WorldWideScience

Sample records for full-scale model test

  1. Model Wind Turbines Tested at Full-Scale Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. A.; Kiefer, J.; Westergaard, C.; Hultmark, M.

    2016-09-01

    The enormous length scales associated with modern wind turbines complicate any efforts to predict their mechanical loads and performance. Both experiments and numerical simulations are constrained by the large Reynolds numbers governing the full- scale aerodynamics. The limited fundamental understanding of Reynolds number effects in combination with the lack of empirical data affects our ability to predict, model, and design improved turbines and wind farms. A new experimental approach is presented, which utilizes a highly pressurized wind tunnel (up to 220 bar). It allows exact matching of the Reynolds numbers (no matter how it is defined), tip speed ratios, and Mach numbers on a geometrically similar, small-scale model. The design of a measurement and instrumentation stack to control the turbine and measure the loads in the pressurized environment is discussed. Results are then presented in the form of power coefficients as a function of Reynolds number and Tip Speed Ratio. Due to gearbox power loss, a preliminary study has also been completed to find the gearbox efficiency and the resulting correction has been applied to the data set.

  2. The use of model-test data for predicting full-scale ACV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstell, B. G.; Harry, C. W.

    The paper summarizes the analysis of test data obtained with a 1/12-scale model of the Amphibious Assault Landing Craft (AALC) JEFF(B). The analysis was conducted with the objective of improving the accuracy of drag predictions for a JEFF(B)-type air-cushion vehicle (ACV). Model test results, scaled to full-scale, are compared with full-scale drag obtained in various sea states during JEFF(B) trials. From the results of this comparison, it is found that the Froude-scale model rough-water drag data is consistently greater than full-scale derived drag, and is a function of both wave height and craft forward speed. Results are presented indicating that Froude scaling model data obtained in calm water also causes an over-prediction of calm-water drag at full-scale. An empirical correction that was developed for use on a JEFF(B)-type craft is discussed.

  3. Full scale lightning test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walko, L. C.; Schneider, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A test technique was developed for applying a full scale mean value (30 kiloampere peak) simulated lightning return stroke current on a complete flight ready aircraft to assess the threat of lightning to aircraft electrical circuits. A computer-aided generator design was used to establish the parameters of the test system. Data from previous work done on development of low inductance current paths determined the basic system configuration.

  4. Calibration of Airframe and Occupant Models for Two Full-Scale Rotorcraft Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber under combined impact conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system integrated finite element model of the test article. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to calibrate model results for the second full-scale crash test. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods was used to identify modeling deficiencies, evaluate parameter importance, and propose required model changes. It is shown that the multi-dimensional calibration techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the calibrated model were compared to test results and the original model results. There was a noticeable improvement in the pilot and co-pilot region, a slight improvement in the occupant model response, and an over-stiffening effect in the passenger region. This approach should be adopted early on, in combination with the building-block approaches that are customarily used, for model development and test planning guidance. Complete crash simulations with validated finite element models can be used

  5. Method of Harmonic Balance in Full-Scale-Model Tests of Electrical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatenko, N. I.; Lankin, A. M.; Lankin, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    Methods for determining the weber-ampere characteristics of electrical devices, one of which is based on solution of direct problem of harmonic balance and the other on solution of inverse problem of harmonic balance by the method of full-scale-model tests, are suggested. The mathematical model of the device is constructed using the describing function and simplex optimization methods. The presented results of experimental applications of the method show its efficiency. The advantage of the method is the possibility of application for nondestructive inspection of electrical devices in the processes of their production and operation.

  6. Mathematical modeling and full-scale shaking table tests for multi-curve buckling restrained braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. S. Tsai; Yungchang Lin; Wenshin Chen; H. C. Su

    2009-01-01

    Buckling restrained braces (BRBs) have been widely applied in seismic mitigation since they were introduced in the 1970s. However, traditional BRBs have several disadvantages caused by using a steel tube to envelope the mortar to prevent the core plate from buckling, such as: complex interfaces between the materials used, uncertain precision, and time consumption during the manufacturing processes. In this study, a new device called the multi-curve buckling restrained brace (MC-BRB) is proposed to overcome these disadvantages. The new device consists of a core plate with multiple neck portions assembled to form multiple energy dissipation segments, and the enlarged segment, lateral support elements and constraining elements to prevent the BRB from buckling. The enlarged segment located in the middle of the core plate can be welded to the lateral support and constraining elements to increase buckling resistance and to prevent them from sliding during earthquakes. Component tests and a series of shaking table tests on a full-scale steel structure equipped with MC-BRBs were carried out to investigate the behavior and capability of this new BRB design for seismic mitigation. The experimental results illustrate that the MC-BRB possesses a stable mechanical behavior under cyclic loadings and provides good protection to structures during earthquakes. Also, a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the mechanical characteristics of BRBs.

  7. Modelling and Testing of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Towards Full Scale Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano

    -commercial stage in which it has proven difficult to secure the necessary funding for the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator unit. The work presented aims at easing this process, by increasing public and scientific knowledge of the device, as well as by showing the latest progress in its development. Research....... This is mainly due to the development of an updated overtopping model specifically suited to Wave Dragon, which allows greater quality to predictions of the primary energy absorption of the device compared to previous versions. At the same time an equitable approach has been described and used in the performance......, the research has also provided a deeper insight into the physics of the overtopping process by individually assessing the influence of related device configuration and wave features, which goes beyond the present application and may be used for other overtopping WECs as well. Comprehensive analysis...

  8. ARKTOS full-scale evacuation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, B.; Hatfield, P. [ARKTOS Developments Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Bercha, F. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    The ARKTOS amphibious vehicle can be used for evacuation operations in both open water and ice conditions. It is approved as an evacuation system by various regulators, such as the United States Coast Guard, and is operational in several marine cold regions as an escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) system. An EER research project was performed in 2006 that provided a general reliability evaluation of the ARKTOS system. However, the project did not have the benefit of detailed full-scale tests in order to validate the associated computer model in drill or non-life threatening evacuation conditions. This paper described a follow-up set of full-scale evacuation tests designed to provide more detailed information and validation data for the reliability that the computer model described in the 2006 research project. A description and photographic illustrations of the ARKTOS system were presented. The tests and subsequent analyses were described. Specifically, the paper described the observations, and presented the statistical results from the data collected, and compared observed results with predicted results of a probabilistic EER simulation computer model. Conclusions and recommendations for reliability improvements were also provided. It was concluded that under the benign conditions, the drill performance was satisfactory in all aspects, both in the evacuation activities and the rescue or de-boarding activities. 3 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  9. Crack propagation monitoring in a full-scale aircraft fatigue test based on guided wave-Gaussian mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao; Mei, Hanfei; Ren, Yuanqiang

    2016-05-01

    For aerospace application of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology, the problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions must be addressed and the SHM technology has to be fully validated on real aircraft structures under realistic load conditions on ground before it can reach the status of flight test. In this paper, the guided wave (GW) based SHM method is applied to a full-scale aircraft fatigue test which is one of the most similar test status to the flight test. To deal with the time-varying problem, a GW-Gaussian mixture model (GW-GMM) is proposed. The probability characteristic of GW features, which is introduced by time-varying conditions is modeled by GW-GMM. The weak cumulative variation trend of the crack propagation, which is mixed in time-varying influence can be tracked by the GW-GMM migration during on-line damage monitoring process. A best match based Kullback-Leibler divergence is proposed to measure the GW-GMM migration degree to reveal the crack propagation. The method is validated in the full-scale aircraft fatigue test. The validation results indicate that the reliable crack propagation monitoring of the left landing gear spar and the right wing panel under realistic load conditions are achieved.

  10. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-01-01

    Model of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) under construction. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. Small included angle for the exit cone; 2. Carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. Tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project. In a 1979

  11. Electrochromic Radiator Coupon Level Testing and Full Scale Thermal Math Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Erika T.; Bower, Chad E.; Sheth, Rubik; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    In order to control system and component temperatures, many spacecraft thermal control systems use a radiator coupled with a pumped fluid loop to reject waste heat from the vehicle. Since heat loads and radiation environments can vary considerably according to mission phase, the thermal control system must be able to vary the heat rejection. The ability to "turn down" the heat rejected from the thermal control system is critically important when designing the system. Electrochromic technology as a radiator coating is being investigated to vary the amount of heat rejected by a radiator. Coupon level tests were performed to test the feasibility of this technology. Furthermore, thermal math models were developed to better understand the turndown ratios required by full scale radiator architectures to handle the various operation scenarios encountered during a mission profile for the Altair Lunar Lander. This paper summarizes results from coupon level tests as well as the thermal math models developed to investigate how electrochromics can be used to increase turn down ratios for a radiator. Data from the various design concepts of radiators and their architectures are outlined. Recommendations are made on which electrochromic radiator concept should be carried further for future thermal vacuum testing.

