of total cropland loss during 1987-2010. Before 2000, the expansion of rural settlements had the largest influence on cropland loss, however, urban growth showed a greater impact on cropland loss after 2000. Although the effects of rural settlements expansion decreased, rural settlements still saw the highest percentage of the loss of traditional cropland which is generally in high quality. In addition, the impacts of industrial/transportation land expansion increased dramatically and was mainly distributed in major food production regions. These changes were closely related to the economic restructuring, urban-rural transformation and government policies in China. These findings demonstrate that Chinese cropland conservation in both amount and quality should focus not only on finding a reasonable urbanization mode, but also solving the "hollowing village" problem and balancing the industrial transformations in the future.

  12. Differential Response of Acidobacteria Subgroups to Forest-to-Pasture Conversion and Their Biogeographic Patterns in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    Navarrete, Acacio A.; Venturini, Andressa M.; Meyer, Kyle M.; Klein, Ann M.; Tiedje, James M.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tsai, Siu M.; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion—particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability—we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6) was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils. PMID:26733981

  13. Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2012-06-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism).

  14. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word ''policy'' connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification

  15. The Development of Functional Mesocrystals for Energy Harvesting, Storage, and Conversion.

    Zhang, Peng; Tachikawa, Takashi; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro

    2018-04-25

    Higher-ordered semiconductors have attracted extensive research interest as an adopted engineering for active solar energy harvesting, storage, and conversion. It is well-known that the effective separation and anisotropic migration of photogenerated charges are the basic driven force required for superior efficiency. However, the morphology and stoichiometric variation of these semiconductors play essential roles in their physicochemical properties of bulk and surface, especially for efficient interparticle or interfacial charge transfer. To this point, the strategy of controlling the topotactic transformation toward superstructures with optimized functionality is preferable for a wide range of optoelectronic and catalytic engineering applications. In this Minireview, we provide an overview of the crystal orientation, synthetic engineering, functional applications, and spatial and temporal charge dynamics in TiO 2 mesocrystals and others. The viewpoint of in-depth understanding of the structure-related kinetics would offer an opportunity for design of versatile mesocrystal semiconductors sought-after for potential applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Patterns of functional improvement after revision knee arthroplasty.

    Ghomrawi, Hassan M K; Kane, Robert L; Eberly, Lynn E; Bershadsky, Boris; Saleh, Khaled J

    2009-12-01

    Despite the increase in the number of total knee arthroplasty revisions, outcomes of such surgery and their correlates are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of functional improvement after revision total knee arthroplasty over a two-year period and to investigate factors that affect such improvement patterns. Three hundred and eight patients in need of revision surgery were enrolled into the study, conducted at seventeen centers, and 221 (71.8%) were followed for two years. Short Form-36 (SF-36), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lower-Extremity Activity Scale (LEAS) scores were collected at baseline and every six months for two years postoperatively. A piecewise general linear mixed model, which models correlation between repeated measures and estimates separate slopes for different follow-up time periods, was employed to examine functional improvement patterns. Separate regression slopes were estimated for the zero to twelve-month and the twelve to twenty-four-month periods. The slopes for zero to twelve months showed significant improvement in all measures in the first year. The slopes for twelve to twenty-four months showed deterioration in the scores of the WOMAC pain subscale (slope = 0.67 +/- 0.21, p coefficient = -5.46 +/- 1.91, p coefficient = 5.41 +/- 2.35, p coefficient = 1.42 +/- 0.69, p < 0.05]). Factors related to the surgical technique did not predict outcomes. The onset of worsening pain and knee-specific function in the second year following revision total knee arthroplasty indicates the need to closely monitor patients, irrespective of the mode of failure of the primary procedure or the surgical technique for the revision. This information may be especially important for patients with multiple comorbidities.

  17. Development of bilingual tools to assess functional health patterns.

    Krozy, R E; McCarthy, N C

    1999-01-01

    The theory and process of developing bilingual assessment tools based on Gordon's 11 functional health patterns. To facilitate assessing the individual, family, and community in a student clinical practicum in a Spanish-speaking country. Multiple family and community health promotion theories; translation theories, Gordon's Manual of Nursing Diagnosis (1982); translation/back-translation involving Ecuadorian faculty and students; student community assessments; faculty and staff workshops in Ecuador. Bilingual, culturally sensitive health assessment tools facilitate history taking, establish nursing diagnoses and interventions, and promote mutual learning. These outcomes demonstrate potential application to other systems in the international nursing community.

  18. The family receiving home care: functional health pattern assessment.

    Hooper, J I

    1996-01-01

    The winds of change in health care make assessment of the family more important than ever as a tool for health care providers seeking to assist the family move themselves toward high-level wellness. Limited medical care and imposed self-responsibility for health promotion and illness prevention, which are natural consequences of these changes, move the locus of control for health management back to the family. The family's teachings, modeling, and interactions are greater influences than ever on the health of the patient. Gordon's functional health patterns provide a holistic model for assessment of the family because assessment data are classified under 11 headings: health perception and health management, nutritional-metabolic, elimination, activity and exercise, sleep and rest, cognition and perception, self-perception and self-concept, roles and relationships, sexuality and reproduction, coping and stress tolerance, and values and beliefs. Questions posed under each of the health patterns can be varied to reflect the uniqueness of the individual family as well as to inquire about family strengths and weaknesses in all patterns. Data using this model provide a comprehensive base for including the family in designing a plan of care.

  19. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom.

    Moyers, M F

    2014-06-01

    Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it

  20. Cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of functional food consumption patterns.

    Mullie, P; Guelinckx, I; Clarys, P; Degrave, E; Hulens, M; Vansant, G

    2009-11-01

    The aim of our research was to describe cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants associated with functional food consumption. Cross-sectional design in 5000 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the functional food consumption frequency was recorded. Margarines fortified with phytosterols or phytostanols were used on a daily basis by 26.3% of the responders. Only 4.7% took a daily portion of probiotics, whereas 14.0% consumed one or more portions of nuts a week. One man out of three consumed one cup of tea daily, whereas 10.2% consumed one glass of red wine daily. Three or more portions of fruit a day were consumed by 19.1%, and two or more portions of vegetables a day by 26.6%. Only 12.3% consumed a portion of fatty fish weekly. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, use of vitamin supplements, smoking, marital status, cultural background, educational and income level, the daily consumption of fortified margarines increased with age. The consumption of fermented dairy products increased with physical activity and with the use of vitamin supplements. The consumption of fortified margarines, nuts, tea and fatty fish was strongly influenced by cultural background, with higher consumptions for Flemish-speaking men compared with French-speaking persons. Daily consumption of red wine was higher in French-speaking men and in higher educated men. Finally, functional food consumption was associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Age, physical activity, level of education, use of vitamin supplements and cultural background are predictors of functional food consumption patterns.

  1. Conservation patterns in different functional sequence categoriesof divergent Drosophila species

    Papatsenko, Dmitri; Kislyuk, Andrey; Levine, Michael; Dubchak, Inna

    2005-10-01

    We have explored the distributions of fully conservedungapped blocks in genome-wide pairwise alignments of recently completedspecies of Drosophila: D.yakuba, D.ananassae, D.pseudoobscura, D.virilisand D.mojavensis. Based on these distributions we have found that nearlyevery functional sequence category possesses its own distinctiveconservation pattern, sometimes independent of the overall sequenceconservation level. In the coding and regulatory regions, the ungappedblocks were longer than in introns, UTRs and non-functional sequences. Atthe same time, the blocks in the coding regions carried 3N+2 signaturecharacteristic to synonymic substitutions in the 3rd codon positions.Larger block sizes in transcription regulatory regions can be explainedby the presence of conserved arrays of binding sites for transcriptionfactors. We also have shown that the longest ungapped blocks, or'ultraconserved' sequences, are associated with specific gene groups,including those encoding ion channels and components of the cytoskeleton.We discussed how restrained conservation patterns may help in mappingfunctional sequence categories and improving genomeannotation.

  2. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion.

    Drescher, Jochen; Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Fauzi, Anas M; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I Nengah S; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M; Krashevska, Valentyna; Krishna, Vijesh; Leuschner, Christoph; Lorenz, Wolfram; Meijide, Ana; Melati, Dian; Nomura, Miki; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Qaim, Matin; Siregar, Iskandar Z; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Wick, Barbara; Wiegand, Kerstin; Kreft, Holger; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-05-19

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosystem functions, such as decreased above- and below-ground carbon stocks. Owing to rapid step-wise transformation from forests to agroforests to monoculture plantations and renewal of each plantation type every few decades, the converted land use systems are continuously dynamic, thus hampering the adaptation of animal and plant communities. On the other hand, agricultural rainforest transformation systems provide increased income and access to education, especially for migrant smallholders. Jungle rubber and rubber monocultures are associated with higher financial land productivity but lower financial labour productivity compared to oil palm, which influences crop choice: smallholders that are labour-scarce would prefer oil palm while land-scarce smallholders would prefer rubber. Collecting long-term data in an interdisciplinary context enables us to provide decision-makers and stakeholders with scientific insights to facilitate the reconciliation between economic interests and ecological sustainability in tropical agricultural landscapes. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Analysis Of Functional Stability Of The Triphased Asynchronous Generator Used In Conversion Systems Of A Eolian Energy Into Electric Energy

    Ion VONCILA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the influence of the main perturbation agent over the functional stability of the triphased asynchronous generator (for the two alternative: with coiled and short circuit rotor, used for the conversion systems from a eolian energy into electric energy.

  4. Gradual conversion of cellular stress patterns into pre-stressed matrix architecture during in vitro tissue growth.

    Bidan, Cécile M; Kollmannsberger, Philip; Gering, Vanessa; Ehrig, Sebastian; Joly, Pascal; Petersen, Ansgar; Vogel, Viola; Fratzl, Peter; Dunlop, John W C

    2016-05-01

    The complex arrangement of the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cells during tissue growth, healing and remodelling is fundamental to tissue function. In connective tissues, it is still unclear how both cells and the ECM become and remain organized over length scales much larger than the distance between neighbouring cells. While cytoskeletal forces are essential for assembly and organization of the early ECM, how these processes lead to a highly organized ECM in tissues such as osteoid is not clear. To clarify the role of cellular tension for the development of these ordered fibril architectures, we used an in vitro model system, where pre-osteoblastic cells produced ECM-rich tissue inside channels with millimetre-sized triangular cross sections in ceramic scaffolds. Our results suggest a mechanical handshake between actively contracting cells and ECM fibrils: the build-up of a long-range organization of cells and the ECM enables a gradual conversion of cell-generated tension to pre-straining the ECM fibrils, which reduces the work cells have to generate to keep mature tissue under tension. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Linking stem cell function and growth pattern of intestinal organoids.

    Thalheim, Torsten; Quaas, Marianne; Herberg, Maria; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kerner, Christiane; Loeffler, Markus; Aust, Gabriela; Galle, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) require well-defined signals from their environment in order to carry out their specific functions. Most of these signals are provided by neighboring cells that form a stem cell niche, whose shape and cellular composition self-organize. Major features of this self-organization can be studied in ISC-derived organoid culture. In this system, manipulation of essential pathways of stem cell maintenance and differentiation results in well-described growth phenotypes. We here provide an individual cell-based model of intestinal organoids that enables a mechanistic explanation of the observed growth phenotypes. In simulation studies of the 3D structure of expanding organoids, we investigate interdependences between Wnt- and Notch-signaling which control the shape of the stem cell niche and, thus, the growth pattern of the organoids. Similar to in vitro experiments, changes of pathway activities alter the cellular composition of the organoids and, thereby, affect their shape. Exogenous Wnt enforces transitions from branched into a cyst-like growth pattern; known to occur spontaneously during long term organoid expansion. Based on our simulation results, we predict that the cyst-like pattern is associated with biomechanical changes of the cells which assign them a growth advantage. The results suggest ongoing stem cell adaptation to in vitro conditions during long term expansion by stabilizing Wnt-activity. Our study exemplifies the potential of individual cell-based modeling in unraveling links between molecular stem cell regulation and 3D growth of tissues. This kind of modeling combines experimental results in the fields of stem cell biology and cell biomechanics constituting a prerequisite for a better understanding of tissue regeneration as well as developmental processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia: A case study

    Hamid Nasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.

  7. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia): A case study.

    Nasiri, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Zahed, Arash; Arab, Mostafa; Samouei, Rahele

    2015-05-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia) was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.

  8. Advanced nanoimprint patterning for functional electronics and biochemical sensing

    Wang, Chao

    Nano-fabrication has been widely used for a variety of disciplines, including electronics, material science, nano-optics, and nano-biotechnology. This dissertation focuses on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) based novel nano-patterning techniques for fabricating functional structures, and discusses their applications in advanced electronics and high-sensitivity molecular sensing. In this dissertation, examples of using nano-fabricated structures for promising electronic applications are presented. For instance, 10 nm and 18 nm features are NIL-fabricated for Si/SiGe heterojunction tunneling transistors and graphene nano-ribbon transistors, using shadow evaporation and line-width shrinking techniques, respectively. An ultrafast laser melting based method is applied on flexible plastic substrates to correct defects of nano-features. Nano-texturing of sapphire substrate is developed to improve the light extraction of GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) by 70 %. A novel multi-layer nano-patterned Si-mediated catalyst is discovered to grow straight and uniform Si nanowires with optimized properties in size, location, and crystallization on amorphous SiO2 substrate. Nano-structures are also functionalized into highly sensitive bio-chemical sensors. Plasmonic nano-bar antenna arrays are demonstrated to effectively sense infrared molecules >10 times better than conventional plasmonic sensors. As small as 20 nm wide nano-channel fluidic devices are developed to linearize and detect DNA molecules for potential DNA sequencing. An integrated fluidic system is built to incorporate plasmonic nano-structures for 30X-enhanced fluorescence detection of large DNA molecules.

  9. Exploratory graphical models of functional and structural connectivity patterns for Alzheimer's Disease diagnosis

    Andres eOrtiz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s Disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Itsdevelopment has been shown to be closely related to changes in the brain connectivity networkand in the brain activation patterns along with structural changes caused by the neurodegenerativeprocess.Methods to infer dependence between brain regions are usually derived from the analysis ofcovariance between activation levels in the different areas. However, these covariance-basedmethods are not able to estimate conditional independence between variables to factor out theinfluence of other regions. Conversely, models based on the inverse covariance, or precisionmatrix, such as Sparse Gaussian Graphical Models allow revealing conditional independencebetween regions by estimating the covariance between two variables given the rest as constant.This paper uses Sparse Inverse Covariance Estimation (SICE methods to learn undirectedgraphs in order to derive functional and structural connectivity patterns from Fludeoxyglucose(18F-FDG Position Emission Tomography (PET data and segmented Magnetic Resonanceimages (MRI, drawn from the ADNI database, for Control, MCI (Mild Cognitive ImpairmentSubjects and AD subjects. Sparse computation fits perfectly here as brain regions usually onlyinteract with a few other areas.The models clearly show different metabolic covariation patters between subject groups, revealingthe loss of strong connections in AD and MCI subjects when compared to Controls. Similarly,the variance between GM (Grey Matter densities of different regions reveals different structuralcovariation patterns between the different groups. Thus, the different connectivity patterns forcontrols and AD are used in this paper to select regions of interest in PET and GM images withdiscriminative power for early AD diagnosis. Finally, functional an structural models are combinedto leverage the classification accuracy.The results obtained in this work show the usefulness

  10. Local Knowledge About The Structure, Function And Conversion Of Landscape In The Karangwangi Village, Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia

    Ulfa Dwi Amelia, Fatiya; Iskandar, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Karangwangi people is one of indigenous people in West Java who has local knowledge about their nature thoroughly. They have local tradition about landscape ecosystem arrangement that based on sakral (sacred) norm. With this rule, local people will always try to preserve the sustainability of their natural environment. However, modernization, increasing population, decreasing forest, and increasing market economic penetration, causing this rule and structure of landscape in Karangwangi village has changed. Land conversion in Karangwangi was occur because of settlement and land investment by people outside the village. These behavior changes in tradition and landscape (structure, function and conversion) in Karangwangi may impact on their daily activities, and so do the changes in daily activities can change their behavior in tradition and landscape. This research was undertaken in the Village of Karangwangi, Sub-district of Cidaun, District of Cianjur, Province of West Java, Indonesia. This paper aims to identify how indigenous people in Karangwangi understand kinds of landscape and another conversion that was happen as a result of management. The method used in this paper is qualitative with ethno ecological approach. The resulted of the study show that local people in Karangwangi Village understand how chronological of landscape structure, function and conversion.

  11. Opportunity to Save Historical Railway Infrastructure - Adaptation and Functional Conversion of Facilities

    Podwojewska, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    meeting spots, community centres and places of particular social importance. Therefore, successful renewal requires adaptation and functional conversion in order to cater to the needs of the inhabitants and visiting travellers. Such activities should focus on architectural, social and economic spaces. This paper presents small railway stations of historical value with a view to their adaptive potential, as well as examples of completed adaptation projects.

  12. Structural and functional characterization of the product of disease-related factor H gene conversion.

    Herbert, Andrew P; Kavanagh, David; Johansson, Conny; Morgan, Hugh P; Blaum, Bärbel S; Hannan, Jonathan P; Barlow, Paul N; Uhrín, Dušan

    2012-03-06

    Numerous complement factor H (FH) mutations predispose patients to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and other disorders arising from inadequately regulated complement activation. No unifying structural or mechanistic consequences have been ascribed to these mutants beyond impaired self-cell protection. The S1191L and V1197A mutations toward the C-terminus of FH, which occur in patients singly or together, arose from gene conversion between CFH encoding FH and CFHR1 encoding FH-related 1. We show that neither single nor double mutations structurally perturbed recombinant proteins consisting of the FH C-terminal modules, 19 and 20 (FH19-20), although all three FH19-20 mutants were poor, compared to wild-type FH19-20, at promoting hemolysis of C3b-coated erythrocytes through competition with full-length FH. Indeed, our new crystal structure of the S1191L mutant of FH19-20 complexed with an activation-specific complement fragment, C3d, was nearly identical to that of the wild-type FH19-20:C3d complex, consistent with mutants binding to C3b with wild-type-like affinity. The S1191L mutation enhanced thermal stability of module 20, whereas the V1197A mutation dramatically decreased it. Thus, although mutant proteins were folded at 37 °C, they differ in conformational rigidity. Neither single substitutions nor double substitutions increased measurably the extent of FH19-20 self-association, nor did these mutations significantly affect the affinity of FH19-20 for three glycosaminoglycans, despite critical roles of module 20 in recognizing polyanionic self-surface markers. Unexpectedly, FH19-20 mutants containing Leu1191 self-associated on a heparin-coated surface to a higher degree than on surfaces coated with dermatan or chondroitin sulfates. Thus, potentially disease-related functional distinctions between mutants, and between FH and FH-related 1, may manifest in the presence of specific glycosaminoglycans.

  13. Conversational Behaviors in Youth with High-Functioning ASD and Asperger Syndrome

    Paul, Rhea; Orlovski, Stephanie Miles; Marcinko, Hillary Chuba; Volkmar, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine youth with autism spectrum disorders and 26 with typical development between 12 and 18 years of age were engaged in structured interviews (ADOS). The interviews were videotaped and rated for atypical conversational behaviors by trained raters, using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (Landa et al. "Psychol Med" 22:245-254, 1992). The ASD group…

  14. Teacher Guidance of Algebraic Formula Building: Functional Grammatical Analysis of a Whole-Class Conversation

    Zolkower, Betina; Shreyar, Sam; Pérez, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    How does teacher-guided whole-class interaction contribute to expanding students' potential for making and exchanging mathematical meanings? We address this question through an interpretative analysis of a whole-group conversation in a sixth grade class taught by an experienced teacher in a school in Southern Argentina. The extended interaction…

  15. Spectrum-to-dose conversion operator value function of a Ge(Li) in-situ environmental gamma-ray spectrometer

    Terada, Hiromi; Sakai, Eiji; Katagiri, Masaki

    1976-05-01

    A spectrum-to-dose conversion operator value function was obtained for a 73cm 3 closed-end coaxial Ge(Li) in-situ environmental gamma-ray spectrometer; factors influencing the function are considered. (auth.)

  16. Optimization of two-photon wave function in parametric down conversion by adaptive optics control of the pump radiation.

    Minozzi, M; Bonora, S; Sergienko, A V; Vallone, G; Villoresi, P

    2013-02-15

    We present an efficient method for optimizing the spatial profile of entangled-photon wave function produced in a spontaneous parametric down conversion process. A deformable mirror that modifies a wavefront of a 404 nm CW diode laser pump interacting with a nonlinear β-barium borate type-I crystal effectively controls the profile of the joint biphoton function. The use of a feedback signal extracted from the biphoton coincidence rate is used to achieve the optimal wavefront shape. The optimization of the two-photon coupling into two, single spatial modes for correlated detection is used for a practical demonstration of this physical principle.

  17. Post-curing conversion kinetics as functions of the irradiation time and increment thickness

    Nicola Scotti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the variation of conversion degree (DC in the 12 hours following initial photoactivation of a low-shrinkage composite resin (Venus Diamond. Material and Methods: The conversion degree was monitored for 12 hours using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR F-TIR Spectroscopy. The composite was placed in 1 or 2 mm rings and cured for 10 or 20 seconds with a LED lamp. ATR spectra were acquired from the bottom surface of each sample immediately after the initial photoactivation (P=0, 30 minutes (P=0.5 and 12 hours after photoactivation (P=12 in order to obtain the DC progression during the post-curing period. Interactions between thickness (T, irradiation time (I and post-curing (P on the DC were calculated through ANOVA testing. Results: All the first order interactions were statistically significant, with the exception of the T-P interaction. Furthermore, the shift from P=0 to P=0.5 had a statistically higher influence than the shift from P=0.5 to P=12. The post-curing period played a fundamental role in reaching higher DC values with the low-shrinkage composite resin tested in this study. Moreover, both the irradiation time and the composite thickness strongly influenced the DC. Conclusions: Increased irradiation time may be useful in obtaining a high conversion degree (DC with a low-shrinkage nano-hybrid composite resin, particularly with 2 mm composite layers.

  18. The E4 protein; structure, function and patterns of expression

    Doorbar, John, E-mail: jdoorba@nimr.mrc.ac.uk

    2013-10-15

    }E4, these kinases regulate one of the E1{sup ∧}E4 proteins main functions, the association with the cellular keratin network, and eventually also its cleavage by the protease calpain which allows assembly into amyloid-like fibres and reorganisation of the keratin network. Although the E4 proteins of different HPV types appear divergent at the level of their primary amino acid sequence, they share a recognisable modular organisation and pattern of expression, which may underlie conserved functions and regulation. Assembly into higher-order multimers and suppression of cell proliferation are common to all E4 proteins examined. Although not yet formally demonstrated, a role in virus release and transmission remains a likely function for E4. - Highlights: • E4 gene products have a modular structure, and are expressed from the E1{sup ∧}E4 spliced mRNA. • E4 proteins are modified during epithelial differentiation by phosphorylation and proteolysis. • The E4 proteins contribute to genome amplification-efficiency and virus synthesis. • E4 proteins are abundantly expressed and may facilitate efficient virus release and transmission. • High-risk E4 proteins are deposited as amyloid fibres and can be used as infection biomarkers.

  19. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  20. Patterning Multi-Nanostructured Poly(l-lactic acid) Fibrous Matrices to Manipulate Biomolecule Distribution and Functions.

    Xiao, Wenwu; Li, Qingtao; He, Huimin; Li, Wenxiu; Cao, Xiaodong; Dong, Hua

    2018-03-14

    Precise manipulation of biomolecule distribution and functions via biomolecule-matrix interaction is very important and challenging for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. As a well-known biomimetic matrix, electrospun fibers often lack the unique spatial complexity compared to their natural counterparts in vivo and thus cannot deliver fully the regulatory cues to biomolecules. In this paper, we report a facile and reliable method to fabricate micro- and nanostructured poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibrous matrices with spatial complexity by a combination of advanced electrospinning and agarose hydrogel stamp-based micropatterning. Specifically, advanced electrospinning is used to construct multi-nanostructures of fibrous matrices while solvent-loaded agarose hydrogel stamps are used to create microstructures. Compared with other methods, our method shows extreme simplicity and flexibility originated from the mono-/multi-spinneret conversion and limitless micropatterns of agarose hydrogel stamps. Three types of PLLA fibrous matrices including patterned nano-Ag/PLLA hybrid fibers, patterned bicompartment polyethylene terephthalate/PLLA fibers, and patterned hollow PLLA fibers are fabricated and their capability to manipulate biomolecule distribution and functions, that is, bacterial distribution and antibacterial performance, cell patterning and adhesion/spreading behaviors, and protein adsorption and delivery, is demonstrated in detail. The method described in our paper provides a powerful tool to restore spatial complexity in biomimetic matrices and would have promising applications in the field of biomedical engineering.

  1. High Energy Conversion Efficiency with 3-D Micro-Patterned Photoanode for Enhancement Diffusivity and Modification of Photon Distribution in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Yun, Min Ju; Sim, Yeon Hyang; Cha, Seung I; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y

    2017-11-08

    Dye sensitize solar cells (DSSCs) have been considered as the promising alternatives silicon based solar cell with their characteristics including high efficiency under weak illumination and insensitive power output to incident angle. Therefore, many researches have been studied to improve the energy conversion efficiency of DSSCs. However the efficiency of DSSCs are still trapped at the around 10%. In this study, micro-scale hexagonal shape patterned photoanode have proposed to modify light distribution of photon. In the patterned electrode, the appearance efficiency have been obtained from 7.1% to 7.8% considered active area and the efficiency of 12.7% have been obtained based on the photoanode area. Enhancing diffusion of electrons and modification of photon distribution utilizing the morphology of the electrode are major factors to improving the performance of patterned electrode. Also, finite element method analyses of photon distributions were conducted to estimate morphological effect that influence on the photon distribution and current density. From our proposed study, it is expecting that patterned electrode is one of the solution to overcome the stagnant efficiency and one of the optimized geometry of electrode to modify photon distribution. Process of inter-patterning in photoanode has been minimized.

  2. Improved renal function after early conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor to everolimus

    Mjörnstedt, L; Sørensen, S S; von Zur Mühlen, B

    2012-01-01

    .2) mL/min with everolimus versus a decrease of 0.4 (12.0) mL/min in controls (p graft or patient survival. The 12-month incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) was 27.5% (n = 28) with everolimus and 11.0% (n = 11) in controls (p = 0.004). All......In an open-label, multicenter trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low to medium immunological risk were randomized at week 7 posttransplant to remain on CsA (n = 100, controls) or convert to everolimus (n = 102), both with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids...... controls (3.0%; p = 0.030). In conclusion, conversion from CsA to everolimus at week 7 after kidney transplantation was associated with a greater improvement in mGFR at month 12 versus CNI-treated controls but discontinuations and BPAR were more frequent....

  3. Abnormal Resting-State Functional Connectivity Strength in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Its Conversion to Alzheimer’s Disease

    Yuxia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI are at high risk of transition to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, little is known about functional characteristics of the conversion from MCI to AD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 25 AD patients, 31 MCI patients, and 42 well-matched normal controls at baseline. Twenty-one of the 31 MCI patients converted to AD at approximately 24 months of follow-up. Functional connectivity strength (FCS and seed-based functional connectivity analyses were used to assess the functional differences among the groups. Compared to controls, subjects with MCI and AD showed decreased FCS in the default-mode network and the occipital cortex. Importantly, the FCS of the left angular gyrus and middle occipital gyrus was significantly lower in MCI-converters as compared with MCI-nonconverters. Significantly decreased functional connectivity was found in MCI-converters compared to nonconverters between the left angular gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral temporal cortices, and the left middle occipital gyrus and right middle occipital gyri. We demonstrated gradual but progressive functional changes during a median 2-year interval in patients converting from MCI to AD, which might serve as early indicators for the dysfunction and progression in the early stage of AD.

  4. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Aggression Maintained by Preferred Conversational Topics

    Roscoe, Eileen M.; Kindle, Arianne E.; Pence, Sacha T.

    2010-01-01

    After an initial functional analysis of a participant's aggression showed unclear outcomes, we conducted preference and reinforcer assessments to identify preferred forms of attention that may maintain problem behavior. Next, we conducted an extended functional analysis that included a modified attention condition. Results showed that the…

  5. Coating and Patterning Functional Materials for Large Area Electrofluidic Arrays

    Hao Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization of electrofluidic devices requires both high performance coating laminates and efficient material utilization on large area substrates. Here we show that screen printing can be effectively used to provide homogeneous pin-hole free patterned amorphous fluoropolymer dielectric layers to provide both the insulating and fluidic reversibility required for devices. Subsequently, we over-coat photoresist using slit coating on this normally extremely hydrophobic layer. In this way, we are able to pattern the photoresist by conventional lithography to provide the chemical contrast required for liquids dosing by self-assembly and highly-reversible electrofluidic switching. Materials, interfacial chemistry, and processing all contribute to the provision of the required engineered substrate properties. Coating homogeneity as characterized by metrology and device performance data are used to validate the methodology, which is well-suited for transfer to high volume production in existing LCD cell-making facilities.

  6. FUNCTIONAL CONVERSION OF GRANITE QUARRIES (methodological aspects of architectural and urban planning solutions

    PODOLYNNY S. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Raising of problem. There is a global problem of the decline of the economy and production today in Ukraine. Particularly worsened is the situation in the mining industry and the settlements associated with it. There was a threat of mass unemployment in connection with the closure of many enterprises in this field. In this case, the problem of recultivation of technogenic landscapes exist at the same time with possible acute social crisis in these regions. Such areas remain gray spots in the structures of cities and their suburbs, in addition they cause catastrophic damage to the environment. The total area of the changed landscape in Ukraine is almost 800 thousand hectares, important is the question of their further use, based on evidencerecommendations, including architectural and urban development decisions. Purpose. Тo provide a methodical basis for decision-making in conversion of technogenic landscapes, which will enable the search for more adequate methods in the select of the remediationdirection, that is relevant not only to the Dnipropetrovsk region, but also for Ukraine as a whole. Conclusion. The article discusses and classified experience and methods of recultivation of technogenic landscapes of previous years in different countries. It is developed a quarry passport-card, which groups together the existing criteria of the quarry characteristics evaluation, helps to analyze its condition and determine the prospects for further development.

  7. Attachment patterns and Reflective Functioning in Traumatized Refugees

    Riber, Karin

    , attachment systems, emotion-regulation, and personality. Attachment research on the consequences of organized violence and forced migration is sparse and research in PTSD-treatment for refugees is lacking behind. Cumulative pre-migration traumatic experiences and ongoing post-migration stressors might lead...... Psychiatry, Denmark. June 2011-March 2012 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria entered the trial. The present sample consisted of those of the 135 patients who were Arabic-speaking (N=67). Measures involved the Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale...... and reflective functioning will be described and implications for psychotherapy discussed. Keywords: Adult attachment, reflective functioning, refugee traumatisation....

  8. Investigation of the growth patterns of non-functioning pituitary ...

    2016-07-28

    Jul 28, 2016 ... Pituitary adenomas are almost always benign (>99.9%), arise from the anterior pituitary and ... Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA) are the most ... pituitary gland, most likely due to alterations in perfusion.

  9. Patterns of family management of childhood chronic conditions and their relationship to child and family functioning.

    Knafl, Kathleen A; Deatrick, Janet A; Knafl, George J; Gallo, Agatha M; Grey, Margaret; Dixon, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Understanding patterns of family response to childhood chronic conditions provides a more comprehensive understanding of their influence on family and child functioning. In this paper, we report the results of a cluster analysis based on the six scales comprising the Family Management Measure (FaMM) and the resulting typology of family management. The sample of 575 parents (414 families) of children with diverse chronic conditions fell into four patterns of response (Family Focused, Somewhat Family Focused, Somewhat Condition Focused, Condition Focused) that differed in the extent family life was focused on usual family routines or the demands of condition management. Most (57%) families were in either the Family Focused or Somewhat Family Focused pattern. Patterns of family management were related significantly to family and child functioning, with families in the Family Focused and Somewhat Family Focused patterns demonstrating significantly better family and child functioning than families in the other two patterns. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Surface functionalization by fine ultraviolet-patterning of nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films

    Lu, Renguo; Zhang, Hedong; Komada, Suguru; Mitsuya, Yasunaga; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Itoh, Shintaro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present fine UV-patterning of nm-thick liquid films for surface functionalization. • The patterned films exhibit both a morphological pattern and a functional pattern of different surface properties. • The finest pattern linewidth was 0.5 μm. • Fine patterning is crucial for improving surface and tribological properties. - Abstract: For micro/nanoscale devices, surface functionalization is essential to achieve function and performance superior to those that originate from the inherent bulk material properties. As a method of surface functionalization, we dip-coated nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films onto solid surfaces and then patterned the lubricant films with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation through a photomask. Surface topography, adhesion, and friction measurements demonstrated that the patterned films feature a concave–convex thickness distribution with thicker lubricant in the irradiated regions and a functional distribution with lower adhesion and friction in the irradiated convex regions. The pattern linewidth ranged from 100 to as fine as 0.5 μm. The surface functionalization effect of UV-patterning was investigated by measuring the water contact angles, surface energies, friction forces, and depletion of the patterned, as-dipped, and full UV-irradiated lubricant films. The full UV-irradiated lubricant film was hydrophobic with a water contact angle of 102.1°, and had lower surface energy, friction, and depletion than the as-dipped film, which was hydrophilic with a water contact angle of 80.7°. This demonstrates that UV irradiation substantially improves the surface and tribological properties of the nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films. The UV-patterned lubricant films exhibited superior surface and tribological properties than the as-dipped film. The water contact angle increased and the surface energy, friction, and depletion decreased as the pattern linewidth decreased. In particular, the 0.5-μm patterned lubricant

  11. Functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder): A role for microglial-based plasticity mechanisms?

    Stephenson, Chris P; Baguley, Ian J

    2018-02-01

    Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder (FND) is a relatively common neurological condition, accounting for approximately 3-6% of neurologist referrals. FND is considered a transient disorder of neuronal function, sometimes linked to physical trauma and psychological stress. Despite this, chronic disability is common, for example, around 40% of adults with motor FND have permanent disability. Building on current theoretical models, this paper proposes that microglial dysfunction could perpetuate functional changes within acute motor FND, thus providing a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the chronic stage of the motor FND phenotypes seen clinically. Core to our argument is microglia's dual role in modulating neuroimmunity and their control of synaptic plasticity, which places them at a pathophysiological nexus wherein coincident physical trauma and psychological stress could cause long-term change in neuronal networks without producing macroscopic structural abnormality. This model proposes a range of hypotheses that are testable with current technologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Global patterns of guild composition and functional diversity of spiders.

    Pedro Cardoso

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work are: (1 to define spider guilds for all extant families worldwide; (2 test if guilds defined at family level are good surrogates of species guilds; (3 compare the taxonomic and guild composition of spider assemblages from different parts of the world; (4 compare the taxonomic and functional diversity of spider assemblages and; (5 relate functional diversity with habitat structure. Data on foraging strategy, prey range, vertical stratification and circadian activity was collected for 108 families. Spider guilds were defined by hierarchical clustering. We searched for inconsistencies between family guild placement and the known guild of each species. Richness and abundance per guild before and after correcting guild placement were compared, as were the proportions of each guild and family between all possible pairs of sites. Functional diversity per site was calculated based on hierarchical clustering. Eight guilds were discriminated: (1 sensing, (2 sheet, (3 space, and (4 orb web weavers; (5 specialists; (6 ambush, (7 ground, and (8 other hunters. Sixteen percent of the species richness corresponding to 11% of all captured individuals was incorrectly attributed to a guild by family surrogacy; however, the correlation of uncorrected vs. corrected guilds was invariably high. The correlation of guild richness or abundances was generally higher than the correlation of family richness or abundances. Functional diversity was not always higher in the tropics than in temperate regions. Families may potentially serve as ecological surrogates for species. Different families may present similar roles in the ecosystems, with replacement of some taxa by other within the same guild. Spiders in tropical regions seem to have higher redundancy of functional roles and/or finer resource partitioning than in temperate regions. Although species and family diversity were higher in the tropics, functional diversity seems to be also

  13. Patterns of value: Systemic Functional Grammar and evaluation in ...

    In two recent articles in this journal (Kilpert, 2001a;b) I argued that 'method of development', a concept from Systemic Functional Grammar (sfg, associated with M.A.K. Halliday), is useful for teaching tertiary students to write coherent paragraphs. This follow-up article develops a related topic, explaining how the management ...

  14. Elucidating the interaction between light competition and herbivore feeding patterns using functional-structural plant modelling.

    de Vries, Jorad; Poelman, Erik H; Anten, Niels; Evers, Jochem B

    2018-01-24

    Plants usually compete with neighbouring plants for resources such as light as well as defend themselves against herbivorous insects. This requires investment of limiting resources, resulting in optimal resource distribution patterns and trade-offs between growth- and defence-related traits. A plant's competitive success is determined by the spatial distribution of its resources in the canopy. The spatial distribution of herbivory in the canopy in turn differs between herbivore species as the level of herbivore specialization determines their response to the distribution of resources and defences in the canopy. Here, we investigated to what extent competition for light affects plant susceptibility to herbivores with different feeding preferences. To quantify interactions between herbivory and competition, we developed and evaluated a 3-D spatially explicit functional-structural plant model for Brassica nigra that mechanistically simulates competition in a dynamic light environment, and also explicitly models leaf area removal by herbivores with different feeding preferences. With this novel approach, we can quantitatively explore the extent to which herbivore feeding location and light competition interact in their effect on plant performance. Our results indicate that there is indeed a strong interaction between levels of plant-plant competition and herbivore feeding preference. When plants did not compete, herbivory had relatively small effects irrespective of feeding preference. Conversely, when plants competed, herbivores with a preference for young leaves had a strong negative effect on the competitiveness and subsequent performance of the plant, whereas herbivores with a preference for old leaves did not. Our study predicts how plant susceptibility to herbivory depends on the composition of the herbivore community and the level of plant competition, and highlights the importance of considering the full range of dynamics in plant-plant-herbivore interactions

  15. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; ...

  16. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification.

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-03-20

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by approximately 75% and species richness of forest-using species by approximately 60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by approximately 40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends.

  17. Carotenoids and their conversion products in the control of adipocyte function, adiposity and obesity.

    Luisa Bonet, M; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2015-04-15

    A novel perspective of the function of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived products - including, but not restricted to, the retinoids - is emerging in recent years which connects these compounds to the control of adipocyte biology and body fat accumulation, with implications for the management of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Cell and animal studies indicate that carotenoids and carotenoids derivatives can reduce adiposity and impact key aspects of adipose tissue biology including adipocyte differentiation, hypertrophy, capacity for fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis (including browning of white adipose tissue) and secretory function. Epidemiological studies in humans associate higher dietary intakes and serum levels of carotenoids with decreased adiposity. Specifically designed human intervention studies, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. The objective of this review is to summarize recent findings in this area, place them in physiological contexts, and provide likely regulatory schemes whenever possible. The focus will be on the effects of carotenoids as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology and both animal and human studies, which support a role of carotenoids and retinoids in the prevention of abdominal adiposity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The fossil record, function, and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates

    Kobluk, D.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Mapes, R.H. (Ohio Univ., Athens (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Fossil invertebrate shells and carapaces displaying preserved original color patterns are among the rarest fossils. The fossil record of color patterns extends into the Middle Cambrian where the trilobite Anomocare displays a fan-like array of stripes on the pygidium. About 180 Paleozic genera are known with patterns, including trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and crustaceans. Based upon an analysis of these taxa, it appears that patterns and pigments in middle and late Paleozoic invertebrates may have served several functions such as warning displays, light screening, camouflage, or waste disposal. However, the presence of color patterns in fossil invertebrates in the early Paleozoic may have developed prior to the evolution of vision sufficiently sophisticated to see them. This suggests that camouflage and warning displays were not the original functions of color patterns, and that in the earliest Paleozoic they may not have been functional. The authors propose a hypothesis that involves three developmental phases in the evolution of invertebrate color patterns: (1) the incorporation of metabolic by-products, perhaps some pigmented and some not pigmented, into shells and carapaces as a means of disposal of dietary or metabolic wastes, (2) use of these pigments and patterns as an environmental adaptation, such as light screening, and (3) display during and following the evolution of vision in predators sufficiently sophisticated to see the patterns.

  19. Sub-50 nm patterning of functional oxides by soft lithographic edge printing

    George, A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2012-01-01

    We report a fast, versatile and reproducible method to make arbitrary nanoscale patterns of functional metal oxides by edge transfer printing of aqueous metal-loaded water-soluble polyacrylic acid (PAA) solutions on silicon. Patterns of ZnO, CuO, NiO and Fe2O3 with lateral dimensions below 50 nm

  20. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant. PMID:25054322

  1. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Hongbo Wei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant.

  2. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-05-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  3. Correlation of pulmonary function and usual interstitial pneumonia computed tomography patterns in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Arcadu, Antonella; Byrne, Suzanne C; Pirina, Pietro; Hartman, Thomas E; Bartholmai, Brian J; Moua, Teng

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about presenting 'inconsistent' or 'possible' usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) computed tomography (CT) patterns advancing to 'consistent' UIP as disease progresses in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We hypothesized that if 'consistent' UIP represented more advanced disease, such a pattern on presentation should also correlate with more severe pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities. Consecutive IPF patients (2005-2013) diagnosed by international criteria with baseline PFT and CT were included. Presenting CTs were assessed by three expert radiologists for consensus UIP pattern ('consistent', 'possible', and 'inconsistent'). Approximation of individual and combined interstitial abnormalities was also performed with correlation of interstitial abnormalities and UIP CT pattern made with PFT findings and survival. Three-hundred and fifty patients (70% male) were included with a mean age of 68.3 years. Mean percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) and diffusion capacity (DLCO%) was 64% and 45.5% respectively. Older age and male gender correlated more with 'consistent' UIP CT pattern. FVC% was not associated with any UIP pattern but did correlate with total volume of radiologist assessed interstitial abnormalities. DLCO% was lower in those with 'consistent' UIP pattern. A 'consistent' UIP CT pattern was also not independently predictive of survival after correction for age, gender, FVC%, and DLCO%. PFT findings appear to correlate with extent of radiologic disease but not specific morphologic patterns. Whether such UIP patterns represent different stages of disease severity or radiologic progression is not supported by coinciding pulmonary function decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    Jihye Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94. The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  5. Enzymatic Conversion of CO2 to Bicarbonate in Functionalized Mesoporous Silica

    Yu, Yuehua; Chen, Baowei; Qi, Wen N.; Li, Xiaolin; Shin, Yongsoon; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2012-05-01

    We report here that carbonic anhydrase (CA), the fastest enzyme that can covert carbon dioxide to bicarbonate, can be spontaneously entrapped in functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) with super-high loading density (up to 0.5 mg of protein/mg of FMS) due to the dominant electrostatic interaction. The binding of CA to HOOC-FMS can result in the protein’s conformational change comparing to the enzyme free in solution, but can be overcome with increased protein loading density. The higher the protein loading density, the less conformational change, hence the higher enzymatic activity and the higher enzyme immobilization efficiency. The electrostatically bound CA can be released by changing pH. The released enzyme still displayed the native conformational structure and the same high enzymatic activity as that prior to the enzyme entrapment. This work opens up a new approach converting carbon dioxide to biocarbonate in a biomimetic nanoconfiguration that can be integrated with the other part of biosynthesis process for the assimilation of carbon dioxide.

  6. Direct conversion of human fibroblasts into functional osteoblasts by defined factors.

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Kishida, Tsunao; Sato, Yoshiki; Nishioka, Keisuke; Ejima, Akika; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kanamura, Narisato; Mazda, Osam

    2015-05-12

    Osteoblasts produce calcified bone matrix and contribute to bone formation and remodeling. In this study, we established a procedure to directly convert human fibroblasts into osteoblasts by transducing some defined factors and culturing in osteogenic medium. Osteoblast-specific transcription factors, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and Osterix, in combination with Octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct4) and L-Myc (RXOL) transduction, converted ∼ 80% of the fibroblasts into osteocalcin-producing cells. The directly converted osteoblasts (dOBs) induced by RXOL displayed a similar gene expression profile as normal human osteoblasts and contributed to bone repair after transplantation into immunodeficient mice at artificial bone defect lesions. The dOBs expressed endogenous Runx2 and Osterix, and did not require continuous expression of the exogenous genes to maintain their phenotype. Another combination, Oct4 plus L-Myc (OL), also induced fibroblasts to produce bone matrix, but the OL-transduced cells did not express Osterix and exhibited a more distant gene expression profile to osteoblasts compared with RXOL-transduced cells. These findings strongly suggest successful direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional osteoblasts by RXOL, a technology that may provide bone regeneration therapy against bone disorders.

