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Sample records for function cesiated dispenser

  1. Fabrication and Measurement of Low Work Function Cesiated Dispenser Photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Moody, Nathan A; Jensen, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Photoinjector performance is a limiting factor in the continued development of high powered FELs and electron beam-based accelerators. Presently available photocathodes are plagued with limited efficiency and short lifetime in an RF-gun environment, due to contamination or evaporation of a photosensitive surface layer. An ideal photocathode should have high efficiency at long wavelengths, long lifetime in practical vacuum environments, and prompt emission. Cathodes with high efficiency typically have limited lifetime, and vice versa, and the needs of the photocathode are generally at odds with those of the drive laser. A potential solution is the low work function dispenser cathode, where lifetime issues are overcome by periodic in situ regeneration that restores the photosensitive surface layer, analogous to those used in the microwave power tube industry. This work reports on the fabrication techniques and performance of cesiated metal photocathodes and cesiated dispenser cathodes, with a focus on understan...

  2. Measurement of Low Workfunction Cesiated Metals for Use in Dispenser Photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Moody, N A; O'Shea, P G

    2005-01-01

    Photoinjector performance is a limiting factor in the continued development of high powered FELs. Presently available photocathodes have limited efficiency and short lifetime in an RF-gun environment, due to contamination or evaporation of a photosensitive surface layer. An ideal photocathode should have high efficiency at visible wavelengths, long lifetime in practical vacuum environments, and prompt emission. High efficiency cathodes typically have limited lifetime, and the needs of the photocathode are generally at odds with those of the drive laser. A potential solution is the low work function dispenser cathode, where short lifetimes are overcome by periodic in situ regeneration that restores the photosensitive surface layer, analogous to methods used in the power tube industry. This work reports on the fabrication techniques and performance of cesiated metal photocathodes and cesiated dispenser cathodes, with a focus on understanding and improving quantum efficiency and lifetime, analyzing issues of emi...

  3. Theoretical determination of cesiated work functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szejn, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program based on the theoretical work of Gyftopoulos, Steiner, and Levine on bimetallic systems and using a modified version of Wilkins' SIMCON subroutine SURFAS was written for the Univac 1108. This program, WFGSL, accepts the operating conditions and the physical parameters pertinent to the substrate and adsorbate, and outputs the field-free work function, electron current (Richardson equation), ion current (Saha equation), and fractional substrate coverage by the adsorbate. A brief description of the theory is presented together with a program description and listing. An application of the program to a bimetallic system of cesium (adsorbate) and rhenium (substrate) is also described.

  4. Hydrogen scattering from a cesiated surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutigliano, Maria; Palma, Amedeo; Sanna, Nico

    2017-10-01

    A cesiated surface model was considered to study the dynamics of hydrogen atom scattering using a semiclassical collisional method. Using dipole correction method, the work function of the considered surface, is calculated to be 1.81 eV (± 0.02) eV. The Potential Energy Surface for the interaction of H atoms with the surface was determined via first principle electronic structure calculations including the interaction with both Cs and Mo atoms of the surface. We found the scattered H atoms to have a negative partial charge of nearly 0.4 with the backscattered flux arising mainly from H atoms impinging directly (or very close) to Cs atoms on the surface. On the contrary, H atoms impinging in the voids between the Cs atoms propagate through the first Cs layer and remain adsorbed. The propagation occurs mainly in the vertical direction. The scattering probability after a very quick increase remains almost constant around an average value of 0.35.

  5. MFng is dispensable for mouse pancreas development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Per; Bergqvist, Ingela; Norlin, Stefan; Edlund, Helena

    2009-04-01

    Notch signaling regulates pancreatic cell differentiation, and mutations of various Notch signaling components result in perturbed pancreas development. Members of the Fringe family of beta1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, Manic Fringe (MFng), Lunatic Fringe (LFng), and Radical Fringe (RFng), modulate Notch signaling, and MFng has been suggested to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation. We have characterized the expression of the three mouse Fringe genes in the developing mouse pancreas between embryonic days 9 and 14 and show that the expression of MFng colocalized with the proendocrine transcription factor Ngn3. In contrast, the expression of LFng colocalized with the exocrine marker Ptf1a, whereas RFng was not expressed. Moreover, we show that expression of MFng is lost in Ngn3 mutant mice, providing evidence that MFng is genetically downstream of Ngn3. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses of MFng by the generation of mice that overexpress MFng in early pancreatic progenitor cells and mice with a targeted deletion of MFng provide, however, evidence that MFng is dispensable for pancreas development and function, since no pancreatic defects in these mice were observed.

  6. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  7. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  8. Cesiated hollow cathodes in the multicusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchenko, Yu. I.; Oka, Y.; Hamabe, M.; Kaneko, O.; Krivenko, A.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Asano, E.; Kawamoto, T.

    2002-02-01

    A cesiated hydrogen hollow cathode (CHC) was tested for plasma injection in the multicusp negative ion source (MS). The CHC arc with hydrogen feed and cesium seeding through the CHC volume was explored. One cathode unit (40 mm length, 19 mm in diameter, emission opening area 1-3 mm2) with no special cooling provided the MS discharge operation with direct current up to 30 A, and up to 60 A in the long-pulse mode. High efficiency of negative ion production in the MS discharge, driven by a CHC plasma injection was recorded.

  9. Pharmacists' assessment of dispensing errors: risk factors, practice sites, professional functions, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, C A; Raehl, C L

    2001-05-01

    Certain demographic, practice, staffing, and pharmacist satisfaction variables may contribute to dispensing errors. A survey was randomly mailed to 7298 (50%) Texas pharmacists, of which 2862 were returned (39% response rate). Responders were 2437 pharmacists who indicated that they were in practice. Of these, 535 (23%) reported no risk to patients for dispensing errors and 793 (34%) reported at least one patient/week was at risk for such an error. There was a positive relationship between number of prescription orders filled/hour and the estimated risk of dispensing errors (r(s)=0.285, ppharmacies (risk score = 1.85 +/- 1.32), traditional chain store pharmacies (1.66 +/- 1.18), and hospital pharmacies (1.61 +/- 1.09) reported a higher risk than other groups. Pharmacists practicing in independent community pharmacies (0.75 +/- 0.84), home health care (0.83 +/- 0.99), grocery chain store pharmacies (1.30 +/- 0.96), and mass merchandise chain store pharmacies (1.30 +/- 1.08) reported a lower risk (H=260, df=8, p<0.001). Nine job satisfaction variables were strongly associated with the risk of dispensing errors (r(s) = between -0.3 and -0.422, p<0.001), as were prescription volume, practice site, staffing, training, pharmacist functions, and professional organization membership. The results of this survey should help pharmacists and management develop specific plans for reducing the risks of dispensing errors. These data should be useful for more in-depth study of such errors.

  10. Beam formation in CERNs cesiated surfaces and volume H- ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalskyy, Serhiy; Lettry, Jacques; Minea, Tiberiu

    2016-08-01

    At CERN, a high performance negative ion (NI) source is required for the 160 MeV H- linear accelerator named Linac4. The source should deliver 80 mA H- ion beams within an emittance of 0.25 mm·mrad. For this purpose two ion sources were developed: IS01 is based on the NI volume production and IS02 provides additional NI by surface production via H interaction on a cesiated Molybdenum plasma electrode. The development of negative ion sources for Linac4 is accompanied by modelling activities. ONIX code has been modified and adapted to investigate the transport of NI and electrons in the extraction region of the CERN negative ion sources. The simulated results from modeling of IS01 and IS02 extraction regions, which were obtained in 2012 during source commissioning, are presented and benchmarked with experimental measurements obtained after 2013. The formation of the plasma meniscus and the screening of the extraction field by the source plasma are discussed. The NI production is compared between two types of sources, the first one based on volume production only and the second one encompassing NI cesiated surface production. For the IS02 source, different states of conditioning were simulated by changing the NI emission flux from the plasma electrode and Cs+ density in the bulk plasma region. The numerical results show that in low work function regime, with high NI surface emission rate of 3000 A m-2 and Cs-density of nCs+ = 3.8 × 1016 m-3, the total extracted NI current could reach ~80 mA. At the less favorable Cs-coverage, when the surface NI emission rate becomes significantly lower, namely 300 A m-2 with nCs+ = 3.3 × 1015 m-3, the total extracted NI current only reaches ~20 mA. A good agreement between simulation and experimental results is observed in terms of extracted NI current for both extraction systems, including the case of reversed extraction potential that corresponds to positive (H+) ion extraction.

  11. AMPKγ3 is dispensable for skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Björnholm, Marie; Egan, Brendan; Nader, Gustavo A; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-03-15

    Mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle growth involve a balance between the activity of serine/threonine protein kinases, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The contribution of different AMPK subunits to the regulation of cell growth size remains inadequately characterized. Using AMPKγ3 mutant-overexpressing transgenic Tg-Prkag3(225Q) and AMPKγ3-knockout (Prkag3(-/-)) mice, we investigated the requirement for the AMPKγ3 isoform in functional overload-induced muscle hypertrophy. Although the genetic disruption of the γ3 isoform did not impair muscle growth, control sham-operated AMPKγ3-transgenic mice displayed heavier plantaris muscles in response to overload hypertrophy and underwent smaller mass gain and lower Igf1 expression compared with wild-type littermates. The mTOR signaling pathway was upregulated with functional overload but unchanged between genetically modified animals and wild-type littermates. Differences in AMPK-related signaling pathways between transgenic, knockout, and wild-type mice did not impact muscle hypertrophy. Glycogen content was increased following overload in wild-type mice. In conclusion, our functional, transcriptional, and signaling data provide evidence against the involvement of the AMPKγ3 isoform in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Thus, the AMPKγ3 isoform is dispensable for functional overload-induced muscle growth. Mechanical loading can override signaling pathways that act as negative effectors of mTOR signaling and consequently promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Presence of a functional but dispensable Nuclear Export Signal in the HTLV-2 Tax protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiemer Lars

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 are related human retroviruses. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of the Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and of the Tropical Spastic Paraparesis/HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy, whereas, HTLV-2 infection has not been formally associated with any T-cell malignancy. HTLV-1 and 2 genomes encode, respectively, the Tax1 and Tax2 proteins whose role is to transactivate the viral promoter. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax sequences display 28% divergence at the amino acid level. Tax1 is a shuttling protein that possesses both a non canonical nuclear import (NLS and a nuclear export (NES signal. We have recently demonstrated that Tax1 and Tax2 display different subcellular localization and that residues 90–100 are critical for this process. We investigate in the present report, whether Tax2 also possesses a functional NES. Results We first used a NES prediction method to determine whether the Tax2 protein might contain a NES and the results do suggest the presence of a NES sequence in Tax2. Using Green Fluorescent Protein-NES (GFP-NES fusion proteins, we demonstrate that the Tax2 sequence encompasses a functional NES (NES2. As shown by microscope imaging, NES2 is able to mediate translocation of GFP from the nucleus, without the context of a full length Tax protein. Furthermore, point mutations or leptomycin B treatment abrogate NES2 function. However, within the context of full length Tax2, similar point mutations in the NES2 leucine rich stretch do not modify Tax2 localization. Finally, we also show that Tax1 NES function is dependent upon the positioning of the nuclear export signal "vis-à-vis" GFP. Conclusion HTLV-2 Tax NES is functional but dispensable for the protein localization in vitro.

  13. Lin28a is dormant, functional, and dispensable during mouse oocyte-to-embryo transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemr, Matyas; Moravec, Martin; Libova, Veronika; Sedlacek, Radislav; Svoboda, Petr

    2014-06-01

    The oocyte-to-embryo transition (OET) denotes transformation of a highly differentiated oocyte into totipotent blastomeres of the early mammalian embryo. OET depends exclusively on maternal RNAs and proteins accumulated during oocyte growth, which implies importance of post-transcriptional control of gene expression. OET includes replacement of abundant maternal microRNAs (miRNAs), enriched also in differentiated cells and exemplified by the Let-7 family, with embryonic miRNAs common in pluripotent stem cells (the miR-290 family in the mouse). Lin28a and its homolog Lin28b encode RNA-binding proteins, which interfere with Let-7 maturation and facilitate reprogramming of induced pluripotent stem cells. Both Lin28a and Lin28b transcripts are abundant in mouse oocytes. To test the role of maternal expression of Lin28a and Lin28b during oocyte-to-zygote reprogramming, we generated mice with oocyte-specific knockdown of both genes by using transgenic RNA interference. Lin28a and Lin28b are dispensable during oocyte growth because their knockdown has no effect on Let-7a levels in fully grown germinal vesicle (GV)-intact oocytes. Furthermore, transgenic females were fertile and produced healthy offspring, and their overall breeding performance was comparable to that of wild-type mice. At the same time, 2-cell embryos derived from transgenic females showed up-regulation of mature Let-7, suggesting that maternally provided LIN28A and LIN28B function during zygotic genome activation. Consistent with this conclusion is increased translation of Lin28a transcripts upon resumption of meiosis. Our data imply dual repression of Let-7 during OET in the mouse model, the selective suppression of Let-7 biogenesis by Lin28 homologs superimposed on previously reported global suppression of miRNA activity. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Multi-liquor dispenser series; Multi rika dispenser series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Fuji Electric Co. developed a series of dispensers (FTS-50W and FTM-50W) which enables the sale of a plurality of drinks by one machine by making a beer dispenser and a carbonated drink dispenser monolithic. Main characteristics are as follows. Beer and carbonated drink (soft drinks and alcohols such as shochu) can be sold by one machine (FTS is for 1 flavor and FTM is for 3 flavor). It has a portion function which enables the quantitative sale of carbonated drink just by pressing a button, and also has a function which enables only the sale of carbonated water. The cost reduction can be realized by standardizing the parts of other beer dispensers and soft drink dispensers. (NEDO)

  15. SOCS5 is expressed in primary B and T lymphoid cells but is dispensable for lymphocyte production and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, Christine; Columbus, Ruth; Metcalf, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCSs) are key regulators of cytokine-induced responses in hematopoietic as well as nonhematopoietic cells. SOCS1 and SOCS3 have been shown to modulate T-cell responses, whereas the roles of other SOCS family members in the regulation of lymphocyte function...... are less clear. Here, we report the generation of mice with a targeted disruption of the Socs5 gene. Socs5(-/-) mice were born in a normal Mendelian ratio and were healthy and fertile. We found that SOCS5 is expressed in primary B and T cells in wild-type mice. However, no abnormalities in the lymphocyte...... to be dispensable for the regulation of lymphocyte function....

  16. Quantitatively pouring draft beer dispenser; Teiryo chushutsu nama beer dispenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    Suppressing bubble generation and quantitatively pouring more stably were the large problem in draft beer or sparking liquor vending. Therefore, bubbling mechanism in draft beer was analyzed, and pouring valve and beer dispensing system were optimized to have developed a beer dispenser generating little bubbles when dispensing. Its major features are as follows: (1) a valve was developed that branches liquid and bubbles without disturbing the beer flow, thus realizing stable pouring; (2) a beer mug tray drive was developed that prevents after-drips of bubbles from entering into another mug, thus realizing stable pouring; (3) the button operated rinsing function and the pouring valve removing and attaching structure facilitate washing work; and (4) the additional pouring function and the copying function facilitate setting of the dispensing volume. (translated by NEDO)

  17. The Tubulation Activity of a Fission Yeast F-BAR Protein Is Dispensable for Its Function in Cytokinesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. McDonald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available F-BAR proteins link cellular membranes to the actin cytoskeleton in many biological processes. Here we investigated the function of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Imp2 F-BAR domain in cytokinesis and find that it is critical for Imp2’s role in contractile ring constriction and disassembly. To understand mechanistically how the F-BAR domain functions, we determined its structure, elucidated how it interacts with membranes, and identified an interaction between dimers that allows helical oligomerization and membrane tubulation. Using mutations that block either membrane binding or tubulation, we find that membrane binding is required for Imp2’s cytokinetic function but that oligomerization and tubulation, activities often deemed central to F-BAR protein function, are dispensable. Accordingly, F-BARs that do not have the capacity to tubulate membranes functionally substitute for the Imp2 F-BAR, establishing that its major role is as a cell-cycle-regulated bridge between the membrane and Imp2 protein partners, rather than as a driver of membrane curvature.

  18. The Tubulation Activity of a Fission Yeast F-BAR Protein Is Dispensable for Its Function in Cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nathan A; Takizawa, Yoshimasa; Feoktistova, Anna; Xu, Ping; Ohi, Melanie D; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Gould, Kathleen L

    2016-01-26

    F-BAR proteins link cellular membranes to the actin cytoskeleton in many biological processes. Here we investigated the function of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Imp2 F-BAR domain in cytokinesis and find that it is critical for Imp2's role in contractile ring constriction and disassembly. To understand mechanistically how the F-BAR domain functions, we determined its structure, elucidated how it interacts with membranes, and identified an interaction between dimers that allows helical oligomerization and membrane tubulation. Using mutations that block either membrane binding or tubulation, we find that membrane binding is required for Imp2's cytokinetic function but that oligomerization and tubulation, activities often deemed central to F-BAR protein function, are dispensable. Accordingly, F-BARs that do not have the capacity to tubulate membranes functionally substitute for the Imp2 F-BAR, establishing that its major role is as a cell-cycle-regulated bridge between the membrane and Imp2 protein partners, rather than as a driver of membrane curvature.

  19. Caspase-9 mediates the apoptotic death of megakaryocytes and platelets, but is dispensable for their generation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Josefsson, Emma C; Jarman, Kate E; Henley, Katya J; James, Chloé; Debrincat, Marlyse A; Jackson, Shaun P; Huang, David C S; Kile, Benjamin T

    2012-05-03

    Apoptotic caspases, including caspase-9, are thought to facilitate platelet shedding by megakaryocytes. They are known to be activated during platelet apoptosis, and have also been implicated in platelet hemostatic responses. However, the precise requirement for, and the regulation of, apoptotic caspases have never been defined in either megakaryocytes or platelets. To establish the role of caspases in platelet production and function, we generated mice lacking caspase-9 in their hematopoietic system. We demonstrate that both megakaryocytes and platelets possess a functional apoptotic caspase cascade downstream of Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondrial damage. Caspase-9 is the initiator caspase, and its loss blocks effector caspase activation. Surprisingly, steady-state thrombopoiesis is unperturbed in the absence of caspase-9, indicating that the apoptotic caspase cascade is not required for platelet production. In platelets, loss of caspase-9 confers resistance to the BH3 mimetic ABT-737, blocking phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and delaying ABT-737-induced thrombocytopenia in vivo. Despite this, steady-state platelet lifespan is normal. Casp9(-/-) platelets are fully capable of physiologic hemostatic responses and functional regulation of adhesive integrins in response to agonist. These studies demonstrate that the apoptotic caspase cascade is required for the efficient death of megakaryocytes and platelets, but is dispensable for their generation and function.

  20. Advanced Medication Dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Alexan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medication dispensing is an important activity that can have major implications if done improperly. Dispensing must be done in the correct time interval, at the correct user, with the correct drug and dose. We propose a smart medication dispenser that can satisfy these needs and provide a mechanism for supervision. In order to ensure that the dispensing process is error free, the concept of a new smart medication container is used. A smart medication container is “smart” as it holds the medication dispensing parameters for the drugs it contains: dispensing time and date and name. Based on this information, the actual dispensing is done.

  1. IL-4 and IL-4 receptor expression is dispensable for the development and function of natural killer T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna Sharma

    Full Text Available CD4 T cells acquire functional properties including cytokine production upon antigenic stimulation through the T cell receptor (TCR and differentiate into T helper (Th cells. Th1 cells produce interferon (IFN-γ and Th2 cells produce interleukin (IL-4. Th1 and 2 cells utilize IFN-γ and IL-4 for further maturation and maintenance, respectively. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF-expressing invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells develop in the thymus and acquire functional ability to produce IL-4 and IFN-γ in the thymus in the absence of antigenic stimulation. In response to antigenic stimulation, iNKT cells rapidly produce IFN-γ and IL-4. However, it is still unknown as to whether iNKT cells require these cytokines for maturation or survival in vivo. In this study, using IL-4- and IL-4 receptor- (IL-4R deficient mice, we demonstrate that IL-4 as well as IL-4R expression is dispensable for the development, function and maintenance of iNKT cells.

  2. Measuring residual renal function in dialysis patients: can we dispense with 24-hour urine collections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Residual renal function is associated with improved survival and quality of life for dialysis patients. Whereas residual renal function is monitored in peritoneal dialysis patients, many hemodialysis centers simply concentrate on achieving dialyzer urea clearance targets. Accurately quantifying residual renal function from urine collections is arduous. Thus, there is a clinical need to develop alternative methods of assessing residual renal function based on serum testing, especially for patients receiving less than thrice weekly dialysis.

  3. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus-encoded ovarian tumor protease activity is dispensable for virus RNA polymerase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Eric; Albariño, César G; Khristova, Marina L; Nichol, Stuart T

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus (genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae) associated with high case fatality disease outbreaks in regions of Africa, Europe, and Asia. The CCHFV genome consists of three negative-strand RNA segments, S, M, and L. The unusually large virus L polymerase protein and the need for biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment conditions for work with infectious virus have hampered the study of CCHFV replication. The L protein has an ovarian tumor (OTU) protease domain located in the N terminus, which has led to speculation that the protein may be autoproteolytically cleaved to generate the active virus L polymerase and additional functions. We report the successful development of efficient CCHFV helper virus-independent S, M, and L segment minigenome systems for analysis of virus RNA and protein features involved in replication. The virus RNA segment S, M, and L untranslated regions were found to be similar in support of replication of the respective minigenomes. In addition, the OTU domain located in the N terminus of the expressed virus L protein was shown to be a functional protease. However, no evidence of L protein autoproteolytic processing was found, and the OTU protease activity was dispensable for virus RNA replication. Finally, physiologically relevant doses of ribavirin inhibited CCHFV minigenome replication. These results demonstrated the utility of the minigenome system for use in BSL-2 laboratory settings to analyze CCHFV biology and in antiviral drug discovery programs for this important public health and bioterrorism threat.

  4. Advanced Medication Dispenser

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Medication dispensing is an important activity that can have major implications if done improperly. Dispensing must be done in the correct time interval, at the correct user, with the correct drug and dose. We propose a smart medication dispenser that can satisfy these needs and provide a mechanism for supervision. In order to ensure that the dispensing process is error free, the concept of a new smart medication container is used. A smart medication container is “smart” ...

  5. c-Rel is dispensable for the differentiation and functional maturation of M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Anuj; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Donaldson, David S; Mabbott, Neil A

    2017-02-01

    M cells reside within the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. These unique phagocytic epithelial cells enable the mucosal immune system to sample antigens within the lumen of the intestine. The differentiation of M cells from uncommitted precursors in the FAE is dependent on the production of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) by subepithelial stromal cells. The ligation of a variety of cell surface receptors activates the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors which in-turn induce the transcription of multiple target genes. RANKL-stimulation can stimulate the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit c-Rel. We therefore used c-Rel-deficient mice to determine whether the differentiation and functional maturation of M cells in the Peyer's patches was dependent on c-Rel. Our data show that c-Rel-deficiency does not influence the expression of RANKL or RANK in Peyer's patches, or the induction of M-cell differentiation in the FAE. RANKL-stimulation in the differentiating M cells induces the expression of SpiB which is essential for their subsequent maturation. However, SpiB expression in the FAE was also unaffected in the absence of c-Rel. As a consequence, the functional maturation of M cells was not impaired in the Peyer's patches of c-Rel-deficient mice. Although our data showed that the specific expression of CCL20 and ubiquitin D in the FAE was not impeded in the absence of c-Rel, the expression of ubiquitin D was dramatically reduced in the B cell-follicles of c-Rel-deficient mice. Coincident with this, we also observed that the status of follicular dendritic cells in the B cell-follicles was dramatically reduced in Peyer's patches from c-Rel-deficient mice. Taken together, our data show that c-Rel is dispensable for the RANKL-mediated differentiation and functional maturation of M cells.

  6. Cable-Dispensing Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredberg, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

  7. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  8. Study on optimized dispensing of F-18 FDG auto dispenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Bong Geun; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Eon; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This is a study on the optimized dispensing of the auto dispenser used for the purpose of reducing the exposure dose and accurate radiation dose of radioisotope with regard to the PET/CT practitioners. The research method was to find the optimized dispensing method through evaluating the results according to the syringe type, dispensing rate, and vial pressure and through the application of corrected values. As a result of this study, 9.38 mCi has been dispensed on average in the case of 5 ml syringe, and the reproducibility close to 10 mCi was shown at the dispense of 9.55 mCi in the case of 3 ml syringe. In the evaluation according to the dispensing rate, the quantity of radioisotope close to 10 mCi was dispensed at the rate of 5 mm/min when the measurement was carried out by increasing the rate by 5 mm/min units in the order of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm/min . In the evaluation result according to the vial pressure before/after the use of Needle filter, it was measured to be 9.53 mCi before use and 9.84 mCi after use confirming that the dispensing after using Needle filter showed the optimal value. In addition, in the evaluation of radioactivity before/after the application of corrected values according to the increase in dispense frequency, it was measured 9.53 mCi before correction and 10.07 mCi after correction confirming that the value with correction applied was closer to the quantitative value. Thus, a good optimized method was confirmed to use a 3 ml syringe with dispensing rate of 5 mm/min, to use a Needle filter at dispensing, and to set the corrected value of [y = 0.097 × χ] according to the dispensing frequency of equipment.

  9. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swierkowski, S.; Ciarlo, D.

    1996-05-13

    Goal is to develop a multi-channel micromachined chemical fluid jet dispenser that is applicable to prototype tests with biological samples that demonstrate its utility for molecular biology experiments. Objective is to demonstrate a new device capable of ultrasonically ejecting droplets from 10-200 {mu}m diameter capillaries that are arranged in an array that is linear or focused. The device is based on several common fabrication procedures used in MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) technology: piezoelectric actuators, silicon, etc.

  10. Trends in radiopharmaceutical dispensing in a regional nuclear pharmacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmadjian, G.P.; Johnston, J.; Barker, K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    Dispensing trends for radiopharmaceuticals at a regional nuclear pharmacy over a 51-month period were studied. dispensing records of a regional nuclear pharmacy were analyzed with a forecasting procedure that uses univariate time data to produce time trends and autoregressive models. The overall number of prescriptions increased from 3500 to 5500 per quarter. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear cardiology studies increased from less than 0.1% to 17.5% of total prescriptions dispensed, while radiopharmaceuticals used for brain imaging showed a steady decline from 29% to 11% of total prescriptions dispensed. The demand for other radiopharmaceuticals increased in areas such as renal studies, bone studies, lung studies, liver-function studies, and /sup 67/Ga tumor-uptake studies, and declined slightly for static liver studies. Changes in dispensing trends for radiopharmaceuticals will continue as the practice of nuclear medicine concentrates more on functional studies and as newer imaging techniques become used for other purposes.

  11. Serine Phosphorylation of SLP76 Is Dispensable for T Cell Development but Modulates Helper T Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Victor H.; Cuche, Céline; Alcover, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The adapter protein SLP76 is a key orchestrator of T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction. We previously identified a negative feedback loop that modulates T cell activation, involving phosphorylation of Ser376 of SLP76 by the hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1). However, the physiological relevance of this regulatory mechanism was still unknown. To address this question, we generated a SLP76-S376A-expressing knock-in mouse strain and investigated the effects of Ser376 mutation on T cell development and function. We report here that SLP76-S376A-expressing mice exhibit normal thymocyte development and no detectable phenotypic alterations in mature T cell subsets or other lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Biochemical analyses revealed that mutant T cells were hypersensitive to TCR stimulation. Indeed, phosphorylation of several signaling proteins, including SLP76 itself, phospholipase Cγ1 and the protein kinases AKT and ERK1/2, was increased. These modifications correlated with increased Th1-type and decreased Th2-type cytokine production by SLP76-S376A T cells, but did not result in significant changes of proliferative capacity nor activation-induced cell death susceptibility. Hence, our results reveal that SLP76-Ser376 phosphorylation does not mediate all HPK1-dependent regulatory effects in T cells but it fine-tunes helper T cell responses. PMID:28107427

  12. Cardiac Myocyte De Novo DNA Methyltransferases 3a/3b Are Dispensable for Cardiac Function and Remodeling after Chronic Pressure Overload in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Nührenberg

    Full Text Available Recent studies reported altered DNA methylation in failing human hearts. This may suggest a role for de novo DNA methylation in the development of heart failure. Here, we tested whether cardiomyocyte-specific loss of de novo DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b altered cardiac function and remodeling after chronic left ventricular pressure overload.Mice with specific ablation of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b expression in cardiomyocytes were generated by crossing floxed Dnmt3afl and Dnmt3bfl alleles with mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the atrial myosin light chain gene promoter. The efficacy of combined Dnmt3a/3b ablation (DKO was characterized on cardiomyocyte-specific genomic DNA and mRNA levels. Cardiac phenotyping was carried out without (sham or with left ventricular pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC. Under similar conditions, cardiac genome-wide transcriptional profiling was performed and DNA methylation levels of promoters of differentially regulated genes were assessed by pyrosequencing.DKO cardiomyocytes showed virtual absence of targeted Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b mRNA transcripts. Cardiac phenotyping revealed no significant differences between DKO and control mice under sham and TAC conditions. Transcriptome analyses identified upregulation of 44 and downregulation of 9 genes in DKO as compared with control sham mice. TAC mice showed similar changes with substantial overlap of regulated genes compared to sham. Promoters of upregulated genes were largely unmethylated in DKO compared to control mice.The absence of cardiac pathology in the presence of the predicted molecular phenotype suggests that de novo DNA methylation in cardiomyocytes is dispensable for adaptive mechanisms after chronic cardiac pressure overload.

  13. Submunition Dispensing Mechanisms .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Kholi

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a weapon system is enhanced manifold when it is incorporated with submunitions instead of being a unitary one. A large unitary warhead produces effects that are too concentrated and localised for many target types, resulting in a very high probability of either causing no damage or an over-kill. The submunition warhead incorporating a single-stage ejection process has the drawbacks of lesser area coverage and non-uniform distribution of submunitions. To overcome the above drawbacks, dispensing mechanisms with multistage ejection of submunitions are being employed worldwide by the warhead designers. Extensive work has been carried out by the authors to achieve wide area coverage by using multistage ejection instead of single-stage ejection.

  14. E85 Dispenser Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Johnson, C.; Sears, T.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-12-01

    This study reviews E85 dispensing infrastructure advances and issues and evaluates the geographic concentration of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), E85 stations, ethanol production facilities, and E85 suppliers. Costs, space, financial incentives, and barriers to adding E85 fueling equipment at existing stations are also assessed. This study found that E85 is increasingly available in the U.S. in half of the states; however, the other half have minimal or no E85 fueling options. Despite these gains, E85 is only available at 1% of U.S. gasoline stations. Ethanol production reached 9.5 billion gallons in 2008, but less than 1% is consumed as E85. FFVs have not reached a significant concentration in any county, metropolitan area, or state.

  15. Is Your ATM Dispensing Bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162067.html Is Your ATM Dispensing Bacteria? Study in New York City found most of ... keypads in New York City were covered in bacteria, researchers reported, with most of the microbes coming ...

  16. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  17. Scanning Probe Microscope-Based Fluid Dispensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Ghatkesar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in micro and nano fabrication technologies have enabled fabrication of smaller and more sensitive devices for applications not only in solid-state physics but also in medicine and biology. The demand for devices that can precisely transport material, specifically fluids are continuously increasing. Therefore, integration of various technologies with numerous functionalities in one single device is important. Scanning probe microscope (SPM is one such device that has evolved from atomic force microscope for imaging to a variety of microscopes by integrating different physical and chemical mechanisms. In this article, we review a particular class of SPM devices that are suited for fluid dispensing. We review their fabrication methods, fluid-pumping mechanisms, real-time monitoring of dispensing, physics of dispensing, and droplet characterization. Some of the examples where these probes have already been applied are also described. Finally, we conclude with an outlook and future scope for these devices where femtolitre or smaller volumes of liquid handling are needed.

  18. Medication dispenser for narcotic rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vien Q; Gale, Timothy J; Stack, Clive R

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a medication dispenser developed for narcotic rehabilitation programs. The dispenser holds up to four doses of medication and operates under remote supervision. A direct-into-mouth dispensing mechanism is a feature of the device. The mechanical dispenser mechanism includes a rotating barrel, medication tubes and dispensing slider unit. The electronic design involves a microprocessor PIC18F4550, stepper-motors, sensing devices a LabVIEW-based computer interface for remote supervisory control and monitoring. The dispenser stores medication and successfully delivers it directly into the mouth under remote supervision.

  19. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027)...

  20. Lightweight IR Dispenser (Percussion Type)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    system power off and the crew safety pin installed. The flare module is removed from the housing by releasing the two extendible "T" handles and then...installed with the crew safety pin in place. _ The module must be guided into the dispenser and held in position while the securing bolts are fastened. To...summarize the loading operation: a) Turn System power off b) Insert crew safety pin in flare module c) Remove empty flare module d) Reset

  1. Measurement and analysis of thermal photoemission from a dispenser cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kevin L.; Feldman, Donald W.; Virgo, Matt; O'Shea, Patrick G.

    2003-08-01

    Photocathodes for free electron lasers (FELs) are required to produce nano-Coulomb pulses in picosecond time scales with demonstrable reliability, lifetime, and efficiency. Dispenser cathodes, traditionally a rugged and long-lived thermionic source, are under investigation to determine their utility as a photocathode and have shown promise. The present study describes theoretical models under development to analyze experimental data from dispenser cathodes and to create predictive time-dependent models to predict their performance as an FEL source. Here, a steady-state model of a dispenser cathode with partial coverage of a low work function coating and surface nonuniformity is developed. Quantitative agreement is found for experimental data, especially with regard to temperature, field, laser intensity, and quantum efficiency versus laser wavelength dependence. In particular, for long wavelength incident lasers of sufficient intensity, the majority of the absorbed energy heats the electron gas and background lattice, and photoemission from the heated electron distribution constitutes the emitted current.

  2. Distinct spatiotemporal expression of serine proteases Prss23 and Prss35 in periimplantation mouse uterus and dispensable function of Prss35 in fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglu Diao

    and the dispensable role of Prss35 in fertility and embryo development.

  3. Dispensing nano-pico droplets of ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irajizad, Peyman; Farokhnia, Nazanin; Ghasemi, Hadi

    2015-11-01

    Dispensing miniature volumes of a ferrofluid is of fundamental and practical importance for diverse applications ranging from biomedical devices, optics, and self-assembly of materials. Current dispensing systems are based on microfluidics flow-focusing approaches or acoustic actuation requiring complicated structures. A simple method is presented to continuously dispense the miniature droplets from a ferrofluid reservoir. Once a jet of the ferrofluid is subjected to a constrained flux through a membrane and an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the jet experiences a curvature-driven instability and transforms to a droplet. Ferrofluid droplets in the range of 0.1-1000 nl are dispensed with tunable dispensing frequencies. A model is developed that predicts the dispensed volume of the ferrofluid droplets with an excellent agreement with the measurements.

  4. Dissolvable microneedle fabrication using piezoelectric dispensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Evin A; O'Mahony, Conor; Cronin, Michael; O'Mahony, Thomas; Moore, Anne C; Crean, Abina M

    2016-03-16

    Dissolvable microneedle (DMN) patches are novel dosage forms for the percutaneous delivery of vaccines. DMN are routinely fabricated by dispensing liquid formulations into microneedle-shaped moulds. The liquid formulation within the mould is then dried to create dissolvable vaccine-loaded microneedles. The precision of the dispensing process is critical to the control of formulation volume loaded into each dissolvable microneedle structure. The dispensing process employed must maintain vaccine integrity. Wetting of mould surfaces by the dispensed formulation is also an important consideration for the fabrication of sharp-tipped DMN. Sharp-tipped DMN are essential for ease of percutaneous administration. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of a piezoelectric dispensing system to dispense picolitre formulation volumes into PDMS moulds enabling the fabrication of bilayer DMN. The influence of formulation components (trehalose and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) content) and piezoelectric actuation parameters (voltage, frequency and back pressure) on drop formation is described. The biological integrity of a seasonal influenza vaccine following dispensing was investigated and maintained voltage settings of 30 V but undermined at higher settings, 50 and 80 V. The results demonstrate the capability of piezoelectric dispensing technology to precisely fabricate bilayer DMN. They also highlight the importance of identifying formulation and actuation parameters to ensure controlled droplet formulation and vaccine stabilisation.

  5. Medication errors: the importance of safe dispensing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, K.C.; Bouvy, M.L.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de

    2009-01-01

    1. Although rates of dispensing errors are generally low, further improvements in pharmacy distribution systems are still important because pharmacies dispense such high volumes of medications that even a low error rate can translate into a large number of errors. 2. From the perspective of pharmacy

  6. Medication errors: the importance of safe dispensing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, K.C.; Bouvy, M.L.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de

    2009-01-01

    1. Although rates of dispensing errors are generally low, further improvements in pharmacy distribution systems are still important because pharmacies dispense such high volumes of medications that even a low error rate can translate into a large number of errors. 2. From the perspective of pharmacy

  7. Technology tackles dispensing in age of accountable care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldy, Joanne

    2013-06-01

    Increasingly, long-term care facilities are using technology to improve safety, reduce costs, and save time. The growing role of high-tech tools in this setting is driven partly by regulations calling for facilities to improve outcomes and streamline costs. One tool that long-term pharmacies and their facilities are turning to is the automated dispensing system. These systems vary in term of type, size, cost, and function; and they are approved for use in long-term care facilities in some but not all states. However, where they can be and are used, they often result in reduced medication management costs and improved safety and accuracy. At the same time, automated dispensing systems may make medication administration easier for nurses. While challenges to their implementation and use remain, automated dispensing systems likely will be a key part of health care's future. This article serves as an introduction to the automated dispensing systems, their use in long-term care, and their potential use as a new era of health care begins.

  8. Prescription habits of dispensing and non-dispensing doctors in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trap, Birna; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2002-01-01

    The number of dispensing doctors has increased in the last decade, but the implication of this trend on the quality of health care and drug use is unknown. We present a comparative drug utilization study of 29 dispensing doctors and 28 non-dispensing doctors in Zimbabwe based on standard indicators...... developed by the World Health Organization. Dispensing doctors prescribed significantly more drugs per patient than non-dispensing doctors (2.3 versus 1.7), injected more patients (28.4% versus 9.5%), and prescribed more antibiotics (0.72 versus 0.54) and mixtures (0.43 versus 0.25) per encounter....... Dispensing doctors also spent significantly less time on each encounter (8.7 min versus 13.0 min) than their non-dispensing colleagues. The use of generic name, brand name and essential drugs did not differ significantly between the two groups of practitioners. Multivariate analyses controlling for gender...

  9. The methyl-CpG binding proteins Mecp2, Mbd2 and Kaiso are dispensable for mouse embryogenesis, but play a redundant function in neural differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martín Caballero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The precise molecular changes that occur when a neural stem (NS cell switches from a programme of self-renewal to commit towards a specific lineage are not currently well understood. However it is clear that control of gene expression plays an important role in this process. DNA methylation, a mark of transcriptionally silent chromatin, has similarly been shown to play important roles in neural cell fate commitment in vivo. While DNA methylation is known to play important roles in neural specification during embryonic development, no such role has been shown for any of the methyl-CpG binding proteins (Mecps in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore the role of DNA methylation in neural cell fate decisions, we have investigated the function of Mecps in mouse development and in neural stem cell derivation, maintenance, and differentiation. In order to test whether the absence of phenotype in singly-mutant animals could be due to functional redundancy between Mecps, we created mice and neural stem cells simultaneously lacking Mecp2, Mbd2 and Zbtb33. No evidence for functional redundancy between these genes in embryonic development or in the derivation or maintenance of neural stem cells in culture was detectable. However evidence for a defect in neuronal commitment of triple knockout NS cells was found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although DNA methylation is indispensable for mammalian embryonic development, we show that simultaneous deficiency of three methyl-CpG binding proteins genes is compatible with apparently normal mouse embryogenesis. Nevertheless, we provide genetic evidence for redundancy of function between methyl-CpG binding proteins in postnatal mice.

  10. High-Precision Dispensing of Nanoliter Biofluids on Glass Pedestal Arrays for Ultrasensitive Biomolecule Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yang; Xu, QianFeng; Zhu, Jing; Poget, Sébastien F; Lyons, Alan M

    2016-05-04

    Precise dispensing of nanoliter droplets is necessary for the development of sensitive and accurate assays, especially when the availability of the source solution is limited. Conventional approaches are limited by imprecise positioning, large shear forces, surface tension effects, and high costs. To address the need for precise and economical dispensing of nanoliter volumes, we developed a new approach where the dispensed volume is dependent on the size and shape of defined surface features, thus freeing the dispensing process from pumps and fine-gauge needles requiring accurate positioning. The surface we fabricated, called a nanoliter droplet virtual well microplate (nVWP), achieves high-precision dispensing (better than ±0.5 nL or ±1.6% at 32 nL) of 20-40 nL droplets using a small source drop (3-10 μL) on isolated hydrophilic glass pedestals (500 μm on a side) bonded to arrays of polydimethylsiloxane conical posts. The sharp 90° edge of the glass pedestal pins the solid-liquid-vapor triple contact line (TCL), averting the wetting of the glass sidewalls while the fluid is prevented from receding from the edge. This edge creates a sufficiently large energy barrier such that microliter water droplets can be poised on the glass pedestals, exhibiting contact angles greater >150°. This approach relieves the stringent mechanical alignment tolerances required for conventional dispensing techniques, shifting the control of dispensed volume to the area circumscribed by the glass edge. The effects of glass surface chemistry and dispense velocity on droplet volume were studied using optical microscopy and high-speed video. Functionalization of the glass pedestal surface enabled the selective adsorption of specific peptides and proteins from synthetic and natural biomolecule mixtures, such as venom. We further demonstrate how the nVWP dispensing platform can be used for a variety of assays, including sensitive detection of proteins and peptides by fluorescence

  11. Notch pathway is dispensable for adipocyte specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Amy M; Pan, Yonghua; Herreman, An; Hadland, Brandon K; De Strooper, Bart; Kopan, Raphael; Huppert, Stacey S

    2004-09-01

    In the past decade we have witnessed an epidemic of obesity in developed countries. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in regulation of body weight is becoming an increasingly important goal shared by the public and the scientific community. The key to fat deposition is the adipocyte, a specialized cell that plays a critical role in energy balance and appetite regulation. Much of our knowledge of adipogenesis comes from studies using preadipocytic cell lines that have provided important information regarding molecular control of adipocyte differentiation. However, they fall short of revealing how naive cells acquire competence for adipogenesis. Studies in preadipocytes indicate that the Notch pathway plays a role in regulating adipogenesis (Garces et al.: J Biol Chem 272:29729-29734, 1997). Given the known biological functions of Notch in mediating cell fate decisions (Artavanis-Tsakonas et al.: Science 284:770-776, 1999), we wished to test the hypothesis that the Notch pathway is required for this cellular program by examining adipogenesis in several genetic loss-of-function models that encompass the entire pathway. We conclude that the "canonical" Notch signaling pathway is dispensable for adipocyte specification and differentiation from either mesenchymal or epithelial progenitors.

  12. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laura A.; Barreda, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment currently provides potable water dispensing capability for crewmember food and beverage rehydration. All ISS crewmembers rehydrate Russian and U.S. style food packages from this location. A new United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) is under development. This unit will provide additional potable water dispensing capability to support an onorbit crew of six. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to U.S. style food packages. It will receive iodinated water from the Fuel Cell Water Bus in the U.S. Laboratory element. The unit will provide potable-quality water, including active removal of biocidal iodine prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit will be able to supply up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity will allow three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. It will be the size of two stacked Shuttle Middeck lockers (approximately the size of two small suitcases) and integrated into a science payload rack in the U.S. Laboratory element. Providing potable-quality water at the proper temperature for food and beverage reconstitution is critical to maintaining crew health and well-being. The numerous engineering challenges as well as human factors and safety considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in this paper.

  13. Photoemission from Low Work Function Coated Metal Surfaces A Comparison of Theory to Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kevin; Moody, Nathan A

    2005-01-01

    The development of rugged and/or self rejuvenating photocathodes with high quantum efficiency (QE) using the longest wavelength drive laser is of paramount importance for RF photo-injectors for high power FELs and accelerators. We report on our program to develop advanced photocathodes and to develop and validate models of photoemission from coated metals to analyze experimental data,* provide emission models usable by beam simulation codes,** and project performance. The model accounts for the effects of laser heating, thermal evolution, surface conditions, laser parameters, and material characteristics, and predicts current distribution and QE. The photoemission and QE from metals and dispenser photocathodes is evaluated: the later introduces complications such as coverage non-uniformity and field enhancement. The performance of the models is compared to our experimental results for dispenser photocathodes and cesiated surfaces (e.g., tungsten, silver, etc.) in which the time-dependent models are shown to a...

  14. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury. 2 figs.

  15. 21 CFR 872.3080 - Mercury and alloy dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mercury and alloy dispenser. 872.3080 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3080 Mercury and alloy dispenser. (a) Identification. A mercury and alloy dispenser is a device with a spring-activated valve intended to measure...

  16. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6430 - Liquid medication dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid medication dispenser. 880.6430 Section 880... Devices § 880.6430 Liquid medication dispenser. (a) Identification. A Liquid medication dispenser is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to issue a measured amount of liquid medication....

  18. Potential use of bar codes to implement automated dispensing quality assurance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokanson, J A; Keith, M R; Guernsey, B G; Grudzien, R R; Doutré, W H; Luttman, D J; Trachtenberg, M C

    1985-05-01

    Bar code-based systems have automated many counting, tracking, and sorting functions in health care delivery services. We designed and briefly tested the feasibility of a bar code-based dispensing quality assurance system for a hospital outpatient pharmacy. The use of bar codes to verify the identity of the dispensed product required an extra few seconds processing time for each prescription but did not increase markedly the processing time when compared to a control period. In addition to verifying product identity, the system checked the manufacture's expiration date to reduce the risk of delivering outdated medications to the patient. The on-site test period for this feasibility model was relatively short (one week) and no actual dispensing errors were detected. However, when the system was presented with 100 different prescription forms containing 50 randomly sequenced, precontrived dispensing errors, the system identified all medication errors and outdated products. As shown in other studies, bar code-based systems have the potential to capture information not effectively recorded using manual methods. We suggest they should be considered by pharmacists interested in automating inventory management and work flow functions or establishing automated dispensing quality assurance programs.

  19. Dispensing an enzyme-conjugated solution into an ELISA plate by adapting ink-jet printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonini, Luca; Accoto, Dino; Petroni, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2008-04-24

    The rapid and precise delivery of small volumes of bio-fluids (from picoliters to nanoliters) is a key feature of modern bioanalytical assays. Commercial ink-jet printers are low-cost systems which enable the dispensing of tiny droplets at a rate which may exceed 10(4) Hz per nozzle. Currently, the main ejection technologies are piezoelectric and bubble-jet. We adapted two commercial printers, respectively a piezoelectric and a bubble-jet one, for the deposition of immunoglobulins into an ELISA plate. The objective was to perform a comparative evaluation of the two classes of ink-jet technologies in terms of required hardware modifications and possible damage on the dispensed molecules. The hardware of the two printers was modified to dispense an enzyme conjugate solution, containing polyclonal rabbit anti-human IgG labelled with HRP in 7 wells of an ELISA plate. Moreover, the ELISA assay was used to assess the functional activity of the biomolecules after ejection. ELISA is a common and well-assessed technique to detect the presence of particular antigens or antibodies in a sample. We employed an ELISA diagnostic kit for the qualitative screening of anti-ENA antibodies to verify the ability of the dispensed immunoglobulins to bind the primary antibodies in the wells. Experimental tests showed that the dispensing of immunoglobulins using the piezoelectric printer does not cause any detectable difference on the outcome of the ELISA test if compared to manual dispensing using micropipettes. On the contrary, the thermal printhead was not able to reliably dispense the bio-fluid, which may mean that a surfactant is required to modify the wetting properties of the liquid.

  20. [Briefly analysis on academic origins of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Through collecting and collating the development process of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing, the development of modern Chinese medicine dispensing on the basis of experience could be promoted. "Heyaofenji", "Hehe", " Heji" in ancient Chinese medicine, herbal medicine literature and law were collected, and then things were sorted out according to traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory, skills and legal norms. Firstly, "Tang Ye Jing Fa" is the earliest book which marks the rudiment of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. Secondly, traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory formed in "Shen Nong's herbal classic". Thirdly, Zhang Zhongjing's "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" marked the formation of Chinese medicine dispensing skills. Lastly, Provisions in Tang Dynasty law marks the development of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing.

  1. PROJECT OF COAGULANT DISPENSER IN PULVERIZATION AERATOR WITH WIND DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Osuch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are one of most important freshwater ecosystems, playing significant role in functioning of nature and human economy. Swarzędzkie Lake is good example of ecosystem, which in last half-century was exposed to the influence of strong anthropopressure. Direct inflow of sewage with large number of biogens coming to the lake with water of inflows caused distinct disturbance of its functioning. In autumn 2011 restoration begined on Swarzędzkie Lake for reduction of lake trophy and improvement of water quality. For achieving better and quicker effect, simultaneously combination of some methods was applied, among others method of oxygenation of over-bottom water with help of pulverization aerator and method of precise inactivation of phosphorus in water depths. Characterization and analysis of improved coagulant dispenser applying active substance only during work of pulverization aerator is the aim of this thesis. Principle of dispenser work, its structure and location in pulverization aerator were explained. It was stated, that introduction to water a factor initiating process of phosphorus inactivation causes significant reduction of mineral phosphorus in water and size of coagulant dose correlates with intensity of work of pulverization aerator with wind drive.

  2. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users.

  3. A Simulated Learning Environment for Teaching Medicine Dispensing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Kim; Sewell, Keith; Trinder, Peta; Marriott, Jennifer; Maher, Sheryl; Naidu, Som

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop an authentic simulation of the professional practice dispensary context for students to develop their dispensing skills in a risk-free environment. Design. A development team used an Agile software development method to create MyDispense, a web-based simulation. Modeled on virtual learning environments elements, the software employed widely available standards-based technologies to create a virtual community pharmacy environment. Assessment. First-year pharmacy students who used the software in their tutorials, were, at the end of the second semester, surveyed on their prior dispensing experience and their perceptions of MyDispense as a tool to learn dispensing skills. Conclusion. The dispensary simulation is an effective tool for helping students develop dispensing competency and knowledge in a safe environment. PMID:26941437

  4. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Edson; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines. PMID:26039389

  5. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Edson; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales - psychoactive and others - subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines.

  6. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines.

  7. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  8. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500... a mechanical device intended for medical purposes to dispense or serially dilute very...

  9. Evaluation and remediation of bulk soap dispensers for biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lindsey A; Ramsay, Bradley D; Goeres, Darla M; Fields, Matthew W; Zapka, Carrie A; Macinga, David R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating bulk soap in public restroom soap dispensers have demonstrated up to 25% of open refillable bulk-soap dispensers were contaminated with ~ 6 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, plastic counter-mounted, plastic wall-mounted and stainless steel wall-mounted dispensers were analyzed for suspended and biofilm bacteria using total cell and viable plate counts. Independent of dispenser type or construction material, the bulk soap was contaminated with 4-7 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) bacteria, while 4-6 log(10)(CFU cm(-2)) biofilm bacteria were isolated from the inside surfaces of the dispensers (n = 6). Dispenser remediation studies, including a 10 min soak with 5000 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite, were then conducted to determine the efficacy of cleaning and disinfectant procedures against established biofilms. The testing showed that contamination of the bulk soap returned to pre-test levels within 7-14 days. These results demonstrate biofilm is present in contaminated bulk-soap dispensers and remediation studies to clean and sanitize the dispensers are temporary.

  10. Rational dispensing and use of artemether-lumefantrine during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... quinine is used in early pregnancy unless the risks outweigh the benefits. The aim of this study was to assess dispensing practice of ALu in private pharmacies and knowledge ... pharmaceutical technicians and 35 (17.5%) sales persons with no formal education on drug dispensing.

  11. Nonjudicious dispensing of antibiotics by drug stores in Pratumthani, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Tunpornchai, Jeeraluk; Tanawitt, Korakot; Mundy, Linda M

    2008-06-01

    Mock patient presentations of 6 common syndromic ailments to drug stores in Pratumthani, Thailand, were conducted. Appropriate dispensing of antibiotic therapy for all 6 presentations occurred at 56 (20%) of 280 drug stores. By multivariate analysis, drug stores' proximity to a hospital was associated with appropriate dispensing of antibiotics (adjusted odds ratio, 34 [95% confidence interval, 15-83]; P < .001).

  12. Assessment of informatization for the dispensing of medications at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Aparecida Dias Serafim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Informatics and automation are important tools for the reduction of work, errors and costs in a hospital pharmacy. OBJECTIVES: To describe the structuring and function of an informatized system for the dispensing of medications and to assess its effect on nursing and pharmacy services during the period from 1997 to 2003. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive and retrospective study, we performed an analysis of documents addressing the structuring and implementation of the informatized medication dispensing system. In addition, we analyzed the perceptions of nurses, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants who participated in the structuring phase of the system when interviewed about the effect of informatization on administrative aspects (e.g., requisition of medications, presentation of the dispensed medication and system operationalization. RESULTS: The major advantages provided by the new system were 1 the elimination of manual transcripts for prescribed medications, 2 increased speed, 3 better identification of the doses prescribed by physicians, 4 medication labels containing all necessary identification and 5 practicality and safety of optical bar code-based verification of the requested and dispensed medications. CONCLUSIONS: The great majority of the interviewees considered the informatized medication supply system to be of good quality. Analysis of the data provided information that could contribute to the expansion and refinement of the system, provide support for studies regarding the utilization of medications and offer new perspectives for work and productivity.

  13. Drug dispensing errors in a ward stock system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of drug dispensing errors in a traditional ward stock system operated by nurses and to investigate the effect of potential contributing factors. This was a descriptive study conducted in a teaching hospital from January 2005 to June 2007. In five....... Multivariable analysis showed that surgical and psychiatric settings were more susceptible to involvement in dispensing errors and that polypharmacy was a risk factor. In this ward stock system, dispensing errors are relatively common, they depend on speciality and are associated with polypharmacy...... wards, samples of dispensed solid drugs were collected prospectively and compared with the prescriptions. Data were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Overall, 2173 samples were collected, 95.5% of which were correctly dispensed (95% CI 94.5-96.2). In total, 124 errors in 6715...

  14. New draft beer dispenser; Fominguresu valve tosai shingata teiryo chushutsu nama beer dispenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Ogawa, M.; Konosu, N. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-10

    Having analyzed the frothing mechanism of draft beer and optimized the pouring-out valve and the beer pouring system, Fuji Electric has developed a low-froth pouring beer dispenser. Its main advantage is stable pouring with low froth by using (1) a valve that has a shape not disturbing the beer flow and separates liquid and froth, (2) a driving system of the mug tray to prevent ending dribble from entering in the mug. (author)

  15. Piezo dispensed microarray of multivalent chelating thiols for dissecting complex protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenkar, Goran; Valiokas, Ramûnas; Lundström, Ingemar; Tinazli, Ali; Tampé, Robert; Piehler, Jacob; Liedberg, Bo

    2006-06-01

    The fabrication of a novel biochip, designed for dissection of multiprotein complex formation, is reported. An array of metal chelators has been produced by piezo dispensing of a bis-nitrilotriacetic acid (bis-NTA) thiol on evaporated gold thin films, prestructured with a microcontact printed grid of eicosanethiols. The bis-NTA thiol is mixed in various proportions with an inert, tri(ethylene glycol) hexadecane thiol, and the thickness and morphological homogeneity of the dispensed layers are characterized by imaging ellipsometry before and after back-filling with the same inert thiol and subsequent rinsing. It is found that the dispensed areas display a monotonic increase in thickness with increasing molar fraction of bis-NTA in the dispensing solution, and they are consistently a few Angströms thicker than those prepared at the same molar fraction by solution self-assembly under equilibrium-like conditions. The bulkiness of the bis-NTA tail group and the short period of time available for chemisorption and in-plane organization of the dispensed thiols are most likely responsible for the observed difference in thickness. Moreover, the functional properties of this biochip are demonstrated by studying multiple protein-protein interactions using imaging surface plasmon resonance. The subunits of the type I interferon receptor are immobilized as a composition array determined by the surface concentration of bis-NTA in the array elements. Ligand dissociation kinetics depends on the receptor surface concentration, which is ascribed to the formation of a ternary complex by simultaneous interaction of the ligand with the two receptor subunits. Thus, multiplexed monitoring of binding phenomena at various compositions (receptor densities) offers a powerful tool to dissect protein-protein interactions.

  16. Investigation and improvement of the dispenser printing of electrical interconnections for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Z.; Torah, R.; Yang, K.; Beeby, S.; Tudor, J.

    2016-10-01

    Electrical interconnections are essential for the integration of electronic functions in a fabric. These interconnects can be dispenser printed on a fabric; however printing directly on a breathable woven fabric surface is challenging due to the high surface variation and porosity defined by the weave. This paper, for the first time, experimentally shows that fabric surface variation leads to inconsistent printed structures which adversely affects the electrical properties of printed conductive tracks. It investigates a solution of overcoming the fabric surface variation in the form of dispenser printing an interface layer between the conductive ink and the fabric surface. Four dielectric inks DuPont 5018, Electra EFV4/4965, Fabinks-UV-IF-1004 and Fabinks-UV-TC0233 are quantitatively evaluated, as interface materials, in terms of surface consistency, thickness consistency, repeatability, flexibility, thermal stability and the electrical characteristics of conductive tracks printed on them. All four of the evaluated interface materials significantly reduced the fabric surface variation by more than 95% and provided a suitable low variation surface for printing subsequent electronic layers. Conductive tracks, dispenser printed on the four interface materials, produced ∼90% lower electrical resistivity compared to tracks printed directly on the fabric and similar resistivity to dispenser printed tracks on Kapton, a traditional printed electronic substrate. An increased focus on low powered electronics especially for wearables requires the electrical interconnections to dissipate minimum power. The innovative interface layer approach allows fabrication of low resistance electrical interconnections on fabric substrates reducing interconnect power dissipation, making this approach highly suitable for smart fabric applications. Reported details of dispenser printing of interface materials can be used for replicating these results on a range of fabric substrates. The

  17. Through-Silicon-Via Underfill Dispensing for 3D Die/Interposer Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Fuliang

    The next generation packaging keeps up with the increased demands of functionality by using the third dimension. 3D chip stacking with TSVs has been identified as one of the major technologies to achieve higher silicon density and shorter interconnection. In order to protect solder interconnections from hostile environments and redistribute thermal stress caused by CTE mismatch, underfill should be applied for the under-chip spaces. In this study, TSV underfill dispensing is introduced to address the underfill challenge for 3D chip stacks. The material properties are first measured and the general trend indicates viscosity and contact angle dropping significantly with an increase in temperature, and surface tension falling slightly as the temperature increases. Underfill should assure a complete encapsulation, avoiding excessive filling time that can result in substantial manufacturing delays. Typically, the inflows for TSV underfill can be free droplets or a constant flow rate. For a constant inflow, the underfill flow is driven by pressure difference and the filling time is governed by flow radius, gap clearance and the constant flow rate. For an inflow of free droplets, the underfill flow is driven by capillary action and the filling time is related to viscosity, flow radius, gap clearance, surface tension, contact angle and TSV size. In general, TSV underfill dispensing with a constant inflow has much shorter filling time than dispensing with an inflow of free droplets. TSV underfill dispensing on a 3D chip stack may induce the risk of an edge flood failure. In order to avoid an edge flood, fluid pressure around the sidewalls of a 3D chip stack cannot exceed limit equilibrium pressure. For TSV dispensing with free droplets, there is no risk of forming an edge flood. However, for a constant inflow, TSV dispensing should be carefully controlled to avoid excessive pressure. Besides, it is suggested that the TSVs in stacked chips be aligned in the vertical

  18. Application of basic pharmacology and dispensing practice of antibiotics in accredited drug-dispensing outlets in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi OM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OM Minzi,1 VS Manyilizu21Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2Logistics System Strengthening Unit, John Snow Inc, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: Provision of pharmaceutical services in accredited drug-dispensing outlets (ADDOs in Tanzania has not been reported. This study compared the antibiotics dispensing practice between ADDOs and part II shops, or duka la dawa baridi (DLDBs, in Tanzania.Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in ADDOs and DLDBs. A simulated client method for data collection was used, and a total of 85 ADDOs, located in Mvomero, Kilombero, and Morogoro rural districts, were compared with 60 DLDBs located in Kibaha district. The research assistants posed as simulated clients and requested to buy antibiotics from ADDOs and DLDBs after presenting a case scenario or disease condition. Among the diseases presented were those requiring antibiotics and those usually managed only by oral rehydration salt or analgesics. The simulated clients wanted to know the antibiotics that were available at the shop. The posed questions set a convincing ground to the dispenser either to dispense the antibiotic directly, request a prescription, or refer the patient to a health facility. Proportions were used to summarize categorical variables between ADDOs and DLDBs, and the chi-square test was used to test for statistical difference between the two drug-outlet types in terms of antibiotic-dispensing practice.Results: As many as 40% of trained ADDO dispensers no longer worked at the ADDO shops, so some of the shops employed untrained staff. A larger proportion of ADDOs than DLDBs dispensed antibiotics without prescriptions (P = 0.004. The overall results indicate that there was no difference between the two types of shops in terms of adhering to regulations for dispensing antibiotics. However, in some circumstances, eg

  19. Patient knowledge of medicines dispensed from Ghanaian community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfo AF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: One vital requirement for patient adherence to medicines is good patient knowledge of the medicines dispensed and this will invariably be linked to good labelling and counselling. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of labelling of medicines and determine patient knowledge of the administration of medicines dispensed from a community pharmacy in Ghana.Methods: From 6th to 29th January, 2010, dispensed prescriptions of 280 clients were purposely sampled to evaluate the quality of labelling. These clients were also interviewed about their knowledge of the last medicine received immediately after dispensing. A scoring system was employed by awarding a point for each attribute written on the package and each attribute stated by the patient. The dispensing attributes noted were name, dosage, frequency, duration, quantity and route of administration. Results: Of the 280 patients interviewed, 157 (56% were males. Thirty one (11% had no education and 99(35% were secondary school graduates. Antimalarials comprised 17.9% and analgesics, 15.4% of medicines dispensed. The name, quantity, dosage, frequency, duration of therapy and route of administration were written on the label in 98%, 99%, 55%, 54%, 6% and 2% respectively of the dispensed medicines. The mean labelling score was 3.096 (SD=1.05 out of 6. The corresponding patient knowledge values were 63%, 80%, 80%, 75%, 57% and 86%. The mean knowledge score was 4.375 (SD; 1.38 out of 6. The chi square test p-value for the effect of demographic characteristics (sex, educational background, location on patient knowledge of medicines dispensed were p=0.454; p=0.000, and p=0.138 respectivelyConclusion: Patient knowledge of the administration of dispensed medicines was rated good; and this largely corresponded with the quality of labelling, except that the duration of therapy and route of administration was not frequently written and so labelling was rated just above average.