  12. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale test of a railcar and spent-nuclear-fuel shipping cask in a high-velocity impact against a rigid barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, M.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes the mathematical analysis, the physical scale modeling, and a full-scale crash test of a railcar spent-nuclear-fuel shipping system. The mathematical analysis utilized a lumped-parameter model to predict the structural response of the railcar and the shipping cask. The physical scale modeling analysis consisted of two crash tests that used 1/8-scale models to assess railcar and shipping cask damage. The full-scale crash test, conducted with retired railcar equipment, was carefully monitored with onboard instrumentation and high-speed photography. Results of the mathematical and scale modeling analyses are compared with the full-scale test. 29 figures.

  13. Methods for Quantifying the Uncertainties of LSIT Test Parameters, Test Results, and Full-Scale Mixing Performance Using Models Developed from Scaled Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuhn, William L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rector, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report discusses the statistical methods for quantifying uncertainties in 1) test responses and other parameters in the Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT), and 2) estimates of coefficients and predictions of mixing performance from models that relate test responses to test parameters. Testing at a larger scale has been committed to by Bechtel National, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to “address uncertainties and increase confidence in the projected, full-scale mixing performance and operations” in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  14. Full Scale Explosive Tests in Woomera, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUPTA A; MENDIS P; LUMANTARNA R; NGO T

    2006-01-01

    Two large explosion trials (5 000 kg TNT and 500 kg ANFO) were conducted in Woomera,Australia in April/May 2006.Advance Protective Technologies for Engineering Structures (APTES) group tested 2 large single-storey concrete modules with individual components such as doors,windows and tiled panels.A description of the trial and details of various modules tested in these trials are presented in the paper.Numerical modelling and simulations are performed using computer programs,CONWEP,AIR3D and AUTODYN.A comparison of the pressure time histories obtained using these codes is made along with the concluding remarks.

  15. Mechanistic Model for Ash Deposit Formation in Biomass Suspension-Fired Boilers. Part 2: Model Verification by Use of Full Scale Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    describes particle sticking or rebound by a combination of the description of (visco)elsatic particles impacting a solid surface and particle capture by a viscous surface. The model is used to predict deposit formation rates measured during tests conducted with probes in full-scale suspension-fired biomass...... of some physical parameters related to the description of surface capture are suggested. Based on these examinations of the model ability to describe observed deposit formation rates, the proposed model can be regarded as a promising tool for description of deposit formation in full-scale biomass......A model for deposit formation in suspension firing of biomass has been developed. The model describes deposit build-up by diffusion and subsequent condensation of vapors, thermoforesis of aerosols, convective diffusion of small particles, impaction of large particles and reaction. The model...

  16. Performance test results of mock-up model test facility with a full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Kato, Michio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Research on a hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane, chemical reaction; CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O {yields} 3H{sub 2}O + CO, has been carried out to couple with the HTTR for establishment of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization technology and contribution to hydrogen energy society in future. The mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube test facility, a model simulating one reaction tube of a steam reformer of the HTTR hydrogen production system in full scale, was fabricated to perform tests on controllability, hydrogen production performance etc. under the same pressure and temperature conditions as those of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The design and fabrication of the test facility started from 1997, and the all components were installed until September in 2001. In a performance test conducted from October in 2001 to February in 2002, performance of each component was examined and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}{sub N}/h was successfully produced with high-temperature helium gas. This report describes the performance test results on components performance, hydrogen production characteristics etc., and main troubles and countermeasures. (author)

  17. Full-Scale Cookoff Model Validation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, M A; Rattanapote, M K; Heimdahl, E R; Erikson, W E; Curran, P O; Atwood, A I

    2003-11-25

    This paper presents the experimental results of the third and final phase of a cookoff model validation effort. In this phase of the work, two generic Heavy Wall Penetrators (HWP) were tested in two heating orientations. Temperature and strain gage data were collected over the entire test period. Predictions for time and temperature of reaction were made prior to release of the live data. Predictions were comparable to the measured values and were highly dependent on the established boundary conditions. Both HWP tests failed at a weld located near the aft closure of the device. More than 90 percent of unreacted explosive was recovered in the end heated experiment and less than 30 percent recovered in the side heated test.

  18. Full-Scale Dynamic Testing of Dolosse to Destruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1981-01-01

    It is well known that the relative dynamic strength of unreinforced slender concrete units decreases as the size increases. Big units can resist relatively smaller movements than small units. When model tests of cover layer stability are performed the determination of the damage criterion...... that should be adopted must therefore be based on knowledge of the dynamic strength of the corresponding prototype units. With the purpose of establishing a relationship between the size and the dynamic strength of unreinforced units, some full-scale tests to destruction of 1.5 and 5.4 t units were performed...

  19. Evaluation of FRP Confinement Models for Substandard Rectangular RC Columns Based on Full-Scale Reversed Cyclic Lateral Loading Tests in Strong and Weak Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farrokh Ghatte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many theoretical and experimental studies are available on external confinement of columns using fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP jackets, as well as numerous models proposed for the axial stress-axial strain relation of concrete confined with FRP jackets, they have not been validated with a sufficient amount and variety of experimental data obtained through full-scale tests of reinforced concrete (RC columns with different geometrical and mechanical characteristics. Particularly, no systematical experimental data have been presented on full-scale rectangular substandard RC columns subjected to reversed cyclic lateral loads along either their strong or weak axes. In this study, firstly, test results of five full-scale rectangular substandard RC columns with a cross-sectional aspect ratio of two (300 mm × 600 mm are briefly summarized. The columns were tested under constant axial load and reversed cyclic lateral loads along their strong or weak axes before and after retrofitting with external FRP jackets. In the second stage, inelastic lateral force-displacement relationships of the columns are obtained analytically, making use of the plastic hinge assumption and different FRP confinement models available in the literature. Finally, the analytical findings are compared with the test results for both strong and weak directions of the columns. Comparisons showed that use of different models for the stress-strain relationship of FRP-confined concrete can yield significantly non-conservative or too conservative retrofit designs, particularly in terms of deformation capacity.

  20. Modeling and full-scale tests of vortex plasma-fuel systems for igniting high-ash power plant coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Filimonov, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    The processes of supplying pulverized-coal fuel into a boiler equipped with plasma-fuel systems and its combustion in the furnace of this boiler are investigated. The results obtained from 3D modeling of conventional coal combustion processes and its firing with plasma-assisted activation of combustion in the furnace space are presented. The plasma-fuel system with air mixture supplied through a scroll is numerically investigated. The dependence of the swirled air mixture flow trajectory in the vortex plasma-fuel system on the scroll rotation angle is revealed, and the optimal rotation angle at which stable plasma-assisted ignition of pulverized coal flame is achieved is determined.

  1. Effects of aerodynamic fairing on full scale blade fatigue test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zujin; Wu, Jianzhong; Sun, Yuanrong; Jian, Liu

    2017-06-01

    The reliability of large blades should be verified by means of full scale fatigue test. In order to solve the problem of lack of exciting force during fatigue test in the flap wise direction, the program that aerodynamic fairing is installed in the tip of blade to reduce the air resistance is proposed. The numerical model of blade vibration and damping ratio calculation is established. The relationship between damping ratio, exciting force and amplitude is constructed by finite element method respectively. The difference of the exciting bending moment of blade and the damping ratio before and after the installation of aerodynamic fairing is compared respectively. The results show that damping ratio decreased by 27.9%. When the vibration of the blade reaches the target bending moment, the exciting force of the equipment decreases by 45.4%. It is an effective way to reduce the exciting force.

  2. Systems for animal exposure in full-scale fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Two systems for exposing animals in full-scale fire tests are described. Both systems involve the simultaneous exposure of two animal species, mice and rats, in modular units; determination of mortality, morbidity, and behavioral response; and analysis of the blood for carboxyhemoglobin. The systems described represent two of many possible options for obtaining bioassay data from full-scale fire tests. In situations where the temperatures to which the test animals are exposed can not be controlled, analytical techniques may be more appropriate than bioassay techniques.