  7. The role of alexithymia in the development of functional motor symptoms (conversion disorder).

    Demartini, Benedetta; Petrochilos, Panayiota; Ricciardi, Lucia; Price, Gary; Edwards, Mark J; Joyce, Eileen

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms leading to the development of functional motor symptoms (FMS) are of pathophysiological and clinical relevance, yet are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether impaired emotional processing at the cognitive level (alexithymia) is present in patients affected by FMS. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population of patients with FMS and in two control groups (patients with organic movement disorders (OMD) and healthy volunteers). 55 patients with FMS, 33 patients affected by OMD and 34 healthy volunteers were recruited. The assessment included the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test and the Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders. Alexithymia was present in 34.5% of patients with FMS, 9.1% with OMD and 5.9% of the healthy volunteers, which was significantly higher in the FMS group (χ(2) (2)=14.129, pOCPD) in the FMS group (χ(2) (2)=16.217, pOCPD also reached threshold criteria for alexithymia. Because alexithymia is a mental state denoting the inability to identify emotions at a cognitive level, one hypothesis is that some patients misattribute autonomic symptoms of anxiety, for example, tremor, paraesthesiae, paralysis, to that of a physical illness. Further work is required to understand the contribution of OCPD to the development of FMS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Comparative and developmental patterns of amphibious auditory function in salamanders.

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Johnston, Carol E

    2016-12-01

    Early amphibious tetrapods may have detected aquatic sound pressure using sound-induced lung vibrations, but their lack of tympanic middle ears would have restricted aerial sensitivity. Sharing these characteristics, salamanders could be models for the carryover of auditory function across an aquatic-terrestrial boundary without tympanic middle ears. We measured amphibious auditory evoked potential audiograms in five phylogenetically and ecologically distinct salamanders (Amphiuma means, Notophthalmus viridescens, Ambystoma talpoideum, Eurycea spp., and Plethodon glutinosus) and tested whether metamorphosis and terrestrial niche were linked to aerial sensitivity. Threshold differences between media varied between species. A. means' relative aerial sensitivity was greatest at 100 Hz and decreased with increasing frequency. In contrast, all other salamanders retained greater sensitivity up to 500 Hz, and in A. talpoideum and Eurycea, relative sensitivity at 500 Hz was higher than at 100 Hz. Aerial thresholds of terrestrial P. glutinosus above 200 Hz were similar to A. talpoideum and Eurycea, but lower than N. viridescens and A. means. Metamorphosis did not affect aerial sensitivity in N. viridescens or A. talpoideum. These results fail to support a hypothesis of terrestrial hearing specialization across ontogeny or phylogeny. We discuss methodological limitations to our amphibious comparisons and factors affecting variation in amphibious performance.

  9. Unique interaction pattern for a functionally biased ghrelin receptor agonist

    Sivertsen, Bjørn Behrens; Lang, Manja; Frimurer, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the conformationally constrained D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp (wFw) core of the prototype inverse agonist [D-Arg(1),D-Phe(5),D-Trp(7,9),Leu(11)]substance P, a series of novel, small, peptide-mimetic agonists for the ghrelin receptor were generated. By using various simple, ring-constrained spacers...... connecting the D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp motif with the important C-terminal carboxyamide group, 40 nm agonism potency was obtained and also in one case (wFw-Isn-NH(2), where Isn is isonipecotic acid) ~80% efficacy. However, in contrast to all previously reported ghrelin receptor agonists, the piperidine-constrained w......Fw-Isn-NH(2) was found to be a functionally biased agonist. Thus, wFw-Isn-NH(2) mediated potent and efficacious signaling through the Ga(q) and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, but in contrast to all previous ghrelin receptor agonists it did not signal through the serum response element, conceivably the Ga(12...

  10. Iridium terpyridine complexes as functional assembling units in arrays for the conversion of light energy.

    Flamigni, Lucia; Collin, Jean-Paul; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre

    2008-07-01

    In photosynthesis, sunlight energy is converted into a chemical potential by an electron transfer sequence that is started by an excited state and ultimately yields a long-lived charge-separated state. This process can be reproduced by carefully designed multicomponent artificial arrays of three or more components, and the stored energy can be used to oxidize or reduce molecules in solution, to inject electrons or holes, or to create an electron flow. Therefore, the process is important both for artificial-photosynthesis research and for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Molecular arrays for photoinduced charge separation often use chromophores that resemble the natural ones. However, new synthetic components, including transition metal complexes, have had some success. This Account discusses the use of bis-terpyridine (tpy) metal complexes as assembling and functional units of such multicomponent arrays. M(tpy)2(n+) complexes have the advantage of yielding linear arrays with unambiguous geometry. Originally, Ru(tpy)2(2+) and Os(tpy)2(2+) were used as photosensitizers in triads containing typical organic donors and acceptors. However, it soon became evident that the relatively low excited state of these complexes could act as an energy drain of the excited state of the photosensitizer and, thus, seriously compete with charge separation. A new metal complex that preserved the favorable tpy geometry and yet had a higher energy level was needed. We identified Ir(tpy)2(3+), which displayed a higher energy level, a more facile reduction that favored charge separation, a longer excited-state lifetime, and strong spectroscopic features that were useful for the identification of intermediates. Ir(tpy)2(3+) was used in arrays with electron-donating gold porphyrin and electron-accepting free-base porphyrins. A judicious change of the free-base porphyrin photosensitizer with zinc porphyrin allowed us to shape the photoreactivity and led to charge separation with

  11. Double hollow MoS{sub 2} nano-spheres: Synthesis, tribological properties, and functional conversion from lubrication to photocatalysis

    Liu, Yueru [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China); Hu, Kunhong, E-mail: hukunhong@163.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China); Hu, Enzhu; Guo, Jianhua; Han, Chengliang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China); Hu, Xianguo [Institute of Tribology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Novel double-hollow-sphere MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized on sericite. • Friction and wear decreased by 22.4 and 63.5% by the novel MoS{sub 2}/sericite. • Friction induced conversion of MoS{sub 2}/sericite from lubricant to catalyst. • MoS{sub 2}/sericite can be used as a photocatalyst after lubricating service life. • A possible approach was proposed for designing a novel green lubricant. - Abstract: Molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) has extensive applications in industries as solid lubricants and catalysts. To improve the lubricating performance of MoS{sub 2}, novel double-hollow-sphere MoS{sub 2} (DHSM) nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 90 nm were synthesized on sericite mica (SM). When the DHSM/SM composite was used as an additive in polyalphaolefin oil, friction and wear decreased by 22.4% and 63.5% respectively. The low friction and wear were attributed to the easy exfoliation of DHSM. The DHSM/SM composite was then rubbed under 40 MPa for 1 h to investigate the exfoliation and functional conversion behaviors of DHSM. Results showed that DHSM (lubricating structure) on SM could be completely exfoliated into nanosheets (catalytic structure) by rubbing. The nanosheets exfoliated from DHSM presented good photocatalytic activity for the removal of organic compounds from waste water. This work provided both a novel solid lubricant for industrial applications and a possible approach to designing a novel green lubricant for use as a photocatalyst in organic-waste treatment after lubricating service life.

  12. From Patterns to Function in Living Systems: Dryland Ecosystems as a Case Study

    Meron, Ehud

    2018-03-01

    Spatial patterns are ubiquitous in animate matter. Besides their intricate structure and beauty they generally play functional roles. The capacity of living systems to remain functional in changing environments is a question of utmost importance, but its intimate relationship to pattern formation is largely unexplored. Here, we address this relationship using dryland vegetation as a case study. Following a brief introduction to pattern-formation theory, we describe a mathematical model that captures several mechanisms of vegetation pattern formation and discuss ecological contexts that showcase different mechanisms. Using this model, we unravel the different vegetation patterns that keep dryland ecosystems viable along the rainfall gradient, identify multistability ranges where fronts separating domains of alternative stable states exist, and highlight the roles of front dynamics in mitigating or reversing desertification. The utility of satellite images in testing model predictions is discussed. An outlook on outstanding open problems concludes this paper.

  13. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We

  14. Homogenous conversion of methane to methanol. 1: Catalytic activation and functionalization of methane by cis-platin in sulfuric acid -- a density functional study of the thermochemistry

    Mylvaganam, K.; Bacskay, G.B.; Hush, N.S. [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    1999-05-19

    The selective oxidation of methane to methanol or other efficiently transportable material represents one of the outstanding challenges of the chemical industry. Methane, being the dominant component of natural gas, is an abundant resource, yet in comparison with petroleum products it is currently underutilized, mainly because the transportation of a gas with a very low boiling point is expensive. The situation could change drastically if a simple, efficient, and economical method were found to convert methane to a readily transportable material such as methanol. The recent announcement by Periana et al. (Science, 1998, 280, 560) of 70% one-pass homogeneous catalysis of methane-to-methanol conversion with high selectivity in sulfuric acid solution under moderate conditions represents an important advance in the selective oxidation of alkanes, an area of considerable current interest and activity. The conversion is catalyzed by bis(2,2{prime}-bipyrimidine)Pt(II)Cl{sub 2}. In this work, the thermodynamics of the activation and functionalization steps of the related cis-platin-catalyzed process in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} are calculated using density functional techniques, including the calculation of solvation free energies by a dielectric continuum method. It is concluded that electrophilic attack by CH{sub 4} on an intermediate which may be regarded as a tetracoordinate solvated analogue of a gas-phase, T-shaped, three-coordinate Pt(II) species, followed by oxidation of the resulting methyl complex to a methyl bisulfate ester, is thermodynamically feasible. This is in general accord with the mechanism proposed by Periana et al., but now, on the basis of the computational predictions, the nature of the active catalyst, as well as that of the intermediates, can be more precisely defined. While the alternative mechanism of oxidative addition does not appear to be thermodynamically feasible when using Pt(II) catalysts, catalysis by a Pt(IV) species is predicted to be, on

  15. Sub-50 nm Scale to Micrometer Scale Soft Lithographic Patterning of Functional Materials

    George, A.

    2011-01-01

    This PhD thesis addresses two major issues: 1) Fabricating nanometer-scale patterns of functional materials, 2) Extending the applicability of soft lithographic processes to a wide range of functional materials on conventional silicon substrates and flexible plastic substrates. This thesis describes

  16. Do attachment patterns predict aggression in a context of social rejection? An executive functioning account.

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ma, Haijing; Chen, Xu; Ran, Guangming; Zhang, Xing

    2017-07-01

    People tend to respond to rejection and attack with aggression. The present research examined the modulation role of attachment patterns on provoked aggression following punishment and proposed an executive functioning account of attachment patterns' modulating influence based on the General Aggression Model. Attachment style was measured using the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory. Experiments 1a and b and 2 adopted a social rejection task and assessed subsequent unprovoked and provoked aggression with different attachment patterns. Moreover, Experiment 1b and 2 used a Stroop task to examine whether differences in provoked aggression by attachment patterns are due to the amount of executive functioning following social rejection, or after unprovoked punishment, or even before social rejection. Anxiously attached participants displayed significant more provoked aggression than securely and avoidantly attached participants in provoked aggression following unprovoked punishment in Experiments 1 and 2. Meanwhile, subsequent Stroop tests indicated anxiously attached participants experienced more executive functioning depletion after social rejection and unprovoked aggression. The present findings support the General Aggression Model and suggest that provoked aggression is predicted by attachment patterns in the context of social rejection; different provoked aggression may depend on the degree of executive functioning that individuals preserved in aggressive situations. The current study contributes to our understanding of the importance of the role of attachment patterns in modulating aggressive behavior accompanying unfair social encounters. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Comparing rainfall patterns between regions in Peninsular Malaysia via a functional data analysis technique

    Suhaila, Jamaludin; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Hamdan, Muhammad Fauzee; Wan Zin, Wan Zawiah

    2011-12-01

    SummaryNormally, rainfall data is collected on a daily, monthly or annual basis in the form of discrete observations. The aim of this study is to convert these rainfall values into a smooth curve or function which could be used to represent the continuous rainfall process at each region via a technique known as functional data analysis. Since rainfall data shows a periodic pattern in each region, the Fourier basis is introduced to capture these variations. Eleven basis functions with five harmonics are used to describe the unimodal rainfall pattern for stations in the East while five basis functions which represent two harmonics are needed to describe the rainfall pattern in the West. Based on the fitted smooth curve, the wet and dry periods as well as the maximum and minimum rainfall values could be determined. Different rainfall patterns are observed among the studied regions based on the smooth curve. Using the functional analysis of variance, the test results indicated that there exist significant differences in the functional means between each region. The largest differences in the functional means are found between the East and Northwest regions and these differences may probably be due to the effect of topography and, geographical location and are mostly influenced by the monsoons. Therefore, the same inputs or approaches might not be useful in modeling the hydrological process for different regions.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Cropland Conversion in Response to the “Grain for Green Project” in China’s Loess Hilly Region of Yanchuan County

    Jieyong Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To prevent environmental degradation, China’s central government launched the “Grain for Green Project” (GGP in 1999. Since its beginning, the effects and influences of the GGP have been hotly debated among domestic and international scholars and policymakers. This paper is taking the County of Yanchuan in the Loess Plateau as a case study, examines the spatio-temporal patterns of cropland conversion in response to the GGP. This research is methodologically based on remote sensing (RS and geographic information systems (GIS, and also employs personal interviews with local government officials and farmers. The results show that land use/cover patterns in Yanchuan County have changed dramatically after the implementation of GGP. Cropland has decreased remarkably, while orchard land and sparse forest has increased significantly: 23.84% of cropland was converted to orchard, and 22.25% to sparse forest. Simultaneously, the landscape has become more fragmented but also more diversified, forestland has become more dominant. A total of 61.19% of the total converted cropland was on slopes greater than 15 degrees, 64.85% of which was lower-grade land. The converted cropland is mostly located in more accessible areas for convenient management. Partially affected by farmers’ self-willingness, sloping cropland was preferred to orchard (economic forest, and some gentle slope (less than 15 degrees or higher-grade cropland were involved in the GGP. To maintain and reinforce the achievements of the GGP and further contribute to the GGP’s sustainability and rural development, the paper recommends that the Chinese government should build a continuous compensation mechanism for the households who lost cropland for the GGP while improving the productivity of flat cropland.

  19. Spatial-temporal-spectral EEG patterns of BOLD functional network connectivity dynamics

    Lamoš, Martin; Mareček, Radek; Slavíček, Tomáš; Mikl, Michal; Rektor, Ivan; Jan, Jiří

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Growing interest in the examination of large-scale brain network functional connectivity dynamics is accompanied by an effort to find the electrophysiological correlates. The commonly used constraints applied to spatial and spectral domains during electroencephalogram (EEG) data analysis may leave part of the neural activity unrecognized. We propose an approach that blindly reveals multimodal EEG spectral patterns that are related to the dynamics of the BOLD functional network connectivity. Approach. The blind decomposition of EEG spectrogram by parallel factor analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for uncovering patterns of neural activity. The simultaneously acquired BOLD fMRI data were decomposed by independent component analysis. Dynamic functional connectivity was computed on the component’s time series using a sliding window correlation, and between-network connectivity states were then defined based on the values of the correlation coefficients. ANOVA tests were performed to assess the relationships between the dynamics of between-network connectivity states and the fluctuations of EEG spectral patterns. Main results. We found three patterns related to the dynamics of between-network connectivity states. The first pattern has dominant peaks in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands and is related to the dynamics between the auditory, sensorimotor, and attentional networks. The second pattern, with dominant peaks in the theta and low alpha bands, is related to the visual and default mode network. The third pattern, also with peaks in the theta and low alpha bands, is related to the auditory and frontal network. Significance. Our previous findings revealed a relationship between EEG spectral pattern fluctuations and the hemodynamics of large-scale brain networks. In this study, we suggest that the relationship also exists at the level of functional connectivity dynamics among large-scale brain networks when no standard spatial and spectral

  20. TKA patients with unsatisfying knee function show changes in neuromotor synergy pattern but not joint biomechanics.

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Malloy, Philip; Nam, Denis; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Wimmer, Markus A

    2017-12-01

    Nearly 20% of patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) report persistent poor knee function. This study explores the idea that, despite similar knee joint biomechanics, the neuro-motor synergies may be different between high-functional and low-functional TKA patients. We hypothesized that (1) high-functional TKA recruit a more complex neuro-motor synergy pattern compared to low-functional TKA and (2) high-functional TKA patients demonstrate more stride-to-stride variability (flexibility) in their synergies. Gait and electromyography (EMG) data were collected during level walking for three groups of participants: (i) high-functional TKA patients (n=13); (ii) low-functional TKA patients (n=13) and (iii) non-operative controls (n=18). Synergies were extracted from EMG data using non-negative matrix factorization. Analysis of variance and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate between-group differences in gait and neuro-motor synergies. Results showed that synergy patterns were different among the three groups. Control subjects used 5-6 independent neural commands to execute a gait cycle. High functional TKA patients used 4-5 independent neural commands while low-functional TKA patients relied on only 2-3 independent neural commands to execute a gait cycle. Furthermore, stride-to-stride variability of muscles' response to the neural commands was reduced up to 15% in low-functional TKAs compared to the other two groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations.

    Valentyna Krashevska

    Full Text Available Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs.

  2. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae) Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations.

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs.

  3. Pattern-Driven Architectural Partitioning. Balancing Functional and Non-functional Requirements

    Harrison, Neil; Avgeriou, Paris

    2007-01-01

    One of the vexing challenges of software architecture is the problem of satisfying the functional specifications of the system to be created while at the same time meeting its non-functional needs. In this work we focus on the early stages of the software architecture process, when initial

  4. The Effect of Core Stability Training on Functional Movement Patterns in Collegiate Athletes.

    Bagherian, Sajad; Ghasempoor, Khodayar; Rahnama, Nader; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2018-02-06

    Pre-participation examinations are the standard approach for assessing poor movement quality that would increase musculoskeletal injury risk. However, little is known about how core stability influences functional movement patterns. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week core stability program on functional movement patterns in collegiate athletes. The secondary purpose was to determine if the core stability training program would be more effective in those with worse movement quality (i.e. ≤14 baseline FMS score). Quasi-experimental design. Athletic Training Facility. One-hundred collegiate athletes. Functional movement patterns included the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Lateral step down (LSD) and Y balance test (YBT) and were assessed before and after the 8-week program. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control. The intervention group was required to complete a core stability training program that met 3 times per week for 8-week. Significant group x time interactions demonstrated improvements in FMS, LSD and YBT scores in the experimental group relative to the control group (pcore stability training program enhances functional movement patterns and dynamic postural control in collegiate athletes. The benefits are more pronounced in collegiate athletes with poor movement quality.

  5. Empirically Defined Patterns of Executive Function Deficits in Schizophrenia and Their Relation to Everyday Functioning: A Person-Centered Approach

    Iampietro, Mary; Giovannetti, Tania; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Kessler, Rachel K.

    2013-01-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are well documented, although much less is known about patterns of EF deficits and their association to differential impairments in everyday functioning. The present study empirically defined SZ groups based on measures of various EF abilities and then compared these EF groups on everyday action errors. Participants (n=45) completed various subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT), a performance-based measure of everyday action that yields scores reflecting total errors and a range of different error types (e.g., omission, perseveration). Results of a latent class analysis revealed three distinct EF groups, characterized by (a) multiple EF deficits, (b) relatively spared EF, and (c) perseverative responding. Follow-up analyses revealed that the classes differed significantly on NAT total errors, total commission errors, and total perseveration errors; the two classes with EF impairment performed comparably on the NAT but performed worse than the class with relatively spared EF. In sum, people with SZ demonstrate variable patterns of EF deficits, and distinct aspects of these EF deficit patterns (i.e., poor mental control abilities) may be associated with everyday functioning capabilities. PMID:23035705

  6. Multivariate Pattern Classification of Facial Expressions Based on Large-Scale Functional Connectivity.

    Liang, Yin; Liu, Baolin; Li, Xianglin; Wang, Peiyuan

    2018-01-01

    It is an important question how human beings achieve efficient recognition of others' facial expressions in cognitive neuroscience, and it has been identified that specific cortical regions show preferential activation to facial expressions in previous studies. However, the potential contributions of the connectivity patterns in the processing of facial expressions remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored whether facial expressions could be decoded from the functional connectivity (FC) patterns using multivariate pattern analysis combined with machine learning algorithms (fcMVPA). We employed a block design experiment and collected neural activities while participants viewed facial expressions of six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise). Both static and dynamic expression stimuli were included in our study. A behavioral experiment after scanning confirmed the validity of the facial stimuli presented during the fMRI experiment with classification accuracies and emotional intensities. We obtained whole-brain FC patterns for each facial expression and found that both static and dynamic facial expressions could be successfully decoded from the FC patterns. Moreover, we identified the expression-discriminative networks for the static and dynamic facial expressions, which span beyond the conventional face-selective areas. Overall, these results reveal that large-scale FC patterns may also contain rich expression information to accurately decode facial expressions, suggesting a novel mechanism, which includes general interactions between distributed brain regions, and that contributes to the human facial expression recognition.

  7. Auditory Multi-Stability: Idiosyncratic Perceptual Switching Patterns, Executive Functions and Personality Traits.

    Dávid Farkas

    Full Text Available Multi-stability refers to the phenomenon of perception stochastically switching between possible interpretations of an unchanging stimulus. Despite considerable variability, individuals show stable idiosyncratic patterns of switching between alternative perceptions in the auditory streaming paradigm. We explored correlates of the individual switching patterns with executive functions, personality traits, and creativity. The main dimensions on which individual switching patterns differed from each other were identified using multidimensional scaling. Individuals with high scores on the dimension explaining the largest portion of the inter-individual variance switched more often between the alternative perceptions than those with low scores. They also perceived the most unusual interpretation more often, and experienced all perceptual alternatives with a shorter delay from stimulus onset. The ego-resiliency personality trait, which reflects a tendency for adaptive flexibility and experience seeking, was significantly positively related to this dimension. Taking these results together we suggest that this dimension may reflect the individual's tendency for exploring the auditory environment. Executive functions were significantly related to some of the variables describing global properties of the switching patterns, such as the average number of switches. Thus individual patterns of perceptual switching in the auditory streaming paradigm are related to some personality traits and executive functions.

  8. Visual Scanning Patterns and Executive Function in Relation to Facial Emotion Recognition in Aging

    Circelli, Karishma S.; Clark, Uraina S.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Objective The ability to perceive facial emotion varies with age. Relative to younger adults (YA), older adults (OA) are less accurate at identifying fear, anger, and sadness, and more accurate at identifying disgust. Because different emotions are conveyed by different parts of the face, changes in visual scanning patterns may account for age-related variability. We investigated the relation between scanning patterns and recognition of facial emotions. Additionally, as frontal-lobe changes with age may affect scanning patterns and emotion recognition, we examined correlations between scanning parameters and performance on executive function tests. Methods We recorded eye movements from 16 OA (mean age 68.9) and 16 YA (mean age 19.2) while they categorized facial expressions and non-face control images (landscapes), and administered standard tests of executive function. Results OA were less accurate than YA at identifying fear (precognition of sad expressions and with scanning patterns for fearful, sad, and surprised expressions. Conclusion We report significant age-related differences in visual scanning that are specific to faces. The observed relation between scanning patterns and executive function supports the hypothesis that frontal-lobe changes with age may underlie some changes in emotion recognition. PMID:22616800

  9. Scanless functional imaging of hippocampal networks using patterned two-photon illumination through GRIN lenses

    Moretti, Claudio

    2016-09-12

    Patterned illumination through the phase modulation of light is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to investigate biological tissues in combination with two-photon excitation and light-sensitive molecules. However, to date two-photon patterned illumination has only been coupled to traditional microscope objectives, thus limiting the applicability of these methods to superficial biological structures. Here, we show that phase modulation can be used to efficiently project complex two-photon light patterns, including arrays of points and large shapes, in the focal plane of graded index (GRIN) lenses. Moreover, using this approach in combination with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6, we validate our system performing scanless functional imaging in rodent hippocampal networks in vivo ~1.2 mm below the brain surface. Our results open the way to the application of patterned illumination approaches to deep regions of highly scattering biological tissues, such as the mammalian brain.

  10. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns

    Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

  11. Patterning functional materials using channel diffused plasma-etched self-assembled monolayer templates

    George, A.; Maijenburg, A.W.; Maas, M.G.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective methodology for large-area micrometer-scale patterning of a wide range of metallic and oxidic functional materials is presented. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of alkyl thiols on Au were micropatterned by channel-diffused oxygen plasma etching, a method in which selected

  12. Dynamical patterns of calcium signaling in a functional model of neuron-astrocyte networks

    Postnov, D.E.; Koreshkov, R.N.; Brazhe, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a functional mathematical model for neuron-astrocyte networks. The model incorporates elements of the tripartite synapse and the spatial branching structure of coupled astrocytes. We consider glutamate-induced calcium signaling as a specific mode of excitability and transmission...... in astrocytic-neuronal networks. We reproduce local and global dynamical patterns observed experimentally....

  13. Scanless functional imaging of hippocampal networks using patterned two-photon illumination through GRIN lenses

    Moretti, Claudio; Antonini, Andrea; Bovetti, Serena; Liberale, Carlo; Fellin, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    functional imaging in rodent hippocampal networks in vivo ~1.2 mm below the brain surface. Our results open the way to the application of patterned illumination approaches to deep regions of highly scattering biological tissues, such as the mammalian brain.

  14. Abnormalities of lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Hagdrup, H; Tønnesen, E; Clemmensen, O

    1992-01-01

    We examined the blood lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis after taking salazopyrin. We studied cell surface markers, natural killer cell activity and mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation. Our results point to temporary immunosuppression...... as evidenced by lymphopenia with a large "null cell" population, reduced natural killer cell activity, and impaired lymphocyte response to mitogens....

  15. A Comparison between Standard and Functional Clustering Methodologies: Application to Agricultural Fields for Yield Pattern Assessment

    Simone Pascucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of spatial patterns within agricultural fields, presenting similar yield potential areas, stable through time, is very important for optimizing agricultural practices. This study proposes the evaluation of different clustering methodologies applied to multispectral satellite time series for retrieving temporally stable (constant patterns in agricultural fields, related to within-field yield spatial distribution. The ability of different clustering procedures for the recognition and mapping of constant patterns in fields of cereal crops was assessed. Crop vigor patterns, considered to be related to soils characteristics, and possibly indicative of yield potential, were derived by applying the different clustering algorithms to time series of Landsat images acquired on 94 agricultural fields near Rome (Italy. Two different approaches were applied and validated using Landsat 7 and 8 archived imagery. The first approach automatically extracts and calculates for each field of interest (FOI the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, then exploits the standard K-means clustering algorithm to derive constant patterns at the field level. The second approach applies novel clustering procedures directly to spectral reflectance time series, in particular: (1 standard K-means; (2 functional K-means; (3 multivariate functional principal components clustering analysis; (4 hierarchical clustering. The different approaches were validated through cluster accuracy estimates on a reference set of FOIs for which yield maps were available for some years. Results show that multivariate functional principal components clustering, with an a priori determination of the optimal number of classes for each FOI, provides a better accuracy than those of standard clustering algorithms. The proposed novel functional clustering methodologies are effective and efficient for constant pattern retrieval and can be used for a sustainable management of

  16. Re-patterning of H3K27me3, H3K4me3 and DNA methylation during fibroblast conversion into induced cardiomyocytes

    Ziqing Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct conversion of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs offers an alternative strategy for cardiac disease modeling and regeneration. During iCM reprogramming, the starting fibroblasts must overcome existing epigenetic barriers to acquire the CM-like chromatin pattern. However, epigenetic dynamics along this reprogramming process have not been studied. Here, we took advantage of our recently generated polycistronic system and determined the dynamics of two critical histone marks, H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, in parallel with gene expression at a set of carefully selected cardiac and fibroblast loci during iCM reprogramming. We observed reduced H3K27me3 and increased H3K4me3 at cardiac promoters as early as day 3, paralleled by a rapid significant increase in their mRNA expression. In contrast, H3K27me3 at loci encoding fibroblast marker genes did not increase until day 10 and H3K4me3 progressively decreased along the reprogramming process; these changes were accompanied by a gradual decrease in the mRNA expression of fibroblast marker genes. Further analyses of fibroblast-enriched transcription factors revealed a similarly late deposition of H3K27me3 and decreased mRNA expression of Sox9, Twist1 and Twist2, three important players in epithelial−mesenchymal transition. Our data suggest early rapid activation of the cardiac program and later progressive suppression of fibroblast fate at both epigenetic and transcriptional levels. Additionally, we determined the DNA methylation states of representative cardiac promoters and found that not every single CpG was equally demethylated during early stages of iCM reprogramming. Rather, there are specific CpGs, whose demethylation states correlated tightly with transcription activation, that we propose are the major contributing CpGs. Our work thus reveals a differential re-patterning of H3K27me3, H3K4me3 at cardiac and fibroblast loci during iCM reprogramming and could provide future genome

  17. Dual-Function Au@Y2O3:Eu3+ Smart Film for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency and Long-Term Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Kim, Chang Woo; Eom, Tae Young; Yang, In Seok; Kim, Byung Su; Lee, Wan In; Kang, Yong Soo; Kang, Young Soo

    2017-07-28

    In the present study, a dual-functional smart film combining the effects of wavelength conversion and amplification of the converted wave by the localized surface plasmon resonance has been investigated for a perovskite solar cell. This dual-functional film, composed of Au nanoparticles coated on the surface of Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor (Au@Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ ) nanoparticle monolayer, enhances the solar energy conversion efficiency to electrical energy and long-term stability of photovoltaic cells. Coupling between the Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor monolayer and ultraviolet solar light induces the latter to be converted into visible light with a quantum yield above 80%. Concurrently, the Au nanoparticle monolayer on the phosphor nanoparticle monolayer amplifies the converted visible light by up to 170%. This synergy leads to an increased solar light energy conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells. Simultaneously, the dual-function film suppresses the photodegradation of perovskite by UV light, resulting in long-term stability. Introducing the hybrid smart Au@Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ film in perovskite solar cells increases their overall solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency to 16.1% and enhances long-term stability, as compared to the value of 15.2% for standard perovskite solar cells. The synergism between the wavelength conversion effect of the phosphor nanoparticle monolayer and the wave amplification by the localized surface plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticle monolayer in a perovskite solar cell is comparatively investigated, providing a viable strategy of broadening the solar spectrum utilization.

  18. Functional redundancy patterns reveal non-random assembly rules in a species-rich marine assemblage.

    Nicolas Guillemot

    Full Text Available The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species.

  19. Protein functional features are reflected in the patterns of mRNA translation speed.

    López, Daniel; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-09

    The degeneracy of the genetic code makes it possible for the same amino acid string to be coded by different messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences. These "synonymous mRNAs" may differ largely in a number of aspects related to their overall translational efficiency, such as secondary structure content and availability of the encoded transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Consequently, they may render different yields of the translated polypeptides. These mRNA features related to translation efficiency are also playing a role locally, resulting in a non-uniform translation speed along the mRNA, which has been previously related to some protein structural features and also used to explain some dramatic effects of "silent" single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs). In this work we perform the first large scale analysis of the relationship between three experimental proxies of mRNA local translation efficiency and the local features of the corresponding encoded proteins. We found that a number of protein functional and structural features are reflected in the patterns of ribosome occupancy, secondary structure and tRNA availability along the mRNA. One or more of these proxies of translation speed have distinctive patterns around the mRNA regions coding for certain protein local features. In some cases the three patterns follow a similar trend. We also show specific examples where these patterns of translation speed point to the protein's important structural and functional features. This support the idea that the genome not only codes the protein functional features as sequences of amino acids, but also as subtle patterns of mRNA properties which, probably through local effects on the translation speed, have some consequence on the final polypeptide. These results open the possibility of predicting a protein's functional regions based on a single genomic sequence, and have implications for heterologous protein expression and fine-tuning protein function.

  20. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  1. Understanding the Functionality of Human Activity Hotspots from Their Scaling Pattern Using Trajectory Data

    Tao Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human activity hotspots are the clusters of activity locations in space and time, and a better understanding of their functionality would be useful for urban land use planning and transportation. In this article, using trajectory data, we aim to infer the functionality of human activity hotspots from their scaling pattern in a reliable way. Specifically, a large number of stopping locations are extracted from trajectory data, which are then aggregated into activity hotspots. Activity hotspots are found to display scaling patterns in terms of the sublinear scaling relationships between the number of stopping locations and the number of points of interest (POIs, which indicates economies of scale of human interactions with urban land use. Importantly, this scaling pattern remains stable over time. This finding inspires us to devise an allometric ruler to identify the activity hotspots, whose functionality could be reliably estimated using the stopping locations. Thereafter, a novel Bayesian inference model is proposed to infer their urban functionality, which examines the spatial and temporal information of stopping locations covering 75 days. Experimental results suggest that the functionality of identified activity hotspots are reliably inferred by stopping locations, such as the railway station.

  2. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: high resolution computed tomography patterns and pulmonary function indices as prognostic determinants

    Walsh, Simon L.F.; Devaraj, Anand; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sverzellati, Nicola [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Diseases Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function indices (PFTs) for determining prognosis in patients with chronic fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). Case records, PFTs (FEV{sub 1}, FVC and DLco) and HRCTs of ninety-two patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis were evaluated. HRCT studies were scored by two observers for total disease extent, ground-glass opacification, fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, centrilobular emphysema and consolidation. Traction bronchiectasis within each pattern was graded. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models the prognostic strength of individual HRCT patterns and pulmonary function test variables were determined. There were forty two deaths during the study period. Increasing severity of traction bronchiectasis was the strongest predictor of mortality (HR 1.10, P < 0.001, 95%CI 1.04-1.16). Increasing global interstitial disease extent (HR 1.02, P = 0.02, 95%CI 1.00-1.03), microcystic honeycombing (HR 1.09, P = 0.019, 95%CI 1.01-1.17) and macrocystic honeycombing (HR 1.06, P < 0.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.10) were also independent predictors of mortality. In contrast, no individual PFT variable was predictive of mortality once HRCT patterns were accounted for. HRCT patterns, in particular, severity of traction bronchiectasis and extent of honeycombing are superior to pulmonary function tests for predicting mortality in patients with CHP. (orig.)

  3. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: high resolution computed tomography patterns and pulmonary function indices as prognostic determinants

    Walsh, Simon L.F.; Devaraj, Anand; Hansell, David M.; Sverzellati, Nicola; Wells, Athol U.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function indices (PFTs) for determining prognosis in patients with chronic fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). Case records, PFTs (FEV 1 , FVC and DLco) and HRCTs of ninety-two patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis were evaluated. HRCT studies were scored by two observers for total disease extent, ground-glass opacification, fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, centrilobular emphysema and consolidation. Traction bronchiectasis within each pattern was graded. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models the prognostic strength of individual HRCT patterns and pulmonary function test variables were determined. There were forty two deaths during the study period. Increasing severity of traction bronchiectasis was the strongest predictor of mortality (HR 1.10, P < 0.001, 95%CI 1.04-1.16). Increasing global interstitial disease extent (HR 1.02, P = 0.02, 95%CI 1.00-1.03), microcystic honeycombing (HR 1.09, P = 0.019, 95%CI 1.01-1.17) and macrocystic honeycombing (HR 1.06, P < 0.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.10) were also independent predictors of mortality. In contrast, no individual PFT variable was predictive of mortality once HRCT patterns were accounted for. HRCT patterns, in particular, severity of traction bronchiectasis and extent of honeycombing are superior to pulmonary function tests for predicting mortality in patients with CHP. (orig.)

  4. Pattern separation: a common function for new neurons in hippocampus and olfactory bulb.

    Sahay, Amar; Wilson, Donald A; Hen, René

    2011-05-26

    While adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) and the dentate gyrus (DG) subregion of the hippocampus have fundamentally different properties, they may have more in common than meets the eye. Here, we propose that new granule cells in the OB and DG may function as modulators of principal neurons to influence pattern separation and that adult neurogenesis constitutes an adaptive mechanism to optimally encode contextual or olfactory information. See the related Perspective from Aimone, Deng, and Gage, "Resolving New Memories: A Critical Look at the Dentate Gyrus, Adult Neurogenesis, and Pattern Separation," in this issue of Neuron. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Working irregular shift patterns is associated with functional constipation among healthy trainee nurses

    Ali Ebrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The circadian system has a role in regulating gastrointestinal physiology. Perturbation of this system is associated with gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. Shiftwork and poor sleep quality are associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders among many professional groups. This study compared bowel habits between trainee nurses with regular and irregular patterns of shiftwork. Male and female nursing students, enrolled on the first year (regular shifts; n=49 and the fourth year (irregular shifts, n=48 of a nursing degree course were surveyed. Questionnaires were used to assess functional diarrhea and constipation over a three month period. The prevalence of functional constipation among regular shift workers was lower than that found among irregular shift workers; 31.3% and 61.2%, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups in relation to the prevalence of diarrhea. This suggests an association between shiftwork and functional constipation, but not with functional diarrhea.

  6. Association Between Nonparenting Adult’s Attachment Patterns and Brain Structure and Function

    Nicole Lyn Letourneau RN, PhD, FCAHS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nursing has a long history of attending to the importance of early attachment experiences to later development. Attachment strategies formed in infancy and early childhood can have lifelong effects on an individual’s behavior and health. Advances in neuroimaging technology allow us to understand how these early experiences map onto the structure and function of the brain and ultimately behavior and health. Previous reviews have discussed the findings of studies observing correlations between attachment strategy and neural function and structure in romantic partners and parents, but far less has been said about nonparenting adults. This article reviews the relationship between attachment strategies developed in childhood and brain structure and function in nonparenting adults. A total of 14 studies met inclusion criteria. Results showed adult attachment patterns of nonparenting adults are pervasively correlated with brain structure and function, with most associations observed in executive regions, followed by affective and reward processing. Notably, no studies found associations between attachment pattern and stress response, in contrast with studies of mothers. These brain regions are linked to the many behavioral, mood and substance abuse disorders observed in adults with insecure attachment patterns. Nurses can use these findings to help prevent, assess and address these health risks in nonparenting adults, as well as provide the brain-based evidence to support the utility of nursing interventions designed to further promote healthy parent–child relationships and secure parent–child attachment.

  7. Dietary Patterns Associated with Cognitive Function among the Older People in Underdeveloped Regions: Finding from the NCDFaC Study.

    Yin, Zhaoxue; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Zeping; Dong, Kui; Kraus, Virginia B; Wang, Zhuoqun; Zhang, Mei; Zhai, Yi; Song, Pengkun; Zhao, Yanfang; Pang, Shaojie; Mi, Shengquan; Zhao, Wenhua

    2018-04-09

    Although dietary patterns are crucial to cognitive function, associations of dietary patterns with cognitive function have not yet been fully understood. This cross-sectional study explored dietary patterns associated with cognitive function among the older adults in underdeveloped regions, using 1504 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. Factor analysis was used to extract dietary patterns. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Two dietary patterns, a "mushroom, vegetable, and fruits" (MVF) pattern and a "meat and soybean products" (MS) pattern, were identified. The MVF pattern, characterized by high consumption of mushrooms, vegetables, and fruits was significantly positively associated with cognitive function ( p cognitive impairment and β (95% CIs) 0.15 (0.02, 0.29) for -log (31-MMSE score). The MS pattern, characterized by high consumption of soybean products and meat, was also associated with better cognitive function, with an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% CIs 0.30, 0.74) for cognitive impairment and β (95% CIs) 0.34 (0.21, 0.47) for -log (31-MMSE score). Our results suggested that both the MVF and MS patterns were positively associated with better cognitive function among older adults in underdeveloped regions.

  8. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    Cutillas-Tolín, A; Mínguez-Alarcón, L; Mendiola, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive...... potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011...... to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits...

  9. Functional patterns obtained by nanoimprinting lithography and subsequent growth of polymer brushes

    Genua, A; AlduncIn, J A; Pomposo, J A; Grande, H; Kehagias, N; Reboud, V; Sotomayor, C; Mondragon, I; Mecerreyes, D

    2007-01-01

    In this work the growth of polymer brushes was combined with nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in order to obtain new functional nanopatterns. First, a functional thermoplastic methacrylic copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-bromoisobutyryl-oxy-ethyl methacrylate) was synthesized. This copolymer was successfully patterned by NIL using a silicon stamp at 160 deg. C and 60 bar. Next, hydrophilic polymer brushes based on poly(3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) and hydrophobic polymer brushes based on a poly(fluorinated methacrylate) were grown on the imprinted surfaces. The surface properties of the patterned polymer were accordingly modified and, as a consequence, the water contact angle was modified from 80.3 deg. to 32.5 deg. in the case of the hydrophilic brushes and to 118.1 deg. in the case of the hydrophobic brushes. As an application we demonstrated the use of hydrophobic polymer brushes in order to modify the surface of polymeric stamps for NIL with self-demoulding properties

  10. Multivoxel Patterns Reveal Functionally Differentiated Networks Underlying Auditory Feedback Processing of Speech

    Zheng, Zane Z.; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; MacDonald, Ewen N.

    2013-01-01

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. An important component of control is monitoring, detection, and processing of errors when auditory feedback does not correspond to the intended motor gesture. Here we show, using fMRI and converging operations...... within a multivoxel pattern analysis framework, that this sensorimotor process is supported by functionally differentiated brain networks. During scanning, a real-time speech-tracking system was used to deliver two acoustically different types of distorted auditory feedback or unaltered feedback while...... human participants were vocalizing monosyllabic words, and to present the same auditory stimuli while participants were passively listening. Whole-brain analysis of neural-pattern similarity revealed three functional networks that were differentially sensitive to distorted auditory feedback during...

  11. Political conversations on Facebook

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  12. Determination of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns

    Austregesilo Filho, H.

    1986-01-01

    A method is suggested for the calculation of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns determined analytically. This model can be introduced in computer codes for thermal hydraulic analyses based mainly on homogeneous assumptions, in order to achieve a more realis tic description of two-phase flow phenomena, which is needed for the simulation of accidents in nuclear power plants for which phase separation effects are dominant, e.g., small break accidents. (Author) [pt

  13. Functional blood flow patterns of the endolymphatic sac in the rat

    Friis, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood circul...... sac served as return paths for the microcirculation. The blood flow pattern was highly variable between rats.......Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood...

  14. The role of species functional traits for distribuitional patterns in lowland stream vegetation

    Cavalli, Giulia; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Riis, Tenna

    Freshwater ecosystems provide goods and service to human society and invasion is a major threat to them. Plant invasion affect community dynamics, threatens biodiversity and promote biological homogenization. In this study we explore functional traits in three groups of species e.g. invasive...... species, disturbance-tolerant species and rare species in lowland streams. In order to investigate the role of functional traits for species distributional patterns we investigate relationships between a range of species features and species abundance in app. 1,200 stream sites in Denmark covering...

  15. Evolutionary Pattern and Regulation Analysis to Support Why Diversity Functions Existed within PPAR Gene Family Members

    Tianyu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR gene family members exhibit distinct patterns of distribution in tissues and differ in functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolutionary impacts on diversity functions of PPAR members and the regulatory differences on gene expression patterns. 63 homology sequences of PPAR genes from 31 species were collected and analyzed. The results showed that three isolated types of PPAR gene family may emerge from twice times of gene duplication events. The conserved domains of HOLI (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors domain and ZnF_C4 (C4 zinc finger in nuclear in hormone receptors are essential for keeping basic roles of PPAR gene family, and the variant domains of LCRs may be responsible for their divergence in functions. The positive selection sites in HOLI domain are benefit for PPARs to evolve towards diversity functions. The evolutionary variants in the promoter regions and 3′ UTR regions of PPARs result into differential transcription factors and miRNAs involved in regulating PPAR members, which may eventually affect their expressions and tissues distributions. These results indicate that gene duplication event, selection pressure on HOLI domain, and the variants on promoter and 3′ UTR are essential for PPARs evolution and diversity functions acquired.

  16. Evolutionary Pattern and Regulation Analysis to Support Why Diversity Functions Existed within PPAR Gene Family Members.

    Zhou, Tianyu; Yan, Xiping; Wang, Guosong; Liu, Hehe; Gan, Xiang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jiwen; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) gene family members exhibit distinct patterns of distribution in tissues and differ in functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolutionary impacts on diversity functions of PPAR members and the regulatory differences on gene expression patterns. 63 homology sequences of PPAR genes from 31 species were collected and analyzed. The results showed that three isolated types of PPAR gene family may emerge from twice times of gene duplication events. The conserved domains of HOLI (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors) domain and ZnF_C4 (C4 zinc finger in nuclear in hormone receptors) are essential for keeping basic roles of PPAR gene family, and the variant domains of LCRs may be responsible for their divergence in functions. The positive selection sites in HOLI domain are benefit for PPARs to evolve towards diversity functions. The evolutionary variants in the promoter regions and 3' UTR regions of PPARs result into differential transcription factors and miRNAs involved in regulating PPAR members, which may eventually affect their expressions and tissues distributions. These results indicate that gene duplication event, selection pressure on HOLI domain, and the variants on promoter and 3' UTR are essential for PPARs evolution and diversity functions acquired.