  20. Design, microfabrication, and characterization of a moulded PDMS/SU-8 inkjet dispenser for a Lab-on-a-Printer platform technology with disposable microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bsoul, Anas; Pan, Sheng; Cretu, Edmond; Stoeber, Boris; Walus, Konrad

    2016-08-16

    In this paper, we present a disposable inkjet dispenser platform technology and demonstrate the Lab-on-a-Printer concept, an extension of the ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip concept, whereby microfluidic modules are directly integrated into the printhead. The concept is demonstrated here through the integration of an inkjet dispenser and a microfluidic mixer enabling control over droplet composition from a single nozzle in real-time during printing. The inkjet dispenser is based on a modular design platform that enables the low-cost microfluidic component and the more expensive actuation unit to be easily separated, allowing for the optional disposal of the former and reuse of the latter. To limit satellite droplet formation, a hydrophobic-coated and tapered micronozzle was microfabricated and integrated with the fluidics to realize the dispenser. The microfabricated devices generated droplets with diameters ranging from 150-220 μm, depending mainly on the orifice diameter, with printing rates up to 8000 droplets per second. The inkjet dispenser is capable of dispensing materials with a viscosity up to ∼19 mPa s. As a demonstration of the inkjet dispenser function and application, we have printed type I collagen seeded with human liver carcinoma cells (cell line HepG2), to form patterned biological structures.

  1. Fabrication of Microdots Using Piezoelectric Dispensing Technique for Viscous Fluids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho-Lin Tsai; Weng-Sing Hwang; Jhih-Kai Wang; Wen-Chih Peng; Shin-Hau Chen

    2015-01-01

    .... Investigations were conducted at room temperature (25 °C). For each bipolar waveform, fluid was extruded in the form of a stretching liquid column, which eventually retracted into the dispenser orifice...

  2. Controllable evaporation of cesium from a dispenser oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U.; Friedl, R.; Fröschle, M.

    2012-12-01

    This instrument allows controlled evaporation of the alkali metal cesium over a wide range of evaporation rates. The oven has three unique features. The first is an alkali metal reservoir that uses a dispenser as a cesium source. The heating current of the dispenser controls the evaporation rate allowing generation of an adjustable and stable flow of pure cesium. The second is a blocking valve, which is fully metallic as is the body of the oven. This construction both reduces contamination of the dispenser and enables the oven to be operated up to 300 °C, with only small temperature variations (metal at a cold spot is significantly hindered. The last feature is an integral surface ionization detector for measuring and controlling the evaporation rate. The dispenser oven can be easily transferred to the other alkali-metals.

  3. 21 CFR 866.2440 - Automated medium dispensing and stacking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated medium dispensing and stacking device... Automated medium dispensing and stacking device. (a) Identification. An automated medium dispensing and stacking device is a device intended for medical purposes to dispense a microbiological culture medium into...

  4. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing...

  5. Physicians' Practice of Dispensing Medicines: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Darbyshire, Daniel; Gordon, Morris; Baker, Paul; Bates, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The physical act of giving medication to patients to administer away from a health care setting, dispensing, is normally performed by pharmacists. Dispensing of medication by physicians is a neglected patient safety issue, and having observed considerable variation in practice, the lead author sought to explore this issue further. A literature review yielded zero articles pertaining to this, so an exploratory study was commenced. The qualitative arm, relating to junior physicians'...

  6. Dispensing behaviour of pharmacies in prescription drug markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhl, Dennis; Stargardt, Tom; Schneider, Udo; Fischer, Katharina E

    2016-02-01

    We aim to investigate pharmacies' dispensing behaviour under the existing dispensing regulations in Germany. Using administrative data, we performed a cross-sectional retrospective study to analyse whether the competitive environment and pharmacy characteristics, i.e., organisation, lead to dispensing choices aimed at by third-party payers. We specified generalised linear models with the share of imported pharmaceuticals, generic share, and share of preferred brands as dependent variables. The final dataset contained 49,260,902 prescriptions from 16,797 pharmacies. The average share of imported pharmaceuticals across the pharmacies was 18.4% (standard deviation (SD) 8.8), the average generic share was 92.8% (SD 2.1), and compliance with preferred brands was 81.3% (SD 5.9). Pharmacies with little competition used fewer imported pharmaceuticals (ppharmacies yielded similar results. The difference in outcomes between pharmacies in the first and 4th quartiles of the pharmacy organisation variable is 17.4% vs. 17.0% for share of imported pharmaceuticals, 92.8% vs. 92.7% for generic share and 81.9% vs. 81.1% for compliance with preferred brands. We show that pharmacies' dispensing choices meet the aims of payers at high levels. However, dispensing behaviour varies between pharmacies. Increasing competition among pharmacies and targeting pharmacies with high shares of bill auditing seem viable options to improving dispensing behaviour as defined by payers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electric-Field-Assisted Droplet Dispensing on Immiscible Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Taewoong; Hong, Jiwoo; Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, In Seok

    2014-11-01

    Dispensing tiny droplets is a basic and crucial process in numerous practical applications, such as printed electronics, DNA microarray, and digital microfluidics. The precise positioning with demanded size of droplets is the main issue of dispensing tiny droplets. Furthermore, capability of dispensing charged droplets on the immiscible fluids could bring out more utilities. In this work, we demonstrate the droplet dispensing on immiscible fluids by means of electrical charge concentration (ECC). This results from the fact that the droplet is generated by electric force caused by electric induction between the surface of droplet and the immiscible fluid. The temporal evolution of the droplet-dispensing process was observed consecutively with a high-speed camera. In addition, the relationship between the size of dispensed droplet and the parameters, such as physical properties of fluids and electrical field strength, is established. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Grant Number: 2013R1A1A2011956).

  8. Development of suitable potting material for dispenser cathodes of a high power microwave tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kalyan S.; Ghosh, Sumana; Dandapat, Nandadulal [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Datta, Someswar, E-mail: sdatta@cgcri.res.in [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Raju, R.S. [Microwave Tubes Division, CSIR - Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potting material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doped alumina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-shrinkable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dispenser cathode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave tube. - Abstract: The present study aims to develop suitable advanced potting material for modern high performance dispenser cathodes for high power microwave tube through refinement of the alumina microstructure by using suitable dopant. Calcium oxide was selected as a dopant material and the resultant materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and the microstructure monitored by SEM study and EDX analysis. The shrinkage, thermal and electrical properties of the resultant material was evaluated to establish its suitability to function as an advanced potting material.

  9. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse.

  10. Hypoxia inducible factors are dispensable for myeloid cell migration into the inflamed mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Peter J.; Liyanage, Sidath E.; Cristante, Enrico; Sampson, Robert D.; Dick, Andrew D.; Ali, Robin R.; Bainbridge, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are ubiquitously expressed transcription factors important for cell homeostasis during dynamic oxygen levels. Myeloid specific HIFs are crucial for aspects of myeloid cell function, including their ability to migrate into inflamed tissues during autoimmune disease. This contrasts with the concept that accumulation of myeloid cells at ischemic and hypoxic sites results from a lack of chemotactic responsiveness. Here we seek to address the role of HIFs in myeloid trafficking during inflammation in a mouse model of human uveitis. We show using mice with myeloid-specific Cre-deletion of HIFs that myeloid HIFs are dispensable for leukocyte migration into the inflamed eye. Myeloid-specific deletion of Hif1a, Epas1, or both together, had no impact on the number of myeloid cells migrating into the eye. Additionally, stabilization of HIF pathways via deletion of Vhl in myeloid cells had no impact on myeloid trafficking into the inflamed eye. Finally, we chemically induce hypoxemia via hemolytic anemia resulting in HIF stabilization within circulating leukocytes to demonstrate the dispensable role of HIFs in myeloid cell migration into the inflamed eye. These data suggest, contrary to previous reports, that HIF pathways in myeloid cells during inflammation and hypoxia are dispensable for myeloid cell tissue trafficking. PMID:28112274

  11. The K-1 Active Dispenser for Orbit Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, G.; Cochran, D.; Curtis, R.

    2002-01-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is building the K-1, the world's first fully reusable launch vehicle. The two-stage K- 1 is designed primarily to service the market for low-earth orbit (LEO) missions, due to Kistler's need to recover both stages. For customers requiring payload delivery to high-energy orbits, Kistler can outfit the payload with a K- 1 Active Dispenser (an expendable third stage). The K-1 second stage will deploy the Active Dispenser mated with its payload into a 200 km circular LEO parking orbit. From this orbit, the Active Dispenser would use its own propulsion to place its payload into the final desired drop-off orbit or earth-escape trajectory. This approach allows Kistler to combine the low-cost launch services offered by the reusable two-stage K-1 with the versatility of a restartable, expendable upper stage. Enhanced with an Active Dispenser, the K-1 will be capable of delivering 1,500 kg to a geosynchronous transfer orbit or up to approximately 1,000 kg into a Mars rendezvous trajectory. The list price of a K-1 Active Dispenser launch is 25 million (plus the price of mission unique integration services) significantly less than the price of any launch vehicle service in the world with comparable capability.

  12. Methods and systems for integrating fluid dispensing technology with stereolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Francisco (El Paso, TX); Wicker, Ryan (El Paso, TX); Palmer, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Don W. (Albuquerque, NM); Chavez, Bart D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallegos, Phillip L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-09

    An integrated system and method of integrating fluid dispensing technologies (e.g., direct-write (DW)) with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies (e.g., stereolithography (SL)) without part registration comprising: an SL apparatus and a fluid dispensing apparatus further comprising a translation mechanism adapted to translate the fluid dispensing apparatus along the Z-, Y- and Z-axes. The fluid dispensing apparatus comprises: a pressurized fluid container; a valve mechanism adapted to control the flow of fluid from the pressurized fluid container; and a dispensing nozzle adapted to deposit the fluid in a desired location. To aid in calibration, the integrated system includes a laser sensor and a mechanical switch. The method further comprises building a second part layer on top of the fluid deposits and optionally accommodating multi-layered circuitry by incorporating a connector trace. Thus, the present invention is capable of efficiently building single and multi-material SL fabricated parts embedded with complex three-dimensional circuitry using DW.

  13. Dispensing errors in community pharmacy: perceived influence of sociotechnical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeinbach, Sheryl; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Parekh, Ashish; Herderick, Michelle

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the impact of pharmacists' perceptions of errors in dispensing, errors in communication, delays in prescription processing, efficiency and physical mobility in the pharmacy by practice setting and sociotechnical factors (i.e. pharmacy design, drive through pick-up window services and automated dispensing systems). Community pharmacy practice in the USA. A two-page survey was mailed to a geographically stratified random sample of 1047 community pharmacies. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the impact of attitudinal items with respect to pharmacy practice setting (e.g. mass merchant, supermarket, chain and independent) and sociotechnical factors. Pharmacy characteristics, pharmacist experience and total dispensing errors were also addressed. The response rate was 45.0% (n = 429). Pharmacists perceived that pharmacy design significantly (P pharmacy practice and other environments.

  14. RUN TO RUN CONTROL OF TIME-PRESSURE DISPENSING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yixiang; Li Hanxiong; Ding Han; Xiong Youlun

    2004-01-01

    In electronics packaging the time-pressure dispensing system is widely used to squeeze the adhesive fluid in a syringe onto boards or sub-strates with the pressurized air.However,complexity of the process,which includes the air-fluid coupling and the nonlinear uncertainties,makes it diffi-cult to have a consistent process per-formance.An integrated dispensing process model is first introduced and then its input-output regression rela-tionship is used to design a run to run control methodology for this process.The controller takes EWMA scheme and its stability region is given.Ex-perimental results verify the effective-ness of the proposed run to run control method for dispensing process.

  15. Construction of a Smart Medication Dispenser with High Degree of Scalability and Remote Manageability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JuGeon Pak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a smart medication dispenser having a high degree of scalability and remote manageability. We construct the dispenser to have extensible hardware architecture for achieving scalability, and we install an agent program in it for achieving remote manageability. The dispenser operates as follows: when the real-time clock reaches the predetermined medication time and the user presses the dispense button at that time, the predetermined medication is dispensed from the medication dispensing tray (MDT. In the proposed dispenser, the medication for each patient is stored in an MDT. One smart medication dispenser contains mainly one MDT; however, the dispenser can be extended to include more MDTs in order to support multiple users using one dispenser. For remote management, the proposed dispenser transmits the medication status and the system configurations to the monitoring server. In the case of a specific event such as a shortage of medication, memory overload, software error, or non-adherence, the event is transmitted immediately. All these operations are performed automatically without the intervention of patients, through the agent program installed in the dispenser. Results of implementation and verification show that the proposed dispenser operates normally and performs the management operations from the medication monitoring server suitably.

  16. Electrically Controllable Microparticle Synthesis and Digital Microfluidic Manipulation by Electric-Field-Induced Droplet Dispensing into Immiscible Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Taewoong; Hong, Jiwoo; Im, Do Jin; Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, In Seok

    2016-08-01

    The dispensing of tiny droplets is a basic and crucial process in a myriad of applications, such as DNA/protein microarray, cell cultures, chemical synthesis of microparticles, and digital microfluidics. This work systematically demonstrates droplet dispensing into immiscible fluids through electric charge concentration (ECC) method. It exhibits three main modes (i.e., attaching, uniform, and bursting modes) as a function of flow rates, applied voltages, and gap distances between the nozzle and the oil surface. Through a conventional nozzle with diameter of a few millimeters, charged droplets with volumes ranging from a few μL to a few tens of nL can be uniformly dispensed into the oil chamber without reduction in nozzle size. Based on the features of the proposed method (e.g., formation of droplets with controllable polarity and amount of electric charge in water and oil system), a simple and straightforward method is developed for microparticle synthesis, including preparation of colloidosomes and fabrication of Janus microparticles with anisotropic internal structures. Finally, a combined system consisting of ECC-induced droplet dispensing and electrophoresis of charged droplet (ECD)-driven manipulation systems is constructed. This integrated platform will provide increased utility and flexibility in microfluidic applications because a charged droplet can be delivered toward the intended position by programmable electric control.

  17. Electrically Controllable Microparticle Synthesis and Digital Microfluidic Manipulation by Electric-Field-Induced Droplet Dispensing into Immiscible Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Taewoong; Hong, Jiwoo; Kang, In Seok

    2016-11-01

    The dispensing of tiny droplets is a basic and crucial process in a myriad of applications, such as DNA/protein microarray, cell cultures, chemical synthesis of microparticles, and digital microfluidics. This work demonstrates the droplet dispensing into immiscible fluids through electric charge concentration (ECC) method. Three main modes (i.e., attaching, uniform and bursting modes) are exhibited as a function of flow rates, applied voltage and gap distance between the nozzle and the oil surface. Through a conventional nozzle with diameter of a few millimeters, charged droplets with volumes ranging from a few μL to a few tens of nL can be uniformly dispensed into the oil chamber without reduction in nozzle size. Based on the features of the proposed method (e.g., formation of droplets with controllable polarity and amount of electric charge in water and oil system), a simple and straightforward method is developed for microparticle synthesis, including preparation for colloidosomes and fabrication of Janus microparticles with anisotropic internal structures. Finally, a combined system consisting of ECC-induced droplet dispensing and electrophoresis of charged droplet (ECD)-driven manipulation systems is constructed. This work was supported by the BK21Plus Program for advanced education of creative chemical engineers of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP).

  18. Bacterial contamination in cold water samples obtained from water dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a basic study in order to evaluate the bacterial contamination in water dispensers. Water samples were obtained from water dispensers from October 2012 to November 2013, and standard plate counts (at 36˚C, 24 h) of the samples, as well as heterotrophic plate counts (at 25˚C, 7 d), were estimated with the standard methods for the examination of drinking water in Japan. Standard plate counts exceeding the water-quality standard (1.0×10(2) CFU/ml) were observed in 42 of the 140 samples (30.0%), with a maximum detected bacterial count of 2.1×10(5) CFU/ml. The rate of the standard plate counts exceeding the water quality standard tended to be higher when using a one-way type method or water dispensers with natural water. Ralstonia spp. was most commonly isolated, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in a few cases. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated, suggesting that we should be more concerned about bacterial contamination in cold water supplied from water dispensers.

  19. Spray dispensing of antiseptics is effective for hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurman, J H; Pentti, P; Suhonen, J; Koskela, M

    1989-12-01

    The effectiveness of three hand antiseptics administered using a spray dispenser (Nebucid 840) was studied together with that of conventional hand disinfection. The tests were carried out by a group of 20 dental students. To obtain baseline samples, the subjects washed their hands with unmedicated Sterisol liquid soap under running water for 30s and dried them on sterile-packed paper towels. Microbiologic samples were taken from fingerprints pressed gently onto blood agar plates, which were then incubated aerobically and analyzed. The hand disinfection efficacy of 3 ml Isosept solution rubbed onto the hands for 30 s, followed by air drying for 60 s, was studied as a conventional control method. Dermocol, HD 410, and Hibisol antiseptics were sprayed onto the subjects' hands for 3 s using the automatic dispenser, after which the hands were gently rubbed for 30 s and air-dried for 60 s, before fingerprint contact sampling. All the tests were performed three times, with a minimum of 3 days between the series. The results showed Hibisol applied with the spray dispenser to be significantly more effective in reducing bacterial growth than the other methods. No growth was observed on 51 plates out of 60, while bacterial growth was observed in 29 cases out of 60 in the Isosept series. In most cases the spray-dispensed antiseptics proved to be more efficient than the conventional hand antiseptic. All the antiseptics were significantly more effective than the liquid soap.

  20. Do Pregnant Women Report Use of Dispensed Medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy often draws on administrative prescription registries. Noncompliance in the use of prescribed medication may be frequent among pregnant women owing to their fear of fetotoxic side effects. To estimate compliance in the use of prescription drugs dispensed...

  1. A microfluidic AFM cantilever based dispensing and aspiration platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oorschot, R.; Perez Garza, H.H.; Derks, R.J.S.; Staufer, U.; Ghatkesar, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    We present the development of a microfluidic AFM (atomic force microscope) cantilever-based platform to enable the local dispensing and aspiration of liquid with volumes in the pico-to-femtoliter range. The platform consists of a basic AFM measurement system, microfluidic AFM chip, fluidic interface

  2. 16 CFR 456.2 - Separation of examination and dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation of examination and dispensing. 456.2 Section 456.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC... patient's prescription immediately after the eye examination is completed. Provided: An ophthalmologist...

  3. [Dispensing care at the dispensing counter in the conditions of a Czech pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesková, B; Plevacová, H

    2005-03-01

    Evaluation of 108 cases when the pharmacist found a need to intervene into prescription verified the use of internationally employed system of classification of pharmaceutical interventions in the conditions of the Czech pharmacy of the basic type. The so-called dispensing care at the counter was provided by five participating pharmacists (out of seven working in the pharmacy) for a period of six months. The most frequently identified problems included: inappropriate use of medicaments--overdose, use at unsuitable time (28.7 %), a need to inform the patient (17.6 %), potentially ineffective therapy (12.9 %), drug interactions (7.4 %), suspected and potential undesirable effects of prescribed medicaments (7.4 %), and insufficient compliance (6.5 %). Solution of problems with medicaments was most frequently: a change in dosage (25.9 %), recommendation to consult the physician (24.1 %), and professional counselling on pharmacotherapy (23.1 %). The pharmacotherapeutic group identified as the one most frequently requiring a telephone consultation of the pharmacist and the physician was antibiotics, including antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents.

  4. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter of...

  5. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception of...

  6. Comparison on Human Resource Requirement between Manual and Automated Dispensing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noparatayaporn, Prapaporn; Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch; Thaweethamcharoen, Tanita; Sangseenil, Wunwisa

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to compare human resource requirement among manual, automated, and modified automated dispensing systems. Data were collected from the pharmacy department at the 2100-bed university hospital (Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand). Data regarding the duration of the medication distribution process were collected by using self-reported forms for 1 month. The data on the automated dispensing machine (ADM) system were obtained from 1 piloted inpatient ward, whereas those on the manual system were the average of other wards. Data on dispensing, returned unused medication, and stock management processes under the traditional manual system and the ADM system were from actual activities, whereas the modified ADM system was modeled. The full-time equivalent (FTE) of each model was estimated for comparison. The result showed that the manual system required 46.84 FTEs of pharmacists and 132.66 FTEs of pharmacy technicians. By adding pharmacist roles on screening and verification under the ADM system, the ADM system required 117.61 FTEs of pharmacists. Replacing counting and filling medication functions by ADM has decreased the number of pharmacy technicians to 55.38 FTEs. After the modified ADM system canceled the return unused medication process, FTEs requirement for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians decreased to 69.78 and 51.90 FTEs, respectively. The ADM system decreased the workload of pharmacy technicians, whereas it required more time from pharmacists. However, the increased workload of pharmacists was associated with more comprehensive patient care functions, which resulted from the redesigned work process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Modeling and Control of Time-pressure Dispensing for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To improve the consistency of the adhesive amount dispensed by the time-pressure dispenser for semiconductor manufacturing, a non-Newtonian fluid flow rate model is developed to represent and estimate the adhesive amount dispensed in each cycle. Taking account of gas compressibility, an intelligent model-based control strategy is proposed to compensate the deviation of adhesive amount dispensed from the desired one. Both simulations and experiments show that the dispensing consistency is greatly improved by using the model-based control strategy developed in this paper.

  8. Using Multispectral Imaging to Measure Temperature Profiles and Emissivity of Large Thermionic Dispenser, Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Simmons; C.M. Fortgang; D.B. Holtkamp

    2001-09-01

    Thermionic dispenser cathodes are widely used in modern high-power microwave tubes. Use of these cathodes has led to significant improvement in performance. In recent years these cathodes have been used in electron linear accelerators (LINACs), particularly in induction LINACs, such as the Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Relativistic Test Accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For induction LINACs, the thermionic dispenser cathode provides greater reproducibility, longer pulse lengths, and lower emittance beams than does a field emission cathode. Los Alamos National Laboratory is fabricating a dual-axis X-ray radiography machine called dual-axis radiograph hydrodynamic test (DARHT). The second axis of DARHT consists of a 2-kA, 20-MeV induction LINAC that uses a 3.2-MeV electron gun with a tungsten thermionic-dispenser cathode. Typically the DARHT cathode current density is 10 A/cm{sup 2} at 1050 C. Under these conditions current density is space-charge limited, which is desirable since current density is independent of temperature. At lower temperature (the temperature-limited regime) there are variations in the local current density due to a nonuniform temperature profile. To obtain the desired uniform current density associated with space-charge limited operation, the coolest area on the cathode must be at a sufficiently high temperature so that the emission is space-charge limited. Consequently, the rest of the cathode is emitting at the same space-charge-limited current density but is at a higher temperature than necessary. Because cathode lifetime is such a strong function of cathode temperature, there is a severe penalty for nonuniformity in the cathode temperature. For example, a temperature increase of 50 C means cathode lifetime will decrease by a factor of at least four. Therefore, we are motivated to measure the temperature profiles of our large-area cathodes.

  9. [Design and piloting of a structured service medication dispensing process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaurre, Raquel; García-Delgado, Pilar; Maurandi, M Dolores; Arrebola, Cristóbal; Gastelurrutia, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to design and pilot a protocol for the dispensing of medications service. Using the requirements proposed in the Ministry of Health Pharmaceutical Care Consensus, a literature search was made applying qualitative consensus techniques. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2009. A total of 53 community pharmacies from 24 Spanish counties. Patients who requested one or more particular medications with or without medical prescription for their own use or for someone in their care. The personalised medication information (IPM), the problems associated with the medications (PRM), and the negative results associated with the medication (RNM), detected by the pharmacist each time medication was dispensed, as well as the perception of the pharmacist on the operability of the protocol were recorded. A total of 870 medications were dispensed, with 423 (48.6%) cases of lack of personalised medication information (IPM) being detected. PRM were detected in 10.11% of the dispensed medications, as well as 68 (7.81%) suspected RNM: safety (n = 35; 51.5%), effectiveness (n = 29; 42.6%) and necessity (n = 4; 5.8%). Almost two-thirds (65.21%) of the pharmacists said that the protocol is in operation. The designed protocol helped to detect deficiencies in the information to the patients about their medications, as well as the PRM and RNM, and is shown to be tool that is easy to use and apply. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibiotics dispensing for URTIs by community pharmacists and general medical practitioners in Penang, Malaysia: A comparative study using simulated patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alabid, Alamin Hassan M. A.; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali,Mohamed Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Malaysia, doctors in private clinics (often called dispensing doctors) are permitted to dispense medicines. This potentially may compromise rational dispensing of medicines in general and antibiotics in particular. Aim: This study explored, assessed and compared dispensing of antibiotics between Community Pharmacist (CP) and General Practitioners (GPs) regarding symptomatic diagnosis, antibiotic categories, adherence to therapeutic doses and promotion of generic antibiotics...

  11. Direct-Dispense Polymeric Waveguides Platform for Optical Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hajj-Hassan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe an automated robotic technique called direct-dispense to fabricate a polymeric platform that supports optical sensor arrays. Direct-dispense, which is a type of the emerging direct-write microfabrication techniques, uses fugitive organic inks in combination with cross-linkable polymers to create microfluidic channels and other microstructures. Specifically, we describe an application of direct-dispensing to develop optical biochemical sensors by fabricating planar ridge waveguides that support sol-gelderived xerogel-based thin films. The xerogel-based sensor materials act as host media to house luminophore biochemical recognition elements. As a prototype implementation, we demonstrate gaseous oxygen (O2 responsive optical sensors that operate on the basis of monitoring luminescence intensity signals. The optical sensor employs a Light Emitting Diode (LED excitation source and a standard silicon photodiode as the detector. The sensor operates over the full scale (0%-100% of O2 concentrations with a response time of less than 1 second. This work has implications for the development of miniaturized multisensor platforms that can be cost-effectively and reliably mass-produced.

  12. Private pharmacy staff in Hanoi dispensing steroids - theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate self reported practice and actual practice of private pharmacy staff in relation to drug regulations and provision of prednisolone (a prescription-only corticosteroid on request to treat lower back pain. Method: Sixty private pharmacies in Hanoi were randomly selected. Self reported practice was assessed through interviews with pharmacy staff using a questionnaire; actual practice was assessed with the Simulated Client Method with 5 encounters in each pharmacy (a total of 295 encounters. Results: Sixty percent of the pharmacy staff interviewed said that they would not dispense corticosteroids without prescription and 60% could mention some adverse effects. In practice all but one pharmacy dispensed corticosteroids without prescription in 76 % of all the encounters. Questions and advice given to the clients were associated with significantly lower dispensing of corticosteroids. Conclusion: The low compliance with prescription regulations and the discrepancy between stated practice and actual practice raises concerns. This study indicates that commercial pressures exceed the deterrent effect of current drug regulations and their implementation and hence enforcement of regulations needs to be improved.

  13. Neurocan is dispensable for brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, X H; Brakebusch, C; Matthies, H

    2001-01-01

    Neurocan is a component of the extracellular matrix in brain. Due to its inhibition of neuronal adhesion and outgrowth in vitro and its expression pattern in vivo it was suggested to play an important role in axon guidance and neurite growth. To study the role of neurocan in brain development we...... generated neurocan-deficient mice by targeted disruption of the neurocan gene. These mice are viable and fertile and have no obvious deficits in reproduction and general performance. Brain anatomy, morphology, and ultrastructure are similar to those of wild-type mice. Perineuronal nets surrounding neurons...... appear largely normal. Mild deficits in synaptic plasticity may exist, as maintenance of late-phase hippocampal long-term potentiation is reduced. These data indicate that neurocan has either a redundant or a more subtle function in the development of the brain....

  14. Adherence to a flexible extended regimen for oral hormonal contraception provided in blister packaging compared with an adherence-supporting digital tablet dispenser: historical comparison of data from two clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliesen, Jörg; Trummer, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Background The Clyk™ digital pill dispenser helps ensure correct and consistent administration of a flexible extended regimen of the combined oral contraceptive, ethinylestradiol (EE) 20 μg/drospirenone 3 mg (EE/drospirenone ; YAZ® Flex Flex), guiding users through the intake cycle and 4-day pill break and providing visible and acoustic daily reminders when pill intake is due. A study showed that the audible alarm function of the dispenser could help reduce the number of missed pills, but it lacked an appropriate “non-dispenser” group for a meaningful assessment of the impact of the dispenser on adherence. This study indirectly assessed the overall effect of the digital dispenser on adherence by comparing data from a treatment with standard blister packaging. Materials and methods One-year adherence data were compared from two similarly designed, Phase III, open-label, randomized trials of EE/drospirenoneFlex. In study 1, women used diary cards to record adherence with EE/drospirenoneFlex dispensed in blister packs (n=640), and in study 2 the dispenser was used with the alarm activated (n=250) or deactivated (n=248) in addition to using diary cards. Results A mean (±SD) of 4.3 (±4.24) missed pills over 1 year were recorded in diary cards among women who dispensed their pills from the blister packages (study 1) compared with 1.0 (±2.4) recorded by the alarm-activated dispenser (study 2). In study 2, a mean of 1.9 (±4.2) missed pills were reported in the diaries over 1 year compared with 4.4 (±9.1) from automatic recording by the dispenser (both arms of study 2), indicating underreporting of missed pills in diary cards vs the digital dispenser. Adjusting for this rate of underreporting, an estimated mean of ten pills were missed over 1 year by women using EE/drospirenoneFlex in blister packs, or ten times more than with the digital dispenser with activated acoustic alarm. Conclusion The digital dispenser helps reduce the number of missed pills and

  15. Evaluation of a liquid dispenser for assay development and enzymology in 1536-well format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butendeich, Heike; Pierret, Noëlle M; Numao, Shin

    2013-06-01

    Although developments in liquid dispensers have made the use of 1536-well plates for high-throughput screening (HTS) standard, there is still a gap in dispenser technology for performing matrix experiments with several components. Experiments such as those performed during assay development and enzymological studies are therefore still performed by manual pipetting in lower-density plates. We have evaluated a new dispenser, the Certus liquid dispenser (Gyger Fluidics GmbH, Switzerland), that is capable of flexible dispensing in 1536-well format, with a dead volume of less than 200 µL. Taking advantage of the precision of the dispenser for volumes down to 50 nL, we have created concentration gradients on plates by dispensing different volumes of reagent and then backfilling with buffer. Using this method and the flexibility of the dispenser software, we have performed several multidimensional experiments varying two to three components, including an assay development for an HTS, a mode of inhibition study, and a cofactor optimization, in which we determined 32 KM values. Overall, the flexibility of the plate layout for multiple components, the accuracy to dispense volumes ranging 2 log orders, and minimal reagent usage enable this dispenser for complex biochemical experiments.

  16. Ezrin is highly expressed in early thymocytes, but dispensable for T cell development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith H Shaffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM proteins are highly homologous proteins that function to link cargo molecules to the actin cytoskeleton. Ezrin and moesin are both expressed in mature lymphocytes, where they play overlapping roles in cell signaling and polarity, but their role in lymphoid development has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized ERM protein expression in lymphoid tissues and analyzed the requirement for ezrin expression in lymphoid development. In wildtype mice, we found that most cells in the spleen and thymus express both ezrin and moesin, but little radixin. ERM protein expression in the thymus was differentially regulated, such that ezrin expression was highest in immature thymocytes and diminished during T cell development. In contrast, moesin expression was low in early thymocytes and upregulated during T cell development. Mice bearing a germline deletion of ezrin exhibited profound defects in the size and cellularity of the spleen and thymus, abnormal thymic architecture, diminished hematopoiesis, and increased proportions of granulocytic precursors. Further analysis using fetal liver chimeras and thymic transplants showed that ezrin expression is dispensable in hematopoietic and stromal lineages, and that most of the defects in lymphoid development in ezrin(-/- mice likely arise as a consequence of nutritional stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that despite high expression in lymphoid precursor cells, ezrin is dispensable for lymphoid development, most likely due to redundancy with moesin.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE DISPENSER CATHODE WITH Re AS A MIDDLE LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new type of dispenser cathode with dual-layer (Os-W/Re) is developed. The cathode coated with Os-W/Re shows better emission performance than the cathode coated with Os-W alloy. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) spectra demonstrate that ternary alloy coating (Os-W-Re) formed on the surface of the cathode with dual-layer (Os-W/Re) after full activation is the major reason why it has better emission than the cathode with Os-W alloy. The surface of each variety of the cathode is characterized with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) before and after activation: the emitting surface of the cathode with Os-W alloy after ageing appeared non-adherence (flaking) in localized areas, which is one of the reasons for non-uniform emission.However, the surface of the cathode with dual-layer (Os-W/Re) does not present film peeling under the same conditions. Thus it ensures better emission uniformity and functional reliability for the dispenser cathode.

  18. Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) Template for California Hydrogen Dispensing Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C.; Blake, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.; Post, M.

    2012-11-01

    This report explains the Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) requirements for hydrogen dispensing stations in the State of California. The reports shows the basic components of a hydrogen dispensing station in a simple schematic drawing; the permits and approvals that would typically be required for the construction and operation of a hydrogen dispensing station; and a basic permit that might be employed by an Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).

  19. Data from: Dispenser printed capacitive proximity sensor on fabric for applications in the creative industries

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a planar capacitive proximity sensor fully dispenser printed on a standard polyester woven fabric using conductive ink. Dispenser printing is a new digital printing technique offering the advantages of complete geometric design flexibility and the ability to direct write multilayer devices without requiring bespoke tooling. A dispenser printer is also capable of printing a wide range of ink viscosities encompassing those of inkjet and screen printable inks. Previous researc...

  20. Dispenser printed capacitive proximity sensor on fabric for applications in the creative industries

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a planar capacitive proximity sensor fully dispenser printed on a standard polyester woven fabric using conductive ink. Dispenser printing is a new digital printing technique offering the advantages of complete geometric design flexibility and the ability to direct write multilayer devices without requiring bespoke tooling. A dispenser printer is also capable of printing a wide range of ink viscosities encompassing those of inkjet and screen printable inks. Previous researc...

  1. Hand sanitizer-dispensing door handles increase hand hygiene compliance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Lukasz S; Savoie, Brent; McGuire, Mark; McConnell, Lauren; Nagy, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Improving rates of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) has been shown to reduce nosocomial disease. We compared the HHC for a traditional wall-mounted unit and a novel sanitizer-dispensing door handle device in a hospital inpatient ultrasound area. HHC increased 24.5%-77.1% (P sanitizer-dispensing door handle, whereas it remained unchanged for the other rooms. Technical improvements like a sanitizer-dispensing door handle can improve hospital HHC.

  2. ARAS: an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing a safe environment for radiation workers but also to ensure accuracy of dispensed radioactivity and an efficient workflow. For this purpose, we have designed ARAS, an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes with particular focus on fluorine-18 (18F). Methods The key to the system is the combina...

  3. Drug dispensing practices at pharmacies in Bengaluru: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study shows a high proportion of dispensing encounters without prescription, a higher rate of older prescription refills, many irregularities in medication counseling and unsatisfactory storage practices. It also revealed that about half of the pharmacists were unaware of Schedule H and majority of them about current regulations. Hence, regulatory enforcement and educational campaigns are a prerequisite to improve dispenser's knowledge and dispensing practices.

  4. Guide to Permitting Hydrogen Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    The purpose of this guide is to assist project developers, permitting officials, code enforcement officials, and other parties involved in developing permit applications and approving the implementation of hydrogen motor fuel dispensing facilities. The guide facilitates the identification of the elements to be addressed in the permitting of a project as it progresses through the approval process; the specific requirements associated with those elements; and the applicable (or potentially applicable) codes and standards by which to determine whether the specific requirements have been met. The guide attempts to identify all applicable codes and standards relevant to the permitting requirements.

  5. A Method for Dispensing Planaria (Dugesia dorotocephala) for Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    other day. Planaria surviving Turbellaria ) was first shown by Lischetti (1919). after 14 days and those added to the population Studies have since...FILE COPY DECEMBER 198S OPERATIONAl. AND StCIENTIFI( NOTES A METHOD FOR DISPENSING PLANARIA (DI’E.S’IA DOROTOCEPHALA) FOR MOSQUITO CONTROL SW. N1...potential as number of experimental (12.64 ± 2.99) and con- a biological control agent of mosquitoes (Yu and trol (11.99 ± 2.47) planaria remaining after 14

  6. Dispensing rates of four common hearing aid product features: associations with variations in practice among audiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Earl E; Ricketts, Todd A

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop and examine a list of potential variables that may account for variability in the dispensing rates of four common hearing aid features. A total of 29 potential variables were identified and placed into the following categories: (1) characteristics of the audiologist, (2) characteristics of the hearing aids dispensed by the audiologist, (3) characteristics of the audiologist's patient population, and (4) evidence-based practice grades of recommendation for each feature. The potentially associative variables then were examined using regression analyses from the responses of 257 audiologists to a dispensing practice survey. There was a direct relation between price and level of hearing aid technology with the frequency of dispensing product features. There was also a direct relation between the belief by the audiologist that a feature might benefit patients and the frequency of dispensing that feature. In general, the results suggested that personal differences among audiologists and the hearing aids audiologists choose to dispense are related more strongly to dispensing rates of product features than to differences in characteristics of the patient population served by audiologists. An additional finding indicated that evidence-based practice recommendations were inversely related to dispensing rates of product features. This finding, however, may not be the result of dispensing trends as much as hearing aid manufacturing trends.

  7. Control of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by biodegradable ecodian sex pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, G; Baldessari, M; De Cristofaro, A; Germinara, G S; Ioriatti, C; Reggiori, F; Vitagliano, S; Angeli, G

    2008-04-01

    Mating disruption with a high density of sex pheromone dispensers is a new strategy recently developed for the control of the moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Ecodian LB dispensers, made of low-cost biodegradable material, were formulated with 10 mg of (E,Z) -7,9-dodecadienyl acetate and placed at a rate of 1,600 dispensers per ha. Seasonal dispenser performances were studied using different methods. The female attractiveness disruption and the efficacy of the method were evaluated in the field. The release rates of field-aged Ecodian LB dispensers, measured directly by solid phase microextraction, was comparable with that of the standard monitoring lure after 50-60 d of field exposure and significantly lower beyond 60 d; however, at the end of the season, it was approximately 46 times higher than that of a calling L. botrana female. Electroantennographic recordings showed that dispensers of different field age strongly stimulated male antennae. In a wind tunnel test, dispensers elicited close-range approaches and direct source contacts irrespective of their age. In fields treated with Ecodian dispensers the attractiveness of traps lured with calling females and monitoring baits was significantly reduced. Our data suggest that Ecodian dispensers are active sources of pheromone throughout the season. The efficacy of Ecodian strategy for L. botrana control was comparable with standard mating disruption and curative insecticides.

  8. Dispensable chromosomes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaardingerbroek, Ido; Beerens, Bas; Schmidt, Sarah M; Cornelissen, Ben J C; Rep, Martijn

    2016-12-01

    The genomes of many filamentous fungi consist of a 'core' part containing conserved genes essential for normal development as well as conditionally dispensable (CD) or lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes. In the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, one LS chromosome harbours effector genes that contribute to pathogenicity. We employed flow cytometry to select for events of spontaneous (partial) loss of either the two smallest LS chromosomes or two different core chromosomes. We determined the rate of spontaneous loss of the 'effector' LS chromosome in vitro at around 1 in 35 000 spores. In addition, a viable strain was obtained lacking chromosome 12, which is considered to be a part of the core genome. We also isolated strains carrying approximately 1-Mb deletions in the LS chromosomes and in the dispensable core chromosome. The large core chromosome 1 was never observed to sustain deletions over 200 kb. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that some of the sites at which the deletions occurred were the same in several independent strains obtained for the two chromosomes tested, indicating the existence of deletion hotspots. For the core chromosome, this deletion hotspot was the site of insertion of the marker used to select for loss events. Loss of the core chromosome did not affect pathogenicity, whereas loss of the effector chromosome led to a complete loss of pathogenicity. © 2016 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY PUBLISHED BY BRITISH SOCIETY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. Can the design of glove dispensing boxes influence glove contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, O; Leaper, D J; Kramer, A; Ousey, K J

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have explored the microbial contamination of glove boxes in clinical settings. The objective of this observational study was to investigate whether a new glove packaging system in which single gloves are dispensed vertically, cuff end first, has lower levels of contamination on the gloves and on the surface around the box aperture compared with conventional glove boxes. Seven participating sites were provided with vertical glove dispensing systems (modified boxes) and conventional boxes. Before opening glove boxes, the surface around the aperture was sampled microbiologically to establish baseline levels of superficial contamination. Once the glove boxes were opened, the first pair of gloves in each box was sampled for viable bacteria. Thereafter, testing sites were visited on a weekly basis over a period of six weeks and the same microbiological assessments were made. The surface near the aperture of the modified boxes became significantly less contaminated over time compared with the conventional boxes (Pcontamination around the aperture. Overall, gloves from modified boxes showed significantly less colony-forming unit contamination than gloves from conventional boxes (Pcontamination. This simple improvement to glove box design reduces contamination of unused gloves. Such modifications could decrease the risk of microbial cross-transmission in settings that use gloves. However, such advantages do not substitute for strict hand hygiene compliance and appropriate use of non-sterile, single-use gloves. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  10. N-cadherin is dispensable for pancreas development but required for β-cell granule turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jenny K; Voss, Ulrikke; Kesavan, Gokul; Kostetskii, Igor; Wierup, Nils; Radice, Glenn L.; Semb, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Summary The cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules mediates adhesive interactions that are required for the formation and maintenance of tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that N-cadherin, which is required for numerous morphogenetic processes, is expressed in the pancreatic epithelium at E9.5, but later becomes restricted to endocrine aggregates in mice. To study the role of N-cadherin during pancreas formation and function we generated a tissue specific knockout of N-cadherin in the early pancreatic epithelium by inter-crossing N-cadherin-floxed mice with Pdx1Cre mice. Analysis of pancreas-specific ablation of N-cadherin demonstrates that N-cadherin is dispensable for pancreatic development, but required for β-cell granule turnover. The number of insulin secretory granules is significantly reduced in N-cadherin-deficient β-cells, and as a consequence insulin secretion is decreased. PMID:20533404

  11. Performance Evaluation of Strain Gauge Printed Using Automatic Fluid Dispensing System on Conformal Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairilhijra Khirotdin, Rd.; Faridzuan Ngadiron, Mohamad; Adzeem Mahadzir, Muhammad; Hassan, Nurhafizzah

    2017-08-01

    Smart textiles require flexible electronics that can withstand daily stresses like bends and stretches. Printing using conductive inks provides the flexibility required but the current printing techniques suffered from ink incompatibility, limited of substrates to be printed with and incompatible with conformal substrates due to its rigidity and low flexibility. An alternate printing technique via automatic fluid dispensing system is proposed and its performances on printing strain gauge on conformal substrates were evaluated to determine its feasibility. Process parameters studied including printing speed, deposition height, curing time and curing temperature. It was found that the strain gauge is proven functional as expected since different strains were induced when bent on variation of bending angles and curvature radiuses from designated bending fixtures. The average change of resistances were doubled before the strain gauge starts to break. Printed strain gauges also exhibited some excellence elasticity as they were able to resist bending up to 70° angle and 3 mm of curvature radius.

  12. N-cadherin is dispensable for pancreas development but required for beta-cell granule turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jenny K; Voss, Ulrikke; Kesavan, Gokul; Kostetskii, Igor; Wierup, Nils; Radice, Glenn L; Semb, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    The cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules mediates adhesive interactions that are required for the formation and maintenance of tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that N-cadherin, which is required for numerous morphogenetic processes, is expressed in the pancreatic epithelium at E9.5, but later becomes restricted to endocrine aggregates in mice. To study the role of N-cadherin during pancreas formation and function we generated a tissue-specific knockout of N-cadherin in the early pancreatic epithelium by inter-crossing N-cadherin-floxed mice with Pdx1Cre mice. Analysis of pancreas-specific ablation of N-cadherin demonstrates that N-cadherin is dispensable for pancreatic development, but required for beta-cell granule turnover. The number of insulin secretory granules is significantly reduced in N-cadherin-deficient beta-cells, and as a consequence insulin secretion is decreased.

  13. The long repeat region is dispensable for fowl adenovirus replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojkic, D; Nagy, E

    2001-05-10

    Two regions containing tandemly repeated sequences are present in the fowl adenovirus 9 (FAdV-9) genome. The longer repeat region (TR-2) is composed of 13 contiguous 135-bp-long direct repeats, the function of which is unknown. An infectious FAdV-9 genomic clone, constructed by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli, was used for engineering of recombinant viruses. The enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) coding sequence was cloned in both rightward and leftward orientations so as to replace TR-2. Replication-competent recombinant FAdVs were recovered, demonstrating that TR-2 was dispensable for FAdV-9 propagation in vitro. The expression of EGFP in infected cells was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, immunoprecipitation, and RT-PCR.

  14. Catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    It is intriguing how multiple molecular motors can perform coordinated and synchronous functions, which is essential in various cellular processes. Recent studies on skeletal muscle might have shed light on this issue, where rather precise motor force regulation was partly attributed to the specific stochastic features of a single attached myosin motor. Though attached motors can randomly detach from actin filaments either through an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis cycle or through "catch-slip bond" breaking, their respective contribution in motor force regulation has not been clarified. Here, through simulating a mechanical model of sarcomere with a coupled Monte Carlo method and finite element method, we find that the stochastic features of an ATP hydrolysis cycle can be sufficient while those of catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation.

  15. Ankfy1 is dispensable for neural stem/precursor cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chao; Ding, Man; Chang, Lian-Sheng; Ren, Ming-Xin; Zhang, Hong-Feng; Lu, Zu-Neng; Fu, Hui

    2016-11-01

    There are few studies on the membrane protein Ankfy1. We have found Ankfy1 is specifically expressed in neural stem/precursor cells during early development in mice (murine). To further explore Ankfy1 function in neural development, we developed a gene knockout mouse with a mixed Balb/C and C57/BL6 genetic background. Using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, neural defects were absent in mixed genetic Ankfy1 null mice during development and in adults up to 2 months old. However, Ankfy1 gene knockout mice with a pure genetic background were found to be lethal in the C57/BL6 inbred mice embryos, even after seven generations of backcrossing. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed homozygotes were unattainable as early as embryonic day 11.5. We conclude that Ankfy1 protein is dispensable in neural stem/precursor cells, but could be critical for early embryonic murine development, depending on the genetic background.

  16. The challenge of responsible dispensing: formal education versus professional practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Judith Bezzegh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the education of Pharmaceutical Technicians for the activity of responsible dispensing. Based on a questionnaire with open and closed questions, the study sought to characterize the students, identify knowledge and attitudes regarding the Rational Use of Medications while addressing the limits and possibilities of professional and ethical dispensing in practice. In addition, a group dynamics session - focus group - was held as a forum for debate on responsible dispensing. The results showed that students tended to be mature, currently employed and were predominately women. Displaying adequate knowledge on Rational Use of Medications and of the corresponding legislation, the students reported difficulties exercising compatible practice. While the diagnosis pointed to the need for student preparation to enable ethical dispensing, the Focus Group highlighted the possibility for inclusion of a forum for reflection and debate on the ethics of dispensing as part of the Pharmaceutical Technician training.O presente trabalho tem como proposta avaliar a formação do Técnico em Farmácia para o exercício da dispensação responsável. A partir de um questionário com perguntas fechadas e abertas, o estudo envolveu a caracterização dos alunos, a identificação de conhecimentos e atitudes em relação ao Uso Racional dos Medicamentos com vistas ao delineamento dos limites e possibilidades do exercício profissional ético na dispensação. Além disso, foi realizada uma dinâmica grupal - grupo focal - com o objetivo de apreciar a constituição de um espaço de reflexão sobre a dispensação responsável. Os resultados evidenciaram um alunato de maior idade, inserido no mercado de trabalho e predominância de mulheres. Dispondo de conhecimento adequado sobre o Uso Racional dos Medicamentos e da legislação correspondente os alunos fazem referência às dificuldades no exercício de uma pr

  17. 29 CFR 801.13 - Exemption of employers authorized to manufacture, distribute, or dispense controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., distribute, or dispense controlled substances. 801.13 Section 801.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Enforcement Administration (DEA), U.S. Department of Justice. (2) The exemption in section 7(f) of the Act applies only to employers who are authorized by DEA to manufacture, distribute, or dispense a controlled...

  18. MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE DISPENSING EQUIPMENT. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD COVERS THE SANITATION REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES WHICH DISPENSE FOOD OR BEVERAGE EITHER IN BULK OR PORTIONS. VENDING MACHINES OR BULK MILK DISPENSING EQUIPMENT ARE NOT COVERED IN THIS STANDARD. ITEMS COVERED INCLUDE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, FOOD PROTECTION AND FREEDOM FROM HARBORAGES. MINIMUM…

  19. Poorly processed reusable surface disinfection tissue dispensers may be a source of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Jesse, Katrin; von Baum, Heike; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-21

    Reusable surface disinfectant tissue dispensers are used in hospitals in many countries because they allow immediate access to pre-soaked tissues for targeted surface decontamination. On the other hand disinfectant solutions with some active ingredients may get contaminated and cause outbreaks. We determined the frequency of contaminated surface disinfectant solutions in reusable dispensers and the ability of isolates to multiply in different formulations. Reusable tissue dispensers with different surface disinfectants were randomly collected from healthcare facilities. Solutions were investigated for bacterial contamination. The efficacy of two surface disinfectants was determined in suspension tests against two isolated species directly from a contaminated solution or after 5 passages without selection pressure in triplicate. Freshly prepared use solutions were contaminated to determine survival of isolates. 66 dispensers containing disinfectant solutions with surface-active ingredients were collected in 15 healthcare facilities. 28 dispensers from nine healthcare facilities were contaminated with approximately 107 cells per mL of Achromobacter species 3 (9 hospitals), Achromobacter xylosoxidans or Serratia marcescens (1 hospital each). In none of the hospitals dispenser processing had been adequately performed. Isolates regained susceptibility to the disinfectants after five passages without selection pressure but were still able to multiply in different formulations from different manufacturers at room temperature within 7 days. Neglecting adequate processing of surface disinfectant dispensers has contributed to frequent and heavy contamination of use-solutions based on surface active ingredients. Tissue dispenser processing should be taken seriously in clinical practice.

  20. Concept of Operations for the Dust Dispenser Spacecraft for Active Orbital Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-25

    the fragments, liquid , and gas from the microcrater into vacuum as a recoil jet that imparts negative thrust to the debris mass. The dust vaporizes...dispensing objectives and science data collection. Whether the dispensing is proceeding as expected or not, maneuvers to reposition the spacecraft should

  1. 21 CFR 1304.50 - Disclosure requirements for Web sites of nonpharmacy practitioners that dispense controlled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonpharmacy practitioners that dispense controlled substances by means of the Internet. 1304.50 Section 1304... that dispense controlled substances by means of the Internet. For a Web site to identify itself as being exempt from the definition of an online pharmacy by virtue of section 102(52)(B)(ii) of the...

  2. 21 CFR 208.24 - Distributing and dispensing a Medication Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributing and dispensing a Medication Guide... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL MEDICATION GUIDES FOR PRESCRIPTION DRUG PRODUCTS General Requirements for a Medication Guide § 208.24 Distributing and dispensing a Medication Guide. (a) The...

  3. Energy-efficiency potential of water dispensers; Energieeffizienzpotenzial bei Wasser-Dispensern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, T.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of study carried out to assess the energy-savings potential available in the operation of water dispensers often found in banks, stores and offices. The energy consumption of three types of dispenser is examined and compared with American 'EnergyStar'-guidelines. The results of measurements made for day and night-time operation are presented and the energy-savings potentials offered by more appropriate operating scenarios are discussed. Recommendations are made to all parties involved, from the dispenser's manufacturer, water-supplier and service organisation through to the end user. For each category, a catalogue of measures that can be taken is presented, including modifications to the dispensers themselves and the installation of timers. Also, the energy consumption of dispensers is compared with that of using traditional mineral water bottles and a small conventional refrigerator.

  4. Drug dispensing practices at pharmacies in Bengaluru: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, R.; Devarashetty, Vijayalakshmi; Jayanthi, C. R.; Sushma, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Pharmacists are one of the crucial focal points for health care in the community. They have tremendous outreach to the public as pharmacies are often the first-port-of-call. With the increase of ready-to-use drugs, the main health-related activity of a pharmacist today is to assure the quality of dispensing, a key element to promote rational medicine use. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 pharmacies, 100 each in various residential (R) and commercial (C) areas of Bengaluru, was conducted using a prevalidated questionnaire administered to the chief pharmacist or the person-in-charge by the investigators. Results: Dispensing without prescription at pharmacies was 45% of the total dispensing encounters and significantly higher (χ2 = 15.2, P educational campaigns are a prerequisite to improve dispenser's knowledge and dispensing practices.

  5. Optimizing the Point-Source Emission Rates and Geometries of Pheromone Mating Disruption Mega-Dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, T C; Myrick, A J; Park, K C

    2016-09-01

    High-emission-rate "mega-dispensers" have come into increasing use for sex pheromone mating disruption of moth pests over the past two decades. These commercially available dispensers successfully suppress mating and reduce crop damage when they are deployed at very low to moderate densities, ranging from 1 to 5/ha to 100-1000/ha, depending on the dispenser types and their corresponding pheromone emission rates. Whereas traditionally the emission rates for successful commercial mating disruption formulations have been measured in terms of amounts (usually milligram) emitted by the disruptant application per acre or hectare per day, we suggest that emission rates should be measured on a per-dispenser per-minute basis. In addition we suggest, because of our knowledge concerning upwind flight of male moths being dependent on contact with pheromone plume strands, that more attention needs to be paid to optimizing the flux within plume strands that shear off of any mating disruption dispenser's surface. By measuring the emission rates on a per-minute basis and measuring the plume strand concentrations emanating from the dispensers, it may help improve the ability of the dispensers to initiate upwind flight from males and initiate their habituation to the pheromone farther downwind than can otherwise be achieved. In addition, by optimizing plume strand flux by paying attention to the geometries and compactness of mating disruption mega-dispensers may help reduce the cost of mega-dispenser disruption formulations by improving their behavioral efficacy while maintaining field longevity and using lower loading rates per dispenser.

  6. Influence of container structures and content solutions on dispensing time of ophthalmic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Yoshikawa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Keiji Yoshikawa1, Hiroshi Yamada21Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 2Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, JapanPurpose: To investigate the influence of container structures and content solutions on the time of dispensing from eye dropper bottles.Methods: Eye dropper bottle models, solution models (filtrate water/surfactant solution and a dispensing time measuring apparatus were prepared to measure the dispensing time.Results: With filtrate water and pressure thrust load of 0.3 MPa, the dispensing time significantly increased from 1.1 ± 0.5 seconds to 4.6 ± 1.1 seconds depending on the decrease of inner aperture diameters from 0.4 mm to 0.2 mm (P < 0.0001. When using the bottle models with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger, the dispensing time became constant. The dispensing time using surfactant solution showed the same tendency as above. When pressure thrust load was large (0.07 MPa, the solution flew out continuously with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger and the dispensing time could not be measured. The inner aperture diameter most strongly explained the variation of the dispensing time in both the content solutions in the multiple linear regression analysis (filtrate water: 46%, R2 = 0.462, surfactant solution: 56%, R2 = 0.563.Conclusions: Among content solutions and container structures, the dispensing time was mostly influenced by the diameter of the inner aperture of bottles.Keywords: dispensing time, model eye dropper bottle, model ophthalmic solution, nozzle internal space volume, nozzle inner aperture diameter

  7. BAZ1B is dispensable for H2AX phosphorylation on Tyrosine 142 during spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler J. Broering

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is precisely regulated by the factors involved in DNA damage response in somatic cells. Among them, phosphorylation of H2AX on Serine 139 (γH2AX is an essential signal for the silencing of unsynapsed sex chromosomes during male meiosis. However, it remains unknown how adjacent H2AX phosphorylation on Tyrosine 142 (pTyr142 is regulated in meiosis. Here we investigate the meiotic functions of BAZ1B (WSTF, the only known Tyr142 kinase in somatic cells, using mice possessing a conditional deletion of BAZ1B. Although BAZ1B deletion causes ectopic γH2AX signals on synapsed autosomes during the early pachytene stage, BAZ1B is dispensable for fertility and critical events during spermatogenesis. BAZ1B deletion does not alter events on unsynapsed axes and pericentric heterochromatin formation. Furthermore, BAZ1B is dispensable for localization of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling protein SMARCA5 (SNF2h during spermatogenesis despite the complex formation between BAZ1B and SMARCA5, known as the WICH complex, in somatic cells. Notably, pTyr142 is regulated independently of BAZ1B and is dephosphorylated on the sex chromosomes during meiosis in contrast with the presence of adjacent γH2AX. Dephosphorylation of pTyr142 is regulated by MDC1, a binding partner of γH2AX. These results reveal the distinct regulation of two adjacent phosphorylation sites of H2AX during meiosis, and suggest that another kinase mediates Tyr142 phosphorylation.

  8. Performance Analysis for Dispensing Mechanism of Active Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The dispensing mechanism of active code is a key technology in an active network. Conventional capsule and programmable switch approaches have their own shortcomings. The DCCAN(distributed code caching for active network) mechanism presented in this paper overcomes these shortcomings. In this paper, capsule and programmable switch approaches are introduced, and their shortcomings are analyzed. The principle of the DCCAN mechanism is described. The theory analysis in transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism and capsule approach are described. The theory analysis shows that the DCCAN mechanism has many good characteristics and can improve the efficiency of an active network. Key factors which affect the transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism are discussed. The using condition of the DCCAN mechanism is also discussed.

  9. Microbiological safety of glasses dispensed at 3D movie theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Maria; Marinelli, Lucia; Ursillo, Paolo; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Cottarelli, Alessia; Palazzo, Caterina; Marzuillo, Carolina; Solimini, Angelo Giuseppe; Boccia, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Recent popularity of three-dimensional movies raised some concern about microbiological safety of glasses dispensed into movie theatres. In this study, we analysed the level of microbiological contamination on them before and after use and between theatres adopting manual and automatic sanitation systems. The manual sanitation system was more effective in reducing the total mesophilic count levels compared with the automatic system (P < 0.05), but no differences were found for coagulase-positive staphylococci levels (P = 0.22). No differences were found for mould and yeast between before and after levels (P = 0.21) and between sanitation systems (P = 0.44). We conclude that more evidences are needed to support microbiological risk evaluation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of fluoride concentration in solutions prepared at dispensing pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pizzatto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride plays an important role in oral health promotion and is considered important in dental caries prevention both in children and adults. Fluoride is widely used at high-risk conditions of caries, when the use of fluoride-containing mouthwashes is recommended, considering that fluoride itself reduces the risk of dental caries. Objective: To evaluate the fluoride concentration in solutions prepared at different dispensing pharmacies in the city of Curitiba – PR, Brazil. Material and methods: The analysis of fluoride concentration was preformed through Ion Chromatography method (DIONEX. Results: The results obtained through this analysis showed that all solutions presented fluoride concentration above that required in the dentist’s prescription, varying between 5.48% and 24.02% more fluoride, at absolute concentration. Conclusion: This finding highlights the increasing risk of fluoride acute intoxication in cases of accidental ingestion of the solution.

  11. 21 CFR 1300.04 - Definitions relating to the dispensing of controlled substances by means of the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions relating to the dispensing of controlled substances by means of the Internet. 1300.04 Section 1300.04 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Schedule III, IV, or V, if: (1) The pharmacy dispensing that prescription has previously dispensed to the...

  12. Centriole assembly and the role of Mps1: defensible or dispensable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Harold A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Mps1 protein kinase is an intriguing and controversial player in centriole assembly. Originally shown to control duplication of the budding yeast spindle pole body, Mps1 is present in eukaryotes from yeast to humans, the nematode C. elegans being a notable exception, and has also been shown to regulate the spindle checkpoint and an increasing number of cellular functions relating to genomic stability. While its function in the spindle checkpoint appears to be both universally conserved and essential in most organisms, conservation of its originally described function in spindle pole duplication has proven controversial, and it is less clear whether Mps1 is essential for centrosome duplication outside of budding yeast. Recent studies of Mps1 have identified at least two distinct functions for Mps1 in centriole assembly, while simultaneously supporting the notion that Mps1 is dispensable for the process. However, the fact that at least one centrosomal substrate of Mps1 is conserved from yeast to humans down to the phosphorylation site, combined with evidence demonstrating the exquisite control exerted over centrosomal Mps1 levels suggest that the notion of being essential may not be the most important of distinctions.

  13. Bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Carrie A; Campbell, Esther J; Maxwell, Sheri L; Gerba, Charles P; Dolan, Michael J; Arbogast, James W; Macinga, David R

    2011-05-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log(10) CFU/ml of Serratia marcescens, an average of 5.28 log(10) CFU remained on each hand after washing, and 2.23 log(10) CFU was transferred to an agar surface. In an elementary-school-based field study, Gram-negative bacteria on the hands of students and staff increased by 1.42 log(10) CFU per hand (26-fold) after washing with soap from contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers. In contrast, washing with soap from dispensers with sealed refills significantly reduced bacteria on hands by 0.30 log(10) CFU per hand (2-fold). Additionally, the mean number of Gram-negative bacteria transferred to surfaces after washing with soap from dispensers with sealed-soap refills (0.06 log(10) CFU) was significantly lower than the mean number after washing with contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers (0.74 log(10) CFU; P soap (P soap from bulk-soap-refillable dispensers can increase the number of opportunistic pathogens on the hands and may play a role in the transmission of bacteria in public settings.

