Sample records for function augments male-typical

  1. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria — organizational and activational effects of testosterone

    Burke, Sarah M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Veltman, Dick J.; Klink, Daniel T.; Bakker, Julie


    Background Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of testosterone treatment, showed male-typical brain activity during a mental rotation task (MRT). Methods Girls with GD underwent fMRI while performing the MRT twice: when receiving medication to suppress their endogenous sex hormones before onset of testosterone treatment, and 10 months later during testosterone treatment. Two age-matched control groups participated twice as well. Results We included 21 girls with GD, 20 male controls and 21 female controls in our study. In the absence of any group differences in performance, control girls showed significantly increased activation in frontal brain areas compared with control boys (pFWE = 0.012). Girls with GD before testosterone treatment differed significantly in frontal brain activation from the control girls (pFWE = 0.034), suggesting a masculinization of brain structures associated with visuospatial cognitive functions. After 10 months of testosterone treatment, girls with GD, similar to the control boys, showed increases in brain activation in areas implicated in mental rotation. Limitations Since all girls with GD identified as gynephilic, their resemblance in spatial cognition with the control boys, who were also gynephilic, may have been related to their shared sexual orientation rather than their shared gender identity. We did not account for menstrual cycle phase or contraceptive use in our analyses. Conclusion Our findings suggest atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in natal girls with GD and provide new evidence for organizational and activational effects of testosterone on visuospatial cognitive functioning. PMID:27070350

  2. A telescope with augmented reality functions

    Hou, Qichao; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian


    This study introduces a telescope with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) functions. In this telescope, information on the micro-display screen is integrated to the reticule of telescope through a beam splitter and is then received by the observer. The design and analysis of telescope optical system with AR and VR ability is accomplished and the opto-mechanical structure is designed. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated and demonstrated. The telescope has an exit pupil diameter of 6 mm at an eye relief of 19 mm, 6° field of view, 5 to 8 times visual magnification , and a 30° field of view of the virtual image.

  3. Functional Reflective Polarizer for Augmented Reality and Color Vision Deficiency


    augment reality system is relatively high as compared to a polarizing beam splitter or a conventional reflective polarizer. Such a functional reflective...brightness of the display [7]. A key component for polarization management is polarizing beam splitter (PBS). Even though the PBS has exceptional...polarizer that can be incorporated into a compact augmented reality system. The design principle of the functional reflective polarizer is explained and

  4. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector-augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single...... functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001...

  5. Male-typical courtship, spawning behavior, and olfactory sensitivity are induced to different extents by androgens in the goldfish suggesting they are controlled by different neuroendocrine mechanisms.

    Ghosal, Ratna; Sorensen, Peter W


    Male-typical reproductive behaviors vary greatly between different species of fishes with androgens playing a variety of roles that appear especially important in the gonochorist cypriniform fishes. The goldfish is an important model for the cypriniformes and while it is clear that male goldfish are fully feminized by prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α), it is not clear whether females will exhibit normal levels of male-typical reproductive behaviors as well as olfactory function when treated with androgens. To answer this question, we exposed sexually-regressed adult female goldfish to several types of androgen and monitored their tendencies to court (inspect females) and mate (spawn, or attempt to release gametes) while monitoring their olfactory sensitivity until changes in these attributes were maximized. Untreated adult males (intact) were included to determine the extent of masculinization. Treatments included the natural androgens, 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone (KT and T), administered via capsules (KT+T-implanted fish); the artificial androgen, methyltestosterone (MT), administered via capsules (MT-C); and MT administered in the fishes' water (MT-B). Male-typical olfactory sensitivity to a pheromone (15keto-PGF2α) increased in all androgen-treated groups and by week 6 was fully equivalent to that of males. Male-typical courtship behavior increased in all androgen-treated groups although slowly, and only MT-B females came to exhibit levels equivalent to those of males after 18weeks. In contrast, male-typical mating activity increased only slightly, with MT-B females reaching levels one-third that of males after 30weeks. We conclude that while androgens fully masculinize olfactory sensitivity and courtship behavior in goldfish, mating behavior is controlled by a different neuroendocrine mechanism(s) that has yet to be fully elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Partial sleep in the context of augmentation of brain function.

    Ivan N. Pigarev


    Full Text Available Inability to solve complex problems or errors in decision making is often attributed to poor brain processing, and raises the issue of brain augmentation. Investigation of neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex in the sleep-wake cycle offers insights into the mechanisms underlying the reduction in mental abilities for complex problem solving. Some cortical areas may transit into a sleep state while an organism is still awake. Such local sleep would reduce behavioral ability in the tasks for which the sleeping areas are crucial. The studies of this phenomenon have indicated that local sleep develops in high order cortical areas. This is why complex problem solving is mostly affected by local sleep, and prevention of local sleep might be a potential way of augmentation of brain function. For this approach to brain augmentation not to entail negative consequences for the organism, it is necessary to understand the functional role of sleep. Our studies have given an unexpected answer to this question. It was shown that cortical areas that process signals from extero- and proprioreceptors during wakefulness, switch to the processing of interoceptive information during sleep. It became clear that during sleep all computational power of the brain is directed to the restoration of the vital functions of internal organs. These results explain the logic behind the initiation of total and local sleep. Indeed, a mismatch between the current parameters of any visceral system and the genetically determined normal range would provide the feeling of tiredness, or sleep pressure. If an environmental situation allows falling asleep, the organism would transit to a normal total sleep in all cortical areas. However, if it is impossible to go to sleep immediately, partial sleep may develop in some cortical areas in the still behaviorally awake organism. This local sleep may reduce both the intellectual power and the restorative function of sleep for visceral

  7. Functional equations and Green's functions for augmented scalar fields

    Klauder, J.R.


    Certain noncanonical self-coupled scalar quantum field theories, previously formulated by means of functional integration, are herein recast into the form of functional differential equations for the Green's functional. From these expressions the set of coupled equations relating the Green's functions is obtained. The new equations are compared with those of the conventional formulation, and are proposed as alternatives, especially for nonrenormalizable models when the conventional equations fail

  8. Temporal organization: A novel mechanism of hormonal control of male-typical sexual behavior in vertebrates.

    Schořálková, Tereza; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubička, Lukáš


    In vertebrates, male-typical sexual behavior (MSB) is largely controlled by gonadal androgens, however, the mechanism of this control is believed to vary among species. During immediate activation MSB is tightly correlated with circulating levels of androgens, while the organization of MSB by a hormonal event at a specific developmental period, early in ontogeny or during puberty, has been postulated in other lineages. Here, we put forward an alternative concept of "temporal organization". Under temporal organization longer exposure to circulating androgens is needed for the onset of MSB, which can continue for a long time after the levels of these hormones drop. We tested this concept through long-term monitoring of MSB in females and castrated males of the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) in response to experimental changes in testosterone levels. Several weeks of elevated testosterone levels were needed for the full expression of MSB in both treatment groups and MSB diminished only slowly and gradually after the supplementation of exogenous testosterone ended. Moreover, despite receiving the same application of the hormone both the progressive onset and the cessation of MSB were significantly slower in experimental females than in castrated males. We suggest that the concept of temporal organization of MSB can parsimoniously explain several earlier discrepancies and debatable conclusions on the apparent variability in the hormonal control of MSB in vertebrates, which were based on behavioral testing at a few subjectively selected time points. We conclude that long-term and continuous behavioral testing after hormonal manipulations is needed to understand the regulation of MSB in vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Time-dependent density-functional theory in the projector augmented-wave method

    Walter, Michael; Häkkinen, Hannu; Lehtovaara, Lauri


    We present the implementation of the time-dependent density-functional theory both in linear-response and in time-propagation formalisms using the projector augmented-wave method in real-space grids. The two technically very different methods are compared in the linear-response regime where we...

  10. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria - organizational and activational effects of testosterone

    Burke, Sarah M; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Veltman, Dick J; Klink, Daniel T; Bakker, J.


    BACKGROUND: Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of

  11. Prenatal Hormones and Postnatal Socialization by Parents as Determinants of Male-Typical Toy Play in Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Pasterski, Vickie L.; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Brook, Charles; Hines, Melissa


    Toy choices of 3- to 10-year-old children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and of their unaffected siblings were assessed. Also assessed was parental encouragement of sex-typed toy play. Girls with CAH displayed more male-typical toy choices than did their unaffected sisters, whereas boys with and without CAH did not differ. Mothers and…

  12. Comparison of the projector augmented-wave, pseudopotential, and linearized augmented-plane-wave formalisms for density-functional calculations of solids

    Holzwarth, N.A.; Matthews, G.E.; Dunning, R.B.; Tackett, A.R.; Zeng, Y.


    The projector augmented-wave (PAW) method was developed by Bloechl as a method to accurately and efficiently calculate the electronic structure of materials within the framework of density-functional theory. It contains the numerical advantages of pseudopotential calculations while retaining the physics of all-electron calculations, including the correct nodal behavior of the valence-electron wave functions and the ability to include upper core states in addition to valence states in the self-consistent iterations. It uses many of the same ideas developed by Vanderbilt in his open-quotes soft pseudopotentialclose quotes formalism and in earlier work by Bloechl in his open-quotes generalized separable potentials,close quotes and has been successfully demonstrated for several interesting materials. We have developed a version of the PAW formalism for general use in structural and dynamical studies of materials. In the present paper, we investigate the accuracy of this implementation in comparison with corresponding results obtained using pseudopotential and linearized augmented-plane-wave (LAPW) codes. We present results of calculations for the cohesive energy, equilibrium lattice constant, and bulk modulus for several representative covalent, ionic, and metallic materials including diamond, silicon, SiC, CaF 2 , fcc Ca, and bcc V. With the exception of CaF 2 , for which core-electron polarization effects are important, the structural properties of these materials are represented equally well by the PAW, LAPW, and pseudopotential formalisms. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Augmented reality

    Patrik Pucer


    Full Text Available Today we can obtain in a simple and rapid way most of the information that we need. Devices, such as personal computers and mobile phones, enable access to information in different formats (written, pictorial, audio or video whenever and wherever. Daily we use and encounter information that can be seen as virtual objects or objects that are part of the virtual world of computers. Everyone, at least once, wanted to bring these virtual objects from the virtual world of computers into real environments and thus mix virtual and real worlds. In such a mixed reality, real and virtual objects coexist in the same environment. The reality, where users watch and use the real environment upgraded with virtual objects is called augmented reality. In this article we describe the main properties of augmented reality. In addition to the basic properties that define a reality as augmented reality, we present the various building elements (possible hardware and software that provide an insight into such a reality and practical applications of augmented reality. The applications are divided into three groups depending on the information and functions that augmented reality offers, such as help, guide and simulator.

  14. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.


    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  15. IL-21 augments NK effector functions in chronically HIV-infected individuals

    Strbo, Natasa; de Armas, Lesley; Liu, Huanliang; Kolber, Michael A.; Lichtenheld, Mathias; Pahwa, Savita


    Objective This study addresses the interleukin (IL)-21 effects on resting peripheral blood NK cells in chronically HIV-infected individuals. Design The effects of IL-21 on perforin expression, proliferation, degranulation, IFN-γ production, cytotoxicity and induction of STAT phosphorylation in NK cells were determined in vitro. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected and healthy individuals were incubated in vitro for 6h, 24h or 5 days with IL-21 or IL-15. Percentages of perforin, IFN-γ, CD107a, NKG2D and STAT3-5 positive cells were determined within NK cell populations. K562 cells were used as target cells in NK cytotoxicity assay. Results Frequency of CD56dim cells in chronically HIV-infected individuals was diminished. Perforin expression in CD56dim and CD56bright was comparable in healthy and HIV-infected individuals. IL-15 up-regulated perforin expression primarily in CD56bright NK cells while IL-21 up-regulated perforin in both NK subsets. IL-21 and IL- 15 up-regulated CD107a and IFN-γ as well as NK cytotoxicity. IL-15 predominantly activated STAT5, while IL-21 activated STAT5 and STAT3. IL-15, but not IL-21 increased NK cell proliferation in uninfected and HIV-infected individuals. Conclusion IL-21 augments NK effector functions in chronically HIV-infected individuals and due to its perforin enhancing properties it has potential for immunotherapy or as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:18670213

  16. Toward Functional Augmented Reality in Marine Navigation : A Cognitive Work Analysis

    Procee, S.; Borst, C.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.; Bertram, V.


    Augmented Reality, (AR) also known as vision-overlay, can help the navigator to visually detect a dangerous target by the overlay of a synthetic image, thus providing a visual cue over the real world. This is the first paper of a series about the practicalities and consequences of implementing AR in

  17. A systematic review of Functional Communication Training (FCT) interventions involving augmentative and alternative communication in school settings.

    Walker, Virginia L; Lyon, Kristin J; Loman, Sheldon L; Sennott, Samuel


    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize single-case intervention studies in which Functional Communication Training (FCT) involving augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) was implemented in school settings. Overall, the findings suggest that FCT involving AAC was effective in reducing challenging behaviour and promoting aided or unaided AAC use among participants with disability. FCT was more effective for the participants who engaged in less severe forms of challenging behaviour prior to intervention. Additionally, FCT was more effective when informed by a descriptive functional behaviour assessment and delivered within inclusive school settings. Implications for practice and directions for future research related to FCT for students who use AAC are addressed.

  18. Augmented postcard

    Bernik , Aleš


    The aim of this thesis is the examination of augmented reality technology, which allows us mixing real and virtual elements. Augmented reality is a relatively new technology which is becoming more widespread, thanks to a fairly reasonable price of smart phones. Here we presents the types of augmented reality, the necessary technology and their advantages and disadvantages, its current use in applications, and software for building augmented reality applications. The thesis is mainly focuse...

  19. A single exercise bout augments adenovirus-specific T-cell mobilization and function.

    Kunz, Hawley E; Spielmann, Guillaume; Agha, Nadia H; O'Connor, Daniel P; Bollard, Catherine M; Simpson, Richard J


    Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T-cells (VSTs) effectively treats viral infections following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), but logistical difficulties have limited widespread availability of VSTs as a post-transplant therapeutic. A single exercise bout mobilizes VSTs specific for latent herpesviruses (i.e. CMV and EBV) to peripheral blood and augments their ex vivo expansion. We investigated whether exercise exerts similar effects on T-cells specific for a NON-latent virus such as adenovirus, which is a major contributor to infection-related morbidity and mortality after alloHSCT. Thirty minutes of cycling exercise increased circulating adenovirus-specific T-cells 2.0-fold and augmented their ex vivo expansion by ~33% compared to rest without altering antigen and MHC-specific autologous target cell killing capabilities. We conclude that exercise is a simple and economical adjuvant to boost the isolation and manufacture of therapeutic VSTs specific to latent and non-latent viruses from healthy donors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Ribavirin in Cancer Immunotherapies: Controlling Nitric Oxide Augments Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Function

    Richard E. Kast


    Full Text Available Either ribavirin (RBV or cyclophosphamide (CY can shift an immune response from Th2 toward a Thi cytokine profile. CY is used in this role in various current cancer immunotherapy attempts but with mixed success. More potent and reliable immunoadjuvants and Th1 response biasing methods are needed. RBV is used today mainly to augment interferon-alpha treatment of hepatitis C. RBV shifts an immune response from Th2 toward Th1 more effectively than CY and may be a safe and useful adjuvant for current cancer immunotherapeutic efforts. RBV is thought to act by inhibition of tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis. Tetrahydrobiopterin is an essential cofactor for all known isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. Lowered nitric oxide favors Th1 development as high levels favor Th2 weighting.

  1. Virtual reality-augmented neurorehabilitation improves motor function and reduces neuropathic pain in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Villiger, Michael; Bohli, Dominik; Kiper, Daniel; Pyk, Pawel; Spillmann, Jeremy; Meilick, Bruno; Curt, Armin; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina; Eng, Kynan


    Neurorehabilitation interventions to improve lower limb function and neuropathic pain have had limited success in people with chronic, incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). We hypothesized that intense virtual reality (VR)-augmented training of observed and executed leg movements would improve limb function and neuropathic pain. Patients used a VR system with a first-person view of virtual lower limbs, controlled via movement sensors fitted to the patient's own shoes. Four tasks were used to deliver intensive training of individual muscles (tibialis anterior, quadriceps, leg ad-/abductors). The tasks engaged motivation through feedback of task success. Fourteen chronic iSCI patients were treated over 4 weeks in 16 to 20 sessions of 45 minutes. Outcome measures were 10 Meter Walking Test, Berg Balance Scale, Lower Extremity Motor Score, Spinal Cord Independence Measure, Locomotion and Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS), obtained at the start and at 4 to 6 weeks before intervention. In addition to positive changes reported by the patients (Patients' Global Impression of Change), measures of walking capacity, balance, and strength revealed improvements in lower limb function. Intensity and unpleasantness of neuropathic pain in half of the affected participants were reduced on the NPS test. Overall findings remained stable 12 to 16 weeks after termination of the training. In a pretest/posttest, uncontrolled design, VR-augmented training was associated with improvements in motor function and neuropathic pain in persons with chronic iSCI, several of which reached the level of a minimal clinically important change. A controlled trial is needed to compare this intervention to active training alone or in combination.

  2. Clinical usefulness of augmented reality using infrared camera based real-time feedback on gait function in cerebral palsy: a case study.

    Lee, Byoung-Hee


    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of real-time feedback using infrared camera recognition technology-based augmented reality in gait training for children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] Two subjects with cerebral palsy were recruited. [Methods] In this study, augmented reality based real-time feedback training was conducted for the subjects in two 30-minute sessions per week for four weeks. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were used to measure the effect of augmented reality-based real-time feedback training. [Results] Velocity, cadence, bilateral step and stride length, and functional ambulation improved after the intervention in both cases. [Conclusion] Although additional follow-up studies of the augmented reality based real-time feedback training are required, the results of this study demonstrate that it improved the gait ability of two children with cerebral palsy. These findings suggest a variety of applications of conservative therapeutic methods which require future clinical trials.

  3. Hypoxic augmentation of Ca2+ channel currents requires a functional electron transport chain.

    Brown, Stephen T; Scragg, Jason L; Boyle, John P; Hudasek, Kristin; Peers, Chris; Fearon, Ian M


    The incidence of Alzheimer disease is increased following ischemic episodes, and we previously demonstrated that following chronic hypoxia (CH), amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide-mediated increases in voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel activity contribute to the Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis seen in Alzheimer disease. Because in certain cell types mitochondria are responsible for detecting altered O(2) levels we examined the role of mitochondrial oxidant production in the regulation of recombinant Ca(2+) channel alpha(1C) subunits during CH and exposure to Abeta-(1-40). In wild-type (rho(+)) HEK 293 cells expressing recombinant L-type alpha(1C) subunits, Ca(2+) currents were enhanced by prolonged (24 h) exposure to either CH (6% O(2)) or Abeta-(1-40) (50 nm). By contrast the response to CH was absent in rho(0) cells in which the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) was depleted following long term treatment with ethidium bromide or in rho(+) cells cultured in the presence of 1 microm rotenone. CH was mimicked in rho(0) cells by the exogenous production of O2(-.). by xanthine/xanthine oxidase. Furthermore Abeta-(1-40) enhanced currents in rho(0) cells to a degree similar to that seen in cells with an intact ETC. The antioxidants ascorbate (200 microm) and Trolox (500 microm) ablated the effect of CH in rho(+) cells but were without effect on Abeta-(1-40)-mediated augmentation of Ca(2+) current in rho(0) cells. Thus oxidant production in the mitochondrial ETC is a critical factor, acting upstream of amyloid beta peptide production in the up-regulation of Ca(2+) channels in response to CH.

  4. MR augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing—a novel approach to assessing cardiovascular function

    Barber, Nathaniel J; Ako, Emmanuel O; Kowalik, Grzegorz T; Steeden, Jennifer A; Muthurangu, Vivek; Pandya, Bejal


    The purposes of this study were: (1) to evaluate feasibility and acceptability of MRI augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing (MR-CPET) in healthy adults and (2) to test whether peak values obtained at conventional and MR-CPET correlate and to demonstrate variation in peak oxygen consumption (VO_2) relates to both peak cardiac output (CO) and peak oxygen extraction (ΔcO_2). Seventeen healthy adults underwent CPET and MR-CPET using an MR compatible ergometer and CPET system customised for MR use. Continuous aortic flow measurement used a validated UNFOLD-SENSE spiral phase contrast magnetic resonance (PCMR) sequence.Fifteen of 17 volunteers completed exercise; exclusions were due to claustrophobia and inability to effectively master exercise technique. Measures of acceptability were lower but still satisfactory for MR-CPET.There were strong correlations between conventional and MR-CPET for peak VO_2 (r = 0.94, p < 0.001); VCO_2 (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and VE (r = 0.88, p < 0.001).Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated peak CO and ΔcO_2 were independent predictors of peak VO_2 measured during MR-CPET (β = 0.73 and 0.38 p < 0.0001) and conventional CPET (β = 0.78, 0.28 p < 0.0001).MR-CPET is feasible, acceptable and demonstrates physiology not apparent with conventional CPET. MR-CPET allows differentiation of the contributions of CO and ΔcO_2 to variation in peak VO_2. We believe that this will be useful in understanding the origin of reduced exercise capacity in cardiac disease. (note)


    Skov, Kirsten; Bahn, Anne Louise


    Projektets grundlæggende idé er udvikling af visuel, æstetisk læring med Augmented Reality, hvor intentionen er at bidrage med konkrete undersøgelser og udforskning af begrebet Augmented Reality – herunder koblingen mellem det analoge og digitale i forhold til læring, multimodalitet og it...

  6. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  7. [POSTER] ChiroChroma: An Augmented Reality Game for the Assessment of Hand Motor Functionality

    Jockin, Pieter; Liu, Lu; Liu, Xin; Cidota, M.A.; Lukosch, S.G.


    For a better understanding of how different diseases (e.g. neurovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and musculoskeletal pain conditions) affect human motor function, a uniform, standardized and objective evaluation is a desirable goal expressed within the clinical community. We explore

  8. Implementation of density functional embedding theory within the projector-augmented-wave method and applications to semiconductor defect states

    Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Carter, Emily A.


    We report a new implementation of the density functional embedding theory (DFET) in the VASP code, using the projector-augmented-wave (PAW) formalism. Newly developed algorithms allow us to efficiently perform optimized effective potential optimizations within PAW. The new algorithm generates robust and physically correct embedding potentials, as we verified using several test systems including a covalently bound molecule, a metal surface, and bulk semiconductors. We show that with the resulting embedding potential, embedded cluster models can reproduce the electronic structure of point defects in bulk semiconductors, thereby demonstrating the validity of DFET in semiconductors for the first time. Compared to our previous version, the new implementation of DFET within VASP affords use of all features of VASP (e.g., a systematic PAW library, a wide selection of functionals, a more flexible choice of U correction formalisms, and faster computational speed) with DFET. Furthermore, our results are fairly robust with respect to both plane-wave and Gaussian type orbital basis sets in the embedded cluster calculations. This suggests that the density functional embedding method is potentially an accurate and efficient way to study properties of isolated defects in semiconductors

  9. Selective augmentation of striatal functional connectivity following NMDA receptor antagonism: implications for psychosis.

    Dandash, Orwa; Harrison, Ben J; Adapa, Ram; Gaillard, Raphael; Giorlando, Francesco; Wood, Stephen J; Fletcher, Paul C; Fornito, Alex


    The psychotomimetic effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine is thought to arise from a functional modulation of the brain's fronto-striato-thalamic (FST) circuits. Animal models suggest a pronounced effect on ventral 'limbic' FST systems, although recent work in patients with psychosis and high-risk individuals suggests specific alterations of dorsal 'associative' FST circuits. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine on measures of functional connectivity as indexed by the temporal coherence of spontaneous neural activity in both dorsal and ventral FST circuits, as well as their symptom correlates. We adopted a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures design in which 19 healthy participants received either an intravenous saline infusion or a racemic mixture of ketamine (100 ng/ml) separated by at least 1 week. Compared with placebo, ketamine increased functional connectivity between the dorsal caudate and both the thalamus and midbrain bilaterally. Ketamine additionally increased functional connectivity of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Both connectivity increases significantly correlated with the psychosis-like and dissociative symptoms under ketamine. Importantly, dorsal caudate connectivity with the ventrolateral thalamus and subthalamic nucleus showed inverse correlation with ketamine-induced symptomatology, pointing to a possible resilience role to disturbances in FST circuits. Although consistent with the role of FST in mediating psychosis, these findings contrast with previous research in clinical samples by suggesting that acute NMDAR antagonism may lead to psychosis-like experiences via a mechanism that is distinct from that implicated in frank psychotic illness.

  10. Breast Augmentation


    Apr 13, 1974 ... Complications encountered after breast augmentation are dealt with in .... in Phisohex or other suitable preparation for a few days before surgery ... In all cases, the prosthesis causes a fibrous tissue capsule to form around it.

  11. Chin augmentation

    ... or bigger compared to the nose. The best candidates for chin augmentation are people with weak or ... URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  12. Can baseline serum creatinine and e-GFR predict renal function outcome after augmentation cystoplasty in children?

    Singh, Prempal; Bansal, Ankur; Sekhon, Virender; Nunia, Sandeep; Ansari, M S


    To assess cut-off value of creatinine and glomerular filtration rate for augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in paediatric age-group. Data of all paediatric-patients (Creatinine and e-GFR were assessed at the time of surgery, at 6 months and at last follow-up. Renal function deterioration was defined as increase in creatinine by ≥25% from baseline value or new-onset stage-3 CKD or worsening of CKD stage with pre-operative-CKD stage-3. ROCs were plotted using creatinine and e-GFR for AC. A total of 94 patients with mean-age 8.9 years were included. The mean creatinine and e-GFR were 1.33mg/dL and 57.68mL/min respectively. Out of 94 patients, AC was performed in 45 patients and in the remaining 49 patients AC was not done (control-group), as they were not willing for the same. Baseline patient's characteristics were comparable in both Groups. 22 underwent gastro-cystoplasty (GC) and 25 underwent ileo-cystoplasty (IC). Decline in renal function was observed in 15 (33.3%) patients of AC-group and in 31 (63.3%) patients of control-group. Patients having creatinine ≥1.54mg/dL (P=0.004, sensitivity (S) 63.6% and specificity (s) 90.5%) at baseline and e-GFR ≤46mL/min (P=0.000, S=100% and s=85.7%) at the time of surgery had significantly increased probability of renal function deterioration on follow-up after AC. e-GFR ≤46mL/min and creatinine ≥1.54mg/dL at time of surgery could serve as a predictor of renal function deterioration in AC in paediatric patients. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  13. Natural cytolytic activity in mice with natural or induced cellular defects. I. Differential ability of in vitro interleukin-2 addition to augment natural cytolytic function

    Ades, E.W.; Hinson, A.; Butler, L.D.


    The ability of in vitro addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to differentially enhance natural cytotoxicity was assessed using cells from mice with natural and induced cellular defects. In vivo treatment with most immunosuppressive or cytoreductive agents, anti-asialo-GM1 antibody, or gamma irradiation dramatically reduced in vitro cytotoxicity against natural killer (NK) sensitive targets by direct reduction in either percentage specific lysis or lytic units per spleen. In most cases, in vitro addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented NK function in cells from naive Balb/C mice) enhanced cytotoxic activity of cells from treatment groups to a normal value but not within the rIL-2-enhanced range of nontreated animals. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of cells from animals treated with certain drugs or gamma irradiation could be augmented by rIL-2 when measured by percentage lysis but not lytic units per spleen. In vivo treatment with cyclosporin A did not affect natural cytotoxic activity and addition of rIL-2 augmented the NK activity in a similar fashion to the profile of naive cells. In experiments using cells from beige (C57Bl/6-bg) mice which have a natural defect in NK activity against YAC-1 targets, addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented natural cytotoxic function in cells from C57Bl/6 mice) could not effectively enhance in vitro natural cytotoxic function

  14. Natural cytolytic activity in mice with natural or induced cellular defects. I. Differential ability of in vitro interleukin-2 addition to augment natural cytolytic function

    Ades, E.W.; Hinson, A.; Butler, L.D.


    The ability of in vitro addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to differentially enhance natural cytotoxicity was assessed using cells from mice with natural and induced cellular defects. In vivo treatment with most immunosuppressive or cytoreductive agents, anti-asialo-GM1 antibody, or gamma irradiation dramatically reduced in vitro cytotoxicity against natural killer (NK) sensitive targets by direct reduction in either percentage specific lysis or lytic units per spleen. In most cases, in vitro addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented NK function in cells from naive Balb/C mice) enhanced cytotoxic activity of cells from treatment groups to a normal value but not within the rIL-2-enhanced range of nontreated animals. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of cells from animals treated with certain drugs or gamma irradiation could be augmented by rIL-2 when measured by percentage lysis but not lytic units per spleen. In vivo treatment with cyclosporin A did not affect natural cytotoxic activity and addition of rIL-2 augmented the NK activity in a similar fashion to the profile of naive cells. In experiments using cells from beige (C57Bl/6-bg) mice which have a natural defect in NK activity against YAC-1 targets, addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented natural cytotoxic function in cells from C57Bl/6 mice) could not effectively enhance in vitro natural cytotoxic function.

  15. Modelling and Order of Acoustic Transfer Functions Due to Reflections from Augmented Objects

    Diemer de Vries


    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that the sound reflections from real physical objects are much more complicated than what usually is and can be modelled by room acoustics modelling software. The main reason for this limitation is the level of detail inherent in the physical object in terms of its geometrical and acoustic properties. In the present paper, the complexity of the sound reflections from a corridor wall is investigated by modelling the corresponding acoustic transfer functions at several receiver positions in front of the wall. The complexity for different wall configurations has been examined and the changes have been achieved by altering its acoustic image. The results show that for a homogenous flat wall, the complexity is significant and for a wall including various smaller objects, the complexity is highly dependent on the position of the receiver with respect to the objects.

  16. Prostaglandin E2 is essential for efficacious skeletal muscle stem-cell function, augmenting regeneration and strength.

    Ho, Andrew T V; Palla, Adelaida R; Blake, Matthew R; Yucel, Nora D; Wang, Yu Xin; Magnusson, Klas E G; Holbrook, Colin A; Kraft, Peggy E; Delp, Scott L; Blau, Helen M


    Skeletal muscles harbor quiescent muscle-specific stem cells (MuSCs) capable of tissue regeneration throughout life. Muscle injury precipitates a complex inflammatory response in which a multiplicity of cell types, cytokines, and growth factors participate. Here we show that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory cytokine that directly targets MuSCs via the EP4 receptor, leading to MuSC expansion. An acute treatment with PGE2 suffices to robustly augment muscle regeneration by either endogenous or transplanted MuSCs. Loss of PGE2 signaling by specific genetic ablation of the EP4 receptor in MuSCs impairs regeneration, leading to decreased muscle force. Inhibition of PGE2 production through nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration just after injury similarly hinders regeneration and compromises muscle strength. Mechanistically, the PGE2 EP4 interaction causes MuSC expansion by triggering a cAMP/phosphoCREB pathway that activates the proliferation-inducing transcription factor, Nurr1 Our findings reveal that loss of PGE2 signaling to MuSCs during recovery from injury impedes muscle repair and strength. Through such gain- or loss-of-function experiments, we found that PGE2 signaling acts as a rheostat for muscle stem-cell function. Decreased PGE2 signaling due to NSAIDs or increased PGE2 due to exogenous delivery dictates MuSC function, which determines the outcome of regeneration. The markedly enhanced and accelerated repair of damaged muscles following intramuscular delivery of PGE2 suggests a previously unrecognized indication for this therapeutic agent.

  17. Two-week administration of the combined serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine augments functioning of mesolimbic incentive processing circuits.

    Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Verkes, Robbert J; Hermans, Erno J; Kooijman, Sabine C; Urner, Maren; Tendolkar, Indira; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén


    Anhedonia and lack of motivation are core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Neuroimaging studies in MDD patients have shown reductions in reward-related activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, such as the ventral striatum. Monoamines have been implicated in both mesolimbic incentive processing and the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. However, not much is known about antidepressant effects on mesolimbic incentive processing in humans, which might be related to the effects on anhedonia. To investigate the short-term effects of antidepressants on reward-related activity in the ventral striatum, we investigated the effect of the combined serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine. Healthy volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. After taking duloxetine (60 mg once a day) or placebo for 14 days, participants completed a monetary incentive delay task that activates the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Our results (n = 19) show enhanced ventral striatal responses after duloxetine administration compared with placebo. Moreover, this increase in ventral striatal activity was positively correlated with duloxetine plasma levels. This is the first study to demonstrate that antidepressants augment neural activity in mesolimbic DA incentive processing circuits in healthy volunteers. These effects are likely caused by the increase in monoamine neurotransmission in the ventral striatum. Our findings suggest that antidepressants may alleviate anhedonia by stimulating incentive processing. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Projector Augmented-Wave formulation of response to strain and electric field perturbation within the density-functional perturbation theory

    Martin, Alexandre; Torrent, Marc; Caracas, Razvan


    A formulation of the response of a system to strain and electric field perturbations in the pseudopotential-based density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) has been proposed by D.R Hamman and co-workers. It uses an elegant formalism based on the expression of DFT total energy in reduced coordinates, the key quantity being the metric tensor and its first and second derivatives. We propose to extend this formulation to the Projector Augmented-Wave approach (PAW). In this context, we express the full elastic tensor including the clamped-atom tensor, the atomic-relaxation contributions (internal stresses) and the response to electric field change (piezoelectric tensor and effective charges). With this we are able to compute the elastic tensor for all materials (metals and insulators) within a fully analytical formulation. The comparison with finite differences calculations on simple systems shows an excellent agreement. This formalism has been implemented in the plane-wave based DFT ABINIT code. We apply it to the computation of elastic properties and seismic-wave velocities of iron with impurity elements. By analogy with the materials contained in meteorites, tested impurities are light elements (H, O, C, S, Si).

  19. Angiopoietin-2 regulates gene expression in TIE2-expressing monocytes and augments their inherent proangiogenic functions.

    Coffelt, Seth B; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; De Palma, Michele; Patel, Sunil; Urbich, Carmen; Biswas, Subhra K; Murdoch, Craig; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Lewis, Claire E


    TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) are a highly proangiogenic subset of myeloid cells in tumors. Here, we show that circulating human TEMs are already preprogrammed in the circulation to be more angiogenic and express higher levels of such proangiogenic genes as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), VEGFA, COX-2, and WNT5A than TIE2(-) monocytes. Additionally, angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) markedly enhanced the proangiogenic activity of TEMs and increased their expression of two proangiogenic enzymes: thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and cathepsin B (CTSB). Three "alternatively activated" (or M2-like) macrophage markers were also upregulated by ANG-2 in TEMs: interleukin-10, mannose receptor (MRC1), and CCL17. To investigate the effects of ANG-2 on the phenotype and function of TEMs in tumors, we used a double-transgenic (DT) mouse model in which ANG-2 was specifically overexpressed by endothelial cells. Syngeneic tumors grown in these ANG-2 DT mice were more vascularized and contained greater numbers of TEMs than those in wild-type (WT) mice. In both tumor types, expression of MMP-9 and MRC1 was mainly restricted to tumor TEMs rather than TIE2(-) macrophages. Furthermore, tumor TEMs expressed higher levels of MRC1, TP, and CTSB in ANG-2 DT tumors than WT tumors. Taken together, our data show that although circulating TEMs are innately proangiogenic, exposure to tumor-derived ANG-2 stimulates these cells to exhibit a broader, tumor-promoting phenotype. As such, the ANG-2-TEM axis may represent a new target for antiangiogenic cancer therapies. Copyright 2010 AACR.

  20. Probiotic-mediated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruit fermentation to yield functionalized products for augmented antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Do-Youn


    The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of blueberry fruit with selected probiotic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Lactobacillus brevis) and yeast (Starmerella bombicola) isolated from fermented starfish for the extraction of functionalized products for biomedical applications. All probiotic-based fermented extracts showed augmented antibacterial and antioxidant activity compared to the control. Biochemical parameters of viable cell count, titratable acidity, total phenol, total anthocyanin, total flavonoids, total sugar, and reducing sugar were analyzed during a 0-96 h fermentation period. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to determine the functional groups in the control and fermented extracts and it signifies the presence of alcohol groups, phenol groups, carboxylic acids, and aliphatic amines, respectively. The well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays determined that the S. bombicola-mediated fermented extract has excellent activity, followed by B. amyloliquefaciens and L. brevis, at a high concentration of 1.0 g/mL fermented extract. The ABTS and DPPH showed significant scavenging activity with IC 50 values of (30.52 ± 0.08)/(155.10 ± 0.06) μg/mL, (24.82 ± 0.16)/(74.21 ± 1.26) μg/mL, and (21.81 ± 0.08)/(125.11 ± 0.04) μg/mL for B. amyloliquefaciens, L. brevis, and S. bombicola, respectively. Developing a value-added fermented blueberry product will help circumvent losses because of the highly perishable nature of the fruit. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Augmented Reality

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette


    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in terms...... of making the complex content and context of these subjects more approachable to the students through the visualization made possible through the use of this technology. A case study is described in this chapter. Issues and factors required for the sustainable use of the mobile-facilitated application...... of augmented reality are discussed....

  2. Impact of Virtual and Augmented Reality Based on Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Functional Neuronavigation in Glioma Surgery Involving Eloquent Areas.

    Sun, Guo-Chen; Wang, Fei; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Yu, Xin-Guang; Ma, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Ding-Biao; Zhu, Ru-Yuan; Xu, Bai-Nan


    The utility of virtual and augmented reality based on functional neuronavigation and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for glioma surgery has not been previously investigated. The study population consisted of 79 glioma patients and 55 control subjects. Preoperatively, the lesion and related eloquent structures were visualized by diffusion tensor tractography and blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI. Intraoperatively, microscope-based functional neuronavigation was used to integrate the reconstructed eloquent structure and the real head and brain, which enabled safe resection of the lesion. Intraoperative MRI was used to verify brain shift during the surgical process and provided quality control during surgery. The control group underwent surgery guided by anatomic neuronavigation. Virtual and augmented reality protocols based on functional neuronavigation and intraoperative MRI provided useful information for performing tailored and optimized surgery. Complete resection was achieved in 55 of 79 (69.6%) glioma patients and 20 of 55 (36.4%) control subjects, with average resection rates of 95.2% ± 8.5% and 84.9% ± 15.7%, respectively. Both the complete resection rate and average extent of resection differed significantly between the 2 groups (P virtual and augmented reality based on functional neuronavigation and intraoperative MRI can facilitate resection of gliomas involving eloquent areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Augmented Reality

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Radmer, Ole


    Artiklen præsenterer resultater fra pilotafprøvning i 7.-klasses fysik/kemi og biologi af to Augmented Reality (AR)-apps til naturfagsundervisning. Muligheder og udfordringer ved lærerens stilladsering af elevernes undersøgende samtale og modelleringskompetence er undersøgt med interview...

  4. Augmented reality

    Jecha, Jakub


    This thesis is focused on a technology called Augmented reality, especially on its use in marketing. The main objective of the thesis is to define why this technology is a suitable tool for marketing and to assess its use in real conditions. This is achieved by defining specific devices and use cases of this technology in practice, whereas evaluation of its use in real enviroment is based on statistics. The contribution of the thesis is objective evaluation of this technology and provision of...

  5. Antigen-specific T8+ human clone of cells with a nonspecific augmenting function on the T4 cell-B cell helper interaction

    Brines, R.D.; Sia, D.Y.; Lehner, T.


    The authors isolated a T8 + T3 + Ia + clone of cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy subject. The clone was expanded and maintained with autologous feed cells, interleukin 2, and a streptococcal antigen. The T8 + clone of cells responded specifically to the streptococcal antigen, in the absence of accessory cells,and released a soluble factor. Both the cloned cells and the corresponding soluble factor expressed augmenting helper but not suppressor activity. The augmenting helper activity for B cell antibody synthesis was demonstrable only in the presence of autologous T 4 cells. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure antibodies. Although stimulation of the T8 + cloned cells was antigen-specific, the resulting soluble factor elicited nonspecific antibody synthesis in the presence of T4 and B cells. The T8 + cloned cell-derived factor was adsorbed by B cells but not by T4 cells. Preliminary studies suggest that the factor has the properties of a B cell growth factor. They suggest that the T8 + population consists of functionally heterogeneous cell subsets, some that have suppressor function and others that augment the T4 + helper-inducer activity in B cell antibody synthesis

  6. Mobile Collaborative Augmented Reality: The Augmented Stroll

    Renevier , Philippe; Nigay , Laurence


    International audience; The paper focuses on Augmented Reality systems in which interaction with the real world is augmented by the computer, the task being performed in the real world. We first define what mobile AR systems, collaborative AR systems and finally mobile and collaborative AR systems are. We then present the augmented stroll and its software design as one example of a mobile and collaborative AR system. The augmented stroll is applied to Archaeology in the MAGIC (Mobile Augmente...

  7. Into the Wild: Neuroergonomic Differentiation of Hand-Held and Augmented Reality Wearable Displays during Outdoor Navigation with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    McKendrick, Ryan; Parasuraman, Raja; Murtza, Rabia; Formwalt, Alice; Baccus, Wendy; Paczynski, Martin; Ayaz, Hasan


    Highly mobile computing devices promise to improve quality of life, productivity, and performance. Increased situation awareness and reduced mental workload are two potential means by which this can be accomplished. However, it is difficult to measure these concepts in the "wild". We employed ultra-portable battery operated and wireless functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to non-invasively measure hemodynamic changes in the brain's Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Measurements were taken during navigation of a college campus with either a hand-held display, or an Augmented reality wearable display (ARWD). Hemodynamic measures were also paired with secondary tasks of visual perception and auditory working memory to provide behavioral assessment of situation awareness and mental workload. Navigating with an augmented reality wearable display produced the least workload during the auditory working memory task, and a trend for improved situation awareness in our measures of prefrontal hemodynamics. The hemodynamics associated with errors were also different between the two devices. Errors with an augmented reality wearable display were associated with increased prefrontal activity and the opposite was observed for the hand-held display. This suggests that the cognitive mechanisms underlying errors between the two devices differ. These findings show fNIRS is a valuable tool for assessing new technology in ecologically valid settings and that ARWDs offer benefits with regards to mental workload while navigating, and potentially superior situation awareness with improved display design.

  8. Use of Augmented Reality in Education

    Jeřábek, Tomáš


    This thesis deals with phenomena of augmented reality in context of didactics. The thesis aims to define augmented reality in conceptual and content area and focuses on augmented reality in the structure of educational tools and identification of its functions and use from the didactical standpoint. The thesis characterizes augmented reality as a specific technological-perceptual concept and establishes a system of perceptual, technological and resulting aspects that reflect important paramet...

  9. Effect of palatal augmentation prosthesis on pharyngeal manometric pressure in a patient with functional dysphagia: A case report.