  17. Patterns of bird functional diversity on land-bridge island fragments.

    Ding, Zhifeng; Feeley, Kenneth J; Wang, Yanping; Pakeman, Robin J; Ding, Ping

    2013-07-01

    The loss of species diversity due to habitat fragmentation has been extensively studied. In contrast, the impacts of habitat fragmentation on functional diversity remains relatively poorly understood. We conducted bird functional diversity studies on a set of 41 recently isolated land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China. We analysed differences in bird species richness and a recently developed suite of complementary functional diversity indices (FRic, volume of functional space occupied; FEve, evenness of abundance distribution in the functional trait space; FDiv, divergence in the distribution of abundance in the trait volume) across different gradients (island area and isolation). We found no correlations between FRic and FEve or FEve and FDiv, but negative correlations between FRic and FDiv. As predicted, island area accounted for most of the variation in bird species richness, whereas isolation explained most of the variation in species evenness (decreasing species evenness with increasing isolation). Functional diversity appears to be more strongly influenced by habitat filtering as opposed to limiting similarity. More specifically, across all islands, both FRic and FEve were significantly lower than expected for randomly assembled communities, but FDiv showed no clear patterns. FRic increased with island area, FEve decreased with island area and FDiv showed no clear patterns. Our finding that FEve decreases with island area at TIL may indicate low functional stability on such islands, and as such large islands and habitat patches may deserve extra attention and/or protection. These results help to demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of fragmentation on functional diversity in habitat management and reserve design plans. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  18. Uranium conversion

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  19. Pattern classification and recognition of invertebrate functional groups using self-organizing neural networks.

    Zhang, WenJun

    2007-07-01

    Self-organizing neural networks can be used to mimic non-linear systems. The main objective of this study is to make pattern classification and recognition on sampling information using two self-organizing neural network models. Invertebrate functional groups sampled in the irrigated rice field were classified and recognized using one-dimensional self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural networks. Comparisons between neural network models, distance (similarity) measures, and number of neurons were conducted. The results showed that self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural network models were effective in pattern classification and recognition of sampling information. Overall the performance of one-dimensional self-organizing map neural network was better than self-organizing competitive learning neural network. The number of neurons could determine the number of classes in the classification. Different neural network models with various distance (similarity) measures yielded similar classifications. Some differences, dependent upon the specific network structure, would be found. The pattern of an unrecognized functional group was recognized with the self-organizing neural network. A relative consistent classification indicated that the following invertebrate functional groups, terrestrial blood sucker; terrestrial flyer; tourist (nonpredatory species with no known functional role other than as prey in ecosystem); gall former; collector (gather, deposit feeder); predator and parasitoid; leaf miner; idiobiont (acarine ectoparasitoid), were classified into the same group, and the following invertebrate functional groups, external plant feeder; terrestrial crawler, walker, jumper or hunter; neustonic (water surface) swimmer (semi-aquatic), were classified into another group. It was concluded that reliable conclusions could be drawn from comparisons of different neural network models that use different distance

  20. Validation of the stream function method used for reconstruction of experimental ionospheric convection patterns

    P.L. Israelevich

    Full Text Available In this study we test a stream function method suggested by Israelevich and Ershkovich for instantaneous reconstruction of global, high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns from a limited set of experimental observations, namely, from the electric field or ion drift velocity vector measurements taken along two polar satellite orbits only. These two satellite passes subdivide the polar cap into several adjacent areas. Measured electric fields or ion drifts can be considered as boundary conditions (together with the zero electric potential condition at the low-latitude boundary for those areas, and the entire ionospheric convection pattern can be reconstructed as a solution of the boundary value problem for the stream function without any preliminary information on ionospheric conductivities. In order to validate the stream function method, we utilized the IZMIRAN electrodynamic model (IZMEM recently calibrated by the DMSP ionospheric electrostatic potential observations. For the sake of simplicity, we took the modeled electric fields along the noon-midnight and dawn-dusk meridians as the boundary conditions. Then, the solution(s of the boundary value problem (i.e., a reconstructed potential distribution over the entire polar region is compared with the original IZMEM/DMSP electric potential distribution(s, as well as with the various cross cuts of the polar cap. It is found that reconstructed convection patterns are in good agreement with the original modelled patterns in both the northern and southern polar caps. The analysis is carried out for the winter and summer conditions, as well as for a number of configurations of the interplanetary magnetic field.

    Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; plasma convection; modelling and forecasting

  1. Patterns of coordinated cortical remodeling during adolescence and their associations with functional specialization and evolutionary expansion.

    Sotiras, Aristeidis; Toledo, Jon B; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Davatzikos, Christos

    2017-03-28

    During adolescence, the human cortex undergoes substantial remodeling to support a rapid expansion of behavioral repertoire. Accurately quantifying these changes is a prerequisite for understanding normal brain development, as well as the neuropsychiatric disorders that emerge in this vulnerable period. Past accounts have demonstrated substantial regional heterogeneity in patterns of brain development, but frequently have been limited by small samples and analytics that do not evaluate complex multivariate imaging patterns. Capitalizing on recent advances in multivariate analysis methods, we used nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to uncover coordinated patterns of cortical development in a sample of 934 youths ages 8-20, who completed structural neuroimaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. Patterns of structural covariance (PSCs) derived by NMF were highly reproducible over a range of resolutions, and differed markedly from common gyral-based structural atlases. Moreover, PSCs were largely symmetric and showed correspondence to specific large-scale functional networks. The level of correspondence was ordered according to their functional role and position in the evolutionary hierarchy, being high in lower-order visual and somatomotor networks and diminishing in higher-order association cortex. Furthermore, PSCs showed divergent developmental associations, with PSCs in higher-order association cortex networks showing greater changes with age than primary somatomotor and visual networks. Critically, such developmental changes within PSCs were significantly associated with the degree of evolutionary cortical expansion. Together, our findings delineate a set of structural brain networks that undergo coordinated cortical thinning during adolescence, which is in part governed by evolutionary novelty and functional specialization.

  2. Comparison of Spontaneously Elicited Language Patterns in Specific Language Impairment and High-Functioning Autism.

    Craig, Megan; Trauner, Doris

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to characterize differences in the use of language in children with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism by analyzing verbal responses on standardized tests. The overall goal was to provide clinicians with additional tools with which to aid in distinguishing the two neurodevelopmental disorders. This study included 16 children with specific language impairment, 28 children with high-functioning autism, and 52 typically developing participants between the ages of six and 14. Groups were matched for age, and specific language impairment and high-functioning autism groups were matched on verbal and performance IQ. Responses from standardized tests were examined for response length, grammatical errors, filler words, perseverations, revisions (repeated attempts to begin or continue a sentence), off-topic attention shifts (lapses in attention to the task), and rambling. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric methods. Specific language impairment responses were longer and contained more filler words than did those of the other two groups, whereas high-functioning autism responses exhibited more grammatical errors, off-topic attention shifts, and rambling. Specific language impairment and high-functioning autism responses showed higher rates of perseveration compared with controls. There were no significant differences in revisions among the three groups. Differences in language patterns of participants with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism may be useful to the clinician in helping to differentiate isolated language impairment from high-functioning autism. The results also support the conclusion that the two conditions are separable, and each exhibits a different pattern of language dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Conversation Analysis.

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  4. Similar patterns of neural activity predict memory function during encoding and retrieval.

    Kragel, James E; Ezzyat, Youssef; Sperling, Michael R; Gorniak, Richard; Worrell, Gregory A; Berry, Brent M; Inman, Cory; Lin, Jui-Jui; Davis, Kathryn A; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stein, Joel M; Jobst, Barbara C; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Sheth, Sameer A; Rizzuto, Daniel S; Kahana, Michael J

    2017-07-15

    Neural networks that span the medial temporal lobe (MTL), prefrontal cortex, and posterior cortical regions are essential to episodic memory function in humans. Encoding and retrieval are supported by the engagement of both distinct neural pathways across the cortex and common structures within the medial temporal lobes. However, the degree to which memory performance can be determined by neural processing that is common to encoding and retrieval remains to be determined. To identify neural signatures of successful memory function, we administered a delayed free-recall task to 187 neurosurgical patients implanted with subdural or intraparenchymal depth electrodes. We developed multivariate classifiers to identify patterns of spectral power across the brain that independently predicted successful episodic encoding and retrieval. During encoding and retrieval, patterns of increased high frequency activity in prefrontal, MTL, and inferior parietal cortices, accompanied by widespread decreases in low frequency power across the brain predicted successful memory function. Using a cross-decoding approach, we demonstrate the ability to predict memory function across distinct phases of the free-recall task. Furthermore, we demonstrate that classifiers that combine information from both encoding and retrieval states can outperform task-independent models. These findings suggest that the engagement of a core memory network during either encoding or retrieval shapes the ability to remember the past, despite distinct neural interactions that facilitate encoding and retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detecting spatial patterns with the cumulant function – Part 1: The theory

    P. Naveau

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In climate studies, detecting spatial patterns that largely deviate from the sample mean still remains a statistical challenge. Although a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, or equivalently a Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition, is often applied for this purpose, it provides meaningful results only if the underlying multivariate distribution is Gaussian. Indeed, PCA is based on optimizing second order moments, and the covariance matrix captures the full dependence structure of multivariate Gaussian vectors. Whenever the application at hand can not satisfy this normality hypothesis (e.g. precipitation data, alternatives and/or improvements to PCA have to be developed and studied. To go beyond this second order statistics constraint, that limits the applicability of the PCA, we take advantage of the cumulant function that can produce higher order moments information. The cumulant function, well-known in the statistical literature, allows us to propose a new, simple and fast procedure to identify spatial patterns for non-Gaussian data. Our algorithm consists in maximizing the cumulant function. Three families of multivariate random vectors, for which explicit computations are obtained, are implemented to illustrate our approach. In addition, we show that our algorithm corresponds to selecting the directions along which projected data display the largest spread over the marginal probability density tails.

  6. A functional form-stable phase change composite with high efficiency electro-to-thermal energy conversion

    Wu, Wenhao; Huang, Xinyu; Li, Kai; Yao, Ruimin; Chen, Renjie; Zou, Ruqiang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The thermal conductivity of PU was enhanced to 43 times of the pristine value by encapsulation in a PGF, PU@PGF can be used for highly efficient electro-to-heat energy conversion and storage with the highest energy storage efficiency up to 85%. - Highlights: • The composite exhibits an in-situ solid-solid phase change behavior. • The enthalpy of polyurethane is enhanced within the matrix. • The thermal conductivity of the composite is 43 times as much as that of the polyurethane. • Supercooling of polyurethane is greatly reduced. • The composite is applied to cold protection as a wear layer. - Abstract: A novel solid-to-solid phase change composite brick was prepared by combination of polyurethane (PU) and pitch-based graphite foam (PGF). The carbonaceous support, which can be used for mass production, not only greatly improves the thermal conductivity but promote electro-to-heat conversion efficiency of organic phase change materials (PCMs). Our composite retained the enthalpy of PCM and exhibited a greatly reduced supercooling temperature. The novel composite was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The enthalpy of polyurethane has increased about 8.6% after infiltrating into graphite foam. The composite was very stable during thermal cycle test, and the electro-to-heat conversion efficiency achieves to 85% at lower voltages (1.5–1.8 V), which can vastly reduce energy consumption. The as-prepared composite was used in a wear layer to test its performance comparing with normal fabric.

  7. Modelling Engagement in Multi-Party Conversations : Data-Driven Approaches to Understanding Human-Human Communication Patterns for Use in Human-Robot Interactions

    Oertel, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study human-human interaction in order to provide virtual agents and robots with the capability to engage into multi-party-conversations in a human-like-manner. The focus lies with the modelling of conversational dynamics and the appropriate realization of multi-modal feedback behaviour. For such an undertaking, it is important to understand how human-human communication unfolds in varying contexts and constellations over time. To this end, multi-modal human-human...

  8. Gene conversion in yeast as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) for low-LET radiation

    Unrau, P.; Morrison, D.P.; Johnson, J.R.

    1992-05-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for low-LET radiation is known to depend on such factors as LET and dose rate. Microdosimetric calculations indicate that the biological target size could also be an important parameter, and calculations predict that the RBE for effects produced by hits in target sizes below about 100 nm should be unity for all low LET radiation. We have measured that RBE for gene conversion in yeast (a small target) for five different low LET photon sources, and the results were consistent with an RBE of unity, which agrees with microdosimetric predictions. 4 refs

  9. AFM imaging and analysis of local mechanical properties for detection of surface pattern of functional groups

    Knotek, Petr, E-mail: petr.knotek@upce.cz [University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of IMC ASCR and University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Chanova, Eliska; Rypacek, Frantisek [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovskeho sq. 2, 162 06 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-05-01

    In this work we evaluate the applicability of different atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes, such as Phase Shift Imaging, Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy (AFAM) and Force Spectroscopy, for mapping of the distribution pattern of low-molecular-weight biomimetic groups on polymer biomaterial surfaces. Patterns with either random or clustered spatial distribution of bioactive peptide group derived from fibronectin were prepared by surface deposition of functional block copolymer nano-colloids and grafted with RGDS peptide containing the sequence of amino acids arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–serine (conventionally labeled as RGDS) and carrying biotin as a tag. The biotin-tagged peptides were labeled with 40 nm streptavidin-modified Au nanospheres. The peptide molecules were localized through the detection of bound Au nanospheres by AFM, and thus, the surface distribution of peptides was revealed. AFM techniques capable of monitoring local mechanical properties of the surface were proved to be the most efficient for identification of Au nano-markers. The efficiency was successfully demonstrated on two different patterns, i.e. random and clustered distribution of RGDS peptides on structured surface of the polymer biomaterial. Highlights: ► Bioactive peptides for cell adhesion on PLA-b-PEO biomimetic surface were visualized. ► The biotin-tagged RGDS peptides were labeled with streptavidin-Au nanospheres. ► The RGDS pattern was detected using different atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes. ► Phase Shift Image was proved to be suitable method for studying peptide distribution.

  10. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  11. The Role of Executive Functions in Social Cognition among Children with Down Syndrome: Relationship Patterns

    Amadó, Anna; Serrat, Elisabet; Vallès-Majoral, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Many studies show a link between social cognition, a set of cognitive and emotional abilities applied to social situations, and executive functions in typical developing children. Children with Down syndrome (DS) show deficits both in social cognition and in some subcomponents of executive functions. However this link has barely been studied in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the links between social cognition and executive functions among children with DS. We administered a battery of social cognition and executive function tasks (six theory of mind tasks, a test of emotion comprehension, and three executive function tasks) to a group of 30 participants with DS between 4 and 12 years of age. The same tasks were administered to a chronological-age control group and to a control group with the same linguistic development level. Results showed that apart from deficits in social cognition and executive function abilities, children with DS displayed a slight improvement with increasing chronological age and language development in those abilities. Correlational analysis suggested that working memory was the only component that remained constant in the relation patterns of the three groups of participants, being the relation patterns similar among participants with DS and the language development control group. A multiple linear regression showed that working memory explained above 50% of the variability of social cognition in DS participants and in language development control group, whereas in the chronological-age control group this component only explained 31% of the variability. These findings, and specifically the link between working memory and social cognition, are discussed on the basis of their theoretical and practical implications for children with DS. We discuss the possibility to use a working memory training to improve social cognition in this population. PMID:27679588

  12. Optimization of the kernel functions in a probabilistic neural network analyzing the local pattern distribution.

    Galleske, I; Castellanos, J

    2002-05-01

    This article proposes a procedure for the automatic determination of the elements of the covariance matrix of the gaussian kernel function of probabilistic neural networks. Two matrices, a rotation matrix and a matrix of variances, can be calculated by analyzing the local environment of each training pattern. The combination of them will form the covariance matrix of each training pattern. This automation has two advantages: First, it will free the neural network designer from indicating the complete covariance matrix, and second, it will result in a network with better generalization ability than the original model. A variation of the famous two-spiral problem and real-world examples from the UCI Machine Learning Repository will show a classification rate not only better than the original probabilistic neural network but also that this model can outperform other well-known classification techniques.

  13. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    Ye, Dong; Wu, Shu-Qun; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lin; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  14. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lin; Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics

  15. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao, E-mail: ensiyu@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wu, Yue [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10 μm. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  16. The use of phase modulation optimization for power lasers. Minimizing the FM-AM conversion while preserving spectral broadening functionalities required for fusion

    Hocquet, St.

    2009-11-01

    This research thesis deals with the problem of phase modulations in power lasers (such as the MegaJoule laser which is developed in France) and their impact of different physical phenomena like the suppression of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (which is necessary to avoid optics damage) and the optical smoothing which allows a spatial homogenisation of focal stains. The author deeply discusses the phase modulation counterparts, and more particularly the FM-AM conversion which is the source of unwanted intensity modulation and of energy loss. He reports the development of a comprehensive modelling of phenomena generating FM-AM conversion on a power laser chain. He theoretically and experimentally studies two methods allowing the FM-AM conversion to be reduced to a given spectral distortion: the compensation of transfer functions and the modification of the phase modulation signal to make it less sensitive to spectral distortion effects. For this last method, he determines the ideal spectrum shape for the phase modulation, and proposes a method to approach it. He shows the feasibility of such a method and reports experiments showing to which extent these solutions may improve performance of power lasers. Finally, he proposed optimised solutions for the MegaJoule Laser

  17. Relationship between physical function and biomechanical gait patterns in boys with haemophilia.

    Stephensen, D; Taylor, S; Bladen, M; Drechsler, W I

    2016-11-01

    The World Federation of Haemophilia recommends joint and muscle health is evaluated using X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging, together with clinical examination scores. To date, inclusion of performance-based functional activities to monitor children with the condition has received little attention. To evaluate test-retest repeatability of physical function tests and quantify relationships between physical function, lower limb muscle strength and gait patterns in young boys with haemophilia. Timed 6-minute walk, timed up and down stairs, timed single leg stance, muscle strength of the knee extensors, ankle dorsi and plantar flexors, together with joint biomechanics during level walking were collected from 21 boys aged 6-12 years with severe haemophilia. Measures of physical function and recording of muscle strength with a hand-held myometer were repeatable (ICC > 0.78). Distances walked in six minutes, time taken to go up and down a flight of stairs and lower limb muscle strength correlated closely with ankle range of motion, together with peak knee flexion and ankle dorsi and plantarflexion moments during walking (P biomechanical joint function, and hence might serve as a basis for the clinical monitoring of physical function outcomes in children with haemophilia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Exercise training improves autonomic function and inflammatory pattern in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Giallauria, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; Maresca, Luigi; Vuolo, Laura; Tafuri, Domenico; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Francesco, Orio

    2008-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female reproductive-age endocrine disease predominantly characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, insulin-resistance and low-grade inflammatory status. Exercise training (ET) favourably modulates cardiopulmonary function and insulin-sensitivity markers in PCOS women. The present study investigated the effects of ET on autonomic function and inflammatory pattern in PCOS women. Prospective baseline uncontrolled clinical study. One-hundred and eighty five PCOS women referred to our department were screened for the inclusion into the study protocol from March 2004 to July 2007. One-hundred and twenty four PCOS women met the criteria for the inclusion into the study protocol and were subdivided into two groups each composed of 62 patients: PCOS-T (trained) group underwent 3-month ET program, whereas PCOS-UnT (untrained) group did not. At baseline and at 3-month follow-up, hormonal and metabolic profile, cardiopulmonary parameters, autonomic function (as expressed by heart rate recovery, HRR) and inflammatory pattern [as expressed by C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBCs) count] were evaluated. PCOS-T showed a significant (P PCOS-UnT. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 3-month HRR is linearly related to the inclusion in training group (beta = 0.316, P PCOS women.

  19. [Conversation analysis for improving nursing communication].

    Yi, Myungsun

    2007-08-01

    Nursing communication has become more important than ever before because quality of nursing services largely depends on the quality of communication in a very competitive health care environment. This article was to introduce ways to improve nursing communication using conversation analysis. This was a review study on conversation analysis, critically examining previous studies in nursing communication and interpersonal relationships. This study provided theoretical backgrounds and basic assumptions of conversation analysis which was influenced by ethnomethodology, phenomenology, and sociolinguistic. In addition, the characteristics and analysis methods of conversation analysis were illustrated in detail. Lastly, how conversation analysis could help improve communication was shown, by examining researches using conversation analysis not only for ordinary conversations but also for extraordinary or difficult conversations such as conversations between patients with dementia and their professional nurses. Conversation analysis can help in improving nursing communication by providing various structures and patterns as well as prototypes of conversation, and by suggesting specific problems and problem-solving strategies in communication.

  20. Working memory-related functional brain patterns in never medicated children with ADHD.

    Isabelle Massat

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by 3 clusters of age-inappropriate cardinal symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These clinical/behavioural symptoms are assumed to result from disturbances within brain systems supporting executive functions including working memory (WM, which refers to the ability to transiently store and flexibly manipulate task-relevant information. Ongoing or past medications, co-morbidity and differences in task performance are potential, independent confounds in assessing the integrity of cerebral patterns in ADHD. In the present study, we recorded WM-related cerebral activity during a memory updating N-back task using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in control children and never medicated, prepubescent children with ADHD but without comorbid symptoms. Despite similar updating performance than controls, children with ADHD exhibited decreased, below baseline WM-related activation levels in a widespread cortico-subcortical network encompassing bilateral occipital and inferior parietal areas, caudate nucleus, cerebellum and functionally connected brainstem nuclei. Distinctive functional connectivity patterns were also found in the ADHD in these regions, with a tighter coupling in the updating than in the control condition with a distributed WM-related cerebral network. Especially, cerebellum showed tighter coupling with activity in an area compatible with the brainstem red nucleus. These results in children with clinical core symptoms of ADHD but without comorbid affections and never treated with medication yield evidence for a core functional neuroanatomical network subtending WM-related processes in ADHD, which may participate to the pathophysiology and expression of clinical symptoms.

  1. Study on the deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphy, 1; Comparison of the deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with lung function tests in pulmonary diseases

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1989-06-01

    The deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphies and lung function tests were studied in 102 cases; 64 cases of obstructive pulmonary diseases (19 pulmonary emphysema, 27 diffuse panbronchiolitis, 18 chronic bronchitis) and 38 restrictive pulmonary disease (15 idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, 16 pulmonary asbestosis, 7 interstitial pneumonia due to collagen vascular disease). The deposition patterns were classified into 5 patterns (Type A:normal homogenous distribution; Type B: mildly unhomogenous distribution; Type C: severely unhomogenous distribution mingled with hot spots; Type D: non-hilar hot spots; and Type E: hilar hot spots). The deposition patterns of restrictive pulmonary diseases were markedly abnormal as well as obstructive pulmonary diseases. The deposition patterns showed mainly Types C, D and E in obstructive pulmonary diseases, Type B in restrictive pulmonary diseases. The deposition patterns showed mainly Type E in pulmonary emphysema, Types C and D in diffuse panbronchiolitis, Types A, B and C in chronic bronchitis, Type B in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia interstitial pneumonia due to collagen vascular disease, Types B and C in pulmonary asbestosis. The deposition patterns correlated well with %FEV{sub 1.0} which was a good indicator of the severity of obstructive pulmonary diseases and restrictive pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, the mean %FEV{sub 1.0} in obstructive pulmonary diseases was nearly equal to the mean %FEV{sub 1.0} in restrictive pulmonary diseases in each type of the deposition patterns. (J.P.N.).

  2. Dynamic of the morphologic and functional X-ray patterns following operation for pylorus consolidation

    Radev, D.; Ganchev, D.; Nakov, D.; Demirov, D.; Najdenov, N.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported of X-ray study of 24 patients operated for pyloric insufficiency and reflux-gastritis. The operative technique was one of consolidation of the pylorus by circular invagination of the pyloric ring with formation of a valvular mechanism with two transversal folds. The X-ray pattern and the function of the consolidated pylorus were close to the normal. For a period of 7 years the effect was lasting; despite the combination with ligamentotomy, however, the duodenal stasis and the duodeno-gastric reflux were insufficiently affected. 2 figs., 14 refs

  3. The Biogeographic Pattern of Microbial Functional Genes along an Altitudinal Gradient of the Tibetan Pasture

    Qi Qi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the highest place of the world, the Tibetan plateau is a fragile ecosystem. Given the importance of microbial communities in driving soil nutrient cycling, it is of interest to document the microbial biogeographic pattern here. We adopted a microarray-based tool named GeoChip 4.0 to investigate grassland microbial functional genes along an elevation gradient from 3200 to 3800 m above sea level open to free grazing by local herdsmen and wild animals. Interestingly, microbial functional diversities increase with elevation, so does the relative abundances of genes associated with carbon degradation, nitrogen cycling, methane production, cold shock and oxygen limitation. The range of Shannon diversities (10.27–10.58 showed considerably smaller variation than what was previously observed at ungrazed sites nearby (9.95–10.65, suggesting the important role of livestock grazing on microbial diversities. Closer examination showed that the dissimilarity of microbial community at our study sites increased with elevations, revealing an elevation-decay relationship of microbial functional genes. Both microbial functional diversity and the number of unique genes increased with elevations. Furthermore, we detected a tight linkage of greenhouse gas (CO2 and relative abundances of carbon cycling genes. Our biogeographic study provides insights on microbial functional diversity and soil biogeochemical cycling in Tibetan pastures.

  4. The Biogeographic Pattern of Microbial Functional Genes along an Altitudinal Gradient of the Tibetan Pasture

    Qi, Qi; Zhao, Mengxin; Wang, Shiping; Ma, Xingyu; Wang, Yuxuan; Gao, Ying; Lin, Qiaoyan; Li, Xiangzhen; Gu, Baohua; Li, Guoxue; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-06-13

    As the highest place of the world, the Tibetan plateau is a fragile ecosystem. Given the importance of microbial communities in driving soil nutrient cycling, it is of interest to document the microbial biogeographic pattern here. We adopted a microarray-based tool named GeoChip 4.0 to investigate grassland microbial functional genes along an elevation gradient from 3200 to 3800 m above sea level open to free grazing by local herdsmen and wild animals. Interestingly, microbial functional diversities increase with elevation, so does the relative abundances of genes associated with carbon degradation, nitrogen cycling, methane production, cold shock and oxygen limitation. The range of Shannon diversities (10.27–10.58) showed considerably smaller variation than what was previously observed at ungrazed sites nearby (9.95–10.65), suggesting the important role of livestock grazing on microbial diversities. Closer examination showed that the dissimilarity of microbial community at our study sites increased with elevations, revealing an elevation-decay relationship of microbial functional genes. Both microbial functional diversity and the number of unique genes increased with elevations. Furthermore, we detected a tight linkage of greenhouse gas (CO2) and relative abundances of carbon cycling genes. Our biogeographic study provides insights on microbial functional diversity and soil biogeochemical cycling in Tibetan pastures.

  5. Template-controlled mineralization: Determining film granularity and structure by surface functionality patterns

    Nina J. Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a promising first example towards controlling the properties of a self-assembling mineral film by means of the functionality and polarity of a substrate template. In the presented case, a zinc oxide film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on a nearly topography-free template structure composed of a pattern of two self-assembled monolayers with different chemical functionality. We demonstrate the template-modulated morphological properties of the growing film, as the surface functionality dictates the granularity of the growing film. This, in turn, is a key property influencing other film properties such as conductivity, piezoelectric activity and the mechanical properties. A very pronounced contrast is observed between areas with an underlying fluorinated, low energy template surface, showing a much more (almost two orders of magnitude coarse-grained film with a typical agglomerate size of around 75 nm. In contrast, amino-functionalized surface areas induce the growth of a very smooth, fine-grained surface with a roughness of around 1 nm. The observed influence of the template on the resulting clear contrast in morphology of the growing film could be explained by a contrast in surface adhesion energies and surface diffusion rates of the nanoparticles, which nucleate in solution and subsequently deposit on the functionalized substrate.

  6. Overlapping functions of argonaute proteins in patterning and morphogenesis of Drosophila embryos.

    Wibke J Meyer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Argonaute proteins are essential components of the molecular machinery that drives RNA silencing. In Drosophila, different members of the Argonaute family of proteins have been assigned to distinct RNA silencing pathways. While Ago1 is required for microRNA function, Ago2 is a crucial component of the RNA-induced silencing complex in siRNA-triggered RNA interference. Drosophila Ago2 contains an unusual amino-terminus with two types of imperfect glutamine-rich repeats (GRRs of unknown function. Here we show that the GRRs of Ago2 are essential for the normal function of the protein. Alleles with reduced numbers of GRRs cause specific disruptions in two morphogenetic processes associated with the midblastula transition: membrane growth and microtubule-based organelle transport. These defects do not appear to result from disruption of siRNA-dependent processes but rather suggest an interference of the mutant Ago2 proteins in an Ago1-dependent pathway. Using loss-of-function alleles, we further demonstrate that Ago1 and Ago2 act in a partially redundant manner to control the expression of the segment-polarity gene wingless in the early embryo. Our findings argue against a strict separation of Ago1 and Ago2 functions and suggest that these proteins act in concert to control key steps of the midblastula transition and of segmental patterning.

  7. New routes to the functionalization patterning and manufacture of graphene-based materials for biomedical applications.

    De Sanctis, A; Russo, S; Craciun, M F; Alexeev, A; Barnes, M D; Nagareddy, V K; Wright, C D

    2018-06-06

    Graphene-based materials are being widely explored for a range of biomedical applications, from targeted drug delivery to biosensing, bioimaging and use for antibacterial treatments, to name but a few. In many such applications, it is not graphene itself that is used as the active agent, but one of its chemically functionalized forms. The type of chemical species used for functionalization will play a key role in determining the utility of any graphene-based device in any particular biomedical application, because this determines to a large part its physical, chemical, electrical and optical interactions. However, other factors will also be important in determining the eventual uptake of graphene-based biomedical technologies, in particular the ease and cost of manufacture of proposed device and system designs. In this work, we describe three novel routes for the chemical functionalization of graphene using oxygen, iron chloride and fluorine. We also introduce novel in situ methods for controlling and patterning such functionalization on the micro- and nanoscales. Our approaches are readily transferable to large-scale manufacturing, potentially paving the way for the eventual cost-effective production of functionalized graphene-based materials, devices and systems for a range of important biomedical applications.

  8. Models of mixed irradiation with a 'reciprocal-time' pattern of the repair function

    Suzuki, Shozo; Miura, Yuri; Mizuno, Shoichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Suzuki presented models for mixed irradiation with two and multiple types of radiation by extending the Zaider and Rossi model, which is based on the theory of dual radiation action. In these models, the repair function was simply assumed to be semi-logarithmically linear (i.e., monoexponential), or a first-order process, which has been experimentally contradicted. Fowler, however, suggested that the repair of radiation damage might be largely a second-order process rather than a first-order one, and presented data in support of this hypothesis. In addition, a second-order repair function is preferred to an n-exponential repair function for the reason that only one parameter is used in the former instead of 2n-1 parameters for the latter, although both repair functions show a good fit to the experimental data. However, according to a second-order repair function, the repair rate depends on the dose, which is incompatible with the experimental data. We, therefore, revised the models for mixed irradiation by Zaider and Rossi and by Suzuki, by substituting a 'reciprocal-time' pattern of the repair function, which is derived from the assumption that the repair rate is independent of the dose in a second-order repair function, for a first-order one in reduction and interaction factors of the models, although the underlying mechanism for this assumption cannot be well-explained. The reduction factor, which reduces the contribution of the square of a dose to cell killing in the linear-quadratic model and its derivatives, and the interaction factor, which also reduces the contribution of the interaction of two or more doses of different types of radiation, were formulated by using a 'reciprocal-time' patterns of the repair function. Cell survivals calculated from the older and the newly modified models were compared in terms of the dose-rate by assuming various types of single and mixed irradiation. The result implies that the newly modified models for

  9. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Post-Bronchodilation Lung Function in the SAPALDIA Cohort.

    Steinemann, Nina; Grize, Leticia; Pons, Marco; Rothe, Thomas; Stolz, Daiana; Turk, Alexander; Schindler, Christian; Brombach, Christine; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2018-05-04

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not restricted to smokers. Dietary habits may contribute to the disease occurrence. Epidemiological studies point to a protective effect of fruit and vegetable intake against COPD. To investigate the associations between dietary patterns and parameters of lung function related to COPD in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Data were included from the second follow-up assessment of the SAPALDIA cohort in 2010-2011 using a food frequency questionnaire. Principal component factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns, whose association with FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF2575, and COPD was investigated by applying multivariate regression analyses. After adjustment for potential confounders, the "prudent dietary pattern" characterised by the predominant food groups vegetables, fruits, water, tea and coffee, fish, and nuts was positively associated with FEV1 (increase of 40 mL per SD, p promotion. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Master stability functions reveal diffusion-driven pattern formation in networks

    Brechtel, Andreas; Gramlich, Philipp; Ritterskamp, Daniel; Drossel, Barbara; Gross, Thilo

    2018-03-01

    We study diffusion-driven pattern formation in networks of networks, a class of multilayer systems, where different layers have the same topology, but different internal dynamics. Agents are assumed to disperse within a layer by undergoing random walks, while they can be created or destroyed by reactions between or within a layer. We show that the stability of homogeneous steady states can be analyzed with a master stability function approach that reveals a deep analogy between pattern formation in networks and pattern formation in continuous space. For illustration, we consider a generalized model of ecological meta-food webs. This fairly complex model describes the dispersal of many different species across a region consisting of a network of individual habitats while subject to realistic, nonlinear predator-prey interactions. In this example, the method reveals the intricate dependence of the dynamics on the spatial structure. The ability of the proposed approach to deal with this fairly complex system highlights it as a promising tool for ecology and other applications.

  12. The oriented and patterned growth of fluorescent metal–organic frameworks onto functionalized surfaces

    Jinliang Zhuang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A metal–organic framework (MOF material, [Zn2(adc2(dabco] (adc = anthracene-9,10-dicarboxylate, dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]­octane, the fluorescence of which depends on the loading of its nanopores, was synthesized in two forms: as free-flowing nanocrystals with different shapes and as surface-attached MOFs (SURMOFs. For the latter, we used self-assembled monolayers (SAMs bearing functional groups, such as carboxylate and pyridyl groups, capable of coordinating to the constituents of the MOF. It could be demonstrated that this directed coordination also orients the nanocrystals deposited at the surface. Using two different patterning methods, i.e., microcontact printing and electron-beam lithography, the lateral distribution of the functional groups could be determined in such a way that the highly localized deposition of the SURMOF films became possible.

  13. Practical considerations in the calculation of orientation distribution functions from electron back-scattered diffraction patterns

    Bowen, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    Using model data sets for the Brass orientation, the importance of scatter width, angular accuracy and grain size and volume fraction on the sensitivity of the calculated Orientation Distribution Functions have been determined in order to highlight some of the practical considerations needed in the processing of experimental data from individual grain orientation measurements determined by the Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction technique. It is suggested that the most appropriate scatter width can be calculated from the maximum function height versus scatter width curve in order to accommodate variations in texture sharpness. The sensitivity of the ODF to careful sample preparation, mounting and pattern analysis, in order to keep errors in angular accuracy to 1 or less is demonstrated, as is the imperative need to correct for the size of grains, and their volume fractions. (orig.)

  14. Assemblage patterns of fish functional groups relative to habitat connectivity and conditions in floodplain lakes

    Miyazono, S.; Aycock, J.N.; Miranda, L.E.; Tietjen, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influences of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance patterns of fish functional groups in 17 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. The results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed that species-environmental relationships varied with the functional groups. Species richness and assemblage structure of periodic strategists showed strong and positive correlations with habitat connectivity. Densities of most equilibrium and opportunistic strategists decreased with habitat connectivity. Densities of certain equilibrium and opportunistic strategists increased with turbidity. Forested wetlands around the lakes were positively related to the densities of periodic and equilibrium strategists. These results suggest that decreases in habitat connectivity, forested wetland buffers and water quality resulting from environmental manipulations may cause local extinction of certain fish taxa and accelerate the dominance of tolerant fishes in floodplain lakes. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Divergent Expression Patterns and Function Implications of Four nanos Genes in a Hermaphroditic Fish, Epinephelus coioides.

    Sun, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Yang; Lu, Wei-Jia; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Shui-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2017-03-23

    Multiple nanos genes have been characterized in several fishes, but the functional implications of their various expression patterns remain unclear. In this study, we identified and characterized four nanos genes from a hermaphroditic fish orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides . Ecnanos1a and Ecnanos1b show divergent expression patterns, and the dynamic expression change of Ecnanos1a in pituitaries during sex change is associated with testis differentiation and spermatogenesis. Ecnanos2 and Ecnanos3 might be germline stem cells (GSCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs)-specific markers, respectively. Significantly, Ecnanos3 3'-untranslated region (UTR) is necessary for PGC specific expression, where a non-canonical "GCACGTTT" sequence is required for miR-430-mediated repression of Ecnanos3 RNA. Furthermore, grouper Dead end (Dnd) can relieve miR-430 repression in PGCs by associating with a 23 bp U-rich region (URR) in Ecnanos3 3'-UTR. The current study revealed the functional association of multiple nanos genes with PGC formation and germ cell development in orange-spotted grouper, and opened up new possibilities for developing biotechnologies through utilizing the associations between Ecnanos3 and PGCs or between Ecnanos2 and GSCs in the hermaphroditic fish.

  16. Differential patterns of cortical activation as a function of fluid reasoning complexity.

    Perfetti, Bernardo; Saggino, Aristide; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Romani, Gian Luca; Onofrj, Marco

    2009-02-01

    Fluid intelligence (gf) refers to abstract reasoning and problem solving abilities. It is considered a human higher cognitive factor central to general intelligence (g). The regions of the cortex supporting gf have been revealed by recent bioimaging studies and valuable hypothesis on the neural correlates of individual differences have been proposed. However, little is known about the interaction between individual variability in gf and variation in cortical activity following task complexity increase. To further investigate this, two samples of participants (high-IQ, N = 8; low-IQ, N = 10) with significant differences in gf underwent two reasoning (moderate and complex) tasks and a control task adapted from the Raven progressive matrices. Functional magnetic resonance was used and the recorded signal analyzed between and within the groups. The present study revealed two opposite patterns of neural activity variation which were probably a reflection of the overall differences in cognitive resource modulation: when complexity increased, high-IQ subjects showed a signal enhancement in some frontal and parietal regions, whereas low-IQ subjects revealed a decreased activity in the same areas. Moreover, a direct comparison between the groups' activation patterns revealed a greater neural activity in the low-IQ sample when conducting moderate task, with a strong involvement of medial and lateral frontal regions thus suggesting that the recruitment of executive functioning might be different between the groups. This study provides evidence for neural differences in facing reasoning complexity among subjects with different gf level that are mediated by specific patterns of activation of the underlying fronto-parietal network.

  17. Pictorial Conversations.

    Hooper, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    Provides the rationale for considering communication in a graphic domain and suggests a specific goal for designing work stations which provide graphic capabilities in educational settings. The central element of this recommendation is the "pictorial conversation", a highly interactive exchange that includes pictures as the central elements.…

  18. The Use of Arabic in Kuwaiti EFL Classrooms: An Exploratory Study on the Patterns and Functions of Language Choice

    Bader Alghasab, Maha

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the functions and patterns of language choice in EFL classrooms in a Kuwaiti primary school. It applies the overall order model, specifically the medium of classroom interaction, to identify three patterns of language choice: an English monolingual medium, an Arabic monolingual medium and a bilingual…

  19. Neuromorphological and wiring pattern alterations effects on brain function: a mixed experimental and computational approach.

    Linus Manubens-Gil

    2015-04-01

    In addition, the study of fixed intact brains (by means of the state of the art CLARITY technique brings us closer to biologically and medically relevant situations, allowing not only to confirm whether the functional links in neuronal cultures are also present in vivo, but also enabling the introduction of functional information (like behavioral studies and functional imaging and another layer of structural alterations such as brain region morphology, neuronal density, and long-range connectivity. Taking together the experimental information from these systems we want to feed self-developed computational models that allow us to understand what are the fundamental characteristics of the observed connectivity patterns and the impact of each of the alterations on neuronal network function. These models will also provide a framework able to account for the emergent properties that bridge the gap between spontaneous electrical activity arousal/transmission and higher order information processing and memory storage capacities in the brain. As an additional part of the project we are now working on the application of the clearing, labeling and imaging protocols to human biopsy samples. Our aim is to obtain neuronal architecture and connectivity information from focal cortical dysplasia microcircuits using samples from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy patients that undergo deep-brain electrode recording diagnosis and posterior surgical extraction of the tissue. Our computational models can allow us to discern the contributions of the observed abnormalities to neuronal hyperactivity and epileptic seizure generation.

  20. Characterization, expression patterns and functional analysis of the MAPK and MAPKK genes in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Song, Qiuming; Li, Dayong; Dai, Yi; Liu, Shixia; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Song, Fengming

    2015-12-23

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which consist of three functionally associated protein kinases, namely MEKKs, MKKs and MPKs, are universal signaling modules in all eukaryotes and have been shown to play critical roles in many physiological and biochemical processes in plants. However, little or nothing is known about the MPK and MKK families in watermelon. In the present study, we performed a systematic characterization of the ClMPK and ClMKK families including the identification and nomenclature, chromosomal localization, phylogenetic relationships, ClMPK-ClMKK interactions, expression patterns in different tissues and in response to abiotic and biotic stress and transient expression-based functional analysis for their roles in disease resistance. Genome-wide survey identified fifteen ClMPK and six ClMKK genes in watermelon genome and phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of the ClMPK and ClMKK families can be classified into four distinct groups. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated significant interactions between members of the ClMPK and ClMKK families, defining putative ClMKK2-1/ClMKK6-ClMPK4-1/ClMPK4-2/ClMPK13 and ClMKK5-ClMPK6 cascades. Most of the members in the ClMPK and ClMKK families showed differential expression patterns in different tissues and in response to abiotic (e.g. drought, salt, cold and heat treatments) and biotic (e.g. infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum) stresses. Transient expression of ClMPK1, ClMPK4-2 and ClMPK7 in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea and upregulated expression of defense genes while transient expression of ClMPK6 and ClMKK2-2 led to increased susceptibility to B. cinerea. Furthermore, transient expression of ClMPK7 also led to hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death and significant accumulation of H2O2 in N. benthamiana. We identified fifteen ClMPK and six ClMKK genes from watermelon and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, expression

  1. Functional Significance of Labellum Pattern Variation in a Sexually Deceptive Orchid (Ophrys heldreichii: Evidence of Individual Signature Learning Effects.

    Kerstin Stejskal

    Full Text Available Mimicking female insects to attract male pollinators is an important strategy in sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys, and some species possess flowers with conspicuous labellum patterns. The function of the variation of the patterns remains unresolved, with suggestions that these enhance pollinator communication. We investigated the possible function of the labellum pattern in Ophrys heldreichii, an orchid species in which the conspicuous and complex labellum pattern contrasts with a dark background. The orchid is pollinated exclusively by males of the solitary bee, Eucera berlandi. Comparisons of labellum patterns revealed that patterns within inflorescences are more similar than those of other conspecific plants. Field observations showed that the males approach at a great speed and directly land on flowers, but after an unsuccessful copulation attempt, bees hover close and visually scan the labellum pattern for up to a minute. Learning experiments conducted with honeybees as an accessible model of bee vision demonstrated that labellum patterns of different plants can be reliably learnt; in contrast, patterns of flowers from the same inflorescence could not be discriminated. These results support the hypothesis that variable labellum patterns in O. heldreichii are involved in flower-pollinator communication which would likely help these plants to avoid geitonogamy.