  14. [Uniformity of Coptidis Rhizoma decoction pieces dispensing based on effective constituent equivalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qin; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhang, Ding-kun; Feng, Wu-wen; Zhang, Cong-en; Niu, Ming; Dong, Xiao-ping; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) dispensing is the final step of TCM used for clinical treatment, the stability of TCM dispensing is the guarantee of good clinical effect. Establishment of effect-constituent equivalence for Chinese herbal pieces based on clinical efficacy, can not only guarantee the stability of TCM dispensing, but also relate to the precision of clinical effect. This study chose Coptidis Rhizoma as the model, established effect-constituent equivalence of Coptidis Rhizoma, based on the effect-constituent index already established by our research group, and taking into consideration of homogeneity of clinical dosage and compliance of decoction, the uniformity of dispensing for different specification of Coptidis Rhizoma decoction pieces was studied. This research model was then applied to guide the specification-optimization of Coptidis Rhizoma and its clinical dispensing. The result indicated, effective constituent equivalence could reflect the fluctuation of specification, dosage and decoction to the fluctuation of efficacy; Optimized Coptidis Rhizoma decoction pieces had the characteristic of high homogeneity as for clinical dispensing, good compliance as for decoction, and high effective constituent equivalence. In conclusion, effective constituent equivalence could improve relevance of methods of TCM dispensing control to clinical effect. Preparated Superior-standard Decoction Pieces based on effective constituent equivalence was featured by good quality and a good practice of adjustable dosage, which could promote the development of TCM decoction pieces toward precision medicine.

  15. Concomitant prescribing and dispensing errors at a Brazilian hospital: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Dores Graciano Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence and types of prescribing and dispensing errors occurring with high-alert medications and to propose preventive measures to avoid errors with these medications. INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of adverse events in health care has increased, and medication errors are probably the most common cause of these events. Pediatric patients are known to be a high-risk group and are an important target in medication error prevention. METHODS: Observers collected data on prescribing and dispensing errors occurring with high-alert medications for pediatric inpatients in a university hospital. In addition to classifying the types of error that occurred, we identified cases of concomitant prescribing and dispensing errors. RESULTS: One or more prescribing errors, totaling 1,632 errors, were found in 632 (89.6% of the 705 high-alert medications that were prescribed and dispensed. We also identified at least one dispensing error in each high-alert medication dispensed, totaling 1,707 errors. Among these dispensing errors, 723 (42.4% content errors occurred concomitantly with the prescribing errors. A subset of dispensing errors may have occurred because of poor prescription quality. The observed concomitancy should be examined carefully because improvements in the prescribing process could potentially prevent these problems. CONCLUSION: The system of drug prescribing and dispensing at the hospital investigated in this study should be improved by incorporating the best practices of medication safety and preventing medication errors. High-alert medications may be used as triggers for improving the safety of the drug-utilization system.

  16. Design of digital intelligent water dispenser based on MCU%基于单片机的数字式智能饮水机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵龙; 郝润科; 王磊; 邱银; 胡骞

    2012-01-01

    At present, most of families in China have the water dispensers. It is only used as a tool to heat or cool the water, but the water temperature is unknown. And the water temperature can not be controlled in real time. Some water dispensers with the function of temperature control are sold in the market, but the price is so high that the ordinary consumers cannot afford it. In order to solve these problems, a smart digital water dispenser is designed. This water dispenser can display the real-time water temperature on the LCD screen, and preinstall several types of temperature mode (such as coffee, tea, milk powder and water) to meet the different temeperature needs. If the need is not satisfied, the user can define the mode according to their needs. Furthermore, the water dispenser provides the function of the buzzing alarm which gives an a-larm signal when the water temperature reaches the preset temperature. In order to save energy and eradicate safe hidden trouble, the water dispenser cuts out the power automatically when it is not used in the set time.%目前,饮水机已进入千家万户,然而就其功能仍然停留在简单的加热抑或制冷中,但是具体多少温度却并不知晓,更无法实现所需温度的实时控制.即使有其功能,价格也实在太高,让普通消费者望而却步.基于此,设计了一种数字式智能饮水机.此饮水机不仅可以把当前温度实时显示出来,还预设了几种温度模式(如咖啡、茶、奶粉、直饮)以满足人们对不同温度的需求,若仍不满足,可自行设定.当加热到达预设温度时蜂呜报警系统提示,在设定时间内仍无操作,饮水机可自动切断电源停机,以节约能源,杜绝安全隐患.

  17. A simple low-cost of liquid I-131 dispenser for routine radiopharmaceutical dispensing at nuclear medicine department, Institut Kanser Negara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, M. A.; Suhaimi, N. E. F. [Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor (Malaysia); Ashhar, Z. N., E-mail: aminhpj@gmail.com [Institut Kanser Negara, No 4, Jalan P7, Presint 7, 62250 Putrajaya (Malaysia); Zainon, R. [Advanced Medical & Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    In routine radiopharmaceutical Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) dispensing, the amount of radiation dose received by the personnel depends on the distance between the personnel and the source, the time spent manipulating the source and the amount of shielding used to reduce the dose rate from the source. The novel iRAD-I131 dispenser using recycle {sup 131}I liquid lead pot will lead into low cost production, less maintenance and low dose received by the personnel that prepared the {sup 131}I. The new fabricated of low cost {sup 131}I dispenser was tested and the dose received by personnel were evaluated. The body of lead material is made from 2.5 cm lead shielded coated with epoxy paint to absorb the radiation dose up to 7.4 GBq of {sup 131} I. The lead pot was supported with two stainless steel rod. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) nanodot was used in this study to measure the dose rate at both extremities for every personnel who prepared the {sup 131}I. Each OSL nanodot was attached at the fingertip. Three different personnel (experienced between one to ten years above in preparing the radiopharmaceuticals) were participated in this study. The average equivalent dose at right and left hand were 122.694 ± 121.637 µSv/GBq and 77.281 ± 62.146 µSv/GBq respectively. This study found that the dose exposure received using iRAD-I131 was less up to seven times compared to the conventional method. The comparison of experimental data using iRAD-I131 and established radiopharmaceutical dispenser was also discussed. The innovation of {sup 131}I dispenser is highly recommended in a small radiopharmaceutical facility with limited budget. The novel iRAD-I131 enables implementation of higher output liquid dispensing with low radiation dose to the personnel.

  18. Continued Dispensing: what medications do patients believe should be available?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Continued Dispensing (CD is a new medication supply method for certain medications in Australia. It aims to prevent treatment interruption as a result of patients’ inability to obtain a new valid prescription. The only currently eligible patients for this service are statin and/or oral contraceptives users who have been using these medications for 6 months or more, have not utilized the CD method during the last 12 months, and cannot obtain an immediate appointment with the prescriber in order to get a new prescription. This study aimed to investigate patients’ attitudes towards potential extension and expansion of this medication supply method.Methods. A randomly selected 301 users of these medications from all Australian States were recruited using Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI.Result. The response rate was 79%. The majority of the participants (73.3% did not agree with current restriction on CD utilization frequency. They also supported, to varying degrees, inclusion of all the proposed medications (support ranged from 44.2–78.4%. In this regard, participants who suffered from a specific disease did not differ significantly from those without the disease except in case of patients with depression (p = 0.001.Conclusions. Participants of this study strongly supported both CD extension and expansion. A future critical review of the current version of CD is highly recommended in order to enhance CD capability to achieve its goals.

  19. All-printed capacitors with continuous solution dispensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yang; Plötner, Matthias; Berndt, Andreas; Kumar, Amit; Voit, Brigitte; Pospiech, Doris; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2017-09-01

    Printed electronics have been introduced into the commercial markets in recent years. Various printing technologies have emerged aiming to process printed electronic devices with low cost, environmental friendliness, and compatibility with large areas and flexible substrates. The aim of this study is to propose a continuous solution dispensing technology for processing all-printed thin-film capacitors on glass substrates using a leading-edge printing instrument. Among all printing technologies, this study provides concrete proof of the following outstanding advantages of this technology: high tolerance to inks, high throughput, low cost, and precise pattern transfers. Ag nanoparticle ink based on glycol ethers was used to print the electrodes. To obtain dielectric ink, a copolymer powder of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-benzoylphenyl methacrylate) containing crosslinkable side groups was dissolved in anisole. Various layouts were designed to support multiple electronic applications. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the all-printed capacitor layers formed using the proposed process. Additionally, the printed capacitors were electrically characterized under direct current and alternating current. The measured electrical properties of the printed capacitors were consistent with the theoretical results.

  20. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  1. Multi-dose drug dispensing is a challenge across the primary-secondary care interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuther, Lene Orskov; Lysen, Charlotte; Faxholm, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Multi-dose drug dispensing (MDDD) signifies that the patient's medicine is packed in disposable bags corresponding to the dose that should be taken. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how a hospital MDDD instruction was followed....

  2. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: Dispensing Practices, Knowledge and Attitudes of South Dakota Pharmacists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristi K. Van Riper; Wendy L. Hellerstedt

    2005-01-01

    ..., especially in areas with large rural populations. Pharmacists' knowledge about and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills may affect whether pharmacies carry the medication and whether individual pharmacists dispense it. Methods...

  3. Antibiotic dispensation by Lebanese pharmacists: a comparison of higher and lower socio-economic levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farah, Rita; Lahoud, Nathalie; Salameh, Pascale; Saleh, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    .... Our objective is to study the dispensing policy of non-medical prescription antibiotics in community pharmacies, assessing the possible influence of the socio-economic level of the area over this practice...

  4. Occurrence of non-fermenting gram negative bacteria in drinking water dispensed from point-of-use microfiltration devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franza Zanetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Many devices have been marketed in order to improve the organoleptic characteristics of tap water resulting from disinfection with chlorine derivates. The aim of the presented study was to assess the degree of contamination by non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria (NF-GNB of drinking water dispensed from microfiltration devices at point-of-use. Methods. Water samples were collected from 94 point-of-use water devices fitted with a filter (0.5μm pore size containing powdered activated carbon. The microbiological contamination of water entering and leaving the microfiltered water dispensers was compared. The NF-GNB loads were correlated to Total Heterotrophic Counts (HPCs at 37 and 22 °C, residua chlorine, and some structural and functional features of the devices. Results. NF-GNB were detected from 23% of supply water samples, 33% of still unchilled water, 33% of still chilled water and 18% of carbonated chilled water. The most frequent isolates were Pseudomonadaceae: Steno.maltophilia 30.2% of isolates, Pseudomonas 20.5%, Delftia acidovorans 13.4%, while the species more largely distributed was Ps. aeruginosa recovered from 13% of samples. The distribution of the various NF-GNB was different in the water entering and in that leaving the devices. Ps.aeruginosa and Steno.maltophilia were the predominant species in water leaving the microfiltration dispensers, probably due to their capacity to colonize the circuits and to prevail over the others. Recovery of NF-GNB was favoured by the reduction in residual chlorine of the supply water, occasional use, the absence of a bacteriostatic element in the filter and inadequate disinfection of the water lines. Conclusions. The presence of high concentrations of potentially pathogenic species of NF-GNB (Ps.aeruginosa, Steno. maltophilia, Burkhol.cepacia in the water dispensed from microfiltration devices represents a risk of waterborne infections for vulnerable individuals. When

  5. Evaluation of medicines dispensing pattern of private pharmacies in Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shuvashis; Hossain, Md Tawhid

    2017-02-13

    In developing country like BANGLADESH, people depend more on pharmacies due to expediency, shorter waiting time, cost reduction, availability of credit and flexible opening hours. The aim of this study was to investigate medicines dispensing patterns of the pharmacies in RAJSHAHI, BANGLADESH and to identify and analyze contribution of drugsellers and quacks in irrational drug use. This cross-sectional study was conducted during January 2016 - April, 2016 in 75 randomly selected private pharmacies including both licensed and unlicensed pharmacies of covering LAKSHMIPUR area. During the whole study process, total 7944 clients visited the pharmacies under observation and 24,717 medicines were dispensed. 22.70% of all these drugs were sold without a prescription. Out of the 5610 items dispensed without prescription, 66.2% were dispensed on the request of clients themselves and 33.8% on the recommendation of a drug seller. Number of medicine in a prescription was highly variable ranging from 2 to 5 medicines per prescriptions (mean = 3.03). The average number of medicines dispensed from each of the pharmacies during the observation period was 392, varied pharmacy to pharmacy - ranging from 194 to 588. Lowest selling medicines were sedative and hypnotics and highest selling medicines were antimicrobials. The recommendation rate for antibiotics was highest for the quacks (26.48%) though the major amount of the antimicrobials (n = 3039, 65.83%) were dispensed on prescription. Macrolides, quinolones, metronidazoles and cephalosporins are most favourite drug of quacks, clients and pharmacists. Majority of medicines were dispensed irrationally without any prescription and over the counter dispensing of many low safety profile drugs was common. The results and discussion presented in this paper will be helpful to provide a baseline to redirect further studies in this area.

  6. Concentration And Bioavailability Of Fluoride In Mouthrinses Prepared In Dispensing Pharmacies.

    OpenAIRE

    Cínthia Pereira Machado Tabchoury; Carla Noujain Pierobon; Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2015-01-01

    Considering the importance of medication quality control and that mouthrinses for dental caries prevention have commonly been prepared in dispensing pharmacies, this study assessed formulations containing 0.05% NaF acquired from 6 dispensing pharmacies in the city of Piracicaba, S.P. The mouthrinse formulations were purchased in 3 separate periods and coded from A to F. Fluoride ion (F-) concentration was determined in all formulations in the 3 periods, and in those acquired in the 3rd period...

  7. Dispensing Rates of Four Common Hearing Aid Product Features: Associations With Variations in Practice Among Audiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Earl E.; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop and examine a list of potential variables that may account for variability in the dispensing rates of four common hearing aid features. A total of 29 potential variables were identified and placed into the following categories: (1) characteristics of the audiologist, (2) characteristics of the hearing aids dispensed by the audiologist, (3) characteristics of the audiologist's patient population, and (4) evidence-based practice grades of recommendation f...

  8. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity but is dispensable for skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meadows

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most prevalent inherited childhood muscle disorder in humans. mdx mice exhibit a similar pathophysiology to the human disorder allowing for an in-depth investigation of DMD. Myogenin, a myogenic regulatory factor, is best known for its role in embryonic myogenesis, but its role in adult muscle maintenance and regeneration is still poorly understood. Here, we generated an mdx:Myog(flox/flox mouse harboring a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene, which was used to conditionally delete Myog during adult life. After tamoxifen treatment, three groups of mice were created to study the effects of Myog deletion: mdx:Myog(flox/flox mice (mdx, Myog(flox/flox mice (wild-type, and mdx:Myog(floxΔ/floxΔ:Cre-ER mice (mdx:Myog-deleted. mdx:Myog-deleted mice exhibited no adverse phenotype and behaved normally. When run to exhaustion, mdx:Myog-deleted mice demonstrated an enhanced capacity for exercise compared to mdx mice, running nearly as far as wild-type mice. Moreover, these mice showed the same signature characteristics of muscle regeneration as mdx mice. Unexpectedly, we found that myogenin was dispensable for muscle regeneration. Factors associated with muscle fatigue, metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly altered in mdx:Myog-deleted mice, and this might contribute to their increased exercise capacity. Our results reveal novel functions for myogenin in adult muscle and suggest that reducing Myog expression in other muscle disease models may partially restore muscle function.

  9. A Calibration-Free, Noncontact, Disposable Liquid Dispensing Cartridge Featuring an Online Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bammesberger, Stefan Borja; Malki, Imad; Ernst, Andreas; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2014-08-01

    We present a noncontact liquid dispenser that uses a disposable cartridge for the calibration-free dosage of diverse biochemical reagents from the nanoliter to the microliter range. The dispensing system combines the advantages of a positive displacement syringe pump (responsible for defining the aliquot's volume with high accuracy) with a highly dynamic noncontact dispenser (providing kinetic energy to detach the liquid from the tip). The disposable, noncontact dispensing cartridge system renders elaborate washing procedures of tips obsolete. A noncontact sensor monitors the dispensing process to enable an online process control. To further increase confidence and reliability for particularly critical biomedical applications, an optional closed-loop control prevents malfunctions. The dispensing performance was characterized experimentally in the range of 0.25 to 10.0 µL using liquids of different rheological properties (viscosity 1.03-16.98 mPas, surface tension 30.49-70.83 mN/m) without adjusting or calibrating the actuation parameters. The precision ranged between a coefficient of variation of 0.5% and 5.3%, and the accuracy was below ±10%. The presented technology has the potential to contribute significantly to the improvement of biochemical liquid handling for laboratory automation in terms of usability, miniaturization, cost reduction, and safety.

  10. Impact of Robotic Dispensing Machines in German Pharmacies on Business Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhle F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To assess the impact of robotic dispensing machines in community pharmacies on staff efficiency and sales of over-the-counter drugs. Setting: The study was done on 253 community pharmacies in Germany that use a robotic dispensing machine manufactured by ROWA during 2008. Method: Data concerning the financial and economic impact of using a robotic dispensing machine in community pharmacies was gathered using a structured questionnaire and analysed in terms of its financial implications. Key findings: The response rate was 29%. In most pharmacies (79% the robotic dispensing machine was retrofitted. In 59% of the pharmacies additional space was gained for self-service and behind-the-counter display. As a result of using a robotic dispensing machine, personnel costs were reduced by an average of 4.6% during the first 12 months after start-up. Over-the-counter sales increased in the same period by an average of 6.8%. Despite average initial costs of 118,000 euros, total costs within the first 12 months fell in 50% of cases and at least remained the same in 44%. Conclusions: On average, robotic dispensing machines lead to modest savings in personnel costs and slight increases in sales of over-the-counter drugs. Substantial savings can be achieved only if the staffing level is adapted to the changed personnel requirements.

  11. Separation of prescribing and dispensing in Malaysia: the history and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, John Jeh Lung; Mai, Chun Wai; Gan, Pou Wee; Johnson, James; Mak, Vivienne Sook Li

    2016-08-01

    This article serves as an update to the work by Shafie et al. (2012) which previously reviewed the benefits of policies separating prescribing and dispensing in various countries to advocate its implementation in Malaysia. This article seeks to strengthen the argument by highlighting not only the weaknesses of the Malaysian health care system from the historical, professional and economic viewpoints but also the shortcomings of both medical and pharmacy professions in the absence of separation of dispensing. It also provides a detailed insight into the ongoing initiatives taken to consolidate the role of pharmacists in the health care system in the advent of separation of dispensing. Under the two tier system in Malaysia at present, the separation of prescribing and dispensing is implemented only in government hospitals. The absence of this separation in the private practices has led to possible profit-oriented medical and pharmacy practices which hinder safe and cost-effective delivery of health services. The call for separation of dispensing has gained traction over the years despite various hurdles ranging from the formidable resistance from the medical fraternity to the public's scepticism towards the new policy. With historical testament and present evidence pointing towards the merits of a system in which doctors prescribe and pharmacists dispense, the implementation of this health care model is justified.

  12. Quality control procedures for dose-response curve generation using nanoliter dispense technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Catherine; Rosenstein, Craig; Hughes, Bethany; Middleton, Richard; Kariv, Ilona

    2007-09-01

    With the advancement of high-throughput biomolecular screening techniques to the lead optimization stage, there is a critical need to quality control (QC) dose-response curves generated by robotic liquid handlers to ensure accurate affinity determinations. One challenge in evaluating the performance of liquid handlers is identifying and validating a robust method for testing dispense volumes across different instruments. Although traditional automated liquid handlers are still considered the standard platform in many laboratories, nanoliter dispensers are becoming more common and pose new challenges for routine quality control procedures. For example, standard gravimetric measurements are unreliable for testing the accuracy of nanoliter liquid dispenses. However, nanoliter dispensing technology allows for the conservation of compound, reduces compound carryover from well to well through discrete dispenses, and eliminates the need for intermediate compound dilution steps to achieve a low final DMSO assay concentration. Moreover, an intermediate dilution step in aqueous solution might result in compound precipitation at high concentrations. This study compared representative automation procedures done on a variety of liquid dispensers, including manual, traditional, and nanodispense volumes. The data confirmed the importance of establishing robust QC procedures for dose-response generation in addition to accuracy and precision determinations for each instrument, and they validated the use of nanoliter pipettors for dose-response testing. The results of this study also support the requirement for thorough mixing during serial compound dilutions prepared for high-throughput lead optimization strategies using traditional liquid handlers.

  13. A brief review of dispensing-based rapid prototyping techniques in tissue scaffold fabrication: role of modeling on scaffold properties prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M G; Tian, X Y; Chen, X B

    2009-09-01

    Artificial scaffolds play vital roles in tissue engineering as they provide a supportive environment for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation during tissue formation. Fabrication of tissue scaffolds is thus of fundamental importance for tissue engineering. Of the variety of scaffold fabrication techniques available, rapid prototyping (RP) methods have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This method can improve conventional scaffold fabrication by controlling scaffold microstructure, incorporating cells into scaffolds and regulating cell distribution. All of these contribute towards the ultimate goal of tissue engineering: functional tissues or organs. Dispensing is typically used in different RP techniques to implement the layer-by-layer fabrication process. This article reviews RP methods in tissue scaffold fabrication, with emphasis on dispensing-based techniques, and analyzes the effects of different process factors on fabrication performance, including flow rate, pore size and porosity, and mechanical cell damage that can occur in the bio-manufacturing process.

  14. APE1 is dispensable for S-region cleavage but required for its repair in class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianliang; Husain, Afzal; Hu, Wenjun; Honjo, Tasuku; Kobayashi, Maki

    2014-12-02

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for antibody diversification, namely somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). The deficiency of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1) in CH12F3-2A B cells reduces CSR to ∼20% of wild-type cells, whereas the effect of APE1 loss on SHM has not been examined. Here we show that, although APE1's endonuclease activity is important for CSR, it is dispensable for SHM as well as IgH/c-myc translocation. Importantly, APE1 deficiency did not show any defect in AID-induced S-region break formation, but blocked both the recruitment of repair protein Ku80 to the S region and the synapse formation between Sμ and Sα. Knockdown of end-processing factors such as meiotic recombination 11 homolog (MRE11) and carboxy-terminal binding protein (CtBP)-interacting protein (CtIP) further reduced the remaining CSR in Ape1-null CH12F3-2A cells. Together, our results show that APE1 is dispensable for SHM and AID-induced DNA breaks and may function as a DNA end-processing enzyme to facilitate the joining of broken ends during CSR.

  15. Stathmin is dispensable for tumor onset in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Sara; Berton, Stefania; Segatto, Ilenia; Fabris, Linda; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Colombatti, Alfonso; Vecchione, Andrea; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The microtubule-destabilizing protein stathmin is highly expressed in several types of tumor, thus deserving the name of oncoprotein 18. High levels of stathmin expression and/or activity favor the metastatic spreading and mark the most aggressive tumors, thus representing a realistic marker of poor prognosis. Stathmin is a downstream target of many signaling pathways, including Ras-MAPK, PI3K and p53, involved in both tumor onset and progression. We thus hypothesized that stathmin could also play a role during the early stages of tumorigenesis, an issue completely unexplored. In order to establish whether stathmin expression is necessary for tumor initiation, we challenged wild type (WT), stathmin heterozygous and stathmin knock-out (KO) mice with different carcinogens. Using well-defined mouse models of carcinogenesis of skin, bladder and muscle by the means of 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]antracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) and 3-methylcholanthrylene (3MC) treatments, respectively, we demonstrated that knock-out of stathmin has no impact on the onset of cancer in mice. No significant difference was noticed either when the Ras oncogene was mutated (skin carcinogenesis model) or when the p53 pathway was inactivated (bladder carcinomas and fibrosarcomas). Finally, we concomitantly impinged on p53 and Ras pathways, by generating WT and stathmin KO mouse embryo fibroblasts transformed with papilloma virus large T antigen (LgTAg) plus the K-Ras(G12V) oncogene. In vivo growth of xenografts from these transformed fibroblasts did not highlight any significant difference depending on the presence or absence of stathmin. Overall, our work demonstrates that stathmin expression is dispensable for tumor onset, at least in mice, thus making stathmin a virtually exclusive marker of aggressive disease and a promising therapeutic target for advanced cancers.

  16. Back bombardment for dispenser and lanthanum hexaboride cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bakr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The back bombardment (BB effect limits wide usage of thermionic rf guns. The BB effect induces not only ramping-up of a cathode’s temperature and beam current, but also degradation of cavity voltage and beam energy during a macropulse. This paper presents a comparison of the BB effect for the case of dispenser tungsten-base (DC and lanthanum hexaboride (LaB_{6} thermionic rf gun cathodes. For each, particle simulation codes are used to simulate the BB effect and electron beam dynamics in a thermionic rf gun cathode. A semiempirical equation is also used to investigate the stopping range and deposited heat power of BB electrons in the cathode material. A numerical simulation method is used to calculate the change of the cathode temperature and current density during a single macropulse. This is done by solving two differential equations for the rf gun cavity equivalent circuit and one-dimensional thermal diffusion equation. High electron emission and small beam size are required for generation of a high-brightness electron beam, and so in this work the emission properties of the cathode are taken into account. Simulations of the BB effect show that, for a pulse of 6  μs duration, the DC cathode experiences a large change in the temperature compared with LaB_{6}, and a change in current density 6 times higher. Validation of the simulation results is performed using experimental data for beam current beyond the gun exit. The experimental data is well reproduced using the simulation method.

  17. Justice Dispensation through the Alternative Dispute Resolution System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law Commission of India in its 222nd report emphasized the need for Alternative Disputes Resolution (ADR for the dispensation of justice, because the courts are inaccessible owing to various factors, e.g., poverty, social and political backwardness, illiteracy, ignorance, procedural formalities and inordinate delay in judgments. During the ancient period the disputes were resolved in an informal manner by neutral third persons or people’s court in villages and it continued till the middle of the 20th century. Unfortunately, after the Independence of India in 1947, this system was dissuaded and the government permitted to continue the adversarial system of justice. In 1980, a committee was set up. It recommended Lok Adalats (People’s Courts. In 1987, the Legal Services Authorities Act was enacted. This Act obligates the states to provide free legal aid to poor persons. Besides this, the Act provides for the establishment of permanent Lok Adalats.This is one of the important modes of ADR. Lok Adalats have been established in all the districts of the country. They bring conciliatory settlement in complicated cases arising out of matrimonial, landlord-tenants, property, insurance and commercial disputes. There are four methods of ADR, viz., negotiation, mediation, conciliation and arbitration. Mediation and arbitration are widely preferred. They are alternatives to litigation. The Arbitration Act for the first time was enacted in 1889 and it was subsequently amended many times. On the objections raised by the Supreme Court of India and also on the adoption of UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, in 1996 Arbitration and Conciliation Act was enacted. This law is almost the same as is almost in all the countries.Further, the Government of India established International Centre for Alternative Disputes Resolution (CADR with the objectives of promotion, propagation, and popularizing the settlement of domestic and

  18. Stathmin is dispensable for tumor onset in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D'Andrea

    Full Text Available The microtubule-destabilizing protein stathmin is highly expressed in several types of tumor, thus deserving the name of oncoprotein 18. High levels of stathmin expression and/or activity favor the metastatic spreading and mark the most aggressive tumors, thus representing a realistic marker of poor prognosis. Stathmin is a downstream target of many signaling pathways, including Ras-MAPK, PI3K and p53, involved in both tumor onset and progression. We thus hypothesized that stathmin could also play a role during the early stages of tumorigenesis, an issue completely unexplored. In order to establish whether stathmin expression is necessary for tumor initiation, we challenged wild type (WT, stathmin heterozygous and stathmin knock-out (KO mice with different carcinogens. Using well-defined mouse models of carcinogenesis of skin, bladder and muscle by the means of 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]antracene (DMBA/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl nitrosamine (BBN and 3-methylcholanthrylene (3MC treatments, respectively, we demonstrated that knock-out of stathmin has no impact on the onset of cancer in mice. No significant difference was noticed either when the Ras oncogene was mutated (skin carcinogenesis model or when the p53 pathway was inactivated (bladder carcinomas and fibrosarcomas. Finally, we concomitantly impinged on p53 and Ras pathways, by generating WT and stathmin KO mouse embryo fibroblasts transformed with papilloma virus large T antigen (LgTAg plus the K-Ras(G12V oncogene. In vivo growth of xenografts from these transformed fibroblasts did not highlight any significant difference depending on the presence or absence of stathmin. Overall, our work demonstrates that stathmin expression is dispensable for tumor onset, at least in mice, thus making stathmin a virtually exclusive marker of aggressive disease and a promising therapeutic target for advanced cancers.

  19. Prospective study of the incidence, nature and causes of dispensing errors in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Darren M; Quinlan, Paul; Blenkinsopp, Alison

    2005-05-01

    Each year over 600 million prescription items are dispensed in community pharmacies in England and Wales. Despite this, there is little published evidence relating to dispensing errors and near misses occurring in this setting. This study sought to determine their incidence, nature and causes. Prospective study over a 4-week period in 35 community pharmacies (9 independent pharmacies and 26 chain pharmacies) in the UK. Pharmacists recorded details of all incidents that occurred during the dispensing process, including information about: the stage at which the error was detected; who found the error; who made the error; type of error; reported cause of error and circumstances associated with the error. 125,395 prescribed items were dispensed during the study period and 330 incidents were recorded relating to 310 prescriptions. 280 (84.8%) incidents were classified as a near miss (rate per 10,000 items dispensed=22.33, 95%CI 19.79-25.10), while the remaining 50 (15.2%) were classified as dispensing errors (rate per 10,000 items dispensed=3.99, 95%CI 2.96-5.26). Selection errors were the most common types of incidents (199, 60.3%), followed by labeling (109, 33.0%) and bagging errors (22, 6.6%). Most of the incidents were caused either by misreading the prescription (90, 24.5%), similar drug names (62, 16.8%), selecting the previous drug or dose from the patient's medication record on the pharmacy computer (42, 11.4%) or similar packaging (28, 7.6%). This study has demonstrated that a wide range of medication errors occur in community pharmacies. On average, for every 10,000 items dispensed, there are around 22 near misses and four dispensing errors. Given the current plans for reporting adverse events in the NHS, greater insight into the likely incidence and nature of dispensing errors will be helpful in designing effective risk management strategies in primary care. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. RNA-interference components are dispensable for transcriptional silencing of the drosophila bithorax-complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo M Cernilogar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beyond their role in post-transcriptional gene silencing, Dicer and Argonaute, two components of the RNA interference (RNAi machinery, were shown to be involved in epigenetic regulation of centromeric heterochromatin and transcriptional gene silencing. In particular, RNAi mechanisms appear to play a role in repeat induced silencing and some aspects of Polycomb-mediated gene silencing. However, the functional interplay of RNAi mechanisms and Polycomb group (PcG pathways at endogenous loci remains to be elucidated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that the endogenous Dicer-2/Argonaute-2 RNAi pathway is dispensable for the PcG mediated silencing of the homeotic Bithorax Complex (BX-C. Although Dicer-2 depletion triggers mild transcriptional activation at Polycomb Response Elements (PREs, this does not induce transcriptional changes at PcG-repressed genes. Moreover, Dicer-2 is not needed to maintain global levels of methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 and does not affect PRE-mediated higher order chromatin structures within the BX-C. Finally bioinformatic analysis, comparing published data sets of PcG targets with Argonaute-2-bound small RNAs reveals no enrichment of these small RNAs at promoter regions associated with PcG proteins. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the Dicer-2/Argonaute-2 RNAi pathway, despite its role in pairing sensitive gene silencing of transgenes, does not have a role in PcG dependent silencing of major homeotic gene cluster loci in Drosophila.

  1. Neutrophils are dispensable in the modulation of T cell immunity against cutaneous HSV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Jyh Liang; Heath, William R.; Mueller, Scott N.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils rapidly infiltrate sites of inflammation during peripheral infection or tissue injury. In addition to their well described roles as pro-inflammatory phagocytes responsible for pathogen clearance, recent studies have demonstrated a broader functional repertoire including mediating crosstalk between innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Specifically, neutrophils have been proposed to mediate antigen transport to lymph nodes (LN) to modulate T cell priming and to influence T cell migration to infected tissues. Using a mouse model of cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection we explored potential contributions of neutrophils toward anti-viral immunity. While a transient, early influx of neutrophils was triggered by dermal scarification, we did not detect migration of neutrophils from the skin to LN. Furthermore, despite recruitment of neutrophils into LN from the blood, priming and expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was unaffected following neutrophil depletion. Finally, we found that neutrophils were dispensable for the migration of effector T cells into infected skin. Our study suggests that the immunomodulatory roles of neutrophils toward adaptive immunity may be context-dependent, and are likely determined by the type of pathogen and anatomical site of infection. PMID:28112242

  2. The JmjC domain of Gis1 is dispensable for transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Neiman, Aaron M; Sternglanz, Rolf

    2010-11-01

    Yeast Gis1 protein functions as a transcription factor after nutrient limitation and oxidative stress. In this report, we show that Gis1 also regulates the induction of several genes involved in spore wall synthesis during sporulation. Gis1 contains a JmjC domain near its N-terminus. In many proteins, JmjC domains provide histone demethylase activity. Whether the JmjC domain of Gis1 contributes to its transcriptional activation is still unknown. Here, we show that gis1 point mutations that abolish Fe (II) and α-ketoglutarate binding, known cofactors in other JmjC proteins, are still able to induce transcription normally during glucose starvation and sporulation. Even the deletion of the entire JmjC domain does not affect transcriptional activation by Gis1. Moreover, the JmjC domain is not required for the toxicity associated with Gis1 overexpression. The data demonstrate that the JmjC domain is dispensable for transcriptional activation by Gis1 during nutrient stress and sporulation.

  3. TMEM45A Is Dispensable for Epidermal Morphogenesis, Keratinization and Barrier Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Hayez

    Full Text Available TMEM45A gene encodes an initially uncharacterized predicted transmembrane protein. We previously showed that this gene is highly expressed in keratinocytes where its expression correlates with keratinization, suggesting a role in normal epidermal physiology. To test this hypothesis, we generated TMEM45A knockout mice and found that these mice develop without any evident phenotype. The morphology of the epidermis assessed by histology and by labelling differentiation markers in immunofluorescence was not altered. Toluidine blue permeability assay showed that the epidermal barrier develops normally during embryonic development. We also showed that depletion of TMEM45A in human keratinocytes does not alter their potential to form in vitro 3D-reconstructed epidermis. Indeed, epidermis with normal morphogenesis were generated from TMEM45A-silenced keratinocytes. Their expression of differentiation markers quantified by RT-qPCR and evidenced by immunofluorescence labelling as well as their barrier function estimated by Lucifer yellow permeability were similar to the control epidermis. In summary, TMEM45A gene expression is dispensable for epidermal morphogenesis, keratinization and barrier formation. If this protein plays a role in the epidermis, its experimental depletion can possibly be compensated by other proteins in the two experimental models analyzed in this study.

  4. RNA-Interference Components Are Dispensable for Transcriptional Silencing of the Drosophila Bithorax-Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Cernilogar, Filippo M.

    2013-06-13

    Background:Beyond their role in post-transcriptional gene silencing, Dicer and Argonaute, two components of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, were shown to be involved in epigenetic regulation of centromeric heterochromatin and transcriptional gene silencing. In particular, RNAi mechanisms appear to play a role in repeat induced silencing and some aspects of Polycomb-mediated gene silencing. However, the functional interplay of RNAi mechanisms and Polycomb group (PcG) pathways at endogenous loci remains to be elucidated.Principal Findings:Here we show that the endogenous Dicer-2/Argonaute-2 RNAi pathway is dispensable for the PcG mediated silencing of the homeotic Bithorax Complex (BX-C). Although Dicer-2 depletion triggers mild transcriptional activation at Polycomb Response Elements (PREs), this does not induce transcriptional changes at PcG-repressed genes. Moreover, Dicer-2 is not needed to maintain global levels of methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 and does not affect PRE-mediated higher order chromatin structures within the BX-C. Finally bioinformatic analysis, comparing published data sets of PcG targets with Argonaute-2-bound small RNAs reveals no enrichment of these small RNAs at promoter regions associated with PcG proteins.Conclusions:We conclude that the Dicer-2/Argonaute-2 RNAi pathway, despite its role in pairing sensitive gene silencing of transgenes, does not have a role in PcG dependent silencing of major homeotic gene cluster loci in Drosophila. © 2013 Cernilogar et al.

  5. The Histone Methyltransferase Activity of MLL1 Is Dispensable for Hematopoiesis and Leukemogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhu P. Mishra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite correlations between histone methyltransferase (HMT activity and gene regulation, direct evidence that HMT activity is responsible for gene activation is sparse. We address the role of the HMT activity for MLL1, a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4 methyltransferase critical for maintaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. Here, we show that the SET domain, and thus HMT activity of MLL1, is dispensable for maintaining HSCs and supporting leukemogenesis driven by the MLL-AF9 fusion oncoprotein. Upon Mll1 deletion, histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16 acetylation is selectively depleted at MLL1 target genes in conjunction with reduced transcription. Surprisingly, inhibition of SIRT1 is sufficient to prevent the loss of H4K16 acetylation and the reduction in MLL1 target gene expression. Thus, recruited MOF activity, and not the intrinsic HMT activity of MLL1, is central for the maintenance of HSC target genes. In addition, this work reveals a role for SIRT1 in opposing MLL1 function.

  6. Mindbomb 2 is dispensable for embryonic development and Notch signalling in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Mikami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (Mib family of proteins, Mib1 and Mib2, are RING finger ubiquitin ligases that share specific substrates. Mib1 is known to play essential roles in Notch signalling by ubiquitinating Notch ligands in vivo. Conversely, the functions of Mib2 in vivo are not fully understood, although Mib2 ubiquitinates multiple substrates, including Notch ligands, in vitro. To determine the Notch-dependent and Notch-independent functions of Mib2 in vivo, we generated mutant alleles of zebrafish mib2 using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs. We found that mib2 homozygous mutants were viable and fertile. Notch-mediated functions, such as early neurogenesis, somitogenesis, and pigment cell development, were not affected in mib2 mutant embryos. The lack of Notch-deficient phenotypes in mib2 mutants was not due to compensation by a mib2 maternal gene product because mib2 maternal-zygotic mutants also did not exhibit a distinct phenotype. We also showed that Mib2 does not redundantly act with Mib1 because the genetic ablation of mib2 neither enhanced mibtfi91-null phenotypes nor did it alleviate antimorphic mibta52b phenotypes. Furthermore, the postulated Notch-independent roles of Mib2 in maintaining muscular integrity and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activity were not evident: mib2 mutants did not show phenotypes different from that of the control embryos. These observations suggest that Mib2 is dispensable for embryonic development and does not have redundant functions with Mib1 in Notch signalling at least during early development stages in zebrafish.

  7. The β3-adrenergic receptor is dispensable for browning of adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jasper M A; Wouters, René T F; Boulet, Nathalie; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Petrovic, Natasa

    2017-02-21

    Brown and brite/beige adipocytes are attractive therapeutic targets to treat metabolic diseases. To maximally utilize their functional potential, further understanding is required about their identities and their functional differences. Recent studies with β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice reported that brite/beige adipocytes, but not classical brown adipocytes, require the β3-adrenergic receptor for cold-induced transcriptional activation of thermogenic genes. We aimed to further characterize this requirement of the β3-adrenergic receptor as a functional distinction between classical brown and brite/beige adipocytes. However, when comparing wild-type and β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice, we observed no differences in cold-induced thermogenic gene expression (Ucp1, Pgc1a, Dio2 and Cidea) in brown or white (brite/beige) adipose tissues. Irrespective of the duration of the cold exposure or the sex of the mice, we observed no effect of the absence of the β3-adrenergic receptor. Experiments with the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL-316,243 verified the functional absence of β3-adrenergic signaling in these knockout mice. The β3-adrenergic receptor knockout model in the present study was maintained on a FVB/N background, whereas earlier reports used C57BL/6 and 129Sv mice. Thus, our data imply background-dependent differences in adrenergic signaling mechanisms in response to cold exposure. Nonetheless, the present data indicate that the β3-adrenergic receptor is dispensable for cold-induced transcriptional activation in both classical brown and, as opposed to earlier studies, brite/beige cells. This should be taken into account in the increasing number of studies on the induction of browning and their extrapolation to human physiology.

  8. PREVENTING LITHOGRAPHY-INDUCED MAVERICK YIELD EVENTS WITH A DISPENSE SYSTEM ADVANCED EQUIPMENT CONTROL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Broggin

    2012-01-01

    As semiconductor manufacturers march to thedrum beat of Moore's Law there is very little roomfor yield maverieks, especially those that can beprevented. Critical process errors are costly andphotolithography is one of the few processes insemiconductor manufacturing where there is anopportunity to correct errors. Small changes inphotoresist-dispensed volume may have severeimpact on film thickness uniformity and can ulti-mately affect patterning It is important to monitorphoto dispense conditions to detect real-timeevents that may have a direct negative impact onprocess yield and be able to react to these eventsas quickly as possible.This paper presents an evaluation of the IntelliGen Mini, a photoresist dispense system manufacturedby Entegris, Inc. This system utilizes advancedequipment control software, known as dispenseconfirmation, to detect variations in photo dis-pense. These variations, caused by bubbles inthe dispense line, valve errors and accidentally-changed chemistries can all create maverick yieldevents that can go undetected until metrology,defeet inspection or wafer final testThe ability of an advanced dispense system todetect events and create alerts is a very powerfultool, but it can be most effective when that infor-mation is collected and analyzed by an automatedsystem. In a modern fabricator this is most likely astatistical process control chart that is monitoringa track's progress and is ready to stop the trackwhen a maverick event occurs or alert personnelto trends they may not otherwise catch with otherinline ntetrology data. Dispense confirmation,when Combined with networking capabilities,can meet this need.After a brief description of the pump, data from sim-ulated yield-affecting events will be examined toevaluate the IntelliGen Mini's ability to detect them.This discussion will eonclude with a brief analysisof the ultilnate time and cost savings of utilizingdispense confirmation with networking capabilitiesto detect and eliminate poorly

  9. Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattman, Marisa; Gerba, Sheri L; Maxwell, Charles P

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers.

  10. Impact of Formulation Properties and Process Parameters on the Dispensing and Depositioning of Drug Nanosuspensions Using Micro-Valve Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhoeffer, Bastian; Kwade, Arno; Juhnke, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Flexible manufacturing processes with continuously adjustable dose strengths are considered particularly innovative and interesting for applications in personalized medicine, continuous manufacturing, or early drug development. A piezo-actuated micro-valve has been investigated for the dispensing and depositioning of drug nanosuspensions onto substrates to facilitate the manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms. The investigated micro-valve has been characterized regarding dispensing behavior, mass flow, accuracy, and robustness. The amount of dispensed drug compound during 1 dispensing event could be continuously adjusted from a few micrograms to several milligrams with high accuracy. Fluid properties, dispensing parameters of the micro-valve, and the resulting steady state mass flow could be correlated adequately for low-viscous drug nanosuspensions. High-speed imaging was used to investigate the dispensing behavior of the micro-valve regarding the evolution of the dispensed drug nanosuspension after ejection from the nozzle and the behavior during impact on flat and dry solid substrates. The experimentally determined breakup length of the dispensed liquid jet could be correlated with a semiempirical equation. From image sequences of the jet impact, We-Re phase diagrams could be established, providing a profound understanding and systematic guidance for the controlled depositioning of the entire dispensed drug nanosuspension onto the substrate.

  11. Full p53 transcriptional activation potential is dispensable for tumor suppression in diverse lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dadi; Brady, Colleen A; Johnson, Thomas M; Lee, Eunice Y; Park, Eunice J; Scott, Matthew P; Attardi, Laura D

    2011-10-11

    Over half of all human cancers, of a wide variety of types, sustain mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Although p53 limits tumorigenesis through the induction of apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, its molecular mechanism of action in tumor suppression has been elusive. The best-characterized p53 activity in vitro is as a transcriptional activator, but the identification of numerous additional p53 biochemical activities in vitro has made it unclear which mechanism accounts for tumor suppression. Here, we assess the importance of transcriptional activation for p53 tumor suppression function in vivo in several tissues, using a knock-in mouse strain expressing a p53 mutant compromised for transcriptional activation, p53(25,26). p53(25,26) is severely impaired for the transactivation of numerous classical p53 target genes, including p21, Noxa, and Puma, but it retains the ability to activate a small subset of p53 target genes, including Bax. Surprisingly, p53(25,26) can nonetheless suppress tumor growth in cancers derived from the epithelial, mesenchymal, central nervous system, and lymphoid lineages. Therefore, full transactivation of most p53 target genes is dispensable for p53 tumor suppressor function in a range of tissue types. In contrast, a transcriptional activation mutant that is completely defective for transactivation, p53(25,26,53,54), fails to suppress tumor development. These findings demonstrate that transcriptional activation is indeed broadly critical for p53 tumor suppressor function, although this requirement reflects the limited transcriptional activity observed with p53(25,26) rather than robust transactivation of a full complement of p53 target genes.

  12. Use of pharmacy dispensing data to measure adherence and identify nonadherence with oral hypoglycemic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodihardjo-Yuen, Fong; van Dijk, Liset; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A G M; Teichert, Martina

    2017-02-01

    A framework for calculation of adherence for oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) based on data from health-insurance claims is available. Pharmacy dispensing data aid identification of nonadherent patients in pharmacy practices. However, use of these data for calculation of OHA adherence requires additional methodological categories. We examined the impact of different methodological choices on estimation of OHA adherence using pharmacy dispensing data. Four methodological categories were added to the framework available to be used for adherence calculation with pharmacy dispensing data. Three adherence measures were defined to supply pharmacists with significant information on OHA use of their patients: (i) percentage of days covered by use periods of dispensed medication (PDC), (ii) mean rate of adherent patients with a PDC ≥80 % (MRAP80), and (iii) mean number of nonadherent patients (MNNP80) per pharmacy with a PDC pharmacies in the Netherlands. For the basic scenario, mean PDC for OHA was 88.3 %. MRAP80 was 80.3 %, which corresponded to an average of 69 nonadherent patients per pharmacy. Different choices for parameter values resulted in score variations for PDC of 85.0-91.8 %, for MRAP80 of 75.3-86.1 %, and between 49 and 92 MNNP80 per pharmacy. Sixteen methodological categories specified calculation of OHA adherence based on pharmacy dispensing data. Adherence scores expressed as percentages were relatively robust to variation in parameter values, but differed substantially for the absolute numbers of nonadherent patients per pharmacy.

  13. Effective reprocessing of reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues - the devil is in the details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been reported that reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues may be contaminated, especially with adapted Achromobacter species 3, when products based on surface-active ingredients are used. Fresh solution may quickly become recontaminated if dispensers are not processed adequately. We evaluated the abilities of six manual and three automatic processes for processing contaminated dispensers to prevent recolonisation of a freshly-prepared disinfectant solution (Mikrobac forte 0.5%). Dispensers were left at room temperature for 28 days. Samples of the disinfectant solution were taken every 7 days and assessed quantitatively for bacterial contamination. All automatic procedures prevented recolonisation of the disinfectant solution when a temperature of 60-70°C was ensured for at least 5 min, with or without the addition of chemical cleaning agents. Manual procedures prevented recontamination of the disinfectant solution when rinsing with hot water or a thorough cleaning step was performed before treating all surfaces with an alcohol-based disinfectant or an oxygen-releaser. Other cleaning and disinfection procedures, including the use of an alcohol-based disinfectant, did not prevent recolonisation. These results indicate that not all processes are effective for processing reusable dispensers for surface-disinfectant tissues, and that a high temperature during the cleaning step or use of a biofilm-active cleaning agent are essential.

  14. Effective reprocessing of reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues – the devil is in the details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has recently been reported that reusable dispensers for surface disinfection tissues may be contaminated, especially with adapted Achromobacter species 3, when products based on surface-active ingredients are used. Fresh solution may quickly become recontaminated if dispensers are not processed adequately. Methods: We evaluated the abilities of six manual and three automatic processes for processing contaminated dispensers to prevent recolonisation of a freshly-prepared disinfectant solution (Mikrobac forte 0.5%). Dispensers were left at room temperature for 28 days. Samples of the disinfectant solution were taken every 7 days and assessed quantitatively for bacterial contamination. Results: All automatic procedures prevented recolonisation of the disinfectant solution when a temperature of 60–70°C was ensured for at least 5 min, with or without the addition of chemical cleaning agents. Manual procedures prevented recontamination of the disinfectant solution when rinsing with hot water or a thorough cleaning step was performed before treating all surfaces with an alcohol-based disinfectant or an oxygen-releaser. Other cleaning and disinfection procedures, including the use of an alcohol-based disinfectant, did not prevent recolonisation. Conclusions: These results indicate that not all processes are effective for processing reusable dispensers for surface-disinfectant tissues, and that a high temperature during the cleaning step or use of a biofilm-active cleaning agent are essential. PMID:24653973

  15. Dispensing physicians, asymmetric information supplier-induced demand: evidence from the Swiss Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we apply a two-part model to estimate the effect of health literacy on the demand for physician visits under different institutional settings. Using a constructed measure of health information, we find evidence for supplier-induced demand in some parts of Switzerland. While the level of health information is uncorrelated with the likelihood of visiting a physician (contact decision), the conditional number of visits (frequency decision) depends on the individual's information status and the regulation of physician drug dispensing. In cantons with a drug prescription scheme, we do not find a significant difference in the number of visits between well-informed individuals and people with relatively little health literacy. In contrast, the existence of self-dispensing general practitioner and specialists is associated with a gap in demand that is strongly related to health literacy: Compared to cantons with prescription schemes, uninformed patients exhibit a higher number of outpatient visits in the cantons that (partly) allow the dispensation of drugs by physicians. However, patients with a high level of health information seem to be rather unaffected by physician drug dispensing. As a consequence, we observe an information-related gap in the number of outpatient contacts that only prevails in areas where doctors are entitled to sell drugs themselves. These findings suggest that self-dispensing doctors succeed in inducing demand that affects the number of physician-patient contacts. Health literacy, on the other hand, tends to counter these incentives.

  16. Optimizing Aerosol Dispensers for Mating Disruption of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Peter S; Miller, James R; Thomson, Donald R; Gut, Larry J

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards to determine if improved efficiencies in pheromone delivery may be realized by using aerosol pheromone dispensers for codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., mating disruption. Specifically, we tested how reducing: pheromone concentration, period of dispenser operation, and frequency of pheromone emission from aerosol dispensers affected orientational disruption of male CM to pheromone-baited monitoring traps. Isomate® CM MIST formulated with 50 % less codlemone (3.5 mg/ emission) provided orientation disruption equal to the standard commercial formulation (7 mg / emission). Decreased periods of dispenser operation (3 and 6 h) and frequency of pheromone emission (30 and 60 min) provided a level of orientational disruption similar to the current standard protocol of releasing pheromone over a 12 h period on a 15 min cycle, respectively. These three modifications provide a means of substantially reducing the amount of pheromone necessary for CM disruption. The savings accompanying pheromone conservation could lead to increased adoption of CM mating disruption and, moreover, provide an opportunity for achieving higher levels of disruption by increasing dispenser densities.

  17. Suitable and remunerative employment: the feminization of hospital dispensing in late nineteenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ellen

    2002-12-01

    This article looks at the contingent developments that led to the feminization of hospital dispensing at the end of the nineteenth century in England. In the 1870s, as a result of the campaign of the Women's Movement to open medicine to women, the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women found it possible to place some of its protégées in the dispensaries of hospitals founded by members of the Movement. Coincidentally, a radical member of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society smoothed the way for them to take the Society's examinations, thus setting up an expectation that these women should be qualified. By the 1880s, the practice of employing female dispensers had spread to Birmingham, and the women here adopted a less difficult and expensive qualification, the Apothcaries' Assistant's Certificate, as the qualification of choice. The 1890s also saw increasing pressure on mainstream hospital dispensaries to replace the untrained assistants in their dispensaries, customarily employed on the Babbage Principle to save money, with qualified ones. In consequence, hospital managements sought a new means of containing costs and, turning to the kind of women already shown to be competent in Women's Movement hospitals, found the solution in a vertical gender-segregation, where the lesser qualification of women dispensers made them 'unpromotable' to head dispenser, thus preserving the career ladder for more highly-qualified male dispensers.

  18. [Dispensing specialized component medicines in areas of the State of Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Dellamora, Elisangela da Costa; Caetano, Rosangela; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2012-09-01

    The Specialized Pharmaceutical Services Component (CEAF) ensures the dispensing of high-cost medicines for the treatment of specific diseases. The fact that these medicines are mandatory though access is only through legal injunctions, suggests flaws in the management of pharmaceutical services. This paper analyzed adherence to Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines (PCDT) in the dispensing of these CEAF medicines. Qualitative research was also conducted in facilities with different characteristics in the State of Rio de Janeiro. It was noted that the lack of adequate structure in the units studied, including trained personnel, compromises the dispensing CEAF medicines in all facilities. The CEAF dispensing procedure, heavily dependent on interaction between prescribers and dispensers, is not carried out as would be expected. It is possible that inadequate performance is also linked to flaws in the planning and organization of services. The results indicate barriers in adherence to PCDT by health professionals, prejudicing health system users and possibly leading them to access medicines by legal means. It is believed that characteristics of the investigated facilities are similar to others in Brazil, and the barriers identified may be the same, compromising healthcare.

  19. Synthetic pheromones as a management technique - dispensers reduce Linepithema humile activity in a commercial vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Fabian L; Bell, Vaughn A; Suckling, David M; Lester, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Invasive ants, such as the Argentine ant, have often been reported to facilitate honeydew-producing hemipteran pests such as mealybugs, which can be vectors of plant pathogens. Synthetic pheromones may offer a target-specific method to control such ants and consequently lower the abundance of honeydew-producing pests. Here we report the results of a trial to suppress Argentine ants in grapevines using ant pheromone dispensers. Compared with untreated controls, we observed a significant drop in Argentine ant activity on the ground, irrespective of whether pheromone dispensers were placed at ground level, within the canopy or in both locations. Ant counts in the canopy confirmed that Argentine ant abundance was reduced under the influence of the pheromone dispenser placed at ground level compared with untreated controls. However, placing dispensers only in the canopy did not reduce the numbers of ants within the canopy compared with untreated controls. Our results showed that pheromone dispensers can significantly reduce Argentine ant foraging in grapevines if they are positioned appropriately. This technique could potentially reduce the abundance of associated mealybugs and potentially attendant virus vectoring areawide. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Perilipin 5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism and in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohktar, Ruzaidi A M; Montgomery, Magda K; Murphy, Robyn M; Watt, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    Cytoplasmic lipid droplets provide a reservoir for triglyceride storage and are a central hub for fatty acid trafficking in cells. The protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is highly expressed in oxidative tissues such as skeletal muscle and regulates lipid metabolism by coordinating the trafficking and the reversible interactions of effector proteins at the lipid droplet. PLIN5 may also regulate mitochondrial function, although this remains unsubstantiated. Hence, the aims of this study were to examine the role of PLIN5 in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate metabolism during acute exercise and to determine whether PLIN5 is required for the metabolic adaptations and enhancement in exercise tolerance following endurance exercise training. Using muscle-specific Plin5 knockout mice (Plin5(MKO)), we show that PLIN5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism during exercise, as reflected by levels of blood metabolites and rates of glycogen and triglyceride depletion that were indistinguishable from control (lox/lox) mice. Plin5(MKO) mice exhibited a functional impairment in their response to endurance exercise training, as reflected by reduced maximal running capacity (20%) and reduced time to fatigue during prolonged submaximal exercise (15%). The reduction in exercise performance was not accompanied by alterations in carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during submaximal exercise. Similarly, mitochondrial capacity (mtDNA, respiratory complex proteins, citrate synthase activity) and mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption rate in muscle fiber bundles) were not different between lox/lox and Plin5(MKO) mice. Thus, PLIN5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism during exercise and is not required to promote mitochondrial biogenesis or enhance the cellular adaptations to endurance exercise training.

  1. ORDER-PICKING OPTIMIZATION FOR AUTOMATED PICKING SYSTEM WITH PARALLEL DISPENSERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of parallel dispensers in automated picking system, an order-picking optimization problem is presented. Firstly, the working principle of parallel dispensers is introduced, which implies the time cost of picking each order is influenced by the order-picking sequence. So the order-picking optimization problem can be classified as a dynamic traveling salesman problem (TSP). Then a mathematical model of the problem is established and an improved max-min ant system (MMAS) is adopted to solve the model. The improvement includes two aspects. One is that the initial assignment of ants depends on a probabilistic formula instead of a random deployment; the other is that the heuristic factor is expressed by the extra picking time of each order instead of the total. At last, an actual simulation is made on an automated picking system with parallel dispensers. The simulation results proved the optimization value and the validity of improvement on MMAS.

  2. Electrostatic-Force-Assisted Dispensing Printing of Electrochromic Gels for Low-Voltage Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keon-Woo; Oh, Hwan; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Haekyoung; Moon, Hong Chul; Kim, Se Hyun

    2017-06-07

    In this study, low-voltage, printed, ion gel-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) were successfully fabricated. While conventional dispensing printing provides irregularly printed electrochromic (EC) gels, we improved the adhesion between the printed gel and the substrate by applying an external voltage. This is called electrostatic-force-assisted dispensing printing. As a result, we obtained well-defined, printed, EC gels on substrates such as indium tin oxide-coated glass. We fabricated a gel-based ECD by simply sandwiching the printed EC gel between two transparent electrodes. The resulting ECD, which required a low coloration voltage (∼0.6 V), exhibited a high coloration efficiency (η) of 161 cm(2)/C and a large transmittance contrast (∼82%) between the bleached and colored states at -0.7 V. In addition, electrostatic-force-assisted dispensing printing was utilized to fabricate directly patterned ECDs.

  3. Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, P; Coppola, S; Grilli, S; Paturzo, M; Vespini, V

    2010-06-01

    Manipulating and dispensing liquids on the micrometre- and nanoscale is important in biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry, and also for patterning inorganic, organic and biological inks. Several methods for dispensing liquids exist, but many require complicated electrodes and high-voltage circuits. Here, we show a simple way to draw attolitre liquid droplets from one or multiple sessile drops or liquid film reservoirs using a pyroelectrohydrodynamic dispenser. Local pyroelectric forces, which are activated by scanning a hot tip or an infrared laser beam over a lithium niobate substrate, draw liquid droplets from the reservoir below the substrate, and deposit them on the underside of the lithium niobate substrate. The shooting direction is altered by moving the hot tip or laser to form various patterns at different angles and locations. Our system does not require electrodes, nozzles or circuits, and is expected to have many applications in biochemical assays and various transport and mixing processes.

  4. Dipping into the Clostridium difficile pool: Are alcohol-based dispensers fomites for C difficile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James A; Keul, Ryan R; Shanks, Justin D; Fader, Robert; Herrington, Jon D

    2017-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol-based dispensers as potential fomites for Clostridium difficile. A convenience sample of 120 alcohol-based dispensers was evaluated for the presence of C difficile either by culture or polymerase chain reaction for C difficile toxin. The results demonstrated that C difficile was not cultured, and C difficile toxin was not detected using polymerase chain reaction; however, gram-positive rods, Clostridium perfringens, Pantoea agglomerans, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Bacillus spp, and microaerophilic Streptococcus were present within the overflow basins of the alcohol-based dispensers. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Muñoz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others.

  6. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others. PMID:26661752

  7. Protein Kinase B Controls Transcriptional Programs that Direct Cytotoxic T Cell Fate but Is Dispensable for T Cell Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Andrew N.; Finlay, David; Preston, Gavin; Sinclair, Linda V.; Waugh, Caryll M.; Tamas, Peter; Feijoo, Carmen; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Cantrell, Doreen A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary In cytotoxic T cells (CTL), Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is activated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2). Akt can control cell metabolism in many cell types but whether this role is important for CTL function has not been determined. Here we have shown that Akt does not mediate IL-2- or TCR-induced cell metabolic responses; rather, this role is assumed by other Akt-related kinases. There is, however, a nonredundant role for sustained and strong activation of Akt in CTL to coordinate the TCR- and IL-2-induced transcriptional programs that control expression of key cytolytic effector molecules, adhesion molecules, and cytokine and chemokine receptors that distinguish effector versus memory and naive T cells. Akt is thus dispensable for metabolism, but the strength and duration of Akt activity dictates the CTL transcriptional program and determines CTL fate. PMID:21295499

  8. Controlled dispensing and mixing of pico- to nanoliter volumes using on-demand droplet-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D; Kelly, Ryan T

    2013-07-01

    We present an integrated droplet-on-demand microfluidic platform for dispensing, mixing, incubating, extracting and analyzing by mass spectrometry pico- to nanoliter-sized droplets. All of the functional components are successfully integrated for the first time into a monolithic microdevice. Droplet generation is accomplished using computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Controlled actuation of valves for different aqueous streams enables accurate dosing and rapid mixing of reagents within droplets in either the droplet generation area or in a region of widening channel cross-section. Following incubation, which takes place as droplets travel in the oil stream, the droplet contents are extracted to an aqueous channel for subsequent ionization at an integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. Using the integrated platform, rapid enzymatic digestions of a model protein were carried out in droplets and detected on-line by nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  9. How can pharmacist remuneration systems in Europe contribute to generic medicine dispensing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylst P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicines can generate larger savings to health care budgets when their use is supported by incentives on both the supply-side and the demand-side. Pharmacists’ remuneration is one factor influencing the dispensing of generic medicines.Objective: The aim of this article is to provide an overview of different pharmacist remuneration systems for generic medicines in Europe, with a view to exploring how pharmacist remuneration systems can contribute to generic medicine dispensing.Methods: Data were obtained from a literature review, a Master thesis in Pharmaceutical Care at the Catholic University of Leuven and a mailing sent to all members of the Pharmaceutical Group of the European Union with a request for information about the local remuneration systems of community pharmacists and the possible existence of reports on discounting practices.Results: Pharmacists remuneration in most European countries consists of the combination of a fixed fee per item and a certain percentage of the acquisition cost or the delivery price of the medicines. This percentage component can be fixed, regressive or capped for very high-cost medicines and acts as a disincentive for dispensing generic medicines. Discounting for generic medicines is common practice in several European countries but information on this practice tends to be confidential. Nevertheless, data for Belgium, France, the Netherlands and United Kingdom indicated that discounting percentages varied from 10% to 70% of the wholesale selling price.Conclusion: Pharmacists can play an important role in the development of a generic medicines market. Pharmacists should not be financially penalized for dispensing generic medicines. Therefore, their remuneration should move towards a fee-for-performance remuneration instead of a price-dependent reimbursement which is currently used in many European countries. Such a fee-for-performance remuneration system provides a stimulus for generic medicines

  10. [Dispensing prescriptions to persons affiliated with the Seguro Popular de Salud de México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Llamas, Héctor; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2008-01-01

    Measure and compare the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed to persons with and without Popular Health Insurance (SPS in Spanish) who use ambulatory and general hospital services associated with the Mexico State Health Services (SESA in Spanish), and taking into account insurance status. SESA user satisfaction was also measured with respect to access to medication. Information for the study was taken from four surveys of SESA ambulatory and hospital units that included probabilistic samples with state representativity. Samples of ambulatory units were selected by stratification according to level of care and association to the SPS service network. The findings indicate that the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed in SESA ambulatory units has improved, reaching approximately 90%, especially among those units offering services to persons affiliated with SPS. Nevertheless, these percentages continue to be lower than those of ambulatory units associated with social security institutions. Percentages of prescriptions fully dispensed have also improved in SESA hospital units, but continue to be relatively low. In nearly all states, as the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed has increased, user satisfaction with access to medication has also improved. In 2006 more than 50% of the states had high levels of fully dispensed prescriptions among persons with SPS (> or =90%). The more significant problem exists among hospitals, since only 44% of users who received a prescription in SESA hospitals in 2006 had their prescriptions fully dispensed. This finding requires a review of SPS medication policies, which have favored highly prescribed low-cost medications at ambulatory services at the expense of higher cost and more therapeutically effective medications for hospital care, the latter having a greater impact on household budgets.