    Ohno, Tomohisa; Ohno, Ryo; Fujishima, Ichiro


    A 53-year-old institutionalized male patient with a history of postoperative bilateral hypoglossal nerve injury was admitted for treatment of dysphagia. He experienced dysphagia involving oral cavity-to-pharynx bolus transportation because of restricted tongue movement and was treated with a palatal augmentation prosthesis (PAP), which resulted in improved bolus transportation, pharyngeal swallowing pressure, and clearance of oral and pharyngeal residue. The mean pharyngeal swallowing pressure at tongue base with the PAP (145.5±7.5mmHg) was significantly greater than that observed immediately after removal of the PAP (118.3±10.1mmHg; pDysphagia rehabilitation with the PAP was continued. Approximately 1 month after PAP application, the patient could orally consume three meals, with the exception of foods particularly difficult to swallow. The supporting contact between the tongue and palate enabled by the PAP resulted in improvement of bolus transportation, which is the most important effect of a PAP. The increase in pharyngeal swallowing pressure at the tongue base because of PAP-enabled tongue-palate contact might play an important role in this improvement. Since a PAP augments the volume of the palate, it enables easy contact between the tongue and palate, resulting in the formation of an anchor point for tongue movement during swallowing. Thus, application of a PAP increases the tongue force, especially that of the basal tongue. A palatal augmentation prosthesis helps improve pharyngeal swallowing pressure at the basal tongue region and might contribute to the decrease of oral as well as pharyngeal residue. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality

    Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Van Ulzen, Patricia; Specht, Marcus


    Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science - Technology for learning across physical and virtual spaces, 18(15), 2143-2164.

  11. Augmented reality services

    Tomáš Koubek


    Full Text Available We assume that one of the key reasons is in the difference between a standalone application and a web service. Both architectures have some advantages and disadvantages. The Standalone application (e.g. Nokia/OVI Maps provides the required functionality. From the user point of view, main asset of this “offline” approach is network connectivity independence. However, this kind of applications must be upgraded manually. Moreover, it is hard to get any data about the application usage because it requires additional actions from the user – data are usually acquired through conventional ways, such as email or web forms.The online service such as Google Maps (including its mobile application can offer the same functionality as the offline application. Nevertheless, a permanent connection to provider servers is necessary. This can be taken as a drawback. On the other hand, usage data collection is easier and can be done without the user intervention. The data collection provides a valuable analysis basis of the user habits and needs. This analysis is necessary for design of a complex “user” based solutions such as Google Now.Augmented reality applications are usually based on the first mentioned approach. In this article, we describe our model of augmented reality as a service and compare its features with standalone solutions. Further, other important key aspects for large emergence of augmented reality services in a mainstream market are discussed.

  12. Flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augment nitric oxide status and improve endothelial function in healthy men and women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Yang, Xingbin; Croft, Kevin D; Considine, Michael J; Ward, Natalie C; Rich, Lisa; Puddey, Ian B; Swinny, Ewald; Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M


    Flavonoids and nitrates in fruits and vegetables may protect against cardiovascular disease. Dietary flavonoids and nitrates can augment nitric oxide status via distinct pathways, which may improve endothelial function and lower blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that the combination of flavonoids and nitrates can enhance nitric oxide production in the stomach. Their combined effect in the circulation is unclear. Here, our objective was to investigate the independent and additive effects of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, and blood pressure. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial with healthy men and women (n=30) was conducted. The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach, and apple+spinach), administered in random order, were compared. Measurements included plasma nitric oxide status, assessed by measuring S-nitrosothiols+other nitrosylated species (RXNO) and nitrite, blood pressure, and endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery. Results are means and 95% CI. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher RXNO (control, 33 nmol/L, 26, 42; apple, 51 nmol/L, 40, 65; spinach, 86 nmol/L, 68, 110; apple+spinach, 69 nmol/L, 54, 88; Pflow-mediated dilatation (Peffect was observed on diastolic blood pressure. The combination of apple and spinach did not result in additive effects on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, or blood pressure. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach can independently augment nitric oxide status, enhance endothelial function, and lower blood pressure acutely, outcomes that may benefit cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extending the precision and efficiency of the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave density-functional theory method

    Michalicek, Gregor


    Density functional theory (DFT) is the most widely-used first-principles theory for analyzing, describing and predicting the properties of solids based on the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics. The success of the theory is a consequence of powerful approximations to the unknown exchange and correlation energy of the interacting electrons and of sophisticated electronic structure methods that enable the computation of the density functional equations on a computer. A widely used electronic structure method is the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method, that is considered to be one of the most precise methods of its kind and often referred to as a standard. Challenged by the demand of treating chemically and structurally increasingly more complex solids, in this thesis this method is revisited and extended along two different directions: (i) precision and (ii) efficiency. In the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method the space of a solid is partitioned into nearly touching spheres, centered at each atom, and the remaining interstitial region between the spheres. The Kohn-Sham orbitals, which are used to construct the electron density, the essential quantity in DFT, are expanded into a linearized augmented plane-wave basis, which consists of plane waves in the interstitial region and angular momentum dependent radial functions in the spheres. In this thesis it is shown that for certain types of materials, e.g., materials with very broad electron bands or large band gaps, or materials that allow the usage of large space-filling spheres, the variational freedom of the basis in the spheres has to be extended in order to represent the Kohn-Sham orbitals with high precision over a large energy spread. Two kinds of additional radial functions confined to the spheres, so-called local orbitals, are evaluated and found to successfully eliminate this error. A new efficient basis set is developed, named linearized augmented lattice

  14. Enhancing tourism with augmented and virtual reality

    Jenny, Sandra


    Augmented and virtual reality are on the advance. In the last twelve months, several interesting devices have entered the market. Since tourism is one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world and has become one of the major players in international commerce, the aim of this thesis was to examine how tourism could be enhanced with augmented and virtual reality. The differences and functional principles of augmented and virtual reality were investigated, general uses were described ...

  15. Augmenting static and dynamic mechanical strength of carbon nanotube/epoxy soft nanocomposites via modulation of purification and functionalization routes.

    Billing, Beant Kaur; Dhar, Purbarun; Singh, Narinder; Agnihotri, Prabhat K


    A detailed experimental investigation was carried out to establish the relationship between CNT purification and functionalization routes and the average response of CNT/epoxy nanocomposites under static and dynamic loading. It was shown that the relative improvement in the mechanical properties of the epoxy matrix due to the addition of CNTs depends on the choice of purification and functionalization steps. A better dispersion of CNTs was recorded for the functionalized CNTs as compared to the oxidized and CVD grown CNTs. Moreover, tensile, 3-point bending and nanoDMA testing performed on nanocomposites processed with CVD-grown, oxidized and functionalized CNTs revealed that COOH functionalization after the oxidation of CNTs at 350 °C is the optimized processing route to harness the excellent properties of CNTs in CNT/epoxy nanocomposites.

  16. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  17. Supplementation with α-lipoic acid, CoQ10, and vitamin E augments running performance and mitochondrial function in female mice.

    Arkan Abadi

    Full Text Available Antioxidant supplements are widely consumed by the general public; however, their effects of on exercise performance are controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an antioxidant cocktail (α-lipoic acid, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 on exercise performance, muscle function and training adaptations in mice. C57Bl/J6 mice were placed on antioxidant supplement or placebo-control diets (n = 36/group and divided into trained (8 wks treadmill running (n = 12/group and untrained groups (n = 24/group. Antioxidant supplementation had no effect on the running performance of trained mice nor did it affect training adaptations; however, untrained female mice that received antioxidants performed significantly better than placebo-control mice (p ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, antioxidant-supplemented females (untrained showed elevated respiratory capacity in freshly excised muscle fibers (quadriceps femoris (p ≤ 0.05, reduced oxidative damage to muscle proteins (p ≤ 0.05, and increased expression of mitochondrial proteins (p ≤ 0.05 compared to placebo-controls. These changes were attributed to increased expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α (p ≤ 0.05 via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK (p ≤ 0.05 by antioxidant supplementation. Overall, these results indicate that this antioxidant supplement exerts gender specific effects; augmenting performance and mitochondrial function in untrained females, but does not attenuate training adaptations.

  18. Strain-dependent augmentation of tight-junction barrier function in human primary epidermal keratinocytes by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium lysates.

    Sultana, Reshma; McBain, Andrew J; O'Neill, Catherine A


    In this study, we investigated whether probiotic lysates can modify the tight-junction function of human primary keratinocytes. The keratinocytes were grown on cell culture inserts and treated with lysates from Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. With the exception of L. fermentum (which decreased cell viability), all strains markedly enhanced tight-junction barrier function within 24 h, as assessed by measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). However, B. longum and L. rhamnosus GG were the most efficacious, producing dose-dependent increases in resistance that were maintained for 4 days. These increases in TEER correlated with elevated expression of tight-junction protein components. Neutralization of Toll-like receptor 2 abolished both the increase in TEER and expression of tight-junction proteins induced by B. longum, but not L. rhamnosus GG. These data suggest that some bacterial strains increase tight-junction function via modulation of protein components but the different pathways involved may vary depending on the bacterial strain.

  19. Functional analysis of rare variants in mismatch repair proteins augments results from computation-based predictive methods

    Arora, Sanjeevani; Huwe, Peter J.; Sikder, Rahmat; Shah, Manali; Browne, Amanda J.; Lesh, Randy; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Deshpande, Sanat; Hall, Michael J.; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Golemis, Erica A.


    ABSTRACT The cancer-predisposing Lynch Syndrome (LS) arises from germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, predominantly MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. A major challenge for clinical diagnosis of LS is the frequent identification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in these genes, as it is often difficult to determine variant pathogenicity, particularly for missense variants. Generic programs such as SIFT and PolyPhen-2, and MMR gene-specific programs such as PON-MMR and MAPP-MMR, are often used to predict deleterious or neutral effects of VUS in MMR genes. We evaluated the performance of multiple predictive programs in the context of functional biologic data for 15 VUS in MLH1, MSH2, and PMS2. Using cell line models, we characterized VUS predicted to range from neutral to pathogenic on mRNA and protein expression, basal cellular viability, viability following treatment with a panel of DNA-damaging agents, and functionality in DNA damage response (DDR) signaling, benchmarking to wild-type MMR proteins. Our results suggest that the MMR gene-specific classifiers do not always align with the experimental phenotypes related to DDR. Our study highlights the importance of complementary experimental and computational assessment to develop future predictors for the assessment of VUS. PMID:28494185

  20. Voluntary wheel running augments aortic l-arginine transport and endothelial function in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    Martens, Christopher R; Kuczmarski, James M; Kim, Jahyun; Guers, John J; Harris, M Brennan; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon; Edwards, David G


    Reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis contributes to risk for cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular uptake of the NO precursor l-arginine (ARG) is attenuated in rodents with CKD, resulting in reduced substrate availability for NO synthesis and impaired vascular function. We tested the effect of 4 wk of voluntary wheel running (RUN) and/or ARG supplementation on endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in rats with CKD. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ⅚ ablation infarction surgery to induce CKD, or SHAM surgery as a control. Beginning 4 wk following surgery, CKD animals either remained sedentary (SED) or received one of the following interventions: supplemental ARG, RUN, or combined RUN+ARG. Animals were euthanized 8 wk after surgery, and EDR was assessed. EDR was significantly impaired in SED vs. SHAM animals after 8 wk, in response to ACh (10(-9)-10(-5) M) as indicated by a reduced area under the curve (AUC; 44.56 ± 9.01 vs 100 ± 4.58, P RUN and RUN+ARG-treated animals. Maximal relaxation was elevated above SED in RUN+ARG animals only. l-[(3)H]arginine uptake was impaired in both SED and ARG animals and was improved in RUN and RUN+ARG animals. The results suggest that voluntary wheel running is an effective therapy to improve vascular function in CKD and may be more beneficial when combined with l-arginine. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.


    Giovanni eDi Pino


    Full Text Available Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyzes the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain.Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools.Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e. primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the

  2. Th17 Cells Exhibit Antitumor Effects in MDS Possibly through Augmenting Functions of CD8+ T Cells.

    Li, Jing; Yue, Lanzhu; Wang, Huaquan; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Hui; Tao, Jinglian; Qi, Weiwei; Wang, Yihao; Zhang, Wei; Fu, Rong; Shao, Zonghong


    Th17 cells are a newly found subset of distinct CD4+ Th effector cells' family and are found to play an important role in cancers. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a common malignant hematological disease. Here, we showed that both the percentage and the function of Th17 cells were elevated in low-risk MDS while being decreased in high-risk MDS. Levels of upstream molecules of Th17 cells, IL-6 and IL-23, were higher in low-risk MDS but lower in high-risk MDS patients. The abnormal percentage of Th17 cells was closely related to clinical parameters including karyotype, morphologic blast percentage of bone marrow, peripheral absolute neutrophil count, and hemoglobin concentration. Furthermore, expression rates of perforin and granzyme B in BM CD3+CD8+ cells (cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL) positively correlated with levels of IL-17 but negatively correlated with BM blast percentage and could be significantly increased after stimulation with human recombinant IL-17 (rhIL-17). Our results suggested that Th17 cells might play an antitumor effect in the pathogenesis of MDS through IL-17/CTL pathway.

  3. Extensive scarring induced by chronic intrathecal tubing augmented cord tissue damage and worsened functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury.

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G


    Intrathecal infusion has been widely used to directly deliver drugs or neurotrophins to a lesion site following spinal cord injury. Evidence shows that intrathecal infusion is efficient for 7 days but is markedly reduced after 14 days, due to time dependent occlusion. In addition, extensive fibrotic scarring is commonly observed with intrathecal infusion. These anomalies need to be clearly elucidated in histology. In the present study, all adult Long-Evans rats received a 25 mm contusion injury on spinal cord T10 produced using the NYU impactor device. Immediately after injury, catheter tubing with an outer diameter of 0.38 mm was inserted through a small dural opening at L3 into the subdural space with the tubing tip positioned near the injury site. The tubing was connected to an Alzet mini pump, which was filled with saline solution and was placed subcutaneously. Injured rats without tubing served as control. Rats were behaviorally tested for 6 weeks using the BBB locomotor rating scale and histologically assessed for tissue scarring. Six weeks later, we found that the intrathecal tubing caused extensive scarring and inflammation, related to neutrophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The tubing's tip was occluded by scar tissue and inflammatory cells. The scar tissue surrounding the tubing consists of 20-70 layers of fibroblasts and densely compacted collagen fibers, seriously compressing and damaging the cord tissue. BBB scores of rats with intrathecal tubing were significantly lower than control rats (p<0.01) from 2 weeks after injury, implying serious impairment of functional recovery caused by the scarring. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Augmented reality system

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng


    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  5. Home-Based Virtual Reality-Augmented Training Improves Lower Limb Muscle Strength, Balance, and Functional Mobility following Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Villiger, Michael; Liviero, Jasmin; Awai, Lea; Stoop, Rahel; Pyk, Pawel; Clijsen, Ron; Curt, Armin; Eng, Kynan; Bolliger, Marc


    Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject's treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR)-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised) is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI) and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility. In the study, 12 chronic iSCI subjects used a home-based, mobile version of a lower limb VR training system. The system included motivating training scenarios and combined action observation and execution. Virtual representations of the legs and feet were controlled via movement sensors. The subjects performed home-based training over 4 weeks, with 16-20 sessions of 30-45 min each. The outcome measures assessed were the Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Spinal Cord Independence Measure mobility, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, and 10 m and 6 min walking tests. Two pre-treatment assessment time points were chosen for outcome stability: 4 weeks before treatment and immediately before treatment. At post-assessment (i.e., immediately after treatment), high motivation and positive changes were reported by the subjects (adapted Patients' Global Impression of Change). Significant improvements were shown in lower limb muscle strength (LEMS, P  = 0.008), balance (BBS, P  = 0.008), and functional mobility (TUG, P  = 0.007). At follow-up assessment (i.e., 2-3 months after treatment), functional mobility (TUG) remained significantly improved ( P  = 0.005) in contrast to the other outcome measures. In summary, unsupervised exercises at home with the VR training system led to beneficial functional

  6. Home-Based Virtual Reality-Augmented Training Improves Lower Limb Muscle Strength, Balance, and Functional Mobility following Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Michael Villiger


    Full Text Available Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject’s treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility. In the study, 12 chronic iSCI subjects used a home-based, mobile version of a lower limb VR training system. The system included motivating training scenarios and combined action observation and execution. Virtual representations of the legs and feet were controlled via movement sensors. The subjects performed home-based training over 4 weeks, with 16–20 sessions of 30–45 min each. The outcome measures assessed were the Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Timed Up and Go (TUG, Spinal Cord Independence Measure mobility, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, and 10 m and 6 min walking tests. Two pre-treatment assessment time points were chosen for outcome stability: 4 weeks before treatment and immediately before treatment. At post-assessment (i.e., immediately after treatment, high motivation and positive changes were reported by the subjects (adapted Patients’ Global Impression of Change. Significant improvements were shown in lower limb muscle strength (LEMS, P = 0.008, balance (BBS, P = 0.008, and functional mobility (TUG, P = 0.007. At follow-up assessment (i.e., 2–3 months after treatment, functional mobility (TUG remained significantly improved (P = 0.005 in contrast to the other outcome measures. In summary, unsupervised exercises at home with the VR training system led to beneficial

  7. Production of Autoantibodies in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Associated with the Augmented Function of Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T Cells.

    Yu Lei

    Full Text Available T follicular helper cells (Tfh provide help to B cells to support their activation, expansion and differentiation. However, the role of Tfh cells in chronic HBV infection is poorly defined. The aim of this research was to examine the function of Tfh cells and whether they are involved in HBV related disease. Blood CXCR5+CD4+T cells and B cells in 85 patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients and health controls (HC were examined by flow cytometry. The molecule expression in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was detected by real-time PCR. Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells and B cells were co-cultured and the production of Ig and cytokines was detected by ELISA. Autoantibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunospot assay. We found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients expressed higher level of activation related molecules and cytokines than that from health controls (HC.In HBV patients, the frequency of blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was significantly correlated with serum ALT and AST. We also found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients could induce B cells to secret higher level of immunoglobulin than that from HC. Several autoantibodies, including ANA, ss-A, ss-B, Scl-70, Jo-1, ect, were indeed positive in 65% HBV patients. Among HBV patients, expression of function related molecules was significantly higher in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from patients with autoantibodies than that without autoantibodies. Our research indicated that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients were over activated and show augmented capacity to help B cells for antibody secreting, which might correlated with liver inflammation and the production of autoantibodies in extrahepatic manifestations.

  8. Secondary Breast Augmentation.

    Brown, Mitchell H; Somogyi, Ron B; Aggarwal, Shagun


    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Assess common clinical problems in the secondary breast augmentation patient. 2. Describe a treatment plan to correct the most common complications of breast augmentation. 3. Provide surgical and nonsurgical options for managing complications of breast augmentation. 4. Decrease the incidence of future complications through accurate assessment, preoperative planning, and precise surgical technique. Breast augmentation has been increasing steadily in popularity over the past three decades. Many of these patients present with secondary problems or complications following their primary breast augmentation. Two of the most common complications are capsular contracture and implant malposition. Familiarity and comfort with the assessment and management of these complications is necessary for all plastic surgeons. An up-to-date understanding of current devices and techniques may decrease the need to manage future complications from the current cohort of breast augmentation patients.

  9. Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Prochazka, David; Stencl, Michael; Popelka, Ondrej; Stastny, Jiri


    Augmented reality have undergone considerable improvement in past years. Many special techniques and hardware devices were developed, but the crucial breakthrough came with the spread of intelligent mobile phones. This enabled mass spread of augmented reality applications. However mobile devices have limited hardware capabilities, which narrows down the methods usable for scene analysis. In this article we propose an augmented reality application which is using cloud computing to enable using...

  10. Augmentation of failed human vertebrae with critical un-contained lytic defect restores their structural competence under functional loading: An experimental study.

    Alkalay, Ron N; von Stechow, Dietrich; Hackney, David B


    Lytic spinal lesions reduce vertebral strength and may result in their fracture. Vertebral augmentation is employed clinically to provide mechanical stability and pain relief for vertebrae with lytic lesions. However, little is known about its efficacy in strengthening fractured vertebrae containing lytic metastasis. Eighteen unembalmed human lumbar vertebrae, having simulated uncontained lytic defects and tested to failure in a prior study, were augmented using a transpedicular approach and re-tested to failure using a wedge fracture model. Axial and moment based strength and stiffness parameters were used to quantify the effect of augmentation on the structural response of the failed vertebrae. Effects of cement volume, bone mineral density and vertebral geometry on the change in structural response were investigated. Augmentation increased the failed lytic vertebral strength [compression: 85% (Paugmentation is effective in bolstering the failed lytic vertebrae compressive and axial structural competence, showing strength estimates up to 50-90% of historical values of osteoporotic vertebrae without lytic defects. This modest increase suggests that lytic vertebrae undergo a high degree of structural damage at failure, with strength only partially restored by vertebral augmentation. The positive effect of cement volume is self-limiting due to extravasation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.

    Hugues , Olivier; Fuchs , Philippe; Nannipieri , Olivier


    978-1-4614-0063-9; This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We div...

  12. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert


    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  13. Augmented Reality on Android

    Chunghan Li; Chang-Shyh Peng; Daisy F. Sang


    Augmented Reality is an application which combines a live view of real-world environment and computer-generated images. This paper studies and demonstrates an efficient Augmented Reality development in the mobile Android environment with the native Java language and Android SDK. Major components include Barcode Reader, File Loader, Marker Detector, Transform Matrix Generator, and a cloud database.

  14. Augmenting the Web through Open Hypermedia

    Bouvin, N.O.


    Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate, a......, and otherwise structure Web pages, as they see fit. The paper further discusses the possibilities of the concept through the description of various experiments performed with an implementation of the framework, the Arakne Environment......Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate...

  15. Augmented reality: a review.

    Berryman, Donna R


    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  16. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Krueger, T.


    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  17. Phenobarbital Augments Hypothermic Neuroprotection

    Barks, John D.; Liu, Yi-Qing; Shangguan, Yu; Silverstein, Faye S.


    Seizures are associated with adverse outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We hypothesized that early administration of the anticonvulsant phenobarbital after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia could enhance the neuroprotective efficacy of delayed-onset hypothermia. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal rodent model. Seven-day-old rats (n=104) underwent right carotid ligation, followed by 90 min 8%O2 exposure; 15 min later, they received injections of phenobarbital (40 mg/kg) or saline. One or 3h later, all were treated with hypothermia (30°C, 3h). Function and neuropathology were evaluated after 7 days (“early outcomes”) or 1 month (“late outcomes”). Early outcome assessment demonstrated better sensorimotor performance and less cortical damage in phenobarbital-treated groups; there were no differences between groups in which the hypothermia delay was shortened from 3h to 1h. Late outcome assessment confirmed sustained benefits of phenobarbital+hypothermia treatment; sensorimotor performance was better (persistent attenuation of contralateral forepaw placing deficits and absence of contralateral forepaw neglect); neuropathology scores were lower (medians, phenobarbital 2, saline 8.5, pphenobarbital may augment the neuroprotective efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20098339

  18. Augmented Reality, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Augmented Reality systems come with many benefits derived by co-locating information with a user's environment through the use of one or more output modalities such...

  19. Chin augmentation - slideshow

    ... page: // Chin augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  20. Augmenting Clozapine With Sertindole

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Emborg, Charlotte; Gydesen, Susanne


    Clozapine augmentation with antipsychotic drugs is widely used despite sparse evidence supporting this strategy. Sertindole is a nonsedating atypical antipsychotic drug with low affinity for cholinergic receptors, which makes it potentially suitable for augmentation of clozapine. The study design...... glucose, lipids, and electrocardiogram. Clozapine augmentation with sertindole was not superior to placebo regarding total score or subscale score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief, or Drug Attitude Inventory....... No increased adverse effects compared with placebo were found. Four patients randomized to sertindole experienced a significant worsening of psychosis, and 2 of them required psychiatric admission. Metabolic parameters were unchanged during the study, but augmentation of clozapine with sertindole...

  1. Breast augmentation - slideshow

    ... page: // Breast augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  2. Augmented reality in neurosurgery.

    Tagaytayan, Raniel; Kelemen, Arpad; Sik-Lanyi, Cecilia


    Neurosurgery is a medical specialty that relies heavily on imaging. The use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images during preoperative planning and intraoperative surgical navigation is vital to the success of the surgery and positive patient outcome. Augmented reality application in neurosurgery has the potential to revolutionize and change the way neurosurgeons plan and perform surgical procedures in the future. Augmented reality technology is currently commercially available for neurosurgery for simulation and training. However, the use of augmented reality in the clinical setting is still in its infancy. Researchers are now testing augmented reality system prototypes to determine and address the barriers and limitations of the technology before it can be widely accepted and used in the clinical setting.

  3. Exploration Augmentation Module Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project goal is to design and deliver a flight module that is to be deployed to Earth-Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO)....

  4. Marketing and Augmented Reality

    Zelený, Martin


    The main goal of this diploma thesis is to identify the usage of augmented reality in contemporary marketing practice and the expectations of marketers for the future use. This will be achieved by conducting a quantitative and qualitative research among existing creative and advertising companies. Secondary goal is introducing the concept of augmented reality from the theoretical point of view and also description of potential utilization based on known examples. The tools for the practical p...


    Tetteh, Sampson


    The vast majority of mobile technology today has developed over the past dec-ades. The thirst for information and communication has brought about high data transfer speed on modern mobile handset devices. This makes it possible for Augmented Reality to be used on mobile phones. Vaasa University of Applied Science, Technobothnia science resource center and Lumivaara Museum saw the importance of information and decided to embark on a pilot project where Augmented Reality will not be only us...

  6. Confronting an augmented reality

    John Hedberg


    Full Text Available How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial augmentation of reality links to existing theories of education and learning, focusing on ideas of cognitive dissonance and the confrontation of new realities implied by exposure to new and varied perspectives. We also discuss connections with broader debates brought on by the social and cultural changes wrought by the increased digitalisation of our lives, especially the concept of the extended mind. Rather than offer a prescription for augmentation, our intention is to throw open debate and to provoke deep thinking about what interacting with and creating an augmented reality might mean for both teacher and learner.

  7. Implementation of density functional theory method on object-oriented programming (C++) to calculate energy band structure using the projector augmented wave (PAW)

    Alfianto, E.; Rusydi, F.; Aisyah, N. D.; Fadilla, R. N.; Dipojono, H. K.; Martoprawiro, M. A.


    This study implemented DFT method into the C++ programming language with object-oriented programming rules (expressive software). The use of expressive software results in getting a simple programming structure, which is similar to mathematical formula. This will facilitate the scientific community to develop the software. We validate our software by calculating the energy band structure of Silica, Carbon, and Germanium with FCC structure using the Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) method then compare the results to Quantum Espresso calculation’s results. This study shows that the accuracy of the software is 85% compared to Quantum Espresso.

  8. Implementation of density functional theory method on object-oriented programming (C++) to calculate energy band structure using the projector augmented wave (PAW)

    Alfianto, E; Rusydi, F; Aisyah, N D; Dipojono, H K; Martoprawiro, M A; Fadilla, R N


    This study implemented DFT method into the C++ programming language with object-oriented programming rules (expressive software). The use of expressive software results in getting a simple programming structure, which is similar to mathematical formula. This will facilitate the scientific community to develop the software. We validate our software by calculating the energy band structure of Silica, Carbon, and Germanium with FCC structure using the Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) method then compare the results to Quantum Espresso calculation’s results. This study shows that the accuracy of the software is 85% compared to Quantum Espresso. (paper)

  9. Controlling bistability by linear augmentation

    Sharma, Pooja Rani; Shrimali, Manish Dev; Prasad, Awadhesh; Feudel, Ulrike


    In many bistable oscillating systems only one of the attractors is desired to possessing certain system performance. We present a method to drive a bistable system to a desired target attractor by annihilating the other one. This shift from bistability to monostability is achieved by augmentation of the nonlinear oscillator with a linear control system. For a proper choice of the control function one of the attractors disappears at a critical coupling strength in an control-induced boundary crisis. This transition from bistability to monostability is demonstrated with two paradigmatic examples, the autonomous Chua oscillator and a neuronal system with a periodic input signal.

  10. Augmented marked graphs

    Cheung, King Sing


    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  11. Augmented reality som wearable

    Buhl, Mie; Rahn, Annette


    Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR-applikat......Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR...

  12. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    Mullen, Tony


    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  13. Towards Pervasive Augmented Reality: Context-Awareness in Augmented Reality.

    Grubert, Jens; Langlotz, Tobias; Zollmann, Stefanie; Regenbrecht, Holger


    Augmented Reality is a technique that enables users to interact with their physical environment through the overlay of digital information. While being researched for decades, more recently, Augmented Reality moved out of the research labs and into the field. While most of the applications are used sporadically and for one particular task only, current and future scenarios will provide a continuous and multi-purpose user experience. Therefore, in this paper, we present the concept of Pervasive Augmented Reality, aiming to provide such an experience by sensing the user's current context and adapting the AR system based on the changing requirements and constraints. We present a taxonomy for Pervasive Augmented Reality and context-aware Augmented Reality, which classifies context sources and context targets relevant for implementing such a context-aware, continuous Augmented Reality experience. We further summarize existing approaches that contribute towards Pervasive Augmented Reality. Based our taxonomy and survey, we identify challenges for future research directions in Pervasive Augmented Reality.

  14. Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Jensen, Janek Dalsgaard


    , radiological and histomorphometric outcome as well as complications are presented after maxillary sinus floor augmentation applying the lateral window technique with a graft material, maxillary sinus membrane elevation without a graft material and osteotome-mediated sinus floor elevation with or without...

  15. Augmented Reality og kulturarv

    Nielsen, Mikkel Kirkedahl Lysholm


    Museerne står overfor at skulle omfavne den digitale kultur i håndteringen af den store mængde viden, institutionerne repræsenterer. Augmented Reality-systemer forbinder ved hjælp af moderne teknologi det virtuelle med det virkelige, og kan derfor synes som en oplagt anvendelsesmulighed i...

  16. Augmented Reality i naturfagsundervisningen

    Radmer, Ole; Surland, Mogens; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    Augmented Reality (AR) giver ny mulighed for, at elever kan lave undersøgelser i naturfag med enkel teknologi, hvor animationer og simulationer kobles med det virkelige fænomen. I workshoppen kan I afprøve AR eksempler, udviklet i et internationalt EU projekt. Der vil være noget, der direkte kan...

  17. Collaboration in Augmented Reality

    Lukosch, S.; Billinghurst, M.; Alem, L.; Kiyokawa, K.


    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows users to view and interact in real time with virtual images seamlessly superimposed over the real world. AR systems can be used to create unique collaborative experiences. For example, co-located users can see shared 3D virtual objects that they

  18. Augmented β-Cell Function and Mass in Glucocorticoid-Treated Rodents Are Associated with Increased Islet Ir-β/AKT/mTOR and Decreased AMPK/ACC and AS160 Signaling

    André O. P. Protzek


    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC therapies may adversely cause insulin resistance (IR that lead to a compensatory hyperinsulinemia due to insulin hypersecretion. The increased β-cell function is associated with increased insulin signaling that has the protein kinase B (AKT substrate with 160 kDa (AS160 as an important downstream AKT effector. In muscle, both insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling phosphorylate and inactivate AS160, which favors the glucose transporter (GLUT-4 translocation to plasma membrane. Whether AS160 phosphorylation is modulated in islets from GC-treated subjects is unknown. For this, two animal models, Swiss mice and Wistar rats, were treated with dexamethasone (DEX (1 mg/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days. DEX treatment induced IR, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia in both species, but glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia only in rats. DEX treatment caused increased insulin secretion in response to glucose and augmented β-cell mass in both species that were associated with increased islet content and increased phosphorylation of the AS160 protein. Protein AKT phosphorylation, but not AMPK phosphorylation, was found significantly enhanced in islets from DEX-treated animals. We conclude that the augmented β-cell function developed in response to the GC-induced IR involves inhibition of the islet AS160 protein activity.

  19. Capillary Refill using Augmented Reality

    Clausen, Christoffer


    Master's thesis in Computer science The opportunities within augmented reality is growing. Augmented reality is a combination of the real and the virtual world in real time, and large companies like Microsoft and Google is now investing heavily in the technology. This thesis presents a solution for simulating a medical test called capillary refill, by using augmented reality. The simulation is performed with an augmented reality headset called HoloLens. The HoloLens will recognise a mark...

  20. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    Vistisen, Peter


    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  1. Transaxillary Endoscopic Breast Augmentation

    Hyung-Bo Sim


    Full Text Available The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants demonstrated a better stability attributable to tissue adherence compared with smooth surface implants. The axillary endoscopic technique has greatly evolved, and now the surgical results are comparable to those with the inframammary approach. The author feels that this technique is an excellent choice for young patients with an indistinct or absent inframammary fold, who do not want a scar in the aesthetic unit of their chest.

  2. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments Tie2-expressing monocyte differentiation, angiogenic function, and recruitment in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Forget, Mary A; Voorhees, Jeffrey L; Cole, Sara L; Dakhlallah, Duaa; Patterson, Ivory L; Gross, Amy C; Moldovan, Leni; Mo, Xiaokui; Evans, Randall; Marsh, Clay B; Eubank, Tim D


    Reports demonstrate the role of M-CSF (CSF1) in tumor progression in mouse models as well as the prognostic value of macrophage numbers in breast cancer patients. Recently, a subset of CD14+ monocytes expressing the Tie2 receptor, once thought to be predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, has been characterized. We hypothesized that increased levels of CSF1 in breast tumors can regulate differentiation of Tie2- monocytes to a Tie2+ phenotype. We treated CD14+ human monocytes with CSF1 and found a significant increase in CD14+/Tie2+ positivity. To understand if CSF1-induced Tie2 expression on these cells improved their migratory ability, we pre-treated CD14+ monocytes with CSF1 and used Boyden chemotaxis chambers to observe enhanced response to angiopoietin-2 (ANG2), the chemotactic ligand for the Tie2 receptor. We found that CSF1 pre-treatment significantly augmented chemotaxis and that Tie2 receptor upregulation was responsible as siRNA targeting Tie2 receptor abrogated this effect. To understand any augmented angiogenic effect produced by treating these cells with CSF1, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with conditioned supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated CD14+ monocytes for a tube formation assay. While supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated TEMs increased HUVEC branching, a neutralizing antibody against the CSF1R abrogated this activity, as did siRNA against the Tie2 receptor. To test our hypothesis in vivo, we treated PyMT tumor-bearing mice with CSF1 and observed an expansion in the TEM population relative to total F4/80+ cells, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. Investigation into the mechanism of Tie2 receptor upregulation on CD14+ monocytes by CSF1 revealed a synergistic contribution from the PI3 kinase and HIF pathways as the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, as well as HIF-1α-deficient macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow of HIF-1αfl/fl/LysMcre mice, diminished CSF1-stimulated Tie2 receptor expression.

  3. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments Tie2-expressing monocyte differentiation, angiogenic function, and recruitment in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Mary A Forget

    Full Text Available Reports demonstrate the role of M-CSF (CSF1 in tumor progression in mouse models as well as the prognostic value of macrophage numbers in breast cancer patients. Recently, a subset of CD14+ monocytes expressing the Tie2 receptor, once thought to be predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, has been characterized. We hypothesized that increased levels of CSF1 in breast tumors can regulate differentiation of Tie2- monocytes to a Tie2+ phenotype. We treated CD14+ human monocytes with CSF1 and found a significant increase in CD14+/Tie2+ positivity. To understand if CSF1-induced Tie2 expression on these cells improved their migratory ability, we pre-treated CD14+ monocytes with CSF1 and used Boyden chemotaxis chambers to observe enhanced response to angiopoietin-2 (ANG2, the chemotactic ligand for the Tie2 receptor. We found that CSF1 pre-treatment significantly augmented chemotaxis and that Tie2 receptor upregulation was responsible as siRNA targeting Tie2 receptor abrogated this effect. To understand any augmented angiogenic effect produced by treating these cells with CSF1, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs with conditioned supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated CD14+ monocytes for a tube formation assay. While supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated TEMs increased HUVEC branching, a neutralizing antibody against the CSF1R abrogated this activity, as did siRNA against the Tie2 receptor. To test our hypothesis in vivo, we treated PyMT tumor-bearing mice with CSF1 and observed an expansion in the TEM population relative to total F4/80+ cells, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. Investigation into the mechanism of Tie2 receptor upregulation on CD14+ monocytes by CSF1 revealed a synergistic contribution from the PI3 kinase and HIF pathways as the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, as well as HIF-1α-deficient macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow of HIF-1αfl/fl/LysMcre mice, diminished CSF1-stimulated Tie2 receptor

  4. Augmented reality in surgery.

    Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H


    To evaluate the history and current knowledge of computer-augmented reality in the field of surgery and its potential goals in education, surgeon training, and patient treatment. National Library of Medicine's database and additional library searches. Only articles suited to surgical sciences with a well-defined aim of study, methodology, and precise description of outcome were included. Augmented reality is an effective tool in executing surgical procedures requiring low-performance surgical dexterity; it remains a science determined mainly by stereotactic registration and ergonomics. Strong evidence was found that it is an effective teaching tool for training residents. Weaker evidence was found to suggest a significant influence on surgical outcome, both morbidity and mortality. No evidence of cost-effectiveness was found. Augmented reality is a new approach in executing detailed surgical operations. Although its application is in a preliminary stage, further research is needed to evaluate its long-term clinical impact on patients, surgeons, and hospital administrators. Its widespread use and the universal transfer of such technology remains limited until there is a better understanding of registration and ergonomics.

  5. IL-15 augments TCR-induced CD4+ T cell expansion in vitro by inhibiting the suppressive function of CD25 High CD4+ T cells.

    Tom L Van Belle

    Full Text Available Due to its critical role in NK cell differentiation and CD8(+ T cell homeostasis, the importance of IL-15 is more firmly established for cytolytic effectors of the immune system than for CD4(+ T cells. The increased levels of IL-15 found in several CD4(+ T cell-driven (auto- immune diseases prompted us to examine how IL-15 influences murine CD4(+ T cell responses to low dose TCR-stimulation in vitro. We show that IL-15 exerts growth factor activity on both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells in a TCR-dependent and Cyclosporin A-sensitive manner. In CD4(+ T cells, IL-15 augmented initial IL-2-dependent expansion and once IL-15Rα was upregulated, IL-15 sustained the TCR-induced expression of IL-2/15Rβ, supporting proliferation independently of secreted IL-2. Moreover, IL-15 counteracts CD4(+ T cell suppression by a gradually expanding CD25(HighCD4(+ T cell subset that expresses Foxp3 and originates from CD4(+CD25(+ Tregs. These in vitro data suggest that IL-15 may dramatically strengthen the T cell response to suboptimal TCR-triggering by overcoming an activation threshold set by Treg that might create a risk for autoimmune pathology.

  6. Projector augmented wave method: ab initio molecular dynamics ...


    kinetic energy is small and the wave function is smooth. However, the wave ... and various strategies have been developed. ... methods let us briefly review the history of augmented ..... alleviated by adding an intelligent zero: If an operator B.

  7. AMI: Augmented Michelson Interferometer

    Furió, David; Hachet, Martin; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Bousquet, Bruno; Fleck, Stéphanie; Reuter, Patrick; Canioni, Lionel


    Experiments in optics are essential for learning and understanding physical phenomena. The problem with these experiments is that they are generally time consuming for both their construction and their maintenance, potentially dangerous through the use of laser sources, and often expensive due to high technology optical components. We propose to simulate such experiments by way of hybrid systems that exploit both spatial augmented reality and tangible interaction. In particular, we focus on one of the most popular optical experiments: the Michelson interferometer. In our approach, we target a highly interactive system where students are able to interact in real time with the Augmented Michelson Interferometer (AMI) to observe, test hypotheses and then to enhance their comprehension. Compared to a fully digital simulation, we are investigating an approach that benefits from both physical and virtual elements, and where the students experiment by manipulating 3D-printed physical replicas of optical components (e.g. lenses and mirrors). Our objective is twofold. First, we want to ensure that the students will learn with our simulator the same concepts and skills that they learn with traditional methods. Second, we hypothesis that such a system opens new opportunities to teach optics in a way that was not possible before, by manipulating concepts beyond the limits of observable physical phenomena. To reach this goal, we have built a complementary team composed of experts in the field of optics, human-computer interaction, computer graphics, sensors and actuators, and education science.

  8. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student...... involvement. The AR-sci-project (Augmented Reality for SCIence education) addresses the issue of applying augmented reality in developing innovative science education and enhancing the quality of science teaching and learning....

  9. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H


    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  10. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    Sandvik, Kjetil


    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  11. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.


    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  12. Augmented fish health monitoring

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.


    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin


    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  14. Maxillary sinus augmentation

    A B Tarun Kumar


    Full Text Available Placing dental implants in the maxillary posterior region can be both challenging and un-nerving for a regular implant dentist who is not well versed with advanced surgical procedures. It is vital for a general dentist to understand the fundamentals of bone grafting the maxillary sinus if he/she is really committed to providing the best health care for their patients. The dental practice is seeing an increasing group of patients who are living longer, and this group of older baby boomers often has an edentulous posterior maxilla either unilateral or bilateral. When edentulous, the posterior maxilla more likely has diminished bone height, which does not allow for the placement of dental implants without creating additional bone. Through grafting the maxillary sinus, bone of ideal quality can be created (allowing for placement of dental implants, which offer many advantages over other tooth replacement modalities. The sinus graft offers the dental patient a predictable procedure of regenerating lost osseous structure in the posterior maxilla. This offers the patient many advantages for long-term success. If dentists understand these concepts, they can better educate their patients and guide them to have the procedure performed. This article outlines bone grafting of the maxillary sinus for the purpose of placing dental implants. This review will help the readers to understand the intricacies of sinus augmentation. They can relate their patient's condition with the available literature and chalk out the best treatment plan for the patient, especially by using indirect sinus augmentation procedures which are less invasive and highly successful if done using prescribed technique.

  15. Advanced Intellect-Augmentation Techniques.

    Engelbart, D. C.

    This progress report covers a two-year project which is part of a program that is exploring the value of computer aids in augmenting human intellectual capability. The background and nature of the program, its resources, and the activities it has undertaken are outlined. User experience in applying augmentation tools and techniques to various…

  16. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael


    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  17. Augmented reality som wearable technology

    Rahn, Annette

    “How Augmented reality can facilitate learning in visualizing human anatomy “ At this station I demonstrate how Augmented reality can be used to visualize the human lungs in situ and as a wearable technology which establish connection between body, image and technology in education. I will show...

  18. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail:; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail:; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail:; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail:; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail:; Garnon, Julien, E-mail:; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)


    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  19. Using projector augmented-wave (PAW) formalism inside the density-functional perturbation theory; L'utilisation du formalisme PAW en theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite perturbee

    Audouze, Ch


    In condensed matter physics, ab-initio simulation allows to get macroscopic quantities (for example equations of state) from microscopic ones, as phonon frequencies which characterize the vibration Eigenmodes of the system. Therefore, one can theoretically predict the behavior of the material at very high pressure conditions, which can be out of reach by experiences. Computations of phonon spectrum are obtained thanks to the linear response theory, where the equations of Density Functional Theory (as the Kohn-Sham model) are perturbed around their fundamental state. The linear response functionality is one of the options included in the ABINIT code, which is an open source package developed in particular by a team of the CEA-DAM (DPTA) and the Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Nevertheless, in spite of using pseudopotentials, computations of phonon spectrum are not tractable for heavy chemical elements, even on massively parallel computers. In order to overcome this difficulty, the linear response theory had to be extended to the PAW (Projector Augmented-Waves) formalism. In this CEA report, we first detail the PAW model, giving to it a more mathematical framework. Then we establish the linear response equations within the PAW formalism, up to the third order derivative of the total energy, for an isolated molecular system and for generic perturbations. Lastly, all these results are specified to the particular case of atom displacements and for perturbations associated to the change of an external potential in which the molecule is set. (author)

  20. HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cell function augmented by blockade of 2B4/CD48 interaction in HTLV-1 infection.