  2. Pattern of executive functioning in adolescents with epilepsy: A multimethod measurement approach.

    Modi, Avani C; Vannest, Jennifer; Combs, Angela; Turnier, Luke; Wade, Shari L

    2018-03-01

    Youth with epilepsy demonstrate deficits in executive functioning (EF), the skills necessary for goal-directed behavior (e.g., problem-solving, initiating, monitoring, organization, planning, and working memory). Despite 30-50% of youth with epilepsy demonstrating EF deficits, no extant studies have utilized both performance and questionnaire-based measures to examine the pattern of EF deficits in adolescents with epilepsy. Study aims were to 1) identify the pattern of EF deficits in adolescents with epilepsy and 2) identify which assessment tools are most sensitive to EF deficits in this population (adolescents, ages 13-17, with epilepsy). An exploratory aim was to examine group differences on measures of EF by epilepsy type. Standard performance-based neuropsychological measures (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Version V or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Working Memory Index-Version IV, Delis Kaplan Executive Functioning System, NIH Toolbox, Test of Everyday Attention for Children) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) comprised the multimethod assessment battery. Depending on the measure, 30% of adolescents with epilepsy had deficits in working memory, 17% in cognitive flexibility/problem solving, 6% in inhibition, and 18% in planning/organization. Attention was a significant problem for 15% of adolescents with epilepsy. Correlations among the various EF measures were quite poor. Across various EF domains, results indicated that adolescents with localization-related epilepsy demonstrated better EF skills compared to adolescents with unclassified epilepsy. Overall, our findings suggest that executive functioning deficits are selective and different from those observed in other neurological populations (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), traumatic brain injury) where problems with self-regulation (i.e., inhibition, planning/organization) are more pronounced. These findings support utilizing multiple

  3. Linking the spatial patterns of organisms and abiotic factors to ecosystem function and management: insights from semi-arid environments

    F. T. Maestre

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theoretical and modeling studies have demonstrated the ecological significance of the spatial patterning of organisms on ecosystem functioning and dynamics. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence that quantitatively shows how changes in the spatial patterns of the organisms forming biotic communities are directly related to ecosystem structure and functioning. In this article, I review a series of experiments and observational studies conducted in semi-arid environments from Spain (degraded calcareous shrubland, steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima, and gypsum shrublands to: 1 evaluate whether the spatial patterns of the dominant biotic elements in the community are linked to ecosystem structure and functioning, and 2 test if these patterns, and those of abiotic factors, can be used to improve ecosystem restoration. In the semiarid steppes we found a significant positive relationship between the spatial pattern of the perennial plant community and: i the water status of S. tenacissima and ii perennial species richness and diversity. Experimental plantings conducted in these steppes showed that S. tenacissima facilitated the establishment of shrub seedlings, albeit the magnitude and direction of this effect was dependent on rainfall conditions during the first yr after planting. In the gypsum shrubland, a significant, direct relationship between the spatial pattern of the biological soil crusts and surrogates of ecosystem functioning (soil bulk density and respiration was found. In a degraded shrubland with very low vegetation cover, the survival of an introduced population of the shrub Pistacia lentiscus showed marked spatial patterns, which were related to the spatial patterns of soil properties such as soil compaction and sand content. These results provide empirical evidence on the importance of spatial patterns for maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in semi-arid ecosystems

  4. Analysis of surface soil moisture patterns in agricultural landscapes using Empirical Orthogonal Functions

    W. Korres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is one of the fundamental variables in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. Nevertheless, its spatio-temporal patterns in agriculturally used landscapes that are affected by multiple natural (rainfall, soil, topography etc. and agronomic (fertilisation, soil management etc. factors are often not well known. The aim of this study is to determine the dominant factors governing the spatio-temporal patterns of surface soil moisture in a grassland and an arable test site that are located within the Rur catchment in Western Germany. Surface soil moisture (0–6 cm was measured in an approx. 50×50 m grid during 14 and 17 measurement campaigns (May 2007 to November 2008 in both test sites. To analyse the spatio-temporal patterns of surface soil moisture, an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis was applied and the results were correlated with parameters derived from topography, soil, vegetation and land management to link the patterns to related factors and processes. For the grassland test site, the analysis resulted in one significant spatial structure (first EOF, which explained 57.5% of the spatial variability connected to soil properties and topography. The statistical weight of the first spatial EOF is stronger on wet days. The highest temporal variability can be found in locations with a high percentage of soil organic carbon (SOC. For the arable test site, the analysis resulted in two significant spatial structures, the first EOF, which explained 38.4% of the spatial variability, and showed a highly significant correlation to soil properties, namely soil texture and soil stone content. The second EOF, which explained 28.3% of the spatial variability, is linked to differences in land management. The soil moisture in the arable test site varied more strongly during dry and wet periods at locations with low porosity. The method applied is capable of identifying the dominant parameters controlling spatio-temporal patterns of

  5. Chronnectome fingerprinting: Identifying individuals and predicting higher cognitive functions using dynamic brain connectivity patterns.

    Liu, Jin; Liao, Xuhong; Xia, Mingrui; He, Yong

    2018-02-01

    The human brain is a large, interacting dynamic network, and its architecture of coupling among brain regions varies across time (termed the "chronnectome"). However, very little is known about whether and how the dynamic properties of the chronnectome can characterize individual uniqueness, such as identifying individuals as a "fingerprint" of the brain. Here, we employed multiband resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 105) and a sliding time-window dynamic network analysis approach to systematically examine individual time-varying properties of the chronnectome. We revealed stable and remarkable individual variability in three dynamic characteristics of brain connectivity (i.e., strength, stability, and variability), which was mainly distributed in three higher order cognitive systems (i.e., default mode, dorsal attention, and fronto-parietal) and in two primary systems (i.e., visual and sensorimotor). Intriguingly, the spatial patterns of these dynamic characteristics of brain connectivity could successfully identify individuals with high accuracy and could further significantly predict individual higher cognitive performance (e.g., fluid intelligence and executive function), which was primarily contributed by the higher order cognitive systems. Together, our findings highlight that the chronnectome captures inherent functional dynamics of individual brain networks and provides implications for individualized characterization of health and disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sleep Patterns in Adults with a Diagnosis of High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Baker, Emma K; Richdale, Amanda L

    2015-11-01

    To examine sleep patterns and sleep problems and their relationship with daytime functioning in adults with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder and no comorbid intellectual disability (high-functioning autism spectrum disorder [HFASD]) compared to neurotypical (NT) adults. Cross-sectional. Home-based study. 36 adults with HFASD and 36 age-, intelligence quotient- and sex-matched NT adults. Participants completed an online questionnaire battery including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 14-d sleep wake diary and 14-d actigraphy data collection. Adults with HFASD had significantly more general sleep disturbances and higher scores on the PSQI, longer sleep onset latencies (actigraphy), and poorer sleep efficiency (diary) and these results remained significant after accounting for the False Discovery Rate. Those adults with HFASD who did not have a comorbid diagnosis of anxiety/depression had significantly shorter total sleep time (diary and actigraphy) compared to NT adults. Compared to NT adults, the HFASD group self-reported significantly poorer refreshment scores upon waking in the morning and higher scores on the daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness subscale of the PSQI. These findings support the notion that problems related to sleep, in particular insomnia, continue into adulthood in individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Reliable and rapid characterization of functional FCN2 gene variants reveals diverse geographical patterns

    Ojurongbe Olusola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ficolin-2 coded by FCN2 gene is a soluble serum protein and an innate immune recognition element of the complement system. FCN2 gene polymorphisms reveal distinct geographical patterns and are documented to alter serum ficolin levels and modulate disease susceptibility. Methods We employed a real-time PCR based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET method to genotype four functional SNPs including -986 G > A (#rs3124952, -602 G > A (#rs3124953, -4A > G (#rs17514136 and +6424 G > T (#rs7851696 in the ficolin-2 (FCN2 gene. We characterized the FCN2 variants in individuals representing Brazilian (n = 176, Nigerian (n = 180, Vietnamese (n = 172 and European Caucasian ethnicity (n = 165. Results We observed that the genotype distribution of three functional SNP variants (−986 G > A, -602 G > A and -4A > G differ significantly between the populations investigated (p p  Conclusions The observed distribution of the FCN2 functional SNP variants may likely contribute to altered serum ficolin levels and this may depend on the different disease settings in world populations. To conclude, the use of FRET based real-time PCR especially for FCN2 gene will benefit a larger scientific community who extensively depend on rapid, reliable method for FCN2 genotyping.

  8. Quantum conversion

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...

  9. Conversational sensemaking

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  10. Conversational sensing

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  11. Basic visual function and cortical thickness patterns in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Lehmann, Manja; Barnes, Josephine; Ridgway, Gerard R; Wattam-Bell, John; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Fox, Nick C; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2011-09-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by a progressive decline in higher-visual object and space processing, but the extent to which these deficits are underpinned by basic visual impairments is unknown. This study aimed to assess basic and higher-order visual deficits in 21 PCA patients. Basic visual skills including form detection and discrimination, color discrimination, motion coherence, and point localization were measured, and associations and dissociations between specific basic visual functions and measures of higher-order object and space perception were identified. All participants showed impairment in at least one aspect of basic visual processing. However, a number of dissociations between basic visual skills indicated a heterogeneous pattern of visual impairment among the PCA patients. Furthermore, basic visual impairments were associated with particular higher-order object and space perception deficits, but not with nonvisual parietal tasks, suggesting the specific involvement of visual networks in PCA. Cortical thickness analysis revealed trends toward lower cortical thickness in occipitotemporal (ventral) and occipitoparietal (dorsal) regions in patients with visuoperceptual and visuospatial deficits, respectively. However, there was also a lot of overlap in their patterns of cortical thinning. These findings suggest that different presentations of PCA represent points in a continuum of phenotypical variation.

  12. Face processing pattern under top-down perception: a functional MRI study

    Li, Jun; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Jizheng; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Guangming

    2009-02-01

    Although top-down perceptual process plays an important role in face processing, its neural substrate is still puzzling because the top-down stream is extracted difficultly from the activation pattern associated with contamination caused by bottom-up face perception input. In the present study, a novel paradigm of instructing participants to detect faces from pure noise images is employed, which could efficiently eliminate the interference of bottom-up face perception in topdown face processing. Analyzing the map of functional connectivity with right FFA analyzed by conventional Pearson's correlation, a possible face processing pattern induced by top-down perception can be obtained. Apart from the brain areas of bilateral fusiform gyrus (FG), left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and left superior temporal sulcus (STS), which are consistent with a core system in the distributed cortical network for face perception, activation induced by top-down face processing is also found in these regions that include the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC), right oribitofrontal cortex (OFC), left precuneus, right parahippocampal cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right frontal pole, bilateral premotor cortex, left inferior parietal cortex and bilateral thalamus. The results indicate that making-decision, attention, episodic memory retrieving and contextual associative processing network cooperate with general face processing regions to process face information under top-down perception.

  13. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Formisano, E; Pepino, A; Bracale, M [Department of Electronic Engineering, Biomedical Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Salle, F [Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Radiologucal Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Lanfermann, H; Zanella, F E [Department of Neuroradiology, J.W. Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt/M. (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors) 17 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Heating patterns during cancer heat therapy as a function of blood flow

    Mendecki, J.; Friedenthal, E.; Botstein, C.; Sterzer, F.; Paglione, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Heating patterns as a function of regional blood flow were evaluated in healthy tissues with different vascular characteristics as well as in a variety of tumors submitted to microwave and RF-induced hyperthermia. Generally, faster heating and slower cooling was demonstrated for tumors. Definite correlation was found between the power needed to heat given tissue volume to a specific temperature and the ability of this tissue to dissipate heat via vascular flow. The measurements show that during the early phase of heating of tumors temperature rises slowly up to about 40 0 C. indicating good heat exchanges but that at this level rapid increase of temperature occurs for relatively small increments of power input. It is suggested that blood flow in malignant tissue remains competent and responsive to low grade heating, but that at higher temperature levels, in contrast to normal tissue, tumor blood flow rapidly decreases indicating compromised vascular system. Implication for treatment protocols are discussed

  15. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Formisano, E.; Pepino, A.; Bracale, M.; Di Salle, F.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors)

  16. The software for automatic creation of the formal grammars used by speech recognition, computer vision, editable text conversion systems, and some new functions

    Kardava, Irakli; Tadyszak, Krzysztof; Gulua, Nana; Jurga, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    For more flexibility of environmental perception by artificial intelligence it is needed to exist the supporting software modules, which will be able to automate the creation of specific language syntax and to make a further analysis for relevant decisions based on semantic functions. According of our proposed approach, of which implementation it is possible to create the couples of formal rules of given sentences (in case of natural languages) or statements (in case of special languages) by helping of computer vision, speech recognition or editable text conversion system for further automatic improvement. In other words, we have developed an approach, by which it can be achieved to significantly improve the training process automation of artificial intelligence, which as a result will give us a higher level of self-developing skills independently from us (from users). At the base of our approach we have developed a software demo version, which includes the algorithm and software code for the entire above mentioned component's implementation (computer vision, speech recognition and editable text conversion system). The program has the ability to work in a multi - stream mode and simultaneously create a syntax based on receiving information from several sources.

  17. Detection of discriminative sequence patterns in the neighborhood of proline cis peptide bonds and their functional annotation

    Papaloukas Costas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polypeptides are composed of amino acids covalently bonded via a peptide bond. The majority of peptide bonds in proteins is found to occur in the trans conformation. In spite of their infrequent occurrence, cis peptide bonds play a key role in the protein structure and function, as well as in many significant biological processes. Results We perform a systematic analysis of regions in protein sequences that contain a proline cis peptide bond in order to discover non-random associations between the primary sequence and the nature of proline cis/trans isomerization. For this purpose an efficient pattern discovery algorithm is employed which discovers regular expression-type patterns that are overrepresented (i.e. appear frequently repeated in a set of sequences. Four types of pattern discovery are performed: i exact pattern discovery, ii pattern discovery using a chemical equivalency set, iii pattern discovery using a structural equivalency set and iv pattern discovery using certain amino acids' physicochemical properties. The extracted patterns are carefully validated using a specially implemented scoring function and a significance measure (i.e. log-probability estimate indicative of their specificity. The score threshold for the first three types of pattern discovery is 0.90 while for the last type of pattern discovery 0.80. Regarding the significance measure, all patterns yielded values in the range [-9, -31] which ensure that the derived patterns are highly unlikely to have emerged by chance. Among the highest scoring patterns, most of them are consistent with previous investigations concerning the neighborhood of cis proline peptide bonds, and many new ones are identified. Finally, the extracted patterns are systematically compared against the PROSITE database, in order to gain insight into the functional implications of cis prolyl bonds. Conclusion Cis patterns with matches in the PROSITE database fell mostly into two

  18. Investigating the Predictive Value of Functional MRI to Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli: A Pattern Classification Approach.

    Ciara McCabe

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional neural responses to appetitive and aversive stimuli have been investigated as possible biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However it is not clear to what degree these are separate processes across the brain or in fact overlapping systems. To help clarify this issue we used Gaussian process classifier (GPC analysis to examine appetitive and aversive processing in the brain.25 healthy controls underwent functional MRI whilst seeing pictures and receiving tastes of pleasant and unpleasant food. We applied GPCs to discriminate between the appetitive and aversive sights and tastes using functional activity patterns.The diagnostic accuracy of the GPC for the accuracy to discriminate appetitive taste from neutral condition was 86.5% (specificity = 81%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001. If a participant experienced neutral taste stimuli the probability of correct classification was 92. The accuracy to discriminate aversive from neutral taste stimuli was 82.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001 and appetitive from aversive taste stimuli was 73% (specificity = 77%, sensitivity = 69%, p = 0.001. In the sight modality, the accuracy to discriminate appetitive from neutral condition was 88.5% (specificity = 85%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001, to discriminate aversive from neutral sight stimuli was 92% (specificity = 92%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001, and to discriminate aversive from appetitive sight stimuli was 63.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 54%, p = 0.009.Our results demonstrate the predictive value of neurofunctional data in discriminating emotional and neutral networks of activity in the healthy human brain. It would be of interest to use pattern recognition techniques and fMRI to examine network dysfunction in the processing of appetitive, aversive and neutral stimuli in psychiatric disorders. Especially where problems with reward and punishment processing have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder.

  19. Lung function and breathing pattern in subjects developing high altitude pulmonary edema.

    Christian F Clarenbach

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to comprehensively evaluate physiologic changes associated with development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. We tested whether changes in pulmonary function and breathing pattern would herald clinically overt HAPE at an early stage. METHODS: In 18 mountaineers, spirometry, diffusing capacity, nitrogen washout, nocturnal ventilation and pulse oximetry were recorded at 490 m and during 3 days after rapid ascent to 4559 m. Findings were compared among subjects developing HAPE and those remaining well (controls. RESULTS: In 8 subjects subsequently developing radiographically documented HAPE at 4559 m, median FVC declined to 82% of low altitude baseline while closing volume increased to 164% of baseline (P<0.05, both instances. In 10 controls, FVC decreased slightly (to 93% baseline, P<0.05 but significantly less than in subjects with HAPE and closing volume remained unchanged. Sniff nasal pressure was reduced in both subjects with and without subsequent HAPE. During nights at 4559 m, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation dropped to lower values while minute ventilation, the number of periodic breathing cycles and heart rate were higher (60%; 8.6 L/min; 97 cycles/h; 94 beats/min, respectively in subjects subsequently developing HAPE than in controls (73%; 5.1 L/min; 48 cycles/h; 79 beats/min; P<0.05 vs. HAPE, all instances. CONCLUSION: The results comprehensively represent the pattern of physiologic alterations that precede overt HAPE. The changes in lung function are consistent with reduced lung compliance and impaired gas exchange. Pronounced nocturnal hypoxemia, ventilatory control instability and sympathetic stimulation are further signs of subsequent overt HAPE.

  20. Topologically convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in unmedicated unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.

    Wang, Y; Wang, J; Jia, Y; Zhong, S; Zhong, M; Sun, Y; Niu, M; Zhao, L; Zhao, L; Pan, J; Huang, L; Huang, R

    2017-07-04

    Bipolar disorder (BD), particularly BD II, is frequently misdiagnosed as unipolar depression (UD), leading to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. Although depressive symptoms may be expressed similarly in UD and BD, the similarities and differences in the architecture of brain functional networks between the two disorders are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that UD and BD II patients would show convergent and divergent patterns of disrupted topological organization of the functional connectome, especially in the default mode network (DMN) and the limbic network. Brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from 32 UD-unmedicated patients, 31 unmedicated BD II patients (current episode depressed) and 43 healthy subjects. Using graph theory, we systematically studied the topological organization of their whole-brain functional networks at the following three levels: whole brain, modularity and node. First, both the UD and BD II patients showed increased characteristic path length and decreased global efficiency compared with the controls. Second, both the UD and BD II patients showed disrupted intramodular connectivity within the DMN and limbic system network. Third, decreased nodal characteristics (nodal strength and nodal efficiency) were found predominantly in brain regions in the DMN, limbic network and cerebellum of both the UD and BD II patients, whereas differences between the UD and BD II patients in the nodal characteristics were also observed in the precuneus and temporal pole. Convergent deficits in the topological organization of the whole brain, DMN and limbic networks may reflect overlapping pathophysiological processes in unipolar and bipolar depression. Our discovery of divergent regional connectivity that supports emotion processing could help to identify biomarkers that will aid in differentiating these disorders.

  1. Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844

  2. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  3. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  4. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    M. C. Demirel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target the pattern performance of the model. The proposed calibration framework combines temporally aggregated observed spatial patterns with a new spatial performance metric and a flexible spatial parameterisation scheme. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM is used to simulate streamflow and AET and has been selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance using standard metrics, we developed a simple but highly discriminative spatial metric, i.e. one comprised of three easily interpretable components measuring co-location, variation and distribution of the spatial data. The study shows that with flexible spatial model parameterisation used in combination with the appropriate objective functions, the simulated spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration become substantially more similar to the satellite-based estimates. Overall 26 parameters are identified for calibration through a sequential screening approach based on a combination of streamflow and spatial pattern metrics. The robustness of the calibrations is tested using an ensemble of nine calibrations based on different seed numbers using the

  5. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; Mai, Juliane; Mendiguren, Gorka; Koch, Julian; Samaniego, Luis; Stisen, Simon

    2018-02-01

    Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target the pattern performance of the model. The proposed calibration framework combines temporally aggregated observed spatial patterns with a new spatial performance metric and a flexible spatial parameterisation scheme. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) is used to simulate streamflow and AET and has been selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance using standard metrics, we developed a simple but highly discriminative spatial metric, i.e. one comprised of three easily interpretable components measuring co-location, variation and distribution of the spatial data. The study shows that with flexible spatial model parameterisation used in combination with the appropriate objective functions, the simulated spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration become substantially more similar to the satellite-based estimates. Overall 26 parameters are identified for calibration through a sequential screening approach based on a combination of streamflow and spatial pattern metrics. The robustness of the calibrations is tested using an ensemble of nine calibrations based on different seed numbers using the shuffled complex

  6. Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia

    Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Chave, Jerome; Sabatier, Daniel; Duque, Alvaro; Molino, Jean-François; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Spichiger, Rodolphe; Castellanos, Hernán; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Vásquez, Rodolfo

    2006-09-01

    The world's greatest terrestrial stores of biodiversity and carbon are found in the forests of northern South America, where large-scale biogeographic patterns and processes have recently begun to be described. Seven of the nine countries with territory in the Amazon basin and the Guiana shield have carried out large-scale forest inventories, but such massive data sets have been little exploited by tropical plant ecologists. Although forest inventories often lack the species-level identifications favoured by tropical plant ecologists, their consistency of measurement and vast spatial coverage make them ideally suited for numerical analyses at large scales, and a valuable resource to describe the still poorly understood spatial variation of biomass, diversity, community composition and forest functioning across the South American tropics. Here we show, by using the seven forest inventories complemented with trait and inventory data collected elsewhere, two dominant gradients in tree composition and function across the Amazon, one paralleling a major gradient in soil fertility and the other paralleling a gradient in dry season length. The data set also indicates that the dominance of Fabaceae in the Guiana shield is not necessarily the result of root adaptations to poor soils (nodulation or ectomycorrhizal associations) but perhaps also the result of their remarkably high seed mass there as a potential adaptation to low rates of disturbance.

  7. Distributed patterns of occipito-parietal functional connectivity predict the precision of visual working memory.

    Galeano Weber, Elena M; Hahn, Tim; Hilger, Kirsten; Fiebach, Christian J

    2017-02-01

    Limitations in visual working memory (WM) quality (i.e., WM precision) may depend on perceptual and attentional limitations during stimulus encoding, thereby affecting WM capacity. WM encoding relies on the interaction between sensory processing systems and fronto-parietal 'control' regions, and differences in the quality of this interaction are a plausible source of individual differences in WM capacity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the coupling between perceptual and attentional systems affects the quality of WM encoding. We combined fMRI connectivity analysis with behavioral modeling by fitting a variable precision and fixed capacity model to the performance data obtained while participants performed a visual delayed continuous response WM task. We quantified functional connectivity during WM encoding between occipital and parietal brain regions activated during both perception and WM encoding, as determined using a conjunction of two independent experiments. The multivariate pattern of voxel-wise inter-areal functional connectivity significantly predicted WM performance, most specifically the mean of WM precision but not the individual number of items that could be stored in memory. In particular, higher occipito-parietal connectivity was associated with higher behavioral mean precision. These results are consistent with a network perspective of WM capacity, suggesting that the efficiency of information flow between perceptual and attentional neural systems is a critical determinant of limitations in WM quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  9. Functional morphology and patterns of blood flow in the heart of Python regius.

    Starck, J Matthias

    2009-06-01

    Brightness-modulated ultrasonography, continuous-wave Doppler, and pulsed-wave Doppler-echocardiography were used to analyze the functional morphology of the undisturbed heart of ball pythons. In particular, the action of the muscular ridge and the atrio-ventricular valves are key features to understand how patterns of blood flow emerge from structures directing blood into the various chambers of the heart. A step-by-step image analysis of echocardiographs shows that during ventricular diastole, the atrio-ventricular valves block the interventricular canals so that blood from the right atrium first fills the cavum venosum, and blood from the left atrium fills the cavum arteriosum. During diastole, blood from the cavum venosum crosses the muscular ridge into the cavum pulmonale. During middle to late systole the muscular ridge closes, thus prohibiting further blood flow into the cavum pulmonale. At the same time, the atrio-ventricular valves open the interventricular canal and allow blood from the cavum arteriosum to flow into the cavum venosum. In the late phase of ventricular systole, all blood from the cavum pulmonale is pressed into the pulmonary trunk; all blood from the cavum venosum is pressed into both aortas. Quantitative measures of blood flow volume showed that resting snakes bypass the pulmonary circulation and shunt about twice the blood volume into the systemic circulation as into the pulmonary circulation. When digesting, the oxygen demand of snakes increased tremendously. This is associated with shunting more blood into the pulmonary circulation. The results of this study allow the presentation of a detailed functional model of the python heart. They are also the basis for a functional hypothesis of how shunting is achieved. Further, it was shown that shunting is an active regulation process in response to changing demands of the organism (here, oxygen demand). Finally, the results of this study support earlier reports about a dual pressure

  10. Spatial patterns and links between microbial community composition and function in cyanobacterial mats

    Alnajjar, Mohammad Ahmad; Ramette, Alban; Kü hl, Michael; Hamza, Waleed; Klatt, Judith M.; Polerecky, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    We imaged reflectance and variable fluorescence in 25 cyanobacterial mats from four distant sites around the globe to assess, at different scales of resolution, spatial variabilities in the physiological parameters characterizing their photosynthetic capacity, including the absorptivity by chlorophyll a (Achl), maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Ymax), and light acclimation irradiance (Ik). Generally, these parameters significantly varied within individual mats on a sub-millimeter scale, with about 2-fold higher variability in the vertical than in the horizontal direction. The average vertical profiles of Ymax and Ik decreased with depth in the mat, while Achl exhibited a sub-surface maximum. The within-mat variability was comparable to, but often larger than, the between-sites variability, whereas the within-site variabilities (i.e., between samples from the same site) were generally lowest. When compared based on averaged values of their photosynthetic parameters, mats clustered according to their site of origin. Similar clustering was found when the community composition of the mats' cyanobacterial layers were compared by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), indicating a significant link between the microbial community composition and function. Although this link is likely the result of community adaptation to the prevailing site-specific environmental conditions, our present data is insufficient to identify the main factors determining these patterns. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the spatial variability in the photosynthetic capacity and light acclimation of benthic phototrophic microbial communities is at least as large on a sub-millimeter scale as it is on a global scale, and suggests that this pattern of variability scaling is similar for the microbial community composition. © 2014 Al-Najjar, Ramette, Kühl, Hamza, Klatt and Polerecky.

  11. Biological oscillations for learning walking coordination: dynamic recurrent neural network functionally models physiological central pattern generator.

    Hoellinger, Thomas; Petieau, Mathieu; Duvinage, Matthieu; Castermans, Thierry; Seetharaman, Karthik; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Bengoetxea, Ana; Ivanenko, Yuri; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The existence of dedicated neuronal modules such as those organized in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, or spinal cord raises the question of how these functional modules are coordinated for appropriate motor behavior. Study of human locomotion offers an interesting field for addressing this central question. The coordination of the elevation of the 3 leg segments under a planar covariation rule (Borghese et al., 1996) was recently modeled (Barliya et al., 2009) by phase-adjusted simple oscillators shedding new light on the understanding of the central pattern generator (CPG) processing relevant oscillation signals. We describe the use of a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) mimicking the natural oscillatory behavior of human locomotion for reproducing the planar covariation rule in both legs at different walking speeds. Neural network learning was based on sinusoid signals integrating frequency and amplitude features of the first three harmonics of the sagittal elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot of each lower limb. We verified the biological plausibility of the neural networks. Best results were obtained with oscillations extracted from the first three harmonics in comparison to oscillations outside the harmonic frequency peaks. Physiological replication steadily increased with the number of neuronal units from 1 to 80, where similarity index reached 0.99. Analysis of synaptic weighting showed that the proportion of inhibitory connections consistently increased with the number of neuronal units in the DRNN. This emerging property in the artificial neural networks resonates with recent advances in neurophysiology of inhibitory neurons that are involved in central nervous system oscillatory activities. The main message of this study is that this type of DRNN may offer a useful model of physiological central pattern generator for gaining insights in basic research and developing clinical applications.

  12. Spatial patterns and links between microbial community composition and function in cyanobacterial mats

    Alnajjar, Mohammad Ahmad

    2014-08-06

    We imaged reflectance and variable fluorescence in 25 cyanobacterial mats from four distant sites around the globe to assess, at different scales of resolution, spatial variabilities in the physiological parameters characterizing their photosynthetic capacity, including the absorptivity by chlorophyll a (Achl), maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Ymax), and light acclimation irradiance (Ik). Generally, these parameters significantly varied within individual mats on a sub-millimeter scale, with about 2-fold higher variability in the vertical than in the horizontal direction. The average vertical profiles of Ymax and Ik decreased with depth in the mat, while Achl exhibited a sub-surface maximum. The within-mat variability was comparable to, but often larger than, the between-sites variability, whereas the within-site variabilities (i.e., between samples from the same site) were generally lowest. When compared based on averaged values of their photosynthetic parameters, mats clustered according to their site of origin. Similar clustering was found when the community composition of the mats\\' cyanobacterial layers were compared by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), indicating a significant link between the microbial community composition and function. Although this link is likely the result of community adaptation to the prevailing site-specific environmental conditions, our present data is insufficient to identify the main factors determining these patterns. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the spatial variability in the photosynthetic capacity and light acclimation of benthic phototrophic microbial communities is at least as large on a sub-millimeter scale as it is on a global scale, and suggests that this pattern of variability scaling is similar for the microbial community composition. © 2014 Al-Najjar, Ramette, Kühl, Hamza, Klatt and Polerecky.

  13. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K; Xia, P [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house tool was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed.

  14. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K; Xia, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house tool was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed

  15. Modeling and control design of a stand alone wind energy conversion system based on functional model predictive control

    Kassem, Ahmed M. [Beni-Suef University, Electrical Dept., Beni Suef (Egypt)

    2012-09-15

    This paper investigates the application of the model predictive control (MPC) approach to control the voltage and frequency of a stand alone wind generation system. This scheme consists of a wind turbine which drives an induction generator feeding an isolated load. A static VAR compensator is connected at the induction generator terminals to regulate the load voltage. The rotor speed, and thereby the load frequency are controlled via adjusting the mechanical power input using the blade pitch-angle. The MPC is used to calculate the optimal control actions including system constraints. To alleviate computational effort and to reduce numerical problems, particularly in large prediction horizon, an exponentially weighted functional model predictive control (FMPC) is employed. Digital simulations have been carried out in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The proposed controller has been tested through step changes in the wind speed and the load impedance. Simulation results show that adequate performance of the proposed wind energy scheme has been achieved. Moreover, this scheme is robust against the parameters variation and eliminates the influence of modeling and measurement errors. (orig.)

  16. Comparative bonding ability to dentin of a universal adhesive system and monomer conversion as functions of extended light curing times and storage.

    Sampaio, Paula Costa Pinheiro; Kruly, Paula de Castro; Ribeiro, Clara Cabral; Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Pereira, Patrícia Nóbrega Rodrigues; Scaffa, Polliana Mendes Candia; Di Hipólito, Vinicius; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bonding ability and monomer conversion of a universal adhesive system applied to dentin as functions of different curing times and storage. The results were compared among a variety of commercial adhesives. Flat superficial dentin surfaces were exposed on human molars and assigned into one of the following adhesives (n = 15): total-etch Adper Single Bond 2 (SB) and Optibond Solo Plus (OS), self-etch Optibond All in One (OA) and Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive in self-etch mode (SU). The adhesives were applied following the manufacturers' instructions and cured for 10, 20, or 40s. Specimens were processed for the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test in accordance with the non-trimming technique and tested after 24h and 2 years. The fractured specimens were classified under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Infrared (IR) spectra were obtained and monomer conversion (%) was calculated by comparing the aliphatic-to-aromatic IR absorption peak ratio before and after polymerization (n=5). Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA/Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). At 24-h evaluation, OA and CSE presented similar bond strength means irrespective of the curing time, whereas SB and SU exhibited significantly higher means when cured for 40s as did OS when cured for 20 or 40s (p storage, only the self-etching adhesive Optibond All-In-One exhibited the same bonding ability when cured for longer periods of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  18. Cognitive and functional patterns of nondemented subjects with equivocal visual amyloid PET findings

    Payoux, P.; Delrieu, J.; Gallini, A.; Cantet, C.; Voisin, T.; Gillette-Guyonnet, S.; Vellas, B.; Adel, D.; Salabert, A.S.; Hitzel, A.; Tafani, M.; Verbizier, D. de; Darcourt, J.; Fernandez, P.; Monteil, J.; Carrie, I.; Pontecorvo, M.; Andrieu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite good to excellent inter-reader agreement in the evaluation of amyloid load on PET scans in subjects with Alzheimer's disease, some equivocal findings have been reported in the literature. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of subjects with equivocal PET images. Nondemented subjects aged 70 years or more were enrolled from the MAPT trial. Cognitive and functional assessments were conducted at baseline, at 6 months, and annually for 3 years. During the follow-up period, 271 subjects had 18 F-AV45 PET scans. Images were visually assessed by three observers and classified as positive, negative or equivocal (if one observer disagreed). After debate, equivocal images were reclassified as positive (EP+) or negative (EP-). Scans were also classified by semiautomated quantitative analysis using mean amyloid uptake of cortical regions. We evaluated agreement among the observers, and between visual and quantitative assessments using kappa coefficients, and compared the clinical characteristics of the subjects according to their PET results. In 158 subjects (58.30 %) the PET scan was negative for amyloid, in 77 (28.41 %) the scan was positive and in 36 (13.28 %) the scan was equivocal. Agreement among the three observers was excellent (kappa 0.80). Subjects with equivocal images were more frequently men (58 % vs. 37 %) and exhibited intermediate scores on cognitive and functional scales between those of subjects with positive and negative scans. Amyloid load differed between the EP- and negative groups and between the EP+ and positive groups after reclassification. Equivocal amyloid PET images could represent a neuroimaging entity with intermediate amyloid load but without a specific neuropsychological pattern. Clinical follow-up to assess cognitive evolution in subjects with equivocal scans is needed. (orig.)

  19. Cognitive and functional patterns of nondemented subjects with equivocal visual amyloid PET findings

    Payoux, P. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); INSERM U825, CHU Purpan, Toulouse Cedex (France); Delrieu, J. [Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1027, Toulouse (France); Gallini, A.; Cantet, C.; Voisin, T.; Gillette-Guyonnet, S.; Vellas, B. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1027, Toulouse (France); Adel, D.; Salabert, A.S. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Hitzel, A. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Tafani, M. [Purpan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Verbizier, D. de [Montpellier University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Montpellier (France); Darcourt, J. [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nice (France); University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); Fernandez, P. [Pellegrin University Hospital Bordeaux, Nuclear Medicine Department, Bordeaux (France); University Bordeaux II, CNRS UMR 5287 - INCIA, Victor Segalen, Bordeaux (France); Monteil, J. [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Limoges (France); University of Limoges, Limoges (France); Carrie, I. [Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Pontecorvo, M. [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Andrieu, S. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Purpan University Hospital, Gerontopole, Department of Geriatrics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1027, Toulouse (France); CHU Toulouse, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Toulouse (France)

    2015-08-15

    Despite good to excellent inter-reader agreement in the evaluation of amyloid load on PET scans in subjects with Alzheimer's disease, some equivocal findings have been reported in the literature. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of subjects with equivocal PET images. Nondemented subjects aged 70 years or more were enrolled from the MAPT trial. Cognitive and functional assessments were conducted at baseline, at 6 months, and annually for 3 years. During the follow-up period, 271 subjects had {sup 18}F-AV45 PET scans. Images were visually assessed by three observers and classified as positive, negative or equivocal (if one observer disagreed). After debate, equivocal images were reclassified as positive (EP+) or negative (EP-). Scans were also classified by semiautomated quantitative analysis using mean amyloid uptake of cortical regions. We evaluated agreement among the observers, and between visual and quantitative assessments using kappa coefficients, and compared the clinical characteristics of the subjects according to their PET results. In 158 subjects (58.30 %) the PET scan was negative for amyloid, in 77 (28.41 %) the scan was positive and in 36 (13.28 %) the scan was equivocal. Agreement among the three observers was excellent (kappa 0.80). Subjects with equivocal images were more frequently men (58 % vs. 37 %) and exhibited intermediate scores on cognitive and functional scales between those of subjects with positive and negative scans. Amyloid load differed between the EP- and negative groups and between the EP+ and positive groups after reclassification. Equivocal amyloid PET images could represent a neuroimaging entity with intermediate amyloid load but without a specific neuropsychological pattern. Clinical follow-up to assess cognitive evolution in subjects with equivocal scans is needed. (orig.)

  20. Intraskeletal histovariability, allometric growth patterns, and their functional implications in bird-like dinosaurs.

    Prondvai, Edina; Godefroit, Pascal; Adriaens, Dominique; Hu, Dong-Yu

    2018-01-10

    With their elongated forelimbs and variable aerial skills, paravian dinosaurs, a clade also comprising modern birds, are in the hotspot of vertebrate evolutionary research. Inferences on the early evolution of flight largely rely on bone and feather morphology, while osteohistological traits are usually studied to explore life-history characteristics. By sampling and comparing multiple homologous fore- and hind limb elements, we integrate for the first time qualitative and quantitative osteohistological approaches to get insight into the intraskeletal growth dynamics and their functional implications in five paravian dinosaur taxa, Anchiornis, Aurornis, Eosinopteryx, Serikornis, and Jeholornis. Our qualitative assessment implies a considerable diversity in allometric/isometric growth patterns among these paravians. Quantitative analyses show that neither taxa nor homologous elements have characteristic histology, and that ontogenetic stage, element size and the newly introduced relative element precocity only partially explain the diaphyseal histovariability. Still, Jeholornis, the only avialan studied here, is histologically distinct from all other specimens in the multivariate visualizations raising the hypothesis that its bone tissue characteristics may be related to its superior aerial capabilities compared to the non-avialan paravians. Our results warrant further research on the osteohistological correlates of flight and developmental strategies in birds and bird-like dinosaurs.

  1. Error Patterns with Fraction Calculations at Fourth Grade as a Function of Students' Mathematics Achievement Status.

    Schumacher, Robin F; Malone, Amelia S

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to describe fraction-calculation errors among 4 th -grade students and determine whether error patterns differed as a function of problem type (addition vs. subtraction; like vs. unlike denominators), orientation (horizontal vs. vertical), or mathematics-achievement status (low- vs. average- vs. high-achieving). We specifically addressed whether mathematics-achievement status was related to students' tendency to operate with whole number bias. We extended this focus by comparing low-performing students' errors in two instructional settings that focused on two different types of fraction understandings: core instruction that focused on part-whole understanding vs. small-group tutoring that focused on magnitude understanding. Results showed students across the sample were more likely to operate with whole number bias on problems with unlike denominators. Students with low or average achievement (who only participated in core instruction) were more likely to operate with whole number bias than students with low achievement who participated in small-group tutoring. We suggest instruction should emphasize magnitude understanding to sufficiently increase fraction understanding for all students in the upper elementary grades.

  2. The cortical activation pattern by a rehabilitation robotic hand: a functional NIRS study.

    Chang, Pyung-Hun; Lee, Seung-Hee; Gu, Gwang Min; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok; Seo, Jeong Pyo; Jang, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Clarification of the relationship between external stimuli and brain response has been an important topic in neuroscience and brain rehabilitation. In the current study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation patterns generated during execution of a rehabilitation robotic hand. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. Passive movements of the right fingers were performed using a rehabilitation robotic hand at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO), deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) and total-hemoglobin (HbT) in five regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1), hand somatotopy of the contralateral SM1, supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex (PMC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). HbO and HbT values indicated significant activation in the left SM1, left SMA, left PMC, and left PFC during execution of the rehabilitation robotic hand (uncorrected, p < 0.01). By contrast, HbR value indicated significant activation only in the hand somatotopic area of the left SM1 (uncorrected, p < 0.01). Our results appear to indicate that execution of the rehabilitation robotic hand could induce cortical activation.

  3. The cortical activation pattern by a rehabilitation robotic hand : A functional NIRS study

    Pyung Hun eChang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clarification of the relationship between external stimuli and brain response has been an important topic in neuroscience and brain rehabilitation. In the current study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, we attempted to investigate cortical activation patterns generated during execution of a rehabilitation robotic hand. Methods: Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. Passive movements of the right fingers were performed using a rehabilitation robotic hand at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxy-hemoglobin(HbO, deoxy-hemoglobin(HbR and total-hemoglobin(HbT in five regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1, hand somatotopy of the contralateral SM1, supplementary motor area (SMA, premotor cortex (PMC, and prefrontal cortex (PFC. Results: HbO and HbT values indicated significant activation in the left SM1, left SMA, left PMC, and left PFC during execution of the rehabilitation robotic hand(uncorrected, pConclusions: Our results appear to indicate that execution of the rehabilitation robotic hand could induce cortical activation.

  4. Loading pattern optimization with maximum utilization of discharging fuel employing adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function

    Park, T. K.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to find the most economical loading pattern (LP) considering multi-cycle fuel loading, multi-objective fuel LP optimization problems are examined by employing an adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function (ACDPF) method. This is an improved method to simplify the complicated acceptance logic of the original DPF method in that the stochastic effects caused by the different random number sequence can be reduced. The effectiveness of the multi-objective simulated annealing (SA) algorithm employing ACDPF is examined for the reload core LP of Cycle 4 of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 4. Several optimization runs are performed with different numbers of objectives consisting of cycle length and average burnup of fuels to be discharged or reloaded. The candidate LPs obtained from the multi-objective optimization runs turn out to be better than the reference LP in the aspects of cycle length and utilization of given fuels. It is note that the proposed ACDPF based MOSA algorithm can be a practical method to obtain an economical LP considering multi-cycle fuel loading. (authors)

  5. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    Amir LAKZIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC, -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP, -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay were measured. Organic carbon percentage and soil texture were also determined for each soil sample at each location. Three different techniques including pattern recognition approach (k nearest neighbour, k-NN, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and pedotransfer functions (PTF were used to predict the soil water at each sampling location. Mean square deviation (MSD and its components, index of agreement (d, root mean square difference (RMSD and normalized RMSD (RMSDr were used to evaluate the performance of all the three approaches. Our results showed that k-NN and PTF performed better than ANN in prediction of water content at both FC and PWP matric potential. Various statistics criteria for simulation performance also indicated that between kNN and PTF, the former, predicted water content at PWP more accurate than PTF, however both approach showed a similar accuracy to predict water content at FC.

  6. Dietary patterns are associated with cognitive function in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort.

    Pearson, Keith E; Wadley, Virginia G; McClure, Leslie A; Shikany, James M; Unverzagt, Fred W; Judd, Suzanne E

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that contribute to the preservation of cognitive function is imperative to maintaining quality of life in advanced years. Of modifiable risk factors, diet quality has emerged as a promising candidate to make an impact on cognition. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between empirically derived dietary patterns and cognitive function. This study included 18 080 black and white participants aged 45 years and older from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Principal component analysis on data from the Block98 FFQ yielded five dietary patterns: convenience, plant-based, sweets/fats, Southern, and alcohol/salads. Incident cognitive impairment was defined as shifting from intact cognitive status (score >4) at first assessment to impaired cognitive status (score ≤4) at latest assessment, measured by the Six-Item Screener. Learning, memory and executive function were evaluated with the Word List Learning, Word List Delayed Recall, and animal fluency assessments. In fully adjusted models, greater consumption of the alcohol/salads pattern was associated with lower odds of incident cognitive impairment (highest quintile (Q5) v . lowest quintile (Q1): OR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·84; P for trend 0·0005). Greater consumption of the alcohol/salads pattern was associated with higher scores on all domain-specific assessments and greater consumption of the plant-based pattern was associated with higher scores in learning and memory. Greater consumption of the Southern pattern was associated with lower scores on each domain-specific assessment (all P  < 0·05). In conclusion, dietary patterns including plant-based foods and alcohol intake were associated with higher cognitive scores, and a pattern including fried food and processed meat typical of a Southern diet was associated with lower scores.

  7. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions.

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A; McFarland, Jack W; Anderson, Frank E; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Tremblay, Julien; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Waldrop, Mark P; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Tringe, Susannah G

    2015-05-19

    that mediate carbon cycling in wetlands is critical to accurately predicting their responses to changes in land management and climate. Here, we studied a restored wetland and revealed substantial spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemistry, methane production, and microbial communities, largely associated with the wetland hydraulic design. We observed patterns in microbial community composition and functions correlated with biogeochemistry and methane production, including diverse microorganisms involved in methane production and consumption. We found that methanogenesis gene abundance is inversely correlated with genes from pathways exploiting other electron acceptors, yet the ubiquitous presence of genes from all these pathways suggests that diverse electron acceptors contribute to the energetic balance of the ecosystem. These investigations represent an important step toward effective management of wetlands to reduce methane flux to the atmosphere and enhance belowground carbon storage. Copyright © 2015 He et al.

  8. The FLIC conversion codes

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  9. The FLIC conversion codes

    Basher, J C [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-05-15

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  10. Functional conversion of mining-related cultural heritage with a focus on national cultural heritage (FUNKČNÁ KONVERZIA BANSKÉHO KULTÚRNEHO DEDIČSTVA S AKCENTOM NA NÁRODNÉ KULTÚRNE PAMIATKY

    Predanocyová Barbora

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the functional transformation of mining town to tourist destinations. We first discuss the theoretical fundamentals of functional conversion and some examples of its successful application to mines and mine-related sites, then we analyze the functional use of selected historical objects in the city of Banská Štiavnica and the village of Hodruša- Hámre and their potential in the tourism industry.

  11. Late conversion from tacrolimus to a belatacept-based immuno-suppression regime in kidney transplant recipients improves renal function, acid-base derangement and mineral-bone metabolism.