  11. Work function determination of promising material for thermionic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, M. H.; Jacobson, D.

    1980-01-01

    The work done to fabricate Marchuk plasma discharge tubes for measurement of the cesiated emission of lanthanum hexaboride and thoriated tungsten electrodes is described. A photon counting pyrometer was completed and is to be calibrated with a gold standard.

  12. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MICROFILTERED DRINKING WATER DISPENSERS IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Marzano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological quality of microfiltered drinking water dispensers was evaluated, through enumeration of heterotrophic plate count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this research was to control the hygiene of the microfiltered water and to evaluate the effectiveness of the microfiltration procedure on the survival of bacteria. In total, 54 water samples were analyzed. The results indicated a high contamination frequency with P. aeruginosa (25 and 20% in room temperature and chilled water samples, respectively and therefore the need to improve the efficacy and the frequency of the dispenser sanitation procedures.

  13. Unemployment and dispensed prescribed antidepressants in Stockholm County 1998-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Hansson, Anders

    2014-08-01

    The association between unemployment rates and population mental health has been studied with contradictory results. We examine the association between unemployment and antidepressants in Stockholm County. Age- and sex-specific monthly data on unemployment and dispensed prescribed antidepressants from January 1998 to January 2008 in Stockholm County were used. The association was studied with bivariate cointegration analysis with stationarity check of the residuals. We found that dispensing of antidepressants was inversely associated with unemployment. One interpretation is that antidepressants have not followed decreasing unemployment rates. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the optimal location for alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in a patient room in an intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boog, M.C.; Erasmus, V.; De Graaf, J.M.; Van Beeck, E.H.E.; Melles, M.; Van Beeck, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The introduction of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers has had a positive influence on compliance of healthcare workers with the recommended guidelines for hand hygiene. However, establishing the best location for alcohol-based hand rub dispensers remains a problem, and no method is curren

  15. 21 CFR 1301.27 - Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dispensing systems at long term care facilities must maintain a separate registration at the location of each... installation and operation of automated dispensing systems at long term care facilities. 1301.27 Section 1301... systems at long term care facilities. (a) A retail pharmacy may install and operate automated...

  16. [The role of the pharmacist in dispensing medication in Adult Psychosocial Care Centers in the city of São Paulo, Capital of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Carolina Gomes; Aguiar, Patricia Melo; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the pharmacist in dispensing medication by conducting cross-sectional exploratory-descriptive research in eight Adult Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) in São Paulo. The pharmacists responsible for each of the dispensing units studied filled out a semi-structured questionnaire about the service provided. Two Adult CAPS units were selected from each of the North, South, Eastand West regions of São Paulo. The central region has no Adult CAPS, and was therefore not included in the study. Most of the respondents were aged between 35 and 40 years and were predominantly female. It was found that half of the respondents performed only 25% of dispensations and few conducted an analysis of all prescriptions before dispensing medication. All respondents contacted the prescriber if any medication-related problems a rose. However, few pharmaceutical interventions were commonly performed. Furthermore, one respondent indicated that all his/her functions in the pharmacy could be delegated to another professional. These findings reveal the pressing need for actions that ensure the ongoing training of pharmacists to enable them to be clinically prepared to deal with patients with mental disorders.

  17. Structure optimization of the dispensing house in a combustion train for a thermal bake-out aluminum reduction cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chengbo; CHANG Baolong; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Binghuai

    2003-01-01

    The fume bake-out aluminum reduction cell is a novel technology possessing such advantages as easy control for the speed of heating-up, well-distributed temperature, and little cathode and anode oxidation. The key equipment of fume bake-out is a combustion train whose one important part is a dispensing house. This work deals with the numerical model and the flow and temperature fields of the dispensing house, which suggests that uniformity of flow and energy distribution is influenced by the position, shape and direction of the nozzle and cross dimension of dispensing house mainly, but is less influenced by entry speed The parameters of the dispensing house structure are optimised to satisfy the requirements for a combustion train in fume bakeout, and appropriate dimensions are obtained for a dispensing house structure.

  18. A Low-Cost, Normally Closed, Solenoid Valve for Non-Contact Dispensing in the Sub-µL Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Koltay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a disposable, normally closed, non-contact dispensing valve for the sub-µL range. The miniaturized solenoid valve (diameter: 8 mm, height: 27.25 mm is compatible to standard Luer-Lock interfaces. A highly dynamic actuation principle enables opening times down to 1 ms. The dispensing performance was evaluated for water (η = 1.03 mPas and a 66% (w/w glycerol/water solution (η = 16.98 mPas, at pressures varying from 200 to 800 mbar. The experimentally determined minimal dispensing volume was 163 nL (CV 1.6% for water and 123 nL (CV 4.5% for 66% (w/w glycerol/water. The low-cost polymer valve enables high precision dispensing of liquid volumes down to the lower end of the sub-µL range comparable to high-end non-disposable micro-dispensing valves.

  19. Bazooka/PAR3 is dispensable for polarity in Drosophila follicular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Jaffer; Tiwari, Manu D; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Krahn, Michael P; Wodarz, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    Apico-basal polarity is the defining characteristic of epithelial cells. In Drosophila, apical membrane identity is established and regulated through interactions between the highly conserved Par complex (Bazooka/Par3, atypical protein kinase C and Par6), and the Crumbs complex (Crumbs, Stardust and PATJ). It has been proposed that Bazooka operates at the top of a genetic hierarchy in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. However, there is still ambiguity over the correct sequence of events and cross-talk with other pathways during this process. In this study, we reassess this issue by comparing the phenotypes of the commonly used baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles with those of the so far uncharacterized baz(XR11) and baz(EH747) null alleles in different Drosophila epithelia. While all these baz alleles display identical phenotypes during embryonic epithelial development, we observe strong discrepancies in the severity and penetrance of polarity defects in the follicular epithelium: polarity is mostly normal in baz(EH747) and baz(XR11) while baz(4) and baz(815) (-8) show loss of polarity, severe multilayering and loss of epithelial integrity throughout the clones. Further analysis reveals that the chromosomes carrying the baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles may contain additional mutations that enhance the true baz loss-of-function phenotype in the follicular epithelium. This study clearly shows that Baz is dispensable for the regulation of polarity in the follicular epithelium, and that the requirement for key regulators of cell polarity is highly dependent on developmental context and cell type.

  20. Bazooka/PAR3 is dispensable for polarity in Drosophila follicular epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffer Shahab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Apico-basal polarity is the defining characteristic of epithelial cells. In Drosophila, apical membrane identity is established and regulated through interactions between the highly conserved Par complex (Bazooka/Par3, atypical protein kinase C and Par6, and the Crumbs complex (Crumbs, Stardust and PATJ. It has been proposed that Bazooka operates at the top of a genetic hierarchy in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. However, there is still ambiguity over the correct sequence of events and cross-talk with other pathways during this process. In this study, we reassess this issue by comparing the phenotypes of the commonly used baz4 and baz815-8 alleles with those of the so far uncharacterized bazXR11 and bazEH747 null alleles in different Drosophila epithelia. While all these baz alleles display identical phenotypes during embryonic epithelial development, we observe strong discrepancies in the severity and penetrance of polarity defects in the follicular epithelium: polarity is mostly normal in bazEH747 and bazXR11 while baz4 and baz815-8 show loss of polarity, severe multilayering and loss of epithelial integrity throughout the clones. Further analysis reveals that the chromosomes carrying the baz4 and baz815-8 alleles may contain additional mutations that enhance the true baz loss-of-function phenotype in the follicular epithelium. This study clearly shows that Baz is dispensable for the regulation of polarity in the follicular epithelium, and that the requirement for key regulators of cell polarity is highly dependent on developmental context and cell type.

  1. The degree of integration of non-dispensing pharmacists in primary care practice and the impact on health outcomes: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.M. Hazen (Ankie); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); L. Boelman (Lia); D.L.M. Zwart (Dorien); de Gier, J.J. (Johan J.); N.J. de Wit (Niek); M.L. Bouvy (Marcel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A non-dispensing pharmacist conducts clinical pharmacy services aimed at optimizing patients individual pharmacotherapy. Embedding a non-dispensing pharmacist in primary care practice enables collaboration, probably enhancing patient care. The degree of integration of

  2. Design and fabrication of a passive droplet dispenser for portable high resolution imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Rubinstein, Jaden; Kong, Gary; Lee, Woei Ming

    2017-01-01

    Moldless lens manufacturing techniques using standard droplet dispensing technology often require precise control over pressure to initiate fluid flow and control droplet formation. We have determined a series of interfacial fluid parameters optimised using standard 3D printed tools to extract, dispense and capture a single silicone droplet that is then cured to obtain high quality lenses. The dispensing process relies on the recapitulation of liquid dripping action (Rayleigh-Plateau instability) and the capturing method uses the interplay of gravitational force, capillary forces and liquid pinning to control the droplet shape. The key advantage of the passive lens fabrication approach is rapid scale-up using 3D printing by avoiding complex dispensing tools. We characterise the quality of the lenses fabricated using the passive approach by measuring wavefront aberration and high resolution imaging. The fabricated lenses are then integrated into a portable imaging system; a wearable thimble imaging device with a detachable camera housing, that is constructed for field imaging. This paper provides the full exposition of steps, from lens fabrication to imaging platform, necessary to construct a standalone high resolution imaging system. The simplicity of our methodology can be implemented using a regular desktop 3D printer and commercially available digital imaging systems.

  3. Drug use of children in the community assessed through pharmacy dispensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, E; van den Berg, P; Gebben, H; Sauer, P; de Jong-van den Berg, L

    2000-01-01

    Aims To determine the extent of drug use in children and the types of drugs that children use. Methods Cross-sectional study and cohort study, using computerized pharmacy dispensing records for all children aged 0-16 years in the northern part of The Netherlands in 1998. The main outcome measures

  4. MICROBIO : A web-based program for processing and evaluation of microbiological controls on aseptic dispensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, D.J.; Boom, F.A.; Bijleveld, Y.A.; Touw, D.J.; Veenbaas, T.; Essink-Tjebbes, C.M.; Verbrugge, P.

    Background: According to the Dutch GMP-hospital pharmacy directive (1) three types of microbiological controls are required when aseptic dispensing is performed: 1. microbiological monitoring of the air in the working area, the gloved hands of the operator and the work surface at the critical place

  5. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mazzola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces frustration. Ten horses (mean age 14 y, balanced for sex, breed, and size (mean height 162 cm, were divided into two groups of 5 horses each: Cribbing and Control. Animals were trained to use the dispenser and videorecorded continuously for 15 consecutive days from 1 h prior to feeding to 2 h after feeding in order to measure their behaviours. The feed dispenser, Quaryka®, induced an increase in time necessary to finish the ration in both groups of horses (P<0.05. With Quaryka, cribbers showed a significant reduction of time spent cribbing (P<0.05. After removal of the feed dispenser (Post-Quaryka, cribbing behaviour significantly increased. The use of Quaryka may be particularly beneficial in horses fed high-energy diets and ingesting the food too quickly.

  6. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in roadside restaurants of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, M; Akter, S; Islam, M A; Mia, Z

    2011-01-15

    The microbiological status of water from dispensers in different roadside restaurants of Dhaka city and Savar area was analyzed in this study. Seven samples from Dhaka and 8 samples of Savar were checked. The heterotrophic plate count was in a range of 1.0 x 10(3) CFU mL(-1) to 2.0 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1) (from new bottles), 1.0 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1) (after dispensation), and 1.5 x 10(3) CFU mL(-1) to 1.0 x l0(5) CFU mL(-1) (from serving glass). In several of the samples, the heterotrophic plate count was higher than the count in water from new bottle or after dispensation, suggesting added contamination from the serving glass. 80% of the samples were contaminated with total and fecal coliform bacteria, which render these waters unacceptable for human consumption. The samples were found to contain gram negative bacteria like E coli, Shigella sp., Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Salmonella sp., which are potential pathogens and thus pose a serious threat to public health. This study elucidates the importance of monitoring the bottling companies and the restaurants and put them under strict regulations to prevent future outbreak of any water borne diseases caused by consumption of dispensed water.

  7. The association between lifting an administrative restriction on antidepressant dispensing and treatment patterns in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thengilsdottir, G; Gardarsdottir, H; Almarsdottir, A B;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: On March 1st 2009, restrictions on the dispensing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in Iceland were lifted. Incident rates and changes in early discontinuation and switching before and after the change were investigated. METHODS: New users of antidepressants between March...

  8. Absorption Spectroscopy of Rubidium in an Alkali Metal Dispenser Cell and Bleached Wave Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    resulted in a transmission too low below the detection limit of the photodiodes. When the current ceased, the spectrum almost immediately returned to a...absorption spectrum of a rubidium alkali metal dispenser (AMD) cell was obtained in order to determine the system’s suitability for use in a diode ...18 8. Cell Pressure vs. Required Current .............................................................................. 20 9. Time vs. Rubidium

  9. The Compu-pet 100: a versatile dispenser-diluter for the mechanization of microbiological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, A W; Mellars, B; Stokes, E J

    1975-01-01

    The Compu-pet 100 diluter/dispenser is a versatile and accurate instrument which can be employed for a wide variety of microbiological tests and techniques. Time in performing tests is often more than halved when the diluter is used. Large numbers of tests can be performed with minimal fatigue.

  10. Reassessment of dispensing pharmacy and animal experiments in undergraduate practical pharmacology curriculum: feedback from students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish GR

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Computer assisted learning seems to be a better alternative to animal experiments. In the changing scenario, teaching clinical pharmacology should be focused rather than teaching dispensing pharmacy, which is obsolete. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 285-292

  11. Root Cause Analysis of Water Wastage in Hot - Cold Water Dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kokane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hot - Cold Water Dispenser is a high end kitchen product mounted on sink of kitchen to meet the requirement of instant hot and cold water as desired. It provides cold water at ambient temperature and hot water at near boiling temperature of about 97ºC to meet the instant water need. It was reported from few users, small amount of unnecessary water get dispensed from the Hot - Cold Water Dispenser during the idle conditions. This is undesirable and affecting on the overall performance of product. This paper briefs the available Root Cause Analysis and process to select the suitable method to find out the root cause of problem. From the available methods, Fault Tree Analysis was found to be most suitable method. The paper describes this method in length. Fault Tree Analysis is used as the scientific approach to find the root cause of problem of water dripping in Hot - Cold Water Dispenser at idle condition. It makes use of a graphical representation of the major faults associated with the product, the causes for the faults, and potential countermeasures. It is found that the FTA tool helps to identify areas of concern for new product design as well as for improvement of existing products.

  12. Smart DNA Fabrication Using Sound Waves: Applying Acoustic Dispensing Technologies to Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigowska, Paulina; Shen, Yue; Zheng, Yijing; Rosser, Susan; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-02-01

    Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) technology uses focused acoustic energy to transfer nanoliter-scale liquid droplets with high precision and accuracy. This noncontact, tipless, low-volume dispensing technology minimizes the possibility of cross-contamination and potentially reduces the costs of reagents and consumables. To date, acoustic dispensers have mainly been used in screening libraries of compounds. In this paper, we describe the first application of this powerful technology to the rapidly developing field of synthetic biology, for DNA synthesis and assembly at the nanoliter scale using a Labcyte Echo 550 acoustic dispenser. We were able to successfully downscale PCRs and the popular one-pot DNA assembly methods, Golden Gate and Gibson assemblies, from the microliter to the nanoliter scale with high assembly efficiency, which effectively cut the reagent cost by 20- to 100-fold. We envision that acoustic dispensing will become an instrumental technology in synthetic biology, in particular in the era of DNA foundries. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  13. Design and fabrication of a passive droplet dispenser for portable high resolution imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Rubinstein, Jaden; Kong, Gary; Lee, Woei Ming

    2017-01-01

    Moldless lens manufacturing techniques using standard droplet dispensing technology often require precise control over pressure to initiate fluid flow and control droplet formation. We have determined a series of interfacial fluid parameters optimised using standard 3D printed tools to extract, dispense and capture a single silicone droplet that is then cured to obtain high quality lenses. The dispensing process relies on the recapitulation of liquid dripping action (Rayleigh-Plateau instability) and the capturing method uses the interplay of gravitational force, capillary forces and liquid pinning to control the droplet shape. The key advantage of the passive lens fabrication approach is rapid scale-up using 3D printing by avoiding complex dispensing tools. We characterise the quality of the lenses fabricated using the passive approach by measuring wavefront aberration and high resolution imaging. The fabricated lenses are then integrated into a portable imaging system; a wearable thimble imaging device with a detachable camera housing, that is constructed for field imaging. This paper provides the full exposition of steps, from lens fabrication to imaging platform, necessary to construct a standalone high resolution imaging system. The simplicity of our methodology can be implemented using a regular desktop 3D printer and commercially available digital imaging systems. PMID:28128365

  14. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestrini, Clara; Cannas, Simona; Fè, Eleonora; Bagnato, Gaia Lisa; Vigo, Daniele; Frank, Diane; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces frustration. Ten horses (mean age 14 y), balanced for sex, breed, and size (mean height 162 cm), were divided into two groups of 5 horses each: Cribbing and Control. Animals were trained to use the dispenser and videorecorded continuously for 15 consecutive days from 1 h prior to feeding to 2 h after feeding in order to measure their behaviours. The feed dispenser, Quaryka®, induced an increase in time necessary to finish the ration in both groups of horses (P < 0.05). With Quaryka, cribbers showed a significant reduction of time spent cribbing (P < 0.05). After removal of the feed dispenser (Post-Quaryka), cribbing behaviour significantly increased. The use of Quaryka may be particularly beneficial in horses fed high-energy diets and ingesting the food too quickly. PMID:27818832

  15. Container with heat or cold dispensing material comprising hydrogel with crosslinked hydrophilic polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Turnhout, J.

    2000-01-01

    PCT No. PCT/NL97/00102 Sec. 371 Date Oct. 20, 1998 Sec. 102(e) Date Oct. 20, 1998 PCT Filed Mar. 3, 1997 PCT Pub. No. WO97/33950 PCT Pub. Date Sep. 18, 1997A device for storing and gradually dispensing heat or cold includes a container having a partially heat-conducting wall enclosing a space with m

  16. Close up of the glue dispenser. The white lines on the green frames are theapplied glue.

    CERN Multimedia

    Bernd Surrow

    1999-01-01

    The gantry motion control along with the pneumatic glue dispenser system allows precise control of the amount of glue applied to theframe. The glue is a special room temperature cure silicone basedglue chosen to minimize surface stresses on the silicon sensors dueto differential temperature contraction.

  17. Evaluation of textile substrates for dispensing synthetic attractants for malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mweresa, C.K.; Mukabana, W.R.; Omusula, P.; Otieno, B.; Gheysens, G.; Takken, W.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The full-scale impact of odour-baited technology on the surveillance, sampling and control of vectors of infectious diseases is partly limited by the lack of methods for the efficient and sustainable dispensing of attractants. In this study we investigated whether locally-available and co

  18. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground transformer stations, combustible... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4262 Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations,...

  19. Reducing bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) defects: optimizing and decoupling the filtration and dispense process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakensiek, Nickolas L.; Martin, Gary; Simmons, Sean; Batchelder, Traci

    2006-03-01

    Semiconductor device manufacturing is one of the cleanest manufacturing operations that can be found in the world today. It has to be that way; a particle on a wafer today can kill an entire device, which raises the costs, and therefore reduces the profits, of the manufacturing company in two ways: it must produce extra wafers to make up for the lost die, and it has less product to sell. In today's state-of-the-art fab, everything is filtered to the lowest pore size available. This practice is fairly easy for gases because a gas molecule is very small compared to the pore size of the filter. Filtering liquids, especially photochemicals such as photoresists and BARCs, can be much harder because the molecules that form the polymers used to manufacture the photochemicals are approaching the filter pore size. As a result, filters may plug up, filtration rates may drop, pressure drops across the filter may increase, or a filter may degrade. These conditions can then cause polymer shearing, microbubble formation, gel particle formation, and BARC chemical changes to occur before the BARC reaches the wafer. To investigate these possible interactions, an Entegris(R) IntelliGen(R) pump was installed on a TEL Mk8 TM track to see if the filtration process would have an effect on the BARC chemistry and coating defects. Various BARC chemicals such as DUV112 and DUV42P were pumped through various filter media having a variety of pore sizes at different filtration rates to investigate the interaction between the dispense process and the filtration process. The IntelliGen2 pump has the capability to filter the BARC independent of the dispense process. By using a designed experiment to look at various parameters such as dispense rate, filtration rate, and dispense volume, the effects of the complete pump system can be learned, and appropriate conditions can be applied to yield the cleanest BARC coating process. Results indicate that filtration rate and filter pore size play a

  20. Influences of viscoelastic properties of one-part epoxy adhesives on automotive dispensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Suzanne Irene Mcaleer

    The rheological properties of automotive adhesives were investigated to help understand how these properties may influence the performance of streaming dispensing processes used in automotive manufacturing. The rheological investigation included examining the base epoxies of the adhesives and two filler components: fumed silica and a spherical glass filler. Although the base epoxies are similar in chemical composition and viscosity, one exhibited non-linear elastic properties while the other did not. The enhancement of non-linear elastic properties due to the presence of fillers only occurred in the epoxy, which exhibited normal forces without fillers. Time temperature superposition was successfully applied to create master rheological curves for shear and viscoelastic properties. The shear rate range of the master viscosity curves extended to shear rates similar to shear rates of streaming dispensing. The non-linear elastic response differences of the materials played an important role in how well the materials dispensed with streaming. Dispensing studies of the adhesives using unwetted nozzles with a Graco Ultra-Flo 10 dispensing, indicated that deviations from centerline (DFC) increased as Re and De numbers increased. The adhesive, which exhibited an elastic response, looped and deviated out of view of the camera under unwetted nozzle conditions making quantifying distance from center impossible. Therefore, the adhesives and the epoxies were dispensed using a wetted nozzle. In-flight dispensed streams were photographed and DFC were recorded at distances of 2-cm and 4-cm from nozzle tip. Even under wetted nozzle conditions, the adhesive, which exhibited an elastic response during shear testing, streamed worse than the adhesive that had no detectable normal force response. Under wetted nozzle conditions, the effect of De (increase in DFC as De increases) is masked by the large stabilizing effect of Re. Therefore, the data was analyzed with respect to Re and N1/tau

  1. Efficient cesiation in RF driven surface plasma negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A., E-mail: sanin@inp.nsk.su; Sotnikov, O. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Experiments on hydrogen negative ions production in the large radio-frequency negative ion source with cesium seed are described. The system of directed cesium deposition to the plasma grid periphery was used. The small cesium seed (∼0.5 G) provides an enhanced H{sup −} production during a 2 month long experimental cycle. The gradual increase of negative ion yield during the long-term source runs was observed after cesium addition to the source. The degraded H{sup −} production was recorded after air filling to the source or after the cesium washing away from the driver and plasma chamber walls. The following source conditioning by beam shots produces the gradual recovery of H{sup −} yield to the high value. The effect of H{sup −} yield recovery after cesium coverage passivation by air fill was studied. The concept of cesium coverage replenishment and of H{sup −} yield recovery due to sputtering of cesium from the deteriorated layers is discussed.

  2. Hospital pharmacy practice in Saudi Arabia: Dispensing and administration in the Riyadh region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultan, Mohammed S.; Khurshid, Fowad; Mayet, Ahmed Y.; Al-jedai, Ahmed H.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is very little published data assessing hospital pharmacy practice in Saudi Arabia. Hence, a comprehensive survey has been undertaken to evaluate hospital pharmacy services of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Recently, we published the survey results on the prescribing and transcribing steps of the medication use process. This paper focuses on dispensing and administration. Methods A modified-American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) survey questionnaire was personally delivered to the pharmacy directors of 48 hospitals in the Riyadh region. Three attempted follow-ups were made within 3 months to non-responders and the surveys were collected upon completion. The survey was conducted using similar methods to those of the ASHP surveys. Results Twenty-nine hospitals participated in the survey with a response rate of 60.4%. Centralized distribution (74%) is the most commonly used model for inpatient pharmacies. Overall, 21% of hospitals routinely use bar coding technology in medication dispensing. None of the hospitals are using a robotic distribution system to automate the dispensing of unit doses. Automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) are used by 21% of hospitals as part of their decentralized distribution model. Sixty-one percent of hospital pharmacies have IV admixture preparation area in their facility. In the use of safety technology for medication administration, only one third of hospitals are using electronic medication administration records (eMARs), 7.4% had bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) and 12% had smart infusion pumps. Conclusion Hospital pharmacies in the Riyadh region are fairly well developed in providing dispensing and administration services. Further improvement can be achieved by increasing the use of new technologies such as bar-code technology, unit dose drug distribution systems, pharmacy-based IV admixture services, smart infusion pumps, and automated medication distribution. PMID:23960805

  3. Control of bacterial contamination in microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) by disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Franca; De Luca, Giovanna; Sacchetti, Rossella

    2009-01-15

    Three microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) for domestic use were bacteriologically monitored over a period of 1 year to evaluate their hygienic status and to compare the ability of two disinfectants (peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) to ensure adequate bacteriological quality of the dispensed water. To this end, two dispensers were purposely contaminated with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of environmental origin. A total of 324 samples of input and output water were analyzed. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria at 22 degrees C and 36 degrees C, total coliforms (CT), Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were enumerated. Throughout the study period, the supply water was always of excellent bacteriological quality. All water samples taken from the MWDs complied with the legal requirements for drinking water: CT, EC, ENT and S. aureus were all consistently absent. P. aeruginosa was never isolated from the uncontaminated dispenser. However, an increase in HPCs up to levels of 10(3)-10(4) cfu/mL was found in the dispensed water. Under the present operative conditions, hydrogen peroxide was seen to be more effective than peracetic acid in controlling bacterial contamination in the water circuits. Periodic disinfection with hydrogen peroxide made it possible to obtain water with HPC levels conforming to Italian regulations for drinking water (disinfection led to a reduction in the concentrations of P. aeruginosa to only a few colony forming units/100 mL or to a complete, albeit temporary, disappearance of the microorganism. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide at 3% can be proposed as a suitable product for periodic disinfection of domestic MWDs, taking into consideration also its low cost and easy availability.

  4. Isolation of Raoultella planticola from refillable antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers in a dental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Tomlin, Nancy; Ruby, John D

    2015-04-01

    Liquid antimicrobial soaps are commonly used in the dental health care setting for hand washing to minimize the potential spread of infectious agents to health care workers and patients. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible bacterial contamination of antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers located in 2 institutional comprehensive dental care clinics. Fourteen soap dispensers and 16 original stock containers were sampled. A 1-milliliter aliquot was diluted in 10 mL of phosphate buffer (Tween-80; Acros). Serial dilutions were plated in duplicate on neutralizing agar and incubated for 7 days. Molecular identification was performed using 500 base pair comparisons of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing. Taq polymerase chain reaction was performed with sequence-specific primers for Raoultella species. Bacterial growth was observed at 18 hours for 57% (8 of 14) of soap dispenser samples. Bacterial densities ranged from 4 × 10(2) to 6 × 10(9) colony-forming units per milliliter. Original commercial containers exhibited no growth. Isolates were identified as Raoultella (Klebsiella) planticola. This is the first study to the authors' knowledge indicating recovery of R. planticola from antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers. R. planticola is a recognized environmental opportunistic pathogen that potentially poses a health concern. These findings indicate compliance problems with infection prevention recommendations and support the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommendation that dispensers should not be topped off. High bacterial loads of R. planticola are inconsistent with infection control practices and are a concern because transmission and possible infection to the health care worker or the patient may occur. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adherence with ethinylestradiol 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg in a flexible extended regimen supported by the use of a digital tablet dispenser with or without acoustic alarm: an open-label, randomized, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiegratz I

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inka Wiegratz,1,2 Jörg Elliesen,3 Anna Maria Paoletti,4 Anja Walzer,3 Bodo Kirsch3 1Kinderwunschpraxis am Goetheplatz, Frankfurt, Germany; 2MVZ Kinderwunschzentrum Wiesbaden GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany; 3Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany; 4Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, ItalyObjective: To evaluate the effect of a digital dispenser's acoustic alarm function on adherence to ethinylestradiol (EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg in a flexible extended regimen (EE/drospirenoneFlex among women in five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK seeking oral contraception.Study design: Randomized, parallel-group open-label study.Methods: Women aged 18–35 years received EE/drospirenoneFlex administered in a regimen with cycle lengths of their choice with the aid of a digital pill dispenser over 1 year. In group A (N=250, the dispenser's acoustic alarm was activated (ie, acoustic alarm + visual reminder. In group B (N=249, the acoustic alarm was deactivated (ie, visual reminder only. In addition, the women recorded pill intake daily in diary cards. The primary efficacy variable was the mean delay of daily pill release after the dispenser reminded the woman to take a pill (reference time. Secondary efficacy variables included number of missed pills, contraceptive efficacy, bleeding pattern, tolerability, and user satisfaction.Results: Dispenser data showed a mean (standard deviation [SD] daily delay in pill release of 88 (126 minutes in group A vs 178 (140 minutes in group B (P<0.0001. Median (lower quartile, Q1; upper quartile, Q3 number of missed pills was 0 (0; 1 in group A vs 4 (1; 9 in group B (P<0.0001. Diary card results revealed similar trends; however, underreporting of missed pills was evident in both groups. No pregnancies were reported during 424 women-years of exposure. Across the two groups, the mean (SD EE/drospirenoneFlex cycle length was 51.0 (31.8 days with strong regional

  6. Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia contamination of microfiltered water dispensers with peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Rossella; De Luca, Giovanna; Zanetti, Franca

    2009-06-30

    The abilities of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove or reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in output water from microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) were investigated. Two MWDs were inoculated with strains of P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia isolated from water. Dispensers A and B were disinfected with 10% (v/v) peracetic acid (PAA) and 3% (v/v) hydrogen peroxide (HP) respectively. Each dispenser was disinfected three times at monthly intervals with contact times of 10, 30 and 40 min. Water dispensed by the MWDs was collected immediately before and after each treatment and then twice weekly for the remaining period. Once a week a sample of the tap water entering the dispensers was tested. P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia were enumerated in the 90 samples collected during 6 months. In the output water from the dispensers before the first treatment, the number of the bacteria was 3 to 4 log cfu/100 mL. Treatment with PAA greatly reduced the numbers of P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia in the dispensed water initially. However, by 2 days after treatment, the numbers increased and remained high. In the case of disinfection with HP for 40 min, P. aeruginosa was not detected in most of the samples (73.7%). Numbers of S. maltophilia decreased with increasing time after treatment.

  7. [A study of the pharmacist work changes associated with dispensing unit-of-use packaging in community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Sakamaki, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Ryou; Iijima, Tomonori; Iijima, Yasunori; Ootsuga, Hiroyuki; Saito, Katsuya; Seki, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Yamaura, Tomoyuki; Yokobayashi, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how much time can be saved with the use of unit-of-use packaging for prescription drugs as compared with bulk packaging in community pharmacies as well as to determine the number of errors. In a simulation, mock prescriptions were dispensed either in unit-of-use packages or by transferring medication from a bulk container, and a time study was conducted to measure the time spent on dispensing and prescription auditing by pharmacists. Pharmacists' and patients' degree of satisfaction was also surveyed. The time saved with unit-of-use packaging was 66.25 s per prescription. The sole dispensing error that was found in the study occurred with bulk dispensing. Among both pharmacists and patients, many were of the opinion that dispensing with unit-of-use packaging was preferable to bulk dispensing. Unit-of-use packaging shortens the time that pharmacists spend on dispensing activities and increases the efficiency of their work. Unit-of-use packaging is also thought to reduce the number of counting errors.

  8. Identification of risks associated with the prescribing and dispensing of oral anticancer medicines in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hammond, Lisa

    2012-09-09

    Background Oral anticancer medicines (OAM) facilitate transfer of cancer care into the community, where safeguards developed in hospitals that control their prescribing, dispensing and administration may not exist. Objective To determine if the systems of prescribing and dispensing OAM in Ireland facilitate clinical verification of the prescription, thereby ensuring treatment is tailored and appropriate for the patient. Setting Randomly selected community pharmacies in Ireland and all Irish hospitals with cancer services. Method A questionnaire was sent to a random selection of Irish community pharmacists. A different questionnaire was sent to all Irish hospitals treating cancer patients. One hundred OAM prescriptions were retrospectively reviewed, to assess the information presented and the potential barriers to a community pharmacist performing a clinical verification of the prescription. Main outcome measure Community pharmacist survey: problems experienced when dispensing OAM and risk factors identified with the current system. Hospital pharmacist survey: proportion of hospitals that clinically verify prescriptions for parenteral versus oral anticancer medicines and associated policies. OAM prescription review: proportion of OAM prescriptions that contained sufficient information for a community pharmacist to clinically verify the prescription and safely dispense the medication. Results Sixty-four percent of community pharmacist respondents felt they did not have enough information available to them to safely dispense these prescriptions, and 74 % felt that patients are at risk with the current Irish system of prescribing and dispensing OAM. Irish hospitals do not have systems to ensure that all OAM prescriptions are clinically verified by a pharmacist. Seventeen different agents were prescribed on the prescriptions reviewed. The information provided to the community pharmacist would have allowed them to clinically verify 7 % of the OAM prescriptions

  9. ZNF 197L is dispensable in mouse development | Tang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... We used gene trap method to identify mice gene of unknown function and to establish their mouse line. Here, we found one ... The insertion of trap vector into the first intron of this gene resulted in mutation.

  10. Protein kinase C theta is dispensable for suppression mediated by CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Kerstin; Thuille, Nikolaus; Wachowicz, Katarzyna; Hermann-Kleiter, Natascha; Baier, Gottfried

    2017-01-01

    The activation of conventional T cells upon T cell receptor stimulation critically depends on protein kinase C theta (PKCθ). However, its role in regulatory T (Treg) cell function has yet to be fully elucidated. Using siRNA or the potent and PKC family-selective pharmacological inhibitor AEB071, we could show that murine Treg-mediated suppression in vitro is independent of PKCθ function. Likewise, Treg cells of PKCθ-deficient mice were fully functional, showing a similar suppressive activity as wild-type CD25+CD4+ T cells in an in vitro suppression assay. Furthermore, in vitro-differentiated wild-type and PKCθ-deficient iTreg cells showed comparable Foxp3 expression as well as suppressive activity. However, we observed a reduced percentage of Foxp3+CD25+ CD4+ T cells in the lymphatic organs of PKCθ-deficient mice. Taken together, our results suggest that while PKCθ is involved in Treg cell differentiation in vivo, it is dispensable for Treg-mediated suppression.

  11. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don

    2014-01-01

    The most abundantly produced virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the immunodominant phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), which is frequently included in CMV vaccines. Although it is nonessential for in vitro CMV growth, pp65 displays immunomodulatory functions that support a potential role in primary and/or persistent infection. To determine the contribution of pp65 to CMV infection and immunity, we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both pp65 orthologs (RhCMVΔpp65ab). While ...

  12. Partial dispensability of Djp1's J domain in peroxisomal protein import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results from genetic redundancy with another class II J protein, Caj1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobriyal, Neha; Tripathi, Prerna; Sarkar, Susrita; Tak, Yogesh; Verma, Amit K; Sahi, Chandan

    2017-03-06

    J proteins are obligate co-chaperones of Hsp70s. Via their signature J domain, all J proteins interact with their partner Hsp70s and stimulate their weak ATPase activity, which is vital for Hsp70 functions. The dependency of J proteins on their J domain is such that mutations in critical amino acids in the J domain often results into a null phenotype for a particular J protein. Here, we show that the J domain of Djp1, a cytosolic J protein important for peroxisomal protein import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is partially dispensable. A complete deletion of Djp1 J domain resulted into only partial loss in peroxisomal protein import function. Instead, the C-terminal domain of Djp1 was found to be essential for proper localization of the peroxisomal targeted GFP-PTS1. Furthermore, we show that Caj1, another cytosolic J protein, also has some role in peroxisomal protein import. Caj1 was found to be partially redundant with Djp1 as cells lacking both Djp1 and Caj1 resulted into a much more severe defect in GFP-PTS1 localization. Based on these results, we propose that dispensability of J domains could be attributed to genetic redundancy between different J proteins sharing common structural topology and cellular localization.

  13. Development of alloy-film coated dispenser cathode for terahertz vacuum electron devices application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, R.K.; Bera, A. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Raju, R.S. [Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Rajasthan (India); Tanwar, A.K.; Baek, I.K.; Min, S.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Sattorov, M.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for THz-Bio Application Systems, and Seoul-Teracom Inc., Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.W. [LIG Nex1, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, G.-S., E-mail: gunsik@snu.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for THz-Bio Application Systems, and Seoul-Teracom Inc., Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    High power terahertz vacuum electron devices demand high current density and uniform emission dispenser cathode. It was found that the coating of noble metals e.g., Os, Ir, and Re on the surface of tungsten dispenser cathodes enhances the emission capabilities and uniformity. Hence metal coated cathode might be the best candidate for terahertz devices applications. In this study, ternary-alloy-film cathode (2Os:2Re:1 W) and Os coated cathode have been developed and the results are presented. The cathodes made out of this alloy coating showed 1.5 times higher emission and 0.02 eV emission uniformity as compared to those of simply Os coated cathodes which can be used in terahertz devices application.

  14. A novel approach on fluid dispensing for a DNA/RNA extraction chip package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ling; Premachandran, C. S.; Chew, Michelle; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Diao; Pinjala, D.

    2008-02-01

    Micro fluidic package with integrated reservoirs has been developed for DNA /RNA extraction application. A membrane based pump which consists of a reservoir to store reagents and a pin valve to control the fluid is developed to dispense the reagents into the chip. A programmable external actuator is fabricated to dispense the fluid from the membrane pump into the DNA chip. An elastic and high elongation thin rubber membrane is used to seal the membrane pump and at the same time prevent actuator from mixing with different reagents in the micro fluidic package. Break displacement during actuation of membrane pump sealing material is studied with different ratios of PDMS and other types of rubber materials. The fluid flow from the reservoir to the chip is controlled by a pin valve which is activated during the external actuation. A CFD simulation is performed to study the pumping action dusting the external actuation and is validated with experimental results.

  15. Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Joseph P.; Parent, Lucas R.; Cantlon, Joshua; Eickhoff, Holger; Bared, Guido; Evans, James E.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2016-05-03

    Abstract

    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) provides a unique insight into the dynamics of nanomaterials in solution. Controlling the addition of multiple solutions to the liquid cell remains a key hurdle in our ability to increase throughput and to study processes dependent on solution mixing including chemical reactions. Here, we report that a piezo dispensing technique allows for mixing of multiple solutions directly within the viewing area. This technique permits deposition of 50 pL droplets of various aqueous solutions onto the liquid cell window, before assembly of the cell in a fully controlled manner. This proof-of-concept study highlights the great potential of picoliter dispensing in combination with LCTEM for observing nanoparticle mixing in the solution phase and the creation of chemical gradients.

  16. Photostability of Mecobalamin in Tablet and Capsule at the Dispensing Level

    OpenAIRE

    佐伯, 孝雄; 片桐, 義博; Hirano, Hidenari; 直良, 浩司

    1984-01-01

    Photostability of mecobalamin in solid dosage forms was investigated at dispensing level. Commercial products of one tablet and five capsules were used in packaged and bared conditions. The sample products were exposed to light for 20 days at 1500 lux. Assay was by high-performance liquid chromatography. The amount of mecobalamin in tablet and capsules decreased with lapse of photoirradiation time. Significant difference in the rate of photodegradation was observed between the capsule dosage ...

  17. Attitudes of community pharmacists to antibiotic dispensing and microbial resistance: a qualitative study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Fátima; Soares, Sara; Breitenfeld, Luiza; López-Durán, Ana; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa

    2013-06-01

    The inappropriate use of antibiotics is considered a main cause of microbial resistance. This is an important public health problem. Community pharmacists have an important role in the management of drugs for outpatients. Our study sought to explore pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and dispensing habits insofar as to antibiotics and microbial resistance. The study was developed with community pharmacists in the North of Portugal. Qualitative research in the form of focus groups (FG). Focus groups were conducted with 4-7 pharmacists, using a moderator. A topic guide was developed to lead the discussions, which were audio-recorded and transcribed. The study was carried out between December 2010 and March 2011 in the five districts of the Northern Health Region of Portugal (ARS-N). Pharmacists from different regions of each district were invited to participate in the study by an investigator responsible for the study. Participants were informed about the study and that sessions were audio-recorded to facilitate data interpretation. They signed an informed consent form before taking part in the focus groups. The Ethical Committee of ARS-N was informed of this study. Pharmacists' knowledge and perceptions on antibiotic use and microbial resistance, attitudes related to antibiotic dispensing habits, and pharmacists' suggestions to improve antibiotic use. A total of 6 focus groups were conducted with community pharmacists (n = 32). Attitudes related to the problem of resistance were attributed external responsibility, to patients, to physicians, to other pharmacies, and to veterinary consumption. Some attitudes were identified that could lead to antibiotic dispensing without a prescription. These attitudes are complacency, precaution and external complacency. Portuguese pharmacists perceive that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance could be improved, showing a behavioural intention to improve antibiotic dispensing habits.

  18. Influence of pharmacists' opinions on their dispensing medicines without requirement of a doctor's prescription

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Caamaño; Manuel Tomé-Otero; Bahi Takkouche; Juan Jesús Gestal-Otero

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of pharmacists' opinions on their dispensing medicines with a «medical prescription only» label without requiring a doctor's prescription. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 166 community pharmacies in northwest Spain. The opinions of pharmacists on the following were collected as independent variables through personal interview: a) physicians' prescribing practices; b) the pharmacist's qualifications to prescribe; c) the responsibility of the ...

  19. Use of Simulated Patients to Evaluate Combined Oral Contraceptive Dispensing Practices of Community Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Baldoni, André de Oliveira; Marusic, Srecko; de Lyra-Júnior, Divaldo Pereira; de Almeida, Kelsen Luis; Pazete, Ana Claudia Montolezi; do Nascimento, Janaina Dutra; Kos, Mitja; Girotto, Edmarlon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Background Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. Objective To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs) (with counseled audio recording) visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg). The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients’ medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure) and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. Results Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2%) agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional), and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., “do you smoke?” (n = 2) and “what is your age?” (n = 1). None of the CPs measured the patient’s blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs), and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. Conclusion The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure. PMID:24324584

  20. Use of simulated patients to evaluate combined oral contraceptive dispensing practices of community pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roque Obreli-Neto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive (COC use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs (with counseled audio recording visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21(® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg. The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients' medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2% agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional, and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., "do you smoke?" (n = 2 and "what is your age?" (n = 1. None of the CPs measured the patient's blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs, and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. CONCLUSION: The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure.

  1. Using nylon strips to dispense mosquito attractants for sampling the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, F; Biswaro, L; Mbeleyela, E; Killeen, G F; Mukabana, R; Moore, S J

    2010-03-01

    Synthetic versions of human derived kairomones can be used as baits when trapping host seeking mosquitoes. The effectiveness of these lures depends not only on their attractiveness to the mosquitoes but also on the medium from which they are dispensed. We report on the development and evaluation of nylon strips as a method of dispensing odorants attractive to the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Giles). When a synthetic blend of attractants was dispensed using this method, significantly more mosquitoes were trapped than when two previous methods, open glass vials or low density polyethylene sachets were used. We conclude that the nylon strips are suitable for dispensing odorants in mosquito trapping operations and can be adopted for use in rural and remote areas. The nylon material required is cheap and widely available and the strips can be prepared without specialized equipment or electricity.

  2. Quality of labeling on dispensed medicines and associated factors among public health care facilities in Bahir dar city, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wubante Demilew Nigussie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the quality of labeling on dispensed medicines and identify the associated factors among public health facilities in Bahir Dar city. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from August 5 to 20, 2013 at selected health care facilities in Bahir Dar city. Simple random sampling and systematic random sampling techniques was used to select health facilities and dispensing encounters respectively. Data was collected from non participatory observations of the drug dispensing process using check list. Data was entered into EPI Info (version 3.5.2 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis was computed to test the strength of association and level of significance. P-value <0.05 was considered as statistical significant. Results: A total of 400 dispensing encounters and 636 drugs dispensed were observed in eight (8 outpatient pharmacies. The percentage of drugs adequately labeled was 32.2%. Drugs adequate labeling score was higher in private health facilities (39.3% compared to government health facilities (25.83%. The name, strength and dosage form of the drugs were labeled in 95.6%, 90% and 85.8% respectively. Differences in dispenser work experiences (AOR = 2.99, CI: 1.67 – 5.37, average dispensing time (AOR = 6.22, CI: 3.08-12.57, average consultation time (AOR=3.42, CI: 1.64-7.13, level of health facility (AOR = 4.31, CI 1.94 – 9.59 and type of health facilities (AOR = 4.29, CI 1.72 – 10.66 were found to be independently associated factors for quality of labeling score. Conclusion: The quality of labeling on dispensed medicines was not adequate. Dispenser work experiences, average dispensing time, average consultation time, level of health facility and type of health facilities were found to be significant factors for quality of labeling score. Therefore, attention should be given to strong skill development, increasing manpower and implementation of regular monitoring for the

  3. [Failure modes and effects analysis in the prescription, validation and dispensing process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Silveira, E; Alvarez Díaz, A; Pérez Menéndez-Conde, C; Serna Pérez, J; Rodríguez Sagrado, M A; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2012-01-01

    To apply a failure modes and effects analysis to the prescription, validation and dispensing process for hospitalised patients. A work group analysed all of the stages included in the process from prescription to dispensing, identifying the most critical errors and establishing potential failure modes which could produce a mistake. The possible causes, their potential effects, and the existing control systems were analysed to try and stop them from developing. The Hazard Score was calculated, choosing those that were ≥ 8, and a Severity Index = 4 was selected independently of the hazard Score value. Corrective measures and an implementation plan were proposed. A flow diagram that describes the whole process was obtained. A risk analysis was conducted of the chosen critical points, indicating: failure mode, cause, effect, severity, probability, Hazard Score, suggested preventative measure and strategy to achieve so. Failure modes chosen: Prescription on the nurse's form; progress or treatment order (paper); Prescription to incorrect patient; Transcription error by nursing staff and pharmacist; Error preparing the trolley. By applying a failure modes and effects analysis to the prescription, validation and dispensing process, we have been able to identify critical aspects, the stages in which errors may occur and the causes. It has allowed us to analyse the effects on the safety of the process, and establish measures to prevent or reduce them. Copyright © 2010 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. A Low-Cost, Accurate, and High-Precision Fluid Dispensing System for Microscale Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Champak; Wang, Guochun; Nguyen, Chien

    2017-04-01

    We present here the development of a low-cost, accurate, and precise fluid dispensing system. It can be used with peristaltic or any other pump to improve the flow characteristics. The dispensing system has a range of 1 to 100 µL with accuracy of ~99.5% and standard deviation at ~150 nL over the entire range. The system developed does not depend on the accuracy or precision of the driving pump; therefore, any positive displacement pump can be used to get similar accuracy and precision, which gives an opportunity to reduce the cost of the system. The dispensing system does not require periodic calibration and can also be miniaturized for microfluidic application. Although primarily designed for aqueous liquid, it can be extended for different nonconductive liquids as well with modifications. The unit is further used for near real-time measurement of lactate from microdialysate. The individual components can easily be made disposable or sterilized for use in biomedical applications.

  5. Raw Milk Hygiene at Local Markets and Automatic Milk Dispenser Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, direct sales of raw milk to the final consumer is developed based on the local regulations. These are in accordance to European Regulation that must meet some quality requirements for the total number of germs, somatic cells, without antibiotics, coming from healthy animals who did not suffer from diseases that can be transmitted to humans through milk. Raw milk is sold in Romania in local markets and by automatic milk dispenser machines. Based on these regulations, a study regarding the quality and security to human health of raw milk was conducted on the commercialized milk in local markets and automatic milk dispensers. During May-June 2014 samples of raw milk were collected from Cluj-Napoca local markets and automatic milk dispensers. All samples were kept to refrigeration conditions until the moment of analyze which took place at the sampling day. The following parameters were taken into account: fat content, protein, casein, lactose, nonfat dry matter, pH, milk freezing point, added water, antibiotics residues, milk urea, number of germ cells and somatic cells. All obtained results were verified by the validated methods applied. Our research can be forward conducted in order to verify the hygiene and composition of milk from the whole dairy chain. 

  6. Dispensing picoliter droplets on insulating substrates using liquid dielectrophoretic (DEP) microactuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib U.

    Liquid Dielectrophoretic (DEP) microactuation uses simple co-planar electrodes patterned on an insulating substrate to manipulate small volumes of liquid, including aqueous solutions. One important capability of DEP microfluidics is the dispensing of multiple droplets down to ˜10 picoliters starting directly from microliter-sized, sessile parent drops deposited manually on the substrate with a micropipette. The dispensing process occurs in two subsequent stages. First, the electrodes are energized with AC, causing a narrow finger of liquid to flow from the parent droplet along the electrodes. The motion of the leading edge of this finger seems to obey a square root law, that is, Z( t) ∝ t and when it gets to the end of the electrode structure, it stops. The finger (or rivulet) then remains in a hydrostatically stable configuration as long as the non-uniform field is present. Second, when the voltage is removed, capillary instability breaks up the rivulet into small droplets. Periodic circular bumps patterned on the structure, when spaced according to the most unstable wavelength based on Rayleigh's inviscid theory for the cylindrical liquid jet, lead to the uniformly spaced and sized droplets. The effect of viscosity on droplet formation has been successfully accounted for with the modified Weber number. Experiments are also conducted to demonstrate a robust and reliable droplet dispensing mechanism with a trapped liquid design. Finally, some exploratory work has also been included with ionic salt solution.

  7. [A study of pharmacists' consciousness toward separation of medical practice from pharmaceutical dispensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaho, Eiichi; Uchinashi, Masako; Tsurusawa, Akiko; Tominaga, Junko; Hayashi, Shinichi

    2003-03-01

    Separation of medical practice from pharmaceutical dispensing had been a system with just the notation without the reality even after Showa era, although its concept was brought into Japan along with European medicine in Meiji era. Since 1970's, its concept has been prevailing gradually, and the so-called separation rate currently has reached to 47 percent. Increasingly keen attention has been paid recently by the public toward medicine in general. Taking into consideration these facts, a questionnaire survey was conducted for dispensing pharmacists in order to find out where pharmacists stand at present. Most of pharmacists (98.3%) answered that they practice patient counseling either by documents or by verbal communication, and that they take patient profiles. They said that patients could enjoy a proper medical treatment (32.9%) as well as a rational prescribing (14.3%). For a question asking what pharmacists should do to promote the separation of medical practice from pharmaceutical dispensing, 40.3% of them answered that they should make progress in their knowledge on drug therapy.

  8. Deleted in liver cancer 2 (DLC2 was dispensable for development and its deficiency did not aggravate hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai On Yau

    Full Text Available DLC2 (deleted in liver cancer 2, a Rho GTPase-activating protein, was previously shown to be underexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma and has tumor suppressor functions in cell culture models. We generated DLC2-deficient mice to investigate the tumor suppressor role of DLC2 in hepatocarcinogenesis and the function of DLC2 in vivo. In this study, we found that, unlike homologous DLC1, which is essential for embryonic development, DLC2 was dispensable for embryonic development and DLC2-deficient mice could survive to adulthood. We also did not observe a higher incidence of liver tumor formation or diethylnitrosamine (DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in DLC2-deficient mice. However, we observed that DLC2-deficient mice were smaller and had less adipose tissue than the wild type mice. These phenotypes were not due to reduction of cell size or defect in adipogenesis, as observed in the 190B RhoGAP-deficient mouse model. Together, these results suggest that deficiency in DLC2 alone does not enhance hepatocarcinogenesis.

  9. IL-22 is mainly produced by IFNγ-secreting cells but is dispensable for host protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Behrends

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory treatment of autoimmune diseases is associated with an increased risk of reactivation tuberculosis (TB. Besides interleukin (IL-17A, IL-22 represents a classical T helper (TH17 cytokine and shares similar pathological effects in inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis or arthritis. Whereas IL-17A supports protective immune responses during mycobacterial infections, the role of IL-22 after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is yet poorly characterized. Therefore, we here characterize the cell types producing IL-22 and the protective function of this cytokine during experimental TB in mice. Like IL-17A, IL-22 is expressed early after infection with Mtb in an IL-23-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the majority of IL-22-producing cells are not positive for IL-17A but have rather functional characteristics of interferon-gamma-producing TH1 cells. Although we found minor differences in the number of naive and central memory T cells as well as in the frequency of TH1 and polyfunctional T cells in mice deficient for IL-22, the absence of IL-22 does not affect the outcome of Mtb infection. Our study revealed that although produced by TH1 cells, IL-22 is dispensable for protective immune responses during TB. Therefore, targeting of IL-22 in inflammatory disease may represent a therapeutic approach that does not incur the danger of reactivation TB.

  10. Antigen-Specific Priming is Dispensable in Depletion of Apoptosis-Sensitive T Cells for GvHD Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkoni, Shai; Stein, Jerry; Yaniv, Isaac; Askenasy, Nadir

    2014-01-01

    Prophylactic approaches to graft versus host disease (GvHD) have employed both phenotypic reduction of T cells and selective elimination of host-primed donor T cells in vitro and in vivo. An additional approach to GvHD prophylaxis by functional depletion of apoptosis-sensitive donor T cells without host-specific sensitization ex vivo showed remarkable reduction in GHD incidence and severity. We address the role and significance of antigen-specific sensitization of donor T cells and discuss the mechanisms of functional T cell purging by apoptosis for GvHD prevention. Host-specific sensitization is dispensable because migration is antigen-independent and donor T cell sensitization is mediated by multiple and redundant mechanisms of presentation of major and minor histocompatibility complex and tissue antigens by donor and host antigen-presenting cells. Our data suggest that potential murine and human GvH effectors reside within subsets of preactivated T cells susceptible to negative regulation by apoptosis prior to encounter of and sensitization to specific antigens.

  11. Compliance towards dispensed medication labelling standards: a cross-sectional study in the state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, Chin Fen; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed; Tambyappa, Jayabalan

    2009-09-01

    Good medicine labelling practice is vital to ensure safe use of medicines. Non-compliance to labelling standards is a potential source of medication errors. This study was intended to evaluate and compare compliance towards labelling standard for dispensed medications between community pharmacists and general practitioners in Penang, Malaysia. A total of 128 community pharmacies and 26 general practitioners' clinics were visited. Using 'Simulated Client Method' (SCM), data were collected on the medications dispensed upon presentation of hypothetical common cold symptoms. The medications dispensed were evaluated for labelling adequacy. Result revealed that majority of the dispensed medications obtained were not labelled according to regulatory requirements. However, general practitioners complied better than community pharmacists in terms of labelling for: name of patient (p<0.001), details of supplier (p<0.001), dosage of medication (p=0.023), frequency to take medication (p=0.023), patient's reference number (p<0.001), date of supply (p<0.001), special instructions for medication (p=0.008), storage requirements (p=0.002), and indication for medication (p<0.001). Conversely, community pharmacists labelled dispensed medications with the words "Controlled Medicine" more often than did general practitioners (p<0.001). Although laws for labelling dispensed medicines are in place, most community pharmacists and general practitioners did not comply accordingly, thereby putting patients' safety at risks of medication errors.

  12. Pediatric burns due to hot water from water dispenser: a neglected issue that should be highly concerned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Bing; XI Hui-jun; WANG Jia-lin; YAN Ying; TANG Hong-tai; ZHU Shi-hui; L(U) Kai-yang; XIA Zhao-fan

    2012-01-01

    Background More and more Chinese drink hot water from water dispensers while many children were scalded due to this change.The present study aimed to propose a feasible strategy for prevention.Methods A retrospective study was conducted for all water dispensers related pediatric burns admitted to Changhai Hospital from January 2005 to December 2009.Results The number of new cases and incidences of pediatric burns due to hot water from water dispensers was significantly increasing year after year.In the total 238 involved cases,175 cases happened on males and 78.9% were at the age of 1-4 years.The burn areas were mainly located in upper extremities.All water dispensers in the surveyed families had no isolate protection devices and 85.2% of their locations were easy for children to reach.Nearly half of the children were in the same room with their guardians when injured.Total 196 burned children were playing the taps of water dispensers before injured,unfortunately,80.6% of them have not been stopped until burned.Conclusion As the kind of bums is quite serious and with bad outcome,some recommendations should be followed,such as buying water dispensers with protection devices,keeping children from touching them and so on.

  13. Lobesia botrana IPM: electrospun polyester microfibers serve as biodegradable sex pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S

    2013-01-01

    Modern insect pest management is faced with an increasingly sophisticated set of requirements. Control agent/dispenser combinations must be at the same time safe, nontoxic, inexpensive, reproducibly efficacious, environmentally compatible, biodegradable, and sustainable, and should be based on renewable resources. The methods employed preferably should be suitable for the growing and tightly controlled organic growing sector as well. All this calls for a level of sophistication and reproducibility previously unknown. Only very few systems can offer this kind of performance, but fortunately can be found in the area of suitable pheromone/dispenser combinations. This report is an attempt to adapt electrospun Ecoflex polyester micro fibers of the Greiner-Wendorff type to the very specific needs of the grape growing industry. Specifically required are "semi-intelligent" dispenser materials. On a weight basis, the electrospun product should achieve as high a proportion as possible of "retainable" sex pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate of Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) and should release it as uniformly as possible into the surrounding airspace. Using the Doye bioassay, some progress indeed has recently been achieved with electrospun Ecoflex microfibers of 0.5-3.5 microm diameter. They were employed as dispensers for programmed sex pheromone release with an effective mating disruption duration of up to seven weeks. With one microfiber/pheromone treatment, this covers one entire flight period of the trivoltine L. botrana. Mechanical application of this microfiber/pheromone preparation (with the option of automation) is possible. Disruption effects are comparable with those of commercially available dispensers of the Isonet type. Exposed under vineyard conditions, Ecoflex polyester fibers are a spider silk like material which is biodegradable within half a year. Thus, after releasing its pheromone load, it does not need removal, which saves one cultivation step

  14. Increasing Access to Subsidized Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy through Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabra Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, many people seek malaria treatment from retail drug sellers. The National Malaria Control Program identified the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO program as a private sector mechanism to supplement the distribution of subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs from public facilities and increase access to the first-line antimalarial in rural and underserved areas. The ADDO program strengthens private sector pharmaceutical services by improving regulatory and supervisory support, dispenser training, and record keeping practices. Methods The government's pilot program made subsidized ACTs available through ADDOs in 10 districts in the Morogoro and Ruvuma regions, covering about 2.9 million people. The program established a supply of subsidized ACTs, created a price system with a cost recovery plan, developed a plan to distribute the subsidized products to the ADDOs, trained dispensers, and strengthened the adverse drug reactions reporting system. As part of the evaluation, 448 ADDO dispensers brought their records to central locations for analysis, representing nearly 70% of ADDOs operating in the two regions. ADDO drug register data were available from July 2007-June 2008 for Morogoro and from July 2007-September 2008 for Ruvuma. This intervention was implemented from 2007-2008. Results During the pilot, over 300,000 people received treatment for malaria at the 448 ADDOs. The percentage of ADDOs that dispensed at least one course of ACT rose from 26.2% during July-September 2007 to 72.6% during April-June 2008. The number of malaria patients treated with ACTs gradually increased after the start of the pilot, while the use of non-ACT antimalarials declined; ACTs went from 3% of all antimalarials sold in July 2007 to 26% in June 2008. District-specific data showed substantial variation among the districts in ACT uptake through ADDOs, ranging from ACTs representing 10% of all antimalarial sales

  15. Gamma Interferon Is Dispensable for Neopterin Production In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghiri, R.; Feinberg, J.; Thabet, F.; Dellagi, K.; Boukadida, J.; Ben Abdelaziz, A.; Casanova, J. L.; Barbouche, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that neopterin is synthesized in vitro by human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation with gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Neopterin production under specific conditions in vitro has also been obtained upon stimulation with IFN-α and/or IFN-β. However, it is unknown if any IFN-γ-independent neopterin synthesis is possible in vivo. In the present study we investigated the serum neopterin concentrations in patients affected by the syndrome of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Indeed, this syndrome is characterized by deeply impaired or absent IFN-γ production or function due to severe mutations in molecules involved in IFN-γ/interleukin-12 (IL-12)/IL-23-dependent pathway. Serum neopterin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 27 patients with MSMD. We found that serum neopterin levels are elevated in the complete absence of IFN-γ activity due either to a complete deficiency of its receptor or to deleterious mutations of IL-12 or its receptor. These data clearly indicate that, as reported from in vitro studies, other stimuli are able to induce neopterin synthesis in vivo. Consequently, neopterin cannot be used as means of diagnosis of MSMD due to IFN-γ-, IL-12-, and IL-23-dependent pathway defects. PMID:16339068

  16. Research and practice of intelligent scrub dispensing system in operation room under process reengineering%基于流程再造的手术室智能更衣系统的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌蒙蒙; 张群瑜; 潘传迪

    2016-01-01

    目的:采用信息技术优化手术室更衣流程,改善手工流程的不足。方法:集成自助更衣机、CPU卡、电子储物柜、红外感应器等设备,开发手术室智能更衣软、硬件系统。结果:完成手术室智能更衣系统研发并投入正常运行,实现手术人员签到和签退、自动出衣、自动分配及回收储物柜、回收手术衣等功能。结论:手术室智能更衣系统对优化手术室更衣流程,缩短医务人员术前更衣时间,改善手术室环境,节约人力成本,提高服务效率具有积极的作用。%Objective: To optimize scrub dispensing process in operating room and replace previous manual process by information technology. Methods: Integrate self-service scrub dispensing machine, CPU card, electronic lockers, infrared sensors and other equipment were used to develop intelligent scrub dispensing hardware and software system in operation room. Results: The system is developed and put into normal operation. The intelligent scrub dispensing system achieves automatic operation personnel sign-in and sign-out, self serving surgical gowns, automatic allocation and locker reuse, self-recycle of dirty surgical gowns and other functions. Conclusions: The intelligent scrub dispensing system in operation room is a positive effect on optimizing the scrub dispensing process in operating room, shorting the time of medical personnel to change surgical gowns, improving the environment of the operation room, reducing labor costs, improving the service efficiency.