  3. Dynamic FE simulation of four-story steel frame modeled by solid elements and its validation using results of full-scale shake-table test

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamura, Tomoshi; Yamashita, Takuzo; AKIBA,HIROSHI; Ohsaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic finite element analyses of a four-story steel building frame modeled as a fine mesh of solid elements are performed using E-Simulator, which is a parallel finite element analysis software package for precisely simulating collapse behaviors of civil and building structures. E-Simulator is under development at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED), Japan. A full-scale shake-table test for a four-story frame was conducted using E-Defense at NIED...

  4. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m boxgirder 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test...... of the following tests: 1) Flapwise bending with no reinforcement 2) Flapwise bending with wire reinforcements 3) Flapwise bending with rib reinforcements...

  5. China First Full-scale Comprehensive Drilling Test Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ailin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The full-scale comprehensive drilling test unit built in Daqing Oilfields is the first one in China which can simulate the bottom-hole environments and the working conditions of drilling string with well depth up to 6 000 m.

  6. Confirmatory tests of full-scale condensers for SBWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoni, P. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy); Botti, S. [SIET SpA, Piacenza (Italy); Fitzsimmons, G.W.

    1993-12-31

    A full-scale isolation condenser and a full-scale passive containment cooling condenser for the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) will be tested to confirm the thermal-hydraulic and structural design characteristics of these components. The condensers provide vital roles in removing heat from the reactor vessel and the containment during certain design basis events. This paper describes the condensers and the test facilities which are under construction and summarizes the test objectives, the planned instrumentation, and the conditions to be tested. The results of some pre-test performance predictions, calculated with the TRACG code are presented. The results of the testing program are expected to demonstrate that the condenser designs will provide the required heat removal capacity and will survive the design basis temperature/pressure cycles without structural damage.

  7. Full scale tests of all-steel buckling restrained braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Wu, Bin; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping; Yang, Weibiao

    2009-03-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) are widely used seismic response-controlling members with excellent energy dissipation capacity without buckling at design deformation. However, the property of all-steel BRBs with cruciform cross section encased in a square steel tube remains insufficiently studied. In this paper, the properties of this kind of BRBs, which were used in two office buildings in Beijing, were examined by full-scale test. First, initial design was done according to the client's requirement. Then, two full-scale specimens were tested under uniaxial quasi-static cyclic loading. The test results indicate that there should be no welding in yielding portion of the core. Finally, the full-scale subassemblage test was done with an improved BRB and gusset plates installed in a frame. The result shows that the brace exhibited high energy dissipation capacity and stable hysteretic characteristic. According to the results from above tests, some important issues are summarized to provide advices for practical applications.

  8. Full-scale validation of a model of algal productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchet, Quentin; Shilton, Andy; Guieysse, Benoit

    2014-12-02

    While modeling algal productivity outdoors is crucial to assess the economic and environmental performance of full-scale cultivation, most of the models hitherto developed for this purpose have not been validated under fully relevant conditions, especially with regard to temperature variations. The objective of this study was to independently validate a model of algal biomass productivity accounting for both light and temperature and constructed using parameters experimentally derived using short-term indoor experiments. To do this, the accuracy of a model developed for Chlorella vulgaris was assessed against data collected from photobioreactors operated outdoor (New Zealand) over different seasons, years, and operating conditions (temperature-control/no temperature-control, batch, and fed-batch regimes). The model accurately predicted experimental productivities under all conditions tested, yielding an overall accuracy of ±8.4% over 148 days of cultivation. For the purpose of assessing the feasibility of full-scale algal cultivation, the use of the productivity model was therefore shown to markedly reduce uncertainty in cost of biofuel production while also eliminating uncertainties in water demand, a critical element of environmental impact assessments. Simulations at five climatic locations demonstrated that temperature-control in outdoor photobioreactors would require tremendous amounts of energy without considerable increase of algal biomass. Prior assessments neglecting the impact of temperature variations on algal productivity in photobioreactors may therefore be erroneous.

  9. Rotor blade full-scale fatigue testing technology and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Berring, Peter; Pavese, Christian

    Full scale fatigue test is an important part of the development and design of wind turbine blades. Testing is also needed for the approval of the blades in order for them to be used on large wind turbines. However, usually only one prototype blade is tested. Fatigue test of wind turbine blades...... was started in the beginning of the 1980´s and has been further developed since then. Structures in composite materials are generally difficult and time consuming to test for fatigue resistance. Therefore, several methods for testing of blades have been developed and exist today. These methods...... will be presented in this report giving the blade test facility operator a guide to choose the method that best fit the needs and economic constraints. The state of the art method is currently dual axis mass resonance, where the purpose of the test is to emulate the loads the blades encounter in operation....

  10. Power Performance Test on a Full-Scale Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Wangsness, Erik Brevik

    2014-01-01

    There is a standard made by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for how a power performance test on a full-scale wind turbine should be performed. By using this standard as a guideline, I have performed a power performance test on the 3 MW wind turbine at Valsneset. This was done by measuring the incoming wind towards the wind turbine rotor area with a lidar in conjunction with a cup anemometer at a 33 m high meteorological mast (met-mast). The lidar and cup anemometer measure...

  11. Model of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) under construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-01-01

    Model of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) under construction. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel. 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project. In a 1979

  12. Comparison of contact stresses of the test tyres used by the one third scale model mobile load simulator (MMLS3) and the full-scale test tyres of the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) - a summary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the results of a study in which the maximum vertical contact stressess of the one third scale test tyres of the Model Mobile Load Simulator (MMLS3) were compared with those measured for three types of full-scale test tyres...

  13. Comparison of Test and Finite Element Analysis for Two Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta,Lucas G.

    2011-01-01

    Finite element analyses have been performed for two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of a composite deployable energy absorber under combined flight loads. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish the baseline loads. The use of an energy absorbing device reduced the impact acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to analytical results. Details of the full-scale crash tests and development of the system-integrated finite element model are briefly described along with direct comparisons of acceleration magnitudes and durations for the first full-scale crash test. Because load levels were significantly different between tests, models developed for the purposes of predicting the overall system response with external energy absorbers were not adequate under more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. Relative error comparisons were inadequate to guide model calibration. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used for the second full-scale crash test. The calibrated parameter set reduced 2-norm prediction error by 51% but did not improve impact shape orthogonality.

  14. Microbubble Swarms in a Full-Scale Water Model Tundish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng; Cao, Xiangkun; Zou, Zongshu; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.

    2016-10-01

    Water modeling, using microbubble swarms, was performed in a full-scale, four-strand, delta-shaped tundish, located at the McGill Metals Processing Centre (MMPC). The objective of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of microbubbles in removing inclusions smaller than 50 μm, applying the principles and conditions previously researched using a smaller scale arrangement. Air was injected into a full-scale model of a ladle shroud (the connecting tube through which liquid steel flows into the tundish below). The model ladle shroud was fitted with twelve, laser-drilled orifices, so as to create microbubbles. The bubbles generated using different gas injection protocols were recorded using a high-speed camera, and the bubble images were postprocessed using the commercial software, ImageJ. With this newly designed ladle shroud, bubble sizes could be reduced dramatically, to as small as a 675 µm average diameter. A three-dimensional, CFD model simulation was developed, using parameters obtained from the corresponding water model experiments, in order to predict the behavior of these microbubbles within the tundish and their potential influence on flow patterns and inclusion float-out capability.

  15. Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) does not currently require full-scale physical testing of shipping casks as part of its certification process. Stakeholders have long urged NRC to require full-scale testing as part of certification. NRC is currently preparing a full-scale casktesting proposal as part of the Package Performance Study (PPS) that grew out of the NRC reexamination of the Modal Study. The State of Nevada and Clark County remain committed to the position that demonstration testing would not be an acceptable substitute for a combination of full-scale testing, scale-model tests, and computer simulation of each new cask design prior to certification. Based on previous analyses of cask testing issues, and on preliminary findings regarding the July 2001 Baltimore rail tunnel fire, the authors recommend that NRC prioritize extra-regulatory thermal testing of a large rail cask and the GA-4 truck cask under the PPS. The specific fire conditions and other aspects of the full-scale extra-regulatory tests recommended for the PPS are yet to be determined. NRC, in consultation with stakeholders, must consider past real-world accidents and computer simulations to establish temperature failure thresholds for cask containment and fuel cladding. The cost of extra-regulatory thermal testing is yet to be determined. The minimum cost for regulatory thermal testing of a legal-weight truck cask would likely be $3.3-3.8 million.