    Chibueze Chioma Ezinne

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cell response is important in the response to viral infections; this response though is regulated by inhibitory receptors. Expression of inhibitory receptors has been positively correlated with CD8+ T cell exhaustion; the consequent effect of simultaneous blockade of these inhibitory receptors on CD8+ T cell response in viral infections have been studied, however, the role of individual blockade of receptor-ligand pair is unclear. 2B4/CD48 interaction is involved in CD8+T cell regulation, its signal transducer SAP (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM-associated protein is required for stimulatory function of 2B4/CD244 on lymphocytes hence, we analyzed 2B4/CD244 (natural killer cell receptor and SAP (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule(SLAM-associated protein on total CD8+ and HTLV-1 specific CD8+T cells in HTLV-1 infection and the effect of blockade of interaction with ligand CD48 on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cell function. We observed a high expression of 2B4/CD244 on CD8+ T cells relative to uninfected and further upregulation on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. 2B4+ CD8+ T cells exhibited more of an effector and terminally differentiated memory phenotype. Blockade of 2B4/CD48 interaction resulted in improvement in function via perforin expression and degranulation as measured by CD107a surface mobilization on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. In the light of these findings, we thus propose an inhibitory role for 2B4/CD48 interaction on CD8+T cell function.

  1. Hypercholesterolemia Induced by a PCSK9 Gain-of-Function Mutation Augments Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in C57BL/6 Mice-Brief Report.

    Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Graham, Mark J; Mullick, Adam E; Daugherty, Alan


    Gain-of-function mutations of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) lead to hypercholesterolemia. This study was to determine whether infection of normocholesterolemic mice with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector expressing a gain-of-function mutation of mouse PCSK9 increased angiotensin II (AngII)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms. In an initial study, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with either an empty vector or PCSK9 gain-of-function mutation (D377Y). AAV at 3 doses and fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 6 weeks. Two weeks after AAV injection, mice were infused with AngII for 4 weeks. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were increased dose dependently in mice injected with AAV containing PCSK9D377Y mutation and positively associated with elevations of plasma cholesterol concentrations. Infection with intermediate and high doses of PCSK9D377Y.AAV led to equivalent increases of maximal width of abdominal aortas in C57BL/6 mice infused with AngII. Therefore, the intermediate dose was used in subsequent experiments. We then determined effects of PCSK9D377Y.AAV infection on 5 normolipidemic mouse strains, demonstrating that C57BL/6 mice were the most susceptible to this AAV infection. PCSK9D377Y.AAV infected male C57BL/6 mice were also compared with age-matched male low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice. Although plasma cholesterol concentrations were lower in mice infected with PCSK9D377Y.AAV, these mice had equivalent abdominal aortic aneurysmal formation, compared to low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice. In a separate study, reduced plasma PCSK9 concentrations by PCSK9 antisense oligonucleotides in male low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice did not influence AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAV-mediated infection with a mouse PCSK9 gain-of-function mutation is a rapid, easy, and efficient approach for inducing hypercholesterolemia and promoting abdominal aortic aneurysms in C57BL/6 mice infused with Ang

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)


    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  3. Implementing augmented reality for visualisation of virtual buildings using Android

    Dąbrowski, Piotr Władysław


    The mobile phone devices are still developing and they are gaining more functionality and are able to deal with more advanced tasks. One of the technologies timidly trying to approach the mobile phone market is the augmented reality, which does no longer require external equipment to be formed in a programming application. There is a limited number of sources trying to describe the accuracy of augmented reality applications implemented on mobile devices. Within this study an application of au...

  4. Understanding augmented reality concepts and applications

    Craig, Alan B


    Augmented reality is not a technology. Augmented reality is a medium. Likewise, a book on augmented reality that only addresses the technology that is required to support the medium of augmented reality falls far short of providing the background that is needed to produce, or critically consume augmented reality applications. One reads a book. One watches a movie. One experiences augmented reality. Understanding Augmented Reality addresses the elements that are required to create compelling augmented reality experiences. The technology that supports

  5. Augmented Mirror: Interactive Augmented Reality System Based on Kinect

    Vera , Lucía; Gimeno , Jesús; Coma , Inmaculada; Fernández , Marcos


    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; In this paper we present a virtual character controlled by an actor in real time, who talks with an audience through an augmented mirror. The application, which integrates video images, the avatar and other virtual objects within an Augmented Reality system, has been implemented using a mixture of technologies: two kinect systems for motion capture, depth map and real images, a gyroscope to detect head movements, and control algorithms to...

  6. Medium-Term Function of a 3D Printed TCP/HA Structure as a New Osteoconductive Scaffold for Vertical Bone Augmentation: A Simulation by BMP-2 Activation

    Mira Moussa


    Full Text Available Introduction: A 3D-printed construct made of orthogonally layered strands of tricalcium phosphate (TCP and hydroxyapatite has recently become available. The material provides excellent osteoconductivity. We simulated a medium-term experiment in a sheep calvarial model by priming the blocks with BMP-2. Vertical bone growth/maturation and material resorption were evaluated. Materials and methods: Titanium hemispherical caps were filled with either bare- or BMP-2 primed constructs and placed onto the calvaria of adult sheep (n = 8. Histomorphometry was performed after 8 and 16 weeks. Results: After 8 weeks, relative to bare constructs, BMP-2 stimulation led to a two-fold increase in bone volume (Bare: 22% ± 2.1%; BMP-2 primed: 50% ± 3% and a 3-fold decrease in substitute volume (Bare: 47% ± 5%; BMP-2 primed: 18% ± 2%. These rates were still observed at 16 weeks. The new bone grew and matured to a haversian-like structure while the substitute material resorbed via cell- and chemical-mediation. Conclusion: By priming the 3D construct with BMP-2, bone metabolism was physiologically accelerated, that is, enhancing vertical bone growth and maturation as well as material bioresorption. The scaffolding function of the block was maintained, leaving time for the bone to grow and mature to a haversian-like structure. In parallel, the material resorbed via cell-mediated and chemical processes. These promising results must be confirmed in clinical tests.

  7. Wearable functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS: Expanding Vistas for Neurocognitive Augmentation

    Ryan eMcKendrick


    Full Text Available Contemporary studies with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS provide a growing base of evidence for enhancing cognition through the non-invasive delivery of weak electric currents to the brain. The main effect of tDCS is to modulate cortical excitability depending on the polarity of the applied current. However, the underlying mechanism of neuromodulation is not well understood. A new generation of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS systems is described that are miniaturized, portable, and include wearable sensors. These developments provide an opportunity to couple fNIRS with tDCS, consistent with a neuroergonomics approach for joint neuroimaging and neurostimulation investigations of cognition in complex tasks and in naturalistic conditions. The effects of tDCS on complex task performance and the use of fNIRS for monitoring cognitive workload during task performance are described. Also explained is how fNIRS + tDCS can be used simultaneously for assessing spatial working memory. Mobile optical brain imaging is a promising neuroimaging tool that has the potential to complement tDCS for realistic applications in natural settings.

  8. Mersiline mesh in premaxillary augmentation.

    Foda, Hossam M T


    Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant.

  9. The Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES)


    Introduction The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Human Sciences Campaign calls out the topic of Virtual /Mixed and Augmented Reality as one of the...type of virtual environment. In virtual reality (VR), the totality of the environment is computer generated. In AR, the real world is augmented by...tangible user interfaces; and the effectiveness of virtual sand tables and similar systems. A market survey was also done to discover the state of

  10. Application results for an augmented video tracker

    Pierce, Bill


    The Relay Mirror Experiment (RME) is a research program to determine the pointing accuracy and stability levels achieved when a laser beam is reflected by the RME satellite from one ground station to another. This paper reports the results of using a video tracker augmented with a quad cell signal to improve the RME ground station tracking system performance. The video tracker controls a mirror to acquire the RME satellite, and provides a robust low bandwidth tracking loop to remove line of sight (LOS) jitter. The high-passed, high-gain quad cell signal is added to the low bandwidth, low-gain video tracker signal to increase the effective tracking loop bandwidth, and significantly improves LOS disturbance rejection. The quad cell augmented video tracking system is analyzed, and the math model for the tracker is developed. A MATLAB model is then developed from this, and performance as a function of bandwidth and disturbances is given. Improvements in performance due to the addition of the video tracker and the augmentation with the quad cell are provided. Actual satellite test results are then presented and compared with the simulated results.

  11. Bayesian Alternation During Tactile Augmentation

    Caspar Mathias Goeke


    Full Text Available A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition, rotation only (native condition, and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition. Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants’ responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND. Then we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67 than the Bayesian integration model (χred2= 4.34. Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all model (χred2= 1.64, which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2= 1.09 utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  12. Augmented reality for breast imaging.

    Rancati, Alberto; Angrigiani, Claudio; Nava, Maurizio B; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Ventrice, Fernando; Dorr, Julio


    Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described. Breast MRI studies for breast implant patients with seroma were performed using a Siemens 3T system with a body coil and a four-channel bilateral phased-array breast coil as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The contrast agent used was (CA) gadolinium (Gd) injection (0.1 mmol/kg at 2 ml/s) by a programmable power injector. Dicom formated images data from 10 MRI cases of breast implant seroma and 10 MRI cases with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, were imported and transformed into Augmented reality images. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence, 3D cursor use, and joystick fly-through. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) to the breast can improve clinical outcomes, giving an enhanced view of the structures to work on. It should be further studied to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  13. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.


    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  14. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F


    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  15. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG)

    Homan, C.G.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.


    Superconducting augmentation consists of a superconducting coil operating in the persistent mode closely coupled magnetically with a normally conducting rail gun. A theoretical investigation of the effect of this system on a rail gun has shown that two benefits occur. Projectile velocities and launch efficiencies increase significantly depending on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation circuits. Previous work evaluated an idealized system by neglecting energy dissipation effects. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis to include the neglected terms and show improved actual launch efficiencies for the SARG configuration. In this paper, the authors discuss details of projectile design in depth and present preliminary results of rail gun performance

  16. "Messing with the Mind: Evolutionary Challenges to Human Brain Augmentation



    Full Text Available The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce augmented brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties.

  17. Computer Augmented Learning; A Survey.

    Kindred, J.

    The report contains a description and summary of computer augmented learning devices and systems. The devices are of two general types programed instruction systems based on the teaching machines pioneered by Pressey and developed by Skinner, and the so-called "docile" systems that permit greater user-direction with the computer under student…

  18. Aplikasi Web Augmented Reality Villa

    Gede Yudha Prema Pangestu


    Full Text Available Bali is one of the highly developed tourist destination in Indonesia. The arrival of tourists having holiday in Bali led to increase residential needs with complete amenities. The occupancy rate of hotel and villa in Bali is increase significantlly during the long vacation. The emergence of new villa and hotel occupancy raises the level of competition in business, so it needs a correct use good marketing communication strategy in marketing the product in order to attract the attention of consumers. Web Application Augmented Reality Villa can help visualize the residential villa in three-dimensional shapes that look more attractive and practical. The use of brochures as written information and the application of augmented reality technology on the Web Application Augmented Reality Villa aims to develop an application that can provide information about the villa to visitors. Web Application uses Augmented Reality Villa designed by FlarToolkit library. Based on the test results show the application can display 3-dimensional objects by scanning marker villa in a brochure which already contain marker.

  19. Data Augmentation for Plant Classification

    Pawara, Pornntiwa; Okafor, Emmanuel; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco


    Data augmentation plays a crucial role in increasing the number of training images, which often aids to improve classification performances of deep learning techniques for computer vision problems. In this paper, we employ the deep learning framework and determine the effects of several

  20. Outcomes of rotator cuff augmentation surgery with autologous fascia lata.

    Rosales-Varo, A P; García-Espona, M A; Roda-Murillo, O

    To evaluate whether augmentation grafts using autologous fascia lata improve functional results for rotator cuff repairs and reduce the retear rate compared to those without augmentation. This is a prospective evaluation comprising 20 patients with a complete symptomatic rotator cuff tear. The operations were carried out from a superior approach performing a total cuff repair, for 10 patients we used a suture augmented with an autologous graft taken from their own fascia lata while unaugmented sutures were used for the other 10 patients. The follow-up period lasted for one year post-intervention. We measured variables for tear type, functionality and pain, both baseline and at 6 and 12-month follow ups. We evaluated retear incidence in each group as well as each group's pain and functionality response. The improved pain levels in the non-graft group evolved gradually over time. Conversely, in the group with the augmentation grafts, average Constant-Murley shoulder outcome scores at six months were already above 10 and were maintained at 12 months. One retear occurred in the graft group and 2 in the group without grafts, thus presenting no significant differences. There were no significant changes in pain and function values at the one year follow up in either group. Our preliminary results regarding rotator cuff augmentation surgery with autologous fascia lata showed a significant improvement in pain levels after 6 months compared to the patients with no augmentation, who required 12 months to reach the same values. After a year of follow up, there were no differences between the mean Constant and pain scores in either intervention group The number of retears in the non-graft group was greater than that in the group with grafts although the difference was not significant. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Augmented reality and its practical application

    ZÍTKOVÁ, Helena


    This thesis combines topic of augmented reality with tourism. For analyzing the state of the use of augmented reality was composed case studies. It was created product, which is called Guide to mobile phone.

  2. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  3. Cerebellum Augmented Rover Development

    King, Matthew


    Bio-Inspired Technologies and Systems (BITS) are a very natural result of thinking about Nature's way of solving problems. Knowledge of animal behaviors an be used in developing robotic behaviors intended for planetary exploration. This is the expertise of the JFL BITS Group and has served as a philosophical model for NMSU RioRobolab. Navigation is a vital function for any autonomous system. Systems must have the ability to determine a safe path between their current location and some target location. The MER mission, as well as other JPL rover missions, uses a method known as dead-reckoning to determine position information. Dead-reckoning uses wheel encoders to sense the wheel's rotation. In a sandy environment such as Mars, this method is highly inaccurate because the wheels will slip in the sand. Improving positioning error will allow the speed of an autonomous navigating rover to be greatly increased. Therefore, local navigation based upon landmark tracking is desirable in planetary exploration. The BITS Group is developing navigation technology based upon landmark tracking. Integration of the current rover architecture with a cerebellar neural network tracking algorithm will demonstrate that this approach to navigation is feasible and should be implemented in future rover and spacecraft missions.

  4. Augmented assessment as a means to augmented reality.

    Bergeron, Bryan


    Rigorous scientific assessment of educational technologies typically lags behind the availability of the technologies by years because of the lack of validated instruments and benchmarks. Even when the appropriate assessment instruments are available, they may not be applied because of time and monetary constraints. Work in augmented reality, instrumented mannequins, serious gaming, and similar promising educational technologies that haven't undergone timely, rigorous evaluation, highlights the need for assessment methodologies that address the limitations of traditional approaches. The most promising augmented assessment solutions incorporate elements of rapid prototyping used in the software industry, simulation-based assessment techniques modeled after methods used in bioinformatics, and object-oriented analysis methods borrowed from object oriented programming.

  5. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Gjøsæter, Tor


    This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR) application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented realit...

  6. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.


    ... power-operated systems. 27.672 Section 27.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  7. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.


    ... power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  8. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.


    ... power-operated systems. 29.672 Section 29.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  9. [Augmentation technique on the proximal humerus].

    Scola, A; Gebhard, F; Röderer, G


    The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still a challenge. The advantages of augmentation with respect to primary in vitro stability and the clinical use for the proximal humerus are presented in this article. In this study six paired human humeri were randomized into an augmented and a non-augmented group. Osteosynthesis was performed with a PHILOS plate (Synthes®). In the augmented group the two screws finding purchase in the weakest cancellous bone were augmented. The specimens were tested in a 3-part fracture model in a varus bending test. The augmented PHILOS plates withstood significantly more load cycles until failure. The correlation to bone mineral density (BMD) showed that augmentation could partially compensate for low BMD. The augmentation of the screws in locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model is effective in improving the primary stability in a cyclic varus bending test. The targeted augmentation of two particular screws in a region of low bone quality within the humeral head was almost as effective as four screws with twice the amount of bone cement. Screw augmentation combined with a knowledge of the local bone quality could be more effective in enhancing the primary stability of a proximal humerus locking plate because the effect of augmentation can be exploited more effectively limiting it to the degree required. The technique of augmentation is simple and can be applied in open and minimally invasive procedures. When the correct procedure is used, complications (cement leakage into the joint) can be avoided.

  10. Augmented Reality for Multi-disciplinary Collaboration

    Wang, Xiangyu; Rui,


    This chapter presents a framework for multi-disciplinary collaboration. Tangible Augmented Reality has been raised as one of suitable systems for design collaboration. Furthermore, it emphasizes the advantages of Tangible Augmented Reality to illustrate the needs for integrating the Tangible User Interfaces and Augmented Reality Systems.

  11. The use of augmented reality in command and control situation ...

    This study identifies possible uses of augmented reality in command and control applications with specific attention to situation awareness in the South African context. Applications across the different command and control functions, as well as at the different levels of military operations are considered. The article concludes ...

  12. Assessing Upper Extremity Motor Dysfunction Using an Augmented Reality Game

    Cidota, M.A.; Bank, Paulina J.M.; Ouwehand, P.W.; Lukosch, S.G.


    Advances in technology offer new opportunities for a better understanding of how different disorders affect motor function. In this paper, we explore the potential of an augmented reality (AR) game implemented using free hand and body tracking to develop a uniform, cost-effective and objective

  13. Organizing smart networks and humans into augmented teams

    Neef, R.M.; Rijn, M. van; Keus, D.; Marck, J.W.


    This paper discusses the challenge of turning networks of sensors, computers, agents and humans into hybrid teams that are capable, effective and adaptive. We propose a functional model and illustrate how such a model can be put into practice, and augment the capabilities of the human organization.

  14. Localized atomic basis set in the projector augmented wave method

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Vanin, Marco; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen


    We present an implementation of localized atomic-orbital basis sets in the projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism within the density-functional theory. The implementation in the real-space GPAW code provides a complementary basis set to the accurate but computationally more demanding grid...

  15. Titanium Granules for Augmentation of the Maxillary Sinus

    Lyngstadaas, Ståle Petter; Verket, Anders; Pinholt, Else Marie


    BACKGROUND: Biomaterials are commonly used to augment the maxillary sinus floor prior to or in conjunction with dental implant installation. Recently, porous titanium granules (PTGs) have been used in oral implant surgery to stabilize implants and function as an osteoconductive matrix. PURPOSE...... in the study. RESULTS: One immobile implant was removed. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm, on the mesial and distal side, respectively. Histologically, all biopsies demonstrated bone ingrowth. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PTG can be safely and effectively used as augmentation material...

  16. Augmented Reality in the environment of Heritage Building

    Gerson José de Mattos Freire


    Full Text Available The placement of elements that enhance the ambiance in assets and historic sites can serve to supply evidence to a greater understanding of the events associated with these sites. The functional organization grows in importance within the historic buildings, by the need to transmit the historical context of the time and the experience associated to the experience of the place. Technical augmented reality can simplify this transmission, valuing the equity and providing them with an overview of the proposed experiments. This paper discusses the technologies available and a methodological framework for the use of Augmented Reality in the context of historical heritage.

  17. Augmented reality building operations tool

    Brackney, Larry J.


    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  18. Augmented Reality 2.0

    Schmalstieg, Dieter; Langlotz, Tobias; Billinghurst, Mark

    Augmented Reality (AR) was first demonstrated in the 1960s, but only recently have technologies emerged that can be used to easily deploy AR applications to many users. Camera-equipped cell phones with significant processing power and graphics abilities provide an inexpensive and versatile platform for AR applications, while the social networking technology of Web 2.0 provides a large-scale infrastructure for collaboratively producing and distributing geo-referenced AR content. This combination of widely used mobile hardware and Web 2.0 software allows the development of a new type of AR platform that can be used on a global scale. In this paper we describe the Augmented Reality 2.0 concept and present existing work on mobile AR and web technologies that could be used to create AR 2.0 applications.

  19. Augmented Reality in Science Education

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits and chall......Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits...... and challenges related to AR enhancing student learning in science in lower secondary school were identified by expert science teachers, ICT designers and science education researchers from four countries in a Delphi survey. Findings were condensed in a framework to categorize educational AR designs....

  20. Gunner Goggles: Implementing Augmented Reality into Medical Education.

    Wang, Leo L; Wu, Hao-Hua; Bilici, Nadir; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca


    There is evidence that both smartphone and tablet integration into medical education has been lacking. At the same time, there is a niche for augmented reality (AR) to improve this process through the enhancement of textbook learning. Gunner Goggles is an attempt to enhance textbook learning in shelf exam preparatory review with augmented reality. Here we describe our initial prototype and detail the process by which augmented reality was implemented into our textbook through Layar. We describe the unique functionalities of our textbook pages upon augmented reality implementation, which includes links, videos and 3D figures, and surveyed 24 third year medical students for their impression of the technology. Upon demonstrating an initial prototype textbook chapter, 100% (24/24) of students felt that augmented reality improved the quality of our textbook chapter as a learning tool. Of these students, 92% (22/24) agreed that their shelf exam review was inadequate and 19/24 (79%) felt that a completed Gunner Goggles product would have been a viable alternative to their shelf exam review. Thus, while students report interest in the integration of AR into medical education test prep, future investigation into how the use of AR can improve performance on exams is warranted.

  1. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Structured Augmented State Models

    Jochen Aβfalg; Frank Allg(o)wer


    This paper presents an internal model approach for modeling and diagnostic functionality design for nonlinear systems operating subject to single- and multiple-faults. We therefore provide the framework of structured augmented state models. Fault characteristics are considered to be generated by dynamical exosystems that are switched via equality constraints to overcome the augmented state observability limiting the number of diagnosable faults. Based on the proposed model, the fault diagnosis problem is specified as an optimal hybrid augmented state estimation problem. Sub-optimal solutions are motivated and exemplified for the fault diagnosis of the well-known three-tank benchmark. As the considered class of fault diagnosis problems is large, the suggested approach is not only of theoretical interest but also of high practical relevance.

  2. Integration Of Sensor Orientation Data Into An Augmented Reality Technology

    Edgaras Artemčiukas


    Full Text Available Currently, such microelectromechanical sensors as accelerome­ters, gyroscopes and magnetometers are the dominant sensors in mobile devices. The market of mobile devices is constantly expanding and focused on sensor integration process by adding supplementary functionality for the applications; therefore, it is possible to adapt these sensors for augmented reality technology solutions. Many augmented reality solutions are based on computer vision processing methods in order to identify and track markers or other objects. However, the main problem is chaotic environment, lighting conditions where object recognition and tracking in real-time becomes difficult and sometimes is an impossible process. This paper analyses possibilities to apply microelectromechanical sensors. Additionally, it investigates quaternion use for sensor data to estimate reliable and accurate camera orientation and represent virtual content in augmented reality technology.

  3. Tracking for Outdoor Mobile Augmented Reality: Further development of the Zion Augmented Reality Application

    Strand, Tor Egil Riegels


    This report deals with providing tracking to an outdoor mobile augmented reality system and the Zion Augmented Reality Application. ZionARA is meant to display a virtual recreation of a 13th century castle on the site it once stood through an augmented reality Head Mounted Display. Mobile outdoor augmented/mixed reality puts special demands on what kind of equipment is practical. After briefly evaluating the different existing tracking methods, a solution based on GPS and an augmented inertia...

  4. Aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate.

    Song, Yong Tai


    Cranioplasty for only aesthetic reasons has not been commonly performed to date. However, recently there has been a new focus by the public on a more aesthetically pleasing head shape with frequent patient requests for purely aesthetic contouring of the occiput, an important definer of cosmetic head shape. For example, in Asia, where the normal cranial shape is mesocephalic or brachycephalic and often with a planar occiput, requests for its aesthetic correction are increasingly common. Accordingly, the author developed a minimally invasive occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate. In this study, the indications for aesthetic occiput contouring were planar occiput, left-right asymmetric occiput, and grooved occiput. Under local anesthesia, soft methylmethacrylate is subperiosteally inserted through a small incision (about 5-cm length), manually and precisely contoured in situ through the scalp to the desired occipital shape. All is performed as an outpatient procedure, and a quick recovery is the case. Between March 2007 and October 2013, 959 patients received such aesthetic occiput augmentation. The mean follow-up period was 49 months (range, 3-84 months). Nearly all patients were satisfied with the outcome, and complications were very rare. Only 5 patients (0.5%) needed additional corrective procedures. The author has concluded that aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate yields consistent, predictable, and satisfactory results. Additional long-term follow-up is required for a final conclusion, however.

  5. Facial sculpting and tissue augmentation.

    Carruthers, Jean D A; Carruthers, Alastair


    Until recently, deep facial sculpting was exclusively the domain of surgical interventions. Recent advances in the available array of dermal and subdermal fillers combined with an esthetic appreciation by both surgeons and nonsurgeons alike of the positive effect of filling the volume-depleted face have led to an expansion in the indications for the use of soft tissue augmenting agents. Subdermal support of the lateral two-thirds of the brow, the nasojugal fold, the malar and buccal fat pads, the lateral lip commissures, and the perioral region, including the pre-jowl sulcus, all restore youthful facial contour and harmony. An important advance in technique is the subdermal rather than the intradermal injection plane. "Instant" facial sculpting giving a brow-lift, cheek-lift, lip expansion, and perioral augmentation is possible using modern soft tissue augmenting agents. The softer, more relaxed appearance contrasts to the somewhat "pulled" appearance of subjects who have had surgical overcorrections. Treatments can be combined with botulinum toxin and other procedures if required. Newer advances in the use of fillers include the use of fillers injected in the subdermal plane for "lunchtime" facial sculpting. Using the modern esthetic filler compounds, which are biodegradable but longer lasting, subjects can have a "rehearsal" treatment or make it ongoing. Some individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lipoatrophy or those who desire to obtain a longer-lasting effect, may elect to use a nonbiodegradable filling agent.

  6. Augmented reality in intraventricular neuroendoscopy.

    Finger, T; Schaumann, A; Schulz, M; Thomale, Ulrich-W


    Individual planning of the entry point and the use of navigation has become more relevant in intraventricular neuroendoscopy. Navigated neuroendoscopic solutions are continuously improving. We describe experimentally measured accuracy and our first experience with augmented reality-enhanced navigated neuroendoscopy for intraventricular pathologies. Augmented reality-enhanced navigated endoscopy was tested for accuracy in an experimental setting. Therefore, a 3D-printed head model with a right parietal lesion was scanned with a thin-sliced computer tomography. Segmentation of the tumor lesion was performed using Scopis NovaPlan navigation software. An optical reference matrix is used to register the neuroendoscope's geometry and its field of view. The pre-planned ROI and trajectory are superimposed in the endoscopic image. The accuracy of the superimposed contour fitting on endoscopically visualized lesion was acquired by measuring the deviation of both midpoints to one another. The technique was subsequently used in 29 cases with CSF circulation pathologies. Navigation planning included defining the entry points, regions of interests and trajectories, superimposed as augmented reality on the endoscopic video screen during intervention. Patients were evaluated for postoperative imaging, reoperations, and possible complications. The experimental setup revealed a deviation of the ROI's midpoint from the real target by 1.2 ± 0.4 mm. The clinical study included 18 cyst fenestrations, ten biopsies, seven endoscopic third ventriculostomies, six stent placements, and two shunt implantations, being eventually combined in some patients. In cases of cyst fenestrations postoperatively, the cyst volume was significantly reduced in all patients by mean of 47%. In biopsies, the diagnostic yield was 100%. Reoperations during a follow-up period of 11.4 ± 10.2 months were necessary in two cases. Complications included one postoperative hygroma and one insufficient

  7. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun


    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  8. Indeterminacy and labor augmenting externalities

    Poulsen, Odile; Goenka, Aditya


    In this two-sector discrete time model of endogenous economic growth intersectoral effects are assumed to be "labor augmenting" We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for local indeterminacy and multiplicity of the balanced growth path in terms of factor intensities in both sectors....... The balanced growth path is unique if the consumption good sector is more capital intensive. However, it can be indeterminate. When the investment good sector is more capital intensive a sufficient condition for indeterminacy is that there exists at least three balanced growth paths....

  9. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    Francois eBorgeat


    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST.Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy.

  10. Interactive Assembly Guide using Augmented Reality

    Andersen, Martin; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard; Larsen, Christian Lindequist


    This paper presents an Augmented Reality system for aiding a pump assembling process at Grundfos, one of the leading pump producers. Stable pose estimation of the pump is required in order to augment the graphics correctly. This is achieved by matching image edges with synthesized edges from CAD...... norm. A dynamic visualization of the augmented graphics provides the user with guidance. Usability tests show that the accuracy of the system is sufficient for assembling the pump....

  11. Augmented Reality Using JavaScript

    Hailemichael, Aida


    The project goal was to provide a mobile application, for a venue called Kulturhuset Karelia which is located in Tammisaari Finland. In this paper, the concept of Augmented Reality technology is briefly discussed along with the mobile application for the venue. The utilisation of JavaScript for creating Augmented reality content for mobile Augmented reality browser is also demonstrated. The application was created by using Architecht API which is Jacvascript library based on the Wikitude...

  12. “Messing with the mind”: evolutionary challenges to human brain augmentation

    Saniotis, Arthur; Henneberg, Maciej; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Grantham, James P.


    The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understa...

  13. Augmenting Locomotion in an Anthropomorphic System

    Derek Wight


    Full Text Available A powered orthosis has applications ranging from assisting the elderly to augmenting astronauts. An assistive control scheme is developed that uses the force from a slave actuator to augment the force of a master actuator. This can be used to augment a closed-loop control scheme applied to the master actuator. Initially, actuator augmentation is explored both theoretically and experimentally using a simple mechanical system. The control scheme is then applied to a scale model of human lower limbs on a stationary bicycle to investigate the feasibility of a powered orthosis using pneumatic muscle actuators.

  14. [Cement augmentation on the spine : Biomechanical considerations].

    Kolb, J P; Weiser, L; Kueny, R A; Huber, G; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W


    Vertebral compression fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Since the introduction of vertebroplasty and screw augmentation, the management of osteoporotic fractures has changed significantly. The biomechanical characteristics of the risk of adjacent fractures and novel treatment modalities for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, including pure cement augmentation by vertebroplasty, and cement augmentation of screws for posterior instrumentation, are explored. Eighteen human osteoporotic lumbar spines (L1-5) adjacent to vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty were tested in a servo-hydraulic machine. As augmentation compounds we used standard cement and a modified low-strength cement. Different anchoring pedicle screws were tested with and without cement augmentation in another cohort of human specimens with a simple pull-out test and a fatigue test that better reflects physiological conditions. Cement augmentation in the osteoporotic spine leads to greater biomechanical stability. However, change in vertebral stiffness resulted in alterations with the risk of adjacent fractures. By using a less firm cement compound, the risk of adjacent fractures is significantly reduced. Both screw augmentation techniques resulted in a significant increase in the withdrawal force compared with the group without cement. Augmentation using perforated screws showed the highest stability in the fatigue test. The augmentation of cement leads to a significant change in the biomechanical properties. Differences in the stability of adjacent vertebral bodies increase the risk of adjacent fractures, which could be mitigated by a modified cement compound with reduced strength. Screws that were specifically designed for cement application displayed greatest stability in the fatigue test.

  15. Augmented reality in dentistry: a current perspective.

    Kwon, Ho-Beom; Park, Young-Seok; Han, Jung-Suk


    Augmentation reality technology offers virtual information in addition to that of the real environment and thus opens new possibilities in various fields. The medical applications of augmentation reality are generally concentrated on surgery types, including neurosurgery, laparoscopic surgery and plastic surgery. Augmentation reality technology is also widely used in medical education and training. In dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery is the primary area of use, where dental implant placement and orthognathic surgery are the most frequent applications. Recent technological advancements are enabling new applications of restorative dentistry, orthodontics and endodontics. This review briefly summarizes the history, definitions, features, and components of augmented reality technology and discusses its applications and future perspectives in dentistry.


    Stanislav Karapetrovic


    Full Text Available The development, features and integrating abilities of different international standards related to management systems are discussed. A group of such standards that augment the performance of quality management systems in organizations is specifically focused on. The concept, characteristics and an illustrative example of one augmenting standard, namely ISO 10001, are addressed. Integration of standardized augmenting systems, both by themselves and within the overall management system, is examined. It is argued that, in research and practice alike, integrative augmentation represents the future of standardized quality and other management systems.

  17. Jointly Optimize Data Augmentation and Network Training: Adversarial Data Augmentation in Human Pose Estimation

    Peng, Xi; Tang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Fei; Feris, Rogerio; Metaxas, Dimitris


    Random data augmentation is a critical technique to avoid overfitting in training deep neural network models. However, data augmentation and network training are usually treated as two isolated processes, limiting the effectiveness of network training. Why not jointly optimize the two? We propose adversarial data augmentation to address this limitation. The main idea is to design an augmentation network (generator) that competes against a target network (discriminator) by generating `hard' au...

  18. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system.

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary


    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit.

  19. Designing Android Based Augmented Reality Location-Based Service Application

    Alim Hardiansyah


    Full Text Available Android is an operating system for Linux based smartphone. Android provides an open platform for the developers to create their own application. The most developed and used application now is location based application. This application gives personalization service for mobile device user and is customized to their location. Location based service also gives an opportunity for the developers to develop and increase the value of service. One of the technologies that could be combined with location based application is augmented reality. Augmented reality combines the virtual world with the real one. By the assistance of augmented reality, our surrounding environment could interact in digital form. Information of objects and environment surround us could be added to the augmented reality system and presented. Based on the background, the writers tried to implement those technologies on now rapidly developing android application as a final project to achieve bachelor degree in Department of Informatics Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology and Visual Communication, Al Kamal Science and Technology Institute. This application could be functioned to locate school by using location based service technology with the assistance of navigational applications such as waze and google maps, in form of live direction process through the smartphone

  20. Construction of ontology augmented networks for protein complex prediction.

    Zhang, Yijia; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Wang, Jian


    Protein complexes are of great importance in understanding the principles of cellular organization and function. The increase in available protein-protein interaction data, gene ontology and other resources make it possible to develop computational methods for protein complex prediction. Most existing methods focus mainly on the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks, and largely ignore the gene ontology annotation information. In this article, we constructed ontology augmented networks with protein-protein interaction data and gene ontology, which effectively unified the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks and the similarity of gene ontology annotations into unified distance measures. After constructing ontology augmented networks, a novel method (clustering based on ontology augmented networks) was proposed to predict protein complexes, which was capable of taking into account the topological structure of the protein-protein interaction network, as well as the similarity of gene ontology annotations. Our method was applied to two different yeast protein-protein interaction datasets and predicted many well-known complexes. The experimental results showed that (i) ontology augmented networks and the unified distance measure can effectively combine the structure closeness and gene ontology annotation similarity; (ii) our method is valuable in predicting protein complexes and has higher F1 and accuracy compared to other competing methods.


    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... a questionnaire regarding their self-efficacy and motivation, presence in the virtual room, experiences with Hololens teaching, and how they used the quizzes. In addition, students answered a test with the same 20 questions used in the app and three additional transfer questions new to students. Finally, students......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  2. Augmented reality in laser laboratories

    Quercioli, Franco


    Laser safety glasses block visibility of the laser light. This is a big nuisance when a clear view of the beam path is required. A headset made up of a smartphone and a viewer can overcome this problem. The user looks at the image of the real world on the cellphone display, captured by its rear camera. An unimpeded and safe sight of the laser beam is then achieved. If the infrared blocking filter of the smartphone camera is removed, the spectral sensitivity of the CMOS image sensor extends in the near infrared region up to 1100 nm. This substantial improvement widens the usability of the device to many laser systems for industrial and medical applications, which are located in this spectral region. The paper describes this modification of a phone camera to extend its sensitivity beyond the visible and make a true augmented reality laser viewer.

  3. Augmented reality for improved safety

    Stefania Pandolfi


    Sometimes, CERN experts have to operate in low visibility conditions or in the presence of possible hazards. Minimising the duration of the operation and reducing the risk of errors is therefore crucial to ensuring the safety of personnel. The EDUSAFE project integrates different technologies to create a wearable personnel safety system based on augmented reality.    The EDUSAFE integrated safety system uses a camera mounted on the helmet to monitor the working area.  In its everyday operation of machines and facilities, CERN adopts a whole set of measures and safety equipment to ensure the safety of its personnel, including personal wearable safety devices and access control systems. However, sometimes, scheduled and emergency maintenance work needs to be done in zones with potential cryogenic hazards, in the presence of radioactive equipment or simply in demanding conditions where visibility is low and moving around is difficult. The EDUSAFE Marie Curie Innovative&...

  4. Augmented Reality and Mobile Art

    Gwilt, Ian

    The combined notions of augmented-reality (AR) and mobile art are based on the amalgamation of a number of enabling technologies including computer imaging, emergent display and tracking systems and the increased computing-power in hand-held devices such as Tablet PCs, smart phones, or personal digital assistants (PDAs) which have been utilized in the making of works of art. There is much published research on the technical aspects of AR and the ongoing work being undertaken in the development of faster more efficient AR systems [1] [2]. In this text I intend to concentrate on how AR and its associated typologies can be applied in the context of new media art practices, with particular reference to its application on hand-held or mobile devices.

  5. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.


    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload

  6. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Silke Manuela Kärcher


    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  7. Topic Space: Rapid Prototyping a Mobile Augmented Reality Recommendation App

    Jim Hahn


    Full Text Available With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS Sparks! Ignition Grant, researchers from the University of Illinois Library designed and tested a mobile recommender app with augmented reality features. By embedding open source optical character recognition software into a “Topic Space” module, the augmented reality app can recognize call numbers on a book in the library and suggest relevant items that are not shelved nearby. Topic Space can also show users items that are normally shelved in the starting location but that are currently checked out. Using formative UX methods, grant staff shaped app interface and functionality through early user testing. This paper reports results of UX testing; a redesigned mobile interface, and provides considerations on the future development of personalized recommendation functionality.

  8. An Integrative Introduction to Human Augmentation Science

    Alicea, Bradly


    Human Augmentation (HA) spans several technical fields and methodological approaches, including Experimental Psychology, Human-Computer Interaction, Psychophysiology, and Artificial Intelligence. Augmentation involves various strategies for optimizing and controlling cognitive states, which requires an understanding of biological plasticity, dynamic cognitive processes, and models of adaptive systems. As an instructive lesson, we will explore a few HA-related concepts and outstanding issues. ...

  9. Augmented REality Sandtables (ARESs) Impact on Learning


    ARL-CR-0803 ● JULY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Augmented REality Sandtable’s (ARES’s) Impact on Learning by Tarah N......The use of augmented reality (AR) to supplement training tools, specifically sand tables, can produce highly effective systems at relatively low

  10. Augmented Reality Interfaces for Additive Manufacturing

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall


    This paper explores potential use cases for using augmented reality (AR) as a tool to operate industrial machines. As a baseline we use an additive manufacturing system, more commonly known as a 3D printer. We implement novel augmented interfaces and controls using readily available open source...

  11. Enhancing Education through Mobile Augmented Reality

    Joan, D. R. Robert


    In this article, the author has discussed about the Mobile Augmented Reality and enhancing education through it. The aim of the present study was to give some general information about mobile augmented reality which helps to boost education. Purpose of the current study reveals the mobile networks which are used in the institution campus as well…

  12. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    Gordon, Robert W


    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  13. Aspects of User Experience in Augmented Reality

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen

    in human factors related to Augmented Reality. This is investigated partly as how Augmented Reality applications are used in unsupervised settings, and partly in specific evaluations related to user performance in supervised settings. The thesis starts by introducing Augmented Reality to the reader......, followed by a presentation of the technical areas related to the field, and different human factor areas. As a contribution to the research area, this thesis presents five separate, but sequential, papers within the area of Augmented Reality.......In Augmented Reality applications, the real environment is annotated or enhanced with computer-generated graphics. This is a topic that has been researched in the recent decades, but for many people this is a brand new and never heard of topic. The main focus of this thesis is investigations...

  14. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    Martiny, Klaus


    Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition...... and randomised to augmentation with either active or placebo matching pindolol tablets. In the PEMF study patients were continued on ongoing medication and randomised to augmentation with active or inactive (sham) 30 minutes daily PEMF treatment on weekdays. In the Chronos study all patients were treated...... The results from the Pindolol study showed that pindolol did not augment the effect of venlafaxine for the whole sample. However, for those patients classified as slow metabolizers, based on their O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine ratio (ODV/V), pindolol did augment the antidepressant effect. For patients...

  15. Performance of a self-augmented railgun

    Burton, R.L.; Witherspoon, F.D.; Goldstein, S.A.


    The accelerating force of a railgun 1/2L'I 2 a can be increased by augmenting the self-induced magnetic field created by the armature current. Augmentation fields can be produced by external current coils or, as is done here, by shorting the railgun muzzle, and using the gun rails as the augmentation coil. Experimental results are presented for a 3.6-m railgun operated in this self-augmented mode, and effective inductance gradients are achieved which are as much as 9.3 times that of the unaugmented gun. A circuit model is presented which explains features of the measured shunt current and voltage. It is concluded that self-augmentation is an effective way to reduce ohmic heating in the armature of a railgun

  16. CityGuideTour Toruń - tourist application using augmented reality

    Węgrzyn, Magdalena; Mościcka, Albina


    The aim of the article is to show the possibilities of augmented reality in the fi eld of geodesy and cartography. It discusses the concept of augmented reality, its origins and development, as well as areas of the existing applications. The practical functioning of augmented reality in the area of geodesy and cartography is presented on the example of an application developed for the tourist city of Toruń, created with the use of CityGuideTour software. The principles of developing an application and the way it operates are also discussed. As a result, a fully operational bilingual application is available free of charge on the Web.