  17. The Development of the Automatic Fast Dispensing Unit for Pharmacy%药房快速自动发药机单元的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚从扬; 臧铁钢; 袁金虎

    2012-01-01

    It introduces the functional structure of new automatic pharmacy, proposes the concept of rapid dispensing unit and implementations. On the basis of systematic mechanical structure design, it builds the control system of intelligent dispensing machine. This system consists of two sub- systems, the one is PC machine as the host computer for information management and control programs, and the other is PLC as a control unit for control tasks. The application in outpatient pharmacy service of hospitals shows that the system has a good operational effects.%介绍了新型自动化药房的功能结构,提出快速发药单元的概念及结构实现方案.在系统结构设计的基础上,设计了智能发药机的控制系统.系统为两级控制,PC机作为上位机进行信息管理和控制规划,PLC作为控制机实现控制任务.系统开发完成后已应用于医院门诊药房,运行效果良好.

  18. PRDM11 is dispensable for the maintenance and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoren, Lina A; Fog, Cathrine K; Jensen, Klaus T

    2013-01-01

    are intact in bone marrow (BM) of one-year-old Prdm11(-/-) mice. In addition, Prdm11(-/-) mice were able to fully regenerate the hematopoietic system upon BM transplantation (BMT) into lethally irradiated mice with a mild drop in lymphoid output only. Taken together, this suggests that PRDM11, in contrast...

  19. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    The tegument phosphoprotein pp65 (UL83) is the most abundant virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Since pp65 is immunodominant in persistently infected individuals, subunit vaccines against HCMV often include pp65 as T cell stimulatory component. Although HCMV pp65 is non-essential for viral growth in vitro it is thought to have an important role in primary and persistent infection since pp65 displays multiple immunomodulatory functions. To determine whether pp65 is required for infection and to evaluate its role in natural and vaccination-induced immunity we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both homologues, pp65a (Rh111) and pp65b (Rh112). Lack of pp65 resulted in a slight growth defect in vitro and an increase of defective particle formation. However, most pp65-deleted virions in the supernatant were phenotypically normal and proteomics analysis revealed that the ratios of the remaining viral proteins were largely unchanged. RhCMV Δpp65ab was able to persistently infect CMV-negative rhesus macaques (RM) and to super-infect RM previously infected with CMV. To determine whether T cells against pp65 are essential for protection against CMV, we challenged Δpp65ab-infected animals with RhCMV ΔUS2-11, a viral recombinant that lacks inhibitors of MHC-I antigen presentation and is thus unable to overcome CMV-specific T cell immunity. Despite a complete lack of pp65-specific T cells, Δpp65ab protected against ΔUS2-11 challenge suggesting that pp65-specific T cells are not essential for T cell immunity against CMV. Using the same approach we further demonstrate that pp65b-specific T cells, induced by heterologous prime/boost vaccination, are not sufficient to protect against ΔUS2-11 challenge. Our data provides a new approach to test the efficacy of subunit vaccine candidates and suggest that pp65 vaccines are insufficient to induce a T cell response that recapitulates the protective effect of natural infection.

  20. Exploring the relationship between safety culture and reported dispensing errors in a large sample of Swedish community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén-Hägg, Annika; Kälvemark-Sporrong, Sofia; Lindblad, Åsa Kettis

    2012-08-13

    The potential for unsafe acts to result in harm to patients is constant risks to be managed in any health care delivery system including pharmacies. The number of reported errors is influenced by a various elements including safety culture. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible relationship between reported dispensing errors and safety culture, taking into account demographic and pharmacy variables, in Swedish community pharmacies. A cross-sectional study was performed, encompassing 546 (62.8%) of the 870 Swedish community pharmacies. All staff in the pharmacies on December 1st, 2007 were included in the study. To assess safety culture domains in the pharmacies, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) was used. Numbers of dispensed prescription items as well as dispensing errors for each pharmacy across the first half year of 2008 were summarised. Intercorrelations among a number of variables including SAQ survey domains, general properties of the pharmacy, demographic characteristics, and dispensing errors were calculated. A negative binomial regression model was used to further examine the relationship between the variables and dispensing errors. The first analysis demonstrated a number of significant correlations between reported dispensing errors and the variables examined. Negative correlations were found with SAQ domains Teamwork Climate, Safety Climate, Job Satisfaction as well as mean age and response rates. Positive relationships were demonstrated with Stress Recognition (SAQ), number of employees, educational diversity, birth country diversity, education country diversity and number of dispensed prescription items. Variables displaying a significant relationship to errors in this analysis were included in the regression analysis. When controlling for demographic variables, only Stress Recognition, mean age, educational diversity and number of dispensed prescription items and employees, were still associated with dispensing errors. This study

  1. Characterization of a DNA Adenine Methyltransferase Gene of Borrelia hermsii and Its Dispensability for Murine Infection and Persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison E James

    Full Text Available DNA methyltransferases have been implicated in the regulation of virulence genes in a number of pathogens. Relapsing fever Borrelia species harbor a conserved, putative DNA methyltransferase gene on their chromosome, while no such ortholog can be found in the annotated genome of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. In the relapsing fever species Borrelia hermsii, the locus bh0463A encodes this putative DNA adenine methyltransferase (dam. To verify the function of the BH0463A protein product as a Dam, the gene was cloned into a Dam-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Restriction fragment analysis subsequently demonstrated that complementation of this E. coli mutant with bh0463A restored adenine methylation, verifying bh0463A as a Dam. The requirement of bh0463A for B. hermsii viability, infectivity, and persistence was then investigated by genetically disrupting the gene. The dam- mutant was capable of infecting immunocompetent mice, and the mean level of spirochetemia in immunocompetent mice was not significantly different from wild type B. hermsii. Collectively, the data indicate that dam is dispensable for B. hermsii viability, infectivity, and persistence.

  2. Characterization of a DNA Adenine Methyltransferase Gene of Borrelia hermsii and Its Dispensability for Murine Infection and Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Allison E; Rogovskyy, Artem S; Crowley, Michael A; Bankhead, Troy

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases have been implicated in the regulation of virulence genes in a number of pathogens. Relapsing fever Borrelia species harbor a conserved, putative DNA methyltransferase gene on their chromosome, while no such ortholog can be found in the annotated genome of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. In the relapsing fever species Borrelia hermsii, the locus bh0463A encodes this putative DNA adenine methyltransferase (dam). To verify the function of the BH0463A protein product as a Dam, the gene was cloned into a Dam-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Restriction fragment analysis subsequently demonstrated that complementation of this E. coli mutant with bh0463A restored adenine methylation, verifying bh0463A as a Dam. The requirement of bh0463A for B. hermsii viability, infectivity, and persistence was then investigated by genetically disrupting the gene. The dam- mutant was capable of infecting immunocompetent mice, and the mean level of spirochetemia in immunocompetent mice was not significantly different from wild type B. hermsii. Collectively, the data indicate that dam is dispensable for B. hermsii viability, infectivity, and persistence.

  3. p21 is dispensable for AID-mediated class switch recombination and mutagenesis of immunoglobulin genes during somatic hypermutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shansab, Maryam; Selsing, Erik

    2011-03-01

    In B cells, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) induces somatic hypermutation (SHM) at rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) regions. Previous studies have shown that both monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and translesional DNA polymerase activity are important for inducing mutagenesis during SHM. Regulation of PCNA ubiquitination by p21, also known as Cdkn1a and p21(Cip1/Waf1), is an important mechanism that controls mutation loads in mammalian cells. In this study, we have assessed whether p21 has an in vivo function in regulating mutagenesis in B cells by analyzing SHM frequency in p21-deficient mice. Our results show that p21 is dispensable for SHM. This suggests that, during SHM of Ig genes, p21 does not act to regulate mutagenesis load. We also show that p21 transcript levels are the same in both wildtype and AID-deficient B cells during B cell activation, and that AID-mediated class switch recombination (CSR) is not affected by p21 deficiency; thereby indicating that p21 regulation in B cells is not altered by AID-induced DNA damage and that p21 has no affect on AID-dependent Ig gene diversification. Our results suggest that regulation of p21 in activated B cells is probably more important for maintaining proper cell cycle progression as opposed to promoting SHM of Ig genes.

  4. Dispensing home nebulizers for acute wheezing from the hospital is cost-effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, L G; Okamura, D; Nagamine, J; Boychuk, R B; Halm, B; Lee, E; Yee, L L

    2000-03-01

    The objective was to investigate the use characteristics of home nebulizers and to measure the benefit gained from dispensing home nebulizers (compared with their cost) to patients from the hospital. During the study period, August 28,1996 to May 17,1997, a sample of 232 of the 291 entries from a log of home nebulizers dispensed by the hospital respiratory care department were surveyed over the telephone. Of the 232 study subjects under the age of 21, a telephone interview of a guardian or supervising adult was completed in 106 subjects (46%) a mean of 43 weeks after the home nebulizer was prescribed (47% of the cohort received their home nebulizers from the inpatient service and another 47% were discharged with home nebulizers from the emergency department (ED)). An average of 3.6 estimated additional ED visits and 5.4 office/clinic visits for each patient were prevented by the home nebulizer. The benefit (savings from reduced ED and office visits alone) to cost ratio estimates range from $855:$90 to $1710:$90 or more. The overwhelming majority of the patients felt that the home nebulizer was a good idea, it was easy to use, they had no problems with the nebulizer and they received adequate training for home nebulizer use. Home nebulizers are a cost-effective means of providing home nebulized albuterol for selected outpatients. Hospital inpatient units and EDs which have the ability to dispense a home nebulizer, have an additional therapeutic option available for selected patients who may benefit from it. Medical insurance companies should fully support (ie, pay for) home nebulizers because it is cost effective. If there is any concern about the reliability of the patient to follow-up with their primary physician, the patient's primary physician should be contacted to discuss the feasibility of discharging the patient with a home nebulizer.

  5. Control of microbial contamination in drinking water from microfiltering dispensers by dialysis ultrafilters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolelli Luca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tap water filtering devices are widely employed to improve odor and taste of tap water, or to obtain refrigerated or sparkling drinking water. The presence of disinfectants-resistant bacteria in tap water is responsible of the biofilm formation inside tubes and tanks. The consequent contamination of dispensed water is a well-known hygiene problem because of the quite constant presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria likes P. aeruginosa. In this study, we tested the technical feasibility and effectiveness of the addition to different commercial devices of a packaged polysulphone fibers filter. We aimed to find a simple solution to implement the quality of the delivered water. Water contamination levels were determined in a wide selection of microfiltered water dispensers and we selected among them a representative group of 10 devices, new or in use. The packaged ultrafilter was introduced in about half of them, to monitor, when possible, in parallel the contamination levels and flow rate of a couple of identical units, with and without the filter. The placement of the dialysis filters resulted feasible at different positions along the water circuits of the variously designed filtration units. Delivered water resulted completely free from bacteria when the filter was placed exactly at, or very close to, the outlet in spite of the inner surfaces contamination. This performance was not obtained in presence of a more or less long tract of water circuits downstream the ultrafilter: a significant but not complete reduction of the plate count numbers was observed. The filters worked in continue over the whole study period, ten months, showing exactly the same efficiency. Moreover, the flow rate in presence of the filter was quite unaffected. The addition of this kind of filter to already in use water dispensers was technically easy, and its use can be recommended in all cases a simple but reliable water sanitization is requested.

  6. Steam sterilization and automatic dispensing of [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose (FDG) for injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwath, Pascal [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany) and MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: p.karwath@uni-bonn.de; Sartor, Johannes [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Gries, Wolfgang [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Wodarski, Christine [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Dittmar, Claus [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Biersack, Hans J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Guhlke, Stefan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany) and MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: stefan.guhlke@ukb.uni-bonn.de

    2005-04-01

    For the purpose of implementing steam sterilization of 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG (FDG) in the final container into routine production, we have validated and established a fully automated dispensing and sterilization system, thereby considerably reducing the radiation burden to the personnel. Methods: The commercially available system combines aseptic dispensing of the product solution under a miniaturized laminar flow unit with subsequent steam sterilization, realized by heating of the product in the final containers by an autoclave included in the dispensing unit, thus incorporating current pharmaceutical manufacturing standards for the production of parental radiopharmaceuticals. The efficiency of the used sterilization cycle, the stability of FDG under the conditions of sterilization and the stability of the final product towards radiolysis was investigated with respect to various pH-formulations. Results: The system was found to be fully valid for filling of vials in a laminar flow class A (US-class 100) environment and for sterilization of FDG in the final container. The pH for sterilizing FDG solutions must be slightly acidic to avoid decomposition. A pH of 5.5 appears to be optimal and gives FDG of very high radiochemical purity ({approx}99%). In addition, radiolysis of FDG in solutions of high activity concentration was significantly lower at pH 5.5 than at neutral pH. Conclusion: Terminal sterilization enables the production of FDG in full compliance with GMP-regulations even in Class C or D (US class 10,000 or 100,000) laboratories.

  7. Opticians, Dispensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Students' Pages Errata Other Statistical Sites Subjects Inflation & Prices » Consumer Price Index Producer Price Indexes Import/Export Price Indexes Employment Cost Index Contract Escalation Price Index Research Inflation & Prices Overview Pay & Benefits » Employment Costs National Compensation ...

  8. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2011-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on-orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials will be changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle will be redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  9. Evaluation of antibiotics dispensing profile in Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rauber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are drugs widely used in prophylaxis and treatment of a great number of diseases. However, their use must be carefully controlled as acquisition in pharmacies, often without medical prescription, is elevated. The role of pharmacists in these circumstances is to practice dispensation in a rational manner. Through a structured questionnaire with open and closed questions, this study investigated the profile of antibiotics dispensed in pharmacies of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil. From the responses, it was observed that 85.0% dispense this class of medicine without medical prescription, mainly for treatment of respiratory (62.8% and urinary (12.0% tract disorders. Moreover, pharmacists' guidance was largely focused on posology (66.6% and drug interaction (12.6%, in addition to the interactions with contraceptives, alcohol and milk. The importance of avoiding antibiotics dispensation without medical prescription must be emphasized, as well as the benefits of educating the population to promote the rational use of medicines.Antibióticos são fármacos amplamente utilizados na profilaxia e no tratamento de grande número de doenças. Entretanto, seu uso deve ser cuidadosamente controlado nas farmácias, uma vez que nestas a aquisição sem prescrição médica é elevada. O papel dos farmacêuticos nessas circunstâncias é o de praticar a dispensação de maneira racional. Por meio de questionário estruturado, com questões abertas e fechadas, investigou-se o perfil dos antibióticos dispensados em farmácias de Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Pelas respostas, observou-se que 85% das dispensa essa classe de medicamentos sem prescrição médica, principalmente para o tratamento de problemas dos tratos respiratório (62,8% e urinário (12,0%. Além disso, a orientação dos farmacêuticos se focou amplamente na posologia (66,6%e nas interações com fármacos (12,6%, em adição às interações com anticoncepcionais, álcool e

  10. A Change in Dispensing Technology --Jetting Takes off%非接触式喷射点胶--未来的点胶技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven J. Adamson; David Wang

    2004-01-01

    Jetting of epoxies and other materials is going to change the way people do dispensing. For the last twenty years, dispensing has evolved from merely pushing fluid through a needle to a highly automated production process. Controlling fluid deposition, needle positioning and dispensed volume accuracy has dramatically improved in recent years. Additionally, speed has increased while software has simplified operational control. Now jet dispensing fluids has become practical and it is going to have as large an impact on the electronics assembly industry that Ink Jet printing has had in the office / home environment.

  11. RhoA is dispensable for skin development, but crucial for contraction and directed migration of keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Peyrollier, Karine; Pedersen, Esben; Basse, Astrid; Karlsson, Richard; Wang, Zhipeng; Lefever, Tine; Ochsenbein, Alexandra M.; Schmidt, Gudula; Aktories, Klaus; Stanley, Alanna; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Ladwein, Markus; Rottner, Klemens; van Hengel, Jolanda; Brakebusch, Cord

    2011-01-01

    RhoA is a small guanosine-5’-triphosphatase (GTPase) suggested to be essential for cytokinesis, stress fiber formation, and epithelial cell–cell contacts. In skin, loss of RhoA was suggested to underlie pemphigus skin blistering. To analyze RhoA function in vivo, we generated mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the RhoA gene. Despite a severe reduction of cofilin and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, these mice showed normal skin development. Primary RhoA-null keratinocytes, however, displayed an increased percentage of multinucleated cells, defective maturation of cell–cell contacts. Furthermore we observed increased cell spreading due to impaired RhoA-ROCK (Rho-associated protein kinase)-MLC phosphatase-MLC–mediated cell contraction, independent of Rac1. Rho-inhibiting toxins further increased multinucleation of RhoA-null cells but had no significant effect on spreading, suggesting that RhoB and RhoC have partially overlapping functions with RhoA. Loss of RhoA decreased directed cell migration in vitro caused by reduced migration speed and directional persistence. These defects were not related to the decreased cell contraction and were independent of ROCK, as ROCK inhibition by Y27632 increased directed migration of both control and RhoA-null keratinocytes. Our data indicate a crucial role for RhoA and contraction in regulating cell spreading and a contraction-independent function of RhoA in keratinocyte migration. In addition, our data show that RhoA is dispensable for skin development. PMID:21209320

  12. RhoA is dispensable for skin development, but crucial for contraction and directed migration of keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Peyrollier, Karine; Pedersen, Esben; Basse, Astrid; Karlsson, Richard; Wang, Zhipeng; Lefever, Tine; Ochsenbein, Alexandra M; Schmidt, Gudula; Aktories, Klaus; Stanley, Alanna; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Ladwein, Markus; Rottner, Klemens; van Hengel, Jolanda; Brakebusch, Cord

    2011-03-01

    RhoA is a small guanosine-5'-triphosphatase (GTPase) suggested to be essential for cytokinesis, stress fiber formation, and epithelial cell-cell contacts. In skin, loss of RhoA was suggested to underlie pemphigus skin blistering. To analyze RhoA function in vivo, we generated mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the RhoA gene. Despite a severe reduction of cofilin and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, these mice showed normal skin development. Primary RhoA-null keratinocytes, however, displayed an increased percentage of multinucleated cells, defective maturation of cell-cell contacts. Furthermore we observed increased cell spreading due to impaired RhoA-ROCK (Rho-associated protein kinase)-MLC phosphatase-MLC-mediated cell contraction, independent of Rac1. Rho-inhibiting toxins further increased multinucleation of RhoA-null cells but had no significant effect on spreading, suggesting that RhoB and RhoC have partially overlapping functions with RhoA. Loss of RhoA decreased directed cell migration in vitro caused by reduced migration speed and directional persistence. These defects were not related to the decreased cell contraction and were independent of ROCK, as ROCK inhibition by Y27632 increased directed migration of both control and RhoA-null keratinocytes. Our data indicate a crucial role for RhoA and contraction in regulating cell spreading and a contraction-independent function of RhoA in keratinocyte migration. In addition, our data show that RhoA is dispensable for skin development.

  13. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-07-22

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of an automated dispenser for the delivery of medicinal or vaccine-laden baits to raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Redding, James V; Bevis, Crystal M; Page, L Kristen; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Medicinal baits are distributed to manage zoonotic diseases, including raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies, but efficient distribution strategies are needed for suburban environments. We developed an automated dispenser that transfers fishmeal polymer baits at user-specified intervals from a magazine to a receptacle fitted with a filter that exploits raccoon dexterity to limit consumption by nontarget species. We introduce the concept of automated dispensers and describe bait removal success rates for raccoons versus nontarget species. We monitored visitation with remote cameras after deploying a dispenser, programmed to present two baits per night, in three disjunct forest patches in northwest Indiana. Raccoons removed 72% of baits; nontarget, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) removed 11%; Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) removed 9%. Bait removal success varied significantly between raccoons (76%) and opossums (21%), improving bait delivery specificity relative to hand baiting. Accumulation of baits in receptacles resulted in excess (more than one) bait consumption (39% of baits consumed by raccoons were excess), suggesting design improvements are needed to present additional baits only after previous baits have been consumed. Automated dispensers successfully sustained bait availability throughout the operational period. Subsequent research is needed to determine whether a sustained availability of baits achieved with automated dispensers is more effective for the treatment of raccoons in suburban environments than traditional distribution methods.

  15. Providers′ knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of E-Pills in government dispensaries of south district in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Vertika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  16. A Review of the Anthropometric Characteristics, Grading and Dispensation of Junior and Youth Rugby Union Players in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Declan Alexander; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart; Denny, Greg

    2016-08-01

    The grading of Australian junior and youth rugby union players has received substantial media attention in recent years. Media reports have focussed on size mismatches observed between players, especially players with Polynesian heritage, and the concerned parents who fear for the safety of their child owing to perceived mismatches. Although such concerns are well meaning, few media reports recognise the need for substantial evidence to determine the best grading system for junior and youth rugby union players. The current study reviewed relevant literature pertinent to the grading and dispensation of junior and youth rugby union players. Using primary and secondary search strategies, a total of 33 articles reporting the anthropometric characteristics of junior and youth rugby players were identified. Anthropometric data from the literature were compared with normative population data and currently used dispensation criteria. Junior and youth rugby players were found to be taller and heavier than normative population data. Current dispensation criteria, in terms of body mass, were found to vary and it is suggested that criteria be revised and standardised across rugby unions throughout Australia. Although it is acknowledged that other factors are important for grading players, anthropometric characteristics should be considered as potential dispensation criteria to supplement current age-based grading for junior and youth rugby union players. Measuring the body mass and stature of each junior player upon pre-season registration is suggested, which would provide data to establish valid dispensation criteria for the following season.

  17. Dispensing doctor practices and community pharmacies: exploring the quality of pharmaceutical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie C; Grey, Elisabeth; Harris, Michael; Rodham, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This research sought (a) to investigate the similarities and differences in how pharmaceutical services are provided by community pharmacies (CPs) and dispensing doctor practices (DPs) and (b) to identify the issues relevant to determining the quality of pharmaceutical services in these settings. UK pharmaceutical services, including dispensing prescriptions and public health advice, can be provided from both (CP) and, in rural areas, (DP). While there is much similarity between CPs and DPs in the types of services provided, there is also the potential for variation in service quality across settings. A postal questionnaire of DPs and CPs in South West England was conducted to provide a descriptive overview of pharmaceutical services across the settings. A subsection of questionnaire respondent sites were selected to take part in case studies, which involved documentary analyses, observation and staff interviews. Survey response was 39% for CPs (52/134) and 48% (31/64) for DPs. There were three CP and four DP case study sites, with 17 staff interviews. More pharmacies than practices were open at the weekend and they had more staff trained above NVQ level 2. Both doctors and pharmacists saw themselves as medicines experts, as being accessible and having good relationships with patients. Workplace practices and organisational ethos varied both within and across settings, with good practice observed in both. Overall, CPs and DPs have much in common. Workplace culture and an evidence-based approach to checking prescriptions and error reporting need to be considered in future assessments of service quality.

  18. Japanese Community Pharmacists’ Dispensing Influences Medicine Price Reduction more than Prescription Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Masayuki; Tashiro, Takao

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the economic efficiency of the separation of prescription and dispensation medicines between doctors in medical institutions and pharmacists in pharmacies. The separation system in Japanese prefectures was examined with publicly available data (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, 2012–2014; retrieved from http://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/medias/year). We investigated whether the separation system reduces the number of medicines or the medication cost of a prescription because of separating the economic management between prescribing and dispensing and the effect of mutual observation between doctors and pharmacists. It is optional for Japanese medical institutions to participate in the separation system. Consequently, the spreading rate of the separation system in each administrative district is highly variable. We examined the separation system effect using the National Healthcare Insurance data for three years, 2012–2014. We tested whether the separation system ratio for each prefecture was significantly correlated to the medication price or the number of medicines on a prescription. If spreading the separation system influenced the price of prescribed daily medications or the number of medicines, the correlation would be significant. As a result, the medication price was significantly negatively correlated with the separation system ratio, but the number of medicines was not significant. Therefore, the separation system was effective in reducing daily medication cost but had little influence on reducing the number of daily medicines. This was observed over three years in Japan.

  19. Manipulating and dispensing micro/nanoliter droplets by superhydrophobic needle nozzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhichao; Ma, Jie; Jiang, Lei

    2013-11-26

    There is rapidly increasing research interest focused on manipulating and dispensing tiny droplets in nanotechnology and biotechnology. A micro/nanostructured superhydrophobic nozzle surface is one promising candidate for the realization of tiny droplet manipulating applications. Here, we explore the feasibility of using superhydrophobicity for guided dispensing of tiny water droplets. A facile dip-coating method is developed to prepare superhydrophobic needle nozzles (SNNs) based on commercial needle nozzles with reduced inner diameter. The SNNs can manipulate tiny droplets of different volumes by only changing the inner diameter of the nozzle, rather than reducing the nozzle size as a whole. Different from the previous electric-field-directed process or pyroelectrodynamic-driven technique, quasi-stable water drops down to the picoliter scale can be produced by SNNs without employing any extra driving mechanisms. Due to their intrinsic superhydrophobic nature, the SNNs also possess the properties of reducing sample liquid retention, improving sample volume transfer accuracy, and saving expensive reagents. In addition, this kind of dip-coating method can also be applied to micropipet tips, inkjet or bio-printer heads, etc. As the issues of reducing drop size and increasing drop volume accuracy are quite important in the laboratory and industry, this facile but effective superhydrophobic nozzle-coating method for manipulating tiny droplets could be of great help to make breakthroughs in next-generation liquid transport and biometric and inkjet printing devices.

  20. Economic evaluation of task-shifting approaches to the dispensing of anti-retroviral therapy

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    Foster Nicola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A scarcity of human resources for health has been identified as one of the primary constraints to the scale-up of the provision of Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART. In South Africa there is a particularly severe lack of pharmacists. The study aims to compare two task-shifting approaches to the dispensing of ART: Indirectly Supervised Pharmacist’s Assistants (ISPA and Nurse-based pharmaceutical care models against the standard of care which involves a pharmacist dispensing ART. Methods A cross-sectional mixed methods study design was used. Patient exit interviews, time and motion studies, expert interviews and staff costs were used to conduct a costing from the societal perspective. Six facilities were sampled in the Western Cape province of South Africa, and 230 patient interviews conducted. Results The ISPA model was found to be the least costly task-shifting pharmaceutical model. However, patients preferred receiving medication from the nurse. This related to a fear of stigma and being identified by virtue of receiving ART at the pharmacy. Conclusions While these models are not mutually exclusive, and a variety of pharmaceutical care models will be necessary for scale up, it is useful to consider the impact of implementing these models on the provider, patient access to treatment and difficulties in implementation.

  1. Bacteriological Quality of Water Cooler Dispensers of Educational Settings in Zanjan University of Medical Sciences

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    Hassan Hassanzadazar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe drinking water is one of the main factors in improving health status of the population. The aim of this study was assessment of the microbiological quality, determination of pH and residual chlorine in water coolers’ drinking water in educational centers of Zanjan University of medical Sciences in 2015 and comparing the results with the Iranian national standards. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, water samples of all used water cooler apparatuses were sampled and transferred rapidly to the laboratory. pH and residual free chlorine were measured by pH meter and Chlorine Residual Testing kit, respectively. Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Mold and yeasts count were enumerated according to the Iranian national standards No. 1011, 3759, 5271 and 10899-1, respectively. Data were analyzed through the statistical soft wares. Results: The obtained results indicated that 44.44% of the samples were non-standard because of low residual chlorine. 44.44% and 27.8% of the taken water samples of water cooler dispensers were contaminated with mold or yeast and Escherichia coli, respectively. Conclusion: According to some microbial contamination in water samples of water cooler devices to ensure availability clean water to consumers (students and hospital’s visitors continuous monitoring, proper maintenance and regular inspection of the water cooler dispensers seems necessary.

  2. Microfabricated vapor cells filled with a cesium dispensing paste for miniature atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, V.; Rutkowski, J.; Kroemer, E.; Bargiel, S.; Passilly, N.; Boudot, R.; Gorecki, C.; Mauri, L.; Moraja, M.

    2017-04-01

    A method for filling alkali vapor cells with cesium from a dispensing paste is proposed and its compliance with miniature atomic clock applications is evaluated. The paste is an organic-inorganic composition of cesium molybdate, zirconium-aluminum powder, and a hybrid organic-inorganic binder. It is compatible with collective deposition processes such as micro-drop dispensing, which can be done under ambient atmosphere at the wafer-level. After deposition and sealing by anodic bonding, cesium is released from the consolidated paste through local heating with a high power laser. Linear absorption signals have been observed over one year in several cells, showing a stable atomic density. For further validation of this technology for clock applications, one cell has been implemented in a coherent population trapping clock setup to monitor its frequency stability. A fractional frequency aging rate around -4.4 × 10-12 per day has been observed, which is compliant with a clock frequency instability below 1 × 10-11 at one day integration time. This filling method can drastically reduce the cost and the complexity of alkali vapor cell fabrication.

  3. The 49th hour: analysis of a follow-up medication and vaccine dispensing field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerini, Raymond; Caum, Jessica; Francis, Natalie; Alles, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax response plans, exercises, and assessments over the past decade have focused almost exclusively on the first 48 hours of the public health response following a jurisdiction-wide exposure and provision of an initial 10-day supply of antibiotics from the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS). But mass dispensing of the subsequent 50-day course of antibiotics and administration of the 3-dose vaccine series have received considerably less attention, although these follow-up activities may prove even more complex. In 2014, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) made its first foray into this next frontier of mass prophylaxis planning by: (1) researching patient safety and adherence considerations relevant to the antibiotics in the SNS; (2) designing a model for a second-visit antibiotic and vaccine point of dispensing (POD), including development of an enhanced screening protocol that assumes a higher level of medical responsibility; and (3) field testing this model during a real seasonal influenza vaccination clinic to assess throughput and accuracy and to evaluate the resources needed to operationalize this model. While the observations and data presented here provide some framework for local long-term mass prophylaxis planning efforts, many areas remain undefined, including the distribution of responsibilities among the public health and healthcare communities to ensure patient safety. In addition to presenting findings, the larger intent of this article is to initiate a dialogue with other stakeholders at the local, state, and federal levels to advance long-term mass prophylaxis planning.

  4. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are dispensable for noninfectious intestinal IgA responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro-Sibilot, Ludovic; This, Sebastien; Blanc, Pascal; Sanlaville, Amelien; Sisirak, Vanja; Bardel, Emilie; Boschetti, Gilles; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie; Defrance, Thierry; Dubois, Bertrand; Kaiserlian, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Intestinal DCs orchestrate gut immune homeostasis by dampening proinflammatory T-cell responses and inducing anti-inflammatory IgA responses. Although no specific DC subset has been strictly assigned so far to govern IgA response, some candidate subsets emerge. In particular, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), which notoriously promote anti-viral immunity and T-cell tolerance to innocuous antigens (Ags), contribute to IgA induction in response to intestinal viral infection and promote T-cell-independent IgA responses in vitro. Here, using two transgenic mouse models, we show that neither short-term nor long-term pDC depletion alters IgA class switch recombination in Peyer's patches and frequency of IgA plasma cells in intestinal mucosa at steady state, even in the absence of T-cell help. In addition, pDCs are dispensable for induction of intestinal IgA plasma cells in response to oral immunization with T-cell-dependent or T-cell-independent Ags, and are not required for proliferation and IgA switch of Ag-specific B cells in GALT. These results show that pDCs are dispensable for noninfectious IgA responses, and suggest that various DC subsets may play redundant roles in the control of intestinal IgA responses.

  5. Enhanced performance of dispenser printed MA n-type Bi₂Te₃ composite thermoelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Deepa; Wang, Zuoqian; Chen, Alic; Juang, Rei-Cheng; Keist, Jay; Wright, Paul K; Evans, Jim W

    2012-11-01

    This work presents performance advancements of dispenser printed composite thermoelectric materials and devices. Dispenser printed thick films allow for low-cost and scalable manufacturing of microscale energy harvesting devices. A maximum ZT value of 0.31 has been achieved for mechanically alloyed (MA) n-type Bi₂Te₃-epoxy composite films with 1 wt % Se cured at 350 °C. The enhancement of ZT is a result of increase in the electrical conductivity through the addition of Se, which ultimately lowers the sintering temperature (350 °C). A 62 single-leg thermoelectric generator (TEG) prototype with 5 mm ×700 μm × 120 μm printed element dimensions was fabricated on a custom designed polyimide substrate with thick metal contacts. The prototype device produced a power output of 25 μW at 0.23 mA current and 109 mV voltage for a temperature difference of 20 °C, which is sufficient for low power generation for autonomous microsystem applications.

  6. Prototype of a Questionnaire and Quiz System for Supporting Increase of Health Awareness During Wait Time in Dispensing Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Takeshi; Chen, Poa-Min; Ozaki, Shinya; Ideguchi, Naoko; Miyaki, Tomoko; Nanbu, Keiko; Ikeda, Keiko

    For quit-smoking clinic and its campaign, there was a need for pharmacists to investigate pediatric patient's parent consciousness to tobacco harm utilizing wait time in a pediatric dispensing pharmacy. In this research, we developed the questionnaire and quiz total system using the tablet for user interface, in which people can easily answer the questionnaire/quiz and quickly see the total results on the spot in order to enhance their consciousness to the tobacco harm. The system also provides their tobacco dependence level based on the questionnaire results and some advice for their health and dietary habits due to the tobacco dependence level. From a field trial with one hundred four examinees in the pediatric dispensing pharmacy, the user interface was useful compared to conventional questionnaire form. The system could enhance their consciousness to tobacco harm and make their beneficial use of waiting time in dispensing pharmacy. Some interesting suggestions for improvement and new services were also obtained.

  7. Economic benefits of using a dose dispensing system at hospital units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security.

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    Rocío Ofelia-Uc Coyoc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the potential economic benefits at The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in spanish according to the drug expenditure of using drug dispensing system, based on literature information. Materials and methods. A systematic review was performed to identify savings from drugs and reduction of medication errors. The total and mean health expenditure by level of medical attention was calculated using the dispensed collective prescriptions at IMSS during 2009. Three savings scenarios were applied. Results. The total drug savings were in a range of 870.49 Mexican million pesos to 4050.05 Mexican million pesos. Reductions of medication errors can contribute with additional savings up to 3455.56 Mexican million pesos. Conclusion. The drug dispensing system unit generates savings opportunities at the second and third level of attention. The maximum economic benefit was observed in the last level.

  8. mTORC1 signaling in Agrp neurons mediates circadian expression of Agrp and NPY but is dispensable for regulation of feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Verena; Cornu, Marion; Hall, Michael N

    2015-08-21

    Orexigenic agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y (Agrp/NPY) neurons and an orexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the hypothalamus regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. An understanding of the molecular signaling pathways that regulate Agrp/NPY and POMC function could lead to novel treatments for metabolic disorders. Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) is a nutrient-activated protein kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism. We therefore investigated the role of mammalian TORC1 (mTORC1) in Agrp neurons. We generated and characterized Agrp neuron-specific raptor knockout (Agrp-raptor KO) mice. Agrp-raptor KO mice displayed reduced, non-circadian expression of Agrp and NPY but normal feeding behavior and energy homeostasis on both normal and high fat diet. Thus, mTORC1 in Agrp neurons controls circadian expression of orexigenic neuropeptides but is dispensable for the regulation of feeding behavior and energy metabolism.

  9. 数字式智能饮水机的系统设计%A Study on the System Design of the Digital Intelligent Water Dispenser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭永杰; 龙洋; 吴熹; 屈珣

    2015-01-01

    在传统饮水机的基础上加入5种智能模块,使其实现智能取水感应、智能水温设定、实时水温显示、手机远程控制等功能,充分体现智能家居的现代人生活理念,具有很高的市场应用价值。%This article introduces five intelligent modules added to a traditional water dispenser,which enable it to re-alize such functions as intelligent water-getting sensing,intelligent water temperature setting,real-time water temper-ature display and remote mobile control.The system design fully embodies the modern concept of life of intelligent household and has a high market value.

  10. Nanoprobe NAPPA Arrays for the Nanoconductimetric Analysis of Ultra-Low-Volume Protein Samples Using Piezoelectric Liquid Dispensing Technology

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    Eugenia Pechkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the evolution and the advances of the nanobiotechnologies applied to the systematic study of proteins, namely proteomics, both structural and functional, and specifically the development of more sophisticated and largescale protein arrays, have enabled scientists to investigate protein interactions and functions with an unforeseeable precision and wealth of details. Here, we present a further advancement of our previously introduced and described Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA-based nanoconductometric sensor. We coupled Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation factor Monitoring (QCM_D with piezoelectric inkjet printing technology (namely, the newly developed ActivePipette, which enables to significantly reduce the volume of probe required for genes/proteins arrays. We performed a negative control (with master mix, or MM and a positive control (MM_p53 plus MDM2. We performed this experiment both in static and in flow, computing the apparent dissociation constant of p53-MDM2 complex (130 nM, in excellent agreement with the published literature. We compared the results obtained with the ActivePipette printing and dispensing technology vs. pin spotting. Without the ActivePipette, after MDM2 addition the shift in frequency (Δf was 7575 Hz and the corresponding adsorbed mass was 32.9 μg. With the ActivePipette technology, after MDM2 addition Δf was 7740 Hz and the corresponding adsorbed mass was 33.6 μg. With this experiment, we confirmed the sensing potential of our device, being able to discriminate each gene and protein as well as their interactions, showing for each one of them a unique conductance curve. Moreover, we obtained a better yield with the ActivePipette technology.

  11. How much do Blantyre dispensers in hospital and community pharmacies know about the new malaria treatment guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minyaliwa, Collins; Bandawe, Chiwoza; Mwale, Richman James

    2012-03-01

    To determine the knowledge of dispensers in hospital and community pharmacies within Blantyre on new malaria treatment guidelines. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection and the questions focused on the knowledge of dispensers on the new malaria treatment guidelines and whether the subjects were involved in the preparation or implementation of the guidelines or had undertaken any training on how to dispense the new anti-malarial medicines. None of the participants had been involved in the preparation of the treatment guidelines and only 45.5% of the participants had undertaken the pre-implementation training. Ninety percent of the interviewees had knowledge concerning the appropriate treatment of malaria in pregnancy. However, as many as 90.9% of the interviewed participants could not mention any possible five or more side-effects of LA and only 13.6% knew how to properly manage the possible effects. Only 27.3% knew the correct dose regimen of LA and none of them knew the condition of taking LA with a fatty meal for improved absorption. Lack of involvement of the pharmaceutical personnel working in hospital and community pharmacies, from the preparation of new malaria treatment guidelines to their implementation, inadequate training and qualifications of the dispensing personnel contributed to their lack of knowledge and skill on how to rationally dispense the medicines. Pharmaceutical personnel dispensing in the pharmacies need to be involved from the beginning in the preparation of treatment guidelines. Adequate training should be provided and followed by continuous professional education.

  12. [National physician master Jin Shiyuan's dispensing technology of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata based on Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi-Ping; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Guo, Zhao-Juan; Zhang, Tian; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Tian, Wei-Lan; Li, Rui

    2016-05-01

    To collect Li Shizhen's experience in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata identification and clinical application, compare and analyze national physician master Jin Shiyuan's practical operation and theoretical knowledge, which is beneficial for the inheritance and improvement of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata clinical dispensing technology. In the analysis process, CNKI, Wanfang and other databases were searched with "Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata", "Li Shizhen", "pharmacological method state theory" "Jin Shiyuan" and "Chinese medicine dispensing technology" as the key words. In addition, Treatise on Febrile Disease, Compendium of Materia Medica, Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015 edition), Notes to Medical Professions(Yi Zong Shuo Yue), and other medicine books were accessed to summarize the processing methods and decoction dosage of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata in both ancient and modern medicine, and in consideration of technical research and practice operation, Li Shizhen's description of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Professor Jin Shiyuan's research on Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata dispensing technology were analyzed and collected. Li Shizhen recorded the nature identification and clinical application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata by using pharmacological method state theory in Compendium of Materia Medica. National physician master Jin Shiyuan carries forward the essence of Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought with his own proficient knowledge structure in medicine, providing scientific pharmaceutical service for clinical application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata Professor. Jin Shiyuan put forward the dispensing technology for the first time, including nature identification technology, clinical processing technology, clinical decocting technology, prescription coping technology, and class specifications of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. In this paper, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata was used as an example

  13. Time series analysis of fine particulate matter and asthma reliever dispensations in populations affected by forest fires

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    Elliott Catherine T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have evaluated the association between forest fire smoke and acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases, but few have examined effects on pharmaceutical dispensations. We examine the associations between daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and pharmaceutical dispensations for salbutamol in forest fire-affected and non-fire-affected populations in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods We estimated PM2.5 exposure for populations in administrative health areas using measurements from central monitors. Remote sensing data on fires were used to classify the populations as fire-affected or non-fire-affected, and to identify extreme fire days. Daily counts of salbutamol dispensations between 2003 and 2010 were extracted from the BC PharmaNet database. We estimated rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for each population during all fire seasons and on extreme fire days, adjusted for temperature, humidity, and temporal trends. Overall effects for fire-affected and non-fire-affected populations were estimated via meta-regression. Results Fire season PM2.5 was positively associated with salbutamol dispensations in all fire-affected populations, with a meta-regression RR (95% CI of 1.06 (1.04-1.07 for a 10 ug/m3 increase. Fire season PM2.5 was not significantly associated with salbutamol dispensations in non-fire-affected populations, with a meta-regression RR of 1.00 (0.98-1.01. On extreme fire days PM2.5 was positively associated with salbutamol dispensations in both population types, with a global meta-regression RR of 1.07 (1.04 - 1.09. Conclusions Salbutamol dispensations were clearly associated with fire-related PM2.5. Significant associations were observed in smaller populations (range: 8,000 to 170,000 persons, median: 26,000 than those reported previously, suggesting that salbutamol dispensations may be a valuable outcome for public health surveillance during fire events.

  14. Prescription of potentially inappropriate medication in older persons in Switzerland: does the dispensing channel make a difference?

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    Blozik E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eva Blozik,1,2 Roland Rapold,1 Oliver Reich1 1Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Group, Zürich, Switzerland; 2Department of Medicine, Division of General Practice, University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Background: Drugs can be supplied either directly from the prescribing physician (physician dispensing [PD] or via a pharmacy. It is unclear whether the dispensing channel is associated with quality problems. Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM is associated with adverse outcomes in older persons and can be considered a marker for quality deficits in prescribing. We investigated whether prevalence of PIM differs across dispensing channels. Patients and methods: We analyzed basic health insurance claims of 50,747 person quarter years with PIM use of residents of the Swiss cantons Aargau and Lucerne of the years 2012 and 2013. PIM was identified using the Beers 2012 criteria and the PRISCUS list. We calculated PIM prevalence stratified by supply channel. Adjusted mixed effects logistic regression analysis was done to estimate the effect of obtaining medications through the dispensing physician as compared to the pharmacy channel on receipt of PIM. The most frequent PIMs were identified. Results: There is a small but detectable difference in total PIM prevalence: 30.7% of the population supplied by a dispensing physician as opposed to 29.3% individuals who received medication in a pharmacy. According to adjusted logistic regression individuals who obtained the majority of their medications from their prescribing physician had a 15% higher chance to receive a PIM (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.22; P<0.001. Conclusion: Physician dispensing seems to affect quality and safety of drug prescriptions. Quality issues should not be neglected in the political discussion about the regulations on PD. Future studies should explore whether PD is related to other indicators of inefficiency or quality flaws. The present

  15. What proportion of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the New Medicine Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Katharine M; Boyd, Matthew J; Thornley, Tracey; Boardman, Helen F

    2014-03-07

    The payment structure for the New Medicine Service (NMS) in England is based on the assumption that 0.5% of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the service. This assumption is based on a theoretical calculation. This study aimed to find out the actual proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies in order to compare this with the theoretical assumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether the proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS is affected by pharmacies' proximity to GP practices. The study collected data from eight pharmacies in Nottingham belonging to the same large chain of pharmacies. Pharmacies were grouped by distance from the nearest GP practice and sampled to reflect the distribution by distance of all pharmacies in Nottingham. Data on one thousand consecutive prescription items were collected from each pharmacy and the number of NMS eligible items recorded. All NHS prescriptions were included in the sample. Data were analysed and proportions calculated with 95% confidence intervals used to compare the study results against the theoretical figure of 0.5% of prescription items being eligible for the NMS. A total of 8005 prescription items were collected (a minimum of 1000 items per pharmacy) of which 17 items were eligible to receive the service. The study found that 0.25% (95% confidence intervals: 0.14% to 0.36%) of prescription items were eligible for the NMS which differs significantly from the theoretical assumption of 0.5%. The opportunity rate for the service was lower, 0.21% (95% confidence intervals: 0.10% to 0.32%) of items, as some items eligible for the NMS did not translate into opportunities to offer the service. Of all the prescription items collected in the pharmacies, 28% were collected by patient representatives. The results of this study show that the proportion of items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies is lower than

  16. Assessing opioid shopping behaviour: a large cohort study from a medication dispensing database in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M Soledad; Fife, Daniel; Chow, Wing; Mastrogiovanni, Gregory; Henderson, Scott C

    2012-04-01

    : Risks of abuse, misuse and diversion of opioids are of concern. Obtaining opioid prescriptions from multiple prescribers, known as opioid shopping, is a way in which opioids may be abused and diverted. Previous studies relied on counting the number of prescribers or number of pharmacies a subject goes to in a year to define shopping behaviour, but did not distinguish successive prescribers from concomitant prescribers. : The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of opioid overlapping prescriptions from different prescribers, compare it with diuretics and benzodiazepines, and provide a definition of shopping behaviour that differentiates opioids from diuretics, avoiding the inappropriate flagging of individuals with legitimate use of opioids. : Population-based cohort study using the IMS LRx database. This database covers 65% of all retail prescriptions in the US and includes mail service and specialty pharmacy provider prescriptions independent of the method of payment. : Ambulatory. : Subjects with at least one dispensing for any type of opioid in 2008. Similar cohorts were created for subjects exposed to benzodiazepines or diuretics. Analyses were performed separately for naïve subjects and those with prior use. : Frequency of overlapping prescriptions defined as at least 1 day of overlapping dispensing of prescriptions written by two or more different prescribers at any time during an 18-month period. : A total of 25 161 024 subjects exposed to opioids were included, of whom 13.1% exhibited at least one episode of overlapping prescriptions during 18 months of follow-up. Almost 10% of subjects exposed to benzodiazepines and 13.8% of subjects exposed to diuretics exhibited a similar behaviour. Having overlapping prescriptions dispensed by three or more pharmacies differentiates opioids from the other medication classes. Using that criterion, the overall risk of shopping behaviour was 0.18% in subjects exposed to opioids, 0.10% in subjects exposed to

  17. Interleukin-4 Protects Dopaminergic Neurons In vitro but Is Dispensable for MPTP-Induced Neurodegeneration In vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hühner, Laura; Rilka, Jennifer; Gilsbach, Ralf; Zhou, Xiaolai; Machado, Venissa; Spittau, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are involved in physiological as well as neuropathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Their functional states are often referred to as M1-like and M2-like activation, and are believed to contribute to neuroinflammation-mediated neurodegeneration or neuroprotection, respectively. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity. Interleukin 4 (IL4)-mediated M2-like activation of microglia, which is characterized by upregulation of alternative markers Arginase 1 (Arg1) and Chitinase 3 like 3 (Ym1) has been well studied in vitro but the role of endogenous IL4 during CNS pathologies in vivo is not well understood. Interestingly, microglia activation by IL4 has been described to promote neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects, which might be important to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we addressed the role of endogenous and exogenous IL4 during MPP+-induced degeneration of mDA neurons in vitro and further addressed the impact of IL4-deficiency on neurodegeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD in vivo. Our results clearly demonstrate that exogenous IL4 is important to protect mDA neurons in vitro, but endogenous IL4 seems to be dispensable for development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system as well as MPTP-induced loss of TH+ neurons in vivo. These results underline the importance of IL4 in promoting a neuroprotective microglia activation state and strengthen the therapeutic potential of exogenous IL4 for protection of mDA neurons in PD models. PMID:28337124

  18. A multiple-drawer medication layout problem in automated dispensing cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazour, Jennifer A; Meller, Russell D

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we investigate the problem of locating medications in automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) to minimize human selection errors. We formulate the multiple-drawer medication layout problem and show that the problem can be formulated as a quadratic assignment problem. As a way to evaluate various medication layouts, we develop a similarity rating for medication pairs. To solve industry-sized problem instances, we develop a heuristic approach. We use hospital ADC transaction data to conduct a computational experiment to test the performance of our developed heuristics, to demonstrate how our approach can aid in ADC design trade-offs, and to illustrate the potential improvements that can be made when applying an analytical process to the multiple-drawer medication layout problem. Finally, we present conclusions and future research directions.

  19. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 2 Is Dispensable for CD8+ T Cell Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun Lee

    Full Text Available Differentiation of T cells is closely associated with dynamic changes in nutrient and energy metabolism. However, the extent to which specific metabolic pathways and molecular components are determinative of CD8+ T cell fate remains unclear. It has been previously established in various tissues that acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2 regulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO by inhibiting carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, a rate-limiting enzyme of FAO in mitochondria. Here, we explore the cell-intrinsic role of ACC2 in T cell immunity in response to infections. We report here that ACC2 deficiency results in a marginal increase of cellular FAO in CD8+ T cells, but does not appear to influence antigen-specific effector and memory CD8+ T cell responses during infection with listeria or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. These results suggest that ACC2 is dispensable for CD8+ T cell responses.

  20. Hydrogen Station Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Technical Status and Costs: Systems Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, G.; Boyd, R.; Cornish, J.; Remick, R.

    2014-05-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory commissioned an independent review of hydrogen compression, storage, and dispensing (CSD) for pipeline delivery of hydrogen and forecourt hydrogen production. The panel was asked to address the (1) cost calculation methodology, (2) current cost/technical status, (3) feasibility of achieving the FCTO's 2020 CSD levelized cost targets, and to (4) suggest research areas that will help the FCTO reach its targets. As the panel neared the completion of these tasks, it was also asked to evaluate CSD costs for the delivery of hydrogen by high-pressure tube trailer. This report details these findings.

  1. A network collaboration implementing technology to improve medication dispensing and administration in critical access hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Douglas S; Ward, Marcia M; Loes, Jean L; O'Brien, John

    2010-01-01

    We report how seven independent critical access hospitals collaborated with a rural referral hospital to standardize workflow policies and procedures while jointly implementing the same health information technologies (HITs) to enhance medication care processes. The study hospitals implemented the same electronic health record, computerized provider order entry, pharmacy information systems, automated dispensing cabinets (ADC), and barcode medication administration systems. We conducted interviews and examined project documents to explore factors underlying the successful implementation of ADC and barcode medication administration across the network hospitals. These included a shared culture of collaboration; strategic sequencing of HIT component implementation; interface among HIT components; strategic placement of ADCs; disciplined use and sharing of workflow analyses linked with HIT applications; planning for workflow efficiencies; acquisition of adequate supply of HIT-related devices; and establishing metrics to monitor HIT use and outcomes.

  2. Neuronal IFN signaling is dispensable for the establishment of HSV-1 latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Pamela C; Katzenell, Sarah; Pesola, Jean M; North, Brian; Coen, Donald M; Leib, David A

    2016-10-01

    IFN responses control acute HSV infection, but their role in regulating HSV latency is poorly understood. To address this we used mice lacking IFN signaling specifically in neural tissues. These mice supported a higher acute viral load in nervous tissue and delayed establishment of latency. While latent HSV-1 genome copies were equivalent, ganglia from neuronal IFN signaling-deficient mice unexpectedly supported reduced reactivation. IFNβ promoted survival of primary sensory neurons after infection with HSV-1, indicating a role for IFN signaling in sustaining neurons. We observed higher levels of latency associated transcripts (LATs) per HSV genome in mice lacking neuronal IFN signaling, consistent with a role for IFN in regulating LAT expression. These data show that neuronal IFN signaling modulates the expression of LAT and may conserve the pool of neurons available to harbor latent HSV-1 genome. The data also show that neuronal IFN signaling is dispensable for the establishment of latency.

  3. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.522 May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel...

  4. Who is in charge of patient safety? Work practice, work processes and utopian views of automatic drug dispensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balka, Ellen; Kahnamoui, Nicki; Nutland, Kelsey

    2007-06-01

    In June 2003, a large, Canadian tertiary care facility introduced automatic drug dispensing machines on all units when it opened up a new building. In this paper, we provide an overview of the automatic drug dispensing system (ADS) implementation at the hospital. Our findings, based on daily field observations and interviews during and after implementation, with regular follow-up visits to the field site illustrate how the introduction of the ADS brought to light work practices that sometimes compromised patient safety. We suggest that utopian views of automatic drug dispensing machines obfuscate the challenges inherent to implementing such systems, and deter stakeholders from performing rigorous evaluation of the costs (both social and economic) and benefits of investing in such systems. Our work contributes to debates about the socio-technical efficacy of automating medication dispensing and delivery, and suggests that the balance of power in the patient safety equation lies in the work context and implementation issues, and not just the technology. For technology implementations to be successful considering that technologies frequently cross over jurisdictional boundaries, planning and implementation have to be conducted at a system wide level.

  5. Drug dispensings among elderly in the year before colon cancer diagnosis versus matched cancer-free controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erning, F N; Zanders, M M; Kuiper, J G; van Herk-Sukel, M P; Maas, H A; Vingerhoets, R W; Zimmerman, D D; de Feyter, E P; van de Poll, M E; Lemmens, V E

    2016-01-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The concomitant use of multiple drugs is common among the general population of elderly. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of which drugs are dispensed to elderly in the year before colon cancer diagnosis and to compare this with cancer-free controls. METH

  6. Clinical use and control of the dispensing of thalidomide in Brasilia-Federal District, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of thalidomide was never discontinued in Brazil where it is prescribed for leprosy type 2 reaction. Babies with birth defects compatible with the thalidomide embryopathy phenotype were born after 1965, an indication that control on drug dispensing and use failed in the country. The article reports data on thalidomide dispensing and clinical uses in the Federal District in 2011/12, when new rules were put into effect, and data on drug dispensing and use obtained ten years earlier. It was found that the number of patients making use of thalidomide declined from 819 in 2001 to 369 in 2011/12. Leprosy accounted for over 70% of prescriptions in both time periods analyzed in this study. In the same time interval, however, use for lupus erythematosus decreased from 13.7 to 4.9%, while that for multiple myeloma increased from 2.9 to 20.3% of all prescriptions. Thalidomide prescription for the remaining approved indications was far less frequent, and so was the use for off label indications that accounted for <1% of prescriptions in 2001 and 2011/12. Registration of prescribing doctors, patients and dispensing units at the state department of health, apparently rendered this control more effective and reliable.

  7. Microfluidic EmbryoSort technology: towards in flow analysis, sorting and dispensing of individual vertebrate embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Nurul M.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The demand to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals has facilitated the emergence of surrogate models such as tests performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) or African clawed frog's (Xenopus levis) eggs, embryos and larvae. Those two model organisms are becoming increasingly popular replacements to current adult animal testing in toxicology, ecotoxicology and also in drug discovery. Zebrafish eggs and embryos are particularly attractive for toxicological analysis due their size (diameter 1.6 mm), optical transparency, large numbers generated per fish and very straightforward husbandry. The current bottleneck in using zebrafish embryos for screening purposes is, however, a tedious manual evaluation to confirm the fertilization status and subsequent dispensing of single developing embryos to multitier plates to perform toxicity analysis. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present a proofof- concept design of a continuous flow embryo sorter capable of analyzing, sorting and dispensing objects ranging in size from 1.5 - 2.5 mm. The prototypes were fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. The application of additive manufacturing processes to prototype Lab-on-a-Chip sorters using both fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA) were also explored. The operation of the device was based on a revolving receptacle capable of receiving, holding and positioning single fish embryos for both interrogation and subsequent sorting. The actuation of the revolving receptacle was performed using a DC motor and/or microservo motor. The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers.

  8. Mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards using reservoir pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Arturo; Lentini, Andrea; Serra, Giuseppe

    2014-10-15

    Mating disruption field experiments to control the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in two commercial vineyards in Sardinia (Italy). The effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by testing reservoir dispensers loaded with 100 mg (62.5 g/ha) and 150 mg (93.8 g/ha) of the sex pheromone in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The number of males captured in pheromone traps, the P. ficus population density and age structure, the parasitism rate, the percentage of ovipositing females, and the crop damage were compared between disrupted and untreated plots. In both field trials, the number of males captured in mating disruption plots was significantly reduced by 86% and 95%, respectively. Mating disruption at the initial dose of 62.5 g/ha of active ingredient gave inconclusive results, whereas the dose of 93.8 g/ha significantly lowered the mealybug density and modified the age structure, which showed a lower percentage of ovipositing females and a higher proportion of preovipositing females. Mating disruption did not affect negatively the parasitism rate, which was higher in the disrupted than in the control plots (>1.5-fold). Crop damage at harvest was very low in both field trials and did not differ between treatments. Mating disruption was effective in wide plots protected with dispensers loaded with 150 mg of the sex pheromone, showing its potential to be included in the overall integrated control programs in Mediterranean wine-growing regions.

  9. Options for shielding the hand during dispensing and administration of radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, M.; Martin, C. J.

    2002-07-01

    Hospital staff manipulating radiopharmaceuticals may receive significant radiation doses to their hands. A study of hand doses has been carried out in a large radionuclide dispensary and in nuclear medicine departments in the West of Scotland and the implications of different shielding options considered. Doses received for individual manipulation during many routine sessions have been measured with an electronic extremity dose monitor. Doses received from dispensing of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine were 4 mGy per 10 GBq handled, compared to 0.2 mGy per 10 GBq for radionuclide dispensary staff. There were a number of reasons for the large difference, with one of the most important being the speed with which the manipulations were performed. The actions performed in nuclear medicine consist of dispensing into a syringe and injection. Withdrawal of radiopharmaceuticals made up the higher dose component 5 to 500 {mu}Sv per procedure as a siring shield was not used for this part of the procedure. Doses received from individual injections for which syringe shields were used varied from 1.5 to 300 {mu}Sv depending on the degree of difficulty experienced during the injection. The study has shown the effectiveness of using local shielding in dose reduction. Tungsten vial shields limit the radiation dose and are useful for handling large activities during radiopharmaceutical preparation. Syringe shields substantially reduce doses for individual manipulations and should be used for procedures in which accurate reading of the syringe scale is not required. This includes higher dose manipulations in the radionuclide dispensary and injections in nuclear medicine. (Author)

  10. Completion of treatment for latent tuberculosis infection with monthly drug dispensation directly through the tuberculosis clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia C Dobler

    Full Text Available SETTING: An Australian metropolitan TB clinic where treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI comprises six months of isoniazid, self-administered but dispensed monthly by the clinic. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of patients who complete treatment for LTBI and to identify factors associated with non-completion. METHODS: Clinical files of all patients receiving treatment for LTBI between 01/2000 and 12/2010 were reviewed. The study population comprised all patients who were commenced on isoniazid as treatment for LTBI. Odds ratios (OR for completing treatment were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 216 patients who commenced isoniazid treatment for LTBI, 163 (75% completed six months treatment [corrected]. Fifty-three percent of the 53 patients who did not complete treatment dropped out after three months treatment. The mean (SD age of the patients was 27 (16 years and 123 (57% were female. The majority of patients (59% were born overseas and 69% received treatment for LTBI because they were contacts of patients with TB. Patients' sex, age, country of birth, time since immigration for overseas born people, health care worker status, TST conversion status, chest x-ray findings, language, employment status and the indication for which treatment of LTBI was prescribed were not significantly related to treatment completion. CONCLUSION: In a setting where isoniazid is dispensed monthly by the TB clinic, a relatively high proportion of patients who commence treatment for LTBI complete the six month scheduled course of treatment. The study did not identify any patient characteristics that predicted treatment completion. Interventions to improve completion rates should extend over the whole duration of treatment.