    Schulte, Kevin; Vollmer, Clara; Klasen, Vera; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Püchel, Jodok; Borzikowsky, Christoph; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Feldkamp, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-induced nephrotoxicity and chronic graft dysfunction with deteriorating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are common problems of kidney transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of belatacept as a rescue therapy in these patients. In this retrospective, observational study we investigated 20 patients (10 females, 10 males) who were switched from a CNI (tacrolimus) to a belatacept-based immunosuppression because of CNI intolerance or marginal transplant function. Patient follow-up was 12 months. Patients were converted to belatacept in mean 28.8 months after transplantation. Reasons for conversion were CNI intolerance (14 patients) or marginal transplant function (6 patients). Mean estimated GFR (eGFR) before conversion was 22.2 ± 9.4 ml/min at baseline and improved significantly to 28.3 ± 10.1 ml/min at 4 weeks and to 32.1 ± 12.6 ml/min at 12 months after conversion. Serum bicarbonate significantly increased from 24.4 ± 3.2 mmol/l at baseline to 28.7 ± 2.6 mmol/l after 12 months. Conversion to belatacept decreased parathyroid hormone and phosphate concentrations significantly, whereas albumin levels significantly increased. In 6 cases an acute rejection preceded clinically relevant CNI toxicity; only two patients suffered from an acute rejection after conversion. Belatacept was well tolerated and there was no increase in infectious or malignant side effects. A late conversion from a tacrolimus-based immunosuppression to belatacept is safe, effective and significantly improves renal function in kidney transplant recipients. Additionally, the conversion to belatacept has a beneficial impact on acid-base balance, mineral-bone and protein metabolism, independently of eGFR.

  12. Acoustic patterns and communicative functions of phrase-final F0 rises in German

    Dombrowski, Ernst; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    in these two conditions is the range proportion, which differentiates between two patterns as follows: (1) raised pitch on the accented syllable and restrained pitch movement in the tail of the contour, (2) lowered pitch on the accented syllable and extended pitch movement in the tail. The first pattern...

  13. Functional importance of different patterns of correlation between adjacent cassette exons in human and mouse.

    Peng, Tao; Xue, Chenghai; Bi, Jianning; Li, Tingting; Wang, Xiaowo; Zhang, Xuegong; Li, Yanda

    2008-04-26

    Alternative splicing expands transcriptome diversity and plays an important role in regulation of gene expression. Previous studies focus on the regulation of a single cassette exon, but recent experiments indicate that multiple cassette exons within a gene may interact with each other. This interaction can increase the potential to generate various transcripts and adds an extra layer of complexity to gene regulation. Several cases of exon interaction have been discovered. However, the extent to which the cassette exons coordinate with each other remains unknown. Based on EST data, we employed a metric of correlation coefficients to describe the interaction between two adjacent cassette exons and then categorized these exon pairs into three different groups by their interaction (correlation) patterns. Sequence analysis demonstrates that strongly-correlated groups are more conserved and contain a higher proportion of pairs with reading frame preservation in a combinatorial manner. Multiple genome comparison further indicates that different groups of correlated pairs have different evolutionary courses: (1) The vast majority of positively-correlated pairs are old, (2) most of the weakly-correlated pairs are relatively young, and (3) negatively-correlated pairs are a mixture of old and young events. We performed a large-scale analysis of interactions between adjacent cassette exons. Compared with weakly-correlated pairs, the strongly-correlated pairs, including both the positively and negatively correlated ones, show more evidence that they are under delicate splicing control and tend to be functionally important. Additionally, the positively-correlated pairs bear strong resemblance to constitutive exons, which suggests that they may evolve from ancient constitutive exons, while negatively and weakly correlated pairs are more likely to contain newly emerging exons.

  14. Human gestation-associated tissues express functional cytosolic nucleic acid sensing pattern recognition receptors.

    Bryant, A H; Menzies, G E; Scott, L M; Spencer-Harty, S; Davies, L B; Smith, R A; Jones, R H; Thornton, C A

    2017-07-01

    The role of viral infections in adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained interest in recent years. Innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signalling pathways, that yield a cytokine output in response to pathogenic stimuli, have been postulated to link infection at the maternal-fetal interface and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and functional response of nucleic acid ligand responsive Toll-like receptors (TLR-3, -7, -8 and -9), and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors [RIG-I, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology 2(LGP2)] in human term gestation-associated tissues (placenta, choriodecidua and amnion) using an explant model. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these PRRs were expressed by the term placenta, choriodecidua and amnion. A statistically significant increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and/or IL-8 production in response to specific agonists for TLR-3 (Poly(I:C); low and high molecular weight), TLR-7 (imiquimod), TLR-8 (ssRNA40) and RIG-I/MDA5 (Poly(I:C)LyoVec) was observed; there was no response to a TLR-9 (ODN21798) agonist. A hierarchical clustering approach was used to compare the response of each tissue type to the ligands studied and revealed that the placenta and choriodecidua generate a more similar IL-8 response, while the choriodecidua and amnion generate a more similar IL-6 response to nucleic acid ligands. These findings demonstrate that responsiveness via TLR-3, TLR-7, TLR-8 and RIG-1/MDA5 is a broad feature of human term gestation-associated tissues with differential responses by tissue that might underpin adverse obstetric outcomes. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  15. Stool patterns of Malaysian adults with functional constipation: association with diet and physical activity.

    Mazlyn, Mena M; Nagarajah, Lee H L; Fatimah, A; Norimah, A K; Goh, K L

    2013-04-01

    Diet and lifestyle modification is commonly used in constipation management. As there is a dearth of studies on this topic in Malaysia, we aim to elucidate the relations between stool patterns, dietary intake and physical activity levels among adults with functional constipation. From a database collected via surveys at public events, a convenience sample of 100 adults diagnosed with Rome II-defined functional constipation was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After severity assessment using the Chinese Constipation Questionnaire, subjects completed 2-week bowel movement diaries to determine stool frequency, consistency and output. Dietary intake and physical activity levels were assessed twice using three-day 24-hour diet recalls and International Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively. Ninety subjects who completed the study were included in the analysis. Mean weekly stool frequency was 3.9 +/- 1.9 times, consistency score was 2.6 +/- 0.6 (range 1.0-4.0), output was 11.0 +/- 6.3 balls (40 mm diameter) and severity score was 10.3 +/- 3.3 (range 5.0-22.0). Mean daily dietary intakes were: energy 1,719 +/- 427kcal, dietary fibre 15.0 +/- 4.9g and fluid 2.5 +/- 0.8L. The majority of subjects were physically inactive. Stool frequency and output were positively associated with dietary fibre (r(s) = 0.278, P < 0.01; r(s) = 0.226, P < 0.05) and fluid intake (r(s) = 0.257, P < 0.05; OR = 3.571, 95% CI [1.202-10.609]). Constipation severity was associated with higher physical activity levels (OR = 2.467, 95% CI [1.054-5.777]). Insufficient intake of dietary fibre and fluid are associated with aggravated constipation symptoms. Further studies are necessary to confirm usefulness of dietary intervention in treatment of constipation as dietary factors alone may not influence overall severity and stool consistency, an integral element of constipation.

  16. Stressful life events and maltreatment in conversion (functional neurological) disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Ludwig, Lea; Pasman, Joëlle A; Nicholson, Timothy; Aybek, Selma; David, Anthony S; Tuck, Sharon; Kanaan, Richard A; Roelofs, Karin; Carson, Alan; Stone, Jon

    2018-04-01

    Stressful life events and maltreatment have traditionally been considered crucial in the development of conversion (functional neurological) disorder, but the evidence underpinning this association is not clear. We aimed to assess the association between stressors and functional neurological disorder. We systematically reviewed controlled studies reporting stressors occurring in childhood or adulthood, such as stressful life events and maltreatment (including sexual, physical abuse, and emotional neglect) and functional neurological disorder. We did a meta-analysis, with assessments of methodology, sources of bias, and sensitivity analyses. 34 case-control studies, with 1405 patients, were eligible. Studies were of moderate-to-low quality. The frequency of childhood and adulthood stressors was increased in cases compared with controls. Odds ratios (OR) were higher for emotional neglect in childhood (49% for cases vs 20% for controls; OR 5·6, 95% CI 2·4-13·1) compared with sexual abuse (24% vs 10%; 3·3, 2·2-4·8) or physical abuse (30% vs 12%; 3·9, 2·2-7·2). An association with stressful life events preceding onset (OR 2·8, 95% CI 1·4-6·0) was stronger in studies with better methods (interviews; 4·3, 1·4-13·2). Heterogeneity was significant between studies (I 2 21·1-90·7%). 13 studies that specifically ascertained that the participants had not had either severe life events or any subtype of maltreatment all found a proportion of patients with functional neurological disorder reporting no stressor. Stressful life events and maltreatment are substantially more common in people with functional neurological disorder than in healthy controls and patient controls. Emotional neglect had a higher risk than traditionally emphasised sexual and physical abuse, but many cases report no stressors. This outcome supports changes to diagnostic criteria in DSM-5; stressors, although relevant to the cause in many patients, are not a core diagnostic feature. This

  17. ChloroMitoCU: Codon patterns across organelle genomes for functional genomics and evolutionary applications.

    Sablok, Gaurav; Chen, Ting-Wen; Lee, Chi-Ching; Yang, Chi; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Porta, Nicola L; Nayak, Kinshuk C; Huang, Po-Jung; Varotto, Claudio; Tang, Petrus

    2017-06-01

    Organelle genomes are widely thought to have arisen from reduction events involving cyanobacterial and archaeal genomes, in the case of chloroplasts, or α-proteobacterial genomes, in the case of mitochondria. Heterogeneity in base composition and codon preference has long been the subject of investigation of topics ranging from phylogenetic distortion to the design of overexpression cassettes for transgenic expression. From the overexpression point of view, it is critical to systematically analyze the codon usage patterns of the organelle genomes. In light of the importance of codon usage patterns in the development of hyper-expression organelle transgenics, we present ChloroMitoCU, the first-ever curated, web-based reference catalog of the codon usage patterns in organelle genomes. ChloroMitoCU contains the pre-compiled codon usage patterns of 328 chloroplast genomes (29,960 CDS) and 3,502 mitochondrial genomes (49,066 CDS), enabling genome-wide exploration and comparative analysis of codon usage patterns across species. ChloroMitoCU allows the phylogenetic comparison of codon usage patterns across organelle genomes, the prediction of codon usage patterns based on user-submitted transcripts or assembled organelle genes, and comparative analysis with the pre-compiled patterns across species of interest. ChloroMitoCU can increase our understanding of the biased patterns of codon usage in organelle genomes across multiple clades. ChloroMitoCU can be accessed at: http://chloromitocu.cgu.edu.tw/. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  18. Directed assembly of functional light harvesting antenna complexes onto chemically patterned surfaces

    Escalante, Maryana [Biophysical Engineering Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Maury, Pascale [Molecular Nanofabrication Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bruinink, Christiaan M [Molecular Nanofabrication Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Werf, Kees van der [Biophysical Engineering Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Olsen, John D [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Timney, John A [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Huskens, Jurriaan [Molecular Nanofabrication Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Hunter, C Neil [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Subramaniam, Vinod [Biophysical Engineering Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Otto, Cees [Biophysical Engineering Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2008-01-16

    We report the directed assembly of the photosynthetic membrane proteins LH1 and LH2 isolated from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides onto chemically patterned substrates. Nanoimprint lithography was used to pattern discrete regions of amino- and fluoro-terminated or poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayers onto a glass substrate. Densely packed layers of assembled protein complexes were observed with atomic force microscopy. The protein complexes attached selectively to the amino-terminated regions by electrostatic interactions. Spectral images generated with a hybrid scanning probe and fluorescence microscope confirmed that the patterned proteins retained their native optical signatures.

  19. Directed assembly of functional light harvesting antenna complexes onto chemically patterned surfaces

    Escalante, Maryana; Maury, Pascale; Bruinink, Christiaan M; Werf, Kees van der; Olsen, John D; Timney, John A; Huskens, Jurriaan; Hunter, C Neil; Subramaniam, Vinod; Otto, Cees

    2008-01-01

    We report the directed assembly of the photosynthetic membrane proteins LH1 and LH2 isolated from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides onto chemically patterned substrates. Nanoimprint lithography was used to pattern discrete regions of amino- and fluoro-terminated or poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayers onto a glass substrate. Densely packed layers of assembled protein complexes were observed with atomic force microscopy. The protein complexes attached selectively to the amino-terminated regions by electrostatic interactions. Spectral images generated with a hybrid scanning probe and fluorescence microscope confirmed that the patterned proteins retained their native optical signatures

  20. Glucose metabolite patterns as markers of functional differentiation in freshly isolated and cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the mammary gland of non-ruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lacation. By measuring the incorporation of glucose carbon from [U- 14 C]glucose into intermediary metabolitees and metabolic products in mammary epithelia cells from virgin, pregnant, and lacating mice, we domonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate are important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells isolated from pregnant mice and cultured on collagen gels have a pattern similar to that of their freshly isolated counter-parts. When isolated from lacating mice, the metabolite patterns of cells cultured on collagen gels are different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state

  1. Convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in patients with long-term left-sided and right-sided deafness.

    Zhang, Yanyang; Mao, Zhiqi; Feng, Shiyu; Wang, Wenxin; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Xinguang

    2018-02-05

    Cortical reorganization may be induced in long-term single-sided deafness (SD); however, the influence of the deafness side on the functional changes remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated whole-brain functional connectivity patterns in long-term SD patients. The normalized voxel-based functional connectivity strength (FCS) was determined using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in 17 left-sided deafness (LD) patients, 21 right-sided deafness (RD) patients and 21 healthy controls (HCs). Relative to the HCs, both the LD and RD patients exhibited a reduction in the FCS in the ipsilateral visual cortex. However, compared to that in the HCs, a significantly higher FCS was observed in some regions in the salience and default-mode networks in the RD patients, but this FCS alternation pattern was not observed in the LD patients. A direct comparison of the two patient groups revealed a significantly increased FCS in the supplemental motor area in the LD group. Altogether, the long-term SD groups with LD and RD exhibited convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in whole-brain networks, providing promising evidence that the functional changes in long-term SD are highly deafness-side-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Scaling Patterns of Natural Urban Places as a Rule for Enhancing Their Urban Functionality Using Trajectory Data

    Jia, T.; Yu, X.

    2018-04-01

    With the availability of massive trajectory data, it is highly valuable to reveal their activity information for many domains such as understanding the functionality of urban regions. This article utilizes the scaling patterns of human activities to enhance functional distribution of natural urban places. Specifically, we proposed a temporal city clustering algorithm to aggregate the stopping locations into natural urban places, which are reported to follow remarkable power law distributions of sizes and obey a universal law of economy of scale on human interactions with urban infrastructure. Besides, we proposed a novel Bayesian inference model with damping factor to estimate the most likely POI type associated with a stopping location. Our results suggest that hot natural urban places could be effectively identified from their scaling patterns and their functionality can be very well enhanced. For instance, natural urban places containing airport or railway station can be highly stressed by accumulating the massive types of human activities.

  3. Directed formation of micro- and nanoscale patterns of functional light-harvesting LH2 complexes.

    Reynolds, Nicholas P; Janusz, Stefan; Escalante-Marun, Maryana; Timney, John; Ducker, Robert E; Olsen, John D; Otto, Cees; Subramaniam, Vinod; Leggett, Graham J; Hunter, C Neil

    2007-11-28

    The precision placement of the desired protein components on a suitable substrate is an essential prelude to any hybrid "biochip" device, but a second and equally important condition must also be met: the retention of full biological activity. Here we demonstrate the selective binding of an optically active membrane protein, the light-harvesting LH2 complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, to patterned self-assembled monolayers at the micron scale and the fabrication of nanometer-scale patterns of these molecules using near-field photolithographic methods. In contrast to plasma proteins, which are reversibly adsorbed on many surfaces, the LH2 complex is readily patterned simply by spatial control of surface polarity. Near-field photolithography has yielded rows of light-harvesting complexes only 98 nm wide. Retention of the native optical properties of patterned LH2 molecules was demonstrated using in situ fluorescence emission spectroscopy.

  4. Conversion of the Mini-Mental State Examination to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health terminology and scoring system.

    De Vriendt, P; Gorus, E; Bautmans, I; Mets, T

    2012-01-01

    In older patients, evaluation of the cognitive status is crucial. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used for screening of cognition, providing fairly high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Recently, a consensus emerged on the necessity of an international and transparent language, as provided by the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Most assessment tools however are not in accordance with the ICF. To reformulate the MMSE according to the ICF, both for the individual items and for the scoring system. MMSE data (scores varying from 3 to 30/30) of (1) 217 cognitively healthy elderly, (2) 60 persons with mild cognitive impairment, (3) 60 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and (4) 60 patients with moderate/severe AD were obtained from studies at a university hospital setting. Subjects were aged 65 years or more and recruited either through advertisement (group 1), from the geriatric day hospital (groups 2 and 3), or the geriatric ward (group 4). The allocation to the groups was done after multidisciplinary evaluation. The conversion of the MMSE to ICF-MMSE was done by content comparison and by subsequent translation of the scoring system using automatic algorithms. All MMSE items were converted to the corresponding ICF categories. Three ICF domains were addressed: global and specific mental functions, general tasks and demands, divided over 6 ICF categories (orientation time/place, sustaining attention, memory functions, mental functions of language, undertaking a simple task). Scores on individual items were transformed according to their relative weight on the original MMSE scale, and a total ICF-MMSE score from 0 (no problem) to 100 (complete problem) was generated. Translation was satisfying, as illustrated by a good correlation between MMSE and ICF-MMSE. The diagnostic groups were distributed over the ICF-MMSE scores as expected. For each ICF domain, ICF-MMSE subscores were higher

  5. Comparative analysis of taxonomic, functional, and metabolic patterns of microbiomes from 14 full-scale biogas reactors by metagenomic sequencing and radioisotopic analysis.

    Luo, Gang; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a very complex process due to the high complexity in diversity and interactions of the microorganisms mediating it, and only limited and diffuse knowledge exists about the variation of taxonomic and functional patterns of microbiomes across different biogas reactors, and their relationships with the metabolic patterns. The present study used metagenomic sequencing and radioisotopic analysis to assess the taxonomic, functional, and metabolic patterns of microbiomes from 14 full-scale biogas reactors operated under various conditions treating either sludge or manure. The results from metagenomic analysis showed that the dominant methanogenic pathway revealed by radioisotopic analysis was not always correlated with the taxonomic and functional compositions. It was found by radioisotopic experiments that the aceticlastic methanogenic pathway was dominant, while metagenomics analysis showed higher relative abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Principal coordinates analysis showed the sludge-based samples were clearly distinct from the manure-based samples for both taxonomic and functional patterns, and canonical correspondence analysis showed that the both temperature and free ammonia were crucial environmental variables shaping the taxonomic and functional patterns. The study further the overall patterns of functional genes were strongly correlated with overall patterns of taxonomic composition across different biogas reactors. The discrepancy between the metabolic patterns determined by metagenomic analysis and metabolic pathways determined by radioisotopic analysis was found. Besides, a clear correlation between taxonomic and functional patterns was demonstrated for biogas reactors, and also the environmental factors that shaping both taxonomic and functional genes patterns were identified.

  6. Improved Volitional Recall of Motor-Imagery-Related Brain Activation Patterns Using Real-Time Functional MRI-Based Neurofeedback.

    Bagarinao, Epifanio; Yoshida, Akihiro; Ueno, Mika; Terabe, Kazunori; Kato, Shohei; Isoda, Haruo; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2018-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI), a covert cognitive process where an action is mentally simulated but not actually performed, could be used as an effective neurorehabilitation tool for motor function improvement or recovery. Recent approaches employing brain-computer/brain-machine interfaces to provide online feedback of the MI during rehabilitation training have promising rehabilitation outcomes. In this study, we examined whether participants could volitionally recall MI-related brain activation patterns when guided using neurofeedback (NF) during training. The participants' performance was compared to that without NF. We hypothesized that participants would be able to consistently generate the relevant activation pattern associated with the MI task during training with NF compared to that without NF. To assess activation consistency, we used the performance of classifiers trained to discriminate MI-related brain activation patterns. Our results showed significantly higher predictive values of MI-related activation patterns during training with NF. Additionally, this improvement in the classification performance tends to be associated with the activation of middle temporal gyrus/inferior occipital gyrus, a region associated with visual motion processing, suggesting the importance of performance monitoring during MI task training. Taken together, these findings suggest that the efficacy of MI training, in terms of generating consistent brain activation patterns relevant to the task, can be enhanced by using NF as a mechanism to enable participants to volitionally recall task-related brain activation patterns.

  7. Improved Volitional Recall of Motor-Imagery-Related Brain Activation Patterns Using Real-Time Functional MRI-Based Neurofeedback

    Epifanio Bagarinao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI, a covert cognitive process where an action is mentally simulated but not actually performed, could be used as an effective neurorehabilitation tool for motor function improvement or recovery. Recent approaches employing brain–computer/brain–machine interfaces to provide online feedback of the MI during rehabilitation training have promising rehabilitation outcomes. In this study, we examined whether participants could volitionally recall MI-related brain activation patterns when guided using neurofeedback (NF during training. The participants’ performance was compared to that without NF. We hypothesized that participants would be able to consistently generate the relevant activation pattern associated with the MI task during training with NF compared to that without NF. To assess activation consistency, we used the performance of classifiers trained to discriminate MI-related brain activation patterns. Our results showed significantly higher predictive values of MI-related activation patterns during training with NF. Additionally, this improvement in the classification performance tends to be associated with the activation of middle temporal gyrus/inferior occipital gyrus, a region associated with visual motion processing, suggesting the importance of performance monitoring during MI task training. Taken together, these findings suggest that the efficacy of MI training, in terms of generating consistent brain activation patterns relevant to the task, can be enhanced by using NF as a mechanism to enable participants to volitionally recall task-related brain activation patterns.

  8. Patterns of functional vision loss in glaucoma determined with archetypal analysis

    Elze, Tobias; Pasquale, Louis R.; Shen, Lucy Q.; Chen, Teresa C.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Bex, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy accompanied by vision loss which can be mapped by visual field (VF) testing revealing characteristic patterns related to the retinal nerve fibre layer anatomy. While detailed knowledge about these patterns is important to understand the anatomic and genetic aspects of glaucoma, current classification schemes are typically predominantly derived qualitatively. Here, we classify glaucomatous vision loss quantitatively by statistically learning prototypical patterns on the convex hull of the data space. In contrast to component-based approaches, this method emphasizes distinct aspects of the data and provides patterns that are easier to interpret for clinicians. Based on 13 231 reliable Humphrey VFs from a large clinical glaucoma practice, we identify an optimal solution with 17 glaucomatous vision loss prototypes which fit well with previously described qualitative patterns from a large clinical study. We illustrate relations of our patterns to retinal structure by a previously developed mathematical model. In contrast to the qualitative clinical approaches, our results can serve as a framework to quantify the various subtypes of glaucomatous visual field loss. PMID:25505132

  9. Midbrain and forebrain patterning delivers immunocytochemically and functionally similar populations of neuropeptide Y containing GABAergic neurons.

    Khaira, S K; Nefzger, C M; Beh, S J; Pouton, C W; Haynes, J M

    2011-09-01

    Neurons differentiated in vitro from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to serve both as models of disease states and in drug discovery programs. In this study, we use sonic hedgehog (SHH) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) to enrich for forebrain and midbrain phenotypes from mouse ESCs. We then investigate, using Ca(2+) imaging and [(3)H]-GABA release studies, whether the GABAergic neurons produced exhibit distinct functional phenotypes. At day 24 of differentiation, reverse transcriptase-PCR showed the presence of both forebrain (Bf-1, Hesx1, Pgc-1α, Six3) and midbrain (GATA2, GATA3) selective mRNA markers in developing forebrain-enriched cultures. All markers were present in midbrain cultures except for Bf-1 and Pgc-1α. Irrespective of culture conditions all GABA immunoreactive neurons were also immunoreactive to neuropeptide Y (NPY) antibodies. Forebrain and midbrain GABAergic neurons responded to ATP (1 mM), L-glutamate (30 μM), noradrenaline (30 μM), acetylcholine (30 μM) and dopamine (30 μM), with similar elevations of intracellular Ca(2+)([Ca(2+)](i)). The presence of GABA(A) and GABA(B) antagonists, bicuculline (30 μM) and CGP55845 (1 μM), increased the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in response to dopamine (30 μM) in midbrain, but not forebrain GABAergic neurons. All agonists, except dopamine, elicited similar [(3)H]-GABA release from forebrain and midbrain cultures. Dopamine (30 μM) did not stimulate significant [(3)H]-GABA release in midbrain cultures, although it was effective in forebrain cultures. This study shows that differentiating neurons toward a midbrain fate restricts the expression of forebrain markers. Forebrain differentiation results in the expression of forebrain and midbrain markers. All GABA(+) neurons contain NPY, and show similar agonist-induced elevations of [Ca(2+)](i) and [(3)H]-GABA release. This study indicates that the pharmacological phenotype of these particular neurons may be independent of the addition of

  10. Functional patterns of microbial communities of rhizospheric soils across the development stages of a young mangrove in French Guiana.

    Luglia, Mathieu; Criquet, Stéven; Sarrazin, Max; Ziarelli, Fabio; Guiral, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The functional patterns of microbial communities (microbial respiration, enzyme activities, functional diversity) and the relevant physico-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soils were studied during the process of mudflat colonization by mangrove. The study site is a fringe mangrove stand located in Montabo Bay at Cayenne (French Guiana). It is characterized by different vegetation development stages dominated by an assemblage of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Rhizospheric and surface soils were collected from three stations based on successional stages of mangrove colonization: pioneer (P), coppice (C), and young forest (F). The microbial functional patterns showed significant progressive shifts along the mangrove vegetation profile. The P stages, those most influenced by tide currents, were macroscopically characterized by hydro-sedimentary instability and micro-phytobenthic colonization of mudflat. This stage, characterized by low total organic carbon (TOC) content and quality, showed the lowest extracellular enzymatic activities and the highest functional metabolic diversities. TOC quality analyses by (13)C CPMAS NMR provided evidence of progressive TOC enrichment and an increasing imprint of aboveground vegetation on C quality as succession occurs. These differences in the origin, amount, and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) of older stages exerted both a quantitative and qualitative control over microbial functional responses. This indicated the enhancement of aboveground-belowground functional linkages, leading to the expression of high decomposition activities and a functional loss and specialization of rhizospheric microbial communities.

  11. Occlusal contacting condition and masticatory function of 2 types of pattern that differ in the closing path of the mandibular incisal point during chewing.

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Shiga, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2011-10-01

    To clarify the difference in the state of occlusal contact and masticatory function between two patterns of masticatory movement path that differed in the closing path. Fifteen healthy subjects with Pattern I (a linear or concave opening path and a convex closing path) and Pattern II (similar opening path to that in Pattern I and a concave closing path) were selected. The state of occlusal contact on the working and balancing sides and the masticatory function (integral value of the masseter muscular activity, gape, masticatory width, cycle time, indicators representing the stability of the path and rhythm, and glucose extraction) were compared between the two patterns. The occlusal contact on the working side was about the same. For the balancing side, occlusal contact at the molar region was observed for Pattern II in most cases, whereas no occlusal contact was observed for Pattern I. The integral value of the masseter muscular activity and the glucose extraction were greater for Pattern I. The gape was not different between the two patterns. Pattern I had a wide masticatory width and a short cycle time. The values of the indicators representing the stability of the path and rhythm were smaller for Pattern I. It was suggested that Pattern I with a convex closing path had a functional difference and a superior masticatory function from Pattern II with a concave closing path, and the difference in the occlusal contact on the balancing side was related. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterizing Bonding Patterns in Diradicals and Triradicals by Density-Based Wave Function Analysis: A Uniform Approach.

    Orms, Natalie; Rehn, Dirk R; Dreuw, Andreas; Krylov, Anna I

    2018-02-13

    Density-based wave function analysis enables unambiguous comparisons of the electronic structure computed by different methods and removes ambiguity of orbital choices. We use this tool to investigate the performance of different spin-flip methods for several prototypical diradicals and triradicals. In contrast to previous calibration studies that focused on energy gaps between high- and low spin-states, we focus on the properties of the underlying wave functions, such as the number of effectively unpaired electrons. Comparison of different density functional and wave function theory results provides insight into the performance of the different methods when applied to strongly correlated systems such as polyradicals. We show that canonical molecular orbitals for species like large copper-containing diradicals fail to correctly represent the underlying electronic structure due to highly non-Koopmans character, while density-based analysis of the same wave function delivers a clear picture of the bonding pattern.

  13. The Functional Basis of Wing Patterning in Heliconius Butterflies: The Molecules Behind Mimicry

    Kronforst, Marcus R.; Papa, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Wing-pattern mimicry in butterflies has provided an important example of adaptation since Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace proposed evolution by natural selection >150 years ago. The neotropical butterfly genus Heliconius played a central role in the development of mimicry theory and has since been studied extensively in the context of ecology and population biology, behavior, and mimicry genetics. Heliconius species are notable for their diverse color patterns, and previous crossing experiments revealed that much of this variation is controlled by a small number of large-effect, Mendelian switch loci. Recent comparative analyses have shown that the same switch loci control wing-pattern diversity throughout the genus, and a number of these have now been positionally cloned. Using a combination of comparative genetic mapping, association tests, and gene expression analyses, variation in red wing patterning throughout Heliconius has been traced back to the action of the transcription factor optix. Similarly, the signaling ligand WntA has been shown to control variation in melanin patterning across Heliconius and other butterflies. Our understanding of the molecular basis of Heliconius mimicry is now providing important insights into a variety of additional evolutionary phenomena, including the origin of supergenes, the interplay between constraint and evolvability, the genetic basis of convergence, the potential for introgression to facilitate adaptation, the mechanisms of hybrid speciation in animals, and the process of ecological speciation. PMID:25953905

  14. Regional homogeneity and functional connectivity patterns in major depressive disorder, cognitive vulnerability to depression and healthy subjects.

    Sun, Hui; Luo, Lizhu; Yuan, Xinru; Zhang, Lu; He, Yini; Yao, Shuqiao; Wang, Jiaojian; Xiao, Jing

    2018-08-01

    Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns. Significant ReHo differences were found in right posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left lingual gyrus (LG) and precuneus. Compared to HC, CVD subjects showed increased ReHo in the PLC, which was similar to the difference found between MDD and HC. Compared to MDD patients, CVD subjects showed decreased ReHo in PLC, LG, and precuneus. R-FC analyses found increased functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in CVD compared to both HC and MDD. Moreover, Regional mean ReHo values were positively correlated with Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores. These analyses revealed that PLC and functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be a potential marker for CVD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Lei, Wei; Li, Mingli; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wanjun; Li, Yinfei; Jiang, Lijun; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chaohua; Hu, Xun; Li, Tao

    2015-07-16

    Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males), compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males). Maps of degree centrality (DC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1) Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R) in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in female patients; (2) Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds) found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3) Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4) Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients.

  16. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia

    Wei Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males, compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males. Maps of degree centrality (DC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1 Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG in female patients; (2 Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3 Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4 Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients.

  17. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC and A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC and A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC and A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC and A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC and A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A

  18. TiO2 nanorod arrays functionalized with In2S3 shell layer by a low-cost route for solar energy conversion

    Gan Xiaoyan; Li Xiaomin; Gao Xiangdong; Qiu Jijun; Zhuge Fuwei

    2011-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a TiO 2 -In 2 S 3 core-shell nanorod array structure for application of semiconductor-sensitized solar cells. Hydrothermally synthesized TiO 2 nanorod arrays on FTO glass substrates are functionalized with a uniform In 2 S 3 shell layer by using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. This low-cost technique promotes a uniform deposition of In 2 S 3 nanoshells on the surface of TiO 2 nanorods, thus forming an intact interface between the In 2 S 3 shell and TiO 2 core. Results show that the thickness of In 2 S 3 shell layers as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process. The best reproducible performance of the sandwich solar cell using the TiO 2 -In 2 S 3 core-shell nanorod arrays as photoelectrodes was obtained after 30 SILAR cycles, exhibiting a short-circuit current (I sc ) of 2.40 mA cm -2 , an open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (ff) of 0.40 and a conversion efficiency (η) of 0.54%, respectively. These results demonstrate a feasible and controllable route towards In 2 S 3 coating on a highly structured substrate and a proof of concept that such TiO 2 -In 2 S 3 core-shell architectures are novel and promising photoelectrodes in nanostructured solar cells.

  19. A density functional theory study on the conversion of ethylene to carbon monomer on PdAu(1 0 0) surface

    Zhang, Minhua; Yang, Bing [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Yu, Yingzhe, E-mail: yzhyu@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The successive decomposition of ethylene on PdAu(1 0 0) was studied with DFT method. • The C−H, C−C bond scission and a hydrogen-shift process were investigated. • The alloying of Au with Pd affects the studied reactions on PdAu(1 0 0) greatly. - Abstract: Calculations based on the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) were performed to study the possible transformation pathways of ethylene on PdAu(1 0 0) surface to investigate the effect of Au atom alloying with Pd on the formation of CHx (x = 0–2), which may eventually form carbon monomer and lead to the deactivation of catalysts. The energetic properties of reactions including the scission of the C−H, C−C bond and a hydrogen-shift process were determined. The C−H bond scission is confirmed to be prone to happen on the studied surface, while it is difficult for the C−C bond scission to occur due to relatively high barriers, the values of which are as high as 2.72–4.62 eV. The activation barriers for all related reactions except for the dehydrogenation of vinyl, vinylidene and acetenyl demonstrate that it is harder for the conversion of ethylene to occur on PdAu(1 0 0) surface than on Pd(1 0 0) surface, especially for the C−C bond scission. All the results indicate that the alloying of Au atom with pure Pd catalyst can prevent the formation of carbon monomer, which may notably affect properties of catalysts.

  20. "Chess-board pattern" spatial modulation of magnetization. Assessment of myocardial function

    Thomsen, C

    1992-01-01

    . Through spatial modulation of the magnetization the entire image can be labeled in different patterns. Two new pulse sequences are presented, giving a chess-board like spatial modulation. These pulse sequences have several advantages compared with the previously published methods, as the modulation time...... is half that required to obtain a 2-dimensional grid, the area in the image with high signal intensity was significantly larger, and the radiofrequency power deposition was substantially decreased. By labeling the heart at diastole the chess-board pattern tagging of the heart wall could be followed...

  1. Dynamic response and transfer function of social systems: A neuro-inspired model of collective human activity patterns.

    Lymperopoulos, Ilias N

    2017-10-01

    The interaction of social networks with the external environment gives rise to non-stationary activity patterns reflecting the temporal structure and strength of exogenous influences that drive social dynamical processes far from an equilibrium state. Following a neuro-inspired approach, based on the dynamics of a passive neuronal membrane, and the firing rate dynamics of single neurons and neuronal populations, we build a state-of-the-art model of the collective social response to exogenous interventions. In this regard, we analyze online activity patterns with a view to determining the transfer function of social systems, that is, the dynamic relationship between external influences and the resulting activity. To this end, first we estimate the impulse response (Green's function) of collective activity, and then we show that the convolution of the impulse response with a time-varying external influence field accurately reproduces empirical activity patterns. To capture the dynamics of collective activity when the generating process is in a state of statistical equilibrium, we incorporate into the model a noisy input convolved with the impulse response function, thus precisely reproducing the fluctuations of stationary collective activity around a resting value. The outstanding goodness-of-fit of the model results to empirical observations, indicates that the model explains human activity patterns generated by time-dependent external influences in various socio-economic contexts. The proposed model can be used for inferring the temporal structure and strength of external influences, as well as the inertia of collective social activity. Furthermore, it can potentially predict social activity patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of pattern search method to power system security constrained economic dispatch with non-smooth cost function

    Al-Othman, A.K.; El-Naggar, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    Direct search methods are evolutionary algorithms used to solve optimization problems. (DS) methods do not require any information about the gradient of the objective function at hand while searching for an optimum solution. One of such methods is Pattern Search (PS) algorithm. This paper presents a new approach based on a constrained pattern search algorithm to solve a security constrained power system economic dispatch problem (SCED) with non-smooth cost function. Operation of power systems demands a high degree of security to keep the system satisfactorily operating when subjected to disturbances, while and at the same time it is required to pay attention to the economic aspects. Pattern recognition technique is used first to assess dynamic security. Linear classifiers that determine the stability of electric power system are presented and added to other system stability and operational constraints. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem in a way that insures a secure-economic system operation. Pattern search method is then applied to solve the constrained optimization formulation. In particular, the method is tested using three different test systems. Simulation results of the proposed approach are compared with those reported in literature. The outcome is very encouraging and proves that pattern search (PS) is very applicable for solving security constrained power system economic dispatch problem (SCED). In addition, valve-point effect loading and total system losses are considered to further investigate the potential of the PS technique. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the PS has demonstrated ability in handling highly nonlinear discontinuous non-smooth cost function of the SCED. (author)

  3. Age-related individual variability in memory performance is associated with amygdala-hippocampal circuit function and emotional pattern separation

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    While aging is generally associated with episodic memory decline, not all older adults exhibit memory loss. Furthermore, emotional memories are not subject to the same extent of forgetting and appear preserved in aging. We conducted high-resolution fMRI during a task involving pattern separation of emotional information in older adults with and without age-related memory impairment (characterized by performance on a word-list learning task: low performers: LP vs. high performers: HP). We found signals consistent with emotional pattern separation in hippocampal dentate (DG)/CA3 in HP but not in LP individuals, suggesting a deficit in emotional pattern separation. During false recognition, we found increased DG/CA3 activity in LP individuals, suggesting that hyperactivity may be associated with overgeneralization. We additionally observed a selective deficit in basolateral amygdala—lateral entorhinal cortex—DG/CA3 functional connectivity in LP individuals during pattern separation of negative information. During negative false recognition, LP individuals showed increased medial temporal lobe functional connectivity, consistent with overgeneralization. Overall, these results suggest a novel mechanistic account of individual differences in emotional memory alterations exhibited in aging. PMID:27723500

  4. Age-related individual variability in memory performance is associated with amygdala-hippocampal circuit function and emotional pattern separation.

    Leal, Stephanie L; Noche, Jessica A; Murray, Elizabeth A; Yassa, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    While aging is generally associated with episodic memory decline, not all older adults exhibit memory loss. Furthermore, emotional memories are not subject to the same extent of forgetting and appear preserved in aging. We conducted high-resolution fMRI during a task involving pattern separation of emotional information in older adults with and without age-related memory impairment (characterized by performance on a word-list learning task: low performers: LP vs. high performers: HP). We found signals consistent with emotional pattern separation in hippocampal dentate (DG)/CA3 in HP but not in LP individuals, suggesting a deficit in emotional pattern separation. During false recognition, we found increased DG/CA3 activity in LP individuals, suggesting that hyperactivity may be associated with overgeneralization. We additionally observed a selective deficit in basolateral amygdala-lateral entorhinal cortex-DG/CA3 functional connectivity in LP individuals during pattern separation of negative information. During negative false recognition, LP individuals showed increased medial temporal lobe functional connectivity, consistent with overgeneralization. Overall, these results suggest a novel mechanistic account of individual differences in emotional memory alterations exhibited in aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic pattern analysis of early detection in Alzheimer's disease from other types of dementias and correlated with cognitive function

    Ju, R. H.; Lee, C. W.; Jung, Y. A.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Seo, T. S

    2004-01-01

    PET/CT studies have demonstrated temporoparietal hypometabolism in probable and definite Alzheimer's disease (AD), a pattern that may help differentiate AD from other types of dementias. Seeking to distinguish Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined brain glucose metabolism of DLB and AD. Identification of individual differences in patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) interactions may be important for early detection of AD. We elucidate the relationship between reduced cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Ten patients with the diagnosis of AD, 3 DLB patients underwent 18F-FDG PET CT. We applied statistical mapping procedure to evaluate the diagnostic power of rCMRglc patterns for differentiation and also correlated with Korean-mini mental status exam (K-MMSE) score include orientation time, place, registration, attention, calculation, recaIl, language and visuospatial function. Glucose metabolic pattern analysis confirmed AD and DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions involving parietotemporal association, posterior cingulate, and frontal association cortex. DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions in the occipital cortex, particularly in the primary visual cortex. Covariate analysis revealed that occipital metabolic changes in DLB were independent from those in the adjacent parietotemporal cortices. AnaIysis of clinically diagnosed probable AD patients showed a significantly higher frequency of primary visual metabolic reduction among patients who fulfilled clinical criteria for DLB. occipital hypometabolism is a potential discriminate marker to distinguish DLB versus AD

  6. 3D Dewetting for Crystal Patterning: Toward Regular Single-Crystalline Belt Arrays and Their Functionality.

    Wu, Yuchen; Feng, Jiangang; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei

    2016-03-16

    Arrays of unidirectional dewetting behaviors can be generated by using 3D-wettability-difference micropillars, yielding highly ordered organic single-crystalline belt arrays. These patterned organic belts show an improved mobility record and can be used as flexible pressure sensors with high sensitivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Distinct brain metabolic patterns separately associated with cognition, motor function, and aging in Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Ko, Ji Hyun; Katako, Audrey; Aljuaid, Maram; Goertzen, Andrew L; Borys, Andrew; Hobson, Douglas E; Kim, Seok Min; Lee, Chong Sik

    2017-12-01

    We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis. A multivariate network analysis then revealed 3 metabolic patterns that are separately associated with cognitive performance (p = 0.042), age (p = 0.042), and motor symptom severity (p = 0.039). The age-related pattern's association with aging was replicated in healthy controls (p = 0.047) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.002). The cognition-related pattern's association with cognitive performance was observed, with a trend-level of correlation, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (p = 0.084) but not in patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.974). We found no association with fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane and Pittsburgh compound-B positron emission tomography with patients' cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional somatic symptoms and consultation patterns in 5- to 7-year-olds

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ørnbøl, Eva; Fink, Per Klausen

    2013-01-01

    at 5 to 7 years (odds ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.06; odds ratio interpreted per unit change in number of contacts). CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to our understanding of health care use for FSS in childhood by highlighting the influence of parents' early consultation patterns...

  9. Muscle Activation Pattern during Selected Functional Task in Shoulder Impingement Syndrome vs. Normal Subjects

    Mehrnaz Kajbaf-Vala

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Changes in muscle recruitment pattern are task dependent that this may be due to direction of movement and axial compression loading in subacromial space. Among all selected exercises in D2E (Diagonal 2 Extension minimum changes and in tripod maximum changes (in time domain were seen.

  10. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  11. A New Functional Classification of Glucuronoyl Esterases by Peptide Pattern Recognition

    Wittrup Agger, Jane; Busk, Peter Kamp; Pilgaard, Bo

    2017-01-01

    of characterized enzymes exist and the exact activity is still uncertain. Here peptide pattern recognition is used as a bioinformatic tool to identify and group new CE15 proteins that are likely to have glucuronoyl esterase activity. 1024 CE15-like sequences were drawn from GenBank and grouped into 24 groups...

  12. Collaboration Patterns as a Function of Article Genre among Mixed Researchers: A Mixed Methods Bibliometric Study

    Jordan, John; Wachsmann, Melanie; Hoisington, Susan; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Valle, Rachel; Lambert, Jarod; Aleisa, Majed; Wilcox, Rachael; Benge, Cindy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Surprisingly, scant information exists regarding the collaboration patterns of mixed methods researchers. Thus, the purpose of this mixed methods bibliometric study was to examine (a) the distribution of the number of co-authors in articles published in the flagship mixed methods research journal (i.e., "Journal of Mixed Methods…

  13. The Functional Significance of Chiral Genitalia: Patterns of Asymmetry, Functional Morphology and Mating Success in the Praying Mantis Ciulfina baldersoni.

    Gregory I Holwell

    Full Text Available Genital asymmetry is relatively common and widespread throughout the animal kingdom. The functional significance of genital asymmetry is however, poorly understood for most species. Male praying mantids of the genus Ciulfina are remarkable in possessing complex and directionally asymmetric genital phallomeres in some species, and chirally dimorphic/antisymmetric genitalia in others. Here we explore the chiral dimorphism in male genitalia of Ciulfina baldersoni which appear to exhibit genital antisymmetry. We test whether genital orientation influences mating success, copulation duration and the attachment duration of spermatophores. Additionally we investigate genital interactions between male and females using x-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Lastly we assess whether genital asymmetry is associated with non-genital morphological asymmetry of a range of traits. Our results highlight the complex functional morphology of genitalia in this praying mantis species and yet demonstrate no functional difference between dextral and sinistral morphs other than the direction of attachment with both morphs enjoying equal levels of mating success. Chiral morphs also did not strongly associate with any other forms of asymmetry. We therefore conclude that genital chirality in Ciulfina baldersoni is a likely case of antisymmetry with no functional significance to genital orientation, and is likely to be selectively neutral.

  14. Patterning human neuronal networks on photolithographically engineered silicon dioxide substrates functionalized with glial analogues.