  16. Monitoring of a Full-Scale Wing Fatigue Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Jaap; Hwang, Jason

    2014-01-01

    A wing of a decommissioned aircraft of the Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) was fatigue tested to more than two times the design life. Part of the test was the evaluation of load monitoring and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques. For load monitoring the data of conventional resistance

  17. Full-scale load tests of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2017-01-01

    , pre-fabricated, composite, lightweight, concrete deck elements (SL-Decks), that are post-tensioned together into an arch shape. The two Pearl-Chain arches, each with a span of 13m and a rise of 1m, were placed on a post tensioned bearing plate prepared in advance. The aches are tested with load...

  18. Seismic Vibration Control of Elevated Water Tank by TLD and Validation of Full-Scale TLD Model through Real-Time-Hybrid-Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Staino, A.; (D Ghosh, A.; Basu, B.; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-09-01

    Elevated water tanks (EWTs), being top-heavy structures, are highly vulnerable to earthquake forces, and several have experienced damage/failure in past seismic events. However, as these are critical facilities whose continued performance in the post-earthquake scenario is of vital concern, it is significant to investigate their seismic vibration control using reliable and cost-effective passive dampers such as the Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD). Here, this aspect is studied for flexible EWT structures, such as those with annular shaft supports. The criterion of tuning the sloshing frequency of the TLD to the structural frequency necessitates dimensions of the TLD larger than those hitherto examined in literature. Hence the nonlinear model of the TLD based on established shallow water wave theory is verified for large container size by employing Real-Time-Hybrid-Testing (RTHT). Simulation studies are further carried out on a realistic example of a flexible EWT structure with TLDs. Results indicate that the TLD can be applied very effectively for the seismic vibration mitigation of EWTs.

  19. Finite Element Simulation of Three Full-Scale Crash Tests for Cessna 172 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian H.; Warren, Jerry E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELT-SAR) project was initiated in 2013 to assess the crash performance standards for the next generation of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) systems. Three Cessna 172 aircraft were acquired to perform crash testing at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility. Full-scale crash tests were conducted in the summer of 2015 and each test article was subjected to severe, but survivable, impact conditions including a flare-to-stall during emergency landing, and two controlled-flight-into-terrain scenarios. Full-scale finite element analyses were performed using a commercial explicit solver, ABAQUS. The first test simulated impacting a concrete surface represented analytically by a rigid plane. Tests 2 and 3 simulated impacting a dirt surface represented analytically by an Eulerian grid of brick elements using a Mohr-Coulomb material model. The objective of this paper is to summarize the test and analysis results for the three full-scale crash tests. Simulation models of the airframe which correlate well with the tests are needed for future studies of alternate ELT mounting configurations.

  20. Simulating the Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber. Part 2; Full-Scale Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Jackson, Karen E.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has sponsored research to evaluate an externally deployable composite honeycomb designed to attenuate loads in the event of a helicopter crash. The concept, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), is an expandable Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) honeycomb. The DEA has a flexible hinge that allows the honeycomb to be stowed collapsed until needed during an emergency. Evaluation of the DEA began with material characterization of the Kevlar(Registered TradeMark)-129 fabric/epoxy, and ended with a full-scale crash test of a retrofitted MD-500 helicopter. During each evaluation phase, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark). The paper will focus on simulations of two full-scale impact tests involving the DEA, a mass-simulator and a full-scale crash of an instrumented MD-500 helicopter. Isotropic (MAT24) and composite (MAT58) material models, which were assigned to DEA shell elements, were compared. Based on simulations results, the MAT58 model showed better agreement with test.

  1. Full-Scale Accident Testing in Support of Used Nuclear Fuel Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Rechard, Rob P.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2014-09-01

    The safe transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is an important aspect of the waste management system of the United States. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently certifies spent nuclear fuel rail cask designs based primarily on numerical modeling of hypothetical accident conditions augmented with some small scale testing. However, NRC initiated a Package Performance Study (PPS) in 2001 to examine the response of full-scale rail casks in extreme transportation accidents. The objectives of PPS were to demonstrate the safety of transportation casks and to provide high-fidelity data for validating the modeling. Although work on the PPS eventually stopped, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future recommended in 2012 that the test plans be re-examined. This recommendation was in recognition of substantial public feedback calling for a full-scale severe accident test of a rail cask to verify evaluations by NRC, which find that risk from the transport of spent fuel in certified casks is extremely low. This report, which serves as the re-assessment, provides a summary of the history of the PPS planning, identifies the objectives and technical issues that drove the scope of the PPS, and presents a possible path for moving forward in planning to conduct a full-scale cask test. Because full-scale testing is expensive, the value of such testing on public perceptions and public acceptance is important. Consequently, the path forward starts with a public perception component followed by two additional components: accident simulation and first responder training. The proposed path forward presents a series of study options with several points where the package performance study could be redirected if warranted.

  2. Drag coefficients of lattice masts from full-scale wind-tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Støttrup-Andersen, Ulrik; Johnsen, Marie;

    2009-01-01

    :5 scale section model tests performed at the National Physics Laboratory and the National Maritime Institute in the UK in the 1970´s. ESDU provides velocity-dependent drag coefficients equivalent to those obtained from the same series of tests. In all cases, the mast legs and diagonals are comprised......In this paper, the drag coefficients obtained from a series of full-scale section model wind-tunnel tests of several lattice mast configurations are presented and compared to those provided in Eurocode 3 and ESDU. The drag coefficients provided in Eurocode are conservative interpretations of 1...

  3. Simulating the Impact Response of Three Full-Scale Crash Tests of Cessna 172 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.; Annett, Martin S.; Stimson, Chad M.

    2017-01-01

    During the summer of 2015, a series of three full-scale crash tests were performed at the Landing and Impact Research Facility located at NASA Langley Research Center of Cessna 172 aircraft. The first test (Test 1) represented a flare-to-stall emergency or hard landing onto a rigid surface. The second test (Test 2) represented a controlled-flight- into-terrain (CFIT) with a nose down pitch attitude of the aircraft, which impacted onto soft soil. The third test (Test 3) also represented a CFIT with a nose up pitch attitude of the aircraft, which resulted in a tail strike condition. Test 3 was also conducted onto soft soil. These crash tests were performed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of Emergency Locator Transmitters and to generate impact test data for model calibration. Finite element models were generated and impact analyses were conducted to simulate the three impact conditions using the commercial nonlinear, transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA®. The objective of this paper is to summarize test-analysis results for the three full-scale crash tests.

  4. LS-DYNA Analysis of a Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter was conducted in December 2009 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research facility (LandIR). The MD-500 helicopter was fitted with a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) and tested under vertical and horizontal impact velocities of 26 ft/sec and 40 ft/sec, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of a system integrated LS-DYNA finite element model. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests was conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components, including a new crush tube and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined within the system integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. The objective of this paper is to summarize the finite element models developed and analyses performed, beginning with pre-test and continuing through post test validation.

  5. Boeing Smart Rotor Full-scale Wind Tunnel Test Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Hagerty, Brandon; Salazar, Denise

    2016-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor test was conducted in the USAF National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames. The SMART rotor system is a five-bladed MD 902 bearingless rotor with active trailing-edge flaps. The flaps are actuated using piezoelectric actuators. Rotor performance, structural loads, and acoustic data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles of attack, thrust, and airspeeds. The primary test objective was to acquire unique validation data for the high-performance computing analyses developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Helicopter Quieting Program (HQP). Other research objectives included quantifying the ability of the on-blade flaps to achieve vibration reduction, rotor smoothing, and performance improvements. This data set of rotor performance and structural loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies with other full-scale rotor systems and for analytical validation of computer simulation models. The purpose of this final data report is to document a comprehensive, highquality data set that includes only data points where the flap was actively controlled and each of the five flaps behaved in a similar manner.