  11. What drives inappropriate antibiotic dispensing? A mixed-methods study of pharmacy employee perspectives in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna K; Brown, Kelli; Ahsan, Muneeb; Sengupta, Sharmila; Safdar, Nasia

    2017-01-01

    Objectives There are only 0.70 licensed physicians per 1000 people in India. Thus, pharmacies are a primary source of healthcare and patients often seek their services directly, especially in village settings. However, there is wide variability in a pharmacy employee's training, which contributes to inappropriate antibiotic dispensing and misuse. These practices increase the risk of antibiotic resistance and poor patient outcomes. This study seeks to better understand the factors that drive inappropriate antibiotic dispensing among pharmacy employees in India's village communities. Design We conducted a mixed-methods study of the antibiotic dispensing practices, including semistructured interviews and a pilot cross-sectional Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice survey. All data were transcribed, translated from Hindi into English, and coded for themes. Setting Community pharmacies in villages in Haryana, India. Participants We recruited 24 community pharmacy employees (all male) by convenience sampling. Participants have a range of characteristics regarding village location, monthly income, baseline antibiotic knowledge, formal education and licensure. Results 75% of pharmacy employees in our study were unlicensed practitioners, and the majority had very limited understanding of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, only half could correctly define the term antibiotics. All reported that at times they dispensed antibiotics without a prescription. This practice was more common when treating patients who had limited access to a licensed physician because of economic or logistic reasons. Many pharmacy workers also felt pressure to provide shortened medication courses to poorer clientele, and often dispensed only 1 or 2 days' worth of antibiotics. Such patients rarely returned to the pharmacy for the complete course. Conclusions This study highlights the need for short-term, intensive training programmes on antibiotic prescribing and resistance that can be disseminated to

  12. Centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser on a plastic lab-on-a-disk for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Moonwoo; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a multiple sample dispenser for precisely metered fixed volumes was successfully designed, fabricated, and fully characterized on a plastic centrifugal lab-on-a-disk (LOD) for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays. The dispenser, namely, a centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser (C-MUFID) was designed with microfluidic structures based on the theoretical modeling about a centrifugal circumferential filling flow. The designed LODs were fabricated with a polystyrene substrate through micromachining and they were thermally bonded with a flat substrate. Furthermore, six parallel metering and dispensing assays were conducted at the same fixed-volume (1.27 μl) with a relative variation of ±0.02 μl. Moreover, the samples were metered and dispensed at different sub-volumes. To visualize the metering and dispensing performances, the C-MUFID was integrated with a serpentine micromixer during parallel centrifugal mixing tests. Parallel biochemical single-end-point assays were successfully conducted on the developed LOD using a standard serum with albumin, glucose, and total protein reagents. The developed LOD could be widely applied to various biochemical single-end-point assays which require different volume ratios of the sample and reagent by controlling the design of the C-MUFID. The proposed LOD is feasible for point-of-care diagnostics because of its mass-producible structures, reliable metering/dispensing performance, and parallel biochemical single-end-point assays, which can identify numerous biochemical.

  13. Effectiveness of multifaceted educational programme to reduce antibiotic dispensing in primary care: practice based randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Sharon A; Dunstan, Frank; Rollnick, Stephen; Cohen, David; Gillespie, David; Evans, Meirion R; health, senior lecturer in epidemiology and public; Alam, M Fasihul; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Evans, John; Moore, Laurence; Howe, Robin; Hayes, Jamie; Hare, Monika; Hood, Kerenza

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and costs of a multifaceted flexible educational programme aimed at reducing antibiotic dispensing at the practice level in primary care. Design Randomised controlled trial with general practices as the unit of randomisation and analysis. Clinicians and researchers were blinded to group allocation until after randomisation. Setting 68 general practices with about 480 000 patients in Wales, United Kingdom. Participants 34 practices were randomised to receive the educational programme and 34 practices to be controls. 139 clinicians from the intervention practices and 124 from control practices had agreed to participate before randomisation. Practice level data covering all the clinicians in the 68 practices were analysed. Interventions Intervention practices followed the Stemming the Tide of Antibiotic Resistance (STAR) educational programme, which included a practice based seminar reflecting on the practices’ own dispensing and resistance data, online educational elements, and practising consulting skills in routine care. Control practices provided usual care. Main outcome measures Total numbers of oral antibiotic items dispensed for all causes per 1000 practice patients in the year after the intervention, adjusted for the previous year’s dispensing. Secondary outcomes included reconsultations, admissions to hospital for selected causes, and costs. Results The rate of oral antibiotic dispensing (items per 1000 registered patients) decreased by 14.1 in the intervention group but increased by 12.1 in the control group, a net difference of 26.1. After adjustment for baseline dispensing rate, this amounted to a 4.2% (95% confidence interval 0.6% to 7.7%) reduction in total oral antibiotic dispensing for the year in the intervention group relative to the control group (P=0.02). Reductions were found for all classes of antibiotics other than penicillinase-resistant penicillins but were largest and significant individually for

  14. Cdc14 Early Anaphase Release, FEAR, Is Limited to the Nucleus and Dispensable for Efficient Mitotic Exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Yellman

    Full Text Available Cdc14 phosphatase is a key regulator of exit from mitosis, acting primarily through antagonism of cyclin-dependent kinase, and is also thought to be important for meiosis. Cdc14 is released from its sequestration site in the nucleolus in two stages, first by the non-essential Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release (FEAR pathway and later by the essential Mitotic Exit Network (MEN, which drives efficient export of Cdc14 to the cytoplasm. We find that Cdc14 is confined to the nucleus during early mitotic anaphase release, and during its meiosis I release. Proteins whose degradation is directed by Cdc14 as a requirement for mitotic exit (e.g. the B-type cyclin, Clb2, remain stable during mitotic FEAR, a result consistent with Cdc14 being restricted to the nucleus and not participating directly in mitotic exit. Cdc14 released by the FEAR pathway has been proposed to have a wide variety of activities, all of which are thought to promote passage through anaphase. Proposed functions of FEAR include stabilization of anaphase spindles, resolution of the rDNA to allow its segregation, and priming of the MEN so that mitotic exit can occur promptly and efficiently. We tested the model for FEAR functions using the FEAR-deficient mutation net1-6cdk. Our cytological observations indicate that, contrary to the current model, FEAR is fully dispensable for timely progression through a series of anaphase landmarks and mitotic exit, although it is required for timely rDNA segregation. The net1-6cdk mutation suppresses temperature-sensitive mutations in MEN genes, suggesting that rather than activating mitotic exit, FEAR either inhibits the MEN or has no direct effect upon it. One interpretation of this result is that FEAR delays MEN activation to ensure that rDNA segregation occurs before mitotic exit. Our findings clarify the distinction between FEAR and MEN-dependent Cdc14 activities and will help guide emerging quantitative models of this cell cycle transition.

  15. Cdc14 Early Anaphase Release, FEAR, Is Limited to the Nucleus and Dispensable for Efficient Mitotic Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellman, Christopher M; Roeder, G Shirleen

    2015-01-01

    Cdc14 phosphatase is a key regulator of exit from mitosis, acting primarily through antagonism of cyclin-dependent kinase, and is also thought to be important for meiosis. Cdc14 is released from its sequestration site in the nucleolus in two stages, first by the non-essential Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release (FEAR) pathway and later by the essential Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), which drives efficient export of Cdc14 to the cytoplasm. We find that Cdc14 is confined to the nucleus during early mitotic anaphase release, and during its meiosis I release. Proteins whose degradation is directed by Cdc14 as a requirement for mitotic exit (e.g. the B-type cyclin, Clb2), remain stable during mitotic FEAR, a result consistent with Cdc14 being restricted to the nucleus and not participating directly in mitotic exit. Cdc14 released by the FEAR pathway has been proposed to have a wide variety of activities, all of which are thought to promote passage through anaphase. Proposed functions of FEAR include stabilization of anaphase spindles, resolution of the rDNA to allow its segregation, and priming of the MEN so that mitotic exit can occur promptly and efficiently. We tested the model for FEAR functions using the FEAR-deficient mutation net1-6cdk. Our cytological observations indicate that, contrary to the current model, FEAR is fully dispensable for timely progression through a series of anaphase landmarks and mitotic exit, although it is required for timely rDNA segregation. The net1-6cdk mutation suppresses temperature-sensitive mutations in MEN genes, suggesting that rather than activating mitotic exit, FEAR either inhibits the MEN or has no direct effect upon it. One interpretation of this result is that FEAR delays MEN activation to ensure that rDNA segregation occurs before mitotic exit. Our findings clarify the distinction between FEAR and MEN-dependent Cdc14 activities and will help guide emerging quantitative models of this cell cycle transition.

  16. Factors influencing the exit knowledge of patients for dispensed drugs at outpatient pharmacy of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirko N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigatu Hirko,1 Dumessa Edessa2 1Department of Pharmacy, Bisidimo Hospital, East Hararghe Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: A satisfactory counseling process between the patient and pharmacist is critical for rational use of dispensed drug(s and is highly influenced by many factors including the experience of pharmacist in dispensing process. To improve patients’ knowledge of dispensed drugs, it is necessary to understand the factors that optimize a pharmacist interaction with a patient in each activity of the dispensing process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the pharmacist and patient factors that influence knowledge of dispensed drugs by ambulatory patients at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 422 respondents. Data were collected by interviews using a structured questionnaire that measures “exit knowledge” of the ambulatory patients for dispensed drugs. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0. Potential covariates were identified using χ2 test, and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to adjust for the covariates.Results: Our findings showed significant proportions of the patients did not recall the name of their dispensed medication (53.6%, major side effects (66.4%, and what to do in case of missed doses (65.4%. Patients’ knowledge of dispensed drugs was significantly associated with their educational level (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–3.84 [primary], AOR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.04–4.04 [secondary], and AOR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.35–5.46 [tertiary]; clear instruction from the pharmacist (AOR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.16–9.72; and the politeness of the pharmacist (AOR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.04–4.04.Conclusion: We found that the

  17. Tiger Teams Technical Assistance: Reliable, Universal Open Architecture for Card Access to Dispense Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    Report discusses the dilemma of incorporating consistent, convenient, universal card access (or ''pay-at-the-pump'') systems into alternative fueling stations across the country. The state of California continues to be in the forefront of implementing alternative fuels for transportation applications. Aggressive efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in California have highlighted the need to provide adequate fueling stations and develop appropriate, user-friendly means to purchase fuel at the pump. Since these fuels are not typically provided by petroleum companies at conventional fueling stations, and acceptance of cash is often not an option, a payment method must be developed that is consistent with the way individual AFV operators are accustomed to purchasing automotive fuels--with a credit card. At the same time, large fleets like the California Department of General Services must be able to use a single fuel card that offers comprehensive fleet management services. The Gas Technology Institute's Infrastructure Working Group (IWG) and its stakeholders have identified the lack of a common card reader system as a hurdle to wider deployment of AFVs in California and the United States. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Clean Cities Program, the IWG has outlined a multi-phased strategy to systematically address the barriers to develop a more ''open'' architecture that's similar to the way gasoline and diesel are currently dispensed. Under the auspices of the IWG, survey results were gathered (circa 1999) from certain fuel providers, as a means to more carefully study card reader issues and their potential solutions. Pilot programs featuring card reader systems capable of accepting wider payment options have been attempted in several regions of the United States with mixed success. In early 2001, DOE joined the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the

  18. Organic electrospun nanofibers as vehicles toward intelligent pheromone dispensers: characterization by laboratory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, I; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Hummel, H E; Deuker, A; Vilcinskas, A; Leithold, G; Hellmann, C; Dersch, R; Wendorff, J H; Greiner, A

    2011-01-01

    Organic nanofibers have a history of technical application in various independent fields, including medical technology, filtration technology, and applications of pharmaceuticals via inhalation into the lungs. Very recently, in a joint effort with polymer chemists, agricultural applications have been added to this list of priorities. The aim is finding novel approaches to insect control. Pheromones, dispensed in a quantifiable way, are being used here in disrupting the mating communication between male and female pest insects, e.g. the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), where current dispenser technology does not fully meet the high expectations of growers and environmentalists with respect to longevity of constant release, self decomposition, mechanical distribution, renewability as well as sustainability of resources. The methodology of electrospinning is exhaustively covered by Greiner and Wendorff (2007), with technical details reported by Hellmann et al. (2009), Hein et al. (2011), and Hummel et al. (2010). Wind tunnel studies were run within a tunnel with adjustable laminar flow and 0.5 m/sec air velocity. Mass losses of the electrospun fiber bundles were determined with a sensitive analytical balance 2-3 times per week and recorded as time vs. mass change. CLSA experiments were performed with a self developed glass apparatus (Lindner, 2010) based on various suggestions of previous authors. Microgram quantities of volatile pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-Dodecadienylacetate were absorbed on a filter of rigorously purified charcoal and desorbed by repeated micro extraction with a suitable solvent mixture. Aliquots of the solution were subjected to temperature programmed capillary GLC. Retention times were used for identification, whereas the area covered by the pheromone peak originating from a FID detector signal was integrated and compared with a carefully calibrated standard peak. Since these signals were usually in the low nanogram

  19. Pharmaceutical dust exposure at pharmacies using automatic dispensing machines: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, Kenneth W; Durgam, Srinivas; Mueller, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Automatic dispensing machines (ADMs) used in pharmacies concentrate and dispense large volumes of pharmaceuticals, including uncoated tablets that can shed dust. We evaluated 43 employees' exposures to pharmaceutical dust at three pharmacies where ADMs were used. We used an optical particle counter to identify tasks that generated pharmaceutical dust. We collected 72 inhalable dust air samples in or near the employees' breathing zones. In addition to gravimetric analysis, our contract laboratory used internal methods involving liquid chromatography to analyze these samples for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and/or lactose, an inactive filler in tablets. We had to choose samples for these additional analyses because many methods used different extraction solvents. We selected 57 samples for analysis of lactose. We used real-time particle monitoring results, observations, and information from employees on the dustiness of pharmaceuticals to select 28 samples (including 13 samples that were analyzed for lactose) for analysis of specific APIs. Pharmaceutical dust was generated during a variety of tasks like emptying and refilling of ADM canisters. Using compressed air to clean canisters and manual count machines produced the overall highest peak number concentrations (19,000-580,000 particles/L) of smallest particles (count median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2 μm). Employees who refilled, cleaned, or repaired ADM canisters, or hand filled prescriptions were exposed to higher median air concentrations of lactose (5.0-12 μg/m(3)) than employees who did other jobs (0.04-1.3 μg/m(3)), such as administrative/office work, labeling/packaging, and verifying prescriptions. We detected 10 APIs in air, including lisinopril, a drug prescribed for high blood pressure, levothyroxine, a drug prescribed for hypothyroidism, and methotrexate, a hazardous drug prescribed for cancer and other disorders. Three air concentrations of lisinopril (1.8-2.7 μg/m(3)) exceeded the lower

  20. Extension of the commercial agreement on water dispensers: appendices 1-4; Erweiterung der Branchenvereinbarung Wasserdispenser. Anhaenge 1-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, T.; Huser, A.

    2006-07-01

    These appendices to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) present the results of work done within the framework of a voluntary agreement between the Federal Office of Energy and the four most important suppliers of bottled water dispensers in Switzerland. The first appendix lists water dispensers with water-mains connections and quotes figures on the number of units and their energy use. Two prognoses are presented for the year 2015, one with and one without any action being taken. The second appendix presents the German Gas and Water association's suggestion for standards, while the third appendix presents the hygiene regulations of the Swiss Department of Home Affairs. The fourth appendix presents the answer sent by the U.S.A's Environmental Protection Agency to an e-mail on the subject.

  1. Pharmacies' Duty to Dispense Emergency Contraception: A Discussion of Religious Liberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Sawicki, Nadia N

    2017-03-01

    In a recent battle between reproductive rights and religious freedom, the U.S. Supreme Court, by a five to three vote, declined to review an appeal in Stormans, Inc v Wiesman, a case brought by a Washington state pharmacy owner and two pharmacists who held religious objections to emergency contraception. These petitioners brought a constitutional challenge to Washington state regulations that required pharmacies to dispense all lawfully prescribed pharmaceuticals. In 2015, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that these regulations did not violate the Constitution. The Ninth Circuit confirmed that pharmacies must comply with state regulations requiring access to drugs even if the owners of the pharmacies hold religious objections to the provision of certain types of drugs-here, emergency contraception. The pharmacy owners appealed this ruling, and in 2016, the Supreme Court declined to review the case, effectively leaving the lower court ruling in place. This article analyzes the Stormans case, the difference between it and a seemingly similar case regarding contraceptive access decided by the Supreme Court in 2014, the effects of the Stormans ruling on emergency contraception access in Washington state as well as the ruling's potential implications for public health.

  2. PGC-1α is dispensable for exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle.

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    Glenn C Rowe

    Full Text Available Exercise confers numerous health benefits, many of which are thought to stem from exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis (EIMB in skeletal muscle. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α, a potent regulator of metabolism in numerous tissues, is widely believed to be required for EIMB. We show here that this is not the case. Mice engineered to lack PGC-1α specifically in skeletal muscle (Myo-PGC-1αKO mice retained intact EIMB. The exercise capacity of these mice was comparable to littermate controls. Induction of metabolic genes after 2 weeks of in-cage voluntary wheel running was intact. Electron microscopy revealed no gross abnormalities in mitochondria, and the mitochondrial biogenic response to endurance exercise was as robust in Myo-PGC-1αKO mice as in wildtype mice. The induction of enzymatic activity of the electron transport chain by exercise was likewise unperturbed in Myo-PGC-1αKO mice. These data demonstrate that PGC-1α is dispensable for exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, in sharp contrast to the prevalent assumption in the field.

  3. WORK ANALYSIS OF DRUG-DISPENSING PROCESS IN A HOSPITAL EMERGENCY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Brum Rosso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work organization performs a crucial role in activities that involves problem resolution and decision making. A hospital emergency pharmacy consists in an example where the work environment has several kinds of demands that might be inconsistent and influenced by overcrowding – common situation in Brazilian hospitals – causing harm to work organization and suitability of workload. The objective of this study is to evaluate labor conditions of professionals that work in the emergency pharmacy of a university public hospital, seeking opportunities of improvement. A transversal study was developed with a descriptive character to analyze the work conditions. An ergonomic work analysis was conducted and, for the fulfillment of its steps, observations in loco were performed and methods Deparis, RULA and ABC analysis were used, pursuing to analyze data collected and rearranging the work situation. The findings allowed propositions of improvement, related mainly to the process of drug dispensation, organization and arrangement of the work environment. The ABC analysis presented itself as a valuable method for improving drugs organization in the pharmacy and might be useful in other work situations where accessibility of items is necessary, but many items must be positioned.

  4. Influence of pharmacists' opinions on their dispensing medicines without requirement of a doctor's prescription

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    Francisco Caamaño

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of pharmacists' opinions on their dispensing medicines with a «medical prescription only» label without requiring a doctor's prescription. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 166 community pharmacies in northwest Spain. The opinions of pharmacists on the following were collected as independent variables through personal interview: a physicians' prescribing practices; b the pharmacist's qualifications to prescribe; c the responsibility of the pharmacist regarding the dispensed drugs; d the customer' qualifications for self-medication; and e the pharmacist's perception of his or her own work. The dependent variable was the pharmacist's demand for a medical prescription for 5 drugs, which in Spain require a prescription. Multiple linear regression models were constructed. Results: The response rate was 98.8%. A total of 65.9% of pharmacists reported dispensing antibiotics without a prescription. This percentage was 83.5% for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 46.3% for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 13.4% for benzodiazepines, and 84.8% for oral contraceptives. Further results showed that pharmacists with a heavier workload and those who underestimated the physicians' qualifications to prescribe but overestimated their own qualifications to prescribe less frequently demanded medical prescriptions. In contrast, pharmacists who stressed the importance of their duty in rationalizing the consumption of drugs more frequently demanded medical prescriptions. Conclusion: Our results suggest that to increase the quality of dispensing: a the importance of the pharmacist's duty in controlling drug consumption should be stressed; b pharmacies' workload should be optimized; and c perceptions of physicians' prescribing practices among pharmacists should be improved.Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia de las opiniones de los farmacéuticos que no solicitan receta médica para dispensar fármacos que la

  5. The principle and physical models of novel jetting dispenser with giant magnetostrictive and a magnifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Li, J H; Duan, J A; Deng, G L

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop jetting technologies of glue in LED and microelectronics packaging, giant-magnetostrictive-material (GMM) is firstly applied to increase jetting response, and a new magnifying device including a lever and a flexible hinge is designed to improve jetting characteristics. Physical models of the jetting system are derived from the magnifying structure and working principle, which involves circuit model, electro-magneto-displacement model, dynamic model and fluid-solid coupling model. The system model is established by combining mathematical models with Matlab-Simulink. The effectiveness of the GMM-based dispenser is confirmed by simulation and experiments. The jetting frequency significantly increases to 250 Hz, and dynamic behaviors jetting needle are evaluated that the velocity and displacement of the jetting needle reaches to 320 mm•s-1 and 0.11 mm respectively. With the increasing of the filling pressure or the amplitude of the current, the dot size will become larger. The dot size and working frequency can be easily adjusted.

  6. The principle and physical models of novel jetting dispenser with giant magnetostrictive and a magnifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Li, J. H.; Duan, J. A.; Deng, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop jetting technologies of glue in LED and microelectronics packaging, giant-magnetostrictive-material (GMM) is firstly applied to increase jetting response, and a new magnifying device including a lever and a flexible hinge is designed to improve jetting characteristics. Physical models of the jetting system are derived from the magnifying structure and working principle, which involves circuit model, electro-magneto-displacement model, dynamic model and fluid-solid coupling model. The system model is established by combining mathematical models with Matlab-Simulink. The effectiveness of the GMM-based dispenser is confirmed by simulation and experiments. The jetting frequency significantly increases to 250 Hz, and dynamic behaviors jetting needle are evaluated that the velocity and displacement of the jetting needle reaches to 320 mm•s-1 and 0.11 mm respectively. With the increasing of the filling pressure or the amplitude of the current, the dot size will become larger. The dot size and working frequency can be easily adjusted.

  7. Nmnat3 Is Dispensable in Mitochondrial NAD Level Maintenance In Vivo.

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    Masashi Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD is an essential co-enzyme mediating various enzymatic reactions. Mitochondrial NAD particularly occupies a considerable amount of total NAD in cells, and serves as a co-enzyme in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle, β-oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Despite the importance of mitochondrial NAD, its synthesis pathway remains unknown. It has been proposed that NAD synthesis enzyme, Nmnat3, was localized in mitochondria, but its physiological relevance to the metabolism in mitochondria was not fully elucidated. Previously, we have reported that murine Nmnat3 protein was strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of mature erythrocytes, in which mitochondria were absent, and Nmnat3-deficient mice (Nmnat3-KO mice exhibited splenomegaly and hemolytic anemia due to reduced NAD levels in mature erythrocytes. These results challenged the role of Nmnat3 in mitochondrial NAD synthesis. In this study, we demonstrated that mitochondrial NAD levels in various tissues, except for red blood cells, were unchanged in Nmnat3-KO mice. We also analyzed the metabolites in glycolysis and TCA cycle and found that there were no differences between Nmnat3-KO and WT mice. In addition, the aged Nmnat3-KO mice had comparable NAD levels to that observed in WT mice. Our results indicated that Nmnat3 is dispensable in the maintenance of mitochondrial NAD levels, and that other NAD regulatory pathways may exist in mitochondria.

  8. Evaluation of pharmacists' services for dispensing emergency contraceptive pills in Delhi, India: A mystery shopper study

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    Pikee Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI, has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57% or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%; 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  9. Protecting the Public from H1N1 through Points of Dispensing (PODs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchiuso-Hasselmann, Anne; McKay, Ryan L; Williams, Christopher A; Starr, David T; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin; Zucker, Jane R; Raphael, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    In fall 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) operated 58 points of dispensing (PODs) over 5 weekends to provide influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination to New Yorkers. Up to 7 sites were opened each day across the 5 boroughs, with almost 50,000 New Yorkers being vaccinated. The policies and protocols used were based on those developed for New York City's POD Plan, the cornerstone of the city's mass prophylaxis planning. Before the H1N1 experience, NYC had not opened more than 5 PODs simultaneously and had only experienced the higher patient volume seen with the H1N1 PODs on 1 prior occasion. Therefore, DOHMH identified factors that contributed to the success of POD operations, as well as areas for improvement to inform future mass prophylaxis planning and response. Though this was a relatively small-scale, preplanned operation, during which a maximum of 7 PODs were operated on a given day, the findings have implications for larger-scale mass prophylaxis planning for emergencies.

  10. The principle and physical models of novel jetting dispenser with giant magnetostrictive and a magnifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Li, J.H.; Duan, J.A.; Deng, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop jetting technologies of glue in LED and microelectronics packaging, giant-magnetostrictive-material (GMM) is firstly applied to increase jetting response, and a new magnifying device including a lever and a flexible hinge is designed to improve jetting characteristics. Physical models of the jetting system are derived from the magnifying structure and working principle, which involves circuit model, electro-magneto-displacement model, dynamic model and fluid-solid coupling model. The system model is established by combining mathematical models with Matlab-Simulink. The effectiveness of the GMM-based dispenser is confirmed by simulation and experiments. The jetting frequency significantly increases to 250 Hz, and dynamic behaviors jetting needle are evaluated that the velocity and displacement of the jetting needle reaches to 320 mm•s-1 and 0.11 mm respectively. With the increasing of the filling pressure or the amplitude of the current, the dot size will become larger. The dot size and working frequency can be easily adjusted. PMID:26670008

  11. [Analysis of pharmaceutical care in dispensing of over-the-counter orlistat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrucká, Katarína; Malý, Josef; Vlček, Jiří

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by its high prevalence. Easy availability of pharmaceutical care allows pharmacies to be the first place of capture or intervention for patients who are overweight or obese. The aim of the study was to analyse the role of pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in securing the safety of self-medication with orlistat. In this prospective observational study, the patients were the people who came to the IKEM Hospital Pharmacy for self-medication with orlistat over a period of May through December 2009. The data were collected by trained pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in interviews with patients when dispensing over-the-counter (OTC) orlistat. The interview was designed by fixed questions. The results were analysed using frequency analysis, GLMz and the chi-square test with the level of significance of p 28). 58% patients were fully indicated for self-medication with orlistat. Self-medication with orlistat was recommended to 48% patients and was refused to 22% patients because of contraindications. 24% patients had at least one interaction with orlistat and chronic drugs. Health problems were the most common motivation for weight reduction. The data obtained in this study demonstrate an important role of pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in the assessment of suitability of self-medication with OTC orlistat and safe weight reduction within self-medication.

  12. The Fanconi anemia core complex is dispensable during somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination.

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    Peter H L Krijger

    Full Text Available To generate high affinity antibodies during an immune response, B cells undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM of their immunoglobulin genes. Error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS DNA polymerases have been reported to be responsible for all mutations at template A/T and at least a fraction of G/C transversions. In contrast to A/T mutations which depend on PCNA ubiquitination, it remains unclear how G/C transversions are regulated during SHM. Several lines of evidence indicate a mechanistic link between the Fanconi Anemia (FA pathway and TLS. To investigate the contribution of the FA pathway in SHM we analyzed FancG-deficient B cells. B cells deficient for FancG, an essential member of the FA core complex, were hypersensitive to treatment with cross-linking agents. However, the frequencies and nucleotide exchange spectra of SHM remained comparable between wild-type and FancG-deficient B cells. These data indicate that the FA pathway is not involved in regulating the outcome of SHM in mammals. In addition, the FA pathway appears dispensable for class switch recombination.

  13. Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.R. Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours and periods (daytime, nighttime and both was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biometry. Data was collected from March to July (autumn and winter. Significant difference to final weight (P<0.05 among treatments was observed. The increase in feeding frequency improves the productive performance of Nile tilapias in cages and permitted better management of the food. The better feed conversion rate for high feeding frequency (24 times day-1 can result in saving up to 360kg of food for each ton of fish produced, increasing the economic sustenance for tilapia culture and suggesting less environmental pollution.

  14. A compact and integrated immunoassay with on-chip dispensing and magnetic particle handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirath, Helene; Peham, Johannes R; Schnetz, Guntram; Coll, Albert; Brandhoff, Lukas; Spittler, Andreas; Vellekoop, Michael J; Redl, Heinz

    2016-02-01

    We present a compact diagnostic platform for a rapid and sensitive detection of plasma biomarkers. The platform consists of a disposable microfluidic polymer chip, a processing device including a lens-free and cost efficient sensor system and a setup for dispersion of magnetic particles. The biomarkers of interest are quantified by magnetic bead based immunoassays with chemiluminescent readout technology. With a novel system for dispersion and manipulation of the magnetic particles in combination with chemiluminescence detection, the sensitivity of the immunoassay is improved and enables a rapid assay in a microfluidic format. In the disposable chip, extra chambers for storage and dispensing of biomarker specific reagents are integrated, which reduce the need of external dosing devices and thereby the cost of the platform is decreased. Plasma biomarkers for monitoring of sepsis could be quantified at 10 pg/mL concentrations within a total time of 30 min by the present system. This contribution is a fundamental step towards the development of an automatic and compact Point-of-Care testing device for monitoring of patients at the intensive care unit.

  15. wHospital: a web-based application with digital signature for drugs dispensing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Margola, Lorenzo; Manzelli, Vacia; Bandera, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    wHospital is the result of an information technology research project, based on the utilization of a web based application for managing the hospital drugs dispensing. Part of wHospital back bone and its key distinguishing characteristic is the adoption of the digital signature system,initially deployed by the Government of Lombardia, a Northern Italy Region, throughout the distribution of smart cards to all the healthcare and hospital staffs. The developed system is a web-based application with a proposed Health Records Digital Signature (HReDS) handshake to comply with the national law and with the Joint Commission International Standards. The prototype application, for a single hospital Operative Unit (OU), has focused on data and process management, related to drug therapy. Following a multi-faceted selection process, the Infective Disease OU of the Hospital in Busto Arsizio, Lombardia, was chosen for the development and prototype implementation. The project lead time, from user requirement analysis to training and deployment was approximately 8 months. This paper highlights the applied project methodology, the system architecture, and the achieved preliminary results.

  16. A dispenser-reactor apparatus applied for in situ XAS monitoring of Pt nanoparticle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boita, Jocenir; Castegnaro, Marcus Vinicius; Alves, Maria do Carmo Martins; Morais, Jonder

    2015-05-01

    In situ time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements collected at the Pt L3-edge during the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous solution are reported. A specially designed dispenser-reactor apparatus allowed for monitoring changes in the XAS spectra from the earliest moments of Pt ions in solution until the formation of metallic nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 4.9 ± 1.1 nm. By monitoring the changes in the local chemical environment of the Pt atoms in real time, it was possible to observe that the NPs formation kinetics involved two stages: a reduction-nucleation burst followed by a slow growth and stabilization of NPs. Subsequently, the synthesized Pt NPs were supported on activated carbon and characterized by synchrotron-radiation-excited X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The supported Pt NPs remained in the metallic chemical state and with a reduced size, presenting slight lattice parameter contraction in comparison with the bulk Pt values.

  17. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Vimmerstedt

    Full Text Available The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets include the need for infrastructure for distribution and

  18. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain–represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner’s decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer’s choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  19. Influence of signal colored hand disinfectant dispensers on hand hygiene compliance at a medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Simone; Häfner, Helga; Schröder, Jörg; Nowicki, Katharina; Lemmen, Sebastian

    2014-08-01

    To assess the influence of signal colors on hand disinfectant dispenser activities, health care workers (HCWs) at a medical intensive care unit were analyzed for a total of 20 weeks with 8 weeks before and 12 weeks after exchange to signal color. No significant increase in hand rubs (HRs) per patient day (PD) was observed (about 40 HRs/PD); however, HCW-adjusted compliance showed a 6% increase with signal colored devices. Therefore, colored devices may help to improve hand hygiene compliance.

  20. Organic nanofibers containing insect pheromone disruptants: a novel technical approach to controlled release dispensers with potential for process mechanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Lindner, I; Greiner, A; Wendorff, J H; Hellmann, C; Dersch, R; Kratt, A; Kleeberg, H; Leithold, G

    2011-01-01

    Beginning fifty years ago, the search for suitable dispensers containing insect pheromones grew with the availability of these synthetic biotechnical tools. Many economic entomologists and application engineers dearly wish they had the "smart, intelligent and ideal dispenser". More or less suitable approximations are available commercially, but none so far meets all demands. Under economic strictures, novel inexpensive systems would be advantageous with release characteristics tailored to the specific life histories of pest insects, the plants considered and the numerous requirements of growers alike. Simultaneously, their field distribution should be mechanizable and be accomplished by one (or very few) application runs. The dispensers should be biodegradable, biocompatible, sustainably applicable, and they should be based on renewable resources. This report presents first results of a novel organic, electrospun nanofiber dispenser with dimensions in the upper nanometer range. Its load of pheromone can be adjusted to be sufficient for 7 weeks of constant disruptive action in vineyards and can be directed against the European Grape Vine Moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) which here serves as a readily available model. Mating disruption in L. botrana and the related Eupoecilia ambiguella is a well studied and developed engineering process. Equally, nanofiber production by electrospinning (for a comprehensive review see Greiner and Wendorff, 2007A, B) is well known and already has numerous applications in filtration technology, air conditioning, and medical wound dressing. Our goal was to bring together and successfully mate these (partly incompatible) technologies via technical tricks of a proprietary nature. Even though the lifetime and effectiveness of currently available nanofibers still must be doubled, the rather complicated system of their production and analysis is known well enough to identify the parameters that need future adjustment. Another

  1. “The dispensation of the soul” as the main dominant of the authors vkladnyj, dannyj and duhovnyj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergacheva I.V.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on data and spiritual literacy, reflecting representation of Russian medieval man on the finiteness of life. According to the theme of the formulary and stylistic analysis of these documents the author reveals the history of the formation of the traditions related to the deceased in which "the dispensation of the soul after death" becomes the main drafters of the dominant mind-state.

  2. [National physician master Jin Shiyuan's dispensing technology of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata based on Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Yuan, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Tian; Li, Rui; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu

    2016-05-01

    To collect the historical origin, processing methods and clinical application of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata in Compendium of Materia Medica, compare and analyze the theoretical knowledge and relevant practical operation of national physician master Jin Shiyuan, which is beneficial for the inheritance and development of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata's clinical dispensing technology. In the analysis process, CNKI was searched with "Rehmanniae Radix Preparata", "Processing method", "Clinical application" "Li Shizhen", "Jin Shiyuan", and "Dispensing technology" as keywords. In addition, Shennong's Herbal Classic, Bencao Tujing (illustrated Classics of Materia Medica), Compendium of Materia Medica, Jingyue Quanshu (Jingyue's Complete Works) and related ancient books were accessed systematically to summarize the historical change of processing methods and efficacy of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata. Professor Jin Shiyuan emphasizes the clinical dispensing technology of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, including its nature identification technology, clinical processing technology, prescription audit technology, prescription coping technology, drug delivery technology, clinical decocting technology, purchasing management technology as well as storage, maintenance and supply technology. Through the collation and research, it was confirmed that historical origin, processing methods and clinical application of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata were recorded in details in Compendium of Materia Medica. Steaming method of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata was originated from Synopsis of Golden Chamber. Li Shizhen attached great importance to the processing method of "steaming and drying alternatively for nine times" for Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, and differentiated it from Radix Rehmanniae Recen and fresh rehmannia root in clinical applications. Professor Jin Shiyuan has developed and improved the clinical dispensing technology of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, and carried forward the essence of Li

  3. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Estimate the Design Space of Pharmaceutical Diluents for Dispensing Powdered Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Takayama, Kozo; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Scientific approaches for dispensation are important for the quality and efficacy of drug treatments. Therefore, for the dispensation of powdered medicines, we have developed a powder blending method using a planetary centrifugal mixer (PCM) to replace the empirical manual method involving a mortar and pestle. The aim of this study was to optimize the formulation of pharmaceutical diluents for dispensing powdered medicines, using PCM. The diluents, composed of powdered lactose, crystalline lactose, and corn starch were assigned to a {3,2}-Simplex Lattice design. Then, the designed diluents were blended with model powders, such as carbazochrome sodium sulfonate powder, rifampicin capsule contents, and crushed sulfasarazine tablets, at ratios of 1 : 4, 1 : 1, and 4 : 1 using PCM at 800 rpm for 60 s at a 20% filling rate. The mixtures were examined for content uniformity relative standard deviation (RSD) and flowability angle of repose (AOR). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the formulation with the smallest RSD and AOR, and then the design space of desired diluents was estimated. On the basis of the design space, crystalline lactose, the mixture of lactose powder and crystalline lactose at a ratio of 1 : 4, and the mixture of corn starch and crystalline lactose at a ratio of 1 : 4, were suitable diluents for the powdered formulation, the content of the capsules, and the crushed tablets, respectively. The selected diluents were successfully applied to other model medicines showing a sufficient RSD and AOR. This technique could contribute to the development of scientific approaches for dispensation.

  4. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  5. Potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions dispensed in community and hospital pharmacies in East of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Dirin, Mandana Moradi; Mousavi, Sarah; Afshari, Amir Reza; Tabrizian, Kaveh; Ashrafi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aim to evaluate and compare type and prevalence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in prescriptions dispensed in both community and hospital setting in Zabol, Iran. Methods: A total of 2796 prescriptions were collected from community and inpatient and outpatient pharmacy of Amir-al-momenin only current acting hospital in Zabol, Iran. The prescriptions were processed using Lexi-Comp drug interaction software. The identified DDIs were categorized into five classes (A, B, C, ...

  6. Research on Fluid Motion and Fluid Jetting Dispensing in High Performance Manufacturing of LED%高性能LED封装点胶中流体运动与胶液喷射研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭先安; 单修洋; 沈平; 李涵雄

    2014-01-01

    LED照明具有高亮度、低能耗、体积小、环保等特点,因此被认为是未来替代传统照明方式的最佳光源。而对于高粘度、高频、微量、高一致性的LED荧光粉点胶,目前还存在无法出胶、点胶性能不稳定、胶滴一致性不好等问题。首先阐述了LED照明的应用特点以及当前照明封装产业的技术水平,随后结合将来主流的喷射式点胶技术,利用Flow-3D软件建立了LED喷射点胶过程的计算机仿真模型。随后得到了点胶过程中胶液在喷胶阀内的流动情况,在此基础上又探讨了各因素对胶液喷射的影响规律。其结果可以为后续的研究奠定基础,同时对具体的LED工业生产及封装装备制造也有一定的参考价值。%LED lighting has high brightness, low power consumption, small size, environmental protection and other features, so it is considered to be the best source of future lighting method. For high viscosity, high frequency, high consistency of the LED phosphor dispensing, there are still some problems.Such as can’t jet glue, glue performance is not stable, dots consistency is not good and so on.The paper first describes the characteristics of LED lighting and the lighting package industry technical level, and then combined with the future mainstream jet dispensing technology, establish a computer simulation model of the LED jet dispensing process by using Flow-3D software. Then obtain the flow situation of glue dispensing process in the spray valve, and on the basis of it, discuss the factors to the glue injection. The results can lay a foundation for related research, also has certain reference function to the concrete LED industrial production and packaging equipment manufacturing.

  7. Pharmacy Professionals’ Dispensing Practice, Knowledge, and Attitude towards Emergency Contraceptives in Gondar Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewunet Admasu Belachew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pharmacy professionals, as the most available members of medical team, have an important role in educating patients about the effective and appropriate use of contraceptives. The purpose of this study was to assess pharmacy professionals’ dispensing practice, knowledge, and attitude towards emergency contraceptives use in Gondar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was employed from May 14 to June 14, 2016, on 60 pharmacy professionals, who have been working in 8 randomly selected pharmacies and 6 drug stores. The collected data was entered to and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20. Result. More than half 33 (55.0% of the participants were druggist with 5–9 years of experience. About 56 (93.3% of the participants knew about the dosing schedule (when and how much to take and side effects of emergency contraceptives. More than two-thirds of the participants (39, 65% agreed that the existence of emergency contraceptives is a positive thing and considered their use is ethical (42, 63.3%. The majority of participants (51, 85% also reported that they counsel all women when dispensing emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs. Conclusion. This study revealed that knowledge, attitude, and dispensing practice of emergency contraceptives are very good even though there were variations with respect to different factors. Findings suggested that additional training and proper counseling technique on emergency contraceptives will improve the service delivery.

  8. Prospective encounter study of the degree of adherence to patient care indicators related to drug dispensing in Health Care facilities: A Sri Lankan perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lukshmy Menik Hettihewa; Amarasinghe Isuru; Jayarathna Kalana

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization-recommended patient care indicators in Government Hospitals were assessed in 422 patients attending the Outpatient Department in selected hospitals of the Galle district in Southern Province. The average dispensing time (ADT), percentage of drugs actually dispensed (PDAD), percentage of drugs adequately labeled (PDAL) and patient′s knowledge on correct dosage (PKCD) were compared in these selected teaching hospitals (TH), general hospitals (GHs) and district hosp...

  9. Prospective encounter study of the degree of adherence to patient care indicators related to drug dispensing in Health Care facilities: A Sri Lankan perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukshmy Menik Hettihewa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization-recommended patient care indicators in Government Hospitals were assessed in 422 patients attending the Outpatient Department in selected hospitals of the Galle district in Southern Province. The average dispensing time (ADT, percentage of drugs actually dispensed (PDAD, percentage of drugs adequately labeled (PDAL and patient′s knowledge on correct dosage (PKCD were compared in these selected teaching hospitals (TH, general hospitals (GHs and district hospitals (DHs in Galle. ADT in DH (1.16 min and GH (1.07 min were high when compared with ADT in TH (0.81 min. PDAD was 100% in DH, 97.79% in GH and lowest in TH (94.64%. PDAL was highest (22.66% in TH, 17.57% in GH and lowest in DH (1.57%. PKCD was 100% in GH and lowest in DH (0% and only 50% in TH in Galle district. We noted that there was a significant difference in ADT in all three categories (P < 0.05. We noted that dispensers spend only a short dispensing time and showed a tendency for dispensing errors. We found that PDAL was very low in all hospitals but PDAD was significantly high. Even though the ADT was high in DH, PKCD was 0% due to negligence in dispensing practices. We also noted a 100% PKCD only in GH due to the practice of a well-prepared correct labeling system in GH. We noticed that these patients were provided drugs with inadequate labeling and that patients had only a poor knowledge about the drug administration schedule. We conclude that there was a low dispenser-patient ratio in all three hospitals and that there was a need for an implementation plan for proper dispensing techniques by introducing a well-prepared drug labeling system in a printed format.

  10. Cutting Edge: RIP1 kinase activity is dispensable for normal development but is a key regulator of inflammation in SHARPIN-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Scott B; Kasparcova, Viera; Hoffman, Sandy; Swift, Barb; Dare, Lauren; Schaeffer, Michelle; Capriotti, Carol; Cook, Michael; Finger, Joshua; Hughes-Earle, Angela; Harris, Philip A; Kaiser, William J; Mocarski, Edward S; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J

    2014-06-15

    RIP1 (RIPK1) kinase is a key regulator of TNF-induced NF-κB activation, apoptosis, and necroptosis through its kinase and scaffolding activities. Dissecting the balance of RIP1 kinase activity and scaffolding function in vivo during development and TNF-dependent inflammation has been hampered by the perinatal lethality of RIP1-deficient mice. In this study, we generated RIP1 kinase-dead (Ripk1(K45A)) mice and showed they are viable and healthy, indicating that the kinase activity of RIP1, but not its scaffolding function, is dispensable for viability and homeostasis. After validating that the Ripk1(K45A) mice were specifically protected against necroptotic stimuli in vitro and in vivo, we crossed them with SHARPIN-deficient cpdm mice, which develop severe skin and multiorgan inflammation that has been hypothesized to be mediated by TNF-dependent apoptosis and/or necroptosis. Remarkably, crossing Ripk1(K45A) mice with the cpdm strain protected against all cpdm-related pathology. Together, these data suggest that RIP1 kinase represents an attractive therapeutic target for TNF-driven inflammatory diseases.

  11. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii.

  12. ELECTROSPUN MESOFIBERS, A NOVEL BIODEGRADABLE PHEROMONE DISPENSER TECHNOLOGY, ARE COMBINED WITH MECHANICAL DEPLOYMENT FOR EFFICIENT IPM OF LOBESIA BOTRANA IN VINEYARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S; Breuer, M

    2015-01-01

    Behaviour modifying pheromones are well known agents for disrupting mating communication of pest insects. For optimal activity, they must be dispensed in time and space at a quantitatively measurable, predetermined release rate covering the flight period of the target species. Pheromones appeal to environmentally conscientious entomologists for their biodegradability, non-toxicity and ecological compatibility. In attempts of combining the virtues of pheromones, suitable slow release dispensers, and their mechanical deployment, an ecologically sensible, reasonably priced and patented procedure was developed and tested with the vineyard pest Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae). It is characterized by (1) Electrospun mesofibers with diameters ranging from 0.6 to 3.5 micrometres, containing disruptants and dispensing it by slow release diffusion into the crop, (2) simultaneous application of the fully biodegradable combination of pheromone with Ecoflex polyester mesofiber, (3) combination of mechanical deployment by multi-purpose cultivators of the prefabricated pheromone dispensers with other simultaneous cultivation measures, and thus further reducing labour time and treatment costs. The dispensers are biodegradable within half a year without leaving any objectionable residues. In the standard eco-toxicology tests pheromone dispensers are harmless to non-target organisms. The disruptive effect of one treatment lasts for seven weeks which covers well one of several flight periods of L. botrana.

  13. UPLC-QTOF-MS with chemical profiling approach for rapidly evaluating chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Erxin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction was rapidly evaluated by UPLC-QTOF-MS coupled with the MarkerLynx software. Two different kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction: water extract of mixed six constituent herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and dispensing granules decoction: mixed water extract of each individual herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, were prepared. Results Chemical difference was found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, and albiflorin, paeoniflorin, gallic acid, amygdalin, and hydroxysafflor yellow A were identified as the significantly changed components during decocting Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction. All the peaks of mass spectrum from Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction and each herb were extracted and integration by using QuanLynx™. And the optimized data was used for linear regression analysis. The contribution of each herb in Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and the optimal compatibility proportion of dispensing granule decoction were derived from the linear regression equation. Conclusions The optimal dosage proportionality of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu dispensing granule decoction was obtained as 2.5:0.2:1:0.5:0.6:0.1 (DG : CX : BS : SD : TR : HH, which guided better clinic application of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction as dispensing granule decoctions usage, and it also provided some experimental data to reveal the compatibility rule of the relative TCM formulae.

  14. Use of standardised patients to assess antibiotic dispensing for tuberculosis by pharmacies in urban India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Srinath; Kwan, Ada; Daniels, Benjamin; Subbaraman, Ramnath; McDowell, Andrew; Bergkvist, Sofi; Das, Ranendra K; Das, Veena; Das, Jishnu; Pai, Madhukar

    2016-11-01

    India's total antibiotic use is the highest of any country. Patients often receive prescription-only drugs directly from pharmacies. Here we aimed to assess the medical advice and drug dispensing practices of pharmacies for standardised patients with presumed and confirmed tuberculosis in India. In this cross-sectional study in the three Indian cities Delhi, Mumbai, and Patna, we developed two standardised patient cases: first, a patient presenting with 2-3 weeks of pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms (Case 1); and second, a patient with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (Case 2). Standardised patients were scheduled to present each case once to sampled pharmacies. We defined ideal management for both cases a priori as referral to a health-care provider without dispensing antibiotics or steroids or both. Between April 1, 2014, and Nov 29, 2015, we sampled 622 pharmacies in Delhi, Mumbai, and Patna. Standardised patients completed 1200 (96%) of 1244 interactions. We recorded ideal management (defined as referrals without the use of antibiotics or steroids) in 80 (13%) of 599 Case 1 interactions (95% CI 11-16) and 372 (62%) of 601 Case 2 interactions (95% CI 58-66). Antibiotic use was significantly lower in Case 2 interactions (98 [16%] of 601, 95% CI 13-19) than in Case 1 (221 [37%] of 599, 95% CI 33-41). First-line anti-tuberculosis drugs were not dispensed in any city. The differences in antibiotic or steroid use and number of medicines dispensed between Case 1 and Case 2 were almost entirely attributable to the difference in referral behaviour. Only some urban Indian pharmacies correctly managed patients with presumed tuberculosis, but most correctly managed a case of confirmed tuberculosis. No pharmacy dispensed anti-tuberculosis drugs for either case. Absence of a confirmed diagnosis is a key driver of antibiotic misuse and could inform antimicrobial stewardship interventions. Grand Challenges Canada, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Knowledge for

  15. Pheromone dispensers, including organic polymer fibers, described in the crop protection literature: comparison of their innovation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S; Eisinger, M-T

    2013-01-01

    Pheromone dispensers, although known in a variety of different designs, are one of the few remaining technical bottlenecks along the way to a sustainable pheromone based strategy in integrated pest management (IPM). Mating disruption with synthetic pheromones is a viable pest management approach. Suitable pheromone dispensers for these mating disruption schemes, however, are lagging behind the general availability of pheromones. Specifically, there is a need for matching the properties of the synthetic pheromones, the release rates suitable for certain insect species, and the environmental requirements of specific crop management. The "ideal" dispenser should release pheromones at a constant but pre-adjustable rate, should be mechanically applicable, completely biodegradable and thus save the costs for recovering spent dispensers. These should be made from renewable, cheap organic material, be economically inexpensive, and be toxicologically and eco-toxicologically inert to provide satisfactory solutions for the needs of practicing growers. In favourable cases, they will be economically competitive with conventional pesticide treatments and by far superior in terms of environmental and eco-toxicological suitability. In the course of the last 40 years, mating disruption, a non-toxicological approach, provided proof for its potential in dozens of pest insects of various orders and families. Applications for IPM in many countries of the industrialized and developing world have been reported. While some dispensers have reached wide circulation, only few of the key performing parameters fit the above requirements ideally and must be approximated with some sacrifice in performance. A fair comparison of the innovation potential of currently available pheromone dispensers is attempted. The authors advance here the use of innovative electrospun organic fibers with dimensions in the "meso" (high nano- to low micrometer) region. Due to their unique multitude of adjustable

  16. Medication Incidents Related to Automated Dose Dispensing in Community Pharmacies and Hospitals - A Reporting System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may introduce new safety issues. This descriptive study provides insight into the nature and consequences of medication incidents related to ADD, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. Methods The medication incidents that were submitted to the Dutch Central Medication incidents Registration (CMR) reporting system were selected and characterized independently by two researchers. Main Outcome Measures Person discovering the incident, phase of the medication process in which the incident occurred, immediate cause of the incident, nature of incident from the healthcare provider's perspective, nature of incident from the patient's perspective, and consequent harm to the patient caused by the incident. Results From January 2012 to February 2013 the CMR received 15,113 incidents: 3,685 (24.4%) incidents from community pharmacies and 11,428 (75.6%) incidents from hospitals. Eventually 1 of 50 reported incidents (268/15,113 = 1.8%) were related to ADD; in community pharmacies more incidents (227/3,685 = 6.2%) were related to ADD than in hospitals (41/11,428 = 0.4%). The immediate cause of an incident was often a change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation. Most reported incidents occurred in two phases: entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag. Conclusion A proportion of incidents was related to ADD and is reported regularly, especially by community pharmacies. In two phases, entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag, most incidents occurred. A change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation was the immediate causes of an incident

  17. Sialylation of lipooligosaccharides is dispensable for the virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, Stanley M; Li, Wei; Fortney, Kate R; Janowicz, Diane M; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P; Munson, Robert S

    2012-02-01

    Sialylated glycoconjugates on the surfaces of mammalian cells play important roles in intercellular communication and self-recognition. The sialic acid preferentially expressed in human tissues is N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). In a process called molecular mimicry, many bacterial pathogens decorate their cell surface glycolipids with Neu5Ac. Incorporation of Neu5Ac into bacterial glycolipids promotes bacterial interactions with host cell receptors called Siglecs. These interactions affect bacterial adherence, resistance to serum killing and phagocytosis, and innate immune responses. Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, expresses lipooligosaccharides (LOS) that are highly sialylated. However, an H. ducreyi sialyltransferase (lst) mutant, whose LOS contain reduced levels of Neu5Ac, is fully virulent in human volunteers. Recently, a second sialyltransferase gene (Hd0053) was discovered in H. ducreyi, raising the possibility that Hd0053 compensated for the loss of lst during human infection. CMP-Neu5Ac is the obligate nucleotide sugar donor for all bacterial sialyltransferases; LOS derived from an H. ducreyi CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase (neuA) mutant has no detectable Neu5Ac. Here, we compared an H. ducreyi neuA mutant to its wild-type parent in several models of pathogenesis. In human inoculation experiments, the neuA mutant formed papules and pustules at rates that were no different than those of its parent. When grown in media with and without Neu5Ac supplementation, the neuA mutant and its parent had similar phenotypes in bactericidal, macrophage uptake, and dendritic cell activation assays. Although we cannot preclude a contribution of LOS sialylation to ulcerative disease, these data strongly suggest that sialylation of LOS is dispensable for H. ducreyi pathogenesis in humans.

  18. Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test

  19. CXCR4 is dispensable for T cell egress from chronically inflamed skin via the afferent lymph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skye A Geherin

    Full Text Available T cell recirculation through extralymphoid tissues is essential to immune surveillance, host defense and inflammation. In this process, T cells enter the tissue from the blood and subsequently leave via the afferent lymph. In the absence of inflammation, T cells require CCR7 expression to egress from the skin or lung, which is consistent with the constitutive expression of the CCR7 ligand CCL21 on lymphatic endothelium. However, during chronic inflammation alternative chemoattractants come into play, allowing Ccr7-deficient (Ccr7-/- T cells to egress efficiently from affected skin. As T cell egress from inflamed sites is a potential control point of the inflammatory response, we aimed to determine alternative T cell exit receptors using a mouse and a sheep model. We show that CCR7+ and CCR7- T cells exiting from the chronically inflamed skin were highly responsive to the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12, which was induced in the lymphatics in the inflamed site. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that CXCR4 mediates T cell egress from inflamed skin. However, pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 did not affect the tissue egress of wildtype or Ccr7-/- CD4 and CD8 T cells after adoptive transfer into chronically inflamed skin. Similarly, adoptively transferred Cxcr4-/- Ccr7-/- and Ccr7-/- T cells egressed from the inflamed skin equally well. Based on these data, we conclude that, while CXCR4 might play an essential role for other cell types that enter the afferent lymphatics, it is dispensable for T cell egress from the chronically inflamed skin.

  20. SCD1 Expression is dispensable for hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AKT and Ras oncogenes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available Increased de novo lipogenesis is one of the major metabolic events in cancer. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, de novo lipogenesis has been found to be increased and associated with the activation of AKT/mTOR signaling. In mice, overexpression of an activated form of AKT results in increased lipogenesis and hepatic steatosis, ultimately leading to liver tumor development. Hepatocarcinogenesis is dramatically accelerated when AKT is co-expressed with an oncogenic form of N-Ras. SCD1, the major isoform of stearoyl-CoA desaturases, catalyzing the conversion of saturated fatty acids (SFA into monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, is a key enzyme involved in de novo lipogenesis. While many studies demonstrated the requirement of SCD1 for tumor cell growth in vitro, whether SCD1 is necessary for tumor development in vivo has not been previously investigated. Here, we show that genetic ablation of SCD1 neither inhibits lipogenesis and hepatic steatosis in AKT-overexpressing mice nor affects liver tumor development in mice co-expressing AKT and Ras oncogenes. Molecular analysis showed that SCD2 was strongly upregulated in liver tumors from AKT/Ras injected SCD1(-/- mice. Noticeably, concomitant silencing of SCD1 and SCD2 genes was highly detrimental for the growth of AKT/Ras cells in vitro. Altogether, our study provides the evidence, for the first time, that SCD1 expression is dispensable for AKT/mTOR-dependent hepatic steatosis and AKT/Ras-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Complete inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity may be required to efficiently suppress liver tumor development.

  1. An analysis of the utilisation and expenditure of medicines dispensed for the management of severe asthma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, B

    2009-03-01

    There are approximately 6,300 people in Ireland with a diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and with a fast growing elderly population the incidence of COPD is likely to increase. This study examines the prescribing patterns of medicines dispensed for the management Asthma\\/COPD in patients over the age of 35 years using the HSE-Primary Care Reimbursement Services (PCRS) prescribing databases. The HSE-PCRS pharmacy claims data, which covers all those over 70 years of age and means tested for those less than 70 years, was analysed for the years 2005\\/2006. Approximately 26,548 (17.9%) of patients who were prescribed a respiratory drug received inhaled short-acting beta2 agonists in combination with a regular standard-dose inhaled corticosteroid. A further 5,044 (3.4%) were also prescribed a regular inhaled long-acting beta2 agonist (salmeterol or formoterol). A total of 2506 patients (6.2%) on combination therapy were co-prescribed four different anti-asthmatic treatments inclusive of oral prednisolone. A small proportion of the patients prescribed a respiratory drug were co-prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (n = 5177, 3.5%). In total there were 9,728 (6.2%) patients prescribed a mucolytic drug in combination with a respiratory drug and the rate of co-prescribing with antibiotics was 22%. COPD is a debilitating disease that is primarily caused by smoking and is therefore largely preventable. The HSE-PCRS pharmacy claims data is a valuable tool for helping to assess the burden of this disease in the Irish context.

  2. Pharmacoepidemiological analysis of statins dispensing patterns in pharmacy practice: Profile and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin Milena D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern way of life contributes to the ever increasing incidence of atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, prescribing of statins, drugs used for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, gains momentum worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze profile of drug dispensing, side effects frequency and correlation with treatment duration. Subjects and methods: The study included 44 randomly selected patients who used statins. The length of the follow-up was a one month, in the outpatient pharmacy situated in the city of Belgrade, where patients filled out the survey. Data were statistically analyzed and presented in tables and graph enclosed. Results: Results showed that it is more frequent use of these drugs in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, than in primary. Likewise, there is a significant difference in distribution between different therapy duration categories and indication (x2 = 7.726; p = 0.021 and significant difference in distribution between different categories in weight gain (x2=11.535; p=0.003. The average ages of respondents were 66.93±7.65 years, and average duration of therapy 31.68 months. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the use of statins is justified in primary prevention up to 32 months of duration. After this period additional measures concerning its justification are required. From the standpoint of pharmacovigilance, it is necessary to frequently conduct the evaluation of prescriptions and use of these drugs, in order to prevent side effects.

  3. The convergence of systemic threads shaping a future South African healthcare dispensation: A technology management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Weeks

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Underpinning healthcare service delivery are a number of support systems. This paper focuses on the development of a healthcare services framework that reflects the systems that need to be integrated, from a technology healthcare support perspective.Research purpose: The purpose of this paper is gain an understanding of some of the intricacies associated with the management of the transition to a future South African healthcare dispensation, with reference to the convergence of technology, financial healthcare and socio-political systems.Motivation for the study: South Africa is in the process of implementing the National Health Insurance initiative and the approach adopted will have a significant impact on the business model design.Research design, approach and method: A multidisciplinary literature study was undertaken. In addition, a limited narrative enquiry was also conducted. Practitioners interviewed were from the healthcare, informatics and management and technology sectors respectively. The research study constituted an insight study – analytically descriptive and not statistical in nature.Main findings: The literature reflects two very contrasting and different business models of healthcare service provision, namely a primarily curative and preventative stance. Each assumes a very different convergence of technology, healthcare, financial and social systems and consequently gives rise to contrasting business models. The dominant model appears to be based on primary healthcare, with a different technology support infrastructure to the previously-adopted curative approach. It is a model that would also appear to necessitate a complex adaptive management approach, necessitating a bottom-up as opposed to a top-down hierarchal management orientation.Contribution/Value-add: The National Healthcare Insurance initiative entails a very fundamental restructuring of the healthcare infrastructure. The insights gained from this

  4. Medication dispensing errors in Palestinian community pharmacy practice: a formal consensus using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Haddad, Aseel; Khawaja, Baraa; Raie, Rand; Zaneen, Sireen; Edais, Tasneem

    2016-10-01

    Background Medication dispensing errors (MDEs) are frequent in community pharmacy practice. A definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice were not previously approached using formal consensus techniques. Objective This study was conducted to achieve consensus on a definition of MDEs and a wide range of scenarios that should or should not be considered as MDEs in Palestinian community pharmacy practice by a panel of community pharmacists. Setting Community pharmacy practice in Palestine. Method This was a descriptive study using the Delphi technique. A panel of fifty community pharmacists was recruited from different geographical locations of the West Bank of Palestine. A three round Delphi technique was followed to achieve consensus on a proposed definition of MDEs and 83 different scenarios representing potential MDEs using a nine-point scale. Main outcome measure Agreement or disagreement of a panel of community pharmacists on a proposed definition of MDEs and a series of scenarios representing potential MDEs. Results In the first Delphi round, views of key contact community pharmacists on MDEs were explored and situations representing potential MDEs were collected. In the second Delphi round, consensus was achieved to accept the proposed definition and to include 49 (59 %) of the 83 proposed scenarios as MDEs. In the third Delphi round, consensus was achieved to include further 13 (15.7 %) scenarios as MDEs, exclude 9 (10.8 %) scenarios and the rest of 12 (14.5 %) scenarios were considered equivocal based on the opinions of the panelists. Conclusion Consensus on a definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice was achieved using a formal consensus technique. The use of consensual definitions and scenarios representing MDE situations in community pharmacy practice might minimize methodological variations and their significant effects on the

  5. The Testis-Enriched Histone Demethylase, KDM4D, Regulates Methylation of Histone H3 Lysine 9 During Spermatogenesis in the Mouse but Is Dispensable for Fertility1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamori, Naoki; Zhao, Ming; Meistrich, Marvin L.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, and methylation of histones in particular, dynamically change during spermatogenesis. Among various methylations of histone H3, methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and its regulation are essential for spermatogenesis. Trimethytransferases as well as dimethyltransferase are required for meiotic progression. In addition, didemethylase of H3K9 is also critical for spermatogenesis through transcriptional regulation of spermatid-specific genes. However, the requirement for demethylation of trimethylated H3K9 (H3K9me3) during spermatogenesis remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the targeted disruption of KDM4D, a testis-enriched tridemethylase of H3K9. Kdm4d-null mice are viable and fertile and do not show any obvious phenotype. However, H3K9me3 accumulates significantly in Kdm4d-null round spermatids, and the distribution of methylated H3K9 in germ cells is dramatically changed. Nevertheless, the progression of spermatogenesis and the number of spermatozoa are normal, likely secondary to the earlier nuclear localization of another H3K9 tridemethylase, KDM4B, in Kdm4d-null elongating spermatids. These results suggest that demethylation of H3K9me3 in round spermatids is dispensable for spermatogenesis but that possible defects in Kdm4d-null elongating spermatids could be rescued by functional redundancy of the KDM4B demethylase. PMID:21293030

  6. The Pluripotency Factor-Bound Intron 1 of Xist Is Dispensable for X Chromosome Inactivation and Reactivation In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Minkovsky

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available X chromosome inactivation (XCI is a dynamically regulated developmental process with inactivation and reactivation accompanying the loss and gain of pluripotency, respectively. A functional relationship between pluripotency and lack of XCI has been suggested, whereby pluripotency transcription factors repress the master regulator of XCI, the noncoding transcript Xist, by binding to its first intron (intron 1. To test this model, we have generated intron 1 mutant embryonic stem cells (ESCs and two independent mouse models. We found that Xist’s repression in ESCs, its transcriptional upregulation upon differentiation, and its silencing upon reprogramming to pluripotency are not dependent on intron 1. Although we observed subtle effects of intron 1 deletion on the randomness of XCI and in the absence of the antisense transcript Tsix in differentiating ESCs, these have little relevance in vivo because mutant mice do not deviate from Mendelian ratios of allele transmission. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that intron 1 is dispensable for the developmental dynamics of Xist expression.