  17. Comparison of patients undergoing switching versus augmentation of antipsychotic medications during treatment for schizophrenia

    Ascher-Svanum H


    Full Text Available Haya Ascher-Svanum, Alan JM Brnabic, Anthony H Lawson, Bruce J Kinon, Virginia L Stauffer, Peter D Feldman, Katarina KelinLilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USAAbstract: It is often difficult to determine whether a patient may best benefit by augmenting their current medication or switching them to another. This post-hoc analysis compares patients’ clinical and functional profiles at the time their antipsychotic medications were either switched or augmented. Adult outpatients receiving oral antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia were assessed during a 12-month international observational study. Clinical and functional measures were assessed at the time of first treatment switch/augmentation (0–14 days prior and compared between Switched and Augmented patient groups. Due to low numbers of patients providing such data, interpretations are based on effect sizes. Data at the time of change were available for 87 patients: 53 Switched and 34 Augmented. Inadequate response was the primary reason for treatment change in both groups, whereas lack of adherence was more prevalent in the Switched group (26.4% vs 8.8%. Changes in clinical severity from study initiation to medication change were similar, as indicated by Clinical Global Impressions–Severity scores. However, physical and mental component scores of the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey improved in the Augmented group, but worsened in the Switched group. These findings suggest that the patient’s worsening or lack of meaningful improvement prompts clinicians to switch antipsychotic medications, whereas when patients show some improvement, clinicians may be more likely to try bolstering the improvements through augmentation. Current findings are consistent with physicians’ stated reasons for switching versus augmenting antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. Confirmation of these findings requires further research

  18. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    Jussi Rämö


    Full Text Available Augmented reality audio (ARA combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ear canal resonances caused by the headphones. This paper proposes digital IIR filters to realize the required equalization and evaluates a real-time prototype ARA system. Measurements show that the throughput latency of the digital prototype ARA system can be less than 1.4 ms, which is sufficiently small in practice. When the direct and processed sounds are combined in the ear, a comb filtering effect is brought about and appears as notches in the frequency response. The comb filter effect in speech and music signals was studied in a listening test and it was found to be inaudible when the attenuation is 20 dB. Insert ARA headphones have a sufficient attenuation at frequencies above about 1 kHz. The proposed digital ARA system enables several immersive audio applications, such as a virtual audio tourist guide and audio teleconferencing.

  19. Augmented reality for personalized nanomedicines.

    Lee, Yugyung; Lee, Chi H

    As our understanding of onset and progress of diseases at the genetic and molecular level rapidly progresses, the potential of advanced technologies, such as 3D-printing, Socially-Assistive Robots (SARs) or augmented reality (AR), that are applied to personalized nanomedicines (PNMs) to alleviate pathological conditions, has become more prominent. Among advanced technologies, AR in particular has the greatest potential to address those challenges and facilitate the translation of PNMs into formidable clinical application of personalized therapy. As AR is about to adapt additional new methods, such as speech, voice recognition, eye tracing and motion tracking, to enable interaction with host response or biological systems in 3-D space, a combination of multiple approaches to accommodate varying environmental conditions, such as public noise and atmosphere brightness, will be explored to improve its therapeutic outcomes in clinical applications. For instance, AR glasses still being developed by Facebook or Microsoft will serve as new platform that can provide people with the health information they are interested in or various measures through which they can interact with medical services. This review has addressed the current progress and impact of AR on PNMs and its application to the biomedical field. Special emphasis is placed on the application of AR based PNMs to the treatment strategies against senior care, drug addiction and medication adherence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Display technologies for augmented reality

    Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Seungjae; Jang, Changwon; Hong, Jong-Young; Li, Gang


    With the virtue of rapid progress in optics, sensors, and computer science, we are witnessing that commercial products or prototypes for augmented reality (AR) are penetrating into the consumer markets. AR is spotlighted as expected to provide much more immersive and realistic experience than ordinary displays. However, there are several barriers to be overcome for successful commercialization of AR. Here, we explore challenging and important topics for AR such as image combiners, enhancement of display performance, and focus cue reproduction. Image combiners are essential to integrate virtual images with real-world. Display performance (e.g. field of view and resolution) is important for more immersive experience and focus cue reproduction may mitigate visual fatigue caused by vergence-accommodation conflict. We also demonstrate emerging technologies to overcome these issues: index-matched anisotropic crystal lens (IMACL), retinal projection displays, and 3D display with focus cues. For image combiners, a novel optical element called IMACL provides relatively wide field of view. Retinal projection displays may enhance field of view and resolution of AR displays. Focus cues could be reconstructed via multi-layer displays and holographic displays. Experimental results of our prototypes are explained.

  1. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    Devereaux, A. S.


    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  2. Mobile Augmented Reality enhances indoor navigation for wheelchair users

    Luciene Chagas de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with mobility impairments associated with lower limb disabilities often face enormous challenges to participate in routine activities and to move around various environments. For many, the use of wheelchairs is paramount to provide mobility and social inclusion. Nevertheless, they still face a number of challenges to properly function in our society. Among the many difficulties, one in particular stands out: navigating in complex internal environments (indoors. The main objective of this work is to propose an architecture based on Mobile Augmented Reality to support the development of indoor navigation systems dedicated to wheelchair users, that is also capable of recording CAD drawings of the buildings and dealing with accessibility issues for that population. Methods Overall, five main functional requirements are proposed: the ability to allow for indoor navigation by means of Mobile Augmented Reality techniques; the capacity to register and configure building CAD drawings and the position of fiducial markers, points of interest and obstacles to be avoided by the wheelchair user; the capacity to find the best route for wheelchair indoor navigation, taking stairs and other obstacles into account; allow for the visualization of virtual directional arrows in the smartphone displays; and incorporate touch or voice commands to interact with the application. The architecture is proposed as a combination of four layers: User interface; Control; Service; and Infrastructure. A proof-of-concept application was developed and tests were performed with disable volunteers operating manual and electric wheelchairs. Results The application was implemented in Java for the Android operational system. A local database was used to store the test building CAD drawings and the position of fiducial markers and points of interest. The Android Augmented Reality library was used to implement Augmented Reality and the Blender open source

  3. Augmented Reality: Daily Prayers for Preschooler Student

    Hendra Pradibta


    Education is one of the aspects that many synthesized with technology. Yet, this is contrary to the fact that where most of the learning materials are still based on text. This research aims to develop an alternative learning media by implementing Augmented Reality Technology for Preschooler students. Augmented Reality (AR) is an application that can combine the virtual object as text, pictures and animation into the real world. Development of Augmented Reality application uses Web Aurasma Ba...

  4. Determination of student opinions in augmented reality

    Huseyin Bicen


    Full Text Available The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and descriptive statistics. The results show that, with gamification methods, augmented reality content affected students’ opinions in a positive way. When QR codes are used in the classroom, students feel independent from classroom materials and can access various resources. Moreover, students think that, when augmented reality in the classroom is used, education is more enjoyable.

  5. Augmented nonlinear differentiator design and application to nonlinear uncertain systems.

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Li, Jie; Cao, Huiliang; Shen, Chong; Zhang, Xiaoming


    In this paper, an augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) based on sigmoid function is developed to calculate the noise-less time derivative under noisy measurement condition. The essential philosophy of proposed AND in achieving high attenuation of noise effect is established by expanding the signal dynamics with extra state variable representing the integrated noisy measurement, then with the integral of measurement as input, the augmented differentiator is formulated to improve the estimation quality. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the improved methodology can be readily extended to construct augmented high-order differentiator to obtain multiple derivatives. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, the robust control problems of nonlinear uncertain systems, including a numerical example and a mass spring system, are addressed to demonstrate the effectiveness of AND in precisely estimating the disturbance and providing the unavailable differential estimate to implement output feedback based controller. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of augmented startle reflex with brainstem electrophysiological responses in Tay-Sachs disease.

    Nakamura, Sadao; Saito, Yoshiaki; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Sugai, Kenji; Iso, Takashi; Inagaki, Masumi; Sasaki, Masayuki


    To clarify the evolution of an augmented startle reflex in Tay-Sachs disease and compare the temporal relationship between this reflex and brainstem evoked potentials. Clinical and electrophysiological data from 3 patients with Tay-Sachs disease were retrospectively collected. The augmented startle reflex appeared between the age of 3 and 17 months and disappeared between the age of 4 and 6 years. Analysis of brainstem auditory evoked potentials revealed that poor segregation of peak I, but not peak III, coincided with the disappearance of the augmented startle reflex. A blink reflex with markedly high amplitude was observed in a patient with an augmented startle reflex. The correlation between the augmented startle reflex and the preservation of peak I but not peak III supports the theory that the superior olivary nucleus is dispensable for this reflex. The blink reflex with high amplitudes may represent augmented excitability of reticular formation at the pontine tegmentum in Tay-Sachs disease, where the pattern generators for the augmented startle and blink reflexes may functionally overlap. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in Gingival Augmentation Techniques - A Literature Review

    Hiral Shah


    Full Text Available Background: In the current practice of periodontics, clinicians are faced with the challenge of not only addressing biological and functional problems present in the periodontium but also providing therapy that results in acceptable aesthetics. The presence of mucogingival problems and gingival recession around anterior, highly visible teeth exemplifies a situation in which a treatment modality that addresses both biological and aesthetic demands is required from the therapist. A variety of soft tissue augmentation procedures directed at root coverage have been documented in the literature utilizing autogenous or allogenic soft tissue grafting or guided tissue regeneration (GTR. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of newer materials in gingival augmentation procedures.

  8. Invisible marker based augmented reality system

    Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il


    Augmented reality (AR) has recently gained significant attention. The previous AR techniques usually need a fiducial marker with known geometry or objects of which the structure can be easily estimated such as cube. Placing a marker in the workspace of the user can be intrusive. To overcome this limitation, we present an AR system using invisible markers which are created/drawn with an infrared (IR) fluorescent pen. Two cameras are used: an IR camera and a visible camera, which are positioned in each side of a cold mirror so that their optical centers coincide with each other. We track the invisible markers using IR camera and visualize AR in the view of visible camera. Additional algorithms are employed for the system to have a reliable performance in the cluttered background. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the viability of the proposed system. As an application of the proposed system, the invisible marker can act as a Vision-Based Identity and Geometry (VBIG) tag, which can significantly extend the functionality of RFID. The invisible tag is the same as RFID in that it is not perceivable while more powerful in that the tag information can be presented to the user by direct projection using a mobile projector or by visualizing AR on the screen of mobile PDA.

  9. Applied Augmented Reality for High Precision Maintenance

    Dever, Clark

    Augmented Reality had a major consumer breakthrough this year with Pokemon Go. The underlying technologies that made that app a success with gamers can be applied to improve the efficiency and efficacy of workers. This session will explore some of the use cases for augmented reality in an industrial environment. In doing so, the environmental impacts and human factors that must be considered will be explored. Additionally, the sensors, algorithms, and visualization techniques used to realize augmented reality will be discussed. The benefits of augmented reality solutions in industrial environments include automated data recording, improved quality assurance, reduction in training costs and improved mean-time-to-resolution. As technology continues to follow Moore's law, more applications will become feasible as performance-per-dollar increases across all system components.

  10. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric


    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  11. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Tor Gjøsæter


    Full Text Available This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented reality content, as well as more complex affordances rising from conventions from media content, AR and the traditional WIMP paradigm. We find that remediation of traditional newspaper content through the MAR medium can provide engaging, pleasing and exciting user experiences. However, the some of the content still suffers from being shoveled onto the MAR platform without adapting it properly. Finally, we discuss what content was most successfully mediated to the user and how the content impacts the user experience.

  12. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    Parker, J.V.


    This paper reports on augmentation which is a technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduced by the extra conductors required. it is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in a conventional railgun by diverting a fraction φ of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series-connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1 - φ). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system

  13. Global Navigation Satellite System and Augmentation

    aircraft-based augmentation system (ABAS). ... segment, the ground segment (or) control segment and the user segment ... control station (MCS), and ground antennas. ... repeatability, multipath rejection, size, profile, and environmental.

  14. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  15. Fiber Optic Augmented Reality System (FOARS)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovation: Fiber Optics Augmented Reality System. This system in form of a mobile app interacts real time with the actual FOSS(Fiber Optics Sensing System) data and...

  16. Thrust augmentation for a small turbojet engine

    Hackaday, Gary L.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A Sophia J450 (nine pounds of thrust) gas turbine engine was used first to examine the thrust augmentation generated using an ejector shroud. Experimental results obtained with and without the ejector were compared with performance predicted using an engine code and a one-dimensional ejector analysis. The engine code was revised to incorporate a radial turbine and the correct compressor map. Thrust augmentation of 3-10% was measured an...

  17. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay


    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  18. Breaking the Barriers to True Augmented Reality

    Sandor, Christian; Fuchs, Martin; Cassinelli, Alvaro; Li, Hao; Newcombe, Richard; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Feiner, Steven


    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) have gained considerable commercial traction, with Facebook acquiring Oculus VR for \\$2 billion, Magic Leap attracting more than \\$500 million of funding, and Microsoft announcing their HoloLens head-worn computer. Where is humanity headed: a brave new dystopia-or a paradise come true? In this article, we present discussions, which started at the symposium "Making Augmented Reality Real", held at Nara Institute of Science and Te...

  19. Integrating Hypermedia Techniques with Augmented Reality Environments

    Sinclair, Patrick


    Augmented Reality systems, which overlay virtual information over the real world, can benefit greatly from the techniques established by the Open Hypermedia research field. Storing information and links separately from a document can be advantageous for augmented reality applications and can enable the adaption of content to suit users’ preferences. This thesis explores how Open Hypermedia systems might be used as the information systems behind AR environments. This provides benefits to augme...

  20. Augmented reality implementation methods in mainstream applications

    David Procházka


    Full Text Available Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on dif­ferent mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in this area is described. The last part of the article out­lines our implementation of key parts of the augmented reality application using the OpenCV library.

  1. Empirical evaluation of augmented prototyping effectiveness

    Tomáš Koubek


    Full Text Available Augmented reality is a scientific field well known for more than twenty years. Although there is a huge number of projects that present promising results, the real usage of augmented reality applications for fulfilling common tasks is almost negligible. We believe that one of the principal reasons is insufficient usability of these applications. The situation is analogous to the desktop, mobile or cloud application development or even to the web pages design. The first phase of a technology adoption is the exploration of its potential. As soon as the technical problems are overcome and the technology is widely accepted, the usability is a principal issue. The usability is utmost important also from the business point of view. The cost of augmented reality implementation into the production process is substantial, therefore, the usability that is directly responsible for the implemented solution effectiveness must be appropriately tested. Consequently, the benefit of the implemented solution can be measured.This article briefly outlines common techniques used for usability evaluation. Discussed techniques were designed especially for evaluation of desktop applications, mobile solutions and web pages. In spite of this drawback, their application on augmented reality products is usually possible. Further, a review of existing augmented reality project evaluations is presented.Based on this review, a usability evaluation method for our augmented prototyping application is proposed. This method must overcome the fact that the design is a creative process. Therefore, it is not possible to take into account common criteria such as time consumption.

  2. The HART I augmented electric gun facility

    Fikse, D.A.; Ciesar, J.A.; Wehrli, H.A.; Rimersma, H.; Docherty, E.F.; Pipich, C.W.


    This paper reports on an augmented electric gun system that has been commissioned. This system, called HART I (Hypervelocity Augmented Railgun Test), is built around a double augmented rail arrangement with a 1.27-cm square bore. It is powered by the SUVAC II 5.6-MJ distributed capacitor power supply. This arrangement allows operation in a simple, series augmented, or transaugmented gun system configuration. The objective of this facility is to perform materials research augmentation studies, and armature development in the 10-km/s regime. Armature masses of 2 to 4 g will be accelerated in a 4-m long barrel. Baseline bore materials will begin with conventional G9/GlidCop systems and then move into pyrolytic boron nitride/refractory materials. Hybrids, plasma, and ablation stabilized armature systems are planned. The gun system is instrumented with plasma and rail B probes for inbore velocity measurements. In addition, breech and muzzle voltages, currents, and external velocities are measured. The HART I system is currently performing hypervelocity experiments to verify the augmentation models

  3. An Augmented Lagrangian Method for a Class of Inverse Quadratic Programming Problems

    Zhang Jianzhong; Zhang Liwei


    We consider an inverse quadratic programming (QP) problem in which the parameters in the objective function of a given QP problem are adjusted as little as possible so that a known feasible solution becomes the optimal one. We formulate this problem as a minimization problem with a positive semidefinite cone constraint and its dual is a linearly constrained semismoothly differentiable (SC 1 ) convex programming problem with fewer variables than the original one. We demonstrate the global convergence of the augmented Lagrangian method for the dual problem and prove that the convergence rate of primal iterates, generated by the augmented Lagrange method, is proportional to 1/r, and the rate of multiplier iterates is proportional to 1/√r, where r is the penalty parameter in the augmented Lagrangian. As the objective function of the dual problem is a SC 1 function involving the projection operator onto the cone of symmetrically semi-definite matrices, the analysis requires extensive tools such as the singular value decomposition of matrices, an implicit function theorem for semismooth functions, and properties of the projection operator in the symmetric-matrix space. Furthermore, the semismooth Newton method with Armijo line search is applied to solve the subproblems in the augmented Lagrange approach, which is proven to have global convergence and local quadratic rate. Finally numerical results, implemented by the augmented Lagrangian method, are reported.

  4. Augmented Fotonovelas: A Visual Methodology for Community Engaged Research

    Hidalgo, LeighAnna Grace


    Augmented Fotonovelas draw upon the aesthetic of traditional fotonovelas, but incorporate new technologies--such as video interviews, interactive mapping, smart phone technology, and Augmented Reality (AR). Augmented Fotonovelas also make the most of the classic form, utilizing photographs, text, and bubble captions. Through this methodology, new and old come together to produce Augmented Scholarship. I define Augmented Scholarship as knowledge production bridging the gap between communities ...

  5. ARSC: Augmented Reality Student Card--An Augmented Reality Solution for the Education Field

    El Sayed, Neven A. M.; Zayed, Hala H.; Sharawy, Mohamed I.


    Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology of adding virtual objects to real scenes through enabling the addition of missing information in real life. As the lack of resources is a problem that can be solved through AR, this paper presents and explains the usage of AR technology we introduce Augmented Reality Student Card (ARSC) as an application of…

  6. Augmented “Ouch!”. : How to create intersubjective augmented objects into which we can bump

    Liberati, Nicola


    The aim of this work is to provide the elements to design an intersubjective augmented reality in order to make the augmented objects part of our everyday world. This work will analyse intersubjectivity from a phenomenological point of view using the works by Husserl and Schutz. Thanks to these two

  7. Augmented reality and ubiquitous computing : The hidden potentialities of augmented reality

    Liberati, Nicola


    The aim of this paper was to highlight the augmented reality’s potentialities, depicting its main characteristics and focusing attention on what its goal should be in order to have a new technology completely different from those that already exist. From a technological point of view, augmented

  8. Augment-type two stage accelerator

    Ogino, Mutsuo; Azuma, Kingo.


    When a flying body accelerated by a gas gun at a first stage enters into an augment rail passing through an introduction tube, an ignition capacitor for initial plasmas is turned ON to apply a voltage between the augment rails. Subsequently, the accelerating gas present behind the flying body is formed into plasmas by a laser, to flow electric current from one of the inner augment rails → plasma armature → the other of the inner augment rails, and additionally accelerate the flying body by Lorentz force formed in this case. Since the plasmas are maintained in a state of higher density than the plasmas obtained by using all of the augment rails, the ignition capacitor for initial plasmas in switched to a power source. As a result, it is possible to flow the maximum current before the plasmas expand, and a large accelerating force and a high magnetic flux density are attained, to improve acceleration performance of the flying body. (N.H.)

  9. Potential costs of breast augmentation mammaplasty.

    Schmitt, William P; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Ford, Ronald D


    Augmentation mammaplasty is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by plastic surgeons. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of the initial procedure and its subsequent complications, as well as project the cost of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended surveillance imaging. The potential costs to the individual patient and society were calculated. Local plastic surgeons provided billing data for the initial primary silicone augmentation and reoperative procedures. Complication rates used for the cost analysis were obtained from the Allergen Core study on silicone implants. Imaging surveillance costs were considered in the estimations. The average baseline initial cost of silicone augmentation mammaplasty was calculated at $6335. The average total cost of primary breast augmentation over the first decade for an individual patient, including complications requiring reoperation and other ancillary costs, was calculated at $8226. Each decade thereafter cost an additional $1891. Costs may exceed $15,000 over an averaged lifetime, and the recommended implant surveillance could cost an additional $33,750. The potential cost of a breast augmentation, which includes the costs of complications and imaging, is significantly higher than the initial cost of the procedure. Level III, economic and decision analysis study. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Augmented Reality: Daily Prayers for Preschooler Student

    Hendra Pradibta


    Full Text Available Education is one of the aspects that many synthesized with technology. Yet, this is contrary to the fact that where most of the learning materials are still based on text. This research aims to develop an alternative learning media by implementing Augmented Reality Technology for Preschooler students. Augmented Reality (AR is an application that can combine the virtual object as text, pictures and animation into the real world. Development of Augmented Reality application uses Web Aurasma Based Studio, with learning materials of daily prayer for preschool student. The development of the characters and the animations were using Adobe Illustrator and Adobe After Effects. The results of the study showed that technology Augmented Reality can be used as an alternative learning media especially in the learning process in Preschool Al Furqon. This is because the content Augmented Reality in the form of animation can gives more understanding and attention for preschool student to follow the learning process

  11. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo


    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  12. Mechanism of transient force augmentation varying with two distinct timescales for interacting vortex rings

    Fu, Zhidong; Qin, Suyang; Liu, Hong


    The dynamics of dual vortex ring flows is studied experimentally and numerically in a model system that consists of a piston-cylinder apparatus. The flows are generated by double identical strokes which have the velocity profile characterized by the sinusoidal function of half the period. By calculating the total wake impulse in two strokes in the experiments, it is found that the average propulsive force increases by 50% in the second stroke for the sufficiently small stroke length, compared with the first stroke. In the numerical simulations, two types of transient force augmentation are revealed, there being the transient force augmentation for the small stroke lengths and the absolute transient force augmentation for the large stroke lengths. The relative transient force augmentation increases to 78% for L/D = 1, while the absolute transient force augmentation for L/D = 4 is twice as much as that for L/D = 1. Further investigation demonstrates that the force augmentation is attributed to the interaction between vortex rings, which induces transport of vortex impulse and more evident fluid entrainment. The critical situation of vortex ring separation is defined and indicated, with vortex spacing falling in a narrow gap when the stroke lengths vary. A new model is proposed concerning the limiting process of impulse, further suggesting that apart from vortex formation timescale, vortex spacing should be interpreted as an independent timescale to reflect the dynamics of vortex interaction.

  13. Augmentative and alternative communication in adolescents with severe intellectual disability: a clinical experience.

    Uliano, D; Falciglia, G; Del Viscio, C; Picelli, A; Gandolfi, M; Passarella, A


    Augmentative and alternative communication devices proved to be effective in patients with severe intellectual disability to overcome their communication impairments. In order to give a contribution for design of augmentative and alternative communication systems that better meet the needs of beginning communicators we decided to report our clinical experience about using augmentative and alternative communication in adolescents with severe intellectual disability. Five patients who underwent a long time traditional speech rehabilitation program (at least 5 years) with scant improvements in linguistic function were recruited and evaluated by means of the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale before and after a three years augmentative and alternative communication intervention carried out by a multidisciplinary team. After the rehabilitative intervention patients showed an improvement in communication, daily living skills and socialization as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale. Augmentative and alternative communication is an effective rehabilitation approach to people with severe intellectual disability and impairments in linguistic expression. Moreover augmentative and alternative communication is a useful tool allowing these patients to increase their social participation also enhancing their self-esteem. Our clinical experience confirmed these topics also in adolescents who underwent a long time traditional speech rehabilitation program with scant improvements, providing practical information to clinicians.

  14. The effectiveness of aided augmented input techniques for persons with developmental disabilities: a systematic review.

    Allen, Anna A; Schlosser, Ralf W; Brock, Kristofer L; Shane, Howard C


    When working with individuals with little or no functional speech, clinicians often recommend that communication partners use the client's augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device when speaking to the client. This is broadly known as "augmented input" and is thought to enhance the client's learning of language form and content. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of augmented input on communication outcomes in persons with developmental disabilities and persons with childhood apraxia of speech who use aided AAC. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Each included study was reviewed in terms of participant characteristics, terminology used, symbol format, augmented input characteristics, outcomes measured, effectiveness, and study quality. Results indicate that augmented input can improve single-word vocabulary skills and expression of multi-symbol utterances; however, comprehension beyond the single word level has not been explored. Additionally, it is difficult to form conclusions about the effect of augmented input on specific diagnostic populations. Directions for future research are posited.

  15. Orthobiologics in the augmentation of osteoporotic fractures.

    Watson, J Tracy; Nicolaou, Daemeon A


    Many orthobiologic adjuvants are available and widely utilized for general skeletal restoration. Their use for the specific task of osteoporotic fracture augmentation is less well recognized. Common conductive materials are reviewed for their value in this patient population including the large group of allograft adjuvants categorically known as the demineralized bone matrices (DBMs). Another large group of alloplastic materials is also examined-the calcium phosphate and sulfate ceramics. Both of these materials, when used for the proper indications, demonstrate efficacy for these patients. The inductive properties of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and platelet concentrates show no clear advantages for this group of patients. Systemic agents including bisphosphonates, receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) inhibitors, and parathyroid hormone augmentation all demonstrate positive effects with this fracture cohort. Newer modalities, such as trace ion bioceramic augmentation, are also reviewed for their positive effects on osteoporotic fracture healing.

  16. Cognitive Cost of Using Augmented Reality Displays.

    Baumeister, James; Ssin, Seung Youb; ElSayed, Neven A M; Dorrian, Jillian; Webb, David P; Walsh, James A; Simon, Timothy M; Irlitti, Andrew; Smith, Ross T; Kohler, Mark; Thomas, Bruce H


    This paper presents the results of two cognitive load studies comparing three augmented reality display technologies: spatial augmented reality, the optical see-through Microsoft HoloLens, and the video see-through Samsung Gear VR. In particular, the two experiments focused on isolating the cognitive load cost of receiving instructions for a button-pressing procedural task. The studies employed a self-assessment cognitive load methodology, as well as an additional dual-task cognitive load methodology. The results showed that spatial augmented reality led to increased performance and reduced cognitive load. Additionally, it was discovered that a limited field of view can introduce increased cognitive load requirements. The findings suggest that some of the inherent restrictions of head-mounted displays materialize as increased user cognitive load.

  17. Augmented reality-assisted skull base surgery.

    Cabrilo, I; Sarrafzadeh, A; Bijlenga, P; Landis, B N; Schaller, K


    Neuronavigation is widely considered as a valuable tool during skull base surgery. Advances in neuronavigation technology, with the integration of augmented reality, present advantages over traditional point-based neuronavigation. However, this development has not yet made its way into routine surgical practice, possibly due to a lack of acquaintance with these systems. In this report, we illustrate the usefulness and easy application of augmented reality-based neuronavigation through a case example of a patient with a clivus chordoma. We also demonstrate how augmented reality can help throughout all phases of a skull base procedure, from the verification of neuronavigation accuracy to intraoperative image-guidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    Martiny, Klaus


    open psychiatric wards. Only a few patients were re-cruited through advertisements (in the PEMF and Chronos studies). Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria were major depression according to the DSM-IV, including a depressive episode as part of a bipolar disorder. For the PEMF study, treatment...... The results from the Pindolol study showed that pindolol did not augment the effect of venlafaxine for the whole sample. However, for those patients classified as slow metabolizers, based on their O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine ratio (ODV/V), pindolol did augment the antidepressant effect. For patients...... classified as fast metabolizers, pindolol worsened the outcome. This interaction between ODV/V ratio and treatment group was statistically significant (p = 0.01). Results from the PEMF study The results from the PEMF Study showed that treatment with active versus sham PEMF augmented the effect of the ongoing...

  19. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Maidi Madjid


    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  20. Pemanfaatan Augmented Reality Pada Permainan Othello

    Rendy Layman Aguston


    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi telah mengubah cara pengerjaan suatu pekerjaan dari cara konvensional menjadi cara yang lebih praktis. Dengan hadirnya teknologi Augmented Reality, cara bermain yang menggunakan pion dan membalikkan pion musuh secara manual menjadi lebih mudah dalam memainkan permainan selain juga dapat berinteraksi langsung. Pembuatan permainan Othello menggunakan program Unity dengan framework Vuforia untuk mewujudkan Augmented Reality pada permainan Othello. Untuk menerapkan Augmented Reality dengan baik, dibutuhkan papan permainan sebagai image target yang sesuai dengan kriteria, jenis kamera yang digunakan, jarak kamera terhadap papan permainan, intensitas cahaya yang ditangkap kamera, serta tingkat sensitivitas tombol virtual. Pada permainan Othello ini tersedia fitur komputer yang menggunakan algoritma Alpha Beta Pruning dengan 3 level kedalaman yang menggunakan perhitungan fungsi evaluasi berupa mobility, potential mobility dan penguasaan corner yang menghasilkan kemenangan mencapai 73,33% dari 15 kali uji coba terhadap aplikasi Othello serupa dan 78,34% dari 37 kali uji coba terhadap user.

  1. Augmenting cognition by neuronal oscillations

    Horschig, J.M.; Zumer, J.; Bahramisharif, A.


    Cortical oscillations have been shown to represent fundamental functions of a working brain, e.g., communication, stimulus binding, error monitoring, and inhibition, and are directly linked to behavior. Recent studies intervening with these oscillations have demonstrated effective modulation of both

  2. Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.


    Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9.5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hypersonic protuberances (k/delta less than 0.3) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.

  3. Medical imaging and augmented reality. Proceedings

    Dohi, Takeyoshi; Sakuma, Ichiro; Liao, Hongen


    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, MIAR 2008, held in Tokyo, Japan, in August 2008. The 44 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on surgical planning and simulation, medical image computing, image analysis, shape modeling and morphometry, image-guided robotics, image-guided intervention, interventional imaging, image registration, augmented reality, and image segmentation. (orig.)

  4. Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR)


    implementations by leveraging more robust vision algorithms or by using fiducials. 57 Fi gu re 2 3. A ug m en te d co nt ro ls st at e di ag ra m 58...34 Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality (VR 󈧇), Washington, DC, 2003, p. 199. [18] W. Friedrich , "ARVIKA-Augmented Reality for...and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 󈧊), Santa Barbara , CA, 2006, pp. 105-108. [33] S. G. Rao, S. J. Schmugge

  5. The augmentation algorithm and molecular phylogenetic trees

    Holmquist, R.


    Moore's (1977) augmentation procedure is discussed, and it is concluded that the procedure is valid for obtaining estimates of the total number of fixed nucleotide substitutions both theoretically and in practice, for both simulated and real data, and in agreement, for experimentally dense data sets, with stochastic estimates of the divergence, provided the restrictions on codon mutability resulting from natural selection are explicitly allowed for. Tateno and Nei's (1978) critique that the augmentation procedure has a systematic bias toward overestimation of the total number of nucleotide replacements is disputed, and a data analysis suggests that ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony contain a large number of incorrectly assigned nucleotides.

  6. Introducing Augmented Reality in Cultural Heritage Studies

    Villarejo, Luis; González-Reverté, Francesc; Miralbell, Oriol; Gomis, Joan Miquel


    Augmented Reality is a technology that allows overlaid digital content into our view of the real world through the camera of a Smartphone or a tablet. Video, audio, 2D and 3D images, web and text are just some examples of the type of content that can be overlaid on our perception of the real world. This content can be associated with real world elements by means of geolocation or image recognition. Such technology has great engagement potential and is used in many fields to augment the users’...

  7. Towards Wearable Gaze Supported Augmented Cognition

    Toshiaki Kurauchi, Andrew; Hitoshi Morimoto, Carlos; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    Augmented cognition applications must deal with the problem of how to exhibit information in an orderly, understandable, and timely fashion. Though context have been suggested to control the kind, amount, and timing of the information delivered, we argue that gaze can be a fundamental tool...... by the wearable computing community to develop a gaze supported augmented cognition application with three interaction modes. The application provides information of the person being looked at. The continuous mode updates information every time the user looks at a different face. The key activated discrete mode...

  8. Medical imaging and augmented reality. Proceedings

    Dohi, Takeyoshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechano-Informatics; Sakuma, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Precision Engineering; Liao, Hongen (eds.) [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Bioengineering


    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, MIAR 2008, held in Tokyo, Japan, in August 2008. The 44 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on surgical planning and simulation, medical image computing, image analysis, shape modeling and morphometry, image-guided robotics, image-guided intervention, interventional imaging, image registration, augmented reality, and image segmentation. (orig.)

  9. Nanostructures: A Platform for Brain Repair and Augmentation

    Ruxandra eVidu


    Full Text Available Nanoscale structures have been at the core of research efforts dealing with integration of nanotechnology into novel electronic devices for the last decade. For instance, the unique electrical and optical properties of nanowires, nanotubes and nanocables with vertical orientation, assembled in nanoscale arrays, have been used in many device applications such as sensors that hold the potential to augment brain functions. However, the challenge in creating nanowires/nanotubes or nanocables arrays based sensors lies in making individual electrical connections fitting both the features of the brain and of the nanostructures. This review discusses two of the most important applications of nanostructures in neuroscience. First, the current approaches to create nanowires and nanocable structures are reviewed to critically evaluate their potential of developing unique nanostructure based sensors to improve recording and device performance to reduce noise and the detrimental effect of the interface on the tissue. Second, the implementation of nanomaterials in neurobiological and medical applications will be considered from the brain augmentation perspective. Because the size of nanomaterials is of the same order of magnitude with that of biomolecules, these materials are valuable tools for nanoscale manipulation in a broad range of neurobiological systems. Novel applications for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis, stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, and autism will be considered. Because the blood brain barrier (BBB has a defensive mechanism in preventing nanomaterials arrival to the brain, various strategies to help them to passing through the BBB will be discussed. The nanostructures at the interface between nanotechnology and neuroscience will play a pivotal role not only in addressing the multitude of brain disorders but also to repair/augment brain functions.

  10. Temporal Coherence Strategies for Augmented Reality Labeling

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Tatzgern, Markus; Madsen, Claus B.


    Temporal coherence of annotations is an important factor in augmented reality user interfaces and for information visualization. In this paper, we empirically evaluate four different techniques for annotation. Based on these findings, we follow up with subjective evaluations in a second experiment...

  11. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    Dunleavy, Matt


    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  12. The Educational Possibilities of Augmented Reality

    Cabero, Julio; Barroso, Julio


    A large number of emergent technologies have been acquiring a strong impulse in recent years. One of these emergent technologies is Augmented Reality (RA), which will surely have a high level of penetration into all our educational centers, including universities, in the next 3 to 5 years, as a number of different reports have already highlighted.…

  13. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir


    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Determination of Student Opinions in Augmented Reality

    Bicen, Huseyin; Bal, Erkan


    The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and…

  15. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark


    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  16. Augmentation of board games using smartphones

    Kulsinskas, Arturas; Balan, Catalin; Egede Bukdahl, Nicholas


    This paper contains details about research into the effect of digital augmentation on social presence in board games. A case study of the board game Tobago was performed during the project and a prototype application for smartphones was developed in order to compare the players’ social presence...

  17. Augmented reality for Android application development

    Grubert, Jens


    A step-by-step tutorial-based guide aimed at giving you hands-on practical experience to develop AR applications for Android.Augmented Reality for Android Application Development is for Android mobile application developers who are familiar with Android Development Tools and deployment, JMonkeyEngine, and the Vuforia SDK.

  18. CARE: Creating Augmented Reality in Education

    Latif, Farzana


    This paper explores how Augmented Reality using mobile phones can enhance teaching and learning in education. It specifically examines its application in two cases, where it is identified that the agility of mobile devices and the ability to overlay context specific resources offers opportunities to enhance learning that would not otherwise exist.…

  19. Aloqa and layar augmented reality feeds

    Ternier, Stefaan


    Aloqa is a service that proactively notifies the user of Point Of Interests (POIs). It runs on iPhone, blackberry and android. With this tool you can easily get directions to events, places, buildings or other places of interests. Layar builds on the same principle, but has a browser that augments

  20. Facial skeletal augmentation using hydroxyapatite cement.

    Shindo, M L; Costantino, P D; Friedman, C D; Chow, L C


    This study investigates the use of a new calcium phosphate cement, which sets to solid, microporous hydroxyapatite, for facial bone augmentation. In six dogs, the supraorbital ridges were augmented bilaterally with this hydroxyapatite cement. On one side, the hydroxyapatite cement was placed directly onto the bone within a subperiosteal pocket. On the opposite side, the cement was contained within a collagen membrane tubule and then inserted into a subperiosteal pocket. The use of collagen tubules facilitated easy, precise placement of the cement. All implants maintained their original augmented height throughout the duration of the study. They were well tolerated without extrusion or migration, and there was no significant sustained inflammatory response. Histologic studies, performed at 3, 6, and 9 months revealed that when the cement was placed directly onto bone, progressive replacement of the implant by bone (osseointegration of the hydroxyapatite with the underlying bone) without a loss of volume was observed. In contrast, when the cement-collagen tubule combination was inserted, primarily a fibrous union was noted. Despite such fibrous union, the hydroxyapatite-collagen implant solidly bonded to the underlying bone, and no implant resorption was observed. Hydroxyapatite cement can be used successfully for the experimental augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton and may be applicable for such uses in humans.

  1. (Re-)Examination of Multimodal Augmented Reality

    Rosa, N.E.; Werkhoven, P.J.; Hürst, W.O.


    The majority of augmented reality (AR) research has been concerned with visual perception, however the move towards multimodality is imminent. At the same time, there is no clear vision of what multimodal AR is. The purpose of this position paper is to consider possible ways of examining AR other

  2. Accurate overlaying for mobile augmented reality

    Pasman, W; van der Schaaf, A; Lagendijk, RL; Jansen, F.W.


    Mobile augmented reality requires accurate alignment of virtual information with objects visible in the real world. We describe a system for mobile communications to be developed to meet these strict alignment criteria using a combination of computer vision. inertial tracking and low-latency

  3. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were perf...

  4. Augmentative Communication Services in the Schools.

    Blackstone, Sarah W.


    The article considers current issues concerning service delivery systems and practices concerning augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) services in U.S. schools. Concerns in AAC program development are noted and service delivery models (center-based, community-based, or collaborative) are compared. (DB)

  5. Augmented Reality in Sports: Today and Tomorrow

    Zafer BOZYER


    Full Text Available The rapid change experienced in the field of Information Technologies makes the informati cs more tangible in daily life. Today, it became possible to encounter with the informatics applications almost all the disciplines. As a matter of course, many informatics applications are put into the practice regarding the sports discipline. Because of the condition that the power of information processing has increased and the studies on wearable technol ogies in addition to the expert system design, augmented reality (AR has become a topic which gains imp ortance in the field of sports. There are many studies that are conducted with the aim of increasing the efficiency of physical activities done in many sports branches, ensuring a more fair management of competitions and providing the opportunity for spectators to watch the competitions in a more comfortable and efficient way. In this study; the information about the current augmented reality practices th at are used in various sports branches has been given and the mobile and interactive augmented reality practices which are possible to be seen in future have been mentioned. In addition, there is an augmented reality practice which is designed with the aim of ensuring that the shoots of sports people who are interested in archery, are more stable and of ensuring that the trainings and exercises are more efficient by stating to the sports people whether he or she is in the right position for shoot which is c alled as T shape seen at the time of releasing the arrow.

  6. Location-Based Learning through Augmented Reality

    Chou, Te-Lien; Chanlin, Lih-Juan


    A context-aware and mixed-reality exploring tool cannot only effectively provide an information-rich environment to users, but also allows them to quickly utilize useful resources and enhance environment awareness. This study integrates Augmented Reality (AR) technology into smartphones to create a stimulating learning experience at a university…

  7. Volumetric, dashboard-mounted augmented display

    Kessler, David; Grabowski, Christopher


    The optical design of a compact volumetric display for drivers is presented. The system displays a true volume image with realistic physical depth cues, such as focal accommodation, parallax and convergence. A large eyebox is achieved with a pupil expander. The windshield is used as the augmented reality combiner. A freeform windshield corrector is placed at the dashboard.

  8. Get Real: Augmented Reality for the Classroom

    Mitchell, Rebecca; DeBay, Dennis


    Kids love augmented reality (AR) simulations because they are like real-life video games. AR simulations allow students to learn content while collaborating face to face and interacting with a multimedia-enhanced version of the world around them. Although the technology may seem advanced, AR software makes it easy to develop content-based…

  9. Understanding the Conics through Augmented Reality

    Salinas, Patricia; Pulido, Ricardo


    This paper discusses the production of a digital environment to foster the learning of conics through augmented reality. The name conic refers to curves obtained by the intersection of a plane with a right circular conical surface. The environment gives students the opportunity to interact with the cone and the plane as virtual objects in real…

  10. Cooperative Convex Optimization in Networked Systems: Augmented Lagrangian Algorithms With Directed Gossip Communication

    Jakovetic, Dusan; Xavier, João; Moura, José M. F.


    We study distributed optimization in networked systems, where nodes cooperate to find the optimal quantity of common interest, x=x^\\star. The objective function of the corresponding optimization problem is the sum of private (known only by a node,) convex, nodes' objectives and each node imposes a private convex constraint on the allowed values of x. We solve this problem for generic connected network topologies with asymmetric random link failures with a novel distributed, decentralized algorithm. We refer to this algorithm as AL-G (augmented Lagrangian gossiping,) and to its variants as AL-MG (augmented Lagrangian multi neighbor gossiping) and AL-BG (augmented Lagrangian broadcast gossiping.) The AL-G algorithm is based on the augmented Lagrangian dual function. Dual variables are updated by the standard method of multipliers, at a slow time scale. To update the primal variables, we propose a novel, Gauss-Seidel type, randomized algorithm, at a fast time scale. AL-G uses unidirectional gossip communication, only between immediate neighbors in the network and is resilient to random link failures. For networks with reliable communication (i.e., no failures,) the simplified, AL-BG (augmented Lagrangian broadcast gossiping) algorithm reduces communication, computation and data storage cost. We prove convergence for all proposed algorithms and demonstrate by simulations the effectiveness on two applications: l_1-regularized logistic regression for classification and cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks.

  11. The role of imaging in pediatric bladder augmentation

    Breen, Micheal; Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Estrada, Carlos [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)


    Bladder augmentation (also called augmentation cystoplasty) refers to a number of surgical methods that increase the capacity and compliance of the urinary bladder. Imaging has an important role in the postoperative evaluation of bladder augmentation. The most common augmentation procedures utilize enteric segments to augment the bladder. The various types of bladder augmentation have characteristic appearances on different imaging modalities. Spontaneous bladder perforation is a complication that is seen in both early and late post-operative periods and it is one of the most important complications for radiologists to be aware of as it is life-threatening. We review the indications for bladder augmentation in children, the surgical techniques employed, the normal postoperative appearances on imaging studies and the role of imaging complications of bladder augmentation including delayed spontaneous bladder rupture, which is life-threatening. (orig.)