  6. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that

  7. Full-scale crash test and FEM simulation of a crashworthy helicopter seat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Da-yong; ZHANG Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Crashworthy seat structure with considerable energy absorption capacity is a key component for aircraft to improve its crashworthiness and occupant survivability in emergencies. According to Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) regulations, seat performance must be certified by dynamic crash test which is quite expensive and time-consuming. For this reason, numerical simulation is a more efficient and economical approach to provide the possibility to assess seat performances and predict occupant responses. A numerical simulation of the crashworthy seat structure was presented and the results were also compared with the full-scale crash test data. In the numerical simulation, a full-scale three-dimensional finite element model of the seat/occupant structure was developed using a nonlinear and explicit dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA3D. Emphasis of the numerical simulation was on predicting the dynamic response of seat/occupant system,including the occupant motion which may lead to injuries,the occupant acceleration-time histories, and the energy absorbing behavior of the energy absorbers. The agreement between the simulation and the physical test suggestes that the developed numerical simulation can be a feasible substitute for the dynamic crash test.

  8. Fine water spray system: Extinguishing tests in medium and full-scale turbine hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighus, R.; Aune, P.; Drangsholt, G.; Stensaas, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    The report is based on the results from two test series, called Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the project 'Halon Replacement by Fine Water Spray Technology - Turbine Hood application'. Detailed results are presented in technical reports from Phase 1 and Phase 2. The tests were carried out in two different scales, one 30 cu m test enclosure formerly used to characterize different water spray nozzles, and a full scale 70 cu m model of a turbine hood. The scope of work in Phase 1 was to identify the extinguishing characteristics of various nozzles developed by BP Sunbury Research Center, UK, and to verify the efficiency of a total fire suppression system developed by Ginge-Kerr Offshore. The fire suppression system uses a twin-fluid nozzles using air and water at pressures about 5 bar. The nozzles produce a water spray with small droplets and high velocity. The scope of work of Phase 2 was to verify the efficiency of the Fine Water Spray nozzles fighting a variety of fire scenarios which may occur in a real turbine hood. A full scale test enclosure containing a mock-up of a turbine heated internally to simulate hot metal surfaces, with insulation mats and piping as in a real turbine hood was constructed in the large test hall of SINTEF NBL. The turbine hood model was built by elements of a Multipurpose Fire Test Rig. Realistic fires with Diesel pool- and spray fires, fires in insulation mats soaked with Diesel oil under different ventilation conditions were ignited in the turbine hood model. Number of Fine Water Spray nozzles, nozzle position and spraying sequences were varied. A base for design of a Fine Water Spray system for a turbine hood is developed, and several unique features of the performance of a Fine Water Spray fire suppression system have been documented.

  9. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  10. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-12-31

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  11. Fatigue life on a full scale test rig: Forged versus cast wind turbine rotor shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, J.; Rauert, T.; Dalhoff, P.; Sander, M.

    2016-09-01

    To reduce uncertainties associated with the fatigue life of the highly safety relevant rotor shaft and also to review today's design practice, the fatigue behaviour will be tested on a full scale test rig. Until now tests on full scale wind turbine parts are not common. Therefore, a general lack of experience on how to perform accelerated life time tests for those components exists. To clarify how to transfer real conditions to the test environment, the arrangements and deviations for the upcoming experimental test are discussed in detail. In order to complete investigations of weight saving potentials, next to getting a better comprehension of the fatigue behaviour by executing a full scale test, a further outcome are suggestions for the usage of cast and forged materials regarding the fatigue and the remaining life of the rotor shaft. It is shown, that it is worthwhile to think about a material exchange for the forged rotor shaft.

  12. Design of full scale wave simulator for testing Power Take Off systems for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H. C.; Hansen, R. H.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    For wave energy to become a major future contributor of renewable energy it is a requirement that the efficiency and reliability of the Power Take-Off (PTO) systems is significantly improved. However, the cost of installing and testing PTO-systems at sea is very high. The focus of the current paper...... is therefore on the design and commissioning of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The challenge is to be able to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system – especially when considering discrete type PTO......-systems. The paper presents the designed system, including the major design considerations. A model of the complete system is presented and controllers for the system are developed. These enable the system to emulate the wave behavior and the wave–float interaction. Finally both simulation and experimental results...

  13. Smouldering Remediation (STAR) Technology: Field Pilot Tests and First Full Scale Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, J.; Kinsman, L.; Torero, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an innovative remediation technology based on the principles of smoldering combustion where the contaminants are the fuel. The self-sustaining aspect means that a single, local ignition event can result in many days of contaminant destruction in situ. Presented research to date has focused on bench scale experiments, numerical modelling and process understanding. Presented here is the maturation of the in situ technology, including three field pilot tests and a full-scale implementation to treat coal tar-impacted soils. The first pilot determined a Radius of Influence (ROI) for a single ignition of approximately eight feet with an average propagation rate of the reaction of approximately one foot per day. TPH concentrations in soils were reduced from 10,000 milligrams per kilogram to a few hundred milligrams per kilogram. The second pilot was conducted in an area of significant void spaces created through the anthropogenic deposition of clay bricks and tiles. The void spaces led to pre-mature termination of the combustion reaction, limiting ROI and the effectiveness of the technology in this setting. The third case study involved the pilot testing, design, and full-scale implementation of STAR at a 37-acre former chemical manufacturing facility. Three phases of pilot testing were conducted within two hydrogeologic units at the site (i.e., surficial fill and deep alluvial sand units). Pilot testing within the fill demonstrated self-sustained coal tar destruction rates in excess of 800 kg/day supported through air injection at a single well. Deep sand unit testing (twenty-five feet below the water table) resulted in the treatment of a targeted six-foot layer of impacted fine sands to a radial distance of approximately twelve feet. These results (and additional parameters) were used to develop a full-scale STAR design consisting of approximately 1500 surficial fill ignition points and 500 deep sand ignition

  14. Full Scale Component Test Facility KOPRA - Qualification Test of EPR Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykora, Alexander; Herr, Wolfgang [AREVA NP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany); Champomier, Francois [AREVA NP SAS, Tour AREVA - Cedex 16, 92084 Paris-La Defense (France)

    2008-07-01

    The test facility KOPRA is designed for full scale-tests on nuclear components under operational conditions. One part of it is the component test loop for developing and qualifying nuclear core components respecting temperature, pressure and mass flow of pressurized water reactor conditions. The KOPRA test facility and its measuring equipment is presented through qualification tests for the control rod drive mechanism and the control rod drive line of the new European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). The control rod drive mechanism qualification test program is split into three different test phases. At first, performance tests are conducted to verify the adequate performance of the new equipment, e.g. measurement of rod cluster control assembly drop time under different thermal hydraulic conditions, impact velocity of drive rod on CRDM latch tips and drive rod acceleration during stepping operation by means of strain gauges or through direct measurement. After these functional tests follow the stability tests to ensure that proper functioning is reliably achieved over an appreciable amount of time and the endurance tests to quantify the amount of time and/or the number of steps during which no appreciable wear, that could possibly alter the correct behaviour, is to be expected. (authors)

  15. Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R -1 4 -3 Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements G eo te ch n ic al...2014 Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements Mariely Mejías-Santiago, Jesse D. Doyle, and John F... asphalt (WMA) mixtures designed for airfield pavements. Three WMA mixtures were evaluated and compared to a control hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mixture. Data

  16. Wind tunnel testing of a full scale helicopter blade section with an upstream active Gurney flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, R.; Freire Gomez, J.; Booker, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed on an aerofoil section comparable to that of a full scale helicopter blade section with an upstream active Gurney flap in the framework of the European project CleanSky ITD Green RotorCraft. A modified NACA0012 profile was used, with 23 Kulite pressure transducers em

  17. Interpersonal Transport of Droplet Nuclei among Three Manikins in a Full-Scale Test Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on occupants’ exposure of droplet nuclei exhaled by one susceptible in a full-scale test room. Three breathing thermal manikins are standing in the middle of room and both the process in the microenvironment and in the macroenvironment are considered. A diffusive ceiling has been...

  18. Interpersonal Transport of Expiratory Aerosols among Three Manikins in a Full-Scale Test Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on occupants’ exposure of aerosols exhaled by one susceptible in a full-scale test room. Three breathing thermal manikins are standing in the middle of room and both the process in the microenvironment and in the macroenvironment are considered. A diffusive ceiling has been...