    Hughes, Mark A; Brennan, Paul M; Bunting, Andrew S; Cameron, Katherine; Murray, Alan F; Shipston, Mike J

    2014-05-01

    Interfacing neurons with silicon semiconductors is a challenge being tackled through various bioengineering approaches. Such constructs inform our understanding of neuronal coding and learning and ultimately guide us toward creating intelligent neuroprostheses. A fundamental prerequisite is to dictate the spatial organization of neuronal cells. We sought to pattern neurons using photolithographically defined arrays of polymer parylene-C, activated with fetal calf serum. We used a purified human neuronal cell line [Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES)] to establish whether neurons remain viable when isolated on-chip or whether they require a supporting cell substrate. When cultured in isolation, LUHMES neurons failed to pattern and did not show any morphological signs of differentiation. We therefore sought a cell type with which to prepattern parylene regions, hypothesizing that this cellular template would enable secondary neuronal adhesion and network formation. From a range of cell lines tested, human embryonal kidney (HEK) 293 cells patterned with highest accuracy. LUHMES neurons adhered to pre-established HEK 293 cell clusters and this coculture environment promoted morphological differentiation of neurons. Neurites extended between islands of adherent cell somata, creating an orthogonally arranged neuronal network. HEK 293 cells appear to fulfill a role analogous to glia, dictating cell adhesion, and generating an environment conducive to neuronal survival. We next replaced HEK 293 cells with slower growing glioma-derived precursors. These primary human cells patterned accurately on parylene and provided a similarly effective scaffold for neuronal adhesion. These findings advance the use of this microfabrication-compatible platform for neuronal patterning. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  16. Twitter Conversation Patterns Related to Research Papers

    Nelhans, Gustaf; Lorentzen, David Gunnarsson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper deals with what academic texts and datasets are referred to and discussed on Twitter. We used document object identifiers as references to these items. Method: We streamed tweets from the Twitter application programming interface including the strings "dx" and "doi" while simultaneously streaming tweets…

  17. Evolution and functional significance of derived sternal ossification patterns in ornithothoracine birds

    O’connor, J. K.; Zheng, X.-T.; Sullivan, C.; Chuong, C.-M.; Wang, X.-L.; Li, A.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.-M.; Zhou, Z.-H.

    2017-01-01

    The midline pattern of sternal ossification characteristic of the Cretaceous enantiornithine birds is unique among the Ornithodira, the group containing birds, nonavian dinosaurs and pterosaurs. This has been suggested to indicate that Enantiornithes is not the sister group of Ornithuromorpha, the clade that includes living birds and their close relatives, which would imply rampant convergence in many nonsternal features between enantiornithines and ornithuromorphs. However, detailed comparisons reveal greater similarity between neornithine (i.e. crown group bird) and enantiornithine modes of sternal ossification than previously recognized. Furthermore, a new subadult enantiornithine specimen demonstrates that sternal ossification followed a more typically ornithodiran pattern in basal members of the clade. This new specimen, referable to the Pengornithidae, indicates that the unique ossification pattern observed in other juvenile enantiornithines is derived within Enantiornithes. A similar but clearly distinct pattern appears to have evolved in parallel in the ornithuromorph lineage. The atypical mode of sternal ossification in some derived enantiornithines should be regarded as an autapomorphic condition rather than an indication that enantiornithines are not close relatives of ornithuromorphs. Based on what is known about molecular mechanisms for morphogenesis and the possible selective advantages, the parallel shifts to midline ossification that took place in derived enantiornithines and living neognathous birds appear to have been related to the development of a large ventral keel, which is only present in ornithuromorphs and enantiornithines. Midline ossification can serve to medially reinforce the sternum at a relatively early ontogenetic stage, which would have been especially beneficial during the protracted development of the superprecocial Cretaceous enantiornithines. PMID:26079847

  18. State-Dependent Changes of Connectivity Patterns and Functional Brain Network Topology in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Wicker, Bruno; Cukier, Sebastian; Navarta, Silvana; Lew, Sergio; Leiguarda, Ramon; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical and functional brain studies have converged to the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with atypical connectivity. Using a modified resting-state paradigm to drive subjects' attention, we provide evidence of a very marked interaction between ASD brain functional connectivity and cognitive state. We show that…

  19. Fractures and dislocations of the hand in polytrauma patients : Incidence, injury pattern and functional outcome

    Ferree, Steven; van der Vliet, Quirine M J; van Heijl, Mark; Houwert, Roderick M; Leenen, Luke P H; Hietbrink, Falco

    INTRODUCTION: Injuries of the hand can cause significant functional impairment, diminished quality of life and delayed return to work. However, the incidence and functional outcome of hand injuries in polytrauma patients is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence,

  20. Group-ICA model order highlights patterns of functional brain connectivity

    Ahmed eAbou Elseoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state networks (RSNs can be reliably and reproducibly detected using independent component analysis (ICA at both individual subject and group levels. Altering ICA dimensionality (model order estimation can have a significant impact on the spatial characteristics of the RSNs as well as their parcellation into sub-networks. Recent evidence from several neuroimaging studies suggests that the human brain has a modular hierarchical organization which resembles the hierarchy depicted by different ICA model orders. We hypothesized that functional connectivity between-group differences measured with ICA might be affected by model order selection. We investigated differences in functional connectivity using so-called dual-regression as a function of ICA model order in a group of unmedicated seasonal affective disorder (SAD patients compared to normal healthy controls. The results showed that the detected disease-related differences in functional connectivity alter as a function of ICA model order. The volume of between-group differences altered significantly as a function of ICA model order reaching maximum at model order 70 (which seems to be an optimal point that conveys the largest between-group difference then stabilized afterwards. Our results show that fine-grained RSNs enable better detection of detailed disease-related functional connectivity changes. However, high model orders show an increased risk of false positives that needs to be overcome. Our findings suggest that multilevel ICA exploration of functional connectivity enables optimization of sensitivity to brain disorders.

  1. Developing Students' Functional Thinking in Algebra through Different Visualisations of a Growing Pattern's Structure

    Wilkie, Karina J,; Clarke, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This design-based research project investigated the development of functional thinking in algebra for the upper primary years of schooling. Ten teachers and their students were involved in a sequence of five cycles of collaborative planning, team-teaching, evaluating and revising five lessons on functional thinking for their students over one…

  2. Gain-of-function screen for genes that affect Drosophila muscle pattern formation.

    Nicole Staudt

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the production of an EP-element insertion library with more than 3,700 unique target sites within the Drosophila melanogaster genome and its use to systematically identify genes that affect embryonic muscle pattern formation. We designed a UAS/GAL4 system to drive GAL4-responsive expression of the EP-targeted genes in developing apodeme cells to which migrating myotubes finally attach and in an intrasegmental pattern of cells that serve myotubes as a migration substrate on their way towards the apodemes. The results suggest that misexpression of more than 1.5% of the Drosophila genes can interfere with proper myotube guidance and/or muscle attachment. In addition to factors already known to participate in these processes, we identified a number of enzymes that participate in the synthesis or modification of protein carbohydrate side chains and in Ubiquitin modifications and/or the Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of proteins, suggesting that these processes are relevant for muscle pattern formation.

  3. Plant Functional Traits Are More Consistent Than Plant Species on Periglacial Patterned Ground in the Rocky Mountains of Montana

    Apple, M. E.; Ricketts, M. K.; Gallagher, J. H. R.

    2017-12-01

    Periglacial patterned ground exists as stripes and hexagons near glaciers and snowfields, some of which are former glaciers. The patterns are accentuated by profound differences in plant cover between the sloping surfaces, generally perceived as green, and the flat treads, generally perceived as brown but which are not devoid of plant life. On four sites in the Rocky Mountains of Montana we detected strong similarities in plant functional traits on the sloping surfaces of striped and hexagonal periglacial patterned ground. On Mt. Keokirk in the Pioneer Mountains, Kinnickinnick, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, dominates narrow green stripes. On Goat Flat in the Pintler Mountains, Mountain Avens, Dryas octopetala, dominates the side walls of hexagonally patterned ground and narrow green stripes. At Glacier National Park, D. octopetala and the Arctic Willow, Salix arctica, co-dominate the green risers of widely-spaced striped periglacial patterned system at Siyeh Pass, while D. octopetala, S. arctica, and the Mountain Heather, Phyllodoce glanduliflora, co-dominate the green risers of the widely-spaced stripes of Piegan Pass. All four of these dictotyledonous angiosperm species are adventitiously-rooted dwarf shrubs with simple leaves. Of these, P. glanduliflora, A. uva-ursi and D. octopetala are evergreen. D. octopetala is symbiotic with N-fixing Frankia sp. All are mycorrhizal, although D. octopetala and S. arctica are ectomycorrhizal and P. glanduliflora and A. uva-ursi have ericaceous mycorrhizae. In contrast, dwarf shrubs are scarce on flat treads and within hexagons, which are chiefly inhabited by herbaceous, taprooted or rhizomatous, VAM angiosperms. As the green stripes and hexagon walls have greater plant cover, they likely have greater organic material due to leaf buildup and root turnover, anchor themselves and the soil with adventitious roots, their clonality suggests long lives, and N-fixing influences N dynamics of the periglacial patterned ground.

  4. Pattern analysis of defecography in patients with chronic functional constipation: is it predictable for the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy?

    Yang, Hye Rin; Kim, Ah Young; Hong, Seong Sook; Byun, Jae Ho; Myung Seung Jae; Ha, Hyun Kwon [University of Ulsan of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-15

    To determine of pattern analysis of defecography can predict the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy in patients with chronic functional constipation. Over a two-year period, 104 patients with chronic functional constipation underwent defecography and biofeedback therapy. Two blinded readers analyzed the defecographic findings and classified them into six types; I = normal defecation, II = hypertonic lower anal sphincter (poor anal opening due to a persistent contraction of the lower anal sphincter), III dyskinetic puborectal sling (inadequate laxity of the puborectal sling), IV spastic pelvic floor syndrome (persistent contraction of both the puborectal sling and the lower and sphincter), V unclassified (including paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincter), VI anatomical obstruction. In addition, the degree of rectal contraction during defecation was scored (grade 0 to 3). After biofeedback therapy, the differences in the defecography patterns or rectal contraction between the two groups, the responsive or non-responsive group, were analyzed. The defecograms revealed that the type IV of the spastic pelvic floor syndrome was most common (50 of 104 patients, 48%), followed by II (21/104, 20%), III (12/104, 11.5%), V (9/104, 9%) and VI (12/104, 11.5%). Biofeedback therapy showed a therapeutic response in 71 out of 104 patients (68%) but failed in 33 patients (32%). However, there were no significant differences in the defecographic pattern between the responsive and non-responsive groups ({rho} = 0.630). The defecograms revealed contractions in 78 patients (75%) and moderate to vigorous contractions (more than grade 2) in 66 patients. Most of the biofeedback-responsive group showed rectal contractions (66 of 71 patients, 93%, {rho} < 0.001). In patients with chronic functional constipation, there was no significant difference in the morphological patterns of the defecogram between the responsive and non-responsive biofeedback groups. However, the presence of

  5. Pattern analysis of defecography in patients with chronic functional constipation: is it predictable for the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy?

    Yang, Hye Rin; Kim, Ah Young; Hong, Seong Sook; Byun, Jae Ho; Myung Seung Jae; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2005-01-01

    To determine of pattern analysis of defecography can predict the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy in patients with chronic functional constipation. Over a two-year period, 104 patients with chronic functional constipation underwent defecography and biofeedback therapy. Two blinded readers analyzed the defecographic findings and classified them into six types; I = normal defecation, II = hypertonic lower anal sphincter (poor anal opening due to a persistent contraction of the lower anal sphincter), III dyskinetic puborectal sling (inadequate laxity of the puborectal sling), IV spastic pelvic floor syndrome (persistent contraction of both the puborectal sling and the lower and sphincter), V unclassified (including paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincter), VI anatomical obstruction. In addition, the degree of rectal contraction during defecation was scored (grade 0 to 3). After biofeedback therapy, the differences in the defecography patterns or rectal contraction between the two groups, the responsive or non-responsive group, were analyzed. The defecograms revealed that the type IV of the spastic pelvic floor syndrome was most common (50 of 104 patients, 48%), followed by II (21/104, 20%), III (12/104, 11.5%), V (9/104, 9%) and VI (12/104, 11.5%). Biofeedback therapy showed a therapeutic response in 71 out of 104 patients (68%) but failed in 33 patients (32%). However, there were no significant differences in the defecographic pattern between the responsive and non-responsive groups (ρ = 0.630). The defecograms revealed contractions in 78 patients (75%) and moderate to vigorous contractions (more than grade 2) in 66 patients. Most of the biofeedback-responsive group showed rectal contractions (66 of 71 patients, 93%, ρ < 0.001). In patients with chronic functional constipation, there was no significant difference in the morphological patterns of the defecogram between the responsive and non-responsive biofeedback groups. However, the presence of rectal

  6. Hydrogen photoproduction by photoelectrochemical conversion

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The water-splitting reaction by photoelectrochemical processes has gained much more attention than any of many reactions proposed for solar generation of energy-rich molecules (fuels). The conversion efficiency of the photosystem is the key factor. The higher the efficiency, the more economically feasible will be the conversion scheme. The conversion efficiency is a function of the semiconductor properties, light intensity, spectral quality, properties of the electrolyte, counterelectrode, cell configuration, etc. The semiconductor parameters include band gap, absorption coefficient and diffusion length. The area and material used for a counterelectrode are important when considering polarization losses in a two-electrode system. Besides, the stability problem is also a very important one to meet the requirement for practical applications. This paper reviews some important issues on photoelectrochemical generation of hydrogen by water splitting. It includes energy conversion efficiency, market assessment and cost goal, state of the technology, and future directions for research

  7. Changes in oro-pharyngeal airway dimension after treatment with function appliance in class II skeletal pattern

    Ali, B.; Shaikh, A.; Fida, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional appliances have been used since many decades for the correction of mandibular retrognathism. Similar oral appliances are a treatment modality for patients with Obstructive sleep apnea. Hence, interception at the right age with these growth modification appliances might benefit a child from developing long term respiratory insufficiency. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to assess the short term effects of Twin block appliance (CTB) on pharyngeal airway size in subjects with skeletal Class II pattern in a sample of Pakistani population. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from orthodontic records of 62 children (31 males, 31 females) with retrognathic mandibles using lateral cephalograms obtained at initial visit and after CTB treatment. Paired t-test was used to compare the pre-functional and post-functional treatment airway size. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison between the genders and statistical significance was kept at =0.05. Results: The upper airway width (p<0.001), nasopharyngeal depth (p=0.03) and upper airway thickness (p=0.008) was substantially improved after CTB treatment. Males showed a greater increase in upper airway width (p= 0.03) and nasopharyngeal depth (p=0.01) in comparison to the females. Conclusion: Functional appliance therapy can improve the narrow pharyngeal airway of growing children presenting with deficient mandibles having Class II skeletal pattern. (author)

  8. Spatial patterns of littoral zooplankton assemblages along a salinity gradient in a brackish sea: A functional diversity perspective

    Helenius, Laura K.; Leskinen, Elina; Lehtonen, Hannu; Nurminen, Leena

    2017-11-01

    The distribution patterns and diversity of littoral zooplankton are both key baseline information for understanding the functioning of coastal ecosystems, and for identifying the mechanisms by which the impacts of recently increased eutrophication are transferred through littoral food webs. In this study, zooplankton community structure and diversity along a shallow coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea were determined in terms of horizontal environmental gradients. Spatial heterogeneity of the zooplankton community was examined along the gradient. Altogether 31 sites in shallow sandy bays on the coast of southwest Finland were sampled in the summer periods of 2009 and 2010 for zooplankton and environmental variables (surface water temperature, salinity, turbidity, wave exposure, macrophyte coverage, chlorophyll a and nutrients). Zooplankton diversity was measured as both taxonomic as well as functional diversity, using trait-based classification of planktonic crustaceans. Salinity, and to a lesser extent turbidity and temperature, were found to be the main predictors of the spatial patterns and functional diversity of the zooplankton community. Occurrence of cyclopoid copepods, as well as abundances of the calanoid copepod genus Acartia and the rotifer genus Keratella were found to be key factors in differentiating sites along the gradient. As far as we know, this is the first extensive study of functional diversity in Baltic Sea coastal zooplankton communities.

  9. Expression Pattern Similarities Support the Prediction of Orthologs Retaining Common Functions after Gene Duplication Events1[OPEN

    Haberer, Georg; Panda, Arup; Das Laha, Shayani; Ghosh, Tapas Chandra; Schäffner, Anton R.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of functionally equivalent, orthologous genes (functional orthologs) across genomes is necessary for accurate transfer of experimental knowledge from well-characterized organisms to others. This frequently relies on automated, coding sequence-based approaches such as OrthoMCL, Inparanoid, and KOG, which usually work well for one-to-one homologous states. However, this strategy does not reliably work for plants due to the occurrence of extensive gene/genome duplication. Frequently, for one query gene, multiple orthologous genes are predicted in the other genome, and it is not clear a priori from sequence comparison and similarity which one preserves the ancestral function. We have studied 11 organ-dependent and stress-induced gene expression patterns of 286 Arabidopsis lyrata duplicated gene groups and compared them with the respective Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes to predict putative expressologs and nonexpressologs based on gene expression similarity. Promoter sequence divergence as an additional tool to substantiate functional orthology only partially overlapped with expressolog classification. By cloning eight A. lyrata homologs and complementing them in the respective four Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutants, we experimentally proved that predicted expressologs are indeed functional orthologs, while nonexpressologs or nonfunctionalized orthologs are not. Our study demonstrates that even a small set of gene expression data in addition to sequence homologies are instrumental in the assignment of functional orthologs in the presence of multiple orthologs. PMID:27303025

  10. Functional connectivity pattern during rest within the episodic memory network in association with episodic memory performance in bipolar disorder.

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent

    2015-02-28

    In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Formation and function of a new pollen aperture pattern in angiosperms: The proximal sulcus of Tillandsia leiboldiana (Bromeliaceae).

    Albert, Béatrice; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Raquin, Christian; Nadot, Sophie

    2010-02-01

    Pollen grains are generally surrounded by an extremely resistant wall interrupted in places by apertures that play a key role in reproduction; pollen tube growth is initiated at these sites. The shift from a proximal to distal aperture location is a striking innovation in seed plant reproduction. Reversals to proximal aperture position have only very rarely been described in angiosperms. The genus Tillandsia belongs to the Bromeliaceae family, and its aperture pattern has been described as distal monosulcate, the most widespread aperture patterns recorded in monocots and basal angiosperms. Here we report developmental and functional elements to demonstrate that the sulcate aperture in Tillandsia leiboldiana is not distal as previously described but proximal. Postmeitotic tetrad observation indicates unambiguously the proximal position of the sulcus, and in vitro germination of pollen grains confirms that the aperture is functional. This is the first report of a sulcate proximal aperture with proximal germination. The observation of microsporogenesis reveals specific features in the patterns of callose thickenings in postmeiotic tetrads.

  12. The effects of MicroRNA transfections on global patterns of gene expression in ovarian cancer cells are functionally coordinated

    Shahab Shubin W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small RNAs that have been linked to a number of diseases including cancer. The potential application of miRNAs in the diagnostics and therapeutics of ovarian and other cancers is an area of intense interest. A current challenge is the inability to accurately predict the functional consequences of exogenous modulations in the levels of potentially therapeutic miRNAs. Methods In an initial effort to systematically address this issue, we conducted miRNA transfection experiments using two miRNAs (miR-7, miR-128. We monitored the consequent changes in global patterns of gene expression by microarray and quantitative (real-time polymerase chain reaction. Network analysis of the expression data was used to predict the consequence of each transfection on cellular function and these predictions were experimentally tested. Results While ~20% of the changes in expression patterns of hundreds to thousands of genes could be attributed to direct miRNA-mRNA interactions, the majority of the changes are indirect, involving the downstream consequences of miRNA-mediated changes in regulatory gene expression. The changes in gene expression induced by individual miRNAs are functionally coordinated but distinct between the two miRNAs. MiR-7 transfection into ovarian cancer cells induces changes in cell adhesion and other developmental networks previously associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT and other processes linked with metastasis. In contrast, miR-128 transfection induces changes in cell cycle control and other processes commonly linked with cellular replication. Conclusions The functionally coordinated patterns of gene expression displayed by different families of miRNAs have the potential to provide clinicians with a strategy to treat cancers from a systems rather than a single gene perspective.

  13. Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia

    Ter Steege, H.; Pitman, N.C.A.; Phillips, O.L.; Chave, J.; Sabatier, Daniel; Duque, A.; Molino, Jean-François; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Spichiger, R.; Castellanos, H.; Von Hildebrand, P.; Vasquez, R.

    2006-01-01

    The world's greatest terrestrial stores of biodiversity and carbon are found in the forests of northern South America, where large-scale biogeographic patterns and processes have recently begun to be described(1-4). Seven of the nine countries with territory in the Amazon basin and the Guiana shield have carried out large-scale forest inventories, but such massive data sets have been little exploited by tropical plant ecologists(5-8). Although forest inventories often lack the species-level i...

  14. Resource diversity and provenance underpin spatial patterns in functional diversity across native and exotic species.

    Méndez, Verónica; Wood, Jamie R; Butler, Simon J

    2018-05-01

    Functional diversity metrics are increasingly used to augment or replace taxonomic diversity metrics to deliver more mechanistic insights into community structure and function. Metrics used to describe landscape structure and characteristics share many of the same limitations as taxonomy-based metrics, particularly their reliance on anthropogenically defined typologies with little consideration of structure, management, or function. However, the development of alternative metrics to describe landscape characteristics has been limited. Here, we extend the functional diversity framework to characterize landscapes based on the diversity of resources available across habitats present. We then examine the influence of resource diversity and provenance on the functional diversities of native and exotic avian communities in New Zealand. Invasive species are increasingly prevalent and considered a global threat to ecosystem function, but the characteristics of and interactions between sympatric native and exotic communities remain unresolved. Understanding their comparative responses to environmental change and the mechanisms underpinning them is of growing importance in predicting community dynamics and changing ecosystem function. We use (i) matrices of resource use (species) and resource availability (habitats) and (ii) occurrence data for 62 native and 25 exotic species and 19 native and 13 exotic habitats in 2015 10 × 10 km quadrats to examine the relationship between native and exotic avian and landscape functional diversity. The numbers of species in, and functional diversities of, native and exotic communities were positively related. Each community displayed evidence of environmental filtering, but it was significantly stronger for exotic species. Less environmental filtering occurred in landscapes providing a more diverse combination of resources, with resource provenance also an influential factor. Landscape functional diversity explained a greater

  15. Discovering and validating biological hypotheses from coherent patterns in functional genomics data

    Joachimiak, Marcin Pawel

    2008-08-12

    The area of transcriptomics analysis is among the more established in computational biology, having evolved in both technology and experimental design. Transcriptomics has a strong impetus to develop sophisticated computational methods due to the large amounts of available whole-genome datasets for many species and because of powerful applications in regulatory network reconstruction as well as elucidation and modeling of cellular transcriptional responses. While gene expression microarray data can be noisy and comparisons across experiments challenging, there are a number of sophisticated methods that aid in arriving at statistically and biologically significant conclusions. As such, computational transcriptomics analysis can provide guidance for analysis of results from newer experimental technologies. More recently, search methods have been developed to identify modules of genes, which exhibit coherent expression patterns in only a subset of experimental conditions. The latest advances in these methods allow to integrate multiple data types anddatasets, both experimental and computational, within a single statistical framework accounting for data confidence and relevance to specific biological questions. Such frameworks provide a unified environment for the exploration of specific biological hypothesis and for the discovery of coherent data patterns along with the evidence supporting them.

  16. Chromosome-wise Protein Interaction Patterns and Their Impact on Functional Implications of Large-Scale Genomic Aberrations

    Kirk, Isa Kristina; Weinhold, Nils; Belling, Kirstine González-Izarzugaza

    2017-01-01

    Gene copy-number changes influence phenotypes through gene-dosage alteration and subsequent changes of protein complex stoichiometry. Human trisomies where gene copy numbers are increased uniformly over entire chromosomes provide generic cases for studying these relationships. In most trisomies......, gene and protein level alterations have fatal consequences. We used genome-wide protein-protein interaction data to identify chromosome-specific patterns of protein interactions. We found that some chromosomes encode proteins that interact infrequently with each other, chromosome 21 in particular. We...... combined the protein interaction data with transcriptome data from human brain tissue to investigate how this pattern of global interactions may affect cellular function. We identified highly connected proteins that also had coordinated gene expression. These proteins were associated with important...

  17. Subclinical interstitial lung involvement in rheumatic diseases. Correlations of high-resolution Computed Tomography patterns with functional and cytologic findings

    Salaffi, F.; Baldelli, S.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the severity and extent of subclinical interstitial lung disease as depicted on HRCT and to study the relationship between the patterns of lung disease quantified by HRCT and the functional parameters and bronchoalveolar lavage findings in patients with rheumatic diseases. The results confirm that HRCT is a sensitive tool in detecting interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatic diseases with no signs and symptoms of pulmonary involvement. The relationship between the different HRCT patterns and bronchoalveolar lavage cell profiles can identify patients at higher risk of developing irreversible lung fibrosis. A long-term, prospective follow-up study is needed to determine whether these patients will develop over pulmonary disease [it

  18. Directional patterns of cross frequency phase and amplitude coupling within the resting state mimic patterns of fMRI functional connectivity

    Weaver, Kurt E.; Wander, Jeremiah D.; Ko, Andrew L.; Casimo, Kaitlyn; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Darvas, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging investigations into the brain's resting state interactions have yielded a wealth of insight into the intrinsic and dynamic neural architecture supporting cognition and behavior. Electrophysiological studies however have highlighted the fact that synchrony across large-scale cortical systems is composed of spontaneous interactions occurring at timescales beyond the traditional resolution of fMRI, a feature that limits the capacity of fMRI to draw inference on the true directional relationship between network nodes. To approach the question of directionality in resting state signals, we recorded resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) and electrocorticography (ECoG) from four human subjects undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring. Using a seed-point based approach, we employed phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) and biPhase Locking Values (bPLV), two measures of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) to explore both outgoing and incoming connections between the seed and all non-seed, site electrodes. We observed robust PAC between a wide range of low-frequency phase and high frequency amplitude estimates. However, significant bPLV, a CFC measure of phase-phase synchrony, was only observed at specific narrow low and high frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of outgoing PAC connectivity were most closely associated with the rsfMRI connectivity maps. Our results support the hypothesis that PAC is relatively ubiquitous phenomenon serving as a mechanism for coordinating high-frequency amplitudes across distant neuronal assemblies even in absence of overt task structure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of a seed-point rsfMRI sensorimotor network is strikingly similar to specific patterns of directional PAC. Specifically, the high frequency activities of distal patches of cortex owning membership in a rsfMRI sensorimotor network were most likely to be entrained to the phase of a low frequency rhythm engendered from the

  19. Altitudinal patterns of diversity and functional traits of metabolically active microorganisms in stream biofilms

    Wilhelm, Linda; Besemer, Katharina; Fragner, Lena; Peter, Hannes; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Battin, Tom J

    2015-01-01

    Resources structure ecological communities and potentially link biodiversity to energy flow. It is commonly believed that functional traits (generalists versus specialists) involved in the exploitation of resources depend on resource availability and environmental fluctuations. The longitudinal nature of stream ecosystems provides changing resources to stream biota with yet unknown effects on microbial functional traits and community structure. We investigated the impact of autochthonous (algal extract) and allochthonous (spruce extract) resources, as they change along alpine streams from above to below the treeline, on microbial diversity, community composition and functions of benthic biofilms. Combining bromodeoxyuridine labelling and 454 pyrosequencing, we showed that diversity was lower upstream than downstream of the treeline and that community composition changed along the altitudinal gradient. We also found that, especially for allochthonous resources, specialisation by biofilm bacteria increased along that same gradient. Our results suggest that in streams below the treeline biofilm diversity, specialisation and functioning are associated with increasing niche differentiation as potentially modulated by divers allochthonous and autochthonous constituents contributing to resources. These findings expand our current understanding on biofilm structure and function in alpine streams. PMID:25978543

  20. Conversation with Meir Sternberg

    Federico Pianzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Below are the videos of the interview recorded the 21st May 2011 in Fribourg (CH, in occasion of the first RRN conference. Conversation with Meir Sternberg. Part 1 of 8 - Narratology: classical and postclassical studies. Part 2 of 8 - The development of an original theoretical framework. Part 3 of 8 - Sternberg and Genette: different ways for the same problems. Part 4 of 8 - «There are no forms except in terms of functions». Part 5 of 8 - A life writing articles: so many papers and just four books. Part 6 of 8 - Two arguments against mimetical approaches to narrative. Part 7 of 8 - «Narrative is not given, it is a construct». Part 8 of 8 - The proteus principle. the many-to-many correspondence between forms and functions.

  1. Taxonomic and functional patterns of macrobenthic communities on a high-Arctic shelf: A case study from the Laptev Sea

    Kokarev, V. N.; Vedenin, A. A.; Basin, A. B.; Azovsky, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    The studies of functional structure of high-Arctic Ecosystems are scarce. We used data on benthic macrofauna from 500-km latitudinal transect in the eastern Laptev Sea, from the Lena delta to the continental shelf break, to describe spatial patterns in species composition, taxonomic and functional structure in relation to environmental factors. Both taxonomy-based approach and Biological Trait analysis yielded similar results and showed general depth-related gradient in benthic diversity and composition. This congruence between taxonomical and functional dimensions of community organization suggests that the same environmental factors (primarily riverine input and regime of sedimentation) have similar effect on both community structure and functioning. BTA also revealed a distinct functional structure of stations situated at the Eastern Lena valley, with dominance of motile, burrowing sub-surface deposit-feeders and absence of sedentary tube-dwelling forms. The overall spatial distribution of benthic assemblages corresponds well to that described there in preceding decades, evidencing the long-term stability of bottom ecosystem. Strong linear relationship between species and traits diversity, however, indicates low functional redundancy, which potentially makes the ecosystem susceptible to a species loss or structural shifts.

  2. Investigation of the growth patterns of non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas using volumetric assessments on serial MRI investigations

    Jaco Pieterse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benign non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA often cause mass effect on the optic chiasm necessitating transsphenoidal surgery to prevent blindness.However, surgery is complicated and there is a high tumour recurrence rate. Currently, very little is known about the natural (and residual post-surgical growth patterns of these NFMA. Conflicting data describe decreased growth to exponential growth over various time periods.Due to lack of information on growth dynamics of these NFMA, suitable follow-up imaging protocols have not been described to date. Objective: To determine if NFMA grow or stay quiescent over a time period using serial MRI investigations and a stereo logical method to determine tumour volume. In addition, to evaluate if NFMA adhere to a certain growth pattern or grow at random. Method: Thirteen patients with NFMA had serial MRI investigations over a 73-month period at the Universitas Academic Hospital. Six of the selected patients had undergone previous surgery, while seven patients had received no medical or surgical intervention. By using astereological method, tumour volumes were calculated and plotted over time to demonstrate growth curves. The data were then fitted to tumour growth models already described in literature in order to obtain the best fit by calculating the r2 value. Results: Positive tumour growth was demonstrated in all cases. Tumour growth patterns of nine patients best fitted the exponential growth curve while the growth patterns of three patients best fitted the logistic growth curve. The remaining patient demonstrated a linear growth pattern. Conclusion: A specific growth model best described tumour growth observed in non-surgical and surgical cases. If follow-up imaging confirms positive growth, future growth can be predicted by extrapolation. This information can then be used to determine the relevant follow-up-imaging interval in each individual patient.

  3. Detecting spatial patterns with the cumulant function – Part 2: An application to El Niño

    P. Yiou

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial coherence of a measured variable (e.g. temperature or pressure is often studied to determine the regions of high variability or to find teleconnections, i.e. correlations between specific regions. While usual methods to find spatial patterns, such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA, are constrained by linear symmetries, the dependence of variables such as temperature or pressure at different locations is generally nonlinear. In particular, large deviations from the sample mean are expected to be strongly affected by such nonlinearities. Here we apply a newly developed nonlinear technique (Maxima of Cumulant Function, MCF for detection of typical spatial patterns that largely deviate from the mean. In order to test the technique and to introduce the methodology, we focus on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and its spatial patterns. We find nonsymmetric temperature patterns corresponding to El Niño and La Niña, and we compare the results of MCF with other techniques, such as the symmetric solutions of PCA, and the nonsymmetric solutions of Nonlinear PCA (NLPCA. We found that MCF solutions are more reliable than the NLPCA fits, and can capture mixtures of principal components. Finally, we apply Extreme Value Theory on the temporal variations extracted from our methodology. We find that the tails of the distribution of extreme temperatures during La Niña episodes is bounded, while the tail during El Niños is less likely to be bounded. This implies that the mean spatial patterns of the two phases are asymmetric, as well as the behaviour of their extremes.

  4. A Tool for Classifying Individuals with Chronic Back Pain: Using Multivariate Pattern Analysis with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

    Callan, Daniel; Mills, Lloyd; Nott, Connie; England, Robert; England, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world today, yet neurological markers, critical to diagnosis of chronic pain, are still largely unknown. The ability to objectively identify individuals with chronic pain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is important for the advancement of diagnosis, treatment, and theoretical knowledge of brain processes associated with chronic pain. The purpose of our research is to investigate specific neurological markers that could be used to diagnose individuals experiencing chronic pain by using multivariate pattern analysis with fMRI data. We hypothesize that individuals with chronic pain have different patterns of brain activity in response to induced pain. This pattern can be used to classify the presence or absence of chronic pain. The fMRI experiment consisted of alternating 14 seconds of painful electric stimulation (applied to the lower back) with 14 seconds of rest. We analyzed contrast fMRI images in stimulation versus rest in pain-related brain regions to distinguish between the groups of participants: 1) chronic pain and 2) normal controls. We employed supervised machine learning techniques, specifically sparse logistic regression, to train a classifier based on these contrast images using a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. We correctly classified 92.3% of the chronic pain group (N = 13) and 92.3% of the normal control group (N = 13) by recognizing multivariate patterns of activity in the somatosensory and inferior parietal cortex. This technique demonstrates that differences in the pattern of brain activity to induced pain can be used as a neurological marker to distinguish between individuals with and without chronic pain. Medical, legal and business professionals have recognized the importance of this research topic and of developing objective measures of chronic pain. This method of data analysis was very successful in correctly classifying each of the two

  5. A tool for classifying individuals with chronic back pain: using multivariate pattern analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Daniel Callan

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world today, yet neurological markers, critical to diagnosis of chronic pain, are still largely unknown. The ability to objectively identify individuals with chronic pain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data is important for the advancement of diagnosis, treatment, and theoretical knowledge of brain processes associated with chronic pain. The purpose of our research is to investigate specific neurological markers that could be used to diagnose individuals experiencing chronic pain by using multivariate pattern analysis with fMRI data. We hypothesize that individuals with chronic pain have different patterns of brain activity in response to induced pain. This pattern can be used to classify the presence or absence of chronic pain. The fMRI experiment consisted of alternating 14 seconds of painful electric stimulation (applied to the lower back with 14 seconds of rest. We analyzed contrast fMRI images in stimulation versus rest in pain-related brain regions to distinguish between the groups of participants: 1 chronic pain and 2 normal controls. We employed supervised machine learning techniques, specifically sparse logistic regression, to train a classifier based on these contrast images using a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. We correctly classified 92.3% of the chronic pain group (N = 13 and 92.3% of the normal control group (N = 13 by recognizing multivariate patterns of activity in the somatosensory and inferior parietal cortex. This technique demonstrates that differences in the pattern of brain activity to induced pain can be used as a neurological marker to distinguish between individuals with and without chronic pain. Medical, legal and business professionals have recognized the importance of this research topic and of developing objective measures of chronic pain. This method of data analysis was very successful in correctly classifying

  6. Fractures and dislocations of the hand in polytrauma patients: Incidence, injury pattern and functional outcome.

    Ferree, Steven; van der Vliet, Quirine M J; van Heijl, Mark; Houwert, Roderick M; Leenen, Luke P H; Hietbrink, Falco

    2017-04-01

    Injuries of the hand can cause significant functional impairment, diminished quality of life and delayed return to work. However, the incidence and functional outcome of hand injuries in polytrauma patients is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, distribution and functional outcome of fractures and dislocation of the hand in polytrauma patients. A single centre retrospective cohort study was performed at a level 1 trauma centre. Polytrauma was defined as patients with an Injury Severity Score of 16 or higher. Fractures and dislocations to the hand were determined. All eligible polytrauma patients with hand injuries were included and a Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (QDASH) and Patient-Rated Wrist/Hand Evaluation (PRWHE) were administered. Patients were contacted 1-6 years after trauma. In a cohort of 2046 polytrauma patients 72 patients (3.5%) suffered a hand injury. The functional outcome scores of 52 patients (72%) were obtained. The Metacarpal (48%) and carpal (33%) bones were the most frequently affected. The median QDASH score for all patients with hand injury was 17 (IQR 0-31) and the PRWHE 14 (IQR 0-41). Patients with a concomitant upper extremity injury (p=0.002 for PRWHE, p0.006 for QDASH) and those with higher ISS scores (p=0.034 for PRWHE, QDASH not significant) had worse functional outcome scores. As an example, of the 5 patients with the worst outcome scores 3 suffered an isolated phalangeal injury, all had concomitant upper extremity injury or neurological injuries (3 plexus injuries, 1 severe brain injury). The incidence of hand injuries in polytrauma patients is 3.5%, which is relatively low compared to a general trauma population. Metacarpal and carpal bones were most frequently affected. The functional extremity specific outcome scores are highly influenced by concomitant injuries (upper extremity injuries, neurological injuries and higher ISS). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Defining a similarity threshold for a functional proteinsequence pattern: The signal peptide cleavage site

    Nielsen, Henrik; Engelbrecht, Jacob; von Heijne, Gunnar

    1996-01-01

    When preparing data sets of amino acid or nucleotide sequences it is necessary to exclude redundant or homologous sequences in order to avoid overestimating the predictive performance of an algorithm. For some time methods for doing this have been available in the area of protein structure...... prediction. We have developed a similar procedure based on pair-wise alignments for sequences with functional sites. We show how a correlation coefficient between sequence similarity and functional homology can be used to compare the efficiency of different similarity measures and choose a nonarbitrary...

  8. FDG F18/Rest Tl 201 SPECT patterns in recent myocardial infarction. Predictive value for regional function recovery

    Massardo, Teresa [Universidad de Chile, Hospital Clinico. Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Patricio; Coll, Claudia; Yovanovich, Jorge; Jofre, M Josefina; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Chamorro, Hernan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; Lopez, Hector; Aramburu, Ivonne; Bru, Solange [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Hospital Clinico. Centros de Medicina Nuclear e Cardiovascular; Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago [Chile

    2003-04-01

    Background: detecting viability is important after recent myocardial infarction (MI). SPECT FDG/Tl flow-metabolism patterns for predicting functional recovery were analyzed in this setting. Method: forty-one patients were studied (56+-12 years; 80% males) with Tl 201 at rest and FDG F 18 SPECT at a mean of 8.9 days post MI (range:1-24). All had baseline and 3 month follow-up echocardiography (Echo) and initial coronary angiography. They were submitted to primary PTCA in 12 cases, late PTCA in 15 and bypass surgery in 10 and thrombolysis was performed in 4 patients as only procedure. A total of 345 culprit artery territory segments were interpreted by 3 nuclear independent observers. Analysis included segments with or without abnormal motion. Results: FDG/Tl 201 on patient basis, had: sensitivity 91%; specificity 56%; positive predictive value 88 %; negative predictive value (NPV) 63% and accuracy 83%. The analysis of segments with abnormal contractility showed values of 67%, 69%, 44%, 85% and 68%, respectively. Reverse mismatch with FDG/Tl appears to predict viability similarly to classical mismatch; severe or moderate match was highly associated with no functional recovery (NPV 85%). Conclusion: flow-perfusion patterns are variable in recent MI. FDG/Tl 201 SPECT has acceptable accuracy for predicting functional recovery and excellent NPV to further exclude viability (author)

  9. FDG F18/Rest Tl 201 SPECT patterns in recent myocardial infarction. Predictive value for regional function recovery

    Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio; Coll, Claudia; Yovanovich, Jorge; Jofre, M. Josefina; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Chamorro, Hernan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; Lopez, Hector; Aramburu, Ivonne; Bru, Solange; Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Background: detecting viability is important after recent myocardial infarction (MI). SPECT FDG/Tl flow-metabolism patterns for predicting functional recovery were analyzed in this setting. Method: forty-one patients were studied (56+-12 years; 80% males) with Tl 201 at rest and FDG F 18 SPECT at a mean of 8.9 days post MI (range:1-24). All had baseline and 3 month follow-up echocardiography (Echo) and initial coronary angiography. They were submitted to primary PTCA in 12 cases, late PTCA in 15 and bypass surgery in 10 and thrombolysis was performed in 4 patients as only procedure. A total of 345 culprit artery territory segments were interpreted by 3 nuclear independent observers. Analysis included segments with or without abnormal motion. Results: FDG/Tl 201 on patient basis, had: sensitivity 91%; specificity 56%; positive predictive value 88 %; negative predictive value (NPV) 63% and accuracy 83%. The analysis of segments with abnormal contractility showed values of 67%, 69%, 44%, 85% and 68%, respectively. Reverse mismatch with FDG/Tl appears to predict viability similarly to classical mismatch; severe or moderate match was highly associated with no functional recovery (NPV 85%). Conclusion: flow-perfusion patterns are variable in recent MI. FDG/Tl 201 SPECT has acceptable accuracy for predicting functional recovery and excellent NPV to further exclude viability (author)

  10. Ontogenetic scaling patterns and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb musculature in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Luis P. Lamas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae are exclusively terrestrial, bipedal and cursorial ratites with some similar biomechanical characteristics to humans. Their growth rates are impressive, as their body mass increases eighty-fold from hatching to adulthood whilst maintaining the same mode of locomotion throughout life. These ontogenetic characteristics stimulate biomechanical questions about the strategies that allow emus to cope with their rapid growth and locomotion, which can be partly addressed via scaling (allometric analysis of morphology. In this study we have collected pelvic limb anatomical data (muscle architecture, tendon length, tendon mass and bone lengths and calculated muscle physiological cross sectional area (PCSA and average tendon cross sectional area from emus across three ontogenetic stages (n = 17, body masses from 3.6 to 42 kg. The data were analysed by reduced major axis regression to determine how these biomechanically relevant aspects of morphology scaled with body mass. Muscle mass and PCSA showed a marked trend towards positive allometry (26 and 27 out of 34 muscles respectively and fascicle length showed a more mixed scaling pattern. The long tendons of the main digital flexors scaled with positive allometry for all characteristics whilst other tendons demonstrated a less clear scaling pattern. Finally, the two longer bones of the limb (tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus also exhibited positive allometry for length, and two others (femur and first phalanx of digit III had trends towards isometry. These results indicate that emus experience a relative increase in their muscle force-generating capacities, as well as potentially increasing the force-sustaining capacities of their tendons, as they grow. Furthermore, we have clarified anatomical descriptions and provided illustrations of the pelvic limb muscle–tendon units in emus.

  11. Rate variation in parasitic plants: correlated and uncorrelated patterns among plastid genes of different function

    dePamphilis Claude W

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates of DNA change can help in the choice among competing explanations for rate variation, such as differences in constraint, mutation rate, or the strength of genetic drift. Nonphotosynthetic plants of the Orobanchaceae have increased rates of DNA change. In this study 38 taxa of Orobanchaceae and relatives were used and 3 plastid genes were sequenced for each taxon. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions of relative rates of sequence evolution for three plastid genes (rbcL, matK and rps2 show significant rate heterogeneity among lineages and among genes. Many of the non-photosynthetic plants have increases in both synonymous and nonsynonymous rates, indicating that both (1 selection is relaxed, and (2 there has been a change in the rate at which mutations are entering the population in these species. However, rate increases are not always immediate upon loss of photosynthesis. Overall there is a poor correlation of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates. There is, however, a strong correlation of synonymous rates across the 3 genes studied and the lineage-speccific pattern for each gene is strikingly similar. This indicates that the causes of synonymous rate variation are affecting the whole plastid genome in a similar way. There is a weaker correlation across genes for nonsynonymous rates. Here the picture is more complex, as could be expected if there are many causes of variation, differing from taxon to taxon and gene to gene. Conclusions The distinctive pattern of rate increases in Orobanchaceae has at least two causes. It is clear that there is a relaxation of constraint in many (though not all non-photosynthetic lineages. However, there is also some force affecting synonymous sites as well. At this point, it is not possible to tell whether it is generation time, speciation rate, mutation rate, DNA repair efficiency or some combination of these factors.

  12. Identifying patterns of motor performance, executive functioning, and verbal ability in preschool children: A latent profile analysis.

    Houwen, Suzanne; Kamphorst, Erica; van der Veer, Gerda; Cantell, Marja

    2018-04-30

    A relationship between motor performance and cognitive functioning is increasingly being recognized. Yet, little is known about the precise nature of the relationship between both domains, especially in early childhood. To identify distinct constellations of motor performance, executive functioning (EF), and verbal ability in preschool aged children; and to explore how individual and contextual variables are related to profile membership. The sample consisted of 119 3- to 4-year old children (62 boys; 52%). The home based assessments consisted of a standardized motor test (Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2), five performance-based EF tasks measuring inhibition and working memory, and the Receptive Vocabulary subtest from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition. Parents filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool version. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to delineate profiles of motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. Chi-square statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to examine whether profile membership was predicted by age, gender, risk of motor coordination difficulties, ADHD symptomatology, language problems, and socioeconomic status (SES). LPA yielded three profiles with qualitatively distinct response patterns of motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. Quantitatively, the profiles showed most pronounced differences with regard to parent ratings and performance-based tests of EF, as well as verbal ability. Risk of motor coordination difficulties and ADHD symptomatology were associated with profile membership, whereas age, gender, language problems, and SES were not. Our results indicate that there are distinct subpopulations of children who show differential relations with regard to motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. The fact that we found both quantitative as well as qualitative differences between the three patterns of profiles underscores

  13. Loss-of-Function Sodium Channel Mutations in Infancy A Pattern Unfolds

    Chockalingam, Priya; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of channelopathies in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with structurally normal hearts is a rapidly evolving story.(1) Many ion channels are involved, including loss-of-function sodium channelopathies of which the phenotypic spectrum ranges from lethal arrhythmias

  14. Unsupervised Learning and Pattern Recognition of Biological Data Structures with Density Functional Theory and Machine Learning.