  12. Augmented reality for biomedical wellness sensor systems

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold


    Due to the commercial move and gaming industries, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has matured. By definition of AR, both artificial and real humans can be simultaneously present and realistically interact among one another. With the help of physics and physiology, we can build in the AR tool together with real human day-night webcam inputs through a simple interaction of heat transfer -getting hot, action and reaction -walking or falling, as well as the physiology -sweating due to activity. Knowing the person age, weight and 3D coordinates of joints in the body, we deduce the force, the torque, and the energy expenditure during real human movements and apply to an AR human model. We wish to support the physics-physiology AR version, PPAR, as a BMW surveillance tool for senior home alone (SHA). The functionality is to record senior walking and hand movements inside a home environment. Besides the fringe benefit of enabling more visits from grand children through AR video games, the PP-AR surveillance tool may serve as a means to screen patients in the home for potential falls at points around in house. Moreover, we anticipate PP-AR may help analyze the behavior history of SHA, e.g. enhancing the Smartphone SHA Ubiquitous Care Program, by discovering early symptoms of candidate Alzheimer-like midnight excursions, or Parkinson-like trembling motion for when performing challenging muscular joint movements. Using a set of coordinates corresponding to a set of 3D positions representing human joint locations, we compute the Kinetic Energy (KE) generated by each body segment over time. The Work is then calculated, and converted into calories. Using common graphics rendering pipelines, one could invoke AR technology to provide more information about patients to caretakers. Alerts to caretakers can be prompted by a patient's departure from their personal baseline, and the patient's time ordered joint information can be loaded to a graphics viewer allowing for high

  13. Alternative realities : from augmented reality to mobile mixed reality

    Claydon, Mark


    This thesis provides an overview of (mobile) augmented and mixed reality by clarifying the different concepts of reality, briefly covering the technology behind mobile augmented and mixed reality systems, conducting a concise survey of existing and emerging mobile augmented and mixed reality applications and devices. Based on the previous analysis and the survey, this work will next attempt to assess what mobile augmented and mixed reality could make possible, and what related applications an...

  14. Initial Model of Social Acceptability for Human Augmentation Technologies

    Eghtebas, Chloe; Pay, Yun Suen; Väänänen, Kaisa; Pfeiffer, Ties; Meyer, Joachim; Lukosch, S.G.


    Academia and industry engage in major efforts to develop technologies for augmenting human senses and activities. Many of these technologies, such as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) head mounted displays (HMD), haptic augmentation systems, and exoskeletons can be applied in numerous

  15. Augmented reality: dé nieuwe dimensie in de sport?

    Slender, Hans


    Volgens trendwatcher Justien Marseille de trend van 2010: augmented reality. Augmented reality is een techniek om met de computer gemaakte beelden toe te voegen aan de realiteit. Het Nederlandse Layar ( presenteerde zich vorig jaar vol trots als een unieke augmented reality browser, met

  16. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.


    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  17. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T. [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pierre, Philippe [Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy U2M, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille (France); INSERM U631, Institut National de la Santé et Recherche Médicale, Marseille (France); CNRS UMR6102, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille (France); Chadee, Deborah N. [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pizza, Francis X., E-mail: [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)


    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  18. Emerging directions in lower limb externally wearable robots for gait rehabilitation and augmentation : A review

    Veneman, Jan F.; Burdet, Etienne; Van Der Kooij, Herman; Lefeber, Dirk; Tokhi, Mohammad O.; Virk, Gurvinder S.


    Wearable Robots, including those connected externally over the Lower Limbs (LLEWRs) is a growing field of research and development that promises robotic systems to support and augment locomotor functions. The current State of the Art of such products can be seen as a first generation of devices that

  19. Towards Engaging Upper Extremity Motor Dysfunction Assessment Using Augmented Reality Games

    Cidota, M.A.; Lukosch, S.G.; Bank, Paulina J.M.; Ouwehand, P.W.


    Advances in technology offer new opportunities for a better understanding of how different disorders affect motor function. Our aim is to explore the potential of augmented reality (AR) using free hand and body tracking to develop engaging games for a uniform, cost-effective and objective evaluation

  20. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.


    ... power-operated systems. 23.672 Section 23.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part...

  1. Dynamic augmentation restores anterior tibial translation in ACL suture repair: a biomechanical comparison of non-, static and dynamic augmentation techniques.

    Hoogeslag, Roy A G; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Huis In 't Veld, Rianne; Stephen, Joanna M; Amis, Andrew A


    There is a lack of objective evidence investigating how previous non-augmented ACL suture repair techniques and contemporary augmentation techniques in ACL suture repair restrain anterior tibial translation (ATT) across the arc of flexion, and after cyclic loading of the knee. The purpose of this work was to test the null hypotheses that there would be no statistically significant difference in ATT after non-, static- and dynamic-augmented ACL suture repair, and they will not restore ATT to normal values across the arc of flexion of the knee after cyclic loading. Eleven human cadaveric knees were mounted in a test rig, and knee kinematics from 0° to 90° of flexion were recorded by use of an optical tracking system. Measurements were recorded without load and with 89-N tibial anterior force. The knees were tested in the following states: ACL-intact, ACL-deficient, non-augmented suture repair, static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation after 10 and 300 loading cycles. Only static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation restored ATT to values similar to the ACL-intact state directly postoperation, and maintained this after cyclic loading. However, contrary to dynamic augmentation, the ATT after static tape augmentation failed to remain statistically less than for the ACL-deficient state after cyclic loading. Moreover, after cyclic loading, ATT was significantly less with dynamic augmentation when compared to static tape augmentation. In contrast to non-augmented ACL suture repair and static tape augmentation, only dynamic augmentation resulted in restoration of ATT values similar to the ACL-intact knee and decreased ATT values when compared to the ACL-deficient knee immediately post-operation and also after cyclic loading, across the arc of flexion, thus allowing the null hypotheses to be rejected. This may assist healing of the ruptured ACL. Therefore, this study would support further clinical evaluation of dynamic augmentation of ACL repair.

  2. Augmenting Probabilistic Risk Assesment with Malevolent Initiators

    Smith, Curtis; Schwieder, David


    As commonly practiced, the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in nuclear power plants only considers accident initiators such as natural hazards, equipment failures, and human error. Malevolent initiators are ignored in PRA, but are considered the domain of physical security, which uses vulnerability assessment based on an officially specified threat (design basis threat). This paper explores the implications of augmenting and extending existing PRA models by considering new and modified scenarios resulting from malevolent initiators. Teaming the augmented PRA models with conventional vulnerability assessments can cost-effectively enhance security of a nuclear power plant. This methodology is useful for operating plants, as well as in the design of new plants. For the methodology, we have proposed an approach that builds on and extends the practice of PRA for nuclear power plants for security-related issues. Rather than only considering 'random' failures, we demonstrated a framework that is able to represent and model malevolent initiating events and associated plant impacts.

  3. Interactive learning environments in augmented reality technology

    Rafał Wojciechowski


    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of creation of learning environments based on augmented reality (AR is considered. The concept of AR is presented as a tool for safe and cheap experimental learning. In AR learning environments students may acquire knowledge by personally carrying out experiments on virtual objects by manipulating real objects located in real environments. In the paper, a new approach to creation of interactive educational scenarios, called Augmented Reality Interactive Scenario Modeling (ARISM, is mentioned. In this approach, the process of building learning environments is divided into three stages, each of them performed by users with different technical and domain knowledge. The ARISM approach enables teachers who are not computer science experts to create AR learning environments adapted to the needs of their students.

  4. Camera Based Navigation System with Augmented Reality

    M. Marcu


    Full Text Available Nowadays smart mobile devices have enough processing power, memory, storage and always connected wireless communication bandwidth that makes them available for any type of application. Augmented reality (AR proposes a new type of applications that tries to enhance the real world by superimposing or combining virtual objects or computer generated information with it. In this paper we present a camera based navigation system with augmented reality integration. The proposed system aims to the following: the user points the camera of the smartphone towards a point of interest, like a building or any other place, and the application searches for relevant information about that specific place and superimposes the data over the video feed on the display. When the user moves the camera away, changing its orientation, the data changes as well, in real-time, with the proper information about the place that is now in the camera view.

  5. Survey on Urban Warfare Augmented Reality

    Xiong You


    Full Text Available Urban warfare has become one of the main forms of modern combat in the twenty-first century. The main reason why urban warfare results in hundreds of casualties is that the situational information of the combatant is insufficient. Accessing information via an Augmented Reality system can elevate combatants’ situational awareness to effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and reduce the injuries. This paper begins with the concept of Urban Warfare Augmented Reality (UWAR and illuminates the objectives of developing UWAR, i.e., transparent battlefield, intuitional perception and natural interaction. Real-time outdoor registration, information presentation and natural interaction are presented as key technologies of a practical UWAR system. Then, the history and current research state of these technologies are summarized and their future developments are highlighted from three perspectives, i.e., (1 Better integration with Geographic Information System and Virtual Geographic Environment; (2 More intelligent software; (3 More powerful hardware.

  6. "Non-filling" procedures for lip augmentation: a systematic review of contemporary techniques and their outcomes.

    Moragas, Joan San Miguel; Vercruysse, Herman Junior; Mommaerts, Maurice Y


    Ideal lip augmentation techniques have good longevity, low complication rates, and optimal functional and aesthetic results. No systematic review is currently available regarding the efficacy of lip augmentation techniques. This review will focus only on non-filling procedures for lip augmentation (NFPLAs). Current databases Elsevier Science Direct, PubMed, HighWire Press, Springer Standard Collection, SAGE, DOAJ, Sweetswise, Free E-Journals, Ovid Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Willey Online Library Journals and Cochrane Plus were scrutinized and relevant article reference sections were studied for additional publications. The search heading sequence used was ("Lip" or "Mouth" or "Perioral" or "Nasolabial") and ("Augmentation" or "Enhancement" or "Surgery" or "Lift" or "V-Y" or "Corner"). Exclusion criteria applied to 6436 initial keyword-search retrievals yielded 12 articles. Eight more articles were retrieved from reference sections, for a total of 18 papers assessed. Only one article made a direct comparison of efficacy between two surgical techniques for lip augmentation, and none directly compared complications associated with different NFPLAs. Although this systematic review revealed a lack of quality data in comparing the efficacy and complications among different NFPLAs, it is important to review and pool the existing studies to better suggest proper treatment to patients. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MARCS: Mobile Augmented Reality for Cybersecurity

    Mattina, Brendan Casey


    Network analysts have long used two-dimensional security visualizations to make sense of network data. As networks grow larger and more complex, two-dimensional visualizations become more convoluted, potentially compromising user situational awareness of cyber threats. To combat this problem, augmented reality (AR) can be employed to visualize data within a cyber-physical context to restore user perception and improve comprehension; thereby, enhancing cyber situational awareness. Multiple gen...

  8. Facade Proposals for Urban Augmented Reality

    Fond , Antoine; Berger , Marie-Odile; Simon , Gilles


    International audience; We introduce a novel object proposals method specific to building facades. We define new image cues that measure typical facadecharacteristics such as semantic, symmetry and repetitions. They are combined to generate a few facade candidates in urban environments fast. We show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art object proposals techniques for this task on the 1000 images of the Zurich Building Database. We demonstrate the interest of this procedure for augment...

  9. Lifelong Augmentation of Multimodal Streaming Autobiographical Memories

    Petit, Maxime; Fischer, Tobias; Demiris, Yiannis


    Robot systems that interact with humans over extended periods of time will benefit from storing and recalling large amounts of accumulated sensorimotor and interaction data. We provide a principled framework for the cumulative organisation of streaming autobiographical data so that data can be continuously processed and augmented as the processing and reasoning abilities of the agent develop and further interactions with humans take place. As an example, we show how a kinematic structure lear...

  10. Augmented reality to training spatial skills

    Martin-Gutierrez, Jorge; Contero, Manuel; Alcañiz Raya, Mariano Luis


    La Laguna University has been offering courses for the development of spatial skills since 2004. Each year since that time spatial ability of engineering students has been measured before and after the courses to check progress after each training session. We have developed a spatial skills training course based on augmented reality and graphic engineering contents, and designed the AR_Dehaes tool, which is based on its own library the uses computer vision techniques for incorporating vis...

  11. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    Susumu Takayanagi


    Full Text Available One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed.

  12. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    Susumu Takayanagi


    Full Text Available One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Eventhough this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issuesto be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture,leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, andrecent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed.

  13. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran


    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  14. Medical imaging and augmented reality. Proceedings

    Yang Guang-Zhong; Jiang Tianzi; Shen Dinggang; Gu Lixu; Yang Jie


    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, MIAR 2006, held in Shanghai, China, in August 2006. The 45 revised full papers presented together with 4 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 87 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on shape modeling and morphometry, patient specific modeling and quantification, surgical simulation and skills assessment, surgical guidance and navigation, image registration, PET image reconstruction, and image segmentation. (orig.)

  15. Multiple Kernel Learning with Data Augmentation


    JMLR: Workshop and Conference Proceedings 63:49–64, 2016 ACML 2016 Multiple Kernel Learning with Data Augmentation Khanh Nguyen, Australia Editors: Robert J. Durrant and Kee-Eung Kim Abstract The motivations of multiple kernel learning (MKL) approach are to increase... kernel expres- siveness capacity and to avoid the expensive grid search over a wide spectrum of kernels . A large amount of work has been proposed to

  16. Developing augmented reality solutions through user involvement

    Siltanen, Sanni


    Augmented reality (AR) technology merges digital information into the real world. It is an effective visualization method; AR enhances user's spatial perception skills and helps to understand spatial dimensions and relationships. It is beneficial for many professional application areas such as assembly, maintenance and repair. AR visualization helps to concretize building and construction projects and interior design plans – also for non-technically oriented people, who might otherwise have d...

  17. Augmented twin-nonlinear two-box behavioral models for multicarrier LTE power amplifiers.

    Hammi, Oualid


    A novel class of behavioral models is proposed for LTE-driven Doherty power amplifiers with strong memory effects. The proposed models, labeled augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models, are built by cascading a highly nonlinear memoryless function with a mildly nonlinear memory polynomial with cross terms. Experimental validation on gallium nitride based Doherty power amplifiers illustrates the accuracy enhancement and complexity reduction achieved by the proposed models. When strong memory effects are observed, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models can improve the normalized mean square error by up to 3 dB for the same number of coefficients when compared to state-of-the-art twin-nonlinear two-box models. Furthermore, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models lead to the same performance as previously reported twin-nonlinear two-box models while requiring up to 80% less coefficients.

  18. Aripiprazole augmentation in poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report

    Vinciguerra Valentina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with a relevant impairment in social and interpersonal functioning and severe disability. This seems to be particularly true for the poor insight subtype, characterised by a lack of consciousness of illness and, consequently, compliance with treatment. Poor responsiveness to serotonergic drugs in poor insight obsessive-compulsive patients may also require an augmentation therapy with atypical antipsychotics. Methods We reviewed a case in which a patient with a long history of poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder was treated with a high dosage of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results The treatment resulted in a poor outcome. This patient was therefore augmentated with aripiprazole. Conclusion Doctors should consider aripiprazole as a possible augmentation strategy for serotonergic poor responder obsessive-compulsive patients, but further research on these subjects is needed.

  19. An End User Development Approach for Mobile Web Augmentation

    Gabriela Bosetti


    Full Text Available The trend towards mobile devices usage has made it possible for the Web to be conceived not only as an information space but also as a ubiquitous platform where users perform all kinds of tasks. In some cases, users access the Web with native mobile applications developed for well-known sites, such as, LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter. These native applications might offer further (e.g., location-based functionalities to their users in comparison with their corresponding Web sites because they were developed with mobile features in mind. However, many Web applications have no native counterpart and users access them using a mobile Web browser. Although the access to context information is not a complex issue nowadays, not all Web applications adapt themselves according to it or diversely improve the user experience by listening to a wide range of sensors. At some point, users might want to add mobile features to these Web sites, even if those features were not originally supported. In this paper, we present a novel approach to allow end users to augment their preferred Web sites with mobile features. We support our claims by presenting a framework for mobile Web augmentation, an authoring tool, and an evaluation with 21 end users.

  20. Assessing the standard Molybdenum projector augmented wave VASP potentials

    Mattsson, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Multi-Scale Science


    Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Equation of State (EOS) construction is a prominent part of Sandia’s capabilities to support engineering sciences. This capability is based on augmenting experimental data with information gained from computational investigations, especially in those parts of the phase space where experimental data is hard, dangerous, or expensive to obtain. A key part of the success of the Sandia approach is the fundamental science work supporting the computational capability. Not only does this work enhance the capability to perform highly accurate calculations but it also provides crucial insight into the limitations of the computational tools, providing high confidence in the results even where results cannot be, or have not yet been, validated by experimental data. This report concerns the key ingredient of projector augmented-wave (PAW) potentials for use in pseudo-potential computational codes. Using the tools discussed in SAND2012-7389 we assess the standard Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) PAWs for Molybdenum.

  1. Technologies and Algorithms for Building the Augmented Reality

    I. A. Blagoveshchenskiy


    Full Text Available This article is about the Augmented Reality technology itself and its current implementations. In the first part of the article the authors give a short historical reference to the origins of the name ”augmented reality”, by whom it was introduced and what it means. Later in the article two major approaches to building AR are described. The first one is based on the usage of a marker, and the second one is marker-free. The first approach is examined in detail. In order to analyze video stream and recognize known objects in it, algorithms of the Computer Vision are used. The authors give a short description and the main characteristics only of two of them: genetic algorithms and feature detection & description. For a programmatic implementation of those algorithms one can use special libraries like OpenCV and AForge.NET, also mentioned in the article. Both of them give vast functional capabilities in image processing and object recognition. At the end of the article is given an example of creating AR using the OpenCV library. Main attention is payed to the problem of making projection of a 3D model on the marker’s plane. This example can be used as the foundation for a custom AR framework.

  2. Advances in biologic augmentation for rotator cuff repair

    Patel, Sahishnu; Gualtieri, Anthony P.; Lu, Helen H.; Levine, William N.


    Rotator cuff tear is a very common shoulder injury that often necessitates surgical intervention for repair. Despite advances in surgical techniques for rotator cuff repair, there is a high incidence of failure after surgery because of poor healing capacity attributed to many factors. The complexity of tendon-to-bone integration inherently presents a challenge for repair because of a large biomechanical mismatch between the tendon and bone and insufficient regeneration of native tissue, leading to the formation of fibrovascular scar tissue. Therefore, various biological augmentation approaches have been investigated to improve rotator cuff repair healing. This review highlights recent advances in three fundamental approaches for biological augmentation for functional and integrative tendon–bone repair. First, the exploration, application, and delivery of growth factors to improve regeneration of native tissue is discussed. Second, applications of stem cell and other cell-based therapies to replenish damaged tissue for better healing is covered. Finally, this review will highlight the development and applications of compatible biomaterials to both better recapitulate the tendon–bone interface and improve delivery of biological factors for enhanced integrative repair. PMID:27750374


    Stojce Ilcev


    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper introduces development and implementation of new Local Satellite AugmentationSystem as an integration component of the Regional Satellite Augmentation System (RSAS employingcurrent and new Satellite Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS for improvement of the AirTraffic Control (ATC and Air Traffic Management (ATM and for enhancement safety systems includingtransport security and control of flights in all stages, airport approaching, landing, departures and allmovements over airport surface areas. The current first generation of the Global Navigation Satellite SystemGNSS-1 applications are represented by fundamental military solutions for Position, Velocity and Time ofthe satellite navigation and determination systems such as the US GPS and Russian GLONASS (Former-USSR requirements, respectively. The establishment of Aeronautical CNS is also discussed as a part ofGlobal Satellite Augmentation Systems of GPS and GLONASS systems integrated with existing and futureRSAS and LSAS in airports areas. Specific influence and factors related to the Comparison of the Currentand New Aeronautical CNS System including the Integration of RSAS and GNSS solutions are discussedand packet of facts is determined to maximize the new satellite Automatic Dependent Surveillance System(ADSS and Special Effects of the RSAS Networks. The possible future integration of RSAS and GNSS andthe common proposal of the satellite Surface Movement Guidance and Control are presented in thechangeless ways as of importance for future enfacements of ATC and ATM for any hypothetical airportinfrastructure.Keywords: ADSS, ATC, ATM, CNS, GSAS, LRAS, RSAS, SMGC, Special Effects of RSAS.

  4. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

    Naomi Schneid-Kofman


    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  5. A Mobile Augmented Reality Emulator for Android

    Donald Munro


    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR provides a fusion of the real and virtual worlds by superimposing virtual objects on real world scenery. The implementation of AR on mobile devices is known as Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR. MAR is in its infancy and MAR development software is in the process of maturing. Dating back to the origin of Computer Science as an independent field, software development tools have been an integral part of the process of software creation. MAR, being a relatively new technology, is still lacking such related software development tools. With the rapid progression of mobile devices, the development of MAR applications fusing advanced Computer Vision techniques with mobile device sensors have become increasingly feasible. However, testing and debugging of MAR applications present a new challenge in that they require the developer be at the location that is being augmented at some point during the development process. In this research study, a MAR recorder application was developed as well as emulation class libraries for Android devices that allows the recording and off-site playback of video, location and motion sensor data. The research objective was to provide a software emulator which provides debugging, testing and prototyping capabilities for a MAR application including the ability to emulate the combination of computer vision with locational and motion sensors using previously recorded data. The emulator was evaluated using different mobile technologies. The results indicate that this research could assist developers of MAR applications to implement applications more rapidly, without being at the location.

  6. Augmented spaces, a look beyond advertising

    Oana Andreea Căplescu


    Full Text Available From billboards to urban screens and now to media facades, the augmentation of our cities has expanded, changing social behaviours and public space consumption. Smart buildings are being developed and, much like the smartphones, these hybrids are not only in sci-fi movies anymore. One of the main promoters of media facades and media architecture has been the advertising industry. But artists and designers showed the potential of different approaches, experimenting with digitally augmented spaces both indoors and outdoors. Going beyond the commercial aspect of being an advertising and branding tool, these hybrids offer a variety of uses. Questions of how and where we use them and how they can improve our life quality are discussed here emphasizing that we developed a media behaviour, adjusting our relation to the physical and information environments. I examine some of the most notable experiments outside of the advertising sphere, offering a base for future development of augmented spaces and opening the discussion over the language of new media architecture.

  7. Centers of Excellence Contribution to Knowledge Augmentation

    Mignone, O.


    Full text: Knowledge management is a key need of the nuclear industry to cope with the knowledge limited augmentation and the risks of knowledge loss due to a number of reasons, such as: staff attrition, organizational changes, upgraded technologies, new projects implementation, and the nuclear power evolution in recent years (i.e., post-Fukushima upgrades). This document describes the contribution of nuclear centers of excellence to knowledge augmentation. The effective implementation of nuclear centers of excellence is a key success factor for the knowledge management programme of nuclear organizations. This document, is based on a real example of operating organization approach in launching such initiative for staff knowledge augmentation and performance improvement. Eventually, any type of organizations in the nuclear sector could apply the proposed technique to reach better knowledge usage. The nuclear centers of excellence are a key knowledge management initiative for the learning organizations that are caring about organizational intellectual capital and striving for performance improvement. The nuclear centers of excellence can be realized as a forum to exchange ideas, knowledge, information, experiences; to collect lessons learned; and to identify areas for improvement where further organizational competence building is needed. Usual realization of this initiative is going through an active staff involvement in knowledge sharing in a form of different technical communities of practice focusing on specific knowledge domains. (author

  8. Soft tissue augmentation 2006: filler fantasy.

    Klein, Arnold William


    As an increasing number of patients seek esthetic improvement through minimally invasive procedures, interest in soft tissue augmentation and filling agents is at an all-time high. One reason for this interest is the availability of botulinum toxin type A, which works superbly in the upper face. The rejuvenation of the upper face has created much interest in injectable filling agents and implant techniques that work equally well in the restoration of the lower face. One of the central tenets of soft tissue augmentation is the concept of the three-dimensional face. The youthful face has a soft, full appearance, as opposed to the flat, pulled, two-dimensional look often achieved by more traditional surgical approaches. Injectable filling agents can augment and even at times, replace pulling. Additionally, with the lip as the focal center of the lower face, subtle lip enhancement is here to stay, and is in fact, the number one indication for injectable fillers. Moreover, minimally invasive soft tissue augmentation offers cosmetic enhancement without the cost and recovery time associated with more invasive procedures. As more and more physicians take interest in minimally invasive surgery, courses in cosmetic surgery techniques are becoming increasingly popular at the medical meetings of many specialties. Today, physicians have a much larger armamentarium of techniques and materials with which to improve facial contours, ameliorate wrinkles, and provide esthetic rejuvenation to the face. For a substance or device to be amenable for soft tissue augmentation in the medical community, it must meet certain criteria. It must have both a high "use" potential, producing cosmetically pleasing results with a minimum undesirable reactions, and have a low abuse potential in that widespread or incorrect or indiscriminate use would not result in significant morbidity. It must be nonteratogenic, noncarcinogenic, and nonmigratory. In addition, the agent must provide predictable

  9. Augmented mandibular bone structurally adapts to functional loading

    Verhoeven, J. W.; Ruijter, J. M.; Koole, R.; de Putter, C.; Terlou, M.; Cune, M. S.


    Long-term changes in trabecular bone structure during the 10 years following onlay grafting with simultaneous mandibular implant placement were studied. Extraoral radiographs of both mandibular sides in eight patients were taken regularly. Bone structure was analysed using a custom-written image

  10. Augmentation with an ovine forestomach matrix scaffold improves histological outcomes of rotator cuff repair in a rat model.

    Street, Matthew; Thambyah, Ashvin; Dray, Michael; Amirapu, Satya; Tuari, Donna; Callon, Karen E; McIntosh, Julie D; Burkert, Kristina; Dunbar, P Rod; Coleman, Brendan; Cornish, Jillian; Musson, David S


    Rotator cuff tears can cause significant pain and functional impairment. Without surgical repair, the rotator cuff has little healing potential, and following surgical repair, they are highly prone to re-rupture. Augmenting such repairs with a biomaterial scaffold has been suggested as a potential solution. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-based scaffolds are the most commonly used rotator cuff augments, although to date, reports on their success are variable. Here, we utilize pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo assays to assess the efficacy of a novel biomaterial scaffold, ovine forestomach extracellular matrix (OFM), in augmenting rotator cuff repair. OFM was assessed in vitro for primary tenocyte growth and adherence, and for immunogenicity using an assay of primary human dendritic cell activation. In vivo, using a murine model, supraspinatus tendon repairs were carried out in 34 animals. Augmentation with OFM was compared to sham surgery and unaugmented control. At 6- and 12-week time points, the repairs were analysed biomechanically for strength of repair and histologically for quality of healing. OFM supported tenocyte growth in vitro and did not cause an immunogenic response. Augmentation with OFM improved the quality of healing of the repaired tendon, with no evidence of excessive inflammatory response. However, there was no biomechanical advantage of augmentation. The ideal rotator cuff tendon augment has not yet been identified or clinically implemented. ECM scaffolds offer a promising solution to a difficult clinical problem. Here, we have shown improved histological healing with OFM augmentation. Identifying materials that offset the poorer mechanical properties of the rotator cuff post-injury/repair and enhance organised tendon healing will be paramount to incorporating augmentation into surgical treatment of the rotator cuff.

  11. Augmented healing process in female mice with acute myocardial infarction.

    Wang, Fangfei; Keimig, Thomas; He, Quan; Ding, Jennifer; Zhang, Zhenggang; Pourabdollah-Nejad, Siamak; Yang, Xiao-Ping


    It is well established that premenopausal women are protected from cardiovascular disease. This gender difference in favor of females is also demonstrated in animal studies. Our research group previously found that female mice had much lower incidence of cardiac rupture and mortality than did males during the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the mechanisms responsible for such protection are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the favorable cardiac effect observed in female mice with MI is due to an augmented healing process that includes less inflammation, reduced matrix degradation, and enhanced neovascularization. Twelve-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were subjected to MI by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery and then euthanized at 1, 4, 7, or 14 days post-MI. Inflammatory cell infiltration and myofibroblast transformation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-I expression, and neovascularization were examined by immunohistochemistry, zymography, Western blot, and laser scanning confocal microscopy, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography on day 14. We found that: (1) neutrophil infiltration during the early phase of MI (1-4 days) was much lower in females than in males and was associated with lower MMP-9 activity and higher TIMP-1 protein expression, indicating less-exaggerated inflammation and extracellular matrix degradation in females; (2) myofibroblast transformation, as indicated by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, was significantly greater in females than in males at day 7 of MI (Pvascular area in the infarct border) was markedly increased in females, and was associated with better preserved cardiac function and less left ventricular dilatation. Our data suggest that less-exaggerated early inflammation and augmented reparative fibrotic response, indicated by enhanced myofibroblast

  12. Crestal Sinus Augmentation with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of 2-Year Pilot Trial.

    Kuchler, Ulrike; Rudelstorfer, Claudia M; Barth, Barbara; Tepper, Gabor; Lidinsky, Dominika; Heimel, Patrick; Watzek, Georg; Gruber, Reinhard

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) together with an absorbable collagen carrier (ACS) was approved for augmentation of the maxillary sinus prior to implant placement. The original registration trial was based on a lateral window approach. Clinical outcomes of crestal sinus augmentation with rhBMP-2 have not been reported so far. An uncontrolled pilot trial in which seven patients with a residual maxillary height below 5 mm were enrolled to receive crestal sinus augmentation with rhBMP-2/ACS was conducted. Elevation of the sinus mucosa was performed by gel pressure. Primary endpoints were the gain in augmentation height and volume measured by computed tomography after 6 months. Evaluation of bone quality at the time of implant placement was based on histology. Secondary endpoints were the clinical and radiologic evaluation of the implants and patient satisfaction by visual analog scale (VAS) at the 2-year follow-up. Median gain in augmentation height was 7.2 mm (range 0.0 to 17.5 mm). Five patients gained at least 5 mm of bone height. Two patients with a perforation of the sinus mucosa failed to respond to rhBMP-2/ACS and underwent lateral window augmentation. The median gain in augmentation volume of the five patients was 781.3 mm³ (range 426.9 to 1,242.8 mm³). Biopsy specimens showed a cancellous network consisting of primary plexiform bone with little secondary lamellar bone. After 2 years, implants were in function with no signs of inflammation or peri-implant bone loss. Patients were satisfied with the esthetic outcomes and chewing function. This pilot clinical trial supports the original concept that rhBMP-2/ACS supports bone formation, also in crestal sinus augmentation, and emphasizes the relevance of the integrity of the sinus mucosa to predict the bone gain.

  13. Efficient Exact Inference With Loss Augmented Objective in Structured Learning.

    Bauer, Alexander; Nakajima, Shinichi; Muller, Klaus-Robert


    Structural support vector machine (SVM) is an elegant approach for building complex and accurate models with structured outputs. However, its applicability relies on the availability of efficient inference algorithms--the state-of-the-art training algorithms repeatedly perform inference to compute a subgradient or to find the most violating configuration. In this paper, we propose an exact inference algorithm for maximizing nondecomposable objectives due to special type of a high-order potential having a decomposable internal structure. As an important application, our method covers the loss augmented inference, which enables the slack and margin scaling formulations of structural SVM with a variety of dissimilarity measures, e.g., Hamming loss, precision and recall, Fβ-loss, intersection over union, and many other functions that can be efficiently computed from the contingency table. We demonstrate the advantages of our approach in natural language parsing and sequence segmentation applications.

  14. Augmented-plane-wave calculations on small molecules

    Serena, P.A.; Baratoff, A.; Soler, J.M.


    We have performed ab initio calculations on a wide range of small molecules, demonstrating the accuracy and flexibility of an alternative method for calculating the electronic structure of molecules, solids, and surfaces. It is based on the local-density approximation (LDA) for exchange and correlation and the nonlinear augmented-plane-wave method. Very accurate atomic forces are obtained directly. This allows for implementation of Car-Parrinello-like techniques to determine simultaneously the self-consistent electron wave functions and the equilibrium atomic positions within an iterative scheme. We find excellent agreement with the best existing LDA-based calculations and remarkable agreement with experiment for the equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, and dipole moments of a wide variety of molecules, including strongly bound homopolar and polar molecules, hydrogen-bound and electron-deficient molecules, and weakly bound alkali and noble-metal dimers, although binding energies are overestimated

  15. Augmented wave ab initio EFG calculations: some methodological warnings

    Errico, Leonardo A.; Renteria, Mario; Petrilli, Helena M.


    We discuss some accuracy aspects inherent to ab initio electronic structure calculations in the understanding of nuclear quadrupole interactions. We use the projector augmented wave method to study the electric-field gradient (EFG) at both Sn and O sites in the prototype cases SnO and SnO 2 . The term ab initio is used in the standard context of the also called first principles methods in the framework of the Density Functional Theory. As the main contributions of EFG calculations to problems in condensed matter physics are related to structural characterizations on the atomic scale, we discuss the 'state of the art' on theoretical EFG calculations and make a brief critical review on the subject, calling attention to some fundamental theoretical aspects

  16. Augmented wave ab initio EFG calculations: some methodological warnings

    Errico, Leonardo A. [Departamento de Fisica-IFLP (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Renteria, Mario [Departamento de Fisica-IFLP (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Petrilli, Helena M. [Instituto de Fisica-DFMT, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    We discuss some accuracy aspects inherent to ab initio electronic structure calculations in the understanding of nuclear quadrupole interactions. We use the projector augmented wave method to study the electric-field gradient (EFG) at both Sn and O sites in the prototype cases SnO and SnO{sub 2}. The term ab initio is used in the standard context of the also called first principles methods in the framework of the Density Functional Theory. As the main contributions of EFG calculations to problems in condensed matter physics are related to structural characterizations on the atomic scale, we discuss the 'state of the art' on theoretical EFG calculations and make a brief critical review on the subject, calling attention to some fundamental theoretical aspects.

  17. Magnetosensitive e-skins with directional perception for augmented reality

    Cañón Bermúdez, Gilbert Santiago; Karnaushenko, Dmitriy D.; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Lebanov, Ana; Bischoff, Lothar; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys


    Electronic skins equipped with artificial receptors are able to extend our perception beyond the modalities that have naturally evolved. These synthetic receptors offer complimentary information on our surroundings and endow us with novel means of manipulating physical or even virtual objects. We realize highly compliant magnetosensitive skins with directional perception that enable magnetic cognition, body position tracking, and touchless object manipulation. Transfer printing of eight high-performance spin valve sensors arranged into two Wheatstone bridges onto 1.7-μm-thick polyimide foils ensures mechanical imperceptibility. This resembles a new class of interactive devices extracting information from the surroundings through magnetic tags. We demonstrate this concept in augmented reality systems with virtual knob-turning functions and the operation of virtual dialing pads, based on the interaction with magnetic fields. This technology will enable a cornucopia of applications from navigation, motion tracking in robotics, regenerative medicine, and sports and gaming to interaction in supplemented reality. PMID:29376121

  18. Augmented halal food traceability system: analysis and design using UML

    Usman, Y. V.; Fauzi, A. M.; Irawadi, T. T.; Djatna, T.


    Augmented halal food traceability is expanding the range of halal traceability in food supply chain where currently only available for tracing from the source of raw material to the industrial warehouse or inbound logistic. The halal traceability system must be developed in the integrated form that includes inbound and outbound logistics. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable initial model of integrated traceability system of halal food supply chain. The method was based on unified modeling language (UML) such as use case, sequence, and business process diagram. A goal programming model was formulated considering two objective functions which include (1) minimization of risk of halal traceability failures happened potentially during outbound logistics activities and (2) maximization of quality of halal product information. The result indicates the supply of material is the most important point to be considered in minimizing the risk of failure of halal food traceability system whereas no risk observed in manufacturing and distribution.

  19. Augmented reality environment for temporomandibular joint motion analysis.

    Wagner, A; Ploder, O; Zuniga, J; Undt, G; Ewers, R


    The principles of interventional video tomography were applied for the real-time visualization of temporomandibular joint movements in an augmented reality environment. Anatomic structures were extracted in three dimensions from planar cephalometric radiographic images. The live-image fusion of these graphic anatomic structures with real-time position data of the mandible and the articular fossa was performed with a see-through, head-mounted display and an electromagnetic tracking system. The dynamic fusion of radiographic images of the temporomandibular joint to anatomic temporomandibular joint structures in motion created a new modality for temporomandibular joint motion analysis. The advantages of the method are its ability to accurately examine the motion of the temporomandibular joint in three dimensions without restraining the subject and its ability to simultaneously determine the relationship of the bony temporomandibular joint and supporting structures (ie, occlusion, muscle function, etc) during movement before and after treatment.

  20. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Liang CL


    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  1. Augmented Reality Edugame Senjata Tradisional Indonesia

    Endah Sudarmilah


    Full Text Available Senjata tradisional merupakan sebuah produk yang berkaitan erat dengan budaya suatu masyarakat. Selain berfungsi sebagai senjata, senjata tradisional telah menjadi identitas suatu bangsa yang membantu memperkaya khasanah budaya nusantara. Pendidikan di Indonesia berpedoman pada kurikulum baru yang disebut kurikulum 2013. Salah satu materi kurikulum mengarahkan siswa untuk belajar tentang senjata tradisional bentuk senjata tradisional. Berdasarkan pada masalah yang timbul dari kurikulum 2013, peneliti menyiapkan metode pembelajaran dengan menggabungkan Augmented Reality (AR dengan permainan edukasi berbasis adventure game dalam menyajikan materi keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia, terutama untuk senjata tradisional sehingga siswa memiliki semangat dalam belajar tentang keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia khusunya senjata.

  2. Electromagnetic acceleration studies with augmented rails

    Maruo, T.; Fujioka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Okamoto, A.; Ikuta, K.; Nemoto, K.


    A comparative study of electromagnetic acceleration in the rail-type accelerators with two kinds of rail geometry was carried out experimentally. The accelerators were energized by 200kJ capacitor bank and the weight of loaded projectiles was about 1.3 grams with 10mm x 10mm square bore. The attained velocity was 4.3km/s in the augmented accelerator, while it was 3.8km/s in the classical device. In this paper these differences in attained velocity are briefly discussed. A theoretical understanding of the rail erosion is also described

  3. Terrain Simplification Research in Augmented Scene Modeling


    environment. As one of the most important tasks in augmented scene modeling, terrain simplification research has gained more and more attention. In this paper, we mainly focus on point selection problem in terrain simplification using triangulated irregular network. Based on the analysis and comparison of traditional importance measures for each input point, we put forward a new importance measure based on local entropy. The results demonstrate that the local entropy criterion has a better performance than any traditional methods. In addition, it can effectively conquer the "short-sight" problem associated with the traditional methods.

  4. A Survey on Applications of Augmented Reality

    Andrea Sanna; Federico Manuri


    The term Augmented Reality (AR) refers to a set of technologies and devices able to enhance and improve human perception, thus bridging the gap between real and virtual space. Physical and artificial objects are mixed together in a hybrid space where the user can move without constraints. This mediated reality is spread in our everyday life: work, study, training, relaxation, time spent traveling are just some of the moments in which you can use AR applications.This paper aims to provide an o...

  5. Augmented Reality Sultan Deli Di Istana Maimun

    Nathan P. L


    Augmented reality is a technology that can provide visualization of 3D models. Based from that technology, the modeling from a picture of Sultan Deli Istana Maimun can be applied to restore photos Sultan Deli into a three-dimensional model. This is due to Sultan Deli which is one of the important figures in the history of Medan city known less by the public. Submission of Deli Sultanate history only through such two-dimensional images and other archives. The photo shows the Sultan of Deli ev...

  6. Alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy in deficient individuals enrolled in the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank

    Adriano R Tonelli


    Full Text Available Adriano R Tonelli1, Farshid Rouhani1, Ning Li2, Pam Schreck1, Mark L Brantly11Alpha-1 Research Program, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAIntroduction: Intravenous augmentation therapy with purified intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin replaces the deficient protein and is the only currently approved treatment for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD related lung disease. While augmentation therapy has been available for more than 20 years, there are a limited number of studies evaluating the effect of augmentation on lung function.Material and methods: We examined the decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 in patients enrolled in the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank in relation to the use or not of alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy. For the purpose of our analysis we included 164 patients with AATD and PI ZZ genotype.Results: Mean age of the patients was 60 years, 52% were females, 94% were white and 78% ex-smokers. The mean FEV1 at baseline was 1.7 L and the mean FEV1 % of predicted was 51.3%. The mean follow-up time was 41.7 months. A total of 124 (76% patients received augmentation therapy (augmented group while 40 patients (24% did not received it (non-augmented group. When adjusted by age at baseline, sex, smoking status, baseline FEV1 % of predicted, the mean overall change in FEV1 was 47.6 mL/year, favoring the augmented group (?FEV1 10.6 ± 21.4 mL/year in comparison with the non-augmented group (?FEV1 −36.96 ± 12.1 mL/year (P = 0.05. Beneficial ?FEV1 were observed in ex-smokers and the group with initial FEV1 % of predicted of <50%. No differences were observed in mortality.Conclusions: In conclusion, augmentation therapy improves lung function in subjects with AATD when adjusted by age, gender, smoking status and baseline FEV1 % of predicted. The beneficial

  7. Augmenting Your Own Reality: Student Authoring of Science-Based Augmented Reality Games

    Klopfer, Eric; Sheldon, Josh


    Augmented Reality (AR) simulations superimpose a virtual overlay of data and interactions onto a real-world context. The simulation engine at the heart of this technology is built to afford elements of game play that support explorations and learning in students' natural context--their own community and surroundings. In one of the more recent…

  8. Augmented lagrange hopfield network for economic dispatch with multiple fuel options

    Dieu, Vo Ngoc; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Polprasert, Jirawadee


    This paper proposes an augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with multiple fuel options. The proposed ALHN method is a continuous Hopfield neural network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrangian function. The advantages of ALHN over the conventional Hopfield neural network are easier use, more general applications, faster convergence, better optimal solution, and larger scale of problem implementation. The method solves the problem by directly searching the most suitable fuel among the available fuels of each unit and finding the optimal solution for the problem based on minimization of the energy function of the continuous Hopfield neural network. The proposed method is tested on systems up to 100 units and the obtained results are compared to those from other methods in the literature. The results have shown that the proposed method is efficient for solving the ED problem with multiple fuel options and favorable for implementation in large scale problems.

  9. Augmented reality in bone tumour resection

    Park, Y. K.; Gupta, S.; Yoon, C.; Han, I.; Kim, H-S.; Choi, H.; Hong, J.


    Objectives We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. Methods We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs). In the conventional group, resection was performed after measuring the distance from the edge of the condyle to the expected resection margin with a ruler as per routine clinical practice. Results The mean error of 164 resections in 82 femurs in the AR group was 1.71 mm (0 to 6). The mean error of 82 resections in 41 femurs in the conventional resection group was 2.64 mm (0 to 11) (p Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:137–143. PMID:28258117

  10. Augmented reality for the surgeon: Systematic review.

    Yoon, Jang W; Chen, Robert E; Kim, Esther J; Akinduro, Oluwaseun O; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Han, Phillip K; Si, Phong; Freeman, William D; Diaz, Roberto J; Komotar, Ricardo J; Pirris, Stephen M; Brown, Benjamin L; Bydon, Mohamad; Wang, Michael Y; Wharen, Robert E; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo


    Since the introduction of wearable head-up displays, there has been much interest in the surgical community adapting this technology into routine surgical practice. We used the keywords augmented reality OR wearable device OR head-up display AND surgery using PubMed, EBSCO, IEEE and SCOPUS databases. After exclusions, 74 published articles that evaluated the utility of wearable head-up displays in surgical settings were included in our review. Across all studies, the most common use of head-up displays was in cases of live streaming from surgical microscopes, navigation, monitoring of vital signs, and display of preoperative images. The most commonly used head-up display was Google Glass. Head-up displays enhanced surgeons' operating experience; common disadvantages include limited battery life, display size and discomfort. Due to ergonomic issues with dual-screen devices, augmented reality devices with the capacity to overlay images onto the surgical field will be key features of next-generation surgical head-up displays. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Boosting physics education through mobile augmented reality

    Crǎciun, Dana; Bunoiu, Mǎdǎlin


    The integration of collaborative applications, based on modern learning technologies and the Internet, of various visualization techniques and digital strategies in open, flexible modern learning environments which facilitate access to resources, represents a challenge for physics teachers in Romania in general, and for novice teachers in particular. Although large efforts have been made worldwide to invest in educational technologies, their impact on the students' learning outcomes is quite modest. In this paper, we describe and analyze various curricular and extracurricular activities specifically designed for and undertaken by pre-service physics teachers. These activities employ new educational technologies, mobile augmented reality (MAR) and are based on modern teaching and learning theories. MAR is an extension for mobile devices of augmented reality, an interactive and in real time combination, of real and virtual objects overlaid in the real environment. The obtained results show that pre-service physics teachers are confident in using MAR in their teaching and learning activities, and consider that the activities performed helped them develop the skills necessary for science teachers in a technology-based society and to reflect upon the role of technology in the current Romanian educational context.