  19. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  20. Full-Scale Crash Test of a MD-500 Helicopter with Deployable Energy Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    A new externally deployable energy absorbing system was demonstrated during a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter. The deployable system is a honeycomb structure and utilizes composite materials in its construction. A set of two Deployable Energy Absorbers (DEAs) were fitted on the MD-500 helicopter for the full-scale crash demonstration. Four anthropomorphic dummy occupants were also used to assess human survivability. A demonstration test was performed at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR). The test involved impacting the helicopter on a concrete surface with combined forward and vertical velocity components of 40-ft/s and 26-ft/s, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of dynamic finite element simulations. Descriptions of this test as well as other component and full-scale tests leading to the helicopter test are discussed. Acceleration data from the anthropomorphic dummies showed that dynamic loads were successfully attenuated to within non-injurious levels. Moreover, the airframe itself survived the relatively severe impact and was retested to provide baseline data for comparison for cases with and without DEAs.

  1. Standard full-scale chamber test conditions for examination of mineral wool products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhl, H.D. [Glasuld, Vamdrup (Denmark); Husemoen, T. [Rockwool International A/S, Hedehusene (Denmark); Lindqvist, H. [Gullfiber AB, Billisholm (Sweden); Nordh, I. [Partek Insulation AB, Skoevde (Sweden); Trappmann, J. [Gruenzweig und Hartmann AG, Ladenburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Eurima, the European Insulation Manufacturers` Association, has carried through a project on standardisation of a full-scale chamber method for regulation purposes by simulation of building site fibre emission from mineral wool products during installation. For some years five Eurima member companies have worked with individual full-scale chamber measurements, using different chamber sizes and installation procedures. Due to different test conditions, the previous test results obtained are not comparable and thus form an unreliable basis for determination of a standard method. The chamber size and several other parameters seem to influence the fibre concentration. During the project in question all relevant parameters, which are considered to have a measurable impact on the fibre concentration, have been examined, and suitable standard test conditions have been defined according to the test results. (orig.)

  2. Emergency Locator Transmitter System Performance During Three Full-Scale General Aviation Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full-scale crash tests were conducted on three Cessna 172 aircraft at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research facility during the summer of 2015. The purpose of the three tests was to evaluate the performance of commercially available Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) systems and support development of enhanced installation guidance. ELTs are used to provide location information to Search and Rescue (SAR) organizations in the event of an aviation distress situation, such as a crash. The crash tests simulated three differing severe but survivable crash conditions, in which it is expected that the onboard occupants have a reasonable chance of surviving the accident and would require assistance from SAR personnel. The first simulated an emergency landing onto a rigid surface, while the second and third simulated controlled flight into terrain. Multiple ELT systems were installed on each airplane according to federal regulations. The majority of the ELT systems performed nominally. In the systems which did not activate, post-test disassembly and inspection offered guidance for non-activation cause in some cases, while in others, no specific cause could be found. In a subset of installations purposely disregarding best practice guidelines, failure of the ELT-to-antenna cabling connections were found. Recommendations for enhanced installation guidance of ELT systems will be made to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 229 for consideration for adoption in a future release of ELT minimum operational performance specifications. These recommendations will be based on the data gathered during this test series as well as a larger series of crash simulations using computer models that will be calibrated based on these data

  3. SRM Internal Flow Tests and Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis. Volume 2; CFD RSRM Full-Scale Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the full-scale analyses of the CFD RSRM. The RSRM model was developed with a 20 second burn time. The following are presented as part of the full-scale analyses: (1) RSRM embedded inclusion analysis; (2) RSRM igniter nozzle design analysis; (3) Nozzle Joint 4 erosion anomaly; (4) RSRM full motor port slag accumulation analysis; (5) RSRM motor analysis of two-phase flow in the aft segment/submerged nozzle region; (6) Completion of 3-D Analysis of the hot air nozzle manifold; (7) Bates Motor distributed combustion test case; and (8) Three Dimensional Polysulfide Bump Analysis.

  4. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski [Technical University of Ostrava (VSB), Ostrava (Czech Republic). Department of Energy Engineering

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  6. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk;

    This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between...... the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds...... of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, 330 strain gauges, 24 mechanical displacement devices and two optical deformation measuring systems. The mechanical displacement devices measured both global (absolute) and local (relative) deflection and the optical systems measured...

  7. Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W. [and others

    1994-06-01

    The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the {open_quote}normal{close_quote} configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge.

  8. Characterizing the Influence of Abstraction in Full-Scale Wind Turbine Nacelle Testing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schkoda, Ryan; Bibo, Amin; Guo, Yi; Lambert, Scott; Wallen, Robb

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in full-scale wind turbine nacelle testing to complement individual component testing. As a result, several wind turbine nacelle test benches have been built to perform such testing with the intent of loading the integrated components as they are in the field. However, when mounted on a test bench the nacelle is not on the top of a tower and does not have blades attached to it--this is a form of abstraction. This paper aims to quantify the influence of such an abstraction on the dynamic response of the nacelle through a series of simulation case studies. The responses of several nacelle components are studied including the main bearing, main shaft, gearbox supports, generator, and yaw bearing interface. Results are presented to highlight the differences in the dynamic response of the nacelle caused by the abstraction. Additionally, the authors provide recommendations for mitigating the effects of the abstraction.

  9. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  10. Characterizing the Influence of Abstraction in Full-Scale Wind Turbine Nacelle Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schkoda, Ryan; Bibo, Amin; Guo, Yi; Lambert, Scott; Wallen, Robb

    2016-08-21

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in full-scale wind turbine nacelle testing to complement individual component testing. As a result, several wind turbine nacelle test benches have been built to perform such testing with the intent of loading the integrated components as they are in the field. However, when mounted on a test bench the nacelle is not on the top of a tower and does not have blades attached to it - this is a form of abstraction. This paper aims to quantify the influence of such an abstraction on the dynamic response of the nacelle through a series of simulation case studies. The responses of several nacelle components are studied including the main bearing, main shaft, gearbox supports, generator, and yaw bearing interface. Results are presented to highlight the differences in the dynamic response of the nacelle caused by the abstraction. Additionally, the authors provide recommendations for mitigating the effects of the abstraction.

  11. TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

  12. Optimizing the configuration of a clearwell by integrating pilot and full-scale tracer testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenjun; DU Zhipeng; JIN Junwei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the main factors impacting the plug flow pattern of a clearwell were investigated by integrating pilot-scale,full-scale clearwell tracer testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation.It was found that pilot tracer testing,full-scale tracer testing and CFD simulation all demonstrated that the correlation between the ratio of t10/T and L/W can be approximately expressed by:t10/T= 0.189 41n(L/W)-0.049 4.This study confirmed that the installation of baffles within clearwells is an efficient way to optimize their configuration.In addition,the inlet velocity has a minimal contribution to the ratio of t10/T.However,the ratio of turning channel width to charmel width (d/W)significantly contributes to the ratio of t10/T.The optimal ratio of d/W is 0.8-1.2 for maintaining better plug flow pattern.The number of turning channels is one of the main factors that impact the ratio of t10/T.When increasing the number of turning channels,a lower ratio of t10/T is obtained.

  13. Blade Displacement Measurement Technique Applied to a Full-Scale Rotor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Olson, Lawrence E.; Romander, Ethan A.; Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2012-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry were acquired during the full-scale wind tunnel test of the UH-60A Airloads rotor, conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The objectives were to measure the blade displacement and deformation of the four rotor blades as they rotated through the entire rotor azimuth. These measurements are expected to provide a unique dataset to aid in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. They are used to resolve the blade shape and position, including pitch, flap, lag and elastic deformation. Photogrammetric data encompass advance ratios from 0.15 to slowed rotor simulations of 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology and system development, descriptions of image processing, uncertainty considerations, preliminary results covering static and moderate advance ratio test conditions and future considerations are presented. Comparisons of experimental and computational results for a moderate advance ratio forward flight condition show good trend agreements, but also indicate significant mean discrepancies in lag and elastic twist. Blade displacement pitch measurements agree well with both the wind tunnel commanded and measured values.

  14. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.

  15. Properties important to mixing and simulant recommendations for WTP full-scale vessel testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-01

    Full Scale Vessel Testing (FSVT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc., to demonstrate the ability of the standard high solids vessel design (SHSVD) to meet mixing requirements over the range of fluid properties planned for processing in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. WTP personnel requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in FSVT. Among the tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that are important to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) performance in WTP vessels with elevated concentrations of solids.