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Juan, Hung-Hui; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2018-01-11

    By introducing the methods of machine learning into the density functional theory, we made a detour for the construction of the most probable density function, which can be estimated by learning relevant features from the system of interest. Using the properties of universal functional, the vital core of density functional theory, the most probable cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries in a studying system can be simultaneously and automatically determined and the plausibility is erected on the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems. For the method validation and pragmatic applications, interdisciplinary problems from physical to biological systems were enumerated. The amalgamation of uncharged atomic clusters validated the unsupervised searching process of the cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries were exhibited likewise. High accurate clustering results of the Fisher's iris dataset showed the feasibility and the flexibility of the proposed scheme. Brain tumor detections from low-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging datasets and segmentations of high-dimensional neural network imageries in the Brainbow system were also used to inspect the method practicality. The experimental results exhibit the successful connection between the physical theory and the machine learning methods and will benefit the clinical diagnoses.

  15. Aberrant Topologies and Reconfiguration Pattern of Functional Brain Network in Children with Second Language Reading Impairment

    Liu, Lanfang; Li, Hehui; Zhang, Manli; Wang, Zhengke; Wei, Na; Liu, Li; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has extensively studied neural deficits in children with reading impairment (RI) in their native language but has rarely examined those of RI children in their second language (L2). A recent study revealed that the function of the local brain regions was disrupted in children with RI in L2, but it is not clear whether the disruption…

  16. Aberrant patterns of local and long-range functional connectivity densities in schizophrenia.

    Liu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guangdong; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Qu, Hongru; Cheng, Langlang; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-07-18

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, and both the connection strength and connection number are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. The functional connectivity density (FCD) can reflect alterations in the connection number. Alterations in the global FCD (gFCD) in schizophrenia were previously demonstrated; however, alterations in two other indices of the pathological characteristics of the brain, local FCD (lFCD) and long-range FCD (lrFCD), have not been revealed. To investigate lFCD and lrFCD alterations in patients with schizophrenia, 95 patients and 93 matched healthy controls were examined using structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. lFCD and lrFCD were measured using FCD mapping, and differences were identified using a two-sample t-test in a voxel-wise manner, with age and gender considered to increase variability. Multiple comparisons were performed using a false discovery rate method with a corrected threshold of Pschizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, particularly affecting the local functional connectivity network, and support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with a widespread cortical functional connectivity/activity deficit, with hyper- and/or hypo-connectivity/activity coexisting in some cortical or subcortical regions.

  17. Sparse non-linear denoising: Generalization performance and pattern reproducibility in functional MRI

    Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    We investigate sparse non-linear denoising of functional brain images by kernel Principal Component Analysis (kernel PCA). The main challenge is the mapping of denoised feature space points back into input space, also referred to as ”the pre-image problem”. Since the feature space mapping is typi...

  18. Control Networks in Paediatric Tourette Syndrome Show Immature and Anomalous Patterns of Functional Connectivity

    Church, Jessica A.; Fair, Damien A.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder characterized by unwanted, repetitive behaviours that manifest as stereotyped movements and vocalizations called "tics". Operating under the hypothesis that the brain's control systems may be impaired in TS, we measured resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) between 39 previously…

  19. Functional SNPs in the human ficolin (FCN) genes reveal distinct geographical patterns

    Hummelshøj, Tina; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Madsen, Hans O

    2008-01-01

    -Xaa-Yaa repeats and a Trp279STOP introduces a stop codon, thereby destroying the fibrinogen-like domain of Ficolin-1. In contrast to FCN1 and FCN2, the number of SNPs in FCN3 was very low. In conclusion, large ethnic differences in the FCN genes that will affect the concentration, structure, and function...

  20. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  1. The expression pattern and potential functions of PHB in the spermiogenesis of Phascolosoma esculenta.

    Hou, Cong-Cong; Gao, Xin-Ming; Ni, Jie; Mu, Dan-Li; Yang, Hai-Yan; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2018-04-30

    Prohibitin (PHB) is a ubiquitous, evolutionarily conserved protein that is mainly localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane and exerts various mitochondrial functions. Here, we first cloned the phb gene from P. esculenta. The Pe-PHB protein has high homology and a similar protein structure to that of other animals, and it can be divided into the N-terminal hydrophobic/transmembrane domain, SPFH domain, and C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The Pe-phb gene is widely expressed, and the gene expression of phb is highest in coelomic fluid where spermiogenesis occurs, indicating a specific function in the coelom. We further observed continuous expression of the phb gene and localization of PHB proteins in mitochondria during spermiogenesis, indicating that PHB, as a mitochondrial component, may play a role during this process via its mitochondrial function. In addition, ubiquitination of mitochondria was detected, and the PHB signal was co-localized with the poly-ubiquitin signal during spermiogenesis. Mature sperm also showed ubiquitination of mitochondria and PHB. Therefore, PHB may be a substrate of poly-ubiquitin to regulate the ubiquitination of mitochondria and even subsequent elimination during P. esculenta spermiogenesis, and it has a potential role in guaranteeing the maternal inheritance of mitochondria. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that PHB participates in the spermiogenesis of P. esculenta by maintaining the normal function of mitochondria and regulating the degradation of mitochondria. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} spherical particles based anti-reflection and wavelength conversion bi-functional films: Synthesis and application to solar cells

    Miao, Hui [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Ji, Ruonan [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Hu, Xiaoyun, E-mail: hxy3275@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Han, Linzi; Hao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Qian [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhang, Dekai [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Fan, Jun [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Bai, Jintao [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); and others

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were successfully prepared. The as prepared particles can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not only a good photoluminescence host material, but also it has high corrosion resistivity, thermal stability, and transparency from violet to infrared light. Cooperated with SiO{sub 2} sols, it could realize a better anti-reflection property. • As a proof-of-concept application, the as prepared bi-functional films could effectively improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency by 0.23% compared to pure SiO{sub 2} AR coating film and 0.55% compared to glass. - Abstract: In this study, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were prepared via the simple, cost-effective urea homogeneous precipitation method without additives. The chosen particles were added in the SiO{sub 2} sols to get anti-reflection (AR) and wavelength conversion bi-functional films. Careful investigations were carried out to find the optimum preparation conditions and proper morphology. SEM images showed that the particle sizes reduced as metal ion/urea ratio decreased. Additionally, the extracted particles turned from sphere to lamellar type when the deionized water, which was used as solvent, reduced to a certain extent. The mechanisms of the morphology formation and diversification were proposed as well. The as prepared materials can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. The spherical sample showed better luminescence performance than the one with lamellar morphology. In addition, the optical transmittance spectra indicated that the films adding spherical particles had better anti-reflective performance, and the best adding amount was 0.08 g. Finally, As a proof-of-concept application

  3. Patterns of functional diversity of two trophic groups after canopy thinning in an abandoned coppice

    Šipoš, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Hula, V.; Chudomelová, Markéta; Košulič, O.; Niedobová, J.; Riedl, Vladan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 45-58 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : coppice restoration * functional diversity * trophic groups Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  4. Pattern of retinal morphological and functional decay in a light-inducible, rhodopsin mutant mouse.

    Gargini, Claudia; Novelli, Elena; Piano, Ilaria; Biagioni, Martina; Strettoi, Enrica

    2017-07-18

    Hallmarks of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), a family of genetic diseases, are a typical rod-cone-degeneration with initial night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, followed by decreased daylight sight and progressive visual acuity loss up to legal blindness. Great heterogeneity in nature and function of mutated genes, variety of mutations for each of them, variability in phenotypic appearance and transmission modality contribute to make RP a still incurable disease. Translational research relies on appropriate animal models mimicking the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the human pathology. Here, we provide a systematic, morphological and functional analysis of Rho Tvrm4 /Rho + rhodopsin mutant mice, originally described in 2010 and portraying several features of common forms of autosomal dominant RP caused by gain-of-function mutations. These mice undergo photoreceptor degeneration only when exposed briefly to strong, white light and allow controlled timing of induction of rod and cone death, which therefore can be elicited in adult animals, as observed in human RP. The option to control severity and retinal extent of the phenotype by regulating intensity and duration of the inducing light opens possibilities to exploit this model for multiple experimental purposes. Altogether, the unique features of this mutant make it an excellent resource for retinal degeneration research.

  5. Analysis of the variability of occlusal function patterns in masticatory movement--use of the GEMAS software.

    Kordass, B

    2006-04-01

    Individual masticatory patterns are similar to chaotic tangles of tortuous paths and are characterized by variability. The analysis of such masticatory patterns is therefore difficult. The new GEMAS software--Greifswald Movement Analyzing System--with which the variability of the masticatory function can be examined, is presented. Intersecting planes are placed through the orbit of the chewing cycles with which it is possible to wonder from the intercuspal position up to the maximum mouth-opening position of the masticatory pattern. The opening and closing points are displayed in different colors. Zones where masticatory paths converge or diverge can be determined, including the fan or funnel-shaped entering and exiting movements close to the centric position and the extent of their spread. A special diagram visualizes the rhythmic sequence of entering and subsequent exiting movement. The relation between restricted variability or monotony and forms of disease of the masticatory system is indicated by reference to case examples. The more monotonous or stereotyped the chewing cycles are, the higher is the risk of permanent wear of anatomical structures. Attention should therefore also be paid to variability in the individual occlusal surface design of dental restorations.

  6. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bertrand, J.; Denny, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Skarpness B, Denny C, Mortensen E, the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study Group. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function. BJOG 2012......;119:1180-1190. Objective To conduct a combined analysis of the estimated effects of maternal average weekly alcohol consumption, and any binge drinking, in early to mid pregnancy on general intelligence, attention, and executive function in 5-year-old children. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing...... in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. At age 5 years, the children were tested for general intelligence, attention...

  7. Distinguishing the Transcription Regulation Patterns in Promoters of Human Genes with Different Function or Evolutionary Age

    Alam, Tanvir

    2012-07-01

    Distinguishing transcription regulatory patterns of different gene groups is a common problem in various bioinformatics studies. In this work we developed a methodology to deal with such a problem based on machine learning techniques. We applied our method to two biologically important problems related to detecting a difference in transcription regulation of: a/ protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human, as well as b/ a difference between primate-specific and non-primate-specific long non-coding RNAs. Our method is capable to classify RNAs using various regulatory features of genes that transcribe into these RNAs, such as nucleotide frequencies, transcription factor binding sites, de novo sequence motifs, CpG islands, repetitive elements, histone modification marks, and others. Ten-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish protein-coding and non-coding RNAs with accuracy above 80%. Twenty-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish primate-specific from non-primate-specific promoters of lncRNAs with accuracy above 80%. Consequently, we can hypothesize that transcription of the groups of genes mentioned above are regulated by different mechanisms. Feature selection techniques allowed us to reduce the number of features significantly while keeping the accuracy around 80%. Consequently, we can conclude that selected features play significant role in transcription regulation of coding and non-coding genes, as well as primate-specific and non-primate-specific lncRNA genes.

  8. Correlation between permanent tooth eruption pattern and the predominance of the motor function laterality.

    Veloso-Durán, Ana; Vazquez-Salceda, Ma Carmen; López-Jiménez, Julian; Veloso-Durán, Margarita; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2014-09-01

    To asses whether dental eruption order can play a role in the early diagnosis of crossed laterality. Dental eruption pattern along with eye, ear, hand and foot lateralism were examined on 131 children between 6 to 8 years old from public schools from a multietnic population area of Barcelona city. Statistic methods (Statgraphics Plus 5.1 program) were used to evaluate data recollected. Only foot and dentition lateralities behave as independent variables regarding hand laterality. So dental eruption laterality (along with the foot one) would be one of the parameters more related to hand laterality given that dentition variable relationship is greater that the foot one. This suggests that tooth eruption could be more clinically relevant. Crossed laterality hand-foot is significantly more predominant in men (13%) than in women (1,6%). Meanwhile, the relationship between hand and dentition didn't show any influence of sex. Dental eruption order, can be used as a good parameter in the determination of the patient's laterality.

  9. Tissue expression pattern of ABCG transporter indicates functional roles in reproduction of Toxocara canis.

    Luo, Yong-Li; Ma, Guang-Xu; Luo, Yong-Fang; Kuang, Ce-Yan; Jiang, Ai-Yun; Li, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Rong-Qiong

    2018-03-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite with worldwide distribution. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins which involve in a range of biological processes in various organisms. In present study, the full-length coding sequence of abcg-5 gene of T. canis (Tc-abcg-5) was cloned and characterized. A 633 aa polypeptide containing two conserved Walker A and Walker B motifs was predicted from a continuous 1902 nt open reading frame. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to determine the transcriptional levels of Tc-abcg-5 gene in adult male and female worms, which indicated high mRNA level of Tc-abcg-5 in the reproductive tract of adult female T. canis. Tc-abcg-5 was expressed to produce rabbit polyclonal antiserum against recombinant TcABCG5. Indirect-fluorescence immunohistochemical assays were carried out to detect the tissue distribution of TcABCG5, which showed predominant distribution of TcABCG5 in the uterus (especially in the germ cells) of adult female T. canis. Tissue transcription and expression pattern of Tc-abcg-5 indicated that Tc-abcg-5 might play essential roles in the reproduction of this parasitic nematode.

  10. Concurrent assessments of lower limb loading patterns, mechanical muscle strength and functional performance in ACL-patients - A cross-sectional study

    Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Jensen, C; Mortensen, N H M

    2014-01-01

    Full recovery in muscle strength and functional performance may not be achieved after ACL-injury. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate loading patterns during jumping, muscle function and functional performance in ACL-reconstructed patients and to investigate the origin of between...

  11. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  12. Prokaryotic caspase homologs: phylogenetic patterns and functional characteristics reveal considerable diversity.

    Johannes Asplund-Samuelsson

    Full Text Available Caspases accomplish initiation and execution of apoptosis, a programmed cell death process specific to metazoans. The existence of prokaryotic caspase homologs, termed metacaspases, has been known for slightly more than a decade. Despite their potential connection to the evolution of programmed cell death in eukaryotes, the phylogenetic distribution and functions of these prokaryotic metacaspase sequences are largely uncharted, while a few experiments imply involvement in programmed cell death. Aiming at providing a more detailed picture of prokaryotic caspase homologs, we applied a computational approach based on Hidden Markov Model search profiles to identify and functionally characterize putative metacaspases in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Out of the total of 1463 analyzed genomes, merely 267 (18% were identified to contain putative metacaspases, but their taxonomic distribution included most prokaryotic phyla and a few archaea (Euryarchaeota. Metacaspases were particularly abundant in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, which harbor many morphologically and developmentally complex organisms, and a distinct correlation was found between abundance and phenotypic complexity in Cyanobacteria. Notably, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, known to undergo genetically regulated autolysis, lacked metacaspases. Pfam domain architecture analysis combined with operon identification revealed rich and varied configurations among the metacaspase sequences. These imply roles in programmed cell death, but also e.g. in signaling, various enzymatic activities and protein modification. Together our data show a wide and scattered distribution of caspase homologs in prokaryotes with structurally and functionally diverse sub-groups, and with a potentially intriguing evolutionary role. These features will help delineate future characterizations of death pathways in prokaryotes.

  13. Multivariate pattern analysis strategies in detection of remitted major depressive disorder using resting state functional connectivity

    Runa Bhaumik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of distributed brain networks may aid in probing and targeting mechanisms involved in major depressive disorder (MDD. To date, few studies have used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI to attempt to discriminate individuals with MDD from individuals without MDD, and to our knowledge no investigations have examined a remitted (r population. In this study, we examined the efficiency of support vector machine (SVM classifier to successfully discriminate rMDD individuals from healthy controls (HCs in a narrow early-adult age range. We empirically evaluated four feature selection methods including multivariate Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO and Elastic Net feature selection algorithms. Our results showed that SVM classification with Elastic Net feature selection achieved the highest classification accuracy of 76.1% (sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 68.9% by leave-one-out cross-validation across subjects from a dataset consisting of 38 rMDD individuals and 29 healthy controls. The highest discriminating functional connections were between the left amygdala, left posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex, and right ventral striatum. These appear to be key nodes in the etiopathophysiology of MDD, within and between default mode, salience and cognitive control networks. This technique demonstrates early promise for using rs-fMRI connectivity as a putative neurobiological marker capable of distinguishing between individuals with and without rMDD. These methods may be extended to periods of risk prior to illness onset, thereby allowing for earlier diagnosis, prevention, and intervention.

  14. Multivariate pattern analysis strategies in detection of remitted major depressive disorder using resting state functional connectivity.

    Bhaumik, Runa; Jenkins, Lisanne M; Gowins, Jennifer R; Jacobs, Rachel H; Barba, Alyssa; Bhaumik, Dulal K; Langenecker, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of distributed brain networks may aid in probing and targeting mechanisms involved in major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, few studies have used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to attempt to discriminate individuals with MDD from individuals without MDD, and to our knowledge no investigations have examined a remitted (r) population. In this study, we examined the efficiency of support vector machine (SVM) classifier to successfully discriminate rMDD individuals from healthy controls (HCs) in a narrow early-adult age range. We empirically evaluated four feature selection methods including multivariate Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and Elastic Net feature selection algorithms. Our results showed that SVM classification with Elastic Net feature selection achieved the highest classification accuracy of 76.1% (sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 68.9%) by leave-one-out cross-validation across subjects from a dataset consisting of 38 rMDD individuals and 29 healthy controls. The highest discriminating functional connections were between the left amygdala, left posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex, and right ventral striatum. These appear to be key nodes in the etiopathophysiology of MDD, within and between default mode, salience and cognitive control networks. This technique demonstrates early promise for using rs-fMRI connectivity as a putative neurobiological marker capable of distinguishing between individuals with and without rMDD. These methods may be extended to periods of risk prior to illness onset, thereby allowing for earlier diagnosis, prevention, and intervention.

  15. Investigating the performance of reconstruction methods used in structured illumination microscopy as a function of the illumination pattern's modulation frequency

    Shabani, H.; Sánchez-Ortiga, E.; Preza, C.

    2016-03-01

    Surpassing the resolution of optical microscopy defined by the Abbe diffraction limit, while simultaneously achieving optical sectioning, is a challenging problem particularly for live cell imaging of thick samples. Among a few developing techniques, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) addresses this challenge by imposing higher frequency information into the observable frequency band confined by the optical transfer function (OTF) of a conventional microscope either doubling the spatial resolution or filling the missing cone based on the spatial frequency of the pattern when the patterned illumination is two-dimensional. Standard reconstruction methods for SIM decompose the low and high frequency components from the recorded low-resolution images and then combine them to reach a high-resolution image. In contrast, model-based approaches rely on iterative optimization approaches to minimize the error between estimated and forward images. In this paper, we study the performance of both groups of methods by simulating fluorescence microscopy images from different type of objects (ranging from simulated two-point sources to extended objects). These simulations are used to investigate the methods' effectiveness on restoring objects with various types of power spectrum when modulation frequency of the patterned illumination is changing from zero to the incoherent cut-off frequency of the imaging system. Our results show that increasing the amount of imposed information by using a higher modulation frequency of the illumination pattern does not always yield a better restoration performance, which was found to be depended on the underlying object. Results from model-based restoration show performance improvement, quantified by an up to 62% drop in the mean square error compared to standard reconstruction, with increasing modulation frequency. However, we found cases for which results obtained with standard reconstruction methods do not always follow the same trend.

  16. A structural equation model relating impaired sensorimotor function, fear of falling and gait patterns in older people.

    Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2007-02-01

    Many falls in older people occur while walking, however the mechanisms responsible for gait instability are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a plausible model describing the relationships between impaired sensorimotor function, fear of falling and gait patterns in older people. Temporo-spatial gait parameters and acceleration patterns of the head and pelvis were obtained from 100 community-dwelling older people aged between 75 and 93 years while walking on an irregular walkway. A theoretical model was developed to explain the relationships between these variables, assuming that head stability is a primary output of the postural control system when walking. This model was then tested using structural equation modeling, a statistical technique which enables the testing of a set of regression equations simultaneously. The structural equation model indicated that: (i) reduced step length has a significant direct and indirect association with reduced head stability; (ii) impaired sensorimotor function is significantly associated with reduced head stability, but this effect is largely indirect, mediated by reduced step length, and; (iii) fear of falling is significantly associated with reduced step length, but has little direct influence on head stability. These findings provide useful insights into the possible mechanisms underlying gait characteristics and risk of falling in older people. Particularly important is the indication that fear-related step length shortening may be maladaptive.

  17. Altered expression pattern of molecular factors involved in colonic smooth muscle functions: an immunohistochemical study in patients with diverticular disease.

    Mattii, Letizia; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Battolla, Barbara; Colucci, Rocchina; Dolfi, Amelio; Bassotti, Gabrio; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bernardini, Nunzia

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diverticular disease (DD) is thought to result from complex interactions among dietary habits, genetic factors and coexistence of other bowel abnormalities. These conditions lead to alterations in colonic pressure and motility, facilitating the formation of diverticula. Although electrophysiological studies on smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have investigated colonic motor dysfunctions, scarce attention has been paid to their molecular abnormalities, and data on SMCs in DD are lacking. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of molecular factors involved in the contractile functions of SMCs in the tunica muscularis of colonic specimens from patients with DD. By means of immunohistochemistry and image analysis, we examined the expression of Cx26 and Cx43, which are prominent components of gap junctions in human colonic SMCs, as well as pS368-Cx43, PKCps, RhoA and αSMA, all known to regulate the functions of gap junctions and the contractile activity of SMCs. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant abnormalities in DD samples, concerning both the expression and distribution patterns of most of the investigated molecular factors. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that an altered pattern of factors involved in SMC contractility is present at level of the tunica muscularis of DD patients. Moreover, considering that our analysis was conducted on colonic tissues not directly affected by diverticular lesions or inflammatory reactions, it is conceivable that these molecular alterations may precede and predispose to the formation of diverticula, rather than being mere consequences of the disease.

  18. Distinct patterns of brain function in children with isolated spelling impairment: new insights.

    Gebauer, Daniela; Enzinger, Christian; Kronbichler, Martin; Schurz, Matthias; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Kargl, Reinhard; Purgstaller, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Fink, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Studies investigating reading and spelling difficulties heavily focused on the neural correlates of reading impairments, whereas spelling impairments have been largely neglected so far. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate brain structure and function of children with isolated spelling difficulties. Therefore, 31 children, aged ten to 15 years, were investigated by means of functional MRI and DTI. This study revealed that children with isolated spelling impairment exhibit a stronger right hemispheric activation compared to children with reading and spelling difficulties and controls, when engaged in an orthographic decision task, presumably reflecting a highly efficient serial grapheme-phoneme decoding compensation strategy. In addition, children with spelling impairment activated bilateral inferior and middle frontal gyri during processing correctly spelled words and misspelled words, whereas the other two groups showed bilateral activation only in the misspelled condition, suggesting that additional right frontal engagement could be related to generally higher task demand and effort. DTI analyses revealed stronger frontal white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy) in controls (compared to spelling and reading impaired children), whereas no structural differences between controls and spelling impaired children were observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy.

    Julia Pollak

    Full Text Available Ion channels and transporters have increasingly recognized roles in cancer progression through the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and death. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs are a source of tumor formation and recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive brain cancer, suggesting that ion channel expression may be perturbed in this population. However, little is known about the expression and functional relevance of ion channels that may contribute to GSC malignancy. Using RNA sequencing, we assessed the enrichment of ion channels in GSC isolates and non-tumor neural cell types. We identified a unique set of GSC-enriched ion channels using differential expression analysis that is also associated with distinct gene mutation signatures. In support of potential clinical relevance, expression of selected GSC-enriched ion channels evaluated in human glioblastoma databases of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project correlated with patient survival times. Finally, genetic knockdown as well as pharmacological inhibition of individual or classes of GSC-enriched ion channels constrained growth of GSCs compared to normal neural stem cells. This first-in-kind global examination characterizes ion channels enriched in GSCs and explores their potential clinical relevance to glioblastoma molecular subtypes, gene mutations, survival outcomes, regional tumor expression, and experimental responses to loss-of-function. Together, the data support the potential biological and therapeutic impact of ion channels on GSC malignancy and provide strong rationale for further examination of their mechanistic and therapeutic importance.

  20. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy.

    Pollak, Julia; Rai, Karan G; Funk, Cory C; Arora, Sonali; Lee, Eunjee; Zhu, Jun; Price, Nathan D; Paddison, Patrick J; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Rostomily, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters have increasingly recognized roles in cancer progression through the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and death. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) are a source of tumor formation and recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive brain cancer, suggesting that ion channel expression may be perturbed in this population. However, little is known about the expression and functional relevance of ion channels that may contribute to GSC malignancy. Using RNA sequencing, we assessed the enrichment of ion channels in GSC isolates and non-tumor neural cell types. We identified a unique set of GSC-enriched ion channels using differential expression analysis that is also associated with distinct gene mutation signatures. In support of potential clinical relevance, expression of selected GSC-enriched ion channels evaluated in human glioblastoma databases of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project correlated with patient survival times. Finally, genetic knockdown as well as pharmacological inhibition of individual or classes of GSC-enriched ion channels constrained growth of GSCs compared to normal neural stem cells. This first-in-kind global examination characterizes ion channels enriched in GSCs and explores their potential clinical relevance to glioblastoma molecular subtypes, gene mutations, survival outcomes, regional tumor expression, and experimental responses to loss-of-function. Together, the data support the potential biological and therapeutic impact of ion channels on GSC malignancy and provide strong rationale for further examination of their mechanistic and therapeutic importance.

  1. Patterned Arrays of Functional Lateral Heterostructures via Sequential Template-Directed Printing.

    Li, Yifan; Su, Meng; Li, Zheng; Huang, Zhandong; Li, Fengyu; Pan, Qi; Ren, Wanjie; Hu, Xiaotian; Song, Yanlin

    2018-04-30

    The precise integration of microscale dots and lines with controllable interfacing connections is highly important for the fabrication of functional devices. To date, the solution-processible methods are used to fabricate the heterogeneous micropatterns for different materials. However, for increasingly miniaturized and multifunctional devices, it is extremely challenging to engineer the uncertain kinetics of a solution on the microstructures surfaces, resulting in uncontrollable interface connections and poor device performance. Here, a sequential template-directed printing process is demonstrated for the fabrication of arrayed microdots connected by microwires through the regulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of material solution or suspension. Flexibility in the control of fluidic behaviors can realize precise interface connection between the micropatterns, including the microwires traversing, overlapping or connecting the microdots. Moreover, various morphologies such as circular, rhombic, or star-shaped microdots as well as straight, broken or curved microwires can be achieved. The lateral heterostructure printed with two different quantum dots displays bright dichromatic photoluminescence. The ammonia gas sensor printed by polyaniline and silver nanoparticles exhibits a rapid response time. This strategy can construct heterostructures in a facile manner by eliminating the uncertainty of the multimaterials interface connection, which will be promising for the development of novel lateral functional devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Understanding and solving disorder in the substitution pattern of amino functionalized MIL-47(V).

    Heinen, Jurn; Dubbeldam, David

    2016-03-14

    Electronic energies and elastic constants of four amino functionalized MIL-47(V) supercells were computed using plane wave density functional theory to determine the influence of the substituent positions on the organic linker. An inverse relationship between the ab initio energies and the elastic constants was found, indicating that the high electronic stability correlates with high mechanical stability. Torsion in all supercells was induced upon substitution, which caused strain in the NH2-MIL-47(V) supercell. The combined effect of the substituent bulkiness and the induced torsion reduced the pore volume of the NH2-MIL-47(V) structures by >7% and the surface area by >14% with respect to MIL-47(V). This reduction was confirmed by lower saturation capacities of methane, CO2 and benzene. When unfavourable substituent positions are chosen, large torsions caused a further reduction of the saturation capacity. Differences in surface area, pore volume and saturation capacity illustrate the importance of choosing the correct NH2-MIL-47(V) supercell.

  3. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  4. Functional bacteria and process metabolism of the Denitrifying Sulfur conversion-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR) system: An investigation by operating the system from deterioration to restoration.

    Guo, Gang; Wu, Di; Hao, Tianwei; Mackey, Hamish Robert; Wei, Li; Wang, Haiguang; Chen, Guanghao

    2016-05-15

    A sulfur conversion-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus (P) Removal (EBPR) system is being developed to cater for the increasing needs to treat saline/brackish wastewater resulting from seawater intrusion into groundwater and sewers and frequent use of sulfate coagulants during drinking water treatment, as well as to meet the demand for eutrophication control in warm climate regions. However, the major functional bacteria and metabolism in this emerging biological nutrient removal system are still poorly understood. This study was thus designed to explore the functional microbes and metabolism in this new EBPR system by manipulating the deterioration, failure and restoration of a lab-scale system. This was achieved by changing the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration to monitor and evaluate the relationships among sulfur conversion (including sulfate reduction and sulfate production), P removal, variation in microbial community structures, and stoichiometric parameters. The results show that the stable Denitrifying Sulfur conversion-associated EBPR (DS-EBPR) system was enriched by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). These bacteria synergistically participated in this new EBPR process, thereby inducing an appropriate level of sulfur conversion crucial for achieving a stable DS-EBPR performance, i.e. maintaining sulfur conversion intensity at 15-40 mg S/L, corresponding to an optimal sludge concentration of 6.5 g/L. This range of sulfur conversion favors microbial community competition and various energy flows from internal polymers (i.e. polysulfide or elemental sulfur (poly-S(2-)/S(0)) and poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA)) for P removal. If this range was exceeded, the system might deteriorate or even fail due to enrichment of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs). Four methods of restoring the failed system were investigated: increasing the sludge concentration, lowering the salinity or doubling the COD

  5. Gene expression pattern of functional neuronal cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    Bron Dominique

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal tissue has limited potential to self-renew or repair after neurological diseases. Cellular therapies using stem cells are promising approaches for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the clinical use of embryonic stem cells or foetal tissues is limited by ethical considerations and other scientific problems. Thus, bone marrow mesenchymal stomal cells (BM-MSC could represent an alternative source of stem cells for cell replacement therapies. Indeed, many studies have demonstrated that MSC can give rise to neuronal cells as well as many tissue-specific cell phenotypes. Methods BM-MSC were differentiated in neuron-like cells under specific induction (NPBM + cAMP + IBMX + NGF + Insulin. By day ten, differentiated cells presented an expression profile of real neurons. Functionality of these differentiated cells was evaluated by calcium influx through glutamate receptor AMPA3. Results Using microarray analysis, we compared gene expression profile of these different samples, before and after neurogenic differentiation. Among the 1943 genes differentially expressed, genes down-regulated are involved in osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis, myogenesis and extracellular matrix component (tuftelin, AGC1, FADS3, tropomyosin, fibronectin, ECM2, HAPLN1, vimentin. Interestingly, genes implicated in neurogenesis are increased. Most of them are involved in the synaptic transmission and long term potentialisation as cortactin, CASK, SYNCRIP, SYNTL4 and STX1. Other genes are involved in neurite outgrowth, early neuronal cell development, neuropeptide signaling/synthesis and neuronal receptor (FK506, ARHGAP6, CDKRAP2, PMCH, GFPT2, GRIA3, MCT6, BDNF, PENK, amphiregulin, neurofilament 3, Epha4, synaptotagmin. Using real time RT-PCR, we confirmed the expression of selected neuronal genes: NEGR1, GRIA3 (AMPA3, NEF3, PENK and Epha4. Functionality of these neuron-like cells was demonstrated by Ca2+ influx through glutamate

  6. Microarray-based approach identifies microRNAs and their target functional patterns in polycystic kidney disease

    Boehn Susanne NE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play key roles in mammalian gene expression and several cellular processes, including differentiation, development, apoptosis and cancer pathomechanisms. Recently the biological importance of primary cilia has been recognized in a number of human genetic diseases. Numerous disorders are related to cilia dysfunction, including polycystic kidney disease (PKD. Although involvement of certain genes and transcriptional networks in PKD development has been shown, not much is known how they are regulated molecularly. Results Given the emerging role of miRNAs in gene expression, we explored the possibilities of miRNA-based regulations in PKD. Here, we analyzed the simultaneous expression changes of miRNAs and mRNAs by microarrays. 935 genes, classified into 24 functional categories, were differentially regulated between PKD and control animals. In parallel, 30 miRNAs were differentially regulated in PKD rats: our results suggest that several miRNAs might be involved in regulating genetic switches in PKD. Furthermore, we describe some newly detected miRNAs, miR-31 and miR-217, in the kidney which have not been reported previously. We determine functionally related gene sets, or pathways to reveal the functional correlation between differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs. Conclusion We find that the functional patterns of predicted miRNA targets and differentially expressed mRNAs are similar. Our results suggest an important role of miRNAs in specific pathways underlying PKD.

  7. Global biogeographical pattern of ecosystem functional types derived from earth observation data

    Ivits, Eva; Cherlet, Michael; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F

    2013-01-01

    correspondence of the EFTs to global climate and also to land use classification. The results show the great potential of Earth Observation derived parameters for the quantification of ecosystem functional dynamics and for providing reference status information for future assessments of ecosystem changes........ The association of the EFTs with existing climate and land cover classifications was demonstrated via Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). The ordination indicated good description of the global environmental gradient by the EFTs, supporting the understanding of phenological and productivity dynamics...... of global ecosystems. Climatic constraints of vegetation growth explained 50% of variation in the phenological data along the EFTs showing that part of the variation in the global phenological gradient is not climate related but is unique to the Earth Observation derived variables. DCA demonstrated good...

  8. Order Patterns Networks (orpan – a method toestimate time-evolving functional connectivity frommultivariate time series

    Stefan eSchinkel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex networks provide an excellent framework for studying the functionof the human brain activity. Yet estimating functional networks from mea-sured signals is not trivial, especially if the data is non-stationary and noisyas it is often the case with physiological recordings. In this article we proposea method that uses the local rank structure of the data to define functionallinks in terms of identical rank structures. The method yields temporal se-quences of networks which permits to trace the evolution of the functionalconnectivity during the time course of the observation. We demonstrate thepotentials of this approach with model data as well as with experimentaldata from an electrophysiological study on language processing.

  9. Damage pattern as a function of radiation quality and other factors.

    Burkart, W; Jung, T; Frasch, G

    1999-01-01

    An understanding of damage pattern in critical cellular structures such as DNA is an important prerequisite for a mechanistic assessment of primary radiation damage, its possible repair, and the propagation of residual changes in somatic and germ cells as potential contributors to disease or ageing. Important quantitative insights have been made recently on the distribution in time and space of critical lesions from direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation on mammalian cells. When compared to damage from chemicals or from spontaneous degradation, e.g. depurination or base deamination in DNA, the potential of even low-LET radiation to create local hot spots of damage from single particle tracks is of utmost importance. This has important repercussions on inferences from critical biological effects at high dose and dose rate exposure situations to health risks at chronic, low-level exposures as experienced in environmental and controlled occupational settings. About 10,000 DNA lesions per human cell nucleus and day from spontaneous degradation and chemical attack cause no apparent effect, but a dose of 4 Gy translating into a similar number of direct and indirect DNA breaks induces acute lethality. Therefore, single lesions cannot explain the high efficiency of ionizing radiation in the induction of mutation, transformation and loss of proliferative capacity. Clustered damage leading to poorly repairable double-strand breaks or even more complex local DNA degradation, correlates better with fixed damage and critical biological endpoints. A comparison with other physical, chemical and biological agents indicates that ionizing radiation is indeed set apart from these by its unique micro- and nano-dosimetric traits. Only a few other agents such as bleomycin have a similar potential to cause complex damage from single events. However, in view of the multi-stage mechanism of carcinogenesis, it is still an open question whether dose-effect linearity for complex

  10. A Model for Conversation

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  11. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  12. US energy conversion and use characteristics

    Imhoff, C.H.; Liberman, A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1982-02-01

    The long-range goal of the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program is to enhance energy productivity in all energy-use sectors by supporting research on improved efficiency and fuel switching capability in the conversion and utilization of energy. Regardless of the deficiencies of current information, a summary of the best available energy-use information is needed now to support current ECUT program planning. This document is the initial draft of this type of summary and serves as a data book that will present current and periodically updated descriptions of the following aspects of energy use: gross US energy consumption in each major energy-use sector; energy consumption by fuel type in each sector; energy efficiency of major equipment/processes; and inventories, replacement rates, and use patterns for major energy-using capital stocks. These data will help the ECUT program staff perform two vital planning functions: determine areas in which research to improve energy productivity might provide significant energy savings or fuel switching and estimate the actual effect that specific research projects may have on energy productivity and conservation. Descriptions of the data sources and examples of the uses of the different types of data are provided in Section 2. The energy-use information is presented in the last four sections; Section 3 contains general, national consumption data; and Sections 4 through 6 contain residential/commercial, industrial, and transportation consumption data, respectively. (MCW)

  13. Hospital-Level Variation in Practice Patterns and Patient Outcomes for Pediatric Patients Hospitalized With Functional Constipation.

    Librizzi, Jamie; Flores, Samuel; Morse, Keith; Kelleher, Kelly; Carter, Jodi; Bode, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    Constipation is a common pediatric condition with a prevalence of 3% to 5% in children aged 4 to 17 years. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the management of pediatric patients hospitalized with constipation. The primary objective was to evaluate practice patterns and patient outcomes for the hospital management of functional constipation in US children's hospitals. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years hospitalized for functional constipation from 2012 to 2014 by using the Pediatric Health Information System. Patients were included by using constipation and other related diagnoses as classified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision . Patients with complex chronic conditions were excluded. Outcome measures included percentage of hospitalizations due to functional constipation, therapies used, length of stay, and 90-day readmission rates. Statistical analysis included means with 95% confidence intervals for individual hospital outcomes. A total of 14 243 hospitalizations were included, representing 12 804 unique patients. The overall percentage of hospitalizations due to functional constipation was 0.65% (range: 0.19%-1.41%, P hospitalization included: electrolyte laxatives: 40% to 96%; sodium phosphate enema: 0% to 64%; mineral oil enema: 0% to 61%; glycerin suppository: 0% to 37%; bisacodyl 0% to 47%; senna: 0% to 23%; and docusate 0% to 11%. Mean length of stay was 1.97 days (range: 1.31-2.73 days, P hospitalized with functional constipation across US children's hospitals. Collaborative initiatives to adopt evidence-based best practices guidelines could help standardize the hospital management of pediatric functional constipation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Exploring patterns of alteration in Alzheimer’s disease brain networks: a combined structural and functional connectomics analysis

    Fulvia Palesi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a severe derangement of cognitive functions, primarily memory, in elderly subjects. As far as the functional impairment is concerned, growing evidence supports the disconnection syndrome hypothesis. Recent investigations using fMRI have revealed a generalized alteration of resting state networks in patients affected by AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, it was unclear whether the changes in functional connectivity were accompanied by corresponding structural network changes. In this work, we have developed a novel structural/functional connectomic approach: resting state fMRI was used to identify the functional cortical network nodes and diffusion MRI to reconstruct the fiber tracts to give a weight to internodal subcortical connections. Then, local and global efficiency were determined for different networks, exploring specific alterations of integration and segregation patterns in AD and MCI patients compared to healthy controls (HC. In the default mode network (DMN, that was the most affected, axonal loss and reduced axonal integrity appeared to compromise both local and global efficiency along posterior-anterior connections. In the basal ganglia network (BGN, disruption of white matter integrity implied that main alterations occurred in local microstructure. In the anterior insular network (AIN, neuronal loss probably subtended a compromised communication with the insular cortex. Cognitive performance, evaluated by neuropsychological examinations, revealed a dependency on integration and segregation of brain networks. These findings are indicative of the fact that cognitive deficits in AD could be associated not only with cortical alterations (revealed by fMRI but also with subcortical alterations (revealed by diffusion MRI that extend beyond the areas primarily damaged by neurodegeneration, towards the support of an emerging concept of AD as a

  15. Coordination of respiration and swallowing: functional pattern and relevance of vocal folds closure

    Milton Melciades Barbosa Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Breathing and swallowing coordination, despite the expressive number of study, remain as theme deserving further research. OBJECTIVE: To identify a coordination pattern between swallowing and the natural breathing pause that occur in association with it (swallowing apnea and also the relevance of the vocal folds closure in this process. METHODS: Sixty-six adults, male and female, including normal health people, post-laryngectomy individuals and patients with digestive complaints without dysphagia were analyzed. The respiratory air flux interruptions produced by wet requested swallows and dry, requested and spontaneous swallows, were registered using thermo and piezoelectric receptors coupled to synectics medical manometry equipment, using Polygram upper 4.21 software. The results were analyzed with the Chi-square (3×2 and (2×2 nonparametric independency test with P = 0.05. RESULTS: Swallowing apnea is a preventive breathing stop that start just before and stay present during all deglutition pharyngeal phase. It is a well coordinated phenomena that occur as pattern in association with low elastic resistance of the lung, on the expiratory final phase until inspiration initial phase. This breathing stoppage it is usually followed by a short expiraton preceding a new breathing cycle. The swallow apnea and vocal folds closure are both independents mechanisms. CONCLUSION: It is possible to suppose that in the subconscious condition, swallowing apnea is integrated under coordination of the same control mechanism that also involves the elastic resistance of the lung.CONTEXTO: Apesar do expressivo número de estudos sobre a coordenação da respiração com a deglutição, o tema permanece aberto à pesquisa. OBJETIVO: Identificar um padrão de coordenação entre a pausa respiratória e a deglutição que ocorre em associação a esta usual apneia (apneia de deglutição e estabelecer a importância do fechamento das pregas vocais que ocorre

  16. Introduction of pattern recognition by MATLAB practice 2

    1999-06-01

    The contents of this book starts introduction and examples of pattern recognition. This book describes a vector and matrix, basic statistics and a probability distribution, statistical decision theory and probability density function, liner shunt, vector quantizing and clustering GMM, PCA and KL conversion, LDA, ID 3, a nerve cell modeling, HMM, SVM and Ada boost. It has direction of MATLAB in the appendix.

  17. Integration of atomic layer deposition CeO2 thin films with functional complex oxides and 3D patterns

    Coll, M.; Palau, A.; Gonzalez-Rosillo, J.C.; Gazquez, J.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a low-temperature, < 300 °C, ex-situ integration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) ultrathin CeO 2 layers (3 to 5 unit cells) with chemical solution deposited La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO) functional complex oxides for multilayer growth without jeopardizing the morphology, microstructure and physical properties of the functional oxide layer. We have also extended this procedure to pulsed laser deposited YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) thin films. Scanning force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and macroscopic magnetic measurements were used to evaluate the quality of the perovskite films before and after the ALD process. By means of microcontact printing and ALD we have prepared CeO 2 patterns using an ozone-robust photoresist that will avoid the use of hazardous lithography processes directly on the device components. These bilayers, CeO 2 /LSMO and CeO 2 /YBCO, are foreseen to have special interest for resistive switching phenomena in resistive random-access memory. - Highlights: • Integration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) CeO 2 layers on functional complex oxides • Resistive switching is identified in CeO 2 /La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 and CeO 2 /YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 bilayers. • Study of the robustness of organic polymers for area-selective ALD • Combination of ALD and micro-contact printing to obtain 3D patterns of CeO 2

  18. Improvement of dose evaluation system for employees at severe accident in a nuclear power plant. Introduction of the dose rate conversion coefficient and addition of the access route edit function

    Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Minami, Noritoshi; Yoshida, Yoshitaka

    2006-01-01

    Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc. had developed the dose evaluation system to evaluate the radiation dose of employees at severe accident in a nuclear power plant. This system has features, which are (1) the dose rate of any evaluation point can be evaluated, (2) the dose rate at any time can be evaluated in consideration of the change in the radioactive source, (3) the dose rate map in the plant can be displayed (4) the dose along the access route when moving can be evaluated, and it is possible to use it for examination of the accident management guideline on the dose side etc.. To upgrade the dose evaluation function of this system, the improvements had been done which were introduction of the dose rate conversion coefficient and addition of the access route edit function. By introducing the dose rate conversion coefficient, the calculation time of the dose rate map in the plant was shortened at about 20 seconds, and a new function to evaluate time-dependent dose rate of any evaluation point was added. By adding the access route edit function, it became possible to re-calculate the dose easily at the route change. (author)

  19. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    Coursol, N.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Yakushev, E.A.; Briancon, C.; Vylov, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  20. Cortical activation pattern during shoulder simple versus vibration exercises: a functional near infrared spectroscopy study

    Sung Ho Jang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the cortical effect of exercise has not been fully elucidated. Using the functional near infrared spectroscopy, we attempted to compare the cortical effect between shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Two different exercise tasks (shoulder vibration exercise using the flexible pole and shoulder simple exercise were performed using a block paradigm. We measured the values of oxygenated hemoglobin in the four regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1 total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy, the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the prefrontal cortex. During shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise, cortical activation was observed in SM1 (total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex. Higher oxygenated hemoglobin values were also observed in the areas of arm somatotopy of SM1 compared with those of other regions of interest. However, no significant difference in the arm somatotopy of SM1 was observed between the two exercises. By contrast, in the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1, shoulder vibration exercise led to a significantly higher oxy-hemoglobin value than shoulder simple exercise. These two exercises may result in cortical activation effects for the motor areas relevant to the shoulder exercise, especially in the arm somatotopy of SM1. However, shoulder vibration exercise has an additional cortical activation effect for the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1.