  12. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.


    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  13. Mobile Augmented Note-taking to Support Operating Physical Devices

    Liu , Can; Diehl , Jonathan; Huot , Stéphane; Borchers , Jan


    Mobile Augmented Reality: Design Issues and Opportunities - 1st Workshop on Mobile Augmented Reality, MobileHCI 2011; In this paper we propose an approach to assist operating physical devices with mobile augmented reality techniques. We propose ideas of interaction techniques, which allow users to put self-authored information as notes onto physical objects. We present the design of two example applications aiming at solving problems from different aspects of physical operations.

  14. Guidelines for user interactions in mobile augmented reality

    Ortman, Erik; Swedlund, Kenneth


    Over the last couple of years the field of Augmented Reality has transformed from something mainly seen in academic researchinto several examples of big commercially successful products, and the widespread use of highly capable mobile devices has greatly helped accelerate this trend. The powerful sensors in modern handsets enable designers to bring Augmented Reality implementations to the hands ofthe users.This thesis examines how Augmented Reality can be implemented onmobile platforms, mainl...

  15. Augmented reality tools and learning practice in mobile-learning

    Figueiredo, Mauro; Gomes, José; Gomes, Cristina; Lopes, João


    There are many augmented reality (AR) applications available that can be used to create educational contents for these mobile devices. This paper surveys the most popular augmented reality applications and we select AR eco-systems to be used in daily teaching activities which are user friendly, do not require programming skills and are free. Different augmented reality technologies are explored in this paper to create teaching activities with animations, videos and other information to be sho...

  16. Augmented reality mobile application for overlaying images on textiles

    Brinza, Veronica


    Augmented reality is one the relatively new and fast growing branches in modern informatics. It incorporates in simple people lives on a lot of different levels. It can be used everywhere starting from the simple checking of your email and ending up with a complex augmented reality video games or augmented reality learning. From the ancient times actors tried to immerse the spectators in world of the performance using decoration and costumed. In XVIII – XIX centuries pictures w...

  17. Towards an interactive medical system by augmented reality

    Khawla Ben Abderrahim; Mohamed Kallel; M.S. Bouhlel


    Augmented reality is a computer field that progresses rapidly. Its principle is to mix the real world and the virtual world. Many applications already use augmented reality, particularly the medical field. Medical image allows doctors to make diagnosis of the patient. This diagnosis allows him to make the best decision without committing professional mistakes that can cause problems. Hence the idea of integrating augmented reality with medical image analysis to help the doctor to make the bes...

  18. Augmentation of proximal femoral nail in unstable trochanteric fractures

    Gadegone Wasudeo M.


    Full Text Available Introduction: Biomechanically proximal femoral nail (PFN is a better choice of implant, still it is associated with screw breakage, cut out of screw through femoral head, Z effect, reverse Z effect, and lateral migration of screws. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of augmented PFN in terms of prevention of postoperative complications and failure rates in unstable trochanteric fractures. Material and methods: We carried out a prospective study of 82 cases with unstable trochanteric femoral fractures from April 2010 to December 2015. Forty-two females and 40 males in the age group between 58 and 81 years were included in this study. There were 45 cases of AO 31 A2 (2.2, 2.3 and 37 cases of AO 31 A3 (3.1, 3.2, 3.3. Fractures were fixed by PFN with augmentation by an additional screw from trochanter to inferior quadrant of femoral head or cerclage wire to strengthen the lateral trochanteric wall. Results: The bone healing is observed in all the cases in the mean period of 14.2 weeks. Nine patients developed complications, including lateral migration of neck screws (n = 5, Z effect (n = 1, infection (n = 2, and breakage of distal interlocking bolt in one case. Removal of screws was required in five cases. Patients were followed up for a mean of 8.4 months. At the end of follow-up the Salvati and Wilson hip function was 32 (out of 40 in 88% of patients. Conclusion: The stabilization of lateral trochanteric wall with additional screw or cerclage wire increases the stability of construct.

  19. An augmented-reality edge enhancement application for Google Glass.

    Hwang, Alex D; Peli, Eli


    Google Glass provides a platform that can be easily extended to include a vision enhancement tool. We have implemented an augmented vision system on Glass, which overlays enhanced edge information over the wearer's real-world view, to provide contrast-improved central vision to the Glass wearers. The enhanced central vision can be naturally integrated with scanning. Google Glass' camera lens distortions were corrected by using an image warping. Because the camera and virtual display are horizontally separated by 16 mm, and the camera aiming and virtual display projection angle are off by 10°, the warped camera image had to go through a series of three-dimensional transformations to minimize parallax errors before the final projection to the Glass' see-through virtual display. All image processes were implemented to achieve near real-time performance. The impacts of the contrast enhancements were measured for three normal-vision subjects, with and without a diffuser film to simulate vision loss. For all three subjects, significantly improved contrast sensitivity was achieved when the subjects used the edge enhancements with a diffuser film. The performance boost is limited by the Glass camera's performance. The authors assume that this accounts for why performance improvements were observed only with the diffuser filter condition (simulating low vision). Improvements were measured with simulated visual impairments. With the benefit of see-through augmented reality edge enhancement, natural visual scanning process is possible and suggests that the device may provide better visual function in a cosmetically and ergonomically attractive format for patients with macular degeneration.

  20. Realidad aumentada en medicina Augmented reality in medicine

    Carlos Enrique Ortiz Rangel


    Full Text Available En la actualidad, la realidad aumentada representa una forma reciente de visualización que combina, de manera funcional, la virtualidad con la realidad misma, generando posibilidades nuevas para la interpretación de información antes no disponible, que abren nuevas maneras para aprender y reconocer los datos, procesarlos en información y convertirlos fácilmente en conocimiento. Las diferentes formas para llevar a cabo experiencias en realidad aumentada, se encuentran listas desde diferentes plataformas informáticas y de telecomunicaciones, que facilitan adelantar proyectos en este sentido, de manera rápida y económica. La Medicina, y particularmente la Cardiología, pueden asistirse de este tipo de medios para complementar la información disponible en otros formatos, y pasarlos a la tridimensionalidad, desde donde la interpretación de imágenes sobre objetos 3D está servida para estos propósitos.Nowadays, Augmented Reality represents a new form of visualization that combines virtuality with reality in a functional way, creating new possibilities for the interpretation of information that was not previously available. These possibilities lead to new ways of learning and acknowledging data, to process them into information and to convert them into knowledge easily. Various ways to carry out experiments in Augmented Reality are available from different computing and telecommunications platforms, which facilitate the fast and economic development of projects. Medicine, and cardiology in particular, can take advantage of this new type of media to complement the information yet available, transforming it into other formats and passing them to three dimensions, wherever these images are an appropriate complement.

  1. Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation with Polyethylene Mesh and Allograft Bone for Traumatic Thoracolumbar Fractures

    C. Schulz


    Full Text Available Purpose. In cases of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures, percutaneous vertebral augmentation can be used in addition to posterior stabilisation. The use of an augmentation technique with a bone-filled polyethylene mesh as a stand-alone treatment for traumatic vertebral fractures has not yet been investigated. Methods. In this retrospective study, 17 patients with acute type A3.1 fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine underwent stand-alone augmentation with mesh and allograft bone and were followed up for one year using pain scales and sagittal endplate angles. Results. From before surgery to 12 months after surgery, pain and physical function improved significantly, as indicated by an improvement in the median VAS score and in the median pain and work scale scores. From before to immediately after surgery, all patients showed a significant improvement in mean mono- and bisegmental kyphoses. During the one-year period, there was a significant loss of correction. Conclusions. Based on this data a stand-alone approach with vertebral augmentation with polyethylene mesh and allograft bone is not a suitable therapy option for incomplete burst fractures for a young patient collective.

  2. Augmentative and alternative communication: from qualification to speech, language and hearing science clinical practice

    Carla Ciceri Cesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to investigate the qualification of the speech language and hearing therapists and their clinical performance with Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Methods: a descriptive, transversal, individual and contemporary study. Data were collected through a questionnaire, filled by twenty-four speech therapists, selected by a convenience sample. Content analysis was chosen for data study. Results: regarding access to the information media, all speech therapists in the sample presented the initiative to supply the absence of language training with Augmentative and Alternative Communication by different means. Regarding the dual focus on intervention, all speech therapists were favorable to this practice. However, according to experience, they reported resistance from the family, school and other therapists. The results showed two different types of introduction implementation and use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication, predominantly formed by strategies contemplating the pragmatic use of language through the contextualization of significant activities for the user. The other way used the Picture Exchange Communication System. Conclusion: the speech-language and hearing therapists in the present study inserted different interlocutors in the intervention, guided by implicit or explicit linguistic principles, by theoretical frameworks specific to the area of Augmentative and Alternative Communication knowledge, by global neuromotor elements and, finally, by principles of functionality and general wellness.

  3. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 augments myoblast adhesion and fusion through homophilic trans-interactions.

    Pizza, Francis X; Martin, Ryan A; Springer, Evan M; Leffler, Maxwell S; Woelmer, Bryce R; Recker, Isaac J; Leaman, Douglas W


    The overall objective of the study was to identify mechanisms through which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) augments the adhesive and fusogenic properties of myogenic cells. Hypotheses were tested using cultured myoblasts and fibroblasts, which do not constitutively express ICAM-1, and myoblasts and fibroblasts forced to express full length ICAM-1 or a truncated form lacking the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. ICAM-1 mediated myoblast adhesion and fusion were quantified using novel assays and cell mixing experiments. We report that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion to myoblasts and myotubes through homophilic trans-interactions. Such adhesive interactions enhanced levels of active Rac in adherent and fusing myoblasts, as well as triggered lamellipodia, spreading, and fusion of myoblasts through the signaling function of the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. Rac inhibition negated ICAM-1 mediated lamellipodia, spreading, and fusion of myoblasts. The fusogenic property of ICAM-1-ICAM-1 interactions was restricted to myogenic cells, as forced expression of ICAM-1 by fibroblasts did not augment their fusion to ICAM-1+ myoblasts/myotubes. We conclude that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion and fusion through its ability to self-associate and initiate Rac-mediated remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton.

  4. Digital Facial Augmentation for Interactive Entertainment

    Naoto Hieda


    Full Text Available Digital projection technology allows for effective and entertaining spatial augmented reality applications. Leveraging the capabilities of reasonably accurate object tracking using commodity cameras and/or depth sensors to determine the 3D position and pose of objects in real time, it is possible to project dynamic graphical content on arbitrary surfaces, such as a person’s face. Coupling these capabilities with a simple drawing application, participants can have the experience of "painting" on someone’s face, or even on their own, by observing the projection in a mirror. Similarly, integrating 2D rigid-body, fluid and gravity simulation, one may interact with virtual objects projected on their own face or body.

  5. Augmented reality. Fundamentals and nuclear related applications

    Ishii, Hirotake


    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) has attracted considerable interest from both academia and industry. Virtual Reality enables users to interact only with virtual objects in a virtual environment, but AR enables users to interact with both virtual objects and real objects in the real world. This feature supports application of AR to various fields such as education, driving, entertainment, and navigation. Especially, by application of AR to support workers in nuclear power plants, it is expected that working time and human error can be decreased. However, many problems remain unsolved to apply AR to real fields. In this lecture note, fundamental knowledge of AR is presented first including the overview of elemental technologies to realize AR. Then various AR applications to nuclear fields are described. Finally, future prospects are given. (author)

  6. Out of the Cube: Augmented Rubik's Cube

    Oriel Bergig


    Full Text Available Computer gaming habits have a tendency to evolve with technology, the best being ones that immerse both our imagination and intellect. Here, we describe a new game platform, an Augmented Reality Rubik's cube. The cube acts simultaneously as both the controller and the game board. Gameplay is controlled by the cube, and game assets are rendered on top of it. Shuffling and tilting operations on the cube are mapped to game interaction. We discuss the game design decisions involved in developing a game for this platform, as well as the technological challenges in implementing it. Ultimately, we describe two games and discuss the conclusions of an informal user study based on those games.

  7. Augmented Reality: Advances in Diagnostic Imaging

    David B. Douglas


    Full Text Available In recent years, advances in medical imaging have provided opportunities for enhanced diagnosis and characterization of diseases including cancer. The improved spatial resolution provides outstanding detail of intricate anatomical structures, but has challenged physicians on how to effectively and efficiently review the extremely large datasets of over 1000 images. Standard volume rendering attempts to tackle this problem as it provides a display of 3D information on a flat 2D screen, but it lacks depth perception and has poor human–machine interface (HMI. Most recently, Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality (AR/VR with depth 3-dimensional (D3D imaging provides depth perception through binocular vision, head tracking for improved HMI and other key AR features. In this article, we will discuss current and future medical applications of AR including assessing breast cancer. We contend that leveraging AR technology may enhance diagnosis, save cost and improve patient care.

  8. Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with Lightning Information

    Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; Hsu, Kuo-Lin [University of California, Irvine; Behrangi, Ali [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)


    We have used lightning information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located lightning data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the lightning information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.

  9. A ''quadratized'' augmented plane wave method

    Smrcka, L.


    The exact radial solution inside the muffin-tin sphere is replaced by its Taylor expansion with respect to the energy, truncated after the quadratic term. Making use of it the energy independent augmented plane waves are formed which lead to the secular equations linear in energy. The method resembles the currently used linearized APW method but yields higher accuracy. The analysis of solution inside one muffin-tin sphere shows that the eigenvalue error is proportional to (E-E 0 ) 6 as compared with (E-E 0 ) 4 for LAPW. The error of eigenfunctions is (E-E 0 ) 3 ((E-E 0 ) 2 for LAPW). These conclusions are confirmed by direct numerical calculation of band structure of Cu and Al. (author)

  10. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    Martiny, Klaus


    Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition......, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...... open psychiatric wards. Only a few patients were re-cruited through advertisements (in the PEMF and Chronos studies). Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria were major depression according to the DSM-IV, including a depressive episode as part of a bipolar disorder. For the PEMF study, treatment...

  11. [Penile augmentation using acellular dermal matrix].

    Zhang, Jin-ming; Cui, Yong-yan; Pan, Shu-juan; Liang, Wei-qiang; Chen, Xiao-xuan


    Penile enhancement was performed using acellular dermal matrix. Multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix were placed underneath the penile skin to enlarge its girth. Since March 2002, penile augmentation has been performed on 12 cases using acellular dermal matrix. Postoperatively all the patients had a 1.3-3.1 cm (2.6 cm in average) increase in penile girth in a flaccid state. The penis had normal appearance and feeling without contour deformities. All patients gained sexual ability 3 months after the operation. One had a delayed wound healing due to tight dressing, which was repaired with a scrotal skin flap. Penile enlargement by implantation of multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix was a safe and effective operation. This method can be performed in an outpatient ambulatory setting. The advantages of the acellular dermal matrix over the autogenous dermal fat grafts are elimination of donor site injury and scar and significant shortening of operation time.

  12. Stereoscopic augmented reality for laparoscopic surgery.

    Kang, Xin; Azizian, Mahdi; Wilson, Emmanuel; Wu, Kyle; Martin, Aaron D; Kane, Timothy D; Peters, Craig A; Cleary, Kevin; Shekhar, Raj


    Conventional laparoscopes provide a flat representation of the three-dimensional (3D) operating field and are incapable of visualizing internal structures located beneath visible organ surfaces. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images are difficult to fuse in real time with laparoscopic views due to the deformable nature of soft-tissue organs. Utilizing emerging camera technology, we have developed a real-time stereoscopic augmented-reality (AR) system for laparoscopic surgery by merging live laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) with stereoscopic video. The system creates two new visual cues: (1) perception of true depth with improved understanding of 3D spatial relationships among anatomical structures, and (2) visualization of critical internal structures along with a more comprehensive visualization of the operating field. The stereoscopic AR system has been designed for near-term clinical translation with seamless integration into the existing surgical workflow. It is composed of a stereoscopic vision system, a LUS system, and an optical tracker. Specialized software processes streams of imaging data from the tracked devices and registers those in real time. The resulting two ultrasound-augmented video streams (one for the left and one for the right eye) give a live stereoscopic AR view of the operating field. The team conducted a series of stereoscopic AR interrogations of the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and kidneys in two swine. The preclinical studies demonstrated the feasibility of the stereoscopic AR system during in vivo procedures. Major internal structures could be easily identified. The system exhibited unobservable latency with acceptable image-to-video registration accuracy. We presented the first in vivo use of a complete system with stereoscopic AR visualization capability. This new capability introduces new visual cues and enhances visualization of the surgical anatomy. The system shows promise to improve the precision and

  13. Augmented reality in neurosurgery: a systematic review.

    Meola, Antonio; Cutolo, Fabrizio; Carbone, Marina; Cagnazzo, Federico; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo


    Neuronavigation has become an essential neurosurgical tool in pursuing minimal invasiveness and maximal safety, even though it has several technical limitations. Augmented reality (AR) neuronavigation is a significant advance, providing a real-time updated 3D virtual model of anatomical details, overlaid on the real surgical field. Currently, only a few AR systems have been tested in a clinical setting. The aim is to review such devices. We performed a PubMed search of reports restricted to human studies of in vivo applications of AR in any neurosurgical procedure using the search terms "Augmented reality" and "Neurosurgery." Eligibility assessment was performed independently by two reviewers in an unblinded standardized manner. The systems were qualitatively evaluated on the basis of the following: neurosurgical subspecialty of application, pathology of treated lesions and lesion locations, real data source, virtual data source, tracking modality, registration technique, visualization processing, display type, and perception location. Eighteen studies were included during the period 1996 to September 30, 2015. The AR systems were grouped by the real data source: microscope (8), hand- or head-held cameras (4), direct patient view (2), endoscope (1), and X-ray fluoroscopy (1) head-mounted display (1). A total of 195 lesions were treated: 75 (38.46 %) were neoplastic, 77 (39.48 %) neurovascular, and 1 (0.51 %) hydrocephalus, and 42 (21.53 %) were undetermined. Current literature confirms that AR is a reliable and versatile tool when performing minimally invasive approaches in a wide range of neurosurgical diseases, although prospective randomized studies are not yet available and technical improvements are needed.

  14. Augmented reality in a tumor resection model.

    Chauvet, Pauline; Collins, Toby; Debize, Clement; Novais-Gameiro, Lorraine; Pereira, Bruno; Bartoli, Adrien; Canis, Michel; Bourdel, Nicolas


    Augmented Reality (AR) guidance is a technology that allows a surgeon to see sub-surface structures, by overlaying pre-operative imaging data on a live laparoscopic video. Our objectives were to evaluate a state-of-the-art AR guidance system in a tumor surgical resection model, comparing the accuracy of the resection with and without the system. Our system has three phases. Phase 1: using the MRI images, the kidney's and pseudotumor's surfaces are segmented to construct a 3D model. Phase 2: the intra-operative 3D model of the kidney is computed. Phase 3: the pre-operative and intra-operative models are registered, and the laparoscopic view is augmented with the pre-operative data. We performed a prospective experimental study on ex vivo porcine kidneys. Alginate was injected into the parenchyma to create pseudotumors measuring 4-10 mm. The kidneys were then analyzed by MRI. Next, the kidneys were placed into pelvictrainers, and the pseudotumors were laparoscopically resected. The AR guidance system allows the surgeon to see tumors and margins using classical laparoscopic instruments, and a classical screen. The resection margins were measured microscopically to evaluate the accuracy of resection. Ninety tumors were segmented: 28 were used to optimize the AR software, and 62 were used to randomly compare surgical resection: 29 tumors were resected using AR and 33 without AR. The analysis of our pathological results showed 4 failures (tumor with positive margins) (13.8%) in the AR group, and 10 (30.3%) in the Non-AR group. There was no complete miss in the AR group, while there were 4 complete misses in the non-AR group. In total, 14 (42.4%) tumors were completely missed or had a positive margin in the non-AR group. Our AR system enhances the accuracy of surgical resection, particularly for small tumors. Crucial information such as resection margins and vascularization could also be displayed.

  15. Googles Augmented-Reality-Game "Ingress"

    Karl H. Stingeder


    Full Text Available Das an das "Geocoaching"-Spielprinzip erinnernde Augmented-­Reality-Game "Ingress" ist auf allen mit Android-Betriebssystem ausgestatteten Smartphones spielbar. Das Alleinstellungsmerkmal des Spiels ist gleich­zeitig auch das beste Patent-Rezept für bzw. gegen notorisches "Couch-Potato-ing": Das Game-Design des "Draußenspiels" erfordert jedoch stets die physische Anwesenheit der SpielerInnen am realen Ort des Geschehens, meist touristisch attraktive Sehenswürdigkeiten und architektonisch markante Plätze. Sobald "Ingress" per App am Smart­phone gestartet wird, stehen Interaktionen und Machtverhältnisse auf dem Handy-Display im Dreh- und Angelpunkt des Geschehens. Die Spielgrafik ist auf das Wesentliche reduziert und erinnert an die Optik von Videospielen der 80er Jahre. "Ingress" im Allgemeinen sowie "Magnus13", die erste von Google organisierte Fan-Veranstaltung Österreichs mit mehreren Hundert TeilnehmerInnen und ist mit einer "digitalen Schnitzeljagd" vergleichbar: Gemeinsam ist der klassischen "Schnitzeljagd" und dem digitalen "Schere-Schein-Papier" Prinzip von "Ingress" die tragende Rolle des im Spiel entstehenden Gemeinschaftsgefühls, welche in einer hohen Langzeitmotivation mündet. Trotz aller Euphorie, ob des unkonventionellen Augmented-Reality-Spielkonzepts und des in Folge der sozialen Dynamik außergewöhnlichen Sucht­potentials, ist angesichts von Edward Snowden und vielfältiger NSA-Abhörmaßnahmen, eine gesunde Portion Skepsis angebracht: Welchen Zweck erfüllt "Ingress"? Gibt es ein verhülltes "Mittel zum Zweck"? Welche Gefahren bestehen mit einer systematischen Auswertung des umfangreichen, ortsrelevanten Daten-Sammelsuriums? "Ingress" verdeutlicht trotz aller Risiken den soziokulturellen Bedeutungswandel des digitalen Spiels: Spiele per se und das Spiel als soziale Interaktion sind aktuell dabei, alle Bereiche unseres Lebens zu erfassen.

  16. Caffeine Sodium Benzoate for Electroconvulsive Therapy Augmentation.

    Bozymski, Kevin M; Potter, Teresa G; Venkatachalam, Vasu; Pandurangi, Ananda K; Crouse, Ericka L


    Because of an ongoing manufacturer shortage of injectable caffeine sodium benzoate (CSB), patients at our health system were given CSB compounded in-house to increase seizure response during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate its effectiveness and safety as an ECT augmentation agent. Medical records of patients who received compounded CSB at Virginia Commonwealth University Health System were reviewed to identify adults receiving it as part of an index ECT treatment course between June 2012 and December 2016. The primary outcome was change in electroencephalogram seizure duration from pre-caffeine session to initial caffeine session. Data were also collected on demographics, motor seizure duration, maximum heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and concurrent medication use for these sessions and the last caffeine session. Seven-one patients were included in the study, predominantly white females with a mean age of 58.6 years. The most common indication for ECT was major depressive disorder resistant to pharmacotherapy (71.8%), followed by catatonia associated with another mental disorder (19.7%). Electroencephalogram seizure duration increased by 24.1 seconds on average with first CSB use (P < 0.0001), allowing 24 more patients overall to achieve goal of at least 30 seconds (P < 0.0001). No clinically significant changes in maximum heart rate or mean arterial pressure were observed, nor did any patients require an abortive agent for prolonged seizure. Five patients (7%) discontinued CSB prematurely: 4 related to adverse effects and 1 secondary to ineffectiveness. We confirm results of prior studies of the utility of CSB and add that compounded CSB is effective for ECT augmentation, maintaining effectiveness throughout the index course with minimal safety concerns.

  17. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  18. A Prototype of Tropospheric Delay Correction in L1-SAIF Augmentation

    Takeichi, Noboru; Sakai, Takeyasu; Fukushima, Sounosuke; Ito, Ken

    L1-SAIF signal is one of the navigation signals of Quasi-Zenith Satellite System, which provides an augmentation function for mobile users in Japan. This paper presents the detail of the tropospheric delay correction in L1-SAIF augmentation. The tropospheric delay correction information is generated at the ground station using the data collected at GEONET (GPS Earth Observation NETwork) stations. The correction message contains the information of the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) values at 105 Tropospheric Grid Points (TGP) in the experiment area. From this message a mobile user can acquire the ZTD value at some neighboring TGPs, and estimate the local ZTD value accurately by using a suitable ZTD model function. Only 3 L1-SAIF messages are necessary to provide all of the tropospheric correction information. Several investigations using the actual data observed at many GEONET stations overall Japan have proved that it is possible to achieve the correction accuracy of 13.2mm (rms).

  19. Augmenting a Child's Reality: Using Educational Tablet Technology

    Tanner, Patricia; Karas, Carly; Schofield, Damian


    This study investigates the classroom integration of an innovative technology, augmented reality. Although the process of adding new technologies into a classroom setting can be daunting, the concept of augmented reality has demonstrated the ability to educate students and to assist with their comprehension of a procedural task. One half of the…

  20. Potential Use of Augmented Reality in LIS Education

    Wójcik, Magdalena


    The subject of this article is the use of augmented reality technology in library and information science education. The aim is to determine the scope and potential uses of augmented reality in the education of information professionals. In order to determine the scope and forms of potential use of AR technology in LIS education a two-step…

  1. Augmented Reality Learning Experiences: Survey of Prototype Design and Evaluation

    Santos, Marc Ericson C.; Chen, Angie; Taketomi, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Miyazaki, Jun; Kato, Hirokazu


    Augmented reality (AR) technology is mature for creating learning experiences for K-12 (pre-school, grade school, and high school) educational settings. We reviewed the applications intended to complement traditional curriculum materials for K-12. We found 87 research articles on augmented reality learning experiences (ARLEs) in the IEEE Xplore…

  2. The Local Games Lab ABQ: Homegrown Augmented Reality

    Holden, Christopher


    Experiments in the use of augmented reality games formerly required extensive material resources and expertise to implement above and beyond what might be possible within the usual educational contexts. Currently, the more common availability of hardware in these contexts and the existence of easy-to-use, general purpose augmented reality design…

  3. Routine sensor-augmented pump therapy in type 1 diabetes

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Scaramuzza, Andrea; Bratina, Natasa


    Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.......Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia....

  4. Augmented Reality, the Future of Contextual Mobile Learning

    Sungkur, Roopesh Kevin; Panchoo, Akshay; Bhoyroo, Nitisha Kirtee


    Purpose: This study aims to show the relevance of augmented reality (AR) in mobile learning for the 21st century. With AR, any real-world environment can be augmented by providing users with accurate digital overlays. AR is a promising technology that has the potential to encourage learners to explore learning materials from a totally new…

  5. Sensor-augmented pump therapy at 36 months

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten


    This follow-up study investigates the metabolic and psychosocial effects of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes 36 months after therapy start.......This follow-up study investigates the metabolic and psychosocial effects of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes 36 months after therapy start....


    Mihaela Filofteia TUTUNEA


    Full Text Available Technologies for augmenting reality have been consolidated during the last decades, extending their applicability to more and more socio-economic areas. The rapid evolution of mobile technologies and virtualization of the digital environment have created auspicious conditions for massive extension and implementation of solutions for augmenting reality at global level. Experience has already shown that augmented reality, alongside virtual reality can offer very important support solutions in modeling the real world with the aim of extending the human capabilities of perception, allowing the opening of a new phase in the world’s socio-economic development. Starting from the evident tendencies that have manifested at global level in the development and implementation of augmented reality technologies, the paper begins with the presentation of the most important aspects related to augmented reality technologies, highlighting their main areas of application, and presents the study realized for identifying the level of knowledge, use and effective experimentation of augmented reality applications by mobile device users. The results of this study could be very useful to the socio-economic environment, starting with the field of research, continuing with developers and providers of augmented reality solutions, manufacturers and providers of hardware infrastructure support for augmented reality solutions and systems, final users of these solutions, both individuals and businesses, and experimenting digital communities.

  7. Pose estimation for mobile devices and augmented reality

    Caarls, J.


    In this thesis we introduce the reader to the field of Augmented Reality (AR) and describe aspects of an AR system. We show the current uses in treatment of phobias, games, sports and industry. We present the challenges for Optical See-Through Augmented Reality in which the real world is perceived

  8. Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.


    Augmentative forms of biological control, where natural enemies are periodically introduced, are applied over large areas in various cropping systems in Latin America. About 25% of the world area under augmentative control is situated in this region. Well-known examples are the use of species of the

  9. International workshop on multimodal virtual and augmented reality (workshop summary)

    Hürst, W.O.; Iwai, Daisuke; Balakrishnan, Prabhakaran


    Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are expected by many to become the next wave of computing with significant impacts on our daily lives. Motivated by this, we organized a workshop on “Multimodal Virtual and Augmented Reality (MVAR)” at the 18th ACM International Conference on

  10. Operational Data Augmentation in Classifying Single Aerial Images of Animals

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Smit, Rik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco


    In deep learning, data augmentation is important to increase the amount of training images to obtain higher classification accuracies. Most data-augmentation methods adopt the use of the following techniques: cropping, mirroring, color casting, scaling and rotation for creating additional training

  11. A Systematic Review of Pliance, Tracking, and Augmenting

    Kissi, Ama; Hughes, Sean; Mertens, Gaëtan; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; De Houwer, Jan; Crombez, Geert

    Within relational frame theory, a distinction has been made between three types of rule-governed behavior known as pliance, tracking, and augmenting. This review examined whether there is support for the concepts of pliance, tracking, and augmenting in the experimental analysis of behavior; whether

  12. Complications 15 years after breast augmentation with polyacrylamide

    Habib M. Ghasemi


    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG has been used as an injectable, permanent filler for soft-tissue augmentation for more than two decades. Several complications have been reported worldwide. In this case report, we present a woman with long-term complications 15 years after bilateral breast augmentation with PAAG injections.

  13. Augmentation of Cognition and Perception Through Advanced Synthetic Vision Technology

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Williams, Steve P.; McNabb, Jennifer


    Synthetic Vision System technology augments reality and creates a virtual visual meteorological condition that extends a pilot's cognitive and perceptual capabilities during flight operations when outside visibility is restricted. The paper describes the NASA Synthetic Vision System for commercial aviation with an emphasis on how the technology achieves Augmented Cognition objectives.

  14. Buspirone is an effective augmenting agent of serotonin selective re ...

    Results. Patients had previously failed mUltiple trials of antidepressants, often including lithium and/or thyroid augmentation, as well as, in 12 cases, electroconvulsive therapy. However, augmentation of an SSRI With buspirone led to a rapid and significant improvement in depression in. 6 of 14 (43%) patients. Conclusion.

  15. Applying Augmented Reality in practical classes for engineering students

    Bazarov, S. E.; Kholodilin, I. Yu; Nesterov, A. S.; Sokhina, A. V.


    In this article the Augmented Reality application for teaching engineering students of electrical and technological specialties is introduced. In order to increase the motivation for learning and the independence of students, new practical guidelines on Augmented Reality were developed in the application to practical classes. During the application development, the authors used software such as Unity 3D and Vuforia. The Augmented Reality content consists of 3D-models, images and animations, which are superimposed on real objects, helping students to study specific tasks. A user who has a smartphone, a tablet PC, or Augmented Reality glasses can visualize on-screen virtual objects added to a real environment. Having analyzed the current situation in higher education: the learner’s interest in studying, their satisfaction with the educational process, and the impact of the Augmented Reality application on students, a questionnaire was developed and offered to students; the study involved 24 learners.

  16. Augmented Reality in Tourism - Research and Applications Overview

    Anabel L. Kečkeš


    Full Text Available Augmented reality is a complex interdisciplinary field utilizing information technologies in diverse areas such as medicine, education, architecture, industry, tourism and others, augmenting the real-time, real-world view with additional superimposed information in chosen format(s. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of both research and application aspects of using augmented reality technologies in tourism domain. While most research, and especially applications, are dealing with and developing visual-based augmented reality systems, there is a relevant amount of research discussing the utilization of other human senses such as tactioception and audioception, both being discussed within this work. A comprehensive literature analysis within this paper resulted with the identification, compilation and categorization of the key factors having the most relevant impact on the success of utilization of augmented technology in tourism domain.

  17. Augmented Reality-Guided Lumbar Facet Joint Injections.

    Agten, Christoph A; Dennler, Cyrill; Rosskopf, Andrea B; Jaberg, Laurenz; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Farshad, Mazda


    The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and accuracy of augmented reality-guided lumbar facet joint injections. A spine phantom completely embedded in hardened opaque agar with 3 ring markers was built. A 3-dimensional model of the phantom was uploaded to an augmented reality headset (Microsoft HoloLens). Two radiologists independently performed 20 augmented reality-guided and 20 computed tomography (CT)-guided facet joint injections each: for each augmented reality-guided injection, the hologram was manually aligned with the phantom container using the ring markers. The radiologists targeted the virtual facet joint and tried to place the needle tip in the holographic joint space. Computed tomography was performed after each needle placement to document final needle tip position. Time needed from grabbing the needle to final needle placement was measured for each simulated injection. An independent radiologist rated images of all needle placements in a randomized order blinded to modality (augmented reality vs CT) and performer as perfect, acceptable, incorrect, or unsafe. Accuracy and time to place needles were compared between augmented reality-guided and CT-guided facet joint injections. In total, 39/40 (97.5%) of augmented reality-guided needle placements were either perfect or acceptable compared with 40/40 (100%) CT-guided needle placements (P = 0.5). One augmented reality-guided injection missed the facet joint space by 2 mm. No unsafe needle placements occurred. Time to final needle placement was substantially faster with augmented reality guidance (mean 14 ± 6 seconds vs 39 ± 15 seconds, P Augmented reality-guided facet joint injections are feasible and accurate without potentially harmful needle placement in an experimental setting.

  18. An augmented reality system for upper-limb post-stroke motor rehabilitation: a feasibility study.

    Assis, Gilda Aparecida de; Corrêa, Ana Grasielle Dionísio; Martins, Maria Bernardete Rodrigues; Pedrozo, Wendel Goes; Lopes, Roseli de Deus


    To determine the clinical feasibility of a system based on augmented reality for upper-limb (UL) motor rehabilitation of stroke participants. A physiotherapist instructed the participants to accomplish tasks in augmented reality environment, where they could see themselves and their surroundings, as in a mirror. Two case studies were conducted. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. The first study evaluated the UL motor function using Fugl-Meyer scale. Data were compared using non-parametric sign tests and effect size. The second study used the gain of motion range of shoulder flexion and abduction assessed by computerized biophotogrammetry. At a significance level of 5%, Fugl-Meyer scores suggested a trend for greater UL motor improvement in the augmented reality group than in the other. Moreover, effect size value 0.86 suggested high practical significance for UL motor rehabilitation using the augmented reality system. System provided promising results for UL motor rehabilitation, since enhancements have been observed in the shoulder range of motion and speed. Implications for Rehabilitation Gain of range of motion of flexion and abduction of the shoulder of post-stroke patients can be achieved through an augmented reality system containing exercises to promote the mental practice. NeuroR system provides a mental practice method combined with visual feedback for motor rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients, giving the illusion of injured upper-limb (UL) movements while the affected UL is resting. Its application is feasible and safe. This system can be used to improve UL rehabilitation, an additional treatment past the traditional period of the stroke patient hospitalization and rehabilitation.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU augments neutrophil transepithelial migration.

    Pazos, Michael A; Lanter, Bernard B; Yonker, Lael M; Eaton, Alex D; Pirzai, Waheed; Gronert, Karsten; Bonventre, Joseph V; Hurley, Bryan P


    Excessive neutrophil infiltration of the lungs is a common contributor to immune-related pathology in many pulmonary disease states. In response to pathogenic infection, airway epithelial cells produce hepoxilin A3 (HXA3), initiating neutrophil transepithelial migration. Migrated neutrophils amplify this recruitment by producing a secondary gradient of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We sought to determine whether this two-step eicosanoid chemoattractant mechanism could be exploited by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ExoU, a P. aeruginosa cytotoxin, exhibits phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in eukaryotic hosts, an enzyme critical for generation of certain eicosanoids. Using in vitro and in vivo models of neutrophil transepithelial migration, we evaluated the impact of ExoU expression on eicosanoid generation and function. We conclude that ExoU, by virtue of its PLA2 activity, augments and compensates for endogenous host neutrophil cPLA2α function, leading to enhanced transepithelial migration. This suggests that ExoU expression in P. aeruginosa can circumvent immune regulation at key signaling checkpoints in the neutrophil, resulting in exacerbated neutrophil recruitment.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU augments neutrophil transepithelial migration.

    Michael A Pazos


    Full Text Available Excessive neutrophil infiltration of the lungs is a common contributor to immune-related pathology in many pulmonary disease states. In response to pathogenic infection, airway epithelial cells produce hepoxilin A3 (HXA3, initiating neutrophil transepithelial migration. Migrated neutrophils amplify this recruitment by producing a secondary gradient of leukotriene B4 (LTB4. We sought to determine whether this two-step eicosanoid chemoattractant mechanism could be exploited by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ExoU, a P. aeruginosa cytotoxin, exhibits phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity in eukaryotic hosts, an enzyme critical for generation of certain eicosanoids. Using in vitro and in vivo models of neutrophil transepithelial migration, we evaluated the impact of ExoU expression on eicosanoid generation and function. We conclude that ExoU, by virtue of its PLA2 activity, augments and compensates for endogenous host neutrophil cPLA2α function, leading to enhanced transepithelial migration. This suggests that ExoU expression in P. aeruginosa can circumvent immune regulation at key signaling checkpoints in the neutrophil, resulting in exacerbated neutrophil recruitment.

  1. Augmented reality usage for prototyping speed up

    Jiří Šťastný


    Full Text Available The integral part of production process in many companies is prototyping. Although, these companies commonly have high quality visualization tools (large screen projections, virtual reality, prototyping was never abandoned. There is a number of reasons. The most important is the possibility of model observation from any angle without any physical constraints and its haptic feedback. The interactivity of model adjustments is important as well. The direct work with the model allows the designers to focus on the creative process more than work with a computer. There is still a problem with a difficult adjustability of the model. More significant changes demand completely new prototype or at least longer time for its realization.The first part of the article describes our approach for solution of this problem by means of Augmented Reality. The merging of the real world model and digital objects allows streamline the work with the model and speed up the whole production phase significantly. The main advantage of augmented reality is the possibility of direct manipulation with the scene using a portable digital camera. Also adding digital objects into the scene could be done using identification markers placed on the surface of the model. Therefore it is not necessary to work with special input devices and lose the contact with the real world model. Adjustments are done directly on the model. The key problem of outlined solution is the ability of identification of an object within the camera picture and its replacement with the digital object. The second part of the article is focused especially on the identification of exact position and orientation of the marker within the picture. The identification marker is generalized into the triple of points which represents a general plane in space. There is discussed the space identification of these points and the description of representation of their position and orientation be means of transformation

  2. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham


    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  3. [Polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis].

    Sun, H L; Li, C D; Yang, Z C; Yi, X D; Liu, H; Lu, H L; Li, H; Wang, Y


    To describe the application of polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis. Observation group included 14 cases of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis received polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws from November 2014 to July 2015, control group included 12 cases of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis received polymethylmethacrylate augmentation with traditional pedicle screws.The operation time, blood loss, number of pedicle screws and number of augmented pedicle screws in the two groups were compared. The bone cement leakage and pulmonary bone cement embolism in the two groups were also compared. The fusion rate and pedicle screws loosening by lumbar X ray and dynamic X ray were evaluated. The clinical results were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) of pain on lumbar and lower limbers, lumbar Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores (JOA), Prolo functional scores and Oswestry disability (ODI) scores. Differences of operation time and blood loss in the two groups were not statistically significant. The average number of pedicle screws was 9.9±4.7 and the average number of augmented pedicle screws was 5.9±2.6 in observation group while the average number of pedicle screws was 7.1±2.8 and the average number of augmented pedicle screws was 3.0±1.9 in control group. The ratio of augmented pedicle screws was higher in observation group than in control group (0.69±0.30 vs.0.47±0.30,Pdegenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis was effective, with simple working processes and lower risk of bone cement leakage. The short-term clinical result was good.

  4. Recent Development of Augmented Reality in Surgery: A Review

    Vávra, P.; Zonča, P.; Ihnát, P.; El-Gendi, A.


    Introduction The development augmented reality devices allow physicians to incorporate data visualization into diagnostic and treatment procedures to improve work efficiency, safety, and cost and to enhance surgical training. However, the awareness of possibilities of augmented reality is generally low. This review evaluates whether augmented reality can presently improve the results of surgical procedures. Methods We performed a review of available literature dating from 2010 to November 2016 by searching PubMed and Scopus using the terms “augmented reality” and “surgery.” Results. The initial search yielded 808 studies. After removing duplicates and including only journal articles, a total of 417 studies were identified. By reading of abstracts, 91 relevant studies were chosen to be included. 11 references were gathered by cross-referencing. A total of 102 studies were included in this review. Conclusions The present literature suggest an increasing interest of surgeons regarding employing augmented reality into surgery leading to improved safety and efficacy of surgical procedures. Many studies showed that the performance of newly devised augmented reality systems is comparable to traditional techniques. However, several problems need to be addressed before augmented reality is implemented into the routine practice. PMID:29065604

  5. Recent Development of Augmented Reality in Surgery: A Review

    P. Vávra


    Full Text Available Introduction. The development augmented reality devices allow physicians to incorporate data visualization into diagnostic and treatment procedures to improve work efficiency, safety, and cost and to enhance surgical training. However, the awareness of possibilities of augmented reality is generally low. This review evaluates whether augmented reality can presently improve the results of surgical procedures. Methods. We performed a review of available literature dating from 2010 to November 2016 by searching PubMed and Scopus using the terms “augmented reality” and “surgery.” Results. The initial search yielded 808 studies. After removing duplicates and including only journal articles, a total of 417 studies were identified. By reading of abstracts, 91 relevant studies were chosen to be included. 11 references were gathered by cross-referencing. A total of 102 studies were included in this review. Conclusions. The present literature suggest an increasing interest of surgeons regarding employing augmented reality into surgery leading to improved safety and efficacy of surgical procedures. Many studies showed that the performance of newly devised augmented reality systems is comparable to traditional techniques. However, several problems need to be addressed before augmented reality is implemented into the routine practice.