  16. Human factors evaluation of the HL-20 full-scale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, Kelli F.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Willshire, William L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The human factors testing of the HL-20 personnel launch system full-scale model was conducted in both the vertical and horizontal positions at NASA Langley Research Center. Three main areas of testing were considered: an anthropometric fit evaluation, the ingress and egress of a 10-person crew, and pilot viewing. The subjects, ranging from the 5th to 95th percentile size, had sufficient clearance in the model, with the exception of the last two rows of seats and the cockpit area. Adjustable seat heights and/or placement of the seats farther forward would provide more headroom. In the horizontal position, the model's seat placement and aisle width allowed a quick and orderly 10-person egress for the no-keel (a structural support running the length on the aisle), 6-in.-high keel, and 12-in.-high keel conditions. Egress times were less than 20 s. For the vertical position, the model's long cylindrical shape with the ladder in the ceiling allowed a quick and orderly egress with average times less than 30 s. Ingress and egress procedures were demonstrated using Shuttle partial-pressure suits. The reduced mobility experienced while wearing the suits did increase egress times, although they still remained acceptable. The window arrangement for pilot viewing was found to be reasonably acceptable, although slight modifications, such as an increased downward view, is desirable.

  17. Instrumentation and data acquisition for full-scale aircraft crash testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1993-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Dynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center has been conducting full-scale aircraft crash tests since the 1970s. Using a pendulum method, aircraft are suspended by cables from a 240-ft high gantry and swung into the impact surface at various attitudes and velocities. Instrumentation for these tests include on-board high-speed cameras, strain gages, load cells, displacement transducers, and accelerometers. Transducers in the aircraft are hard-wired through a long umbilical cable to the data acquisition room. Up to 96 channels of data can be collected at a typical rate of 4000 samples per second. Data acquisition using an FM multiplexed analog system and a high-speed personal computer based digital system is described.

  18. Modelling and Simulation of Variable Speed Thruster Drives with Full-Scale Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan F. Hansen

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper considerations about modelling and simulation of variable speed thruster drives are made with comparison to full scale measurements from Varg FPSO. For special purpose vessels with electric propulsion operating in DP (Dynamic Positioning mode the thruster drives are essential for the vessel operation. Different model strategies of thruster drives are discussed. An advanced thruster drive model with a dynamic motor model and field vector control principle is shown. Simulations are performed with both the advanced model and a simplified model. These are compared with full-scale measurements from Varg FPSO. The simulation results correspond well with the measurements, for both the simplified model and the advanced model.

  19. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot

  20. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

    2010-06-30

    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the

  1. Interpersonal Transport of Expiratory Aerosols among Three Manikins in a Full-Scale Test Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    the average exposure is low. Two symmetrically located target manikins have different exposures of droplet nuclei exhaled by one susceptible manikin. CFD simulations were also conducted to predict the aerosols deposited on the targets’ body surfaces. 3 droplet nuclei were predicted to land on the left target......This study focuses on occupants’ exposure of aerosols exhaled by one susceptible in a full-scale test room. Three breathing thermal manikins are standing in the middle of room and both the process in the microenvironment and in the macroenvironment are considered. A diffusive ceiling has been...... installed to induce fresh air without generating sensible drafts in an occupied zone with fully mixing flow. The exposures of two target manikins to aerosols exhaled by one susceptible manikin were measured. Tracer gas N2O was used to simulate droplet nuclei. Comparisons on different mutual distances were...

  2. Patient Litter System Response in a Full-Scale CH-46 Crash Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenbach, Charles A; Rooks, Tyler; Bowman, Troy; Fralish, Vince; McEntire, B Joseph

    2017-03-01

    U.S. Military aeromedical patient litter systems are currently required to meet minimal static strength performance requirements at the component level. Operationally, these components must function as a system and are subjected to the dynamics of turbulent flight and potentially crash events. The first of two full-scale CH-46 crash tests was conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center and included an experiment to assess patient and litter system response during a severe but survivable crash event. A three-tiered strap and pole litter system was mounted into the airframe and occupied by three anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). During the crash event, the litter system failed to maintain structural integrity and collapsed. Component structural failures were recorded from the litter support system and the litters. The upper ATD was displaced laterally into the cabin, while the middle ATD was displaced longitudinally into the cabin. Acceleration, force, and bending moment data from the instrumented middle ATD were analyzed using available injury criteria. Results indicated that a patient might sustain a neck injury. The current test illustrates that a litter system, with components designed and tested to static requirements only, experiences multiple component structural failures during a dynamic crash event and does not maintain restraint control of its patients. It is unknown if a modern litter system, with components tested to the same static criteria, would perform differently. A systems level dynamic performance requirement needs to be developed so that patients can be provided with protection levels equivalent to that provided to seated aircraft occupants.

  3. Static and fatigue experimental tests on a full scale fuselage panel and FEM analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Sepe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A fatigue test on a full scale panel with complex loading condition and geometry configuration has been carried out using a triaxial test machine. The demonstrator is made up of two skins which are linked by a transversal butt-joint, parallel to the stringer direction. A fatigue load was applied in the direction normal to the longitudinal joint, while a constant load was applied in the longitudinal joint direction. The test panel was instrumented with strain gages and previously quasi-static tests were conducted to ensure a proper load transferring to the panel. In order to support the tests, geometric nonlinear shell finite element analyses were conducted to predict strain and stress distributions. The demonstrator broke up after about 177000 cycles. Subsequently, a finite element analysis (FEA was carried out in order to correlate failure events; due to the biaxial nature of the fatigue loads, Sines criterion was used. The analysis was performed taking into account the different materials by which the panel is composed. The numerical results show a good correlation with experimental data, successfully predicting failure locations on the panel.

  4. System-Integrated Finite Element Analysis of a Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Test with Deployable Energy Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter was conducted in December 2009 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research facility (LandIR). The MD-500 helicopter was fitted with a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) and tested under vertical and horizontal impact velocities of 26-ft/sec and 40-ft/sec, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of a system integrated finite element model. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests was conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components, including a new crush tube and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined within the system integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. The objective of this paper is to summarize the finite element models developed and analyses performed, beginning with pre-test predictions and continuing through post-test validation.

  5. Source emission and model evaluation of formaldehyde from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the measurement and model evaluation of formaldehyde source emissions from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber under dynamic conditions using ASTM D 6670-01 (2007). Four brands of the same type furniture product were tested. The data we...

  6. Investigation of Bearing Axial Cracking: Benchtop and Full-Scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gould, Benjamin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greco, Aaron [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-16

    The most common failure mode in wind turbine gearboxes is axial cracking in intermediate and high-speed-stage bearings, also commonly called white-etching cracks (WECs). Although these types of cracks have been reported for over a decade, the conditions leading to WECs, the process by which this failure culminates, and the reasons for their apparent prevalence in wind turbine gearboxes are all highly debated. This paper summarizes the state of a multipronged research effort to examine the causes of WECs in wind turbine gearbox bearings. Recent efforts have recreated WECs on a benchtop test rig in highly loaded sliding conditions, wherein it was found that the formation of a dark etching microstructure precedes the formation of a crack, and a crack precedes the formation of white-etching microstructure. A cumulative frictional sliding energy criterion has been postulated to predict the presence of WECs. Bearing loads have also been measured and predicted in steady state and transient drivetrain operations in dynamometer testing. In addition, both loads and sliding at full scale will be measured in planned uptower drivetrain testing. If the cumulative frictional sliding energy is the dominant mechanism that causes WECs, understanding the amount of frictional sliding energy that wind turbine bearings are subjected to in typical operations is the next step in the investigation. If highly loaded sliding conditions are found uptower, similar to the examined benchtop levels, appropriate mitigation solutions can be examined, ranging from new bearing coatings and improved lubricants to changes in gearbox designs and turbine operations.

  7. Development of a full-scale laboratory testing facility for soil-pipeline interaction research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.; Wijewickreme, D. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of a new full-scale testing facility at the University of British Columbia to investigate soil-pipe interactions of common utility pipeline installations. The range of applications was also presented. The capacity to displace pipeline segments up to one meter in order to study the highly flexible behaviour of polyethylene pipelines was incorporated into the modular construction of the soil box. This system can study the response of a wide range of typical buried pipe configurations subjected to axial and transverse soil loadings corresponding to multiple applications. This test facility was used to study the performance of buried polyethylene (PE) gas distribution pipelines subjected to slow, axial permanent ground displacements. Axial load test results showed that mobilized axial soil resistance on the piping depends on the interface friction angle and the potential reduction of stress levels due to arching of the soil outside the interface shear zone. For polyethylene pipes, the axial soil resistance is affected by the associated reduction of the diameter of the pipeline due to tensile straining. Much more deformation occurred in polyethylene pipelines from direct strain measurements, compared to what might be expected in steel pipelines for a given level of loading. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Full-Scale Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Prototype Development and Testing for Advanced Spacesuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus; Mitchell, Keith; Dillon, Paul; Weaver, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    The spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME) is being developed to perform the thermal control function for advanced spacesuits to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology in providing a robust heat-rejection device that is potentially less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. Principles of a sheet membrane SWME design were demonstrated using a prototypic test article that was tested in a vacuum chamber at JSC in July 1999. The Membrana Celgard X50-215 microporous hollow fiber (HoFi) membrane was selected after recent contamination tests as the superior candidate among commercial alternatives for HoFi SWME prototype development. Although a number of design variants were considered, one that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape, was deemed best for further development. An analysis of test data showed that eight layer stacks of the HoFi sheets that had good exposure on each side of the stack would evaporate water with high efficiency. A design that has 15,000 tubes, with 18 cm of exposed tubes between headers has been built and tested that meets the size, weight, and performance requirements of the SWME. This full-scale prototype consists of 30 stacks, each of which are formed into a chevron shape and separated by spacers and organized into three sectors of ten nested stacks. Testing has been performed to show contamination resistance to the constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by the distillation processes. Other tests showed the sensitivity to surfactants.

  9. Manufacturing and testing of full scale prototype for ITER blanket shield block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa-Woong, E-mail: swkim12@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Hoi; Jung, Hun-Chea [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Ki [WONIL Co., Ltd., Haman (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Chan [POSCO Specialty Steel Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Fu; Kim, Byoung-Yoon [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ahn, Hee-Jae; Lee, Hyeon-Gon; Jung, Ki-Jung [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • 316L(N)-IG forged steel was successfully fabricated and qualified. • Related R&D activities were implemented to resolve the fabrication issues. • SB #8 FSP was successfully manufactured with conventional fabrication techniques. • All of the validation tests were carried out and met the acceptance criteria. - Abstract: Based on the preliminary design of the ITER blanket shield block (SB) #8, the full scale prototype (FSP) has been manufactured and tested in accordance with pre-qualification program, and related R&D was performed to resolve the technical issues of fabrication. The objective of the SB pre-qualification program is to demonstrate the acceptable manufacturing quality by successfully passing the formal test program. 316L(N)-IG stainless steel forging blocks with 1.80L × 1.12W × 0.43t (m) were developed by using an electric arc furnace, and as a result, the material properties were satisfied with technical specification. In the course of applying conventional fabrication techniques such as cutting, milling, drilling and welding of the forged stainless steel block for the manufacturing of the SB #8 FSP, several technical problems have been addressed. And also, the hydraulic connector of cross-forged material re-melted by electro slag or vacuum arc requires the application of advanced joining techniques such as automatic bore TIG and friction welding. Many technical issues – drilling, welding, slitting, non-destructive test and so on – have been raised during manufacturing. Associated R&D including the computational simulation and coupon testing has been done in collaboration with relevant industries in order to resolve these engineering issues. This paper provides technical key issues and their possible resolutions addressed during the manufacture and formal test of the SB #8 FSP, and related R&D.

  10. Overview of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) Full Scale Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin; Littell, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) full-scale tests were performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility in 2013 and 2014. Two CH-46E airframes were impacted at 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocities onto soft soil, which represents a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. TRACT 1 provided a baseline set of responses, while TRACT 2 included retrofits with composite subfloors and other crash system improvements based on TRACT 1. For TRACT 2, a total of 18 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and activation of emergency locator transmitters and crash sensors. Combinations of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 ATDs were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. The structural response of the airframe was assessed based on accelerometers located throughout the airframe and using three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques. Analysis of the photogrammetric data indicated regions of maximum deflection and permanent deformation. The response of TRACT 2 was noticeably different in the horizontal direction due to changes in the cabin configuration and soil surface, with higher acceleration and damage occurring in the cabin. Loads from ATDs in energy absorbing seats and restraints were within injury limits. Severe injury was likely for ATDs in forward facing passenger seats.

  11. Non-Axisymmetric Inflatable Pressure Structure (NAIPS) Full-Scale Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Warren, Jerry E.; Watson, Judith J.; Shariff, Khadijah; Makino, Alberto; Yount, Bryan C.

    2017-01-01

    Inflatable space structures have the potential to significantly reduce the required launch volume for large pressure vessels required for exploration applications including habitats, airlocks and tankage. In addition, mass savings can be achieved via the use of high specific strength softgoods materials, and the reduced design penalty from launching the structure in a densely packaged state. Large inclusions however, such as hatches, induce a high mass penalty at the interfaces with the softgoods and in the added rigid structure while reducing the packaging efficiency. A novel, Non-Axisymmetric Inflatable Pressure Structure (NAIPS) was designed and recently tested at NASA Langley Research Center to demonstrate an elongated inflatable architecture that could provide areas of low stress along a principal axis in the surface. These low stress zones will allow the integration of a flexible linear seal that substantially reduces the added mass and volume of a heritage rigid hatch structure. This paper describes the test of the first full-scale engineering demonstration unit (EDU) of the NAIPS geometry and a comparison of the results to finite element analysis.

  12. Qualification test of the EPR control rod drive mechanism in the full scale component test facility KOPRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Wolfgang; Sykora, Alexander; Kleideiter, Ansgar [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Champomier, Francois [AREVA NP SAS, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) and the mobile set consisting of rod cluster control assembly (RCC-A) of the evolutionary power reactor (EPR) had to pass a full scale qualification test in representative site conditions. The KOPRA core test section in Erlangen is precisely designed for full scale tests on nuclear core components in respect to coolant temperature and volume flow of PWR site conditions. In the test channel the complete geometry of the central core position of the reactor pressure vessel is simulated with 1:1 scale. The performance test program has led to an optimized test sequence through small adjustments in operating parameters of CRDM. The endurance test program has demonstrated that all tested components, i.e. the CRDN, the control rod driveline and the components of the drop channel are able to function properly and to meet the specification goals.

  13. Combustion performance of flame-ignited high-speed train seats via full-scale tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining the combustion characteristics of combustibles in high-speed trains is the foundation of evaluating the fire hazard on high-speed trains scientifically, and establishing effective active and passive fire precautions. In this study, the double seats in the compartments of CRH1 high-speed trains were used as the main research object. Under different test conditions, including the power of ignition sources and ventilation rates, full-scale furniture calorimeter tests were conducted to study important fire combustion characteristics such as the ignition characteristics of seats, heat release rate, mass loss rate, total heat release, temperature variation, and smoke release rate. The relationships among these parameters were analyzed and summarized into combustion behavior and characteristics, thus providing fundamental data and reference for the development of fire precautions and safety design of high-speed trains. The results in this test are as follows: (i The double seats of high-speed trains are relatively easy to ignite and susceptible to the fire ground environment. (ii The combustion temperature in the test apparatus exceeded 600 °C in only 2 min for the larger ignition source. (iii The heat release rate exceeded 800 kW. (iv The total heat release resulted mainly from flame combustion. (v The final mass loss rate was ∼30%. (vi The lowest light transmittance was <25%. (vii The change process of temperature with time has the same trend as the change process of heat release rate. (viii Suppressing flame combustion and controlling the smoke generated from the seat materials themselves played key roles in retarding the combustion of high-speed train seats.

  14. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

    2003-05-07

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

  15. Full-scale flight tests of aircraft morphing structures using SMA actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, James H.; Calkins, Frederick T.; Ruggeri, Robert T.

    2007-04-01

    In August of 2005 The Boeing Company conducted a full-scale flight test utilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators to morph an engine's fan exhaust to correlate exhaust geometry with jet noise reduction. The test was conducted on a 777-300ER with GE-115B engines. The presence of chevrons, serrated aerodynamic surfaces mounted at the trailing edge of the thrust reverser, have been shown to greatly reduce jet noise by encouraging advantageous mixing of the free, and fan streams. The morphing, or Variable Geometry Chevrons (VGC), utilized compact, light weight, and robust SMA actuators to morph the chevron shape to optimize the noise reduction or meet acoustic test objectives. The VGC system was designed for two modes of operation. The entirely autonomous operation utilized changes in the ambient temperature from take-off to cruise to activate the chevron shape change. It required no internal heaters, wiring, control system, or sensing. By design this provided one tip immersion at the