  1. Situating and teaching 21st century zoology: revealing pattern in the form and function of animals.

    Russell, Anthony P

    2009-09-01

    The current challenges (increasing levels of integration in the biological sciences) facing the teaching of zoology and the structure of the zoology curriculum are explored herein. General context is provided and a more focused scrutiny of the situation in North America is presented. The changing emphases in more broadly-based biological sciences programs in North America are outlined, and their influence on the role of zoology as part of fundamental biological training is considered. The longer term impact of such changes in emphasis on the teaching of zoology is discussed, and the central role that zoology can play in dealing with both science content and science education is advanced. Based upon a focal workshop on the future of the zoology curriculum in Canada, a perspective on the challenges facing curriculum evolution is provided. Extensive curriculum redesign is called for to ensure that zoology provides a broad-scale integrative approach to the understanding of biodiversity in evolutionary, ecological and functional contexts. Barriers to, and drivers of change are identified and the need for collaborative approaches to curricular evolution is emphasized. © 2009 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  2. Cortical activation pattern during shoulder simple versus vibration exercises: a functional near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Jang, Sung Ho; Yeo, Sang Seok; Lee, Seung Hyun; Jin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Mi Young

    2017-08-01

    To date, the cortical effect of exercise has not been fully elucidated. Using the functional near infrared spectroscopy, we attempted to compare the cortical effect between shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Two different exercise tasks (shoulder vibration exercise using the flexible pole and shoulder simple exercise) were performed using a block paradigm. We measured the values of oxygenated hemoglobin in the four regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1 total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy), the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the prefrontal cortex. During shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise, cortical activation was observed in SM1 (total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy), premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex. Higher oxygenated hemoglobin values were also observed in the areas of arm somatotopy of SM1 compared with those of other regions of interest. However, no significant difference in the arm somatotopy of SM1 was observed between the two exercises. By contrast, in the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1, shoulder vibration exercise led to a significantly higher oxy-hemoglobin value than shoulder simple exercise. These two exercises may result in cortical activation effects for the motor areas relevant to the shoulder exercise, especially in the arm somatotopy of SM1. However, shoulder vibration exercise has an additional cortical activation effect for the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1.

  3. The impact of functional jaw orthopedics in subjects with unfavorable Class II skeletal patterns.

    Baccetti, Tiziano; McNamara, James A

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of functional jaw orthopedics (FJO) followed by fixed appliances in Class II patients showing cephalometric signs predictive of unfavorable responsiveness to orthopedic treatment. A total of 48 treated subjects (20 males, 28 females) with unfavorable Class II malocclusions were treated with FJO at the adolescent growth spurt, followed by fixed appliances. Treatment outcomes were compared with the growth changes in a matched control group of untreated subjects with "unfavorable" Class II malocclusions. A significant prevalence rate of successful outcome was recorded within the treated group (64.5%). When compared with the untreated controls, both the overall treated group and the successful treated subgroup revealed a significant reduction in maxillary growth and sagittal position, along with a significant enhancement in mandibular length, sagittal advancement of the mandible, and significant improvements in the maxillo-mandibular relationships. Both overjet and molar relation showed significant favorable changes in the treated group. FJO at the pubertal spurt followed by fixed appliances is a viable therapeutical option in patients with "unfavorable" Class II malocclusions, although skeletal changes are of minor entity. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional dissection of drought-responsive gene expression patterns in Cynodon dactylon L.

    Kim, Changsoo; Lemke, Cornelia; Paterson, Andrew H

    2009-05-01

    Water deficit is one of the main abiotic factors that affect plant productivity in subtropical regions. To identify genes induced during the water stress response in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), cDNA macroarrays were used. The macroarray analysis identified 189 drought-responsive candidate genes from C. dactylon, of which 120 were up-regulated and 69 were down-regulated. The candidate genes were classified into seven groups by cluster analysis of expression levels across two intensities and three durations of imposed stress. Annotation using BLASTX suggested that up-regulated genes may be involved in proline biosynthesis, signal transduction pathways, protein repair systems, and removal of toxins, while down-regulated genes were mostly related to basic plant metabolism such as photosynthesis and glycolysis. The functional classification of gene ontology (GO) was consistent with the BLASTX results, also suggesting some crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress. Comparative analysis of cis-regulatory elements from the candidate genes implicated specific elements in drought response in Bermudagrass. Although only a subset of genes was studied, Bermudagrass shared many drought-responsive genes and cis-regulatory elements with other botanical models, supporting a strategy of cross-taxon application of drought-responsive genes, regulatory cues, and physiological-genetic information.

  5. Elements of energy conversion

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  6. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  7. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J.

    2000-01-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated dose rate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years reflect the

  8. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J

    2000-07-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated doserate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years

  9. Coevolution Pattern and Functional Conservation or Divergence of miR167s and their targets across Diverse Plant Species.

    Barik, Suvakanta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Sarkar Das, Shabari; Yadav, Sandeep; Gautam, Vibhav; Singh, Archita; Singh, Sharmila; Sarkar, Ananda K

    2015-10-13

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenously produced small non-coding RNAs of 20-21 nt length, processed from precursor miRNAs, regulate many developmental processes by negatively regulating the target genes in both animals and plants. The coevolutionary pattern of a miRNA family and their targets underscores its functional conservation or diversification. The miR167 regulates various aspects of plant development in Arabidopsis by targeting ARF6 and ARF8. The evolutionary conservation or divergence of miR167s and their target genes are poorly understood till now. Here we show the evolutionary relationship among 153 MIR167 genes obtained from 33 diverse plant species. We found that out of the 153 of miR167 sequences retrieved from the "miRBase", 27 have been annotated to be processed from the 3' end, and have diverged distinctively from the other miR167s produced from 5' end. Our analysis reveals that gma-miR167h/i and mdm-miR167a are processed from 3' end and have evolved separately, diverged most resulting in novel targets other than their known ones, and thus led to functional diversification, especially in apple and soybean. We also show that mostly conserved miR167 sequences and their target AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARFs) have gone through parallel evolution leading to functional diversification among diverse plant species.

  10. Skin pattern structure and function of juvenile ages of Chameleo chameleon

    Yosra A. Fouda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the skin structure of juvenile chameleon especially its sensory function of their integumentary structure. Fifteen juvenile Chameleo chameleon are collected from Abu Rawash, Northern area of Giza, Egypt during Summer of 2015. It is belong to the order Squamata, family, Chamaeleonidae. Three ages are used in the present study and categorized according to the morphological criteria of head, abdomen and limb lengths. Dorsal abdominal surfaces are covered with abdominal scales of varying sizes either conical or elliptical-structures, regularly arranged in rows and imbricated with each other. Each scale possessed one cylindrical lenticular epidermal sense organ containing heavy sensillia. Histologically, the scales are characterized by wider conical surfaces and intermingled with another one by hinge region. The epidermal layer of outer scale surface is composed of five-layered stratified squamous epithelium including the stratum germinativum, intermediate zone of stratum spinosum and granulosum, α-keratin layer, β-keratin layer and outer superficial Oberhaütchen. Melanosomes are abundant in the intermediate zone as well as in the peripheral dermal layer underneath stratum germinativum layer. The melanosomes possessed long cellular processes with their content of melanin granules underneath the epidermis. The dermis is composed of upper collagenous and inner compact layer. Semithin sections revealed the presence of fibroblast cells, collagenous fibrils, nerve axons, melanosomes and mast cells in the connective tissue core. Increased immunoreaction of cytokeratin is observed in the epidermal layers of G3; meanwhile, an increased proliferation of epidermal and dermal cells was detected in G1. Transmission electron microscopy exhibited striking formation of dermal sense organs containing neuronal cells of both oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells with myelinated and unmyelinated nerve axons ensheathed externally by thin

  11. One digit interruption: the altered force patterns during functionally cylindrical grasping tasks in patients with trigger digits.

    Po-Tsun Chen

    Full Text Available Most trigger digit (TD patients complain that they have problems using their hand in daily or occupational tasks due to single or multiple digits being affected. Unfortunately, clinicians do not know much about how this disease affects the subtle force coordination among digits during manipulation. Thus, this study examined the differences in force patterns during cylindrical grasp between TD and healthy subjects. Forty-two TD patients with single digit involvement were included and sorted into four groups based on the involved digits, including thumb, index, middle and ring fingers. Twelve healthy subjects volunteered as healthy controls. Two testing tasks, holding and drinking, were performed by natural grasping with minimal forces. The relations between the force of the thumb and each finger were examined by Pearson correlation coefficients. The force amount and contribution of each digit were compared between healthy controls and each TD group by the independent t test. The results showed all TD groups demonstrated altered correlation patterns of the thumb relative to each finger. Larger forces and higher contributions of the index finger were found during holding by patients with index finger involved, and also during drinking by patients with affected thumb and with affected middle finger. Although no triggering symptom occurred during grasping, the patients showed altered force patterns which may be related to the role of the affected digit in natural grasping function. In conclusion, even if only one digit was affected, the subtle force coordination of all the digits was altered during simple tasks among the TD patients. This study provides the information for the future studies to further comprehend the possible injuries secondary to the altered finger coordination and also to adopt suitable treatment strategies.

  12. One digit interruption: the altered force patterns during functionally cylindrical grasping tasks in patients with trigger digits.

    Chen, Po-Tsun; Lin, Chien-Ju; Jou, I-Ming; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Su, Fong-Chin; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Most trigger digit (TD) patients complain that they have problems using their hand in daily or occupational tasks due to single or multiple digits being affected. Unfortunately, clinicians do not know much about how this disease affects the subtle force coordination among digits during manipulation. Thus, this study examined the differences in force patterns during cylindrical grasp between TD and healthy subjects. Forty-two TD patients with single digit involvement were included and sorted into four groups based on the involved digits, including thumb, index, middle and ring fingers. Twelve healthy subjects volunteered as healthy controls. Two testing tasks, holding and drinking, were performed by natural grasping with minimal forces. The relations between the force of the thumb and each finger were examined by Pearson correlation coefficients. The force amount and contribution of each digit were compared between healthy controls and each TD group by the independent t test. The results showed all TD groups demonstrated altered correlation patterns of the thumb relative to each finger. Larger forces and higher contributions of the index finger were found during holding by patients with index finger involved, and also during drinking by patients with affected thumb and with affected middle finger. Although no triggering symptom occurred during grasping, the patients showed altered force patterns which may be related to the role of the affected digit in natural grasping function. In conclusion, even if only one digit was affected, the subtle force coordination of all the digits was altered during simple tasks among the TD patients. This study provides the information for the future studies to further comprehend the possible injuries secondary to the altered finger coordination and also to adopt suitable treatment strategies.

  13. Whole dietary patterns to optimize cognitive function for military mission-readiness: a systematic review and recommendations for the field.

    Teo, Lynn; Crawford, Cindy; Yehuda, Rachel; Jaghab, Danny; Bingham, John J; Gallon, Matthew D; O'Connell, Meghan L; Chittum, Holly K; Arzola, Sonya M; Berry, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Optimizing cognitive performance, particularly during times of high stress, is a prerequisite to mission-readiness among military personnel. It has been of interest to determine whether such performance could be enhanced through diet. This systematic review assesses the quality of the evidence for whole dietary patterns across various outcomes related to cognitive function in healthy adult populations to develop research recommendations for the military. PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published in the English language were eligible. Fifteen included trials were assessed for methodological quality, and descriptive data were extracted. Of the 6 acceptable-quality studies, 1 demonstrated statistically nonsignificant results, whereas the other 5 showed conflicting results across the cognitive outcomes assessed. Due to the heterogeneity across the included studies, no recommendations could be reached concerning whether certain whole dietary patterns have an effect on cognitive outcomes in healthy populations. Specific recommendations for future research are offered. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Differential SPECT activation patterns associated with PASAT performance may indicate frontocerebellar functional dissociation in chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    Hattori, Naoya; Swan, Megan; Stobbe, Gary A; Uomoto, Jay M; Minoshima, Satoshi; Djang, David; Krishnananthan, Ruben; Lewis, David H

    2009-07-01

    Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often complain of cognitive fatigue during the chronic recovery phase. The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is a complex psychologic measure that may demonstrate subtle deficiencies in higher cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain activation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with PASAT in patients with mild TBI to explore mechanisms for the cognitive fatigue. Two groups consisting of 15 patients with mild TBI and 15 healthy control subjects underwent (99m)Tc-ethylene cysteine dimer SPECT at rest and during PASAT on a separate day. Cortical rCBF was extracted using a 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and statistically analyzed to identify areas of activation, which were compared with PASAT performance scores. Image analysis demonstrated a difference in the pattern of activation between patients with mild TBI and healthy control subjects. Healthy control subjects activated the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann area [BA] 22) bilaterally, the precentral gyrus (BA 9) on the left, and the precentral gyrus (BA 6) and cerebellum bilaterally. Patients with mild TBI demonstrated a larger area of supratentorial activation (BAs 9, 10, 13, and 46) but a smaller area of activation in the cerebellum, indicating frontocerebellar dissociation. Patients with mild TBI and cognitive fatigue demonstrated a different pattern of activation during PASAT. Frontocerebellar dissociation may explain cognitive impairment and cognitive fatigue in the chronic recovery phase of mild traumatic brain injury.

  15. JDet: interactive calculation and visualization of function-related conservation patterns in multiple sequence alignments and structures.

    Muth, Thilo; García-Martín, Juan A; Rausell, Antonio; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2012-02-15

    We have implemented in a single package all the features required for extracting, visualizing and manipulating fully conserved positions as well as those with a family-dependent conservation pattern in multiple sequence alignments. The program allows, among other things, to run different methods for extracting these positions, combine the results and visualize them in protein 3D structures and sequence spaces. JDet is a multiplatform application written in Java. It is freely available, including the source code, at http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/JDet. The package includes two of our recently developed programs for detecting functional positions in protein alignments (Xdet and S3Det), and support for other methods can be added as plug-ins. A help file and a guided tutorial for JDet are also available.

  16. Spatial patterns of leaf δ13C and its relationship with plant functional groups and environmental factors in China

    Li, Mingxu; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Meng; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Kerou; Li, Peng; Yang, Yan; Ni, Jian; Zhu, Qiuan

    2017-07-01

    The leaf carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) is a useful parameter for predicting a plant's water use efficiency, as an indicator for plant classification, and even in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic environments. In this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of leaf δ13C values and its relationship with plant functional groups and environmental factors throughout China. The high leaf δ13C in the database appeared in central and western China, and the averaged leaf δ13C was -27.15‰, with a range from -21.05‰ to -31.5‰. The order of the averaged δ13C for plant life forms from most positive to most negative was subshrubs > herbs = shrubs > trees > subtrees. Leaf δ13C is also influenced by some environmental factors, such as mean annual precipitation, relative humidity, mean annual temperature, solar hours, and altitude, although the overall influences are still relatively weak, in particular the influence of MAT and altitude. And we further found that plant functional types are dominant factors that regulate the magnitude of leaf δ13C for an individual site, whereas environmental conditions are key to understanding spatial patterns of leaf δ13C when we consider China as a whole. Ultimately, we conducted a multiple regression model of leaf δ13C with environmental factors and mapped the spatial distribution of leaf δ13C in China by using this model. However, this partial least squares model overestimated leaf δ13C for most life forms, especially for deciduous trees, evergreen shrubs, and subtrees, and thus need more improvement in the future.

  17. Prospective subjective evaluation of swallowing function and dietary pattern in head and neck cancers treated with concomitant chemo-radiation

    Agarwal Jaiprakash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Prospective subjective evaluation of swallowing function and dietary pattern in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT. Materials and Methods : Prospective evaluation of swallowing function with performance status scale for head and neck cancer patients (PSSHN at pre-CRT, CRT completion and at subsequent follow-ups in adult with loco-regionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC patients. Results : In 47 patients (40 male, seven females; mean age 53; 72% smoker 53%, oropharyngeal cancer, the mean total PSSHN score at pre-CRT was 258.5 and decreased to 225.2 and 219.2 at two and six months respectively. Understandability of speech, normalcy in diet and eating in public at pre-CRT and six months were 91.5 and 84.4; 80.4 and 63.1; 87.3 and 76.6 respectively. In univariate analysis, pre-CRT PSSHN scores were significantly lesser in patients with severe pre-CRT dysphagia (P = 0.001, hypopharyngeal cancer (P = 0.244 and advanced T-stage (T3/4 disease (P = 0.144. At CRT completion, there was significant reduction of PSSHN scores in patients with severe pre-CRT dysphagia (P = 0.008, post-CRT weight loss (>10% and disease progression (P = 0.039. At two months and six months, 17 (57% and 11 (73.5% patients respectively showed change in dietary habit. Mean increase in meal time was 13% and 21% at two and six-month follow-up. Conclusions : HNSCC patients show deterioration in swallowing function after CRT with normalcy of diet in maximum and eating in public least affected. Pre-CRT severity of dysphagia, weight loss> 10% and disease progression have significant correlation with higher swallowing function deterioration after CRT.

  18. ICN_Atlas: Automated description and quantification of functional MRI activation patterns in the framework of intrinsic connectivity networks.

    Kozák, Lajos R; van Graan, Louis André; Chaudhary, Umair J; Szabó, Ádám György; Lemieux, Louis

    2017-12-01

    Generally, the interpretation of functional MRI (fMRI) activation maps continues to rely on assessing their relationship to anatomical structures, mostly in a qualitative and often subjective way. Recently, the existence of persistent and stable brain networks of functional nature has been revealed; in particular these so-called intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) appear to link patterns of resting state and task-related state connectivity. These networks provide an opportunity of functionally-derived description and interpretation of fMRI maps, that may be especially important in cases where the maps are predominantly task-unrelated, such as studies of spontaneous brain activity e.g. in the case of seizure-related fMRI maps in epilepsy patients or sleep states. Here we present a new toolbox (ICN_Atlas) aimed at facilitating the interpretation of fMRI data in the context of ICN. More specifically, the new methodology was designed to describe fMRI maps in function-oriented, objective and quantitative way using a set of 15 metrics conceived to quantify the degree of 'engagement' of ICNs for any given fMRI-derived statistical map of interest. We demonstrate that the proposed framework provides a highly reliable quantification of fMRI activation maps using a publicly available longitudinal (test-retest) resting-state fMRI dataset. The utility of the ICN_Atlas is also illustrated on a parametric task-modulation fMRI dataset, and on a dataset of a patient who had repeated seizures during resting-state fMRI, confirmed on simultaneously recorded EEG. The proposed ICN_Atlas toolbox is freely available for download at http://icnatlas.com and at http://www.nitrc.org for researchers to use in their fMRI investigations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios.

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Batzer, Darold P

    2013-01-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation), we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness) of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold) allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate) to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold), and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate) was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i) as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii) this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity embedded in these

  20. Comparison of the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke.

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the tested functions was observed in both groups. However, in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits the degree of recovery of most language functions and some cognitive functions was higher. A significantly greater correlation was revealed within language and cognitive functions, as well as between language functions and other aspects of cognition in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits than in patients with aphasia following a stroke. Our results show that patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits have a different recovery pattern and a different pattern of correlation between language and cognitive functions compared to patients with aphasia following a stroke. (1) Better understanding of the differences in recovery of language and cognitive functions in patients who have suffered strokes and those who have experienced traumatic brain injury. (2) Better understanding of the relationship between language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. (3) Better understanding of the factors influencing recovery.

  1. Self-Organized Patterns Induced by Neimark-Sacker, Flip and Turing Bifurcations in a Discrete Predator-Prey Model with Lesie-Gower Functional Response

    Feifan Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of self-organized patterns in predator-prey models has been a very hot topic recently. The dynamics of these models, bifurcations and pattern formations are so complex that studies are urgently needed. In this research, we transformed a continuous predator-prey model with Lesie-Gower functional response into a discrete model. Fixed points and stability analyses were studied. Around the stable fixed point, bifurcation analyses including: flip, Neimark-Sacker and Turing bifurcation were done and bifurcation conditions were obtained. Based on these bifurcation conditions, parameters values were selected to carry out numerical simulations on pattern formation. The simulation results showed that Neimark-Sacker bifurcation induced spots, spirals and transitional patterns from spots to spirals. Turing bifurcation induced labyrinth patterns and spirals coupled with mosaic patterns, while flip bifurcation induced many irregular complex patterns. Compared with former studies on continuous predator-prey model with Lesie-Gower functional response, our research on the discrete model demonstrated more complex dynamics and varieties of self-organized patterns.

  2. The COMT Val/Met polymorphism is associated with reading related skills and consistent patterns of functional neural activation

    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Preston, Jonathan L.; Jacobsen, Leslie K.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    In both children and adults there is large variability in reading skill, with approximately 5–10% of individuals characterized as having reading disability; these individuals struggle to learn to read despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. Although it is well established that a substantial portion of this variability is attributed to the genetic differences between individuals, specifics of the connections between reading and the genome are not understood. This article presents data that suggest that variation in the COMT gene, which has previously been associated with variation in higher-order cognition, is associated with reading and reading-related skills, both at the level of brain and behavior. In particular, we found that the COMT Val/Met polymorphism at rs4680, which results in the substitution of the ancestral Valine (Val) by Methionine (Met), was associated with better performance on a number of critical reading measures and with patterns of functional neural activation that have been linked to better readers. We argue that this polymorphism, known for its broad effects on cognition, may modulate (likely through frontal lobe function) reading skill. PMID:23278923

  3. The COMT Val/Met polymorphism is associated with reading-related skills and consistent patterns of functional neural activation.

    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, W Einar; Preston, Jonathan L; Jacobsen, Leslie K; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2013-01-01

    In both children and adults there is large variability in reading skill, with approximately 5-10% of individuals characterized as having reading disability; these individuals struggle to learn to read despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. Although it is well established that a substantial portion of this variability is attributed to the genetic differences between individuals, specifics of the connections between reading and the genome are not understood. This article presents data that suggest that variation in the COMT gene, which has previously been associated with variation in higher-order cognition, is associated with reading and reading-related skills, at the level of both brain and behavior. In particular, we found that the COMT Val/Met polymorphism at rs4680, which results in the substitution of the ancestral Valine (Val) by Methionine (Met), was associated with better performance on a number of critical reading measures and with patterns of functional neural activation that have been linked to better readers. We argue that this polymorphism, known for its broad effects on cognition, may modulate (likely through frontal lobe function) reading skill. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Expression pattern and function of tyrosine receptor kinase B isoforms in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells

    Otani, Kosuke; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki, E-mail: yamawaki@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp

    2015-11-27

    Tyrosine receptor kinaseB (TrkB) is a high affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). TrkB isoforms involve full length TrkB (TrkB FL) and truncated TrkB type1 (TrkB T1) and type 2 (TrkB T2) in rats. The aim of present study was to explore their expression pattern and function in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells (MASMCs). The expression of TrkB isoform protein and mRNA was examined by Western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Cell proliferation was measured by a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Cell migration was measured by a Boyden chamber assay. Cell morphology was observed with a phase-contrast microscope. Protein and mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB isoforms was confirmed in MASMCs. Expression level of TrkB FL was less, while that of TrkB T1 was the highest in MASMCs. Although BDNF increased phosphorylation of ERK, it had no influence on migration and proliferation of MASMCs. TrkB T1 gene knockdown by a RNA interference induced morphological changes and reduced expression level of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in MASMCs. Similar morphological changes and reduced α-SMA expression were induced in MASMCs by a Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrate that TrkB T1 expressed highly in MASMCs contributes to maintain normal cell morphology possibly via regulation of Rho activity. This study firstly defined expression level of TrkB isoforms and partly revealed their functions in peripheral vascular cells. - Highlights: • BDNF-TrkB axis mediates neurogenesis, growth, differentiation and survival. • Expression pattern and function of TrkB in vascular smooth muscle remain unclear. • Expression of TrkB FL is low, while that of TrkB T1 is the highest. • TrkB T1 contributes to maintain normal morphology possibly via activating Rho.

  5. Expression pattern and function of tyrosine receptor kinase B isoforms in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells

    Otani, Kosuke; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine receptor kinaseB (TrkB) is a high affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). TrkB isoforms involve full length TrkB (TrkB FL) and truncated TrkB type1 (TrkB T1) and type 2 (TrkB T2) in rats. The aim of present study was to explore their expression pattern and function in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells (MASMCs). The expression of TrkB isoform protein and mRNA was examined by Western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Cell proliferation was measured by a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Cell migration was measured by a Boyden chamber assay. Cell morphology was observed with a phase-contrast microscope. Protein and mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB isoforms was confirmed in MASMCs. Expression level of TrkB FL was less, while that of TrkB T1 was the highest in MASMCs. Although BDNF increased phosphorylation of ERK, it had no influence on migration and proliferation of MASMCs. TrkB T1 gene knockdown by a RNA interference induced morphological changes and reduced expression level of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in MASMCs. Similar morphological changes and reduced α-SMA expression were induced in MASMCs by a Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrate that TrkB T1 expressed highly in MASMCs contributes to maintain normal cell morphology possibly via regulation of Rho activity. This study firstly defined expression level of TrkB isoforms and partly revealed their functions in peripheral vascular cells. - Highlights: • BDNF-TrkB axis mediates neurogenesis, growth, differentiation and survival. • Expression pattern and function of TrkB in vascular smooth muscle remain unclear. • Expression of TrkB FL is low, while that of TrkB T1 is the highest. • TrkB T1 contributes to maintain normal morphology possibly via activating Rho.

  6. Association between dietary patterns and cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of the SONIC study.

    Okubo, Hitomi; Inagaki, Hiroki; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Kamide, Kei; Ikebe, Kazunori; Masui, Yukie; Arai, Yasumichi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Kabayama, Mai; Sugimoto, Ken; Rakugi, Hiromi; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2017-09-11

    An increasing number of studies in Western countries have shown that healthy dietary patterns may have a protective effect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, information on this relationship among non-Western populations with different cultural settings is extremely limited. We aim to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function among older Japanese people. This cross-sectional study included 635 community-dwelling people aged 69-71 years who participated in the prospective cohort study titled Septuagenarians, Octogenarians, Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC). Diet was assessed over a one-month period with a validated, brief-type, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by factor analysis. Cognitive function was assessed using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function. Three dietary patterns were identified: the 'Plant foods and fish', 'Rice and miso soup', and 'Animal food' patterns. The 'Plant foods and fish' pattern, characterized by high intakes of green and other vegetables, soy products, seaweeds, mushrooms, potatoes, fruit, fish, and green tea, was significantly associated with a higher MoCA-J score [MoCA-J score per one-quartile increase in dietary pattern: β = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.79), P for trend cognitive function. To confirm the possibility of reverse causation we also conducted a sensitivity analysis excluding 186 subjects who reported substantial changes in their diet for any reason, but the results did not change materially. This preliminary cross-sectional study suggests that a diet with high intakes of vegetables, soy products, fruit, and fish may have a beneficial effect on cognitive function in older Japanese people. Further

  7. Computers and conversation

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  8. Human microRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors show significantly different biological patterns: from functions to targets.

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which play essential roles in many important biological processes. Therefore, their dysfunction is associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, and although there is great interest in research into these cancer-associated miRNAs, little is known about them. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of putative human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We found that miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors clearly show different patterns in function, evolutionary rate, expression, chromosome distribution, molecule size, free energy, transcription factors, and targets. For example, miRNA oncogenes are located mainly in the amplified regions in human cancers, whereas miRNA tumor suppressors are located mainly in the deleted regions. miRNA oncogenes tend to cleave target mRNAs more frequently than miRNA tumor suppressors. These results indicate that these two types of cancer-associated miRNAs play different roles in cancer formation and development. Moreover, the patterns identified here can discriminate novel miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors with a high degree of accuracy. This study represents the first large-scale bioinformatic analysis of human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Our findings provide help for not only understanding of miRNAs in cancer but also for the specific identification of novel miRNAs as miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. In addition, the data presented in this study will be valuable for the study of both miRNAs and cancer.

  9. A novel method for flow pattern identification in unstable operational conditions using gamma ray and radial basis function

    Roshani, G.H.; Nazemi, E.; Roshani, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes of fluid properties (especially density) strongly affect the performance of radiation-based multiphase flow meter and could cause error in recognizing the flow pattern and determining void fraction. In this work, we proposed a methodology based on combination of multi-beam gamma ray attenuation and dual modality densitometry techniques using RBF neural network in order to recognize the flow regime and determine the void fraction in gas-liquid two phase flows independent of the liquid phase changes. The proposed system is consisted of one 137 Cs source, two transmission detectors and one scattering detector. The registered counts in two transmission detectors were used as the inputs of one primary Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network for recognizing the flow regime independent of liquid phase density. Then, after flow regime identification, three RBF neural networks were utilized for determining the void fraction independent of liquid phase density. Registered count in scattering detector and first transmission detector were used as the inputs of these three RBF neural networks. Using this simple methodology, all the flow patterns were correctly recognized and the void fraction was predicted independent of liquid phase density with mean relative error (MRE) of less than 3.28%. - Highlights: • Flow regime and void fraction were determined in two phase flows independent of the liquid phase density changes. • An experimental structure was set up and the required data was obtained. • 3 detectors and one gamma source were used in detection geometry. • RBF networks were utilized for flow regime and void fraction determination.

  10. Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Promoter-Containing Retroviral Promoter Conversion Vectors for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy are Functional in Vitro and in Vivo

    Reinhard Klein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene directed-enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT is an approach for sensitization of tumor cells to an enzymatically activated, otherwise nontoxic, prodrug. Cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1 metabolizes the prodrugs cyclophosphamide (CPA and ifosfamide (IFA to produce the cytotoxic substances phosphoramide mustard and isophosphoramide mustard as well as the byproduct acrolein. We have constructed a retroviral promoter conversion (ProCon vector for breast cancer GDEPT. The vector allows expression of CYP2B1 from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV promoter known to be active in the mammary glands of transgenic animals. It is anticipated to be used for the generation of encapsulated viral vector producing cells which, when placed inside or close to a tumor, will act as suppliers of the therapeutic CYP2B1 protein as well as of the therapeutic vector itself. The generated vector was effectively packaged by virus producing cells and allowed the production of high levels of enzymatically active CYP2B1 in infected cells which sensitized them to killing upon treatment with both IFA and CPA. Determination of the respective IC50 values demonstrated that the effective IFA dose was reduced by sixteen folds. Infection efficiencies in vivo were determined using a reporter gene-bearing vector in a mammary cancer cell-derived xenograft tumor mouse model.

  11. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; Mai, Juliane; Mendiguren Gonzalez, Gorka

    2018-01-01

    Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target...... and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance...

  12. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation), dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution) and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state). The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem-focused coping will most

  13. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    René Schalk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation, dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state. The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem

  14. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States.

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation), dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution) and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state). The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem-focused coping will most

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy-induced brain functional connectivity predicts therapeutic efficacy in patients with schizophrenia: a multivariate pattern recognition study.

    Li, Peng; Jing, Ri-Xing; Zhao, Rong-Jiang; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Shi, Le; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lin, Xiao; Fan, Teng-Teng; Dong, Wen-Tian; Fan, Yong; Lu, Lin

    2017-05-11

    REVEAL GOOD CANDIDATES FOR BRAIN STIMULATION: Connectivity patterns in the brain may help identify patients with schizophrenia most likely to benefit from electroconvulsive therapy. A team led by Lin Lu from Peking University, China, and Yong Fan from the University of Pennsylvania, USA, took functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 34 people with schizophrenia and 34 control individuals without mental illness. Those with schizophrenia were scanned before and after treatment; some received antipsychotics alone, others received medication plus electroconvulsive therapy. The researchers created organizational brain maps known as "intrinsic connectivity networks" for each individual, and showed that the neuroimaging pattern could discriminate between people with and without schizophrenia. For the schizophrenia patients, the connectivity networks taken prior to treatment also helped predict who would benefit from the brain-stimulation procedure. Such a biomarker could prove a useful diagnostic tool for clinicians.

  16. Condenser design for AMTEC power conversion

    Crowley, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    The condenser and the electrodes are the two elements of an alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cell which most greatly affect the energy conversion performance. A condenser is described which accomplishes two critical functions in an AMTEC cell: management of the fluid under microgravity conditions and optimization of conversion efficiency. The first function is achieved via the use of a controlled surface shape, along with drainage grooves and arteries to collect the fluid. Capillary forces manage the fluid in microgravity and dominate hydrostatic effects on the ground so the device is ground-testable. The second function is achieved via a smooth film of highly reflective liquid sodium on the condensing surface, resulting in minimization of parasitic heat losses due to radiation heat transfer. Power conversion efficiencies of 25 percent to 30 percent are estimated with this condenser using present technology for the electrodes.

  17. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  18. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  19. Conversations in African Philosophy

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  20. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene, Aflatoxine B1 and Acetaldehyde Mutational Patterns in TP53 Gene Using a Functional Assay: Relevance to Human Cancer Aetiology

    Paget, Vincent; Lechevrel, Mathilde; André, Véronique; Le Goff, Jérémie; Pottier, Didier; Billet, Sylvain; Garçon, Guillaume; Shirali, Pirouz; Sichel, François

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the TP53 gene are the most common alterations in human tumours. TP53 mutational patterns have sometimes been linked to carcinogen exposure. In hepatocellular carcinoma, a specific G>T transversion on codon 249 is classically described as a fingerprint of aflatoxin B1 exposure. Likewise G>T transversions in codons 157 and 158 have been related to tobacco exposure in human lung cancers. However, controversies remain about the interpretation of TP53 mutational pattern in tumours as the fingerprint of genotoxin exposure. By using a functional assay, the Functional Analysis of Separated Alleles in Yeast (FASAY), the present study depicts the mutational pattern of TP53 in normal human fibroblasts after in vitro exposure to well-known carcinogens: benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B1 and acetaldehyde. These in vitro patterns of mutations were then compared to those found in human tumours by using the IARC database of TP53 mutations. The results show that the TP53 mutational patterns found in human tumours can be only partly ascribed to genotoxin exposure. A complex interplay between the functional impact of the mutations on p53 phenotype and the cancer natural history may affect these patterns. However, our results strongly support that genotoxins exposure plays a major role in the aetiology of the considered cancers. PMID:22319594

  2. Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.

    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, β-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bombyx mori and Aedes aegypti form multi-functional immune complexes that integrate pattern recognition, melanization, coagulants, and hemocyte recruitment.

    Phillips, Dennis R; Clark, Kevin D

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune system of insects responds to wounding and pathogens by mobilizing multiple pathways that provide both systemic and localized protection. Key localized responses in hemolymph include melanization, coagulation, and hemocyte encapsulation, which synergistically seal wounds and envelop and destroy pathogens. To be effective, these pathways require a targeted deposition of their components to provide protection without compromising the host. Extensive research has identified a large number of the effectors that comprise these responses, but questions remain regarding their post-translational processing, function, and targeting. Here, we used mass spectrometry to demonstrate the integration of pathogen recognition proteins, coagulants, and melanization components into stable, high-mass, multi-functional Immune Complexes (ICs) in Bombyx mori and Aedes aegypti. Essential proteins common to both include phenoloxidases, apolipophorins, serine protease homologs, and a serine protease that promotes hemocyte recruitment through cytokine activation. Pattern recognition proteins included C-type Lectins in B. mori, while A. aegypti contained a protein homologous to Plasmodium-resistant LRIM1 from Anopheles gambiae. We also found that the B. mori IC is stabilized by extensive transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking of multiple components. The melanization inhibitor Egf1.0, from the parasitoid wasp Microplitis demolitor, blocked inclusion of specific components into the IC and also inhibited transglutaminase activity. Our results show how coagulants, melanization components, and hemocytes can be recruited to a wound surface or pathogen, provide insight into the mechanism by which a parasitoid evades this immune response, and suggest that insects as diverse as Lepidoptera and Diptera utilize similar defensive mechanisms.

  4. Intraindividual variability of sleep/wake patterns in relation to child and adolescent functioning: A systematic review.

    Becker, Stephen P; Sidol, Craig A; Van Dyk, Tori R; Epstein, Jeffery N; Beebe, Dean W

    2017-08-01

    Substantial research attention has been devoted to understanding the importance and impact of sleep in children and adolescents. Traditionally, this has focused on mean sleep variables (e.g., a child's "typical" or average sleep duration), yet research increasingly suggests that intraindividual variability (IIV) of sleep/wake patterns (sometimes referred to as sleep variability or night-to-night variability) regularly occurs and may have implications for adjustment. A systematic search of five electronic databases identified 52 empirical studies published between 2000 and 2015 that examined correlates of sleep IIV in children and adolescents, with a recent increase in the publication rate of such studies. Identified studies were often atheoretical and included post hoc analyses, though IIV in select aspects of sleep does appear to be associated with increasing age/pubertal status, non-White race, physical and neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; autism), psychopathology symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression, inattention), body weight, stress, aspects of cognitive functioning, and poorer sleep functioning/habits. The limited intervention work examining sleep IIV in adolescents is promising, though studies are needed using more rigorous intervention designs. Clinical sleep recommendations may not only need to address overall sleep duration and sleep habits but also the stability of sleep duration and timing. It will be important for future research examining sleep IIV in children and adolescents to use a developmental framework in advancing theory pertaining to the causes, mechanisms, moderators, and outcomes of sleep IIV in youth, and a conceptual model is proposed to help guide such efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Use of Conversational Laughter by an Individual with Dementia

    Wilson, Brent Thomas; Muller, Nicole; Damico, Jack S.

    2007-01-01

    While laughter has been shown to play a significant role in any social interaction; its conversational usage by a person with dementia has rarely been investigated. This paper will investigate the functional aspects of laughter during conversation in an individual with dementia. Conversation analysis is used in order to investigate laughter as a…

  6. Effects of clonidine on 24-hour hormonal secretory patterns, cardiovascular hemodynamics, and central nervous function in hypertensive adolescents.

    Boyar, R M; Fixler, D F; Kaplan, N M; Graham, R M; Price, K P; Chipman, J J; Laird, W P

    1980-01-01

    To assess the potential of antihypertensive drugs for interference with somatic growth and sexual development in hypertensive children, the effect of clonidine therapy on various endocrine, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular functions has been examined in five male adolescents with idiopathic hypertension. In studies done before and at the end of 4 weeks of twice-daily clonidine therapy, in an average daily dose of 0.31 mg, no significant effects were noted in the secretory patterns of growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, cortisol, aldosterone, or testosterone, measured in blood obtained every 20 minutes for 24 hours. In blood obtained while the patients were supine and then erect, plasma renin activity and norepinephrine levels were significantly lowered after clonidine therapy. Cardiovascular responses to dynamic exercise were little altered beyond a 17% decrease in maximal oxygen consumption. The performance of fine motor skills was minimally altered. These data provide preliminary evidence that clonidine, an antihypertensive drug that affects the adrenergic nervous system, may not interfere with normal growth and maturation in adolescent males.

  7. A review of nanostructured surfaces and materials for dental implants: surface coating, patterning and functionalization for improved performance.

    Rasouli, Rahimeh; Barhoum, Ahmed; Uludag, Hasan

    2018-05-10

    The emerging field of nanostructured implants has enormous scope in the areas of medical science and dental implants. Surface nanofeatures provide significant potential solutions to medical problems by the introduction of better biomaterials, improved implant design, and surface engineering techniques such as coating, patterning, functionalization and molecular grafting at the nanoscale. This review is of an interdisciplinary nature, addressing the history and development of dental implants and the emerging area of nanotechnology in dental implants. After a brief introduction to nanotechnology in dental implants and the main classes of dental implants, an overview of different types of nanomaterials (i.e. metals, metal oxides, ceramics, polymers and hydrides) used in dental implant together with their unique properties, the influence of elemental compositions, and surface morphologies and possible applications are presented from a chemical point of view. In the core of this review, the dental implant materials, physical and chemical fabrication techniques and the role of nanotechnology in achieving ideal dental implants have been discussed. Finally, the critical parameters in dental implant design and available data on the current dental implant surfaces that use nanotopography in clinical dentistry have been discussed.

  8. Superhydrophobic nanofluidic channels for enhanced electrokinetic conversion

    Checco, Antonio; Al Hossain, Aktaruzzaman; Rahmani, Amir; Black, Charles; Doerk, Gregory; Colosqui, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We present current efforts in the development of novel slit nanofluidic channels with superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces designed to enhance hydrodynamic conductivity and improve selective transport and electrokinetic energy conversion efficiencies (mechanical-electrical energy conversion). The nanochannels are fabricated on silicon wafers using UV lithography, and their internal surface is patterned with conical nanostructures (feature size and spacing 30 nm) defined by block copolymer self-assembly and plasma etching. These nanostructures are rendered superhydrophobic by passivation with a hydrophobic silane monolayer. We experimentally characterize hydrodynamic conductivity, effective zeta potentials, and eletrokinetic flows for the patterned nanochannels, comparing against control channels with bare surfaces. Experimental observations are rationalized using both continuum-based modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific and technical knowledge produced by this work is particularly relevant for sustainable energy conversion and storage, separation processes and water treatment using nanoporous materials. The ONR Contract # N000141613178 and NSF-CBET award# 1605809.

  9. Association of long-term patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function among older men with and without human immunodeficiency virus.

    Armstrong, Nicole M; Surkan, Pamela J; Treisman, Glenn J; Sacktor, Ned C; Irwin, Michael R; Teplin, Linda A; Stall, Ron; Martin, Eileen M; Becker, James T; Munro, Cynthia; Levine, Andrew J; Jacobson, Lisa P; Abraham, Alison G

    2017-08-01

    Older HIV-infected men are at higher risk for both depression and cognitive impairments, compared to HIV-uninfected men. We evaluated the association between longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men aged 50+ years to understand whether HIV infection influenced the long-term effect of depression on attention/executive function. Responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale and attention/executive function tests (Trail Making Test Part B and Symbol Digit Modalities Test) were collected semiannually from May 1986 to April 2015 in 1611 men. Group-based trajectory models, stratified by HIV status, were used to identify latent patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function across 12 years of follow-up. We identified three depression patterns for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (rare/never 50.0 vs. 60.6%, periodically depressed 29.6 vs. 24.5%, chronic high 20.5 vs.15.0%, respectively) and three patterns of attention/executive function for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (worst-performing 47.4 vs. 45.1%; average 41.9 vs. 47.0%; best-performing 10.7 vs. 8.0%, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between depression patterns and worst-performing attention/executive function. Among HIV-uninfected men, those in the periodically depressed and chronic high depressed groups had higher odds of membership in the worst-performing attention/executive function group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.45, 95% CI 1.04, 2.03; AOR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.49, 3.39, respectively). Among HIV-infected men, patterns of depression symptoms were not associated with patterns of attention/executive function. Results suggest that HIV-uninfected, but not HIV-infected, men with chronic high depression are more likely to experience a long-term pattern of attention/executive dysfunction.

  10. Indirectness in Discourse: Ethnicity as Conversational Style.

    Tannen, Deborah

    1981-01-01

    Examines social differences in expectations of indirectness in conversations between married couples, both Greek and Greek-American. Concludes that Greeks are more likely to expect indirectness in the context presented and that Greek-Americans have retained the Greek communicative patterns. (FL)

  11. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  12. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles—improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA)

    Grötzinger, Stefan W.; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available

  13. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles – Improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA

    Stefan Wolfgang Grötzinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs and poor homology of novel extremophile’s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the INDIGO data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile & Pattern Matching (PPM strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern. The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2,577 E.C. numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from 6 different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter. Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available through the INDIGO website.

  14. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles-improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA).

    Grötzinger, Stefan W.

    2014-04-07

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile\\'s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available

  15. Solar energy conversion systems

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  16. Energy conversion statics

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  17. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  18. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Uranium conversion wastes

    Vicente, R.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1989-12-01

    A set of mathematical equations was developed and used to estimate the radiological significance of each radionuclide potentially present in the uranium refining industry effluents. The equations described the evolution in time of the radionuclides activities in the uranium fuel cycle, from mining and milling, through the yellowcake, till the conversion effluents. Some radionuclides that are not usually monitored in conversion effluents (e.g. Pa-231 and Ac-227) were found to be potentially relevant from the radiological point of view in conversion facilities, and are certainly relevant in mining and milling industry, at least in a few waste streams. (author) [pt

  20. Freely flowing conversations

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of