  7. The last half-repeat of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) is dispensable and thereby TALE-based technology can be simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chong-Ke; Wang, Chun-Lian; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Fu-Jun; Qin, Teng-Fei; Zhao, Kai-Jun

    2014-09-01

    To activate the expression of host genes that contribute to pathogen growth, pathogenic Xanthomonas bacteria inject their transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) into plant cells and the TALEs bind to target gene promoters by the central repeat region consisting of near-perfect 34-amino-acid repeats (34-aa repeats). Based on the recognition codes between the 34-aa repeats and the targeted nucleotides, TALE-based technologies, such as designer TALEs (dTALEs) and TALE nucleases (TALENs), have been developed. Amazingly, every natural TALE invariantly has a truncated last half-repeat (LHR) at the end of the 34-aa repeats. Consequently, all the reported dTALEs and TALENs also harbour their LHRs. Here, we show that the LHRs in dTALEs are dispensable for the function of gene activation by both transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and gene-specific targeting in the rice genome, indicating that TALEs might originate from a single progenitor. In the light of this finding, we demonstrate that dTALEs can be constructed through two simple steps. Moreover, the activation strengths of dTALEs lacking the LHR are comparable with those of dTALEs harbouring the LHR. Our results provide new insights into the origin of natural TALEs, and will facilitate the simplification of the design and assembly of TALE-based tools, such as dTALEs and TALENs, in the near future.

  8. Optimization of UV-LED curable printing material for applications in direct writing systems: Inkjet, reverse offset, and micro dispensing GPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ada Judith Ortega

    The quality of a product fabricated by direct writing methods will depend greatly on the properties of the printing material and its compatibility with the printing process. Although multiple advances in developing printing inks and pastes with novel properties are being made, the potential those can bring to electronics is hindered by their stability and performance during the printing process. In this study a UV-LED curable acrylic material was used to test the optimization of inks and pastes for three of the most common direct writing systems: Piezo-type Inkjet, Reverse Offset Roll to Plate, and Micro Deposition. The viscosity of the photosensitive acrylic matrix was controlled by either the addition of diluents or electronically functional reinforcement material. The contact angle of the optimized solutions on 16 different Polyester, Polyimide, and Paper films was observed. Solutions with larger contact angles showed better line definition for the Inkjet and the Micro Dispense systems. In addition to the contact angle differential, the rheological properties showed to be a determinant factor for the feasibility of a solution to undergo the reverse offset printing process. The UV curable acrylic demonstrated electrical conductivity when 2% (wt.) MWCNT were ultrasonically mixed in the matrix and then cured with a 385nm wavelength for 3 seconds. Only the micro deposition system was capable of printing the acrylic-MWCNT paste and the relationship between the contact angle, pattern accuracy, substrate selection, and electrical conductivity, was determined.

  9. Analysis on Existing Automatic Dispensing Pattern in Hospital Outpatient Pharmacy%医院门诊药房现行自动化调剂模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁茂本; 王国如; 吕新颜

    2015-01-01

    目的:推动医院门诊药房自动化调剂模式发展。方法走访国内数家三级甲等综合性医院门诊药房和自动化药房系统生产厂家,并参阅相关文献,分析现行自动化调剂模式。结果与结论先进的门诊药房自动化调剂模式是集实时发药、智能预配发药、自助发药多种模式于一体的自动化和智能化系统,可提高配方准确率,降低了劳动强度,体现了我国现代化药房的建设和发展方向。%Objective To promote the development of the existing automatic dispensing pattern in the hospital outpatient pharmacy. Methods By conducting the visiting to the outpatient pharmacy of several domestic class 3A general hospitals and manufacturers for producing the automatic pharmacy systems and refering to pertinent literatures, the existing automatic dispensing patterns were ana-lyzed. Results and Conclusion The advanced automatic dispensing pattern of outpatient pharmacy is an automatic and intelligent system integrating the real-time dispensing, intelligently pre-allocation dispensing and self-service dispensing, which improves the dispensing accuracy, reduces the labor intensity and reflects the construction and development direction of modern pharmacy in our country.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide and particle matter levels associated with increased dispensing of anti-asthma drugs in Iceland's capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Zoëga, Helga; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Gíslason, Thórarinn; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir

    2012-02-01

    Air pollutants in Iceland's capital area include hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from geothermal power plants, particle pollution (PM10) and traffic-related pollutants. Respiratory health effects of exposure to PM and traffic pollutants are well documented, yet this is one of the first studies to investigate short-term health effects of ambient H2S exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between daily ambient levels of H2S, PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), and the use of drugs for obstructive pulmonary diseases in adults in Iceland's capital area. The study period was 8 March 2006 to 31 December 2009. We used log-linear Poisson generalized additive regression models with cubic splines to estimate relative risks of individually dispensed drugs by air pollution levels. A three-day moving average of the exposure variables gave the best fit to the data. Final models included significant covariates adjusting for climate and influenza epidemics, as well as time-dependent variables. The three-day moving average of H2S and PM10 levels were positively associated with the number of individuals who were dispensed drugs at lag 3-5, corresponding to a 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4, 3.6) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.1, 1.8) per 10 μg/m3 pollutant concentration increase, respectively. Our findings indicated that intermittent increases in levels of particle matter from traffic and natural sources and ambient H2S levels were weakly associated with increased dispensing of drugs for obstructive pulmonary disease in Iceland's capital area. These weak associations could be confounded by unevaluated variables hence further studies are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Health care professionals’ perspectives on automated multi-dose drug dispensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardage C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the 1980s, manual repackaging of multi-dose medications from pharmacies in Sweden was successively substituted with automated multi-dose drug dispensing (MDD. There are few studies evaluating the consequences of automated MDD with regard to patient safety, and those that investigate this issue are not very extensive. Objectives: To investigate Swedish health care professionals’ perceived experience of automated MDD and its effects on patient adherence and patient safety. Methods: Three questionnaire forms, one for physicians, nurses, and assistant nurses/nursing assistants, were developed based on reviews of the literature and pilot testing of the questions in the intended target groups. The target groups were health professionals prescribing or administrating MDD to patients. A sample (every sixth municipality was drawn from the sampling frame of Swedish municipalities, resulting in 40 municipalities, about 14% of all municipalities in Sweden. Email addresses of general practitioners were obtained from county councils, while the municipalities assisted in getting contact details for nurses, assistant nurses and nursing assistants. A total of 915 questionnaires were distributed electronically to physicians, 515 to nurses, and 4,118 to assistant nurses/nursing assistants. The data were collected in September and October 2012. Results: The response rate among physicians, nurses and assistant nurses/nursing assistants was 31%, 43% and 23%, respectively. The professionals reported that automated MDD reduces duplication of medication, contributes to correct dosages, helps patients take their medication at the right time, and reduces confusion among patients. Fifteen per cent of the physicians and about one-third of the nurses and assistant nurses/nursing assistants reported that generic substitution makes it more difficult for the patient to identify the various medicines available in the sachets. The physicians did, however

  12. A method for calculating adherence to polypharmacy from dispensing data records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnet, Isabelle; Abraham, Ivo; Messerli, Markus; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2014-02-01

    Several measures for calculating adherence to one medication from dispensing data records have been proposed, but the nomenclature is inconsistent and computations vary. The same measures, like the medication possession ratio (MPR), have been used for multiple medication regimens, and have tended to over- or under-estimate adherence rates. To demonstrate the impact of varying elements in MPR to a single medication regimen; to define standards for the estimation of adherence to polypharmacy; to propose a new method for calculating adherence to polypharmacy; to face validate it. Face validity of the proposed method. Variations in the MPR formula were simulated. Standards for the estimation of adherence to polypharmacy were defined. A new method to calculate adherence to polypharmacy was established. Its face validity with three illustrative cases obtained from a pharmacy refill database was assessed. Adherence rate to polypharmacy from refill data records. MPR to a single medication is operationalized in the numerator and denominator and is influenced by the parameters like observation period, medication gaps, overlap. For polypharmacy, an average MPR is commonly used, which is not accounting for the specificity of multiple medications, and hence overestimating adherence rate. We propose the daily polypharmacy possession ratio (DPPR) as an index of adherence to polypharmacy. It estimates the proportion of time a patient had medication available for use by considering the presence or absence of multiple medications on each day in the observation period. We calculated possession rates from refill histories over 31 months (January 1, 2011-July 31, 2013) for three illustrative patients. The average MPR estimates were 80 % for a patient with 6 medications/20 refill dates, 90 % for a patient with 4 medications/11 refill dates, and 89 % for a patient with 3 medications/17 refill dates. The corresponding DPPRs were 75, 88 and 99 %, indicating overestimations by 5 and 2

  13. [Decreased hospital spending as a result of antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in community pharmacies. Results from the Midi-Pyrenees region.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallini, Adeline; Taboulet, Florence

    2010-01-01

    A contract between French hospitals and national health authorities was signed in early 2006 to improve the rational use of antibiotics in hospitals. The contract offers a financial reward in the event of decreased spending as a result of hospital prescriptions dispensed in community pharmacies compared to the previous year. The article describes the limitations relating to the financial rewards defined by the contract, particularly those concerning the measurement and relevance of the chosen indicator. Since no national data are currently available, quantitative results drawn from the Midi-Pyrénées region are used to illustrate the analysis.

  14. A study on standardization of dispensing procedure for small packages of Chinese herbal pieces%中药小包装饮片调剂操作流程规范化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王陶丽; 刘玉芹; 刘灿坤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a unified dispensing procedure for small packages of Chinese herbal pieces and to make it standardized so as to operate it easily, save time and energy, provide convenience for examination, avoid mistakes and eliminate medical disputes.MethodsA convenient and reliable, time and energy saving and scientific dispensing procedure was established according to the standardized dispensing procedure of Chinese herbal pieces, the features of small packages, and real working and operating experience.ResultsThe dispensing procedure for small packages of herbal pieces was different from that of Chinese herbal pieces in that its operational procedure and examination had unique functions. The main operational points included investigating, arranging, viewing, comparing, holding, weighing, allocating, examining, packaging, and dispatching. Conclusion Small packages of Chinese herbal pieces solve the problems of Chinese herbal pieces which are not easy to keep, allocate and maintain, as well as the problems during dispensing such as complicated weighing, uneven size, inaccurate weight, unfavorable condition for re-examination, messy environment and low quality; advantages such as one type of drug in one bag, easy identification, accurate weighing, easy check and exchange by name and drug, and informed consent for patients are ensured.%目的:制定统一中药小包装饮片的调剂操作流程,使其规范化、标准化、有利于操作,省时省力,便于审核,防止差错,杜绝医疗纠纷的发生。方法依据中药饮片的调剂规范流程,结合小包装饮片的特点,根据实际操作工作经验,制定便捷可靠、省时省力、科学操作的工艺流程。结果小包装饮片完全不同于中药饮片的调剂,其操作方法、审核等具有独特的操作性能,审、摆、看、对、拿、掂、分、核、包、发是其主要操作要点。结论中药小包装饮片解决了中药饮片不利于保管

  15. A one-day, dispense-only IP-One HTRF assay for high-throughput screening of Galphaq protein-coupled receptors: towards cells as reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsdorf, Christian; Kropp-Goerkis, Carmen; Kaehler, Irene; Ketscher, Lars; Boemer, Ulf; Parczyk, Karsten; Bader, Benjamin

    2008-02-01

    Abstract: Compared to biochemical high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, cell-based functional assays are generally thought to be more time consuming and complex because of additional efforts for running continuous cell cultures as well as the numerous assay steps when transferring media and compounds. A common strategy to compensate the anticipated reduction in overall throughput is to implement highly automated cell culture and screening systems. However, such systems require substantial investments in sophisticated hardware and highly specialized personnel. In trying to set up alternatives to increasing throughput in functional cell-based screening, we combined several approaches. By using (1) cryopreserved cell aliquots instead of continuous cell culture, (2) cells in suspension instead of adherent cells, and (3) "ready-to-screen" assay plates with nanoliter aliquots of test compounds, an assay procedure was developed that very much resembles a standard biochemical, enzymatic assay comprising only a few dispense steps. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably overexpressing a Galphaq-coupled receptor were used as a model system to measure receptor activation by detection of intracellular D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate with the help of homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF, CISbio International, Bagnols-sur-Cèze, France). Initially established in 384-well adherent cell format, the assay was successfully transferred to 1,536-well format. The assay quality was sufficient to run HTS campaigns in both formats with good Z'-factors and excellent reproducibility of antagonists. Subsequently, the assay procedure was optimized for usage of suspension cells. The influences of cell culture media, plate type, cell number, and incubation time were assessed. Finally, the suspension cell assay was applied to pharmacological characterization of a small molecule antagonist by Schild plot analysis. Our data demonstrate not only the application of the IP-One HTRF assay (CISbio

  16. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation revealed cytoplasmic tail is dispensable for IZUMO1 function and male fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Samantha A M; Miyata, Haruhiko; Satouh, Yuhkoh

    2016-01-01

    manipulation system of CRISPR/Cas9 to generate a point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon, producing mice with truncated IZUMO1. Mice without the cytoplasmic tail of IZUMO1 showed normal fertility but decreased the amount of protein, indicating that whilst this region is important for the expression...

  17. Functional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoua Gandia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inhaled Mg alone and associated with F in the treatment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. 43 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and exposed to inhaled NaCl 0.9%, MeCh, MgSO4 and MgF2. Pulmonary changes were assessed by means of functional tests and quantitative histological examination of lungs and trachea. Results revealed that delivery of inhaled Mg associated with F led to a significant decrease of total lung resistance better than inhaled Mg alone (p < 0.05. Histological examinations illustrated that inhaled Mg associated with F markedly suppressed muscular hypertrophy (p = 0.034 and bronchoconstriction (p = 0.006 in MeCh treated rats better than inhaled Mg alone. No histological changes were found in the trachea. This study showed that inhaled Mg associated with F attenuated the main principle of the central components of changes in MeCh provoked experimental asthma better than inhaled Mg alone, potentially providing a new therapeutic approach against asthma.

  18. Dispensing of high concentration Ag nano-particles ink for ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Mao, Peng; He, Hu

    2016-02-17

    Paper-based writing electronics has received a lot of interest recently due to its potential applications in flexible electronics. To obtain ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics, we developed a kind of ink with high concentration of Ag Nano-particles (up to 80 wt%), as well as a related dispensing writing system consisting an air compressor machine and a dispenser. Additionally, we also demonstrated the writability and practical application of our proposed ink and writing system. Based on the study on the effect of sintering time and pressure, we found the optimal sintering time and pressure to obtain high quality Ag NPs wires. The electrical conductivity of nano-silver paper-based electronics has been tested using the calculated resistivity. After hot-pressure sintering at 120 °C, 25 MPa pressure for 20 minutes, the resistivity of silver NPs conductive tracks was 3.92 × 10(-8) (Ωm), only 2.45 times of bulk silver. The mechanical flexibility of nano-silver paper-based electronics also has been tested. After 1000 bending cycles, the resistivity slightly increased from the initial 4.01 × 10(-8) to 5.08 × 10(-8) (Ωm). With this proposed ink preparation and writing system, a kind of paper-based writing electronics with ultra-low resistivity and good mechanical flexibility was achieved.

  19. Determinants of antibiotic dispensing without a medical prescription: a cross-sectional study in the north of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Cachafeiro, Maruxa; González-González, Cristian; Váquez-Lago, Juan M; López-Vázquez, Paula; López-Durán, Ana; Smyth, Ernesto; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2014-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern and is greatly exacerbated by inappropriate antibiotic use at a community level. The aim of this study was to ascertain which attitudes of community pharmacists were related to inappropriate antibiotic dispensing. We conducted a cross-sectional study of community pharmacists in a region situated in northern Spain (n = 393). Personal interviews were conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The degree of agreement with each item of knowledge and attitude was measured using an unnumbered, horizontal visual analogue scale, with replies being scored from 0 (total disagreement) to 10 (total agreement). The data were analysed using logistic regression. Of the total of 286 pharmacists (72.8%) who completed the questionnaire, 185 (64.7%) acknowledged having undertaken dispensing of antibiotics without a medical prescription (DAwMP). Attitudes such as patient complacency, external responsibility, indifference and insufficient knowledge were shown to be related to DAwMP. In contrast, no association was found with any of the pharmacists' personal or professional traits. This study confirms that, albeit unlawful, DAwMP is a common practice in Spanish pharmacies. DAwMP was seen to be usually associated with some of the attitudes evaluated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  20. Efficiency potential of hot-drink dispensing machines in commercial catering; Effizienzpotenzial bei Heissgetraenkeautomaten in der Betriebsverpflegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, T.; Huser, A. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland); Schmitz, R. [Electrosuisse, Fehraltorf (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the findings of a project that looked into the energy consumption of automatic hot-drink dispensing machines. The report presents the results of a survey made in Switzerland together with various manufacturers and operators of such machines that are used in the company refreshments sector. The survey provides important information on the current market situation, markets and market shares of individual operating companies as well as on machine technology and energy consumption. Also, obstacles to the improvement of energy efficiency in this area are looked at. Important savings that can be made in the operation of such machines are quoted. The report recommends that the results of a parallel survey of domestic coffee-making machines be taken note of and that effort should rather be concentrated in this area, where energy consumption at the national level is quoted as being around twice as high as for the commercial automatic hot-drink dispensing machines.

  1. Efficiency potential of hot-drink dispensing machines in commercial catering. Appendix; Effizienzpotenzial bei Heissgetraenkeautomaten in der Betriebsverpflegung. Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, T.; Huser, A. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland); Schmitz, R. [Electrosuisse, Fehraltorf (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This is the appendix of the final report with report number ENET--230304. This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the findings of a project that looked into the energy consumption of automatic hot-drink dispensing machines. The report presents the results of a survey made in Switzerland together with various manufacturers and operators of such machines that are used in the company refreshments sector. The survey provides important information on the current market situation, markets and market shares of individual operating companies as well as on machine technology and energy consumption. Also, obstacles to the improvement of energy efficiency in this area are looked at. Important savings that can be made in the operation of such machines are quoted. The report recommends that the results of a parallel survey of domestic coffee-making machines be taken note of and that effort should rather be concentrated in this area, where energy consumption at the national level is quoted as being around twice as high as for the commercial automatic hot-drink dispensing machines.

  2. Pharmacoepidemiological data from drug dispensing charities as a measure of health patterns in a population not assisted by the Italian National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We analysed drug dispensation by charitable organisations in a year time. Drugs were grouped according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification and the amount dispensed was calculated with the system of the Daily Defined Dose (DDD and expressed as DDD/1000 subjects/day. A number of 87,550 subjects were studied (13,308 Italians; 74,242 Immigrants. Though we noticed a great sesonal variability, the drugs most frequently dispensed were those for the respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system and antibiotics, which is different from the rest of the Italian population and the immigrant population assisted by our National Health Service (NHS. We also found that chronic diseases are increasing in these subjects. We conclude that the subjects not receiving NHS assitance have, at least in part, different health patterns and requirements. This should be considered when planning tailored interventions.

  3. Relationship between leukotriene-modifying agent prescriptions dispensed and rate of suicide deaths by county in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumock GT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Glen T Schumock1, Robert D Gibbons2, Todd A Lee1,3,4,6, Min J Joo4, Robert J Valuck5, Leslie T Stayner61Center for Pharmacoeconomic Research, and Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Center for Health Statistics, and Departments of Medicine and Health Studies, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Center for Management of Complex Chronic Care, Hines VA Hospital, Hines, IL, USA; 4Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 6Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USABackground: The US Food and Drug Administration has issued warnings about a potential link between leukotriene receptor-modifying agents (LTMA and suicide. These warnings are based on case reports and there is controversy about the association. While spontaneous reporting of suicide-related events attributed to LTMA has risen dramatically, these data may be biased by the warnings. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between LTMA and suicide deaths using event data preceding the Food and Drug Administration warnings.Methods: We conducted a mixed-effects Poisson regression analysis of the association between LTMA prescriptions dispensed and suicide deaths at the county level. Counts of suicide deaths in each US county, stratified by race, age group, gender, and year were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics for the period January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2006. Counts of LTMA prescriptions dispensed in each US county were obtained from IMS Health Incorporated. The model estimated the overall suicide rate conditional on LTMA use, adjusted for age, gender, race, year

  4. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alhindi, Salman A; Alrashdi, Ahmed M; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance among community pharmacies. Pharmacies were selected in random and researchers (disguised as patients) requested to purchase prescription-only medications in the absence of a prescription. Not all medications were purchased at once. Data were recorded per pharmacy, where pharmacies that approved dispense of the selected drug were scored as non-compliant and the pharmacies that rejected dispense of the selected drug were scored as compliant. Compliance rate was calculated per region per drug. Pharmacies based in governmental hospitals were visited in parallel. A total of 20 were visited. Data and statistical analysis were performed using Statistical Analyses Software (SAS 9.3). A total of 150 pharmacies were visited over a period of 3 months. On average, the percent approved dispense of prescription-only drugs across 6 regions in Saudi Arabia is 63% and the percent rejected dispense is 37% representing a significant non-compliance rate regarding the selected list of medications in this study. The frequency of dispense per medication across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia is as follows: Isosorbide dinitrate (86%), Enoxaparin (82%), nitroglycerin (74%), Propranolol (73%), Verapamil (70%), Warfarin (65%), Methyldopa (64%), Ciprofloxacin (57%) and Codeine (4%). Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities.

  5. HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1) SUMOylation is dispensable for DNA repair but is essential for the apoptotic DNA damage response (DDR) to irreparable DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, Sonia; Dubuissez, Marion; Dehennaut, Vanessa; Nassour, Joe; Harmon, Brennan T; Spruyt, Nathalie; Loison, Ingrid; Abbadie, Corinne; Rood, Brian R; Leprince, Dominique

    2017-01-10

    The tumor suppressor gene HIC1 (Hypermethylated In Cancer 1) encodes a transcriptional repressor mediating the p53-dependent apoptotic response to irreparable DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through direct transcriptional repression of SIRT1. HIC1 is also essential for DSB repair as silencing of endogenous HIC1 in BJ-hTERT fibroblasts significantly delays DNA repair in functional Comet assays. HIC1 SUMOylation favours its interaction with MTA1, a component of NuRD complexes. In contrast with irreparable DSBs induced by 16-hours of etoposide treatment, we show that repairable DSBs induced by 1 h etoposide treatment do not increase HIC1 SUMOylation or its interaction with MTA1. Furthermore, HIC1 SUMOylation is dispensable for DNA repair since the non-SUMOylatable E316A mutant is as efficient as wt HIC1 in Comet assays. Upon induction of irreparable DSBs, the ATM-mediated increase of HIC1 SUMOylation is independent of its effector kinase Chk2. Moreover, irreparable DSBs strongly increase both the interaction of HIC1 with MTA1 and MTA3 and their binding to the SIRT1 promoter. To characterize the molecular mechanisms sustained by this increased repression potential, we established global expression profiles of BJ-hTERT fibroblasts transfected with HIC1-siRNA or control siRNA and treated or not with etoposide. We identified 475 genes potentially repressed by HIC1 with cell death and cell cycle as the main cellular functions identified by pathway analysis. Among them, CXCL12, EPHA4, TGFβR3 and TRIB2, also known as MTA1 target-genes, were validated by qRT-PCR analyses. Thus, our data demonstrate that HIC1 SUMOylation is important for the transcriptional response to non-repairable DSBs but dispensable for DNA repair.

  6. Estimating the real world daily usage and cost for exenatide twice daily and liraglutide in Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK based on volumes dispensed by pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonell AL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amanda L McDonell,1 Urpo Kiiskinen,2 Danielle C Zammit,3 Robert W Kotchie,1 Per-Olof Thuresson,3 Claudia Nicolay,4 Thomas Haslam,1 Michiel Bruinsma,5 Anne-Jeanine Janszen-Van Oosterhout,6 Thorsten Otto41IMS Health, London, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Helsinki, Finland; 3IMS Health, Basel, Switzerland; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, Germany; 5IMS Health, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 6Eli Lilly Nederland, Houten, the NetherlandsBackground: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonists are indicated for improvement of glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Cost is one aspect of treatment to be considered, in addition to clinical benefits, when selecting optimal therapy for a patient. The objective of this study was to estimate the average dose usage and real world daily cost of the GLP-1 receptor agonists, exenatide twice daily and liraglutide once daily, in Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK.Methods: Administrative databases were used to source the data from longitudinal records of dispensed prescriptions. Data were extracted from the IMS Longitudinal Prescription database which captures details of prescriptions dispensed in pharmacies. Information on the dispensed quantity of each product was used to estimate average daily usage per patient. Daily dose usage was multiplied by the public price per unit to estimate daily cost.Results: The dispensed volume in Germany corresponded to a mean dispensed daily dose of 16.81 µg for exenatide twice daily and 1.37 mg for liraglutide (mean daily cost €4.02 and €4.54, respectively. In the Netherlands, average dispensed daily doses of 17.07 µg and 1.49 mg were observed for exenatide twice daily and liraglutide (mean daily cost €3.05 and €3.97, respectively. In the UK, the mean dispensed volume corresponded to a daily usage of 20.49 µg for exenatide twice daily and 1.50 mg for liraglutide (mean daily cost £2.53 and £3.28, respectively.Conclusion: Estimates of average daily

  7. Extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a simulated-patient study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erku DA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Asfaw Erku,1 Abebe Basazn Mekuria,2 Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data. Requests of six tracer prescription-only medicines (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid capsule, amitriptyline, captopril, glibenclamide [also known as glyburide], omeprazole capsule, and sildenafil citrate and upper respiratory tract infection were selected as the simulated clinical scenario.Results: Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule was dispensed when requested in 87.93% of the dispensaries. All of the CDROs dispensed omeprazole upon request. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra was in stock in 96.55% of the CDROs, all of which issued the requested number of tablets without asking why or for whom the drug was needed. Amitriptyline, captopril, and glibenclamide (glyburide were dispensed in 84.48%, 89.65%, and 87.93% of CDROs upon the provision of an empty container. Antibiotics were obtained from 75.86% of CDROs for presentation of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the dispensed antibiotics, the most common was amoxicillin (93.18%, followed by amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule (72.72%, and azithromycin (50%. Only 4.5% of the dispensaries asked about drug allergies, and 15.9% of the CDROs informed the simulated patient about the possible side effects of the drugs.Conclusion: This study revealed a very high

  8. Control and monitoring of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with novel high-load, low-density “meso” dispensers of sex pheromone and pear ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel low-density per ha “meso” dispensers loaded with both pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone-alone for their mating disru...

  9. 从药品调剂流程分析门诊药师的调剂风险%Analysis on Risk of Drug Dispensing of Outpatient Pharmacists from the Process of Drug Dispensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沃红缨; 陈萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the general risk of drug dispensing of outpatient pharmacists, in order to provide a reference for optimizing the internal quality management in the hospital. Methods: Based on the working process of drug dispensing of outpatient pharmacists, the descriptive research method was used in combination with the theory on drug risk management to recognize and analyze the internal risks. Results:The risk of drug dispensing was an objective existence. Human, drugs and working environment were the 3 categories of risks. The knowledge limitation of medical staff, the lack of professional knowledge and the lack of responsibility were the human factors of the risk. The suitability of prescription, the quality of drugs and the inherent adverse reactions of drugs were the material factors of the risk. The noise, narrow space and the unreasonable layout of working place were the environmental factors of the risk. Conclusion:Although the risk of drug dispensing does exist, hospitals can minimize the risk by enhancing the management of hospital internal quality, such as establishing medical staff training system, standardizing management of drugs and improving the working environment.%目的:探讨门诊药师调剂药品的共性风险,为优化医院内部质量管理提供参考。方法:以门诊药品调剂工作流程为依据,采用描述性研究方法,联系药品风险管理理论,识别及分析医院内部存在的风险因子。结果:药品调剂风险是客观存在的。人、药品及工作环境是3大类风险。其中医务人员的认知局限,专业知识老化或缺乏,工作责任心不强等是人的风险因子;处方的适宜性,药品质量优劣,药品固有的不良反应是物的风险因子;喧闹、狭小及布局不合理的工作场所是环境的风险因子。结论:虽然药品调剂风险具有客观存在性,但可以通过强化医院内部质量管理,如建立医务人员在职培训体

  10. Phylogenomics reveals surprising sets of essential and dispensable clades of MIKC(c)-group MADS-box genes in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramzow, Lydia; Theißen, Günter

    2015-06-01

    MIKC(C)-group MADS-box genes are involved in the control of many developmental processes in flowering plants. All of these genes are members of one of 17 clades that had already been established in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of extant angiosperms. These clades trace back to 11 seed plant-specific superclades that were present in the MRCA of extant seed plants. Due to their important role in plant development and evolution, the origin of the clades of MIKC(C)-group genes has been studied in great detail. In contrast, whether any of these ancestral clades has ever been lost completely in any species has not been investigated so far. Here, we determined the presence of these clades by BLAST, PSI-BLAST, and Hidden Markov Model searches and by phylogenetic methods in the whole genomes of 27 flowering plants. Our data suggest that there are only three superclades of which all members have been lost in at least one of the investigated flowering plant species, and only few additional losses of angiosperm-specific MIKC(C)-group gene clades could be identified. Remarkably, for one seed plant superclade (TM8-like genes) and one angiosperm clade (FLC-like genes), multiple losses were identified, suggesting that the function of these genes is dispensable or that gene loss might have even been adaptive. The clades of MIKC(C)-group genes that have never been wiped out in any of the investigated species comprises, in addition to the expected floral organ identity genes, also TM3-like (SOC1-like), StMADS11-like (SVP-like), AGL17-like and GGM13-like (Bsister) genes, suggesting that these genes are more important for angiosperm development and evolution than has previously been appreciated.

  11. The DUF582 Proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis Bind to Components of the ESCRT Machinery, Which Is Dispensable for Bacterial Growth In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromman, François; Perrinet, Stéphanie; Gehre, Lena; Subtil, Agathe

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram negative bacteria that develop exclusively inside eukaryotic host cells, within a membrane-bounded compartment. Members of the family Chlamydiaceae, such as Chlamydia trachomatis, are pathogenic species infecting vertebrates. They have a very reduced genome and exploit the capacities of their host for their own development, mainly through the secretion of proteins tailored to interfere with eukaryotic processes, called effector proteins. All Chlamydiaceae possess genes coding for four to five effectors that share a domain of unknown function (DUF582). Here we show that four of these effectors, which represent the conserved set in all Chlamydiaceae, accumulate in the infectious form of C. trachomatis, and are therefore likely involved in an early step of the developmental cycle. The fifth member of the family, CT621, is specific to C. trachomatis, and is secreted during the growth phase. Using a two-hybrid screen in yeast we identified an interaction between the host protein Hrs and the DUF582, which we confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations in co-transfected mammalian cells. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence that a second domain of one of the DUF582 proteins, CT619, binds the host protein Tsg101. Hrs and Tsg101 are both implicated in a well conserved machinery of the eukaryotic cell called the ESCRT machinery, which is involved in several cellular processes requiring membrane constriction. Using RNA interference targeting proteins implicated at different stages of ESCRT-driven processes, or inhibition by expression of a dominant negative mutant of VPS4, we demonstrated that this machinery was dispensable for bacterial entry, multiplication and differentiation into infectious progeny, and for uptake of glycogen into the parasitophorous vacuole. In light of these observations we discuss how the DUF582 proteins might target the ESCRT machinery during infection. PMID:27774439

  12. Modeling error in experimental assays using the bootstrap principle: understanding discrepancies between assays using different dispensing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sonya M.; Ekins, Sean; Chodera, John D.

    2015-12-01

    All experimental assay data contains error, but the magnitude, type, and primary origin of this error is often not obvious. Here, we describe a simple set of assay modeling techniques based on the bootstrap principle that allow sources of error and bias to be simulated and propagated into assay results. We demonstrate how deceptively simple operations—such as the creation of a dilution series with a robotic liquid handler—can significantly amplify imprecision and even contribute substantially to bias. To illustrate these techniques, we review an example of how the choice of dispensing technology can impact assay measurements, and show how large contributions to discrepancies between assays can be easily understood and potentially corrected for. These simple modeling techniques—illustrated with an accompanying IPython notebook—can allow modelers to understand the expected error and bias in experimental datasets, and even help experimentalists design assays to more effectively reach accuracy and imprecision goals.

  13. Modeling error in experimental assays using the bootstrap principle: understanding discrepancies between assays using different dispensing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sonya M; Ekins, Sean; Chodera, John D

    2015-12-01

    All experimental assay data contains error, but the magnitude, type, and primary origin of this error is often not obvious. Here, we describe a simple set of assay modeling techniques based on the bootstrap principle that allow sources of error and bias to be simulated and propagated into assay results. We demonstrate how deceptively simple operations--such as the creation of a dilution series with a robotic liquid handler--can significantly amplify imprecision and even contribute substantially to bias. To illustrate these techniques, we review an example of how the choice of dispensing technology can impact assay measurements, and show how large contributions to discrepancies between assays can be easily understood and potentially corrected for. These simple modeling techniques--illustrated with an accompanying IPython notebook--can allow modelers to understand the expected error and bias in experimental datasets, and even help experimentalists design assays to more effectively reach accuracy and imprecision goals.

  14. Controlled Dispensing and Mixing of Pico- to Nanoliter Volumes Using On-Demand Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2013-07-08

    We present an integrated droplet-on-demand microfluidic platform for dispensing, mixing, incubating, extracting and analyzing by mass spectrometry pico- to nanoliter sized droplets. Droplet generation is accomplished using computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Controlled actuation of valves for different aqueous streams enables controlled dosing and rapid mixing of reagents within droplets in the droplet generation area or in a region with widening channel cross-section. Following incubation, which takes place while droplets travel in the oil stream, the droplet contents are extracted to an aqueous channel for subsequent ionization at an integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. As an initial demonstration of the platform, rapid enzymatic digestions of a model protein are performed in droplets and detected on-line by nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  15. The impact of an automated dose-dispensing scheme on user compliance, medication understanding, and medication stockpiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Bira; Haugbølle, Lotte Stig

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that a new health technology, automated dose-dispensing (ADD), would result in benefits for medication users, including increased compliance, enhanced medication understanding, and improved safety. However, it was legislators and health professionals who pinpointed...... the assumed user benefits. Neither Danish nor international studies dealt with users' perspective on ADD in general or with respect to the pinpointed benefits, and thus exploration was needed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to respond to the following research question: How does ADD affect users......' handling and consumption of medication in terms of compliance behavior, and how does the assumption of user benefits made by health professionals and legislators measure up to users' experiences with ADD? METHODS: The results built on a secondary analysis of 9 qualitative interviews with a varied selection...

  16. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  17. Microbiological evaluation of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines from the Army barracks of Brigata Meccanizzata Aosta located in Messina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Beninati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines (VMs. The study was carried out on 203 samples from 15 VMs located in 5 Army barracks in Messina. The samples included: water used for preparation of beverages, swab of water tank, swab of blender machine, chocolate powder, milk powder, cappuccino and chocolate drink (29 samples for each types. All samples were examined for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostri - dium perfringens, Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For the water samples the colony count (CC at 22°C and at 37°C was made. The average values of CC at 22°C and at 37°C were of 10.86x10²±8.72x10² CFU/mL and of 21.72x10²±16.44x10² CFU/mL, respectively. P. aeruginosa, coliform bacteria, S. aureus, E. coli and molds were detected from water. The TBC ranged from 176 CFU/g (±275.2 for chocolate powder to 294.8±69.4 CFU/g for milk powder. S. aureus and molds were isolated from milk powder, while coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were observed in chocolate powder. The average TBC for hot beverages ranged from 34.32x10³±97.77x10³ CFU/mL for cappuccino to 36.59x10³±10.47x104 CFU/mL for chocolate drink. Coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and molds were detected from cappuccino, while enterococci and molds were observed in chocolate drink. The microbiological characteristics of the water and powders, hygiene, and the periodic cleaning of machines, influenced the microbiological quality of the hot beverages dispensed by VMs.

  18. Verification of an Automated, Digital Dispensing Platform for At-Will Broth Microdilution-Based Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth P; Kirby, James E

    2016-09-01

    With rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, there is often a need to perform susceptibility testing for less commonly used or newer antimicrobial agents. Such testing can often be performed only by using labor-intensive, manual dilution methods and lies outside the capacity of most clinical labs, necessitating reference laboratory testing and thereby delaying the availability of susceptibility data. To address the compelling clinical need for microbiology laboratories to perform such testing in-house, we explored a novel, automated, at-will broth microdilution-based susceptibility testing platform. Specifically, we used the modified inkjet printer technology in the HP D300 digital dispensing system to dispense, directly from stock solutions into a 384-well plate, the 2-fold serial dilution series required for broth microdilution testing. This technology was combined with automated absorbance readings and data analysis to determine MICs. Performance was verified by testing members of the Enterobacteriaceae for susceptibility to ampicillin, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, gentamicin, meropenem, and tetracycline in comparison to the results obtained with a broth microdilution reference standard. In precision studies, essential and categorical agreement levels were 96.8% and 98.3%, respectively. Furthermore, significantly fewer D300-based measurements were outside ±1 dilution from the modal MIC, suggesting enhanced reproducibility. In accuracy studies performed using a panel of 80 curated clinical isolates, rates of essential and categorical agreement and very major, major, and minor errors were 94%, 96.6%, 0%, 0%, and 3.4%, respectively. Based on these promising initial results, it is anticipated that the D300-based methodology will enable hospital-based clinical microbiology laboratories to perform at-will broth microdilution testing of antimicrobials and to address a critical testing gap. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All

  19. Patient views on an electronic dispensing device for prepackaged polypharmacy: a qualitative assessment in an ambulatory setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allemann SS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Samuel S Allemann, Kurt E Hersberger, Isabelle ArnetPharmaceutical Care Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, SwitzerlandObjective: To collect opinions on medication management aids (MMAs in general and on an electronic MMA (e-MMA dispensing prepackaged polypharmacy in sealed pouches.Study setting: The setting involved community-dwelling older adults in Basel, Switzerland, in 2013.Study design: The study involved 1 a 14-day trial with the e-MMA and 2 a focus group to identify general attributes of MMAs, their applicability to the e-MMA, and possible target groups for the e-MMA.Data collection methods: Six participants using long-term polypharmacy and willing to try new technologies completed the 14-day trial and participated in the focus group. Inductive content analysis was performed to extract data.Principal findings: Participants rated ten of 17 general attributes as clearly applicable to the e-MMA and five as unsuitable. Attributes pertained to three interrelating themes: product design, patient support, and living conditions. Envisaged target groups were patients with time-sensitive medication regimens, patients with dementia, the visually impaired, and several patients living together to prevent accidental intake of the wrong medication.Conclusion: The evaluated e-MMA for prepackaged polypharmacy met the majority of the requirements set for an MMA. Patients' living conditions, such as mobility, remain the key determinants for acceptance of an e-MMA.Keywords: pharmaceutical care, medication adherence, medication management aids, automated drug dispensing

  20. Does anti-malarial drug knowledge predict anti-malarial dispensing practice in drug outlets? A survey of medicine retailers in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusk Andria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya, where it is the fifth leading cause of death in both children and adults. Effectively managing malaria is dependent upon appropriate treatment. In Kenya, between 17 to 83 percent of febrile individuals first seek treatment for febrile illness over the counter from medicine retailers. Understanding medicine retailer knowledge and behaviour in treating suspected malaria and dispensing anti-malarials is crucial. Methods To investigate medicine retailer knowledge about anti-malarials and their dispensing practices, a survey was conducted of all retail drug outlets that sell anti-malarial medications and serve residents of the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in the Bungoma East District of western Kenya. Results Most of the medicine retailers surveyed (65% were able to identify artemether-lumefantrine (AL as the Kenyan Ministry of Health recommended first-line anti-malarial therapy for uncomplicated malaria. Retailers who correctly identified this treatment were also more likely to recommend AL to adult and paediatric customers. However, the proportion of medicine retailers who recommend the correct treatment is disappointingly low. Only 48% would recommend AL to adults, and 37% would recommend it to children. It was discovered that customer demand has an influence on retailer behaviour. Retailer training and education were found to be correlated with anti-malarial drug knowledge, which in turn is correlated with dispensing practices. Medicine retailer behaviour, including patient referral practice and dispensing practices, are also correlated with knowledge of the first-line anti-malarial medication. The Kenya Ministry of Health guidelines were found to influence retailer drug stocking and dispensing behaviours. Conclusion Most medicine retailers could identify the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but the percentage that could

  1. Extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a simulated-patient study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Surur, Abdrrahman Shemsu; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data. Requests of six tracer prescription-only medicines (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid capsule, amitriptyline, captopril, glibenclamide [also known as glyburide], omeprazole capsule, and sildenafil citrate) and upper respiratory tract infection were selected as the simulated clinical scenario. Results Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule was dispensed when requested in 87.93% of the dispensaries. All of the CDROs dispensed omeprazole upon request. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) was in stock in 96.55% of the CDROs, all of which issued the requested number of tablets without asking why or for whom the drug was needed. Amitriptyline, captopril, and glibenclamide (glyburide) were dispensed in 84.48%, 89.65%, and 87.93% of CDROs upon the provision of an empty container. Antibiotics were obtained from 75.86% of CDROs for presentation of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the dispensed antibiotics, the most common was amoxicillin (93.18%), followed by amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule (72.72%), and azithromycin (50%). Only 4.5% of the dispensaries asked about drug allergies, and 15.9% of the CDROs informed the simulated patient about the possible side effects of the drugs. Conclusion This study revealed a very high rate of dispensing of prescription-only medicines without a prescription. Antimicrobials and drugs for chronic diseases were obtained with ease from almost all of the randomly sampled CDROs. Putting good dispensing practice into effect and adhering to the existing national

  2. Laboratory tests in the clinical risk management of potential drug-drug interactions: a cross-sectional study using drug-dispensing data from 100 Dutch community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Arjen F J; De Koning, Fred H P; De Smet, Peter A G M; Van Solinge, Wouter W; Egberts, Toine C G

    2009-01-01

    Patient safety and the life cycle of a drug are negatively influenced by the still increasing occurrence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Clinical risk management of potential DDIs is required in patients using drugs to influence the benefit-risk profile positively. Information about laboratory test results, in particular, may be useful in the assessment of potential DDIs for the individual patient. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency and nature of laboratory tests required for the assessment of the clinical relevance of potential DDIs in Dutch community pharmacies. In addition, the nature and clinical relevance of these potential DDIs is analysed. All patients from 100 Dutch community pharmacies using, according to dispensing information, two or more drugs concomitantly on a specified date (Wednesday, 4 April 2007), were included (n = 223,019). The anonymous dispensing data of the included patients were analysed against a list of DDIs requiring laboratory tests for the assessment of their clinical relevance. The number of patients at risk for these potential DDIs with severe adverse reactions was calculated. The frequency of potential DDIs requiring laboratory tests were stratified by age, sex and degree of polypharmacy. Of the included patients, 24.4% had one or more potential DDIs (n = 54,427). In 9.0% of the included patients, one or more laboratory tests for the assessment of clinical relevance of the potential DDI were required (n = 19,968). The frequency of DDIs requiring laboratory tests increased with increasing age and number of drugs, but was not related to sex. The most commonly required laboratory tests were for renal function (42.2%), electrolytes (20.1%) and coagulation (13.1%). The percentage of patients at risk for potential DDIs requiring laboratory tests with adverse reaction category F (serious, irrecoverable disablement or death) was 2.5%; category E (increased risk of failure of life-saving therapy) was 0

  3. The US Food and Drug Administration’s drug safety recommendations and long-acting beta2-agonist dispensing pattern changes in adult asthma patients: 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Esther H; Seymour, Sally; Goulding, Margie R; Kang, Elizabeth M; Major, Jacqueline M; Iyasu, Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Background Emerging safety issues associated with long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) have led to multiple regulatory activities by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 2003, including Drug Safety Communications (DSCs) in 2010. These DSCs had three specific recommendations for the safe use of LABA products in adult asthma treatment. Methods We examined the initiation of LABA-containing products for adult asthma treatment using an intermittent time series approach in a claims database from 2003 to 2012. We assessed the alignment of dispensing patterns with the following 2010 FDA recommendations: 1) contraindicated use of single-ingredient (SI)-LABA without an asthma controller medication (ACM); 2) a LABA should only be used when asthma is not adequately controlled on inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) or ACM; and 3) step-down asthma therapy (e.g., discontinue LABA) when asthma control is achieved. Results There were 477,922 adults (18–64 years old) dispensed a new LABA during 2003–2012. Among LABA initiators, patients who initiated an SI-LABA and who did “not” have an ACM dispensed on the same date decreased from >9% in 2003 (the initial labeling change) to <2% post 2010 DSCs (p-value <0.0001 in the segmented regression model). The proportion of asthma patients dispensed an ICS in 6 months prior to initiating LABA treatment did not increase. The proportion of patients with longer than 4 months of continuous treatment did not decrease over the study period. Conclusion Although the decrease in SI-LABA initiation is consistent with FDA’s recommendations, low ICS dispensing before initiating a LABA and LABA continuation practices require further efforts to move toward the recommended safe practices. PMID:28356763

  4. Medication adherence in patients with diabetes mellitus: does physician drug dispensing enhance quality of care? Evidence from a large health claims database in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Carola A; Reich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background The drug-dispensing channel is a scarcely explored determinant of medication adherence, which is considered as a key indicator for the quality of care among patients with diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the difference in adherence between diabetes patients who obtained their medication directly from a prescribing physician (physician dispensing [PD]) or via a pharmacy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large health care claims database from 2011 to 2014. Patients with diabetes of all ages and receiving at least one oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) prescription were included. We calculated patients’ individual adherence to OADs defined as the proportion of days covered (PDC), which was measured over 1 year after patient identification. Good adherence was defined as PDC ≥80%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the PDC and the dispensing channel (PD, pharmacy). Results We identified a total of 10,430 patients prescribed drugs by a dispensing physician and 16,292 patients receiving drugs from a pharmacy. Medication adherence was poor in both patient groups: ~40% of the study population attained good adherence to OADs. We found no significant impact of PD on the adherence level in diabetes patients. Covariates associated significantly with good adherence were older age groups, male sex, occurrence of comorbidity and combined diabetes drug therapy. Conclusion In conclusion, adherence to antihyperglycemic medication is suboptimal among patients with diabetes. The results of this study provide evidence that the dispensing channel does not have an impact on adherence in Switzerland. Certainly, medication adherence needs to be improved in both supply settings. Physicians as well as pharmacists are encouraged to develop and implement useful tools to increase patients’ adherence behavior. PMID:27695299

  5. Prospective encounter study of the degree of adherence to patient care indicators related to drug dispensing in Health Care facilities: A Sri Lankan perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettihewa, Lukshmy Menik; Isuru, Amarasinghe; Kalana, Jayarathna

    2011-04-01

    The World Health Organization-recommended patient care indicators in Government Hospitals were assessed in 422 patients attending the Outpatient Department in selected hospitals of the Galle district in Southern Province. The average dispensing time (ADT), percentage of drugs actually dispensed (PDAD), percentage of drugs adequately labeled (PDAL) and patient's knowledge on correct dosage (PKCD) were compared in these selected teaching hospitals (TH), general hospitals (GHs) and district hospitals (DHs) in Galle. ADT in DH (1.16 min) and GH (1.07 min) were high when compared with ADT in TH (0.81 min). PDAD was 100% in DH, 97.79% in GH and lowest in TH (94.64%). PDAL was highest (22.66%) in TH, 17.57% in GH and lowest in DH (1.57%). PKCD was 100% in GH and lowest in DH (0%) and only 50% in TH in Galle district. We noted that there was a significant difference in ADT in all three categories (P PKCD was 0% due to negligence in dispensing practices. We also noted a 100% PKCD only in GH due to the practice of a well-prepared correct labeling system in GH. We noticed that these patients were provided drugs with inadequate labeling and that patients had only a poor knowledge about the drug administration schedule. We conclude that there was a low dispenser-patient ratio in all three hospitals and that there was a need for an implementation plan for proper dispensing techniques by introducing a well-prepared drug labeling system in a printed format.

  6. The Yeast GRASP Grh1 Colocalizes with COPII and Is Dispensable for Organizing the Secretory Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Stephanie K.; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Strack, Rita L.; Austin, Jotham R; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the “Golgi Reassembly and Stacking Protein” (GRASP) family has been implicated in Golgi stacking, but the broader functions of GRASP proteins are still unclear. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a single nonessential GRASP homolog called Grh1. However, Golgi cisternae in S. cerevisiae are not organized into stacks, so a possible structural role for Grh1 has been difficult to test. Here we examined the localization and function of Grh1 in S. cerevisiae and in the ...

  7. Photon-Enhanced Thermionic Emission in Cesiated p-Type and n-Type Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Dionigi, Fabio; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    electrons. Efficiencies above 60% have been predicted theoretically for high solar concentration systems. Silicon is an interesting absorber material for high efficiency PETE solar cells, partly due to its mechanical and thermal properties and partly due to its electrical properties, including a close......Photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) is a relatively new concept for high efficiency solar cells that utilize not only the energy of electrons excited across the band gap by photons, as in conventional photovoltaic solar cells, but also the energy usual lost to thermalization of the excited...

  8. Association between multi-dose drug dispensing and quality of drug treatment--a register-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sjöberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the elderly in Scandinavia, multi-dose drug dispensing (MDD is a common alternative to ordinary prescriptions (OP. MDD patients receive their drugs in unit bags, one for each dose occasion. The prescribing procedure differs between MDD and OP. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between MDD and quality of drug treatment (QDT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was performed of all inhabitants in Region Västra Götaland alive on December 31st 2007, aged ≥65 years, with ≥1 prescribed drug and ≥2 health care visits for ≥2 diagnoses for obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and/or cardiovascular disease in 2005-2007 (n = 24,146. For each patient, drug treatment on December 31st 2007 was estimated from drugs registered in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. QDT was evaluated according to established quality indicators (≥10 drugs, Long-acting benzodiazepines, Drugs with anticholinergic action, ≥3 psychotropics, and Drugs combinations that should be avoided. Logistic regression, with adjustments for age, sex, burden of disease, and residence, was performed to investigate the association between MDD and QDT. Mean age was 77 years, 51% were females, and 20% used MDD. For all quality indicators, the proportion of patients with poor QDT was greater in patients with MDD than in patients with OP (all P<0.0001. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals for poor QDT (MDD patients vs. OP patients ranged from 1.47 (1.30-1.65 to 7.08 (6.30-7.96 and from 1.36 (1.18-1.57 to 5.48 (4.76-6.30, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with MDD have poorer QDT than patients with OP. This cannot be explained by differences in age, sex, burden of disease, or residence. These findings must be taken into account when designing alternative prescribing systems. Further research is needed to evaluate causative factors and if the findings also apply to

  9. A.S.P.E.N. clinical guidelines: parenteral nutrition ordering, order review, compounding, labeling, and dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullata, Joseph I; Gilbert, Karen; Sacks, Gordon; Labossiere, Reginald J; Crill, Cathy; Goday, Praveen; Kumpf, Vanessa J; Mattox, Todd W; Plogsted, Steve; Holcombe, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication available for patient care within a complex clinical process. Beyond application of best practice recommendations to guide safe use and optimize clinical outcome, several issues are better addressed through evidence-based policies, procedures, and practices. This document provides evidence-based guidance for clinical practices involving PN prescribing, order review, and preparation. A systematic review of the best available evidence was used by an expert work group to answer a series of questions about PN prescribing, order review, compounding, labeling, and dispensing. Concepts from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) format were applied as appropriate. The specific clinical guideline recommendations were developed using consensus prior to review and approval by the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Board of Directors. The following questions were addressed: (1) Does education of prescribers improve PN ordering? (2) What is the maximum safe osmolarity of PN admixtures intended for peripheral vein administration? (3) What are the appropriate calcium intake and calcium-phosphate ratios in PN for optimal neonatal bone mineralization? (4) What are the clinical advantages or disadvantages of commercially available premade ("premixed") multichambered PN formulations compared with traditional/customized PN formulations? (5) What are the clinical (infection, catheter occlusion) advantages or disadvantages of 2-in-1 compared with 3-in-1 PN admixtures? (6) What macronutrient dosing limits are expected to provide for the most stable 3-in-1 admixtures? (7) What are the most appropriate recommendations for optimizing calcium (gluconate) and (Na- or K-) phosphate compatibility in PN admixtures? (8) What micronutrient contamination is present in parenteral stock solutions currently used to compound PN admixtures? (9) Is it safe to use the PN admixture

  10. Validation of a new protocol for {sup 18}F-FDG infusion using an automatic combined dispenser and injector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni; Maioli, Claudio; Ignelzi, Giuseppe; Del Sole, Angelo [University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences and Centre of Molecular and Cellular Imaging (IMAGO), Milan (Italy); Unit of Nuclear Medicine, San Paolo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Services, Milan (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are usually administered in unit doses partitioned from multi-dose vials. The partitioning typically takes place in a radiopharmacy, depending on local practice. Automatic, as opposed to manual, partitioning and administration should reduce radiation exposure of the personnel involved, improve the accuracy of the administration and mitigate contamination. This study set out to verify and validate the {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) administration procedure performed using Intego trademark (MEDRAD, Inc., Warrendale, PA, USA), a combined dispenser and injector system. We considered maintenance of sterility and the system's potential to improve, with respect to the manual procedure, the accuracy of net administered {sup 18}F-FDG radioactivity in patients and the radiation protection of operators. A media-fill procedure was used to assess whether sterility is maintained during use of the Intego trademark system. Simulating a typical working day's setup and use of the system, we investigated the accuracy of the net administered {sup 18}F-FDG activity obtained with Intego trademark versus the manual dose delivery system. We also measured personnel radiation exposure during use of Intego trademark and during manual administration and recorded and compared environmental doses in the two conditions. The radiopharmaceutical remained sterile in all the tests performed. The accuracy of the net {sup 18}F-FDG activity delivered to the patients was found to be within 3 % points, as required by European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines on {sup 18}F-FDG imaging procedures. With Intego trademark, the residual radioactivity in the tubing was 0.20 MBq, corresponding to approximately 0.07 % of the mean activity delivered. With manual injection, the residual radioactivity in the syringe averaged 7.37 MBq, corresponding to a mean error of 2.9 % in the delivered dose. During the injection step of the positron emission

  11. Fusion of intestinal epithelial cells with bone marrow derived cells is dispensable for tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joan H; Rodermond, Hans M; Zimberlin, Cheryl D; Lascano, Valeria; De Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Richel, Dick J; Medema, Jan Paul; Vermeulen, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine is characterized by an immense cellular turn-over ascertaining an extensive regenerative capacity. Multiple reports suggest that besides the local intestinal stem cell pool, circulating cells of bone marrow origin (BMDCs) contribute to this process by fusing with the epithelial lineage. However, the functional relevance of these observations is unknown. In the present study we employ a model system in which we cannot only detect cell fusion but also examine the functional importance of this process in vivo. Our results indicate that fusion between BMDCs and intestinal epithelial cells is an extremely rare event under physiological conditions. More importantly, by employing a system in which fusion-derived cells can be specifically deleted after extensive tissue damage, we present evidence that cell fusion is not relevant for tissue regeneration. Our data decisively demonstrates that intestinal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration is not dependent on cell fusion involving BMDCs.

  12. Comparative study of azathioprine-interferon g dispensing to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Drakopanagiotakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. Introduction: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is characterized by progressive deterioration of lung function, leading ultimately to death. No pharmacological treatment has been found to stabilize the evolution of the disease, but interferon-g and azathioprine have been used as therapeutic options. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of treatment with interferon-g plus low dose prednisone or azathioprine plus low dose prednisone in patients with IPF. Materials and methods: Patients newly diagnosed with IPF were recruited, 22 in total, of whom 10 received azathioprine plus prednisone and 12 patients received interferon-g plus prednisone for six months. Clinical evaluation, lung function tests, HRCT, bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL were performed at baseline and after six months of treatment. Results: All patients were alive after six months of treatment. No statistically significant difference between the two groups was detected regarding clinical deterioration, inflammatory biomarkers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and BAL cell sub-populations. There was a trend, not statistically significant, towards a greater reduction in forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in the interferon-g group. Conclusion: Interferon-g does not offer any therapeutic advantage over azathioprine as regards the clinical course, lung function tests and BAL cell counts of patients with IPF. Pneumon 2009, 22(3:240-253.

  13. Implementation and development of an automated, ultra-high-capacity, acoustic, flexible dispensing platform for assay-ready plate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Dylan; Northwood, Roger; Owen, Paul; Simkiss, Ellen; Brierley, Andrew; Cross, Kevin; Slaney, Andrew; Davis, Miranda; Bath, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Compound management faces the daily challenge of providing high-quality samples to drug discovery. The advent of new screening technologies has seen demand for liquid samples move toward nanoliter ranges, dispensed by contactless acoustic droplet ejection. Within AstraZeneca, a totally integrated assay-ready plate production platform has been created to fully exploit the advantages of this technology. This enables compound management to efficiently deliver large throughputs demanded by high-throughput screening while maintaining regular delivery of smaller numbers of compounds in varying plate formats for cellular or biochemical concentration-response curves in support of hit and lead optimization (structure-activity relationship screening). The automation solution, CODA, has the capability to deliver compounds on demand for single- and multiple-concentration ranges, in batch sizes ranging from 1 sample to 2 million samples, integrating seamlessly into local compound and test management systems. The software handles compound orders intelligently, grouping test requests together dependent on output plate type and serial dilution ranges so that source compound vessels are shared among numerous tests, ensuring conservation of sample, reduced labware and costs, and efficiency of work cell logistics. We describe the development of CODA to address the customer demand, challenges experienced, learning made, and subsequent enhancements.

  14. Lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt1) is dispensable for protein O-mannosylation by Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Dávalos, Laura Elena; Espitia, Clara; González-Cerón, Gabriela; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria; Servín-González, Luis

    2014-01-01

    A protein glycosylation system related to that for protein mannosylation in yeast is present in many actinomycetes. This system involves polyprenyl phosphate mannose synthase (Ppm), protein mannosyl transferase (Pmt), and lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt). In this study, we obtained a series of mutants in the ppm (sco1423), lnt1 (sco1014), and pmt (sco3154) genes of Streptomyces coelicolor, which encode Ppm, Lnt1, and Pmt, to analyze their requirement for glycosylation of the heterologously expressed Apa glycoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results show that both Ppm and Pmt were required for Apa glycosylation, but that Lnt1 was dispensable for both Apa and the bacteriophage φC31 receptor glycosylation. A bacterial two-hybrid assay revealed that contrary to M. tuberculosis, Lnt1 of S. coelicolor does not interact with Ppm. The D2 catalytic domain of M. tuberculosisPpm was sufficient for complementation of an S. coelicolor double mutant lacking Lnt1 and Ppm, both for Apa glycosylation and for glycosylation of φC31 receptor. On the other hand, M. tuberculosisPmt was not active in S. coelicolor, even when correctly localized to the cytoplasmic membrane, showing fundamental differences in the requirements for Pmt activity in these two species.

  15. A motorized pellet dispenser to deliver high intensity training of the single pellet reaching and grasping task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Espín, Abel; Forero, Juan; Schmidt, Emma K A; Fouad, Karim; Fenrich, Keith K

    2017-08-25

    The single pellet reaching and grasping (SPG) task is widely used to study forelimb motor performance in rodents and to provide rehabilitation after neurological disorders. Nonetheless, the time necessary to train animals precludes its use in settings where high-intensity training is required. In the current study, we developed a novel high-intensity training protocol for the SPG task based on a motorized pellet dispenser and a dual-window enclosure. We tested the protocol in naive adult rats and found 1) an increase in the intensity of training without increasing the task time and without affecting the overall performance of the animals, 2) a reduction in the variability within and between experiments in comparison to manual SPG training, and 3) a reduction in the time required to conduct experiments. In summary, we developed and tested a novel protocol for SPG training that provides higher-intensity training while reducing the variability of results observed with other protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceptions of nurse educators regarding the implementation of the occupational specific dispensation at a selected nursing college in Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Netshiswinzhe Mcur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nurses regarding the implementation of the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD in a selected nursing college in Limpopo province. A qualitative approach was used with a purposive sampling method for the selection of 12 voluntary participants who had worked for more than five years and been subjected to the implementation of OSD. In-depth interviews were conducted and data analysed according to Tesch's method. The perceptions of nurse educators were shared through participants' responses to a central research question. Participants expressed different responses, both positive and negative. The findings of this study demonstrated: high expectations, unfair treatment in relation to the implementation, and reactions to introduction of OSD. Participants also identified envisaged ways of improving the situation through the identification of ways to correct the problems. This study recommended that management ensure that nurse educators' remuneration packages are competitive with those of similar professions in the clinical setting. Recognition of nurse educators' additional qualifications, long-service experiences and rural allowance reviews in nursing education should be taken into consideration urgently.