  6. Hybrid-augmented intelligence:collaboration and cognition

    Nan-ning ZHENG; Zi-yi LIU; Peng-ju REN; Yong-qiang MA; Shi-tao CHEN; Si-yu YU; Jian-ru XUE


    The long-term goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to make machines learn and think like human beings. Due to the high levels of uncertainty and vulnerability in human life and the open-ended nature of problems that humans are facing, no matter how intelligent machines are, they are unable to completely replace humans. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce human cognitive capabilities or human-like cognitive models into AI systems to develop a new form of AI, that is, hybrid-augmented intelligence. This form of AI or machine intelligence is a feasible and important developing model. Hybrid-augmented intelligence can be divided into two basic models:one is human-in-the-loop augmented intelligence with human-computer collaboration, and the other is cognitive computing based augmented intelligence, in which a cognitive model is embedded in the machine learning system. This survey describes a basic framework for human-computer collaborative hybrid-augmented intelligence, and the basic elements of hybrid-augmented intelligence based on cognitive computing. These elements include intuitive reasoning, causal models, evolution of memory and knowledge, especially the role and basic principles of intuitive reasoning for complex problem solving, and the cognitive learning framework for visual scene understanding based on memory and reasoning. Several typical applications of hybrid-augmented intelligence in related fields are given.

  7. Adaptive multimodal interaction in mobile augmented reality: A conceptual framework

    Abidin, Rimaniza Zainal; Arshad, Haslina; Shukri, Saidatul A'isyah Ahmad


    Recently, Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging technology in many mobile applications. Mobile AR was defined as a medium for displaying information merged with the real world environment mapped with augmented reality surrounding in a single view. There are four main types of mobile augmented reality interfaces and one of them are multimodal interfaces. Multimodal interface processes two or more combined user input modes (such as speech, pen, touch, manual gesture, gaze, and head and body movements) in a coordinated manner with multimedia system output. In multimodal interface, many frameworks have been proposed to guide the designer to develop a multimodal applications including in augmented reality environment but there has been little work reviewing the framework of adaptive multimodal interface in mobile augmented reality. The main goal of this study is to propose a conceptual framework to illustrate the adaptive multimodal interface in mobile augmented reality. We reviewed several frameworks that have been proposed in the field of multimodal interfaces, adaptive interface and augmented reality. We analyzed the components in the previous frameworks and measure which can be applied in mobile devices. Our framework can be used as a guide for designers and developer to develop a mobile AR application with an adaptive multimodal interfaces.

  8. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Alberto Sdegno


    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  9. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  10. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique


    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  11. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.


    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  12. HUNT: Scavenger Hunt with Augmented Reality

    Yan Lu


    Full Text Available This project shows a creative approach to the familiar scavenger hunt game. It involved the implementation of an iPhone application, HUNT, with Augmented Reality (AR capability for the users to play the game as well as an administrative website that game organizers can use to create and make available games for users to play. Using the HUNT mobile app, users will first make a selection from a list of games, and they will then be shown a list of objects that they must seek. Once the user finds a correct object and scans it with the built-in camera on the smartphone, the application will attempt to verify if it is the correct object and then display associated multi-media AR content that may include images and videos overlaid on top of real world views. HUNT not only provides entertaining activities within an environment that players can explore, but the AR contents can serve as an educational tool. The project is designed to increase user involvement by using a familiar and enjoyable game as a basis and adding an educational dimension by incorporating AR technology and engaging and interactive multimedia to provide users with facts about the objects that they have located

  13. Augmented Automated Material Accounting Statistics System (AMASS)

    Lumb, R.F.; Messinger, M.; Tingey, F.H.


    This paper describes an extension of the AMASS methodology which was previously presented at the 1981 INMM annual meeting. The main thrust of the current effort is to develop procedures and a computer program for estimating the variance of an Inventory Difference when many sources of variability, other than measurement error, are admitted in the model. Procedures also are included for the estimation of the variances associated with measurement error estimates and their effect on the estimated limit of error of the inventory difference (LEID). The algorithm for the LEID measurement component uncertainty involves the propagated component measurement variance estimates as well as their associated degrees of freedom. The methodology and supporting computer software is referred to as the augmented Automated Material Accounting Statistics System (AMASS). Specifically, AMASS accommodates five source effects. These are: (1) measurement errors (2) known but unmeasured effects (3) measurement adjustment effects (4) unmeasured process hold-up effects (5) residual process variation A major result of this effort is a procedure for determining the effect of bias correction on LEID, properly taking into account all the covariances that exist. This paper briefly describes the basic models that are assumed; some of the estimation procedures consistent with the model; data requirements, emphasizing availability and other practical considerations; discusses implications for bias corrections; and concludes by briefly describing the supporting computer program

  14. Augmenting cognitive architectures to support diagrammatic imagination.

    Chandrasekaran, Balakrishnan; Banerjee, Bonny; Kurup, Unmesh; Lele, Omkar


    Diagrams are a form of spatial representation that supports reasoning and problem solving. Even when diagrams are external, not to mention when there are no external representations, problem solving often calls for internal representations, that is, representations in cognition, of diagrammatic elements and internal perceptions on them. General cognitive architectures--Soar and ACT-R, to name the most prominent--do not have representations and operations to support diagrammatic reasoning. In this article, we examine some requirements for such internal representations and processes in cognitive architectures. We discuss the degree to which DRS, our earlier proposal for such an internal representation for diagrams, meets these requirements. In DRS, the diagrams are not raw images, but a composition of objects that can be individuated and thus symbolized, while, unlike traditional symbols, the referent of the symbol is an object that retains its perceptual essence, namely, its spatiality. This duality provides a way to resolve what anti-imagists thought was a contradiction in mental imagery: the compositionality of mental images that seemed to be unique to symbol systems, and their support of a perceptual experience of images and some types of perception on them. We briefly review the use of DRS to augment Soar and ACT-R with a diagrammatic representation component. We identify issues for further research. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Anal Sphincter Augmentation Using Biological Material.

    Alam, Nasra N; Narang, Sunil K; Köckerling, Ferdinand; Daniels, Ian R; Smart, Neil J


    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of biological materials in the augmentation of the anal sphincter either as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or anal bulking procedure. A systematic search of PubMed was conducted using the search terms "anal bulking agents," "anal sphincter repair," or "overlapping sphincter repair." Five studies using biological material as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or as an anal bulking agent were identified. 122 patients underwent anal bulking with a biological material. Anorectal physiology was conducted in 27 patients and demonstrated deterioration in maximum resting pressure, and no significant change in maximum squeeze increment. Quality of life scores (QoLs) demonstrated improvements at 6 weeks and 6 months, but this had deteriorated at 12 months of follow up. Biological material was used in 23 patients to carry out an anal encirclement procedure. Improvements in QoLs were observed in patients undergoing OSR as well as anal encirclement using biological material. Incontinence episodes decreased to an average of one per week from 8 to 10 preoperatively. Sphincter encirclement with biological material has demonstrated improvements in continence and QoLs in the short term compared to traditional repair alone. Long-term studies are necessary to determine if this effect is sustained. As an anal bulking agent the benefits are short-term.

  16. RAID: a relation-augmented image descriptor

    Guerrero, Paul; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wonka, Peter


    As humans, we regularly interpret scenes based on how objects are related, rather than based on the objects themselves. For example, we see a person riding an object X or a plank bridging two objects. Current methods provide limited support to search for content based on such relations. We present RAID, a relation-augmented image descriptor that supports queries based on inter-region relations. The key idea of our descriptor is to encode region-to-region relations as the spatial distribution of point-to-region relationships between two image regions. RAID allows sketch-based retrieval and requires minimal training data, thus making it suited even for querying uncommon relations. We evaluate the proposed descriptor by querying into large image databases and successfully extract nontrivial images demonstrating complex inter-region relations, which are easily missed or erroneously classified by existing methods. We assess the robustness of RAID on multiple datasets even when the region segmentation is computed automatically or very noisy.

  17. Rotor Design for Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines

    Søren Hjort


    Full Text Available Diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs can increase mass flow through the rotor substantially, but have often failed to fulfill expectations. We address high-performance diffusers, and investigate the design requirements for a DAWT rotor to efficiently convert the available energy to shaft energy. Several factors can induce wake stall scenarios causing significant energy loss. The causality between these stall mechanisms and earlier DAWT failures is discussed. First, a swirled actuator disk CFD code is validated through comparison with results from a far wake swirl corrected blade-element momentum (BEM model, and horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT reference results. Then, power efficiency versus thrust is computed with the swirled actuator disk (AD code for low and high values of tip-speed ratios (TSR, for different centerbodies, and for different spanwise rotor thrust loading distributions. Three different configurations are studied: The bare propeller HAWT, the classical DAWT, and the high-performance multi-element DAWT. In total nearly 400 high-resolution AD runs are generated. These results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that dedicated DAWT rotors can successfully convert the available energy to shaft energy, provided the identified design requirements for swirl and axial loading distributions are satisfied.

  18. Interactive Anatomy-Augmented Virtual Simulation Training.

    Aebersold, Michelle; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Cherara, Leila; Weber, Monica; Khouri, Christina; Levine, Robert; Tait, Alan R


    Traditionally, clinical psychomotor skills are taught through videos and demonstration by faculty which does not allow for the visualization of internal structures and anatomical landmarks that would enhance the learner skill performance. Sophomore and junior nursing students attending a large Midwestern Institution (N=69) participated in this mixed methods study. Students demonstrated their ability to place a nasogastric tube (NGT) after being randomly assigned to usual training (Control group) or an iPad anatomy-augmented virtual simulation training module (AR group). The ability of the participants to demonstrate competence in placing the NGT was assessed using a 17-item competency checklist. After the demonstration, students completed a survey to elicit information about students' level of training, prior experience with NGT placement, satisfaction with the AR technology, and perceptions of AR as a potential teaching tool for clinical skills training. The ability to correctly place the NGT through all the checklist items was statistically significant in the AR group compared with the control group (P = 0.011). Eighty-six percent of participants in the AR group rated AR as superior/far superior to other procedural training programs to which they had been exposed, whereas, only 5.9% of participants in the control group rated the control program as superior/far superior (P < 0.001). Overall the AR module was better received compared with the control group with regards to realism, identifying landmarks, visualization of internal organs, ease of use, usefulness, and promoting learning and understanding.

  19. Augmented Visual Experience of Simulated Solar Phenomena

    Tucker, A. O., IV; Berardino, R. A.; Hahne, D.; Schreurs, B.; Fox, N. J.; Raouafi, N.


    The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission will explore the Sun's corona, studying solar wind, flares and coronal mass ejections. The effects of these phenomena can impact the technology that we use in ways that are not readily apparent, including affecting satellite communications and power grids. Determining the structure and dynamics of corona magnetic fields, tracing the flow of energy that heats the corona, and exploring dusty plasma near the Sun to understand its influence on solar wind and energetic particle formation requires a suite of sensors on board the PSP spacecraft that are engineered to observe specific phenomena. Using models of these sensors and simulated observational data, we can visualize what the PSP spacecraft will "see" during its multiple passes around the Sun. Augmented reality (AR) technologies enable convenient user access to massive data sets. We are developing an application that allows users to experience environmental data from the point of view of the PSP spacecraft in AR using the Microsoft HoloLens. Observational data, including imagery, magnetism, temperature, and density are visualized in 4D within the user's immediate environment. Our application provides an educational tool for comprehending the complex relationships of observational data, which aids in our understanding of the Sun.

  20. Use of radiation maps in augmented reality

    Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Reigstad, Magnus; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Louka, Michael N.; Helgar, Stein; Gustavsen, Morten; Nystad, Espen


    The entrance of small wireless computers opens for application of computers in a number of new areas. In the near future, operators will be able to wear a computer much in the same way as eyeglasses or clothing are worn today. One example of a potentially useful application of this technology is visualisation of radiation. With the augmented reality (AR) technique, combining computer-generated pictures with the real world, information of variation in radiation levels can be presented for field operator working in contaminated areas. Using the AR system prototype developed for the experiment described in this report, information about radiation was presented to the subjects using different sensing modalities. The visual mode was chosen as the main mode and compared to a combination of visual, auditory and haptic presentations. A control group presented with paper-based information about levels of radiation performed the same task as the groups using the AR prototype. The results indicate that the operators' awareness of radiation was the same after using the AR prototype as in the control group. The auditory and haptic information presented seemed to have a positive effect on the operators' radiation awareness. The report discusses the results from the experimental test and from a usability test of the prototype. Based on these results and current technology status in the domain of AR, recommendations for further development are given.

  1. RAID: a relation-augmented image descriptor

    Guerrero, Paul


    As humans, we regularly interpret scenes based on how objects are related, rather than based on the objects themselves. For example, we see a person riding an object X or a plank bridging two objects. Current methods provide limited support to search for content based on such relations. We present RAID, a relation-augmented image descriptor that supports queries based on inter-region relations. The key idea of our descriptor is to encode region-to-region relations as the spatial distribution of point-to-region relationships between two image regions. RAID allows sketch-based retrieval and requires minimal training data, thus making it suited even for querying uncommon relations. We evaluate the proposed descriptor by querying into large image databases and successfully extract nontrivial images demonstrating complex inter-region relations, which are easily missed or erroneously classified by existing methods. We assess the robustness of RAID on multiple datasets even when the region segmentation is computed automatically or very noisy.

  2. Wave Augmented Diffuser for Centrifugal Compressor

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)


    A wave augmented diffuser for a centrifugal compressor surrounds the outlet of an impeller that rotates on a drive shaft having an axis of rotation. The impeller brings flow in in an axial direction and imparts kinetic energy to the flow discharging it in radial and tangential directions. The flow is discharged into a plurality of circumferentially disposed wave chambers. The wave chambers are periodically opened and closed by a rotary valve such that the flow through the diffuser is unsteady. The valve includes a plurality of valve openings that are periodically brought into and out of fluid communication with the wave chambers. When the wave chambers are closed, a reflected compression wave moves upstream towards the diffuser bringing the flow into the wave chamber to rest. This action recovers the kinetic energy from the flow and limits any boundary layer growth. The flow is then discharged in an axial direction through an opening in the valve plate when the valve plate is rotated to an open position. The diffuser thus efficiently raises the static pressure of the fluid and discharges an axially directed flow at a radius that is predominantly below the maximum radius of the diffuser.

  3. Examining Parent Perceptions Regarding the Use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Jones, Felita


    Purpose. This quantitative study examined parent perceptions regarding augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions for their children with autism to determine if, according to parent perceptions, a relationship existed between AAC and functional communication. Those faced with cognitive and developmental delays like autism face…

  4. Spatial augmented reality merging real and virtual worlds

    Bimber, Oliver


    Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real

  5. Adenoma-carcinoma Sequence in the Bladder After Augmentation Cystoplasty

    Akihiro Naito


    Full Text Available We present a case of a 64-year-old woman showing multistep progression from adenoma to adenocarcinoma in the bladder 46 years after augmentation ileocystoplasty. She underwent augmentation ileocystoplasty for tuberculous contracted bladder at 18 years. After 44 years, tubulovillous adenomas were found and resected at the ileovesical anastomosis site. After 2 more years, bladder tumors recurred and revealed adenocarcinomas. Finally, radical cystectomy was required because of frequent recurrence and tumor extensiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating adenoma-carcinoma sequence histopathologically in the bladder after augmentation cystoplasty, indicating multistep carcinogenesis similar to intestinal carcinogenesis.

  6. Intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy: systematic review

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Johansen, Helle Krogh


    We reviewed the benefits and harms of augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and lung disease. We searched for randomised trials comparing augmentation therapy with placebo or no treatment in PubMed and ClinicalTrials (7 January 2010). Two...... (difference 1.14 g/l; 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 2.14; p = 0.03) over the total course of the trials. Augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin cannot be recommended in view of the lack of evidence of clinical benefit and the cost of treatment....

  7. Deterministic Local Sensitivity Analysis of Augmented Systems - I: Theory

    Cacuci, Dan G.; Ionescu-Bujor, Mihaela


    This work provides the theoretical foundation for the modular implementation of the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure (ASAP) for large-scale simulation systems. The implementation of the ASAP commences with a selected code module and then proceeds by augmenting the size of the adjoint sensitivity system, module by module, until the entire system is completed. Notably, the adjoint sensitivity system for the augmented system can often be solved by using the same numerical methods used for solving the original, nonaugmented adjoint system, particularly when the matrix representation of the adjoint operator for the augmented system can be inverted by partitioning

  8. Augmented reality as a design tool for mobile interfaces

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Nielsen, Christina


    applications derived from the classification of augmented reality interfaces. The focus on physical interaction with objects of work and with the mobile device provides us with a range of interaction styles, based on e.g. gestures and manipulation of objects. Furthermore, issues of transparency and directness......This paper challenges user interface paradigms for mobile devices, by using the technical classification of augmented reality interfaces as a thinking tool to develop ideas for interaction with mobile devices. The paper presents future work scenarios from a wastewater treatment plant embodying PDA...... are addressed. The future scenarios indicate that the concepts of augmented reality support solving context problems in mobile design....

  9. Research on Design of MUH Attitude Stability Augmentation Control System

    Fan, Shigang


    Attitude stability augmentation control system with a lower cost need to be designed so that MUH (Mini Unmanned Helicopter) can adapt to different types of geographic environment and fly steadily although the weather may be bad. Attitude feedback was calculated mainly by filtering estimation within attitude acquisition module in this system. Stability augmentation can be improved mainly by PI. This paper will depict running principle and designing process of MUH attitude stability augmentation control system and algorithm that is considered as an important part in this system.


    Yury A. Kravchenko


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the concept and technology of augmented reality, the rationale given the relevance and timeliness of its use to support educational processes. Paper is a survey and study of the possibility of using augmented reality technology in education. Architecture is proposed and constructed algorithms of the software system management QR-codes media objects. An overview of the features and uses of augmented reality technology to support educational processes is displayed, as an option of a new form of visual demonstration of complex objects, models and processes. 

  11. Introduction to Mobile Augmented Reality Development in Unity

    Jacob W. Greene


    Full Text Available This lesson serves as an introduction to creating mobile augmented reality applications. Augmented reality (AR can be defined as the overlaying of digital content (images, video, text, sound, etc. onto physical objects or locations, and it is typically experienced by looking through the camera lens of an electronic device such as a smartphone, tablet, or optical head-mounted display (e.g. Microsoft Hololens. Although AR is a cutting-edge, complex technology, there are a number of user-friendly platforms that allow people with no previous coding experience to create compelling augmented reality experiences.

  12. Feasibility and safety of augmented reality-assisted urological surgery using smartglass.

    Borgmann, H; Rodríguez Socarrás, M; Salem, J; Tsaur, I; Gomez Rivas, J; Barret, E; Tortolero, L


    To assess the feasibility, safety and usefulness of augmented reality-assisted urological surgery using smartglass (SG). Seven urological surgeons (3 board urologists and 4 urology residents) performed augmented reality-assisted urological surgery using SG for 10 different types of operations and a total of 31 urological operations. Feasibility was assessed using technical metadata (number of photographs taken/number of videos recorded/video time recorded) and structured interviews with the urologists on their use of SG. Safety was evaluated by recording complications and grading according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Usefulness of SG for urological surgery was queried in structured interviews and in a survey. The implementation of SG use during urological surgery was feasible with no intrinsic (technical defect) or extrinsic (inability to control the SG function) obstacles being observed. SG use was safe as no grade 3-5 complications occurred for the series of 31 urological surgeries of different complexities. Technical applications of SG included taking photographs/recording videos for teaching and documentation, hands-free teleconsultation, reviewing patients' medical records and images and searching the internet for health information. Overall usefulness of SG for urological surgery was rated as very high by 43 % and high by 29 % of surgeons. Augmented reality-assisted urological surgery using SG is both feasible and safe and also provides several useful functions for urological surgeons. Further developments and investigations are required in the near future to harvest the great potential of this exciting technology for urological surgery.

  13. In-Situ Visualization for Cultural Heritage Sites using Novel Augmented Reality Technologies

    Didier Stricker


    Full Text Available Mobile Augmented Reality is an ideal technology for presenting information in an attractive, comprehensive and personalized way to visitors of cultural heritage sites. One of the pioneer projects in this area was certainly the European project ArcheoGuide (IST-1999-11306 which developed and evaluated Augmented Reality (AR at a very early stage. Many progresses have been done since then, and novel devices and algorithms offer novel possibilities and functionalities. In this paper we present current research work and discuss different approaches of Mobile AR for cultural heritage. Since this area is very large we focus on the visual aspects of such technologies, namely tracking and computer vision, as well as visualization.

  14. More Than ALICE: Development of an augmented reality mobile application for the ALICE detector

    Ouellette, Jeff


    More Than ALICE is a mobile application for iOS and Android built in the Unity Engine. This project concerns the development of the second edition of the application, which is meant to completely succeed the original version built in 2014. The purpose of the application is to describe the various components of the ALICE detector and to overlay live collisions to increase public awareness for the research goals of the ALICE collaboration. The application provides an augmented reality (AR) interface via the Vuforia SDK to track images of the ALICE detector or components of the paper model of ALICE that can be purchased at the ALICE secretariat office. For those without access to either images of the detector or the detector model, the app provides a virtual detector model (VR) that contains the same functionality as the augmented reality.

  15. Properties of Augmented Kohn-Sham Potential for Energy as Simple Sum of Orbital Energies.

    Zahariev, Federico; Levy, Mel


    A recent modification to the traditional Kohn-Sham method ( Levy , M. ; Zahariev , F. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014 , 113 , 113002 ; Levy , M. ; Zahariev , F. Mol. Phys. 2016 , 114 , 1162 - 1164 ), which gives the ground-state energy as a direct sum of the occupied orbital energies, is discussed and its properties are numerically illustrated on representative atoms and ions. It is observed that current approximate density functionals tend to give surprisingly small errors for the highest occupied orbital energies that are obtained with the augmented potential. The appropriately shifted Kohn-Sham potential is the basic object within this direct-energy Kohn-Sham method and needs to be approximated. To facilitate approximations, several constraints to the augmented Kohn-Sham potential are presented.

  16. Optimizing the Use of Aripiprazole Augmentation in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: From Clinical Trials to Clinical Practice

    Han, Changsu; Wang, Sheng-Min; Lee, Soo-Jung; Jun, Tae-Youn


    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent, chronic, and devastating disorder leading to serious impairment in functional capacity as well as increasing public health care costs. In the previous decade, switching therapy and dose adjustment of ongoing antidepressants was the most frequently chosen subsequent treatment option for MDD. However, such recommendations were not based on firmly proven efficacy data from well-designed, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) but on practical grounds and clinical reasoning. Aripiprazole augmentation has been dramatically increasing in clinical practice owing to its unique action mechanisms as well as proven efficacy and safety from adequately powered and well-controlled RCTs. Despite the increased use of aripiprazole in depression, limited clinical information and knowledge interfere with proper and efficient use of aripiprazole augmentation for MDD. The objective of the present review was to enhance clinicians' current understanding of aripiprazole augmentation and how to optimize the use of this therapy in the treatment of MDD. PMID:26306301

  17. Pre-processing by data augmentation for improved ellipse fitting.

    Kumar, Pankaj; Belchamber, Erika R; Miklavcic, Stanley J


    Ellipse fitting is a highly researched and mature topic. Surprisingly, however, no existing method has thus far considered the data point eccentricity in its ellipse fitting procedure. Here, we introduce the concept of eccentricity of a data point, in analogy with the idea of ellipse eccentricity. We then show empirically that, irrespective of ellipse fitting method used, the root mean square error (RMSE) of a fit increases with the eccentricity of the data point set. The main contribution of the paper is based on the hypothesis that if the data point set were pre-processed to strategically add additional data points in regions of high eccentricity, then the quality of a fit could be improved. Conditional validity of this hypothesis is demonstrated mathematically using a model scenario. Based on this confirmation we propose an algorithm that pre-processes the data so that data points with high eccentricity are replicated. The improvement of ellipse fitting is then demonstrated empirically in real-world application of 3D reconstruction of a plant root system for phenotypic analysis. The degree of improvement for different underlying ellipse fitting methods as a function of data noise level is also analysed. We show that almost every method tested, irrespective of whether it minimizes algebraic error or geometric error, shows improvement in the fit following data augmentation using the proposed pre-processing algorithm.

  18. Vascular Augmentation in Renal Transplantation: Supercharging and Turbocharging

    Euicheol C. Jeong


    Full Text Available The most common anatomic variant seen in donor kidneys for renal transplantation is the presence of multiple renal arteries, which can cause an increased risk of complications. Accessory renal arteries should be anastomosed to the proper source arteries to improve renal perfusion via the appropriate vascular reconstruction techniques. In microsurgery, 2 kinds of vascular augmentation methods, known as ‘supercharging’ and ‘turbocharging,’ have been introduced to ensure vascular perfusion in the transferred flap. Supercharging uses a distant source of the vessels, while turbocharging uses vascular sources within the same flap territory. These technical concepts can also be applied in renal transplantation, and in this report, we describe 2 patients who underwent procedures using supercharging and turbocharging. In one case, the ipsilateral deep inferior epigastric artery was transposed to the accessory renal artery (supercharging, and in the other case, the accessory renal artery was anastomosed to the corresponding main renal artery with a vascular graft (turbocharging. The transplanted kidneys showed good perfusion and proper function. No cases of renal failure, hypertension, rejection, or urologic complications were observed. These microsurgical techniques can be safely utilized for renal transplantation with donor kidneys that have multiple arteries with a lower complication rate and better outcome.

  19. Vascular Augmentation in Renal Transplantation: Supercharging and Turbocharging.

    Jeong, Euicheol C; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Eo, Su Rak


    The most common anatomic variant seen in donor kidneys for renal transplantation is the presence of multiple renal arteries, which can cause an increased risk of complications. Accessory renal arteries should be anastomosed to the proper source arteries to improve renal perfusion via the appropriate vascular reconstruction techniques. In microsurgery, 2 kinds of vascular augmentation methods, known as 'supercharging' and 'turbocharging,' have been introduced to ensure vascular perfusion in the transferred flap. Supercharging uses a distant source of the vessels, while turbocharging uses vascular sources within the same flap territory. These technical concepts can also be applied in renal transplantation, and in this report, we describe 2 patients who underwent procedures using supercharging and turbocharging. In one case, the ipsilateral deep inferior epigastric artery was transposed to the accessory renal artery (supercharging), and in the other case, the accessory renal artery was anastomosed to the corresponding main renal artery with a vascular graft (turbocharging). The transplanted kidneys showed good perfusion and proper function. No cases of renal failure, hypertension, rejection, or urologic complications were observed. These microsurgical techniques can be safely utilized for renal transplantation with donor kidneys that have multiple arteries with a lower complication rate and better outcome.

  20. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared


    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  1. Augment clinical measurement using a constraint-based esophageal model

    Kou, Wenjun; Acharya, Shashank; Kahrilas, Peter; Patankar, Neelesh; Pandolfino, John


    Quantifying the mechanical properties of the esophageal wall is crucial to understanding impairments of trans-esophageal flow characteristic of several esophageal diseases. However, these data are unavailable owing to technological limitations of current clinical diagnostic instruments that instead display esophageal luminal cross sectional area based on intraluminal impedance change. In this work, we developed an esophageal model to predict bolus flow and the wall property based on clinical measurements. The model used the constraint-based immersed-boundary method developed previously by our group. Specifically, we first approximate the time-dependent wall geometry based on impedance planimetry data on luminal cross sectional area. We then fed these along with pressure data into the model and computed wall tension based on simulated pressure and flow fields, and the material property based on the strain-stress relationship. As examples, we applied this model to augment FLIP (Functional Luminal Imaging Probe) measurements in three clinical cases: a normal subject, achalasia, and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Our findings suggest that the wall stiffness was greatest in the EoE case, followed by the achalasia case, and then the normal. This is supported by NIH Grant R01 DK56033 and R01 DK079902.

  2. Unsupervised text mining for assessing and augmenting GWAS results.

    Ailem, Melissa; Role, François; Nadif, Mohamed; Demenais, Florence


    Text mining can assist in the analysis and interpretation of large-scale biomedical data, helping biologists to quickly and cheaply gain confirmation of hypothesized relationships between biological entities. We set this question in the context of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), an actively emerging field that contributed to identify many genes associated with multifactorial diseases. These studies allow to identify groups of genes associated with the same phenotype, but provide no information about the relationships between these genes. Therefore, our objective is to leverage unsupervised text mining techniques using text-based cosine similarity comparisons and clustering applied to candidate and random gene vectors, in order to augment the GWAS results. We propose a generic framework which we used to characterize the relationships between 10 genes reported associated with asthma by a previous GWAS. The results of this experiment showed that the similarities between these 10 genes were significantly stronger than would be expected by chance (one-sided p-value<0.01). The clustering of observed and randomly selected gene also allowed to generate hypotheses about potential functional relationships between these genes and thus contributed to the discovery of new candidate genes for asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Augmentation of peristaltic microflows through electro-osmotic mechanisms

    Chakraborty, Suman


    The present work aims to theoretically establish that the employment of an axial electric field can substantially augment the rate of microfluidic transport occurring in peristaltic microtubes. For theoretical analysis, shape evolution of the tube is taken to be arbitrary, except for the fact that the characteristic wavelength is assumed to be significantly greater than the average radius of cross section. First, expressions for the velocity profile within the tube are derived and are subsequently utilized to obtain variations in the net flow rate across the same, as a function of the pertinent system parameters. Subsequently, the modes of interaction between the electro-osmotic and peristaltic mechanisms are established through the variations in the time-averaged flow rates for zero pressure rise and the pressure rise for zero time-averaged flow rates, as expressed in terms of the occlusion number, characteristic electro-osmotic velocity and the peristaltic wave speed. From the simulation predictions, it is suggested that a judicious combination of peristalsis and an axial electrokinetic body force can drastically enhance the time-averaged flow rate, provided that the occlusion number is relatively small

  4. Vision-Augmented Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nanoindentation

    Rajab Al-Sayegh


    Full Text Available We present a user-friendly vision-augmented technique to carry out atomic simulation using hand gestures. The system is novel in its concept as it enables the user to directly manipulate the atomic structures on the screen, in 3D space using hand gestures, allowing the exploration and visualisation of molecular interactions at different relative conformations. The hand gestures are used to pick and place atoms on the screen allowing thereby the ease of carrying out molecular dynamics simulation in a more efficient way. The end result is that users with limited expertise in developing molecular structures can now do so easily and intuitively by the use of body gestures to interact with the simulator to study the system in question. The proposed system was tested by simulating the crystal anisotropy of crystalline silicon during nanoindentation. A long-range (Screened bond order Tersoff potential energy function was used during the simulation which revealed the value of hardness and elastic modulus being similar to what has been found previously from the experiments. We anticipate that our proposed system will open up new horizons to the current methods on how an MD simulation is designed and executed.

  5. Augmented reality aided operation and maintenance system for indoor environments

    Tamura, Yuichi; Umetani, Tomohiro; Kubo, Shin


    This paper proposes an Augmented Reality (AR) system to assist operation and maintenance tasks in an indoor environment, such as a nuclear fusion reactor and its building. AR is a technology that enhances real information by adding 3D virtual objects, images, sounds, or movies via a web camera. The AR system often uses “markers” such as QR code to detect the place where the virtual content should appear. However, these markers are unnatural and they can disturb the scenery. We propose an AR system that can detect natural markers, which provides AR content via a network. This system stores the information related to markers and virtual objects on a server. A device connected to this system automatically downloads this content so that the user can watch the AR content via a web camera. We add a real-time numerical simulation function that allows us to simulate physical phenomena by touching AR contents. It also enables us to observe simulation results by downloading a movie of numerical simulation results from the simulation server. Overall, this system allows us to watch the same content with multiple devices and to simulate physical phenomena using various parameters. (author)

  6. Augmented Reality versus Virtual Reality for 3D Object Manipulation.

    Krichenbauer, Max; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Taketom, Takafumi; Sandor, Christian; Kato, Hirokazu


    Virtual Reality (VR) Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) are on the verge of becoming commodity hardware available to the average user and feasible to use as a tool for 3D work. Some HMDs include front-facing cameras, enabling Augmented Reality (AR) functionality. Apart from avoiding collisions with the environment, interaction with virtual objects may also be affected by seeing the real environment. However, whether these effects are positive or negative has not yet been studied extensively. For most tasks it is unknown whether AR has any advantage over VR. In this work we present the results of a user study in which we compared user performance measured in task completion time on a 9 degrees of freedom object selection and transformation task performed either in AR or VR, both with a 3D input device and a mouse. Our results show faster task completion time in AR over VR. When using a 3D input device, a purely VR environment increased task completion time by 22.5 percent on average compared to AR ( ). Surprisingly, a similar effect occurred when using a mouse: users were about 17.3 percent slower in VR than in AR ( ). Mouse and 3D input device produced similar task completion times in each condition (AR or VR) respectively. We further found no differences in reported comfort.

  7. A Multi-Element Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine

    Søren Hjort


    Full Text Available A new class of diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs is presented. The new diffuser concept exploits aero-dynamic principles for the creation of high-lift airfoil configurations known from the aircraft industry. Combining this with our objective of obtaining a compact power-efficient design has enabled creation of a family of DAWT designs with energy capture potentials which exceed the power efficiency based on the diffuser exit area by 50%. The paper presents the 1D momentum theory governing the DAWTs, and discusses upper limits for power extraction, similar to the Betz limit applicable for bare Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs. Inviscid axisymmetric panel code calculations are then used to drive the diffuser design towards higher power coefficients. Axisymmetric actuator disk Navier-Stokes calculations reveal the types of stall that inhibit the functionality of the ideal inviscid optimum, leading the design towards the new class of DAWTs. DAWT performance has been differently measured over time, creating confusion. Proper comparison with performance of existing DAWT designs is therefore emphasized. This involves reference to established literature results, and recalculation of earlier DAWT designs in an attempt to project all results onto a common metric.

  8. Perancangan Aplikasi Multimedia Untuk Pembelajaran Gerbang Logika Menggunakan Augmented Reality

    Rosdelima Hutahaean


    Full Text Available As the rapid development of technology is also growing media that is used as a method of learning in education. One of them to learning logic states, in addition to reading the book at this time there has a new learning method that is more pronounced in 3 dimensions to increase understanding in learning the logic gates using Augmented Reality. Steps design multimedia for learning the logic gates begins with a literature study, data collection, analysis and system design and then implementation and testing the system. Testing methods using a black-box, which includes testing functionality testing camera angles and distances to the markers as well as testing the light intensity. The result of the design this application shows that for angle of 30 0 with a distance of 30 cm – 40 cm, angle of 45 0 with a distance of 40 cm – 70 cm and angle of 60 0 with a distance of 50 cm – 90 cm and light intensity 4 lx – 19 lx is a good composition can display the object 3 dimensions.

  9. Effective augmentation of networked systems and enhancing pinning controllability

    Jalili, Mahdi


    Controlling dynamics of networked systems to a reference state, known as pinning control, has many applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we introduce a method for effective augmentation of networked systems, while also providing high levels of pinning controllability for the final augmented network. The problem is how to connect a sub-network to an already existing network such that the pinning controllability is maximised. We consider the eigenratio of the augmented Laplacian matrix as a pinning controllability metric, and use graph perturbation theory to approximate the influence of edge addition on the eigenratio. The proposed metric can be effectively used to find the inter-network links connecting the disjoint networks. Also, an efficient link rewiring approach is proposed to further optimise the pinning controllability of the augmented network. We provide numerical simulations on synthetic networks and show that the proposed method is more effective than heuristic ones.

  10. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through ...

    Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through exogenously applied silicon. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... physiology and biochemistry of wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) ...

  11. Herriott Cell Augmentation of a Quadrature Heterodyne Interferometer

    Antonsen, Erik


    A quadrature heterodyne interferometer is augmented with a Herriott Cell multi-pass reflector to increase instrument resolution and enable a separation of the phase shift due to neutral density from room vibrations...

  12. Adaptive Augmented Reality enabled electronic Procedure Toolset, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research is aimed at investigating the feasibility to provide an integrated tool suite for development of Adaptive user interfaces for Augmented Reality...

  13. The Palatal Window for Treating an Incompletely Augmented Maxillary Sinus.

    Florio, Salvatore; Suzuki, Takanori; Cho, Sang-Choon


    Maxillary sinus augmentation through a lateral window is reported as one of the most predictable bone augmentation procedures before implant placement. The elevation of the membrane represents a delicate and crucial step that allows the creation of the space for the bone graft material. If the elevation is not completed, the regenerated bone might be inadequate for the implant placement. In this case, a new intervention will be necessary to complete the bone augmentation. Reaccessing from a lateral window, however, would be challenging due to thickness of the buccal boney wall because of the first grafting procedure; therefore, a different approach has to be used. The aim of this case report is to present the palatal window technique for treating incompletely augmented maxillary sinus. The detailed step-by-step diagnostic and surgical procedures are described, and the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed through a review of the literature.

  14. Augmented reality aiding collimator exchange at the LHC

    Martínez, Héctor; Fabry, Thomas; Laukkanen, Seppo; Mattila, Jouni; Tabourot, Laurent


    Novel Augmented Reality techniques have the potential to have a large positive impact on the way remote maintenance operations are carried out in hazardous areas, e.g. areas where radiation doses that imply careful planning and optimization of maintenance operations are present. This paper describes an Augmented Reality strategy, system and implementation for aiding the remote collimator exchange in the LHC, currently the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. The proposed system relies on marker detection and multi-modal augmentation in real-time. A database system has been used to ensure flexibility. The system has been tested in a mock-up facility, showing real time performance and great potential for future use in the LHC. The technical-scientific difficulties identified during the development of the system and the proposed solutions described in this paper may help the development of future Augmented Reality systems for remote handling in scientific facilities

  15. Hands in space: gesture interaction with augmented-reality interfaces.

    Billinghurst, Mark; Piumsomboon, Tham; Huidong Bai


    Researchers at the Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand (HIT Lab NZ) are investigating free-hand gestures for natural interaction with augmented-reality interfaces. They've applied the results to systems for desktop computers and mobile devices.

  16. Effectiveness of plate augmentation for femoral shaft nonunion after nailing

    Chin-Jung Lin


    Conclusion: Plate augmentation with retention of the nail with autologous bone grafting may be an effective and reliable alternative in treating nonunion of the femoral shaft fracture after open reduction and internal fixation with intramedullary nail.

  17. Gas dynamic analysis of the performance of diffuser augmented ...

    A diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) is considered an ... Maximum power rating ± for a given blade technology ± can be extended substantially by ... twist angles in addition to design parameters such as tip speed ratio with minimum ...

  18. Location based augmented reality application on Unity 3D

    Serra Font, Antoni


    This document presents the development and steps taken in order to create an augmented reality application using the Unity 3D software using a mobile handheld device. The steps of the development will be explained and the performance evaluated.

  19. Die Welt als Spielfeld: Mobile Serious Games mit Augmented Reality

    Klemke, Roland; Schneider, Jan; Happe, Sven; Bockelmann, Timo; Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus


    Technological innovations enable us to connect computer games with the environment they are played in: augmented reality games take the world as their playground. In this talk, the use of such technologies for mobile serious games is explored.

  20. Virtual, augmented reality and serious games for healthcare

    Jain, Lakhmi; Anderson, Paul


    There is a tremendous interest among researchers for the development of virtual, augmented reality and games technologies due to their widespread applications in medicine and healthcare. To date the major applications of these technologies include medical simulation, telemedicine, medical and healthcare training, pain control, visualisation aid for surgery, rehabilitation in cases such as stroke, phobia, and trauma therapies. Many recent studies have identified the benefits of using Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, or serious games in a variety of medical applications.   This research volume on Virtual, Augmented Reality and Serious Games for Healthcare 1 offers an insightful introduction to the theories, development and applications of virtual, augmented reality and digital games technologies in medical and clinical settings and healthcare in general. It is divided into six sections: section one presents a selection of applications in medical education and healthcare management; Section two relates to th...

  1. Augmented reality aiding collimator exchange at the LHC

    Martínez, Héctor, E-mail: [SenseTrix, PL 20 FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Fabry, Thomas [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Laukkanen, Seppo [SenseTrix, PL 20 FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Mattila, Jouni [Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 527, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Tabourot, Laurent [SYMME, Université de Savoie, Polytech Annecy-Chambéry, 5 chemin de Bellevue, 74944 Annecy le Vieux (France)


    Novel Augmented Reality techniques have the potential to have a large positive impact on the way remote maintenance operations are carried out in hazardous areas, e.g. areas where radiation doses that imply careful planning and optimization of maintenance operations are present. This paper describes an Augmented Reality strategy, system and implementation for aiding the remote collimator exchange in the LHC, currently the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. The proposed system relies on marker detection and multi-modal augmentation in real-time. A database system has been used to ensure flexibility. The system has been tested in a mock-up facility, showing real time performance and great potential for future use in the LHC. The technical-scientific difficulties identified during the development of the system and the proposed solutions described in this paper may help the development of future Augmented Reality systems for remote handling in scientific facilities.

  2. Human Performance Assessments when Using Augmented Reality for Navigation

    Goldiez, Brian F; Saptoka, Nabin; Aedunuthula, Prashanth


    Human performance executing search and rescue type of navigation is one area that can benefit from augmented reality technology when the proper computer generated information is added to a real scene...

  3. Dimensions of Mobile Augmented Reality for Learning: A First Inventory

    Specht, Marcus; Ternier, Stefaan; Greller, Wolfgang


    Specht, M., Ternier, S., & Greller, W. (2011). Dimensions of Mobile Augmented Reality for Learning: A First Inventory. Journal of the Research for Educational Technology (RCET), 7(1), 117-127. Spring 2011.

  4. Passive Infrared Signature Augmentation of Full-Scale Plastic Targets

    Gebus, Lisa M; Sanders, Jeffrey S


    ... (IR), and radar signatures of threat systems. To address this need, a program was initiated by TMO to augment an existing full-scale, vacuum-formed plastic target with sufficient signature fidelity to adequately stress U.S...

  5. Augmented Reality Development Environment for Electronic Procedure systems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) has identified technology needs for Autonomous Crew Operations.  Augmented Reality (AR) is part of the solution to enable crew...

  6. Adaptive Augmenting Control and Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control Flight Experiments

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Researchers at NASA Armstrong are working to further the development of an adaptive augmenting control algorithm (AAC). The AAC was developed to improve the...

  7. Virtual and augmented reality for training on maintenance

    Gonzalez, F.


    This paper presents two projects focused to support training on maintenance using new technologies. Both projects aims at specifying. designing, developing, and demonstrating prototypes allowing computer guided maintenance of complex mechanical elements using Virtual Reality (VIRMAN) and Augmented Reality (STARMATE) techniques. VIRMAN project is dedicated to training course development on maintenance using Virtual Reality. It based in the animation of three dimension images for component assembly/de-assembly or equipment movements. STARMATE will rely on Augmented Reality techniques which is a growing area in virtual Reality research. The idea of Augmented Reality is to combine a real scene, viewed by the user, with a virtual scene generated by a computer augmenting the reality with additional information. (Author)

  8. Control-Volume Analysis Of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    Drummond, Colin K.


    New method of analysis of transient flow in thrust-augmenting ejector based on control-volume formulation of governing equations. Considered as potential elements of propulsion subsystems of short-takeoff/vertical-landing airplanes.

  9. Telescopic multi-resolution augmented reality

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Frenchi, Christopher; Szu, Harold


    To ensure a self-consistent scaling approximation, the underlying microscopic fluctuation components can naturally influence macroscopic means, which may give rise to emergent observable phenomena. In this paper, we describe a consistent macroscopic (cm-scale), mesoscopic (micron-scale), and microscopic (nano-scale) approach to introduce Telescopic Multi-Resolution (TMR) into current Augmented Reality (AR) visualization technology. We propose to couple TMR-AR by introducing an energy-matter interaction engine framework that is based on known Physics, Biology, Chemistry principles. An immediate payoff of TMR-AR is a self-consistent approximation of the interaction between microscopic observables and their direct effect on the macroscopic system that is driven by real-world measurements. Such an interdisciplinary approach enables us to achieve more than multiple scale, telescopic visualization of real and virtual information but also conducting thought experiments through AR. As a result of the consistency, this framework allows us to explore a large dimensionality parameter space of measured and unmeasured regions. Towards this direction, we explore how to build learnable libraries of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms. Fusing analytical sensors with TMR-AR libraries provides a robust framework to optimize testing and evaluation through data-driven or virtual synthetic simulations. Visualizing mechanisms of interactions requires identification of observable image features that can indicate the presence of information in multiple spatial and temporal scales of analog data. The AR methodology was originally developed to enhance pilot-training as well as `make believe' entertainment industries in a user-friendly digital environment We believe TMR-AR can someday help us conduct thought experiments scientifically, to be pedagogically visualized in a zoom-in-and-out, consistent, multi-scale approximations.

  10. Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.

    Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Åkesson, K


    We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data

  11. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel


    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method

    Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.


    We present an efficient implementation of a nonequilibrium Green's function method for self-consistent calculations of electron transport and forces in nanostructured materials. The electronic structure is described at the level of density functional theory using the projector augmented wave method...... over k points and real space makes the code highly efficient and applicable to systems containing several hundreds of atoms. The method is applied to a number of different systems, demonstrating the effects of bias and gate voltages, multiterminal setups, nonequilibrium forces, and spin transport....


    Ulva Erida Nur Rochmah; Aris Rakhmadi


    Abstrak Mendekorasi ruangan merupakan kegiatan  yang memakan banyak waktu dan tenaga, terutama jika objek yang digunakan besar dan berat. Akan merepotkan jika seseorang harus menggeser setiap objek untuk menentukan letak yang sesuai. Hal ini dapat dihindari dengan menggunakan aplikasi berbasis Augmented Reality. Augmented Reality merupakan sebuah teknologi untuk menggabungkan dunia nyata dan dunia virtual dengan cara menampilkan objek-objek virtual di dunia nyata secara real time. Tujuan uta...

  14. Exploring the potential use of augmented reality in medical education

    Orraryd, Pontus


    Human anatomy is traditionally taught using textbooks and dissections. With the advent of computer graphics, using 3D applications have started to see much more use in medical educations around the world. Today, technology such as Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality are on everybody’s lips, and many are now curious what we can do with this new technology. This thesis explores how Augmented Reality can be used in medical education to teach human anatomy. Two application prototypes were devel...

  15. Merging Augmented Reality Based Features in Mobile Multimedia Museum Guides

    Damala, Areti; Marchal, Isabelle; Houlier, Pascal


    International audience; Augmented Reality (AR), a computer science field considered by many as a subfield of the broader concept of Mixed Reality, could alter dramatically the way we interact not only with computers but also with the real environment surrounding us, as well as with other human beings. Augmented Reality has so far been used for applications linked with military training, medicine, maintenance, architecture and urban planning, tourism, and entertainment. This last category embr...

  16. Virtual and Augmented Reality on the 5G Highway

    Orlosky, Jason; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Takemura, Haruo


    In recent years, virtual and augmented reality have begun to take advantage of the high speed capabilities of data streaming technologies and wireless networks. However, limitations like bandwidth and latency still prevent us from achieving high fidelity telepresence and collaborative virtual and augmented reality applications. Fortunately, both researchers and engineers are aware of these problems and have set out to design 5G networks to help us to move to the next generation of virtual int...

  17. Augmented Reality user interface analysis in mobile devices

    Guzmán Guzmán, José Daniel


    [ENGLISH] The presence of high-end phones in the telephony market, has allowed consumers to have access to the computational power of mobile smart-phone devices. Powerful processors, combined with cameras and ease of development encourage an increasing number of Augmented Reality (AR) researchers to adopt mobile smart-phones as AR platform. The same way, Augmented Reality on mobile devices has become increasingly popular for many applications, including search and location, tourism, and shopp...

  18. Intuitive Robot Tasks with Augmented Reality and Virtual Obstacles

    Gaschler, Andre;Springer, Maximilian;Rickert, Markus;Knoll, Alois


    Today's industrial robots require expert knowledge and are not profitable for small and medium sized enterprises with their small lot sizes. It is our strong belief that more intuitive robot programming in an augmented reality robot work cell can dramatically simplify re-programming and leverage robotics technology in short production cycles. In this paper, we present a novel augmented reality system for defining virtual obstacles, specifying tool positions, and specifying robot tasks. We eva...

  19. Introduction to Mobile Augmented Reality Development in Unity

    Jacob W. Greene


    This lesson serves as an introduction to creating mobile augmented reality applications. Augmented reality (AR) can be defined as the overlaying of digital content (images, video, text, sound, etc.) onto physical objects or locations, and it is typically experienced by looking through the camera lens of an electronic device such as a smartphone, tablet, or optical head-mounted display (e.g. Microsoft Hololens). Although AR is a cutting-edge, complex technology, there are a number of user-frie...

  20. Using presence to evaluate an augmented reality location aware game

    McCall, Roderick; Wetzel, Richard; Löschner, Johannes; Braun, Anne-Kathrin


    Location-aware augmented reality games provide players with a rich and potentially unlimited range of interaction possibilities. In this paper, a study is described which uses a number of measurement techniques including questionnaires, direct observation, semi-structured interviews and video analysis to measure player’s sense of presence. The paper points to the importance of the availability of actions within augmented reality games and how this shapes their sense of presence. The findings ...

  1. Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) applied in dentistry

    Ta-Ko Huang; Chi-Hsun Yang; Yu-Hsin Hsieh; Jen-Chyan Wang; Chun-Cheng Hung


    The OSCE is a reliable evaluation method to estimate the preclinical examination of dental students. The most ideal assessment for OSCE is used the augmented reality simulator to evaluate. This literature review investigated a recently developed in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) starting of the dental history to the progress of the dental skill. As result of the lacking of technology, it needs to depend on other device increasing the success rate and decreasing the risk of th...

  2. Human-Assisted AI: an Intelligence Augmentation Approach

    Alicea, Bradly


    As a flavor of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), Human-Assisted AI can serve to both augment both human performance and artificial systems. This talk will feature a discussion of Human-assisted AI as an instance of Intelligence Augmentation (IA). We will discuss instances of weak and strong IA, in addition to contemporary examples of and paths forward for such systems. In the variety of models presented, data plays a critical role in the structure of interactions between human and artificial ...

  3. Leap Motion controller application in augmented reality technology

    Artemčiukas, Edgaras; Sakalauskas, Leonidas


    In this work the analysis of interaction techniques, devices and its’ possibilities were accomplished. It was determined that the problem, which many researchers tries to solve – more natural interaction between users and computers. Interaction system in augmented reality environment using Leap Motion controller was developed. To achieve this goal augmented reality NyARToolkit and Leap Motion controller libraries were used. Solution ensures extensive information about hand, finger...

  4. Augmenting the Sound Experience at Music Festivals using Mobile Phones

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jan


    In this paper we describe experiments carried out at the Nibe music festival in Denmark involving the use of mobile phones to augment the participants' sound experience at the concerts. The experiments involved N=19 test participants that used a mobile phone with a headset playing back sound...... “in-the-wild” experiments augmenting the sound experience at two concerts at this music festival....

  5. Augmented communication with haptic I/O in mobile devices

    Haverinen, Laura


    Nonverbal communication is a very important part of face to face communication. Both explicit and implicit additions to verbal communication augment the information content of communication. Before telephones did not provide any means for adding nonverbal information to the communication, but now, as the technology has advanced, it is possible to start augmenting also the communication on the phone. Adding a haptic I/O device to a regular mobile phone opens possibilities to add value to commu...

  6. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian


    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  7. Cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation: a systematic review.

    Brightman, Louise; Ng, Sze; Ahern, Susannah; Cooter, Rodney; Hopper, Ingrid


    The medical tourism industry, and in particular cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, is becoming an increasingly popular global phenomenon. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of medical literature and the patient risk profiles associated with cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation both locally and abroad. OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, Cochrane Central and Proquest electronic databases. The search was conducted through to April 2017. Studies pertaining entirely or partly to cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation were considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria included non-English articles, studies relating to non-cosmetic or non-implant breast augmentation, and studies that did not separately report on findings associated with breast augmentation abroad. We identified 17 observational studies. Common destinations included Europe, South America and South East Asia. Infectious complications were common. Wound dehiscence and aesthetic dissatisfaction also featured. Catastrophic outcomes such as sepsis, intubation and ventilation, radical bilateral mastectomy, irreversible hypoxic brain injury and death were also reported. There were expectations that home country health systems would treat complications and provide non-medically indicated revision procedures. The burden on home country health systems was evident from a public health perspective. Determining the extent of cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, including outcomes and complications, will help to inform Australian patients who this seek procedure abroad. Furthermore, it will aid in better understanding the health system implications and may help to guide future research and public health interventions both locally and internationally. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. The interactive alphabet with augmented reality as a form of involving children in educational process

    Vladimir D. Sekerin


    Full Text Available Research objective: to prove the expediency of using technologies with augmented reality in educational process of children in order to increase the level of their involvement and to improve the efficiency of educational process. Materials and methods. The information base of the research was made by scientific publications, information and analytical reviews, periodicals, monographs, information placed in the Internet network, concerning practical application of technologies with augmented reality in educational process, descriptive and comparative methods of analysis form the methodical basis of this research. Results. It is shown that in educational process of children it is expedient to use the modern technological achievements allowing organizing productive interactions and relationship of the students among themselves and with teachers, lecturers. Educational, business, role-playing games, discussions promoting acceleration of acquiring  a new experience and receiving new knowledge are the perspective formats of realizing the educational process. The world of augmented reality has the following properties: combines the real and virtual, interacts in real time mode, and functions in three-dimensional space. The advantages of the Interactive alphabet on the basis of the augmented reality technology are as follows: 1 security of strong emotional responses; 2 the involvement and interactivity promoting steady memorizing; 3 possibilities of interaction with the artificial world by means of gadgets; 4 Digital and offline communication; 5 possibility of carrying out virtual lessons. One of the main features of virtual reality is the feeling of participation and the opportunity to observe everything from the first person. It makes expedient to carry out lessons entirely in the virtual reality. Achievement of full involvement in educational process promotes increase of motivation and progress in knowledge acquisition.  The use of the augmented

  9. Augmented reality for industrial robot programmers: Workload analysis for task-based, augmented reality-supported robot control

    Stadler, S.; Kain, K.; Giuliani, M.; Mirnig, N.; Stollnberger, G.; Tscheligi, M. ed


    Augmented reality (AR) can serve as a tool to provide helpful information in a direct way to industrial robot programmers throughout the teaching process. It seems obvious that AR support eases the programming process and increases the programmer's productivity and programming accuracy. However, additional information can also potentially increase the programmer's perceived workload. To explore the impact of augmented reality on robot teaching, as a first step we have chosen a Sphero robot co...

  10. Augmented reality in laparoscopic surgical oncology.

    Nicolau, Stéphane; Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques


    Minimally invasive surgery represents one of the main evolutions of surgical techniques aimed at providing a greater benefit to the patient. However, minimally invasive surgery increases the operative difficulty since the depth perception is usually dramatically reduced, the field of view is limited and the sense of touch is transmitted by an instrument. However, these drawbacks can currently be reduced by computer technology guiding the surgical gesture. Indeed, from a patient's medical image (US, CT or MRI), Augmented Reality (AR) can increase the surgeon's intra-operative vision by providing a virtual transparency of the patient. AR is based on two main processes: the 3D visualization of the anatomical or pathological structures appearing in the medical image, and the registration of this visualization on the real patient. 3D visualization can be performed directly from the medical image without the need for a pre-processing step thanks to volume rendering. But better results are obtained with surface rendering after organ and pathology delineations and 3D modelling. Registration can be performed interactively or automatically. Several interactive systems have been developed and applied to humans, demonstrating the benefit of AR in surgical oncology. It also shows the current limited interactivity due to soft organ movements and interaction between surgeon instruments and organs. If the current automatic AR systems show the feasibility of such system, it is still relying on specific and expensive equipment which is not available in clinical routine. Moreover, they are not robust enough due to the high complexity of developing a real-time registration taking organ deformation and human movement into account. However, the latest results of automatic AR systems are extremely encouraging and show that it will become a standard requirement for future computer-assisted surgical oncology. In this article, we will explain the concept of AR and its principles. Then, we


    Ulva Erida Nur Rochmah


    Full Text Available Abstrak Mendekorasi ruangan merupakan kegiatan  yang memakan banyak waktu dan tenaga, terutama jika objek yang digunakan besar dan berat. Akan merepotkan jika seseorang harus menggeser setiap objek untuk menentukan letak yang sesuai. Hal ini dapat dihindari dengan menggunakan aplikasi berbasis Augmented Reality. Augmented Reality merupakan sebuah teknologi untuk menggabungkan dunia nyata dan dunia virtual dengan cara menampilkan objek-objek virtual di dunia nyata secara real time. Tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menciptakan suatu aplikasi Android dengan menggunakan Augmented Reality yang dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan objek nyata dengan objek virtual 3D sehingga memudahkan pengguna dalam mensimulasikan dekorasi ruangan. Aplikasi ini bekerja dengan cara memindai marker yang sudah dicetak pada selembar kertas. Jika marker telah terdeteksi, objek 3D berupa perabot akan ditampilkan di kamera aplikasi. Pengguna dapat memindah lokasi, memutar, dan mengubah ukuran objek untuk mensimulasikan tata letak ruangan. Hasil penelitian ini adalah aplikasi Android berbasis Augmented Reality yang dapat digunakan untuk mensimulasikan dekorasi ruangan secara real time. Kata Kunci: augmented reality, dekorasi, interior, marker Abstract Decorating the room is an activity that takes a lot of time and effort, especially if the object is large and heavy. It would be inconvenient if someone has to drag each object to determine the appropriate location. This problem can be avoided using an Augmented Reality-based application. Augmented reality is a technology that combine the real world and the virtual world by displaying virtual object in real world. The main purpose of this research is to create an Android application using Augmented reality  that can be used to replace the real object with virtual 3D object, making it easier for the user to simulate the decoration of the room. This application works by scanning the marker that has been printed on a

  12. [Intraoperative augmented reality visualization. Current state of development and initial experiences with the CamC].

    Weidert, S; Wang, L; von der Heide, A; Navab, N; Euler, E


    The intraoperative application of augmented reality (AR) has so far mainly taken place in the field of endoscopy. Here, the camera image of the endoscope was augmented by computer graphics derived mostly from preoperative imaging. Due to the complex setup and operation of the devices, they have not yet become part of routine clinical practice. The Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm (CamC) that extends a classic C-arm by a video camera and mirror construction is characterized by its uncomplicated handling. It combines its video live stream geometrically correct with the acquired X-ray. The clinical application of the device in 43 cases showed the strengths of the device in positioning for X-ray acquisition, incision placement, K-wire placement, and instrument guidance. With its new function and the easy integration into the OR workflow of any procedure that requires X-ray imaging, the CamC has the potential to become the first widely used AR technology for orthopedic and trauma surgery.

  13. Achilles Tendon Open Surgical Treatment With Platelet-Rich Fibrin Matrix Augmentation: Biomechanical Evaluation.

    Alviti, Federica; Gurzì, Michele; Santilli, Valter; Paoloni, Marco; Padua, Roberto; Bernetti, Andrea; Bernardi, Marco; Mangone, Massimiliano

    The relationship between surgical technique and ankle biomechanical properties after surgery for acute rupture of the Achilles tendon (ATR) has not yet been fully investigated. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) matrices seem to play a central role in the complex processes of tendon healing. Our aim was to analyze the biomechanical characteristics, stiffness, and mechanical work of the ankle during walking in patients who had undergone surgery after ATR with and without PRF augmentation. We performed a retrospective review of all consecutive patients who had been treated with surgical repair after ATR. Of the 20 male subjects enrolled, 9 (45%) had undergone conventional open repair of the Achilles tendon using the Krackow technique (no-PRF) and 11 (55%) had undergone surgery with PRF augmentation. An additional 8 healthy subjects were included as a control group. A gait analysis evaluation was performed at 6 months after surgery. The percentage of the stance time of the operated leg, double-support time of the healthy leg, and net work of the ankle during the gait cycle showed statistically significant differences between the no-PRF and the healthy group (p < .005). No differences were found between the PRF and healthy groups. Treatment with suture and PRF augmentation could result in significant functional improvements in term of efficiency of motion. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protocol for Bone Augmentation with Simultaneous Early Implant Placement: A Retrospective Multicenter Clinical Study

    Peter Fairbairn


    Full Text Available Purpose. To present a novel protocol for alveolar bone regeneration in parallel to early implant placement. Methods. 497 patients in need of extraction and early implant placement with simultaneous bone augmentation were treated in a period of 10 years. In all patients the same specific method was followed and grafting was performed utilizing in situ hardening fully resorbable alloplastic grafting materials consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulfate. The protocol involved atraumatic extraction, implant placement after 4 weeks with simultaneous bone augmentation, and loading of the implant 12 weeks after placement and grafting. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean of 4 years. Results. A total of 601 postextraction sites were rehabilitated in 497 patients utilizing the novel protocol. Three implants failed before loading and three implants failed one year after loading, leaving an overall survival rate of 99.0%. Conclusions. This standardized protocol allows successful long-term functional results regarding alveolar bone regeneration and implant rehabilitation. The concept of placing the implant 4 weeks after extraction, augmenting the bone around the implant utilizing fully resorbable, biomechanically stable, alloplastic materials, and loading the implant at 12 weeks seems to offer advantages when compared with traditional treatment modalities.

  15. Treadmill training as an augmentation treatment for Alzheimer?s disease: a pilot randomized controlled study

    Cynthia Arcoverde


    Full Text Available Objective To assess the effect of aerobic exercise on the cognition and functional capacity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Method Elderly (n=20 with mild dementia (NINCDS-ADRDA/CDR1 were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG on a treadmill (30 minutes, twice a week and moderate intensity of 60% VO2max and control group (GC 10 patients. The primary outcome measure was the cognitive function using Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG. Specifics instruments were also applied to evaluate executive function, memory, attention and concentration, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and functional capacity. Results After 16 weeks, the EG showed improvement in cognition CAMCOG whereas the CG declined. Compared to the CG, the EG presented significant improvement on the functional capacity. The analysis of the effect size has shown a favorable response to the physical exercise in all dependent variables. Conclusion Walking on treadmill may be recommended as an augmentation treatment for patients with AD.

  16. Transforming Polar Research with Google Glass Augmented Reality (Invited)

    Ruthkoski, T.


    Augmented reality is a new technology with the potential to accelerate the advancement of science, particularly in geophysical research. Augmented reality is defined as a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. When paired with advanced computing techniques on cloud resources, augmented reality has the potential to improve data collection techniques, visualizations, as well as in-situ analysis for many areas of research. Google is currently a pioneer of augmented reality technology and has released beta versions of their wearable computing device, Google Glass, to a select number of developers and beta testers. This community of 'Glass Explorers' is the vehicle from which Google shapes the future of their augmented reality device. Example applications of Google Glass in geophysical research range from use as a data gathering interface in harsh climates to an on-site visualization and analysis tool. Early participation in the shaping of the Google Glass device is an opportunity for researchers to tailor this new technology to their specific needs. The purpose of this presentation is to provide geophysical researchers with a hands-on first look at Google Glass and its potential as a scientific tool. Attendees will be given an overview of the technical specifications as well as a live demonstration of the device. Potential applications to geophysical research in polar regions will be the primary focus. The presentation will conclude with an open call to participate, during which attendees may indicate interest in developing projects that integrate Google Glass into their research. Application Mockup: Penguin Counter Google Glass Augmented Reality Device

  17. An experimental test of alternative population augmentation scenarios.

    Kronenberger, John A; Gerberich, Jill C; Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Broder, E Dale; Angeloni, Lisa M; Funk, W Chris


    Human land use is fragmenting habitats worldwide and inhibiting dispersal among previously connected populations of organisms, often leading to inbreeding depression and reduced evolutionary potential in the face of rapid environmental change. To combat this augmentation of isolated populations with immigrants is sometimes used to facilitate demographic and genetic rescue. Augmentation with immigrants that are genetically and adaptively similar to the target population effectively increases population fitness, but if immigrants are very genetically or adaptively divergent, augmentation can lead to outbreeding depression. Despite well-cited guidelines for the best practice selection of immigrant sources, often only highly divergent populations remain, and experimental tests of these riskier augmentation scenarios are essentially nonexistent. We conducted a mesocosm experiment with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to test the multigenerational demographic and genetic effects of augmenting 2 target populations with 3 types of divergent immigrants. We found no evidence of demographic rescue, but we did observe genetic rescue in one population. Divergent immigrant treatments tended to maintain greater genetic diversity, abundance, and hybrid fitness than controls that received immigrants from the source used to seed the mesocosms. In the second population, divergent immigrants had a slightly negative effect in one treatment, and the benefits of augmentation were less apparent overall, likely because this population started with higher genetic diversity and a lower reproductive rate that limited genetic admixture. Our results add to a growing consensus that gene flow can increase population fitness even when immigrants are more highly divergent and may help reduce uncertainty about the use of augmentation in conservation. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Normative Data for Interpreting the BREAST-Q: Augmentation

    Mundy, Lily R.; Homa, Karen; Klassen, Anne F.; Pusic, Andrea L.; Kerrigan, Carolyn L.


    Background The BREAST-Q is a rigorously developed, well-validated, patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument with a module designed for evaluating breast augmentation outcomes. However, there are no published normative BREAST-Q scores, limiting interpretation. Methods Normative data were generated for the BREAST-Q Augmentation Module via the Army of Women (AOW), an online community of women (with and without breast cancer) engaged in breast-cancer related research. Members were recruited via email, with women 18 years or older without a history of breast cancer or breast surgery invited to participate. Descriptive statistics and a linear multivariate regression were performed. A separate analysis compared normative scores to findings from previously published BREAST-Q augmentation studies. Results The preoperative BREAST-Q Augmentation Module was completed by 1,211 women. Mean age was 54 ±24 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27 ±6, and 39% (n=467) had a bra cup size ≥D. Mean scores were Satisfaction with Breasts (54 ±19), Psychosocial Well-being (66 ±20), Sexual Well-being (49 ±20), and Physical Well-being (86 ±15). Women with a BMI of 30 or greater and bra cup size D or greater had lower scores. In comparison to AOW scores, published BREAST-Q augmentation scores were lower before and higher after surgery for all scales except Physical Well-being. Conclusions The AOW normative data represent breast-related satisfaction and well-being in woman not actively seeking breast augmentation. This data may be used as normative comparison values for those seeking and undergoing surgery as we did, demonstrating the value of breast augmentation in this patient population. PMID:28350657

  19. Usefulness of Cross-Linked Human Acellular Dermal Matrix as an Implant for Dorsal Augmentation in Rhinoplasty.

    Yang, Chae Eun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Ju Hee; Roh, Tai Suk; Lee, Won Jai


    Asian noses are relatively small and flat compared to Caucasians; therefore, rhinoplasty procedures often focus on dorsal augmentation and tip projection rather than reduction in the nasal framework. Various autologous and alloplastic implant materials have been used for dorsal augmentation. Recently, human acellular dermal matrices have been introduced as an implant material for dorsal augmentation, camouflaging autologous implants without an additional donor site. Here, we introduce a cross-linked human acellular dermal matrix as an implant material in augmentation rhinoplasty and share the clinical experiences. Eighteen patients who underwent augmentation rhinoplasty using acellular dermal matrix from April 2014 to November 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical outcomes and complications were assessed at the outpatient clinic during the follow-up period ranging from 8 to 38 months. Contour changes were assessed through comparison of preoperative and postoperative photographs by two independent plastic surgeons. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the outpatient clinic by six questions regarding aesthetic and functional aspects. Postoperative photographs demonstrated the height of the nasal dorsum did not decrease over time except two patients whose ADM was grafted into a subperiosteal pocket. Others who underwent supraperiosteal implantation showed acceptable maintenance of dorsal height. No major complication was reported. Overall, patient satisfaction scored 81.02 out of 100. Cross-linked human ADM has advantages of both autogenous and alloplastic materials. The surgical results remain stable without complications. Therefore, it is a suitable alternative implant material for dorsal augmentation in rhinoplasty. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

  20. A Projector-Camera System for Augmented Card Playing and a Case Study with the Pelmanism Game

    Nozomu Tanaka


    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a system for augmented card playing with a projector and a camera to add playfulness and increase communication among players of a traditional card game. The functionalities were derived on the basis of a user survey session with actual players. Playing cards are recognized using a video camera on the basis of a template matching without any artificial marker with an accuracy of > 0.96. Players are also tracked to provide person-dependent services using a video camera from the direction of their hands appearing over a table. These functions are provided as an API; therefore, the user of our system, i.e., a developer, can easily augment playing card games. The Pelmanism game was augmented on top of the system to validate the concept of augmentation. The results showed the feasibility of the system’s performance in an actual environment and the potential of enhancing playfulness and communication among players.

  1. Who’s That Girl? Handheld Augmented Reality for Printed Photo Books

    Henze , Niels; Boll , Susanne


    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; Augmented reality on mobile phones has recently made major progress. Lightweight, markerless object recognition and tracking makes handheld Augmented Reality feasible for new application domains. As this field is technology driven the interface design has mostly been neglected. In this paper we investigate visualization techniques for augmenting printed documents using handheld Augmented Reality. We selected the augmentation of printed ph...

  2. Accurate projected augmented wave datasets for BaFe2As2

    Cao Chao; Wu Yuing; Hamdan, Rashid; Wang, Yunpeng; Cheng Haiping


    By carefully choosing parameters and including more semi-core orbitals as valence electrons, we have constructed a high-quality projected augmented wave dataset that yields results comparable to existing full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave calculations. The dataset was then applied to BaFe 2 As 2 to study the effects of different levels of structure optimization, as well as different choices of exchange-correlation functionals. It was found that the local density approximation exchange-correlation functional fails to find the correct spin-density-wave anti-ferromagnetic (SDW-AFM) ground state under full optimization, while the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional obtains the correct state but significantly overestimates the magnetism. The electronic structure of the SDW-AFM state is not very sensitive to structure optimizations with the PBE exchange-correlation functional because the positions of the As atoms are preserved under optimizations. We further investigated the Ba atom diffusion process on the BaFe 2 As 2 surface using the nudged elastic bands method. The Ba atom was found to be stable above the center of the squares formed by the surface As atoms, and a diffusion barrier of 1.2 eV was found. Our simulated scanning tunneling microscopy image suggests an ordered surface Ba atom structure, in agreement with Massee et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 140507; van Heumen E et al 2010 arXiv:1009.3493v1).

  3. Labia Majora Augmentation: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Jabbour, Samer; Kechichian, Elio; Hersant, Barbara; Levan, Philippe; El Hachem, Lena; Noel, Warren; Nasr, Marwan


    Currently, there is no standardized approach for labia majora augmentation and controversies still exist regarding this subject. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence in the literature regarding labia majora augmentation. On November 20, 2016, we conducted an online search of published articles in the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. All articles describing labia majora augmentation were included in this review. Nine studies were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. Only 2 studies were prospective trials. The most commonly used technique was fat grafting with a total of 4 articles and 183 patients. The mean total injected fat volume ranged from 18 mL to 120 mL per session. Two articles described hyaluronic acid injection techniques. The total injected volume of hyaluronic acid ranged from 2 to 6 mL per session. Three articles used surgical techniques for labia majora augmentation. All included articles did not report any major or life-threatening complications. All techniques demonstrated high satisfaction rates. Labia majora augmentation appears to be a safe, efficient technique with a high satisfaction rate and no reported major complications. However, further randomized controlled trials are warranted. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission:

  4. [Display technologies for augmented reality in medical applications].

    Eck, Ulrich; Winkler, Alexander


    One of the main challenges for modern surgery is the effective use of the many available imaging modalities and diagnostic methods. Augmented reality systems can be used in the future to blend patient and planning information into the view of surgeons, which can improve the efficiency and safety of interventions. In this article we present five visualization methods to integrate augmented reality displays into medical procedures and the advantages and disadvantages are explained. Based on an extensive literature review the various existing approaches for integration of augmented reality displays into medical procedures are divided into five categories and the most important research results for each approach are presented. A large number of mixed and augmented reality solutions for medical interventions have been developed as research prototypes; however, only very few systems have been tested on patients. In order to integrate mixed and augmented reality displays into medical practice, highly specialized solutions need to be developed. Such systems must comply with the requirements with respect to accuracy, fidelity, ergonomics and seamless integration into the surgical workflow.

  5. Composite augmentation phalloplasty: personal experience after 275 patients

    Juan Monreal


    Full Text Available Aim: To report the author's experience in augmentation phalloplasty by studying a retrospective series of patients who underwent fat grafting for girth enhancement or a composite technique based on suspensory ligament release plus fat grafting performed simultaneously. Methods: The author analyzed retrospectively the outcomes of 275 augmentation phalloplasty procedures performed in 259 patients until November 2013. Of these, 127 correspond to girth augmentation with fat grafting and 148 to composite augmentation phalloplasty (girth augmentation with fat grafting and length improvement by suspensory ligament release. In 16 patients girth and length enhancement were performed in two separate procedures. Results: Of this 259 patients, 87 underwent postoperative follow-up for at least 12 months and 160 patients underwent follow-up for at least 6 months. The average increase in circumference at 6 months was 1.7 cm (1.57 cm at 12 months and the average increase in length of 3.2 cm (3.1 cm at 12 months. Twenty-two patients showed minor complications that were treated without sequelae and without influencing the final result. Conclusion: By judicious use of currently available techniques, it is possible to achieve stable increases in penis size. The use of composite techniques provides better final results than the use of individual techniques performed alone due to the increase of the actual volume of the penis. An adequate informed consent is essential in all patients due to the unrealistic expectations expressed by the majority of them.

  6. Liquid crystal true 3D displays for augmented reality applications

    Li, Yan; Liu, Shuxin; Zhou, Pengcheng; Chen, Quanming; Su, Yikai


    Augmented reality (AR) technology, which integrates virtual computer-generated information into the real world scene, is believed to be the next-generation human-machine interface. However, most AR products adopt stereoscopic 3D display technique, which causes the accommodation-vergence conflict. To solve this problem, we have proposed two approaches. The first is a multi-planar volumetric display using fast switching polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) films. By rapidly switching the films between scattering and transparent states while synchronizing with a high-speed projector, the 2D slices of a 3D volume could be displayed in time sequence. We delved into the research on developing high-performance PSLC films in both normal mode and reverse mode; moreover, we also realized the demonstration of four-depth AR images with correct accommodation cues. For the second approach, we realized a holographic AR display using digital blazed gratings and a 4f system to eliminate zero-order and higher-order noise. With a 4k liquid crystal on silicon device, we achieved a field of view (FOV) of 32 deg. Moreover, we designed a compact waveguidebased holographic 3D display. In the design, there are two holographic optical elements (HOEs), each of which functions as a diffractive grating and a Fresnel lens. Because of the grating effect, holographic 3D image light is coupled into and decoupled out of the waveguide by modifying incident angles. Because of the lens effect, the collimated zero order light is focused at a point, and got filtered out. The optical power of the second HOE also helps enlarge FOV.

  7. Brachial Artery Flow-mediated Dilation Following Exercise with Augmented Oscillatory and Retrograde Shear Rate

    Johnson Blair D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute doses of elevated retrograde shear rate (SR appear to be detrimental to endothelial function in resting humans. However, retrograde shear increases during moderate intensity exercise which also enhances post-exercise endothelial function. Since SR patterns differ with the modality of exercise, it is important to determine if augmented retrograde SR during exercise influences post-exercise endothelial function. This study tested the hypothesis that (1 increased doses of retrograde SR in the brachial artery during lower body supine cycle ergometer exercise would attenuate post-exercise flow-mediated dilation (FMD in a dose-dependent manner, and (2 antioxidant vitamin C supplementation would prevent the attenuated post-exercise FMD response. Methods Twelve men participated in four randomized exercise sessions (90 W for 20 minutes on separate days. During three of the sessions, one arm was subjected to increased oscillatory and retrograde SR using three different forearm cuff pressures (20, 40, 60 mmHg (contralateral arm served as the control and subjects ingested placebo capsules prior to exercise. A fourth session with 60 mmHg cuff pressure was performed with 1 g of vitamin C ingested prior to the session. Results Post-exercise FMD following the placebo conditions were lower in the cuffed arm versus the control arm (arm main effect: P P > 0.05. Following vitamin C treatment, post-exercise FMD in the cuffed and control arm increased from baseline (P P > 0.05. Conclusions These results indicate that augmented oscillatory and retrograde SR in non-working limbs during lower body exercise attenuates post-exercise FMD without an evident dose–response in the range of cuff pressures evaluated. Vitamin C supplementation prevented the attenuation of FMD following exercise with augmented oscillatory and retrograde SR suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to the adverse effects of oscillatory and

  8. A Sun Path Observation System Based on Augment Reality and Mobile Learning

    Tarng, Wernhuar; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Lu, Yun-Chen; Shih, Yi-Syuan; Liou, Hsin-Hun


    This study uses the augmented reality technology and sensor functions of GPS, electronic compass, and three-axis accelerometer on mobile devices to develop a Sun path observation system for applications in astronomy education. The orientation and elevation of the Sun can be calculated by the system according to the user’s location and local time to simulate the Sun path. When holding the mobile device toward the sky, the screen will show the virtual Sun at the same position as that of the rea...

  9. Development of a Lunar-Phase Observation System Based on Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning Technologies

    Tarng, Wernhuar; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Chiu-Pin; Ou, Kuo-Liang


    Observing the lunar phase requires long-term involvement, and it is often obstructed by bad weather or tall buildings. In this study, a lunar-phase observation system is developed using the augmented reality (AR) technology and the sensor functions of GPS, electronic compass, and 3-axis accelerometer on mobile devices to help students observe and record lunar phases easily. By holding the mobile device towards the moon in the sky, the screen will show the virtual moon at the position of the r...

  10. PleurAlert: an augmented chest drainage system with electronic sensing, automated alerts and internet connectivity.

    Leeson, Cory E; Weaver, Robert A; Bissell, Taylor; Hoyer, Rachel; McClain, Corinne; Nelson, Douglas A; Samosky, Joseph T


    We have enhanced a common medical device, the chest tube drainage container, with electronic sensing of fluid volume, automated detection of critical alarm conditions and the ability to automatically send alert text messages to a nurse's cell phone. The PleurAlert system provides a simple touch-screen interface and can graphically display chest tube output over time. Our design augments a device whose basic function dates back 50 years by adding technology to automate and optimize a monitoring process that can be time consuming and inconvenient for nurses. The system may also enhance detection of emergency conditions and speed response time.

  11. Issues of Mitigation Strategies in Augmented System for Next Generation Control Room

    Tuan Q. Tran


    Past research on augmented systems has been predominately concerned with measuring and classifying an operator’s functional states. Only recently has the field begun researching mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to add further conceptual understanding to mitigation strategies. Based upon the decision making literature, we pose three issues that mitigation strategies need to resolve: the types of decision strategies an operator uses, the structure of the information that an operator processes, and finally, the cue or pattern of cues that the operator relies on in making decisions. These issues are important to ensure that mitigation strategies are congruent to operator’s decision-making behaviors.

  12. Levothyroxine Augmentation in Clozapine Resistant Schizophrenia: A Case Report and Review

    Ruohollah Seddigh


    Full Text Available There are many reports that show different thyroid abnormalities in schizophrenia without clear establishment of their role in etiology and treatment outcome of schizophrenia. Among these reports, there are only a few that consider a role for thyroid hormones as augmenting agents in the treatment with antipsychotic drugs. This case report outlines symptom subsidence of a patient with clozapine refractory paranoid schizophrenia and normal thyroid function who added levothyroxine to clozapine and found that symptoms of psychosis returned once levothyroxine was discontinued. Although this observation needs to be confirmed in controlled clinical trials, we aimed to discuss possible hypothesized mechanisms underlying this observation.

  13. A Spatial Augmented Reality rehab system for post-stroke hand rehabilitation.

    Mousavi Hondori, Hossein; Khademi, Maryam; Dodakian, Lucy; Cramer, Steven C; Lopes, Cristina Videira


    This paper features a Spatial Augmented Reality system for rehabilitation of hand and arm movement. The table-top home-based system tracks a subject's hand and creates a virtual audio-visual interface for performing rehabilitation-related tasks that involve wrist, elbow, and shoulder movements. It measures range, speed, and smoothness of movements locally and can send the real-time photos and data to the clinic for further assessment. To evaluate the system, it was tested on two normal subjects and proved functional.

  14. The robotic appendicovesicostomy and bladder augmentation: the next frontier in robotics, are we there?

    Cohen, Andrew J; Pariser, Joseph J; Anderson, Blake B; Pearce, Shane M; Gundeti, Mohan S


    There is growing interest in applying robotic-assisted laparoscopic techniques to complex reconstructive pelvic surgery owing to inherent benefits of precision, tissue handling, and articulating instruments for suturing. This review examines preliminary experiences with robotic-assisted laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty and Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy (RALIMA) as either an isolated or combined procedure. These series suggest RALIMA is feasible, with the benefit of early recovery and improved cosmetic results in selected patients. The robotic approach incurs functional outcomes and complication rates similar to those of open techniques. Given the steep learning curve, only surgeons with extensive robotic experience are currently adopting this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Augmented reality (AR and virtual reality (VR applied in dentistry

    Ta-Ko Huang


    Full Text Available The OSCE is a reliable evaluation method to estimate the preclinical examination of dental students. The most ideal assessment for OSCE is used the augmented reality simulator to evaluate. This literature review investigated a recently developed in virtual reality (VR and augmented reality (AR starting of the dental history to the progress of the dental skill. As result of the lacking of technology, it needs to depend on other device increasing the success rate and decreasing the risk of the surgery. The development of tracking unit changed the surgical and educational way. Clinical surgery is based on mature education. VR and AR simultaneously affected the skill of the training lesson and navigation system. Widely, the VR and AR not only applied in the dental training lesson and surgery, but also improved all field in our life. Keywords: OSCE, Dental simulator, Augmented reality, Virtual reality, Dentistry


    Tashko Rizov


    Full Text Available Rapid development of the technology has influenced its inevitable entrance in the learning processes. Teachers are often challenged to use the appropriate educational technology in the process of teaching in order to ease the learning process of students. Introducing new technology in the teaching process should utilize the new technology in any possible way in order to assist the teacher in transferring the knowledge and assist the students in grasping that knowledge. This paper should emphasize the benefits of using augmented reality in higher education, by measuring outcomes of the students which used augmented reality as a teaching tool in the courses. Results from the survey imply that students show significantly improved results in increasing the interest, understanding and interiorizing the learning material. University teachers found that using augmented reality is significantly improving the learning process of students and their teaching process in a pedagogical and technical sense. 

  17. A Foreign Language Learning Application using Mobile Augmented Reality

    Florentin-Alexandru DITA


    Full Text Available In this paper is described a foreign language learning application using mobile augmented reality based on gamification method and text recognition. The mobile augmented reality is a technology that extends the real world elements with 2D or 3D computer generated objects and lets the users interact with them. A Gamification system is based on different mechanisms that increase the motivation of students, due to the impact that videogames have in their emotional, cognitive and social areas. The proposed solution applies Optical Character Recognition technique, using the camera of the mobile device, in order to identify the text written on a card. The implementation combines the features of gamification system and mobile augmented reality in order to make the learning process more easy and fun. This paper aims to present the results after testing the foreign language learning application in different scenarios.

  18. Bibliography on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer

    Bergles, A.E.; Webb, R.L.; Junkhan, G.H.; Jensen, M.K.


    Heat transfer augmentation has developed into a major specialty area in heat transfer research and development. A bibliography of world literature on augmentation is presented. The literature is classified into passive augmentation techniques, which require no external power, and active techniques, which do require external power. The fourteen techniques are grouped in terms of their application to the various modes of heat transfer. Mass transfer is included for completeness. Key words are included with each citation for technique/mode identification. The total number of publications cited is 1,967, including 75 surveys of various techniques and 42 papers on performance evaluation of passive techniques. Patents are not included as they will be the subject of a future topical report

  19. Leptin inhibits and ghrelin augments hypothalamic noradrenaline release after stress.

    Kawakami, Akio; Okada, Nobukazu; Rokkaku, Kumiko; Honda, Kazufumi; Ishibashi, Shun; Onaka, Tatsushi


    Metabolic conditions affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal responses to stressful stimuli. Here we examined effects of food deprivation, leptin and ghrelin upon noradrenaline release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations after stressful stimuli. Food deprivation augmented both noradrenaline release in the PVN and the increase in plasma ACTH concentration following electrical footshocks (FSs). An intracerebroventricular injection of leptin attenuated the increases in hypothalamic noradrenaline release and plasma ACTH concentrations after FSs, while ghrelin augmented these responses. These data suggest that leptin inhibits and ghrelin facilitates neuroendocrine stress responses via noradrenaline release and indicate that a decrease in leptin and an increase in ghrelin release after food deprivation might contribute to augmentation of stress-induced ACTH release in a fasting state.

  20. Augmented-pressure colostogram in imperforate anus with fistula

    Gross, G.W. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Wolfson, P.J. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Surgery); Pena, A. (Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Pediatric Surgery)


    Most newborns with imperforate anus, except for those with very low varieties, undergo a diverting colostomy performed in the postnatal period, with definitive surgical repair at a later age. Accurate demonstration of the anatomy of any associated fistula between the rectum and urogenital tract is essential for optimal surgical management. An augmented-pressure distal segment colostogram is recommended prior to definitive repair, both to confirm the level of rectal atresia and to define any associated fistulous communication. We report a case of high imperforate anus with rectourethral fistula in which the fistulous tract was not identified on the conventional contrast colostogram but was readily delineated when an augmented-pressure modification of the technique was utilized. The technical aspects of augmented-pressure colostography are presented. (orig.).