  17. Photobleaching effect in azo-dye containing epoxy resin films: the potentiality of carbon nanotubes as azo-dye dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Costanzo, Guadalupe; Goyanes, Silvia; Ledesma, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Azo-dye molecules may suffer from bleaching under certain illumination conditions. When this photoinduced process occurs, it generates an irreversible effect that is characterized by the loss of absorption of the dye molecule. Moreover, the well-known isomerization of azodye molecules does not occur anymore. In this work it is shown how the addition of a small amount of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) helps to decrease the bleaching effect in a photosensitive guest-host azo-polymer film. Two different systems were fabricated using an epoxy resin as polymer matrix. An azo-dye, Disperse Orange 3, was used as photosensitive material in both systems and MWCNTs were added into one of them. The optical response of the polymeric systems was studied considering the degree of photoinduced birefringence. Photobleaching of the azo-dye was observed in all cases however, the effect is lower for the composite material containing 0.2 wt % MWCNTs. The weak interaction between MWCNTs and dye molecules is less favorable when the material is heated. The optical behavior of the heated composite material suggests that carbon nanotubes can be potentially used as azo dye dispensers. The results are interpreted in terms of the non-covalent interaction between azo-dye molecules and MWCNTs.

  18. DNA methylation is dispensable for changes in global chromatin architecture but required for chromocentre formation in early stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan-Zadeh, Vahideh; Rugg-Gunn, Peter; Bazett-Jones, David P

    2017-01-13

    Epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), which are pluripotent cells isolated from early post-implantation mouse embryos (E5.5), show both similarities and differences compared to mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), isolated earlier from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the E3.5 embryo. Previously, we have observed that while chromatin is very dispersed in E3.5 ICM, compact chromatin domains and chromocentres appear in E5.5 epiblasts after embryo implantation. Given that the observed chromatin re-organization in E5.5 epiblasts coincides with an increase in DNA methylation, in this study, we aimed to examine the role of DNA methylation in chromatin re-organization during the in vitro conversion of ESCs to EpiSCs. The requirement for DNA methylation was determined by converting both wild-type and DNA methylation-deficient ESCs to EpiSCs, followed by structural analysis with electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI). We show that the chromatin re-organization which occurs in vivo can be re-capitulated in vitro during the ESC to EpiSC conversion. Indeed, after 7 days in EpiSC media, compact chromatin domains begin to appear throughout the nuclear volume, creating a chromatin organization similar to E5 epiblasts and embryo-derived EpiSCs. Our data demonstrate that DNA methylation is dispensable for this global chromatin re-organization but required for the compaction of pericentromeric chromatin into chromocentres.

  19. Acidic pH and divalent cation sensing by PhoQ are dispensable for systemic salmonellae virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Kevin G; Delbecq, Scott P; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Blanc, Marie-Pierre; Dove, Katja K; Prost, Lynne R; Daley, Margaret E; Zeth, Kornelius; Klevit, Rachel E; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-05-23

    Salmonella PhoQ is a histidine kinase with a periplasmic sensor domain (PD) that promotes virulence by detecting the macrophage phagosome. PhoQ activity is repressed by divalent cations and induced in environments of acidic pH, limited divalent cations, and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP). Previously, it was unclear which signals are sensed by salmonellae to promote PhoQ-mediated virulence. We defined conformational changes produced in the PhoQ PD on exposure to acidic pH that indicate structural flexibility is induced in α-helices 4 and 5, suggesting this region contributes to pH sensing. Therefore, we engineered a disulfide bond between W104C and A128C in the PhoQ PD that restrains conformational flexibility in α-helices 4 and 5. PhoQ(W104C-A128C) is responsive to CAMP, but is inhibited for activation by acidic pH and divalent cation limitation. phoQ(W104C-A128C) Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is virulent in mice, indicating that acidic pH and divalent cation sensing by PhoQ are dispensable for virulence.

  20. Reassessment of the dementia diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in patients enrolled on the cholinesterase inhibitors dispensation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Cristina Flaitt Sanches Piovesana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Reassess the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD in patients treated with anti-cholinesterases dispensed by High Cost Drug stores (Exceptional Drugs Program. Methods: A prospective study to reassess the diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's Disease was conducted (AD. The patients were submitted to the protocol of dementia investigation at the Neurogeriatric Outpatient Clinic of the Teaching Hospital de Base de São José do Rio Preto. Groups were classified using the criteria of the National Institute of Neurologic and Communicative Diseases and Vascular Cerebral Accident and Alzheimer Disease Related Association (NINCDS-ADRDA. The study was completed by applying the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: 106 patients participated, selected randomly from a group of 390 patients contacted when receiving their medication at the High Cost Drug store. Two groups were formed: the first, containing 52 patients who fulfilled criteria for AD (FC Group; and a second, with 54 patients not fulfilling criteria (NFC. The FC Group had older age, worse performance on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE and poorer performance on the DAD. Also, treatment time was longer and drugs doses higher in the FC Group. Conclusion: Study results showed a high number of patients using anti-cholinesterases that did not fulfill the diagnosis criteria for probable AD. Comparison of the two groups revealed different behavior between them, corroborating the hypothesis of inadequate inclusion of the NFC Group patients in the Exceptional Drugs Program.

  1. Policy implementation and financial incentives for nurses in South Africa: a case study on the occupation-specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, the South African government introduced the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD, a financial incentive strategy, to attract, motivate, and retain health professionals in the public sector. Implementation commenced with the nursing sector, but there have been unintended negative consequences. Objective: First, to examine implementation of the OSD for nurses using Hogwood and Gunn's framework that outlines ‘perfect implementation’ pre-conditions. Second, to highlight the conditions for the successful implementation of financial incentives. Methods: A qualitative case study design using a combination of a document review and in-depth interviews with 42 key informants. Results: The study found that there were several implementation weaknesses. Only a few of the pre-conditions were met for OSD policy implementation. The information systems required for successful policy implementation, such as the public sector human resource data base and the South African Nursing Council register of specialised nurses were incomplete and inaccurate, thus undermining the process. Insufficient attention was paid to time and resources, dependency relationships, task specification, and communication and coordination. Conclusion: The implementation of financial incentives requires careful planning and management in order to avoid loss of morale and staff grievances.

  2. The effect of the electronic transmission of prescriptions on dispensing errors and prescription enhancements made in English community pharmacies: a naturalistic stepped wedge study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bryony Dean; Reynolds, Matthew; Sadler, Stacey; Hibberd, Ralph; Avery, Anthony J; Armstrong, Sarah J; Mehta, Rajnikant; Boyd, Matthew J; Barber, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare prevalence and types of dispensing errors and pharmacists’ labelling enhancements, for prescriptions transmitted electronically versus paper prescriptions. Design Naturalistic stepped wedge study. Setting 15 English community pharmacies. Intervention Electronic transmission of prescriptions between prescriber and pharmacy. Main outcome measures Prevalence of labelling errors, content errors and labelling enhancements (beneficial additions to the instructions), as identified by researchers visiting each pharmacy. Results Overall, we identified labelling errors in 5.4% of 16 357 dispensed items, and content errors in 1.4%; enhancements were made for 13.6%. Pharmacists also edited the label for a further 21.9% of electronically transmitted items. Electronically transmitted prescriptions had a higher prevalence of labelling errors (7.4% of 3733 items) than other prescriptions (4.8% of 12 624); OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.76). There was no difference for content errors or enhancements. The increase in labelling errors was mainly accounted for by errors (mainly at one pharmacy) involving omission of the indication, where specified by the prescriber, from the label. A sensitivity analysis in which these cases (n=158) were not considered errors revealed no remaining difference between prescription types. Conclusions We identified a higher prevalence of labelling errors for items transmitted electronically, but this was predominantly accounted for by local practice in a single pharmacy, independent of prescription type. Community pharmacists made labelling enhancements to about one in seven dispensed items, whether electronically transmitted or not. Community pharmacists, prescribers, professional bodies and software providers should work together to agree how items should be dispensed and labelled to best reap the benefits of electronically transmitted prescriptions. Community pharmacists need to ensure their computer systems are promptly updated

  3. Changes to patient limitation for dispensing or prescribing approved narcotic controlled substances for maintenance or detoxification treatment by qualified individual practitioners. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    On September 20, 2007, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (72 FR 53734) proposing to conform its regulations to recent statutory amendments to the Controlled Substances Act that changed certain patient limitations for practitioners who dispense or prescribe certain narcotic drugs for maintenance or detoxification treatment. DEA received one comment in support of this rulemaking. DEA is finalizing the rule as proposed.

  4. Extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a simulated-patient study

    OpenAIRE

    Erku DA; Mekuria AB; Surur AS; Gebresillassie BM

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Asfaw Erku,1 Abebe Basazn Mekuria,2 Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observa...

  5. Assessment of prescribing, dispensing, and patient use pattern of antihypertensive drugs for patients attending outpatient department of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Shukrala F; Gabriel T

    2015-01-01

    Fedila Shukrala,1 Tesfaye Gabriel2 1Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Hypertension is a global concern and is one of the key preventable risk factors for cardiovascular events, resulting in unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prescribing, dispensing and patient use pattern of antih...

  6. The application effect of bedside oral medication dispensing in hospitalized patients%床旁摆发口服药在住院患者中的应用效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波(通讯作者); 刘红梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the application effect of bedside oral medication dispensing in hospitalized patients.Methods:250 patients were divided into two groups:observation group and control group and there were 250 cases in each group.Bedside oral medication dispensing was performed in observation group and centralized oral medication dispensing in control group. The incidence of nursing errors、mastery condition of health knowledge and patients satisfaction were compared between the two groups.Results:The mastery condition of health knowledge and patients satisfaction in observation group were superior to those in control group.However,the incidence of nursing errors in observation group was lower than that of control group. There were statisticaly significant differences between the two groups(p  Conclusions:Bedside oral medication dispensing is helpful to improve   the mastery condition of health knowledge and patients satisfaction and   decrease the incidence of nursing errors.

  7. Upk3b is dispensable for development and integrity of urothelium and mesothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Rudat

    Full Text Available The mesothelium, the lining of the coelomic cavities, and the urothelium, the inner lining of the urinary drainage system, are highly specialized epithelia that protect the underlying tissues from mechanical stress and seal them from the overlying fluid space. The development of these epithelia from simple precursors and the molecular characteristics of the mature tissues are poorly analyzed. Here, we show that uroplakin 3B (Upk3b, which encodes an integral membrane protein of the tetraspanin superfamily, is specifically expressed both in development as well as under homeostatic conditions in adult mice in the mesothelia of the body cavities, i.e., the epicardium and pericardium, the pleura and the peritoneum, and in the urothelium of the urinary tract. To analyze Upk3b function, we generated a creERT2 knock-in allele by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. We show that Upk3bcreERT2 represents a null allele despite the lack of creERT2 expression from the mutated locus. Morphological, histological and molecular analyses of Upk3b-deficient mice did not detect changes in differentiation or integrity of the urothelium and the mesothelia that cover internal organs. Upk3b is coexpressed with the closely related Upk3a gene in the urothelium but not in the mesothelium, leaving the possibility of a functional redundancy between the two genes in the urothelium only.

  8. Arf4 is required for Mammalian development but dispensable for ciliary assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Follit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The primary cilium is a sensory organelle, defects in which cause a wide range of human diseases including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease and birth defects. The sensory functions of cilia require specific receptors to be targeted to the ciliary subdomain of the plasma membrane. Arf4 has been proposed to sort cargo destined for the cilium at the Golgi complex and deemed a key regulator of ciliary protein trafficking. In this work, we show that Arf4 binds to the ciliary targeting sequence (CTS of fibrocystin. Knockdown of Arf4 indicates that it is not absolutely required for trafficking of the fibrocystin CTS to cilia as steady-state CTS levels are unaffected. However, we did observe a delay in delivery of newly synthesized CTS from the Golgi complex to the cilium when Arf4 was reduced. Arf4 mutant mice are embryonic lethal and die at mid-gestation shortly after node formation. Nodal cilia appeared normal and functioned properly to break left-right symmetry in Arf4 mutant embryos. At this stage of development Arf4 expression is highest in the visceral endoderm but we did not detect cilia on these cells. In the visceral endoderm, the lack of Arf4 caused defects in cell structure and apical protein localization. This work suggests that while Arf4 is not required for ciliary assembly, it is important for the efficient transport of fibrocystin to cilia, and also plays critical roles in non-ciliary processes.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A BACTERIAL CULTURE SYSTEM USING A PAPER PLATFORM TO ACCOMMODATE MEDIA AND AN INK-JET PRINTING TO DISPENSE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tithimanan Srimongkon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, bacterial culture is performed manually and is subject to error. Here, we created a novel, well-ordered and reliable system for dispensing bacteria microscopically by using paper and an ink-jet printer for controlled patterning. For paper to accommodate a culture medium, hydrophobic/hydrophilic patterns were incorporated onto the paper by immersing paper in a toluene solution of polystyrene and drying for complete hydrophobization, followed by etching discrete, small areas of hydrophilicity by ink-jet printing with toluene. Agar was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid for appropriate viscosity and dispensed with an ink-jet printer. In a separate experiment, bacterial cells were sequentially printed on a medium and colonies were observed microscopically. The results of this experiment ensured the successful dispensing of bacteria using ink-jet printing. An almost constant number of particles per droplet were ejected using a polystyrene latex as a model of bacterial dispersion. Consequently, we expect this technology to be adapted for the development of a paper-based bioassay system.

  10. Preparedness for epidemic disease or bioterrorism: minimum cost planning for the location and staffing of urban point-of-dispensing centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William M; Chen, Jen-Yi; Tukel, Oya I

    2014-01-01

    Urban health authorities in the United States have been charged with developing plans for providing the infrastructure necessary to dispense prophylactic medications to their populations in the case of epidemic disease outbreak or bioterrorist attack. However, no specific method for such plans has been prescribed. This article formulates and demonstrates the use of an integer programming technique for helping to solve a part of the dispensing problem faced by cities, namely that of providing the federally required infrastructure at minimum cost, using their limited time and resources. Specifically, the technique minimizes the number of point-of-dispensing (POD) centers while covering every resident in all the census tracts within the city's jurisdiction. It also determines the optimal staffing requirement in terms of the number of nurses at each POD. This article includes a demonstration of the model using real data from Cleveland, OH, a mid-sized US city. Examples are provided of data and computational results for a variety of input parameter values such as population throughput rate, POD capacities, and distance limitations. The technique can be readily adapted to a wide range of urban areas.

  11. Septins from the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis are required for proper morphogenesis but dispensable for virulence.

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    Isabel Alvarez-Tabarés

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Septins are a highly conserved family of GTP-binding proteins involved in multiple cellular functions, including cell division and morphogenesis. Studies of septins in fungal cells underpin a clear correlation between septin-based structures and fungal morphology, providing clues to understand the molecular frame behind the varied morphologies found in fungal world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ustilago maydis genome has the ability to encode four septins. Here, using loss-of-function as well as GFP-tagged alleles of these septin genes, we investigated the roles of septins in the morphogenesis of this basidiomycete fungus. We described that septins in U. maydis could assemble into at least three different structures coexisting in the same cell: bud neck collars, band-like structures at the growing tip, and long septin fibers that run from pole to pole near the cell cortex. We also found that in the absence of septins, U. maydis cells lost their elongated shape, became wider at the central region and ended up losing their polarity, pointing to an important role of septins in the morphogenesis of this fungus. These morphological defects were alleviated in the presence of an osmotic stabilizer suggesting that absence of septins affected the proper formation of the cell wall, which was coherent with a higher sensitivity of septin defective cells to drugs that affect cell wall construction as well as exocytosis. As U. maydis is a phytopathogen, we analyzed the role of septins in virulence and found that in spite of the described morphological defects, septin mutants were virulent in corn plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated a major role of septins in morphogenesis in U. maydis. However, in contrast to studies in other fungal pathogens, in which septins were reported to be necessary during the infection process, we found a minor role of septins during corn infection by U. maydis.

  12. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter activity is dispensable for MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Duane D; Wu, Yuejin; Domann, Frederick E; Spitz, Douglas R; Anderson, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Calcium uptake through the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) is thought to be essential in regulating cellular signaling events, energy status, and survival. Functional dissection of the uniporter is now possible through the recent identification of the genes encoding for MCU protein complex subunits. Cancer cells exhibit many aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with altered mitochondrial Ca2+ levels including resistance to apoptosis, increased reactive oxygen species production and decreased oxidative metabolism. We used a publically available database to determine that breast cancer patient outcomes negatively correlated with increased MCU Ca2+ conducting pore subunit expression and decreased MICU1 regulatory subunit expression. We hypothesized breast cancer cells may therefore be sensitive to MCU channel manipulation. We used the widely studied MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line to investigate whether disruption or increased activation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake with specific siRNAs and adenoviral overexpression constructs would sensitize these cells to therapy-related stress. MDA-MB-231 cells were found to contain functional MCU channels that readily respond to cellular stimulation and elicit robust AMPK phosphorylation responses to nutrient withdrawal. Surprisingly, knockdown of MCU or MICU1 did not affect reactive oxygen species production or cause significant effects on clonogenic cell survival of MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, or nutrient deprivation. Overexpression of wild type or a dominant negative mutant MCU did not affect basal cloning efficiency or ceramide-induced cell killing. In contrast, non-cancerous breast epithelial HMEC cells showed reduced survival after MCU or MICU1 knockdown. These results support the conclusion that MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells do not rely on MCU or MICU1 activity for survival in contrast to previous findings in cells derived from cervical, colon, and prostate cancers and

  13. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter activity is dispensable for MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane D Hall

    Full Text Available Calcium uptake through the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU is thought to be essential in regulating cellular signaling events, energy status, and survival. Functional dissection of the uniporter is now possible through the recent identification of the genes encoding for MCU protein complex subunits. Cancer cells exhibit many aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with altered mitochondrial Ca2+ levels including resistance to apoptosis, increased reactive oxygen species production and decreased oxidative metabolism. We used a publically available database to determine that breast cancer patient outcomes negatively correlated with increased MCU Ca2+ conducting pore subunit expression and decreased MICU1 regulatory subunit expression. We hypothesized breast cancer cells may therefore be sensitive to MCU channel manipulation. We used the widely studied MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line to investigate whether disruption or increased activation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake with specific siRNAs and adenoviral overexpression constructs would sensitize these cells to therapy-related stress. MDA-MB-231 cells were found to contain functional MCU channels that readily respond to cellular stimulation and elicit robust AMPK phosphorylation responses to nutrient withdrawal. Surprisingly, knockdown of MCU or MICU1 did not affect reactive oxygen species production or cause significant effects on clonogenic cell survival of MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, or nutrient deprivation. Overexpression of wild type or a dominant negative mutant MCU did not affect basal cloning efficiency or ceramide-induced cell killing. In contrast, non-cancerous breast epithelial HMEC cells showed reduced survival after MCU or MICU1 knockdown. These results support the conclusion that MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells do not rely on MCU or MICU1 activity for survival in contrast to previous findings in cells derived from cervical, colon, and

  14. Homologous elements hs3a and hs3b in the 3' regulatory region of the murine immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus are both dispensable for class-switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yi; Pieretti, Joyce; Ju, Zhongliang; Wei, Shiniu; Christin, John R; Bah, Fatmata; Birshtein, Barbara K; Eckhardt, Laurel A

    2011-08-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes are formed, tested, and modified to yield diverse, specific, and high affinity antibody responses to antigen. The processes involved must be regulated, however, to avoid unintended damage to chromosomes. The 3' regulatory region of the Igh locus plays a major role in regulating class-switch recombination (CSR), the process by which antibody effector functions are modified during an immune response. Loss of all known enhancer-like elements in this region dramatically impairs CSR, but individual element deletions have no effect on this process. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that an underlying functional redundancy in the homologous elements hs3a and hs3b was masking the importance of either element to CSR. Several transgenic mouse lines were generated, each carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene that mimicked Igh locus structure but in which hs3a was missing and hs3b was flanked by loxP sites. Matings to Cyclization Recombination Enzyme-expressing mice established "pairs" of lines that differed only in the presence or absence of hs3b. Remarkably, CSR remained robust in the absence of both hs3a and hs3b, suggesting that the remaining two elements of the 3' regulatory region, hs1.2 and hs4, although individually dispensable for CSR, are, together, sufficient to support CSR.

  15. Modified mosquito landing boxes dispensing transfluthrin provide effective protection against Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes under simulated outdoor conditions in a semi-field system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Lorenz, Lena M; Mbeleya, Edgar; Moore, Sarah J

    2015-06-24

    Efforts to control malaria vectors have primarily focused on scaling-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying. Although highly efficient against indoor-biting and indoor-resting vectors, these interventions have lower impact on outdoor-biting mosquitoes. Innovative vector control tools are required to prevent outdoor human-mosquito contacts. In this work, the potential of spatial repellents, delivered in an active system that requires minimal user compliance, to provide personal protection against exophagic mosquitoes active in the early evening was explored. A device previously used as an odour-baited lure and kill apparatus, the mosquito landing box (MLB), was modified to dispense the volatile synthetic pyrethroid, transfluthrin, as a spatial repellent. The MLB has an active odour-dispensing mechanism that uses a solar-powered fan and switches on at dusk to provide long duration dispensing of volatile compounds without the need for the user to remember to employ it. Two MLBs were located 5 m from a human volunteer to investigate the repellent effects of a transfluthrin 'bubble' created between the MLBs. Transfluthrin was emanated from polyester strips, hanging inside the MLB odour-dispensing unit. A fully randomized cross-over design was performed in a large, semi-field, screened cage to assess the effect of the repellent against laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes under ambient outdoor conditions. The knock-down capacity of the transfluthrin-treated strips was also evaluated at different time points up to 3 weeks after being impregnated to measure duration of efficacy. The protective transfluthrin bubble provided 68.9% protection against An. arabiensis bites under these simulated outdoor conditions. Volatile transfluthrin caused low mortality among mosquitoes in the semi-field system. Transfluthrin-treated strips continued to knock down mosquitoes in laboratory tests, 3 weeks after impregnation, although this effect

  16. Assessment of prescribing, dispensing, and patient use pattern of antihypertensive drugs for patients attending outpatient department of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukrala F

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fedila Shukrala,1 Tesfaye Gabriel2 1Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Hypertension is a global concern and is one of the key preventable risk factors for cardiovascular events, resulting in unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prescribing, dispensing and patient use pattern of antihypertensive drugs among patients attending Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital outpatient department.Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital on assessment of the prescribing, dispensing, and patient use pattern of antihypertensive drugs among patients who were above the age of 18 years and attending outpatient department from April 1–May 31, 2013. Data collection was conducted by reviewing the record of patients and direct observation of the dispensing process of randomly selected patients to measure average dispensing time, and direct interview with the patients. Results: A total of 400 patients met the inclusion criteria; out of the 400 patients studied, 63.5% were females. Most of the patients had Stage 1 hypertension (69%, followed by Stage 2 hypertension (31%. Out of the total number of patients, 264 were with different comorbid conditions: diabetes mellitus (64.3%, followed by congestive heart failure (15.1% and ischemic heart disease (2.3%. The most frequently prescribed class of antihypertensive drugs was diuretics, of which hydrochlorothiazide was the most frequently prescribed drug, both in single (55%, followed by enalapril (22.3%, methyl dopa (11.2%, atenolol (6.9%, and nifedipine (4.6%, and in combination with other antihypertensive drugs. The average dispensing time was 1.2 minutes, and 75% of the patients left the counter with inadequate information about the dosage

  17. Slingshot-3 dephosphorylates ADF/cofilin but is dispensable for mouse development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousaka, Kazuyoshi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Oshima, Naoko; Nagafuchi, Akira; Shima, Yasuyuki; Chisaka, Osamu; Uemura, Tadashi

    2008-05-01

    Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) and cofilin constitute a family of key regulators of actin filament dynamics. ADF/cofilin is inactivated by phosphorylation at Ser-3 by LIM-kinases and reactivated by dephosphorylation by Slingshot (SSH) family phosphatases. Defects in LIM kinases or ADF/cofilin have been implicated in morbidity in human or mice; however, the roles of mammalian SSH in vivo have not been addressed. In this study, we examined the endogenous expression of each mouse SSH member in various cell lines and tissues, and showed that SSH-3L protein was strongly expressed in epithelial cells. Our structure-function analysis of SSH-3L suggested the possibility that the C-tail unique to SSH-3L negatively regulates the catalytic activity of this phosphatase. Furthermore we made ssh-3 knockout mice to examine its potential in vivo roles. Unexpectedly, ssh-3 was not essential for viability, fertility, or development of epithelial tissues; and ssh-3 did not genetically modify the corneal disorder of the corn1/ADF/destrin mutant.

  18. Zinc finger protein 148 is dispensable for primitive and definitive hematopoiesis in mice.

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    Anna Nilton

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis is regulated by transcription factors that induce cell fate and differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells into fully differentiated hematopoietic cell types. The transcription factor zinc finger protein 148 (Zfp148 interacts with the hematopoietic transcription factor Gata1 and has been implicated to play an important role in primitive and definitive hematopoiesis in zebra fish and mouse chimeras. We have recently created a gene-trap knockout mouse model deficient for Zfp148, opening up for analyses of hematopoiesis in a conventional loss-of-function model in vivo. Here, we show that Zfp148-deficient neonatal and adult mice have normal or slightly increased levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets and white blood cells, compared to wild type controls. Hematopoietic lineages in bone marrow, thymus and spleen from Zfp148 (gt/gt mice were further investigated by flow cytometry. There were no differences in T-cells (CD4 and CD8 single positive cells, CD4 and CD8 double negative/positive cells in either organ. However, the fraction of CD69- and B220-positive cells among lymphocytes in spleen was slightly lower at postnatal day 14 in Zfp148 (gt/gt mice compared to wild type mice. Our results demonstrate that Zfp148-deficient mice generate normal mature hematopoietic populations thus challenging earlier studies indicating that Zfp148 plays a critical role during hematopoietic development.

  19. Transcription factor GATA1 is dispensable for mast cell differentiation in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohneda, Kinuko; Moriguchi, Takashi; Ohmori, Shin'ya; Ishijima, Yasushi; Satoh, Hironori; Philipsen, Sjaak; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-05-01

    Although previous studies have shown that GATA1 is required for mast cell differentiation, the effects of the complete ablation of GATA1 in mast cells have not been examined. Using conditional Gata1 knockout mice (Gata1(-/y)), we demonstrate here that the complete ablation of GATA1 has a minimal effect on the number and distribution of peripheral tissue mast cells in adult mice. The Gata1(-/y) bone marrow cells were capable of differentiating into mast cells ex vivo. Microarray analyses showed that the repression of GATA1 in bone marrow mast cells (BMMCs) has a small impact on the mast cell-specific gene expression in most cases. Interestingly, however, the expression levels of mast cell tryptases in the mouse chromosome 17A3.3 were uniformly reduced in the GATA1 knockdown cells, and GATA1 was found to bind to a 500-bp region at the 5' end of this locus. Revealing a sharp contrast to that observed in the Gata1-null BMMCs, GATA2 deficiency resulted in a significant loss of the c-Kit(+) FcεRIα(+) mast cell fraction and a reduced expression of several mast cell-specific genes. Collectively, GATA2 plays a more important role than GATA1 in the regulation of most mast cell-specific genes, while GATA1 might play specific roles in mast cell functions.

  20. The putative U94 integrase is dispensable for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) chromosomal integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallaschek, Nina; Gravel, Annie; Flamand, Louis; Kaufer, Benedikt B

    2016-08-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) can integrate its genome into the telomeres of host chromosomes and is present in the germline of about 1 % of the human population. HHV-6 encodes a putative integrase U94 that possesses all molecular functions required for recombination including DNA-binding, ATPase, helicase and nuclease activity, and was hypothesized by many researchers to facilitate integration ever since the discovery of HHV-6 integration. However, analysis of U94 in the virus context has been hampered by the lack of reverse-genetic systems and efficient integration assays. Here, we addressed the role of U94 and the cellular recombinase Rad51 in HHV-6 integration. Surprisingly, we could demonstrate that HHV-6 efficiently integrated in the absence of U94 using a new quantitative integration assay. Additional inhibition of the cellular recombinase Rad51 had only a minor impact on virus integration. Our results shed light on this complex integration mechanism that includes factors beyond U94 and Rad51.

  1. Molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii formin 3, an actin nucleator dispensable for tachyzoite growth and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wassim; Klages, Natacha; Carlier, Marie-France; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2012-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, a group of obligate intracellular parasites that rely on gliding motility to enter host cells. Drugs interfering with the actin cytoskeleton block parasite motility, host cell invasion, and egress from infected cells. Myosin A, profilin, formin 1, formin 2, and actin-depolymerizing factor have all been implicated in parasite motility, yet little is known regarding the importance of actin polymerization and other myosins for the remaining steps of the parasite lytic cycle. Here we establish that T. gondii formin 3 (TgFRM3), a newly described formin homology 2 domain (FH2)-containing protein, binds to Toxoplasma actin and nucleates rabbit actin assembly in vitro. TgFRM3 expressed as a transgene exhibits a patchy localization at several distinct structures within the parasite. Disruption of the TgFRM3 gene by double homologous recombination in a ku80-ko strain reveals no vital function for tachyzoite propagation in vitro, which is consistent with its weak level of expression in this life stage. Conditional stabilization of truncated forms of TgFRM3 suggests that different regions of the molecule contribute to distinct localizations. Moreover, expression of TgFRM3 lacking the C-terminal domain severely affects parasite growth and replication. This work provides a first insight into how this specialized formin, restricted to the group of coccidia, completes its actin-nucleating activity.

  2. Adult Somatic Cells to the Rescue: Nuclear Reprogramming and the Dispensability of Gonadal Germ Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Charles A.; Latov, David R.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Schatten, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Summary With advances in cancer therapies, survival rates in prepubescent patients have steadily increased. However a number of these surviving patients have been rendered sterile due to their rigorous oncological treatment regimens. In addition to cancer treatments, men and women, who are genetically fertile, can become infertile due to immune suppression treatments, exposure to environmental and industrial toxicants, and injury. Notwithstanding the great emotional burden from an inability to conceive a child with their partner, the financial burdens for testing and treatment are high and are rarely successful at treating these patients’ sterility. Recent advances in pluripotent stem cell differentiation and the generation of patient-specific, induced pluripotent stem cells indicate that stem cell replacement therapies or in vitro differentiation followed by IVF may be on the horizon. Here, we discuss these recent advances, their relevance to treating male-factor and female-factor infertility, and what experimental procedures must be carried out in animal models before these exciting new treatments can be used in a clinical setting. The goal of this research is to generate functional gametes from no-greater starting material than a mere skin biopsy. PMID:24382340

  3. 微量液体自动分配技术研究综述%Research on Automated Micro-liquid Dispensing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玉峰; 路士州; 刘亚欣; 孙立宁

    2013-01-01

    The micro-liquid dispensing technology which involves absorbing,transferring and redistributing is applied extensively to life science,electronic packaging,rapid manufacturing and other fields.With the development of technologies in these fields,the operation of micro-liquid distribution with higher velocity,precision and smaller dispensing volume is needed more and more in the micro-liquid application fields,which pushes the dispensing technology to a faster,trace,more accurate and flexible direction.Based on introducing the application and requirements of many micro-liquid dispensing technologies used in the field of life science,micro-electronic packaging and rapid manufacturing,the working principle,driving and selection of the applied dispensing methods are contrasted and summarized.The key technologies involved in the development and research of micro-liquid dispensing system and technology are analyzed from the point of driving,control,testing and manufacturing.The development of micro-liquid dispensing technology is prospected,and the results can provide some further reference for the related works.%在生命科学、电子封装、快速制造等领域,经常需要对微量液体进行吸取、转移、分配操作.随着这些领域技术的发展,相关研究活动使用的液体种类越来越多,需要的液体体积越来越小,要求液体分配速度越来越快,分配精度越来越高,这些都迫切要求微量液体分配技术向更快速、更微量、更精确、适用性更强的方向发展.在介绍微量液体自动分配技术应用背景、分析主要应用领域对微量液体分配要求的基础上,对现有微量液体分配技术的工作机理、驱动方式进行详细研究和总结,通过优缺点比对,指出面向不同应用的微量液体分配技术选用原则.从驱动、控制、检测、制造等方面分析微量液体分配系统开发及技术研究中的重点考虑因素及关键技术.对微量液体分配技

  4. Prescripción, dispensación y sustitución de recetas de omeprazol Prescription, dispensation and sustitution of prescription forms of omeprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Vaquero

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comprobar y cuantificar, para un principio activo concreto (omeprazol 20 mg, y para unos médicos de atención primaria y oficinas de farmacia seleccionados, si las especialidades farmacéuticas prescritas en recetas oficiales de la Seguridad Social coinciden o no con las especialidades farmacéuticas dispensadas, o bien la dispensación se ha efectuado a criterio del farmacéutico al ir la receta prescrita en denominación oficial española (DOE, calculando el coste de las recetas en cada supuesto, expresado en DDD. Método: Revisión de 592 recetas oficiales de la Seguridad Social de un principio activo seleccionado (omeprazol 20 mg, prescritas por 56 médicos de atención primaria con alta prescripción de este principio activo, y dispensadas en 16 oficinas de farmacia. Resultados: Las recetas en que se respetó la prescripción del médico (50% de los casos resultaron ser más baratas que las prescritas en DOE y dispensadas EFG por el farmacéutico a su criterio (36% de los casos. En el supuesto de recetas en las que se produjeron sustituciones de la especialidad prescrita (14% de los casos, se dispensó en todos los casos una EFG y en el 76% fue de especialidades más caras. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran que el médico prescriptor valora el coste de la especialidad farmacéutica a la hora de prescribir y se decanta por especialidades más baratas aunque no sean EFG. El farmacéutico, cuando dispensa a su criterio o sustituye la especialidad prescrita, lo hace siempre por una EFG que en la mayoría de los casos resultó ser más cara.Objective: To verify and quantify, for a given active principle (omeprazole 20 mg and for selected primary care physicians and pharmacies, the extent to which the drug prescribed on official national health system prescription forms coincides with the drug dispensed or whether the drug was dispensed following the pharmacist's criteria because the prescription was drafted in terms of the

  5. Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase a is dispensable and not a drug target during erythrocytic development

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Storm, Janet

    2011-07-14

    Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum contains three genes encoding potential glutamate dehydrogenases. The protein encoded by gdha has previously been biochemically and structurally characterized. It was suggested that it is important for the supply of reducing equivalents during intra-erythrocytic development of Plasmodium and, therefore, a suitable drug target. Methods The gene encoding the NADP(H)-dependent GDHa has been disrupted by reverse genetics in P. falciparum and the effect on the antioxidant and metabolic capacities of the resulting mutant parasites was investigated. Results No growth defect under low and elevated oxygen tension, no up- or down-regulation of a number of antioxidant and NADP(H)-generating proteins or mRNAs and no increased levels of GSH were detected in the D10Δgdha parasite lines. Further, the fate of the carbon skeleton of [13C] labelled glutamine was assessed by metabolomic studies, revealing no differences in the labelling of α-ketoglutarate and other TCA pathway intermediates between wild type and mutant parasites. Conclusions First, the data support the conclusion that D10Δgdha parasites are not experiencing enhanced oxidative stress and that GDHa function may not be the provision of NADP(H) for reductive reactions. Second, the results imply that the cytosolic, NADP(H)-dependent GDHa protein is not involved in the oxidative deamination of glutamate but that the protein may play a role in ammonia assimilation as has been described for other NADP(H)-dependent GDH from plants and fungi. The lack of an obvious phenotype in the absence of GDHa may point to a regulatory role of the protein providing glutamate (as nitrogen storage molecule) in situations where the parasites experience a limiting supply of carbon sources and, therefore, under in vitro conditions the enzyme is unlikely to be of significant importance. The data imply that the protein is not a suitable target for future drug development against intra

  6. The Pax6b Homeodomain Is Dispensable for Pancreatic Endocrine Cell Differentiation in Zebrafish*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Vincianne; Ek, Olivier; Georlette, Daphné; Delporte, François; Von Berg, Virginie; Detry, Nathalie; Biemar, Frédéric; Coutinho, Pedro; Martial, Joseph A.; Voz, Marianne L.; Manfroid, Isabelle; Peers, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Pax6 is a well conserved transcription factor that contains two DNA-binding domains, a paired domain and a homeodomain, and plays a key role in the development of eye, brain, and pancreas in vertebrates. The recent identification of the zebrafish sunrise mutant, harboring a mutation in the pax6b homeobox and presenting eye abnormalities but no obvious pancreatic defects, raised a question about the role of pax6b in zebrafish pancreas. We show here that pax6b does play an essential role in pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation, as revealed by the phenotype of a novel zebrafish pax6b null mutant and of embryos injected with pax6b morpholinos. Pax6b-depleted embryos have almost no β cells, a strongly reduced number of δ cells, and a significant increase of ϵ cells. Through the use of various morpholinos targeting intron-exon junctions, pax6b RNA splicing was perturbed at several sites, leading either to retention of intronic sequences or to deletion of exonic sequences in the pax6b transcript. By this strategy, we show that deletion of the Pax6b homeodomain in zebrafish embryos does not disturb pancreas development, whereas lens formation is strongly affected. These data thus provide the explanation for the lack of pancreatic defects in the sunrise pax6b mutants. In addition, partial reduction of Pax6b function in zebrafish embryos performed by injection of small amounts of pax6b morpholinos caused a clear rise in α cell number and in glucagon expression, emphasizing the importance of the fine tuning of the Pax6b level to its biological activity. PMID:20177065

  7. The Pax6b homeodomain is dispensable for pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Vincianne; Ek, Olivier; Georlette, Daphné; Delporte, François; Von Berg, Virginie; Detry, Nathalie; Biemar, Frédéric; Coutinho, Pedro; Martial, Joseph A; Voz, Marianne L; Manfroid, Isabelle; Peers, Bernard

    2010-04-30

    Pax6 is a well conserved transcription factor that contains two DNA-binding domains, a paired domain and a homeodomain, and plays a key role in the development of eye, brain, and pancreas in vertebrates. The recent identification of the zebrafish sunrise mutant, harboring a mutation in the pax6b homeobox and presenting eye abnormalities but no obvious pancreatic defects, raised a question about the role of pax6b in zebrafish pancreas. We show here that pax6b does play an essential role in pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation, as revealed by the phenotype of a novel zebrafish pax6b null mutant and of embryos injected with pax6b morpholinos. Pax6b-depleted embryos have almost no beta cells, a strongly reduced number of delta cells, and a significant increase of epsilon cells. Through the use of various morpholinos targeting intron-exon junctions, pax6b RNA splicing was perturbed at several sites, leading either to retention of intronic sequences or to deletion of exonic sequences in the pax6b transcript. By this strategy, we show that deletion of the Pax6b homeodomain in zebrafish embryos does not disturb pancreas development, whereas lens formation is strongly affected. These data thus provide the explanation for the lack of pancreatic defects in the sunrise pax6b mutants. In addition, partial reduction of Pax6b function in zebrafish embryos performed by injection of small amounts of pax6b morpholinos caused a clear rise in alpha cell number and in glucagon expression, emphasizing the importance of the fine tuning of the Pax6b level to its biological activity.

  8. T cell intrinsic NOD2 is dispensable for CD8 T cell immunity.

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    Gloria H Y Lin

    Full Text Available NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that provides innate sensing of bacterial muramyl dipeptide by host cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages and epithelial cells. While NOD2's role as an innate pathogen sensor is well established, NOD2 is also expressed at low levels in T cells and there are conflicting data as to whether NOD2 plays an intrinsic role in T cell function. Here we show that following adoptive transfer into WT hosts, NOD2(-/- OT-I T cells show a small decrease in the number of OVA-specific CD8 T cells recovered at the peak of the response to respiratory influenza virus infection. On the other hand, no such defect was observed upon intranasal immunization with a replication defective adenovirus carrying the OVA epitope recognized by OT-I, or when OVA was delivered with LPS subcutaneously, or when influenza-OVA was delivered intraperitoneally. Thus we observed a selective defect in NOD2-deficient T cell responses only during a live viral infection. Moreover, there was no apparent defect when NOD2(-/- OT-I T cells were stimulated in vitro. Finally, this selective defect in recovery of NOD2-deficient CD8 T cells was not observed in a non-transgenic respiratory infection model in which mixed bone marrow chimeras were used such that the NOD2(-/- T cells were allowed to develop and respond in a NOD2-sufficient host. Taken together our data indicate that T cell intrinsic NOD2 is not required for CD8 T cell responses to antigen delivered under a variety of conditions in vitro and in vivo. However, CD8 T cells that have developed in the absence of NOD2 show a selective and modest impairment in their response to live respiratory influenza infection.

  9. Complement is dispensable for neurodegeneration in Niemann-Pick disease type C

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    Lopez Manuel E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune system has been implicated in neurodegeneration during development and disease. In various studies, the absence of complement (that is, C1q deficiency impeded the elimination of apoptotic neurons, allowing survival. In the genetic lysosomal storage disease Niemann-Pick C (NPC, caused by loss of NPC1 function, the expression of complement system components, C1q especially, is elevated in degenerating brain regions of Npc1-/- mice. Here we test whether complement is mediating neurodegeneration in NPC disease. Findings In normal mature mice, C1q mRNA was found in neurons, particularly cerebellar Purkinje neurons (PNs. In Npc1-/- mice, C1q mRNA was additionally found in activated microglia, which accumulate during disease progression and PN loss. Interestingly, C1q was not enriched on or near degenerating neurons. Instead, C1q was concentrated in other brain regions, where it partially co-localized with a potential C1q inhibitor, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG. Genetic deletion of C1q, or of the downstream complement pathway component C3, did not significantly alter patterned neuron loss or disease progression. Deletion of other immune response factors, a Toll-like receptor, a matrix metalloprotease, or the apoptosis facilitator BIM, also failed to alter neuron loss. Conclusion We conclude that complement is not involved in the death and clearance of neurons in NPC disease. This study supports a view of neuroinflammation as a secondary response with non-causal relationship to neuron injury in the disease. This disease model may prove useful for understanding the conditions in which complement and immunity do contribute to neurodegeneration in other disorders.

  10. Medication incidents related to automated dose dispensing in community pharmacies and hospitals--a reporting system study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; Bouvy, Marcel L; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A G M

    2014-01-01

    Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may introduce new safety issues. This descriptive study provides insight into the nature and consequences of medication incidents related to ADD, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. The medication incidents that were submitted to the Dutch Central Medication incidents Registration (CMR) reporting system were selected and characterized independently by two researchers. Person discovering the incident, phase of the medication process in which the incident occurred, immediate cause of the incident, nature of incident from the healthcare provider's perspective, nature of incident from the patient's perspective, and consequent harm to the patient caused by the incident. From January 2012 to February 2013 the CMR received 15,113 incidents: 3,685 (24.4%) incidents from community pharmacies and 11,428 (75.6%) incidents from hospitals. Eventually 1 of 50 reported incidents (268/15,113 = 1.8%) were related to ADD; in community pharmacies more incidents (227/3,685 = 6.2%) were related to ADD than in hospitals (41/11,428 = 0.4%). The immediate cause of an incident was often a change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation. Most reported incidents occurred in two phases: entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag. A proportion of incidents was related to ADD and is reported regularly, especially by community pharmacies. In two phases, entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag, most incidents occurred. A change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation was the immediate causes of an incident.

  11. Usefulness of pharmacy dispensing records in the evaluation of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Brazilian children and adolescents

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    Aline Santarem Ernesto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adherence, which is crucial to the success of antiretroviral therapy (HAART, is currently a major challenge in the care of children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of nonadherence to HAART using complementary instruments in a cohort of children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference service in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: The level of adherence of 108 patients and caregivers was evaluated by an adapted standardized questionnaire and pharmacy dispensing records (PDR. Non-adherence was defined as a drug intake lower than 95% (on 24-hour or seven-day questionnaires, or as an interval of 38 days or more for pharmacy refills. The association between adherence and clinical, immunological, virological, and psychosocial characteristics was assessed by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Non-adherence prevalence varied from 11.1% (non-adherent in three instruments, 15.8% (24-hour self-report, 27.8% (seven-day self-report, 45.4% (PDR, and 56.3% (at least one of the outcomes. 24-hour and seven-day self-reports, when compared to PDR, showed low sensitivity (29% and 43%, respectively but high specificity (95% and 85%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, medication intolerance, difficulty of administration by caregiver, HAART intake by the patient, lower socioeconomical class, lack of virological control, missed appointments in the past six months, and lack of religious practice by caregiver were significantly associated with non-adherence. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of HAART non-adherence was observed in the study population, and PDR was the most sensitive of the tested instruments. The instruments employed were complementary in the identification of non-adherence.

  12. Skin dose saving of the staff in 90Y/177Lu peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with the automatic dose dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioroni, Federica; Grassi, Elisa; Giorgia, Cavatorta; Sara, Rubagotti; Piccagli, Vando; Filice, Angelina; Mostacci, Domiziano; Versari, Annibale; Iori, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    When handling Y-labelled and Lu-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, skin exposure is mainly due to β-particles. This study aimed to investigate the equivalent dose saving of the staff when changing from an essentially manual radiolabelling procedure to an automatic dose dispenser (ADD). The chemist and physician were asked to wear thermoluminescence dosimeters on their fingertips to evaluate the quantity of Hp(0.07) on the skin. Data collected were divided into two groups: before introducing ADD (no ADD) and after introducing ADD. For the chemist, the mean values (95th percentile) of Hp(0.07) for no ADD and ADD are 0.030 (0.099) and 0.019 (0.076) mSv/GBq, respectively, for Y, and 0.022 (0.037) and 0.007 (0.023) mSv/GBq, respectively, for Lu. The reduction for ADD was significant (t-test with Pisotopes. The relative differences before and after ADD collected for every finger were treated using the Wilcoxon test, proving a significantly higher reduction in extremity dose to each fingertip for Lu than for Y (Pmedical staff, the mean values of Hp(0.07) (95th percentile) for no ADD and ADD are 0.021 (0.0762) and 0.0143 (0.0565) mSv/GBq, respectively, for Y, and 0.0011 (0.00196) and 0.0009 (0.00263) mSv/GBq, respectively, for Lu. The t-test provided a P-value less than 0.05 for both isotopes, making the difference between ADD and no ADD significant. ADD positively affects the dose saving of the chemist in handling both isotopes. For the medical staff not directly involved with the introduction of the ADD system, the analysis shows a learning curve of the workers over a 5-year period. Specific devices and procedures allow staff skin dose to be limited.

  13. Low efficiency IDO2 enzymes are conserved in lower vertebrates, whereas higher efficiency IDO1 enzymes are dispensable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Mizuno, Keiko; Ball, Helen J

    2015-07-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a Trp-degrading enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the kynurenine pathway. Two IDO genes, IDO1 and IDO2, are found in vertebrates and the timing of the gene duplication giving rise to the genes has been controversial. In the present study, we report that several fishes and two turtles also have both IDO1 and IDO2. This represents definitive evidence for the gene duplication occurring before the divergence of vertebrates, with IDO1 having been lost in a number of lower vertebrate lineages. IDO2 enzymes have a relatively low affinity for l-Trp; however, Anolis carolinensis (lizard) IDO2 has an affinity for l-Trp comparable to mammalian IDO1 enzymes. We identified a Ser residue located in the distal heme pocket of IDO1 (distal-Ser) (corresponding to Ser167 of human IDO1) that is conserved in all IDO1 enzymes and the lizard IDO2. This residue is conserved as Thr (distal-Thr) in other IDO2 enzymes. Biochemical analyses, using IDO variants with either Ser or Thr substitutions, suggest that the distal-Ser change was crucial for the improvement in affinity for l-Trp in ancient IDO1. The ancestral IDO1 likely had a 'moderate' enzymatic efficiency for l-Trp, clearly higher than IDO2 but lower than mammalian IDO1. The distal-Ser of lizard IDO2 bestows a high affinity for l-Trp, however, this unique IDO2 has a low enzymatic efficiency because of its very low catalytic velocity. Thus, low efficiency IDO2 enzymes have been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, whereas higher efficiency IDO1 enzymes are dispensable in many lower vertebrate lineages.

  14. The insert region of the Rac GTPases is dispensable for activation of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyano, Kei; Koga, Hirofumi; Minakami, Reiko; Sumimoto, Hideki

    2009-08-13

    Rac1 and Rac2, which belong to the Rho subfamily of Ras-related GTPases, play an essential role in activation of gp91phox/Nox2 (cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide; also known as Cybb), the catalytic core of the superoxide-producing NADPH oxidase in phagocytes. Rac1 also contributes to activation of the non-phagocytic oxidases Nox1 (NADPH oxidase 1) and Nox3 (NADPH oxidase 3), each related closely to gp91phox/Nox2. It has remained controversial whether the insert region of Rac (amino acids 123-135), unique to the Rho subfamily proteins, is involved in gp91phox/Nox2 activation. In the present study we show that removal of the insert region from Rac1 neither affects activation of gp91phox/Nox2, which is reconstituted under cell-free and whole-cell conditions, nor blocks its localization to phagosomes during ingestion of IgG-coated beads by macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The insert region of Rac2 is also dispensable for gp91phox/Nox2 activation at the cellular level. Although Rac2, as well as Rac1, is capable of enhancing superoxide production by Nox1 and Nox3, the enhancements by the two GTPases are both independent of the insert region. We also demonstrate that Rac3, a third member of the Rac family in mammals, has an ability to activate the three oxidases and that the activation does not require the insert region. Thus the insert region of the Rac GTPases does not participate in regulation of the Nox family NADPH oxidases.

  15. Non-prescription dispensing of emergency oral contraceptives: Recommendations from the German Federal Chamber of Pharmacists [Bundesapothekerkammer

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    Schulz M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency hormonal contraceptives (EHC are contraceptives used to prevent unintended pregnancy following unprotected sexual intercourse (USI or contraceptive failure. The EHCs available without a prescription include medicines containing levonorgestrel (LNG in more than 80 countries and, recently, based on an EU-switch ellaOne®, which contains ulipristal acetate (UPA. EHCs work by stopping or delaying ovulation. Those containing LNG can be used up to 72 hours after USI or contraceptive failure, while UPA can be used up to 120 hours. In the context of the UPA implementation process, Germany switched LNG to non-prescription status as well. Objectives: To develop recommendations, a protocol, and a continuing education program for pharmacists to assure quality when giving advice and dispensing EHCs in community pharmacies without a medical prescription. Methods: The recommendations were developed by an iterative process of drafting, recognizing, and discussing comments and proposals for amendments as well a seeking agreement with a number of stakeholders such as the Federal Ministry of Health (BMG, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM, Federal Chamber of Physicians (BÄK, Drug Commission of German Physicians (AkdÄ, professional organizations/associations of gynaecologists, pharmaceutical OTC-industry as well as government-controlled, private, and church-based organizations and centres providing advice on sex education and family planning. Results: The recommendations were eventually endorsed by the BMG in consultation with the BfArM. Conclusions: The recommendations were made public, published in the professional journal and used in an uncounted number of continuing education programs based on the curriculum and provided by the State Chambers of Pharmacists.

  16. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  17. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

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    Heather R Conti

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  18. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at three former fuel-dispensing sites, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2010—2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Andral W.; Falls, W. Fred; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil gas was assessed for contaminants at three former fuel-dispensing sites at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from October 2010 to September 2011. The assessment included delineation of organic contaminants using soil-gas samplers collected from the former fuel-dispensing sites at 8th Street, Chamberlain Avenue, and 12th Street. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Soil-gas samplers installed and retrieved during June and August 2011 at the 8th Street site had detections above the method detection level (MDL) for the mass of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), benzene, toluene, ortho-xylene, undecane, tridecane, pentadecane, and chloroform. Total petroleum hydrocarbons soil-gas mass exceeded the MDL of 0.02 microgram in 54 of the 55 soil-gas samplers. The highest detection of TPH soil-gas mass was 146.10 micrograms, located in the central part of the site. Benzene mass exceeded the MDL of 0.01 microgram in 23 soil-gas samplers, whereas toluene was detected in only 10 soil-gas samplers. Ortho-xylene was detected above the MDL in only one soil-gas sampler. The highest soil-gas mass detected for undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane was located in the northeastern corner of the 8th Street site. Chloroform mass greater than the MDL of 0.01 microgram was detected in less than one-third of the soil-gas samplers. Soil-gas masses above the MDL were identified for TPH, gasoline-related compounds, diesel-range alkanes, trimethylbenzenes, naphthalene, 2-methyl-napthalene, octane, and tetrachloroethylene for the July 2011 soil-gas survey at the Chamberlain Avenue site. All 30 of the soil-gas samplers contained TPH mass above the MDL. The highest detection of TPH mass, 426.36 micrograms, was for a soil-gas sampler located near the northern boundary of the site. Gasoline-related compounds and diesel-range alkanes were

  19. 门诊药房调配差错原因分析及干预措施探讨%Cause analysis and intervention measures of the dispensing errors in outpatient pharmacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾潇潇; 陈珲; 李星; 邓小中

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the dispensing errors in outpatient pharmacy, and provide references for strengthening the management of pharmacy errors. Methods:The total of 267 dispensing errors recorded in drug dispensing errors registration in outpatient pharmacy from March 2011 to March 2012 were collected. The data were sorted and analyzed by use of Excel software, and the causes of the dispensing errors and intervention measures were discussed. Results:In 267 dispensing errors, there were 131 records of missing dispensing drugs, 30 records of excess dispensing drugs, and 106 records on dispensing wrong medicines. The main causes of dispensing errors were the drug names with similar pronunciation, different drugs located in the same spot, one drug with a variety of specifications varieties and drugs with similar packaging. Conclusion:The dispensing errors could be reduced through the establishment and improvement management system of related errors, strengthening on-the-job training, the post system and business learning of pharmacists and raising the risk awareness.%  目的:调研我院门诊药房药品调配差错情况,为加强药房差错管理提供参考。方法:收集我院门诊药房2011年3月–2012年3月记载在《药品调配差错登记本》中的267条药品调配差错数据,运用Excel表进行分类汇总和统计,分析造成调配差错可能的原因,并对可能的干预措施进行探讨。结果:267条药品调配差错中,少调药品差错记录131条,多调药品差错记录30条,错调药品差错记录106条。药名音似、摆放位置相近、一品多规和包装形似是造成调配差错可能的影响因素。结论:通过建立和完善相关差错管理制度,加强对药师的在岗培训、岗位制度和业务的学习,提高风险意识,可以在一定程度上减少调配差错。

  20. Assessing an avoidable and dispensable reoperative entity: Self-referred flawed cleft lip and palate repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroglou, Pericles; Tsimponis, Antonis; Goula, Olga-Christina; Demiri, Efterpi

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is comprised within the wide range of congenital deformities of the maxillofacial region with an overall incidence on the increase from 1:1000 to 1:700 live births thus being the most common congenital birth error. Failure of the lateral and medial nasal processes to fuse with the anterior extension of maxillary processes and of the palatal shelves between the 4th and 8th gestational week results in cleft lip and palate. Clefts include different types with variable severity, confirming the complexity and unpredictable expression of cleft modality and have a multifactorial aetiology. Functional impairment, aesthetic disturbances and psychosocial effects are common sequalae in patients with cleft lip and palate. The main long-term morbidity of this condition may include dysfunctional speech, impaired hearing and communication, as well as dental problems. These complications are followed by unfavourable surgical outcome and aesthetic appearance, which all seem to affect this group of patients significantly and have an impact significantly both quality of life and healthcare. Treatment requirements of cleft patients are multifactorial and a multi-disciplinary approach and intervention at multiple levels is necessary. Yet, in this country, resources available to parents and consistent publicity given to this issue and its treatment are still inadequate in spite of the introduction of "Centres of Excellence" and Unified Hospitalization Coding or DRG equivalents to optimize health management. The multi-disciplinary approach to cleft management has been a reality for over a century while cleft treatment protocols are still being evaluated in order to optimise standards of cleft care. According to relevant guidelines primary surgical management of lip and palate defects is performed during the first 3 to 9 months of life. Secondary operations in the form of revisional lip and nose procedures are performed at later stages aiming with an

  1. A-raf and B-raf are dispensable for normal endochondral bone development, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide suppresses extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provot, Sylvain; Nachtrab, Gregory; Paruch, Jennifer; Chen, Adele Pin; Silva, Alcino; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2008-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and the parathyroid hormone-PTHrP receptor increase chondrocyte proliferation and delay chondrocyte maturation in endochondral bone development at least partly through cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways. Because data suggest that the ability of cAMP to stimulate cell proliferation involves the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase B-Raf, we hypothesized that B-Raf might mediate the proliferative action of PTHrP in chondrocytes. Though B-Raf is expressed in proliferative chondrocytes, its conditional removal from cartilage did not affect chondrocyte proliferation and maturation or PTHrP-induced chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP-delayed maturation. Similar results were obtained by conditionally removing B-Raf from osteoblasts. Because A-raf and B-raf are expressed similarly in cartilage, we speculated that they may fulfill redundant functions in this tissue. Surprisingly, mice with chondrocytes deficient in both A-Raf and B-Raf exhibited normal endochondral bone development. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was detected primarily in hypertrophic chondrocytes, where C-raf is expressed, and the suppression of ERK activation in these cells by PTHrP or a MEK inhibitor coincided with a delay in chondrocyte maturation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that B-Raf and A-Raf are dispensable for endochondral bone development and they indicate that the main role of ERK in cartilage is to stimulate not cell proliferation, but rather chondrocyte maturation.

  2. Dispensação farmacêutica: uma análise de diferentes conceitos e modelos Pharmaceutical dispensing: an analysis of different concepts and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Angonesi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma revisão das definições e metodologias de dispensação elaboradas pelos órgãos públicos reguladores, organizações profissionais e de saúde no Brasil e em outros países e alguns autores brasileiros, sob a perspectiva da contemplação de aspectos técnicos relativos aos medicamentos e a influência da filosofia da atenção farmacêutica. Vários modelos de dispensação consideram os aspectos técnicos relativos aos medicamentos e alguns acrescentam a necessidade de orientação para o uso correto dos medicamentos ou ainda elementos da filosofia da atenção farmacêutica. Mas é necessário rever a definição da dispensação no Brasil para que possam ser criados procedimentos possíveis de serem realizados na prática em uma farmácia comunitária e que cumpram com os objetivos desta atividade farmacêutica.The present article presents a review of the definitions and methodologies of pharmaceutical dispensing elaborated by the regulating authorities, professional and health organizations in Brazil and abroad and also by some Brazilian authors from the perspective of the technical and philosophical aspects involved. Several dispensing models consider the technical aspects related to the medicines and some add the need for orientation with regard to correct use or even elements of the philosophy underlying the pharmacist care model. However, for creating procedures that can be put into practice in a community pharmacy and that meet the purpose of this pharmaceutical activity it is necessary to rethink the concept of pharmaceutical dispensing in Brazil.

  3. Mechanized applicator for large-scale field deployment of paraffin-wax dispensers of pheromone for mating disruption in tree fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; Miller, J R; Ledebuhr, R; Gut, L J

    2006-10-01

    A tractor-mounted mechanized applicator was developed for large-scale deployment of paraffin-wax dispensers of pheromone for mating disruption of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The wax formulation was mostly water and emulsified paraffin wax containing 5% (by weight) pheromone [93:6:1 blend of (Z)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate:(E)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate: (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol]. Ten milliliters of wax was applied per tree as approximately 160 deposits (0.04 ml of wax per drop). An average of 23 min was required to treat 1 ha of crop. Disruption efficacy of mechanically applied wax was measured relative to an untreated control in replicated 0.4-ha blocks within a recently abandoned apple orchard. From 6 May to 27 June, 100% disruption of tethered virgin females and 97% inhibition of pheromone traps was achieved for 52 d with two applications of wax. However, during mid- to late summer (July-August), this level of efficacy was maintained for only approximately 1 wk after each of two applications. Higher temperatures later in the season may have accounted for abbreviated efficacy of the applied small drops. Mechanically applied paraffin-wax technology may increase adoption of mating disruption given that a higher level of efficacy was achieved despite deploying less active ingredient per hectare relative to that used with reservoir dispensers. The savings in labor by not requiring hand application of reservoir dispensers could be directed toward cost of machinery. However, the short duration of efficacy obtained with the current wax formulation and mechanical applicator is judged uneconomical given the eight or more applications that would have been required for high-performance disruption over the full season. Larger drops with lower surface area-to-volume ratios are expected to prolong pheromone release for extended efficacy and desirable overall economics.

  4. 自动摆药机差错风险防控%Risk Control of Medication Errors of Automatic Oral Drug Dispensing System in Hospital Pharmacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 蔡爽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effective management mode of the automatic oral drug dispensing sys-tem in hospital pharmacy .Methods The application of automatic drug dispensing system were analyzed in our hospital pharmacy and the problems and solving methods were summarized .Results Using effective management mode can reduce the risk of medication errors .Conclusions Automation is the inevitable trend of hospital phar-macy management .Automatic drug dispensing system is suitable for hospital pharmacy development and applica -tion, the use of which is helpful to improve the hospital pharmacy service level .The effective management can de-crease the risk of errors .%目的:分析自动口服药品摆药机在医院使用时存在的问题,探讨通过加强管理降低发生差错的方法。方法对本院自动摆药机的使用情况、遇到的问题及解决方法进行总结分析。结果通过建立有效的管理模式可以降低自动摆药机发生差错的风险。结论自动化操作是医院药局发展的必然趋势,自动摆药机适合医院药局发展应用,通过有效管理可降低发生差错的风险,有助于提高医院的药学服务水平。

  5. Weathering and Chemical Degradation of Methyl Eugenol and Raspberry Ketone Solid Dispensers for Detection, Monitoring, and Male Annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Nkomo, Eddie; Cook, Peter J; Mackey, Bruce; Stark, John D

    2015-08-01

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in area-wide pest management bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are pests. Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were significantly higher on the basis of ME concentration (Mallet ME [56%] > Mallet MR [31.2%] > Mallet MC [23.1%]). Captures of B. cucurbitae with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were not different regardless of concentration of RK (Mallet BR [20.1%] = Mallet MR [18.3%] = Mallet MC [15.9%]). Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers, compared with weathered wafers, were significantly different after week 12; captures of B. cucurbitae were not significantly different after 16 wk. Chemical analyses revealed presence of RK in dispensers in constant amounts throughout the 16-wk trial. Degradation of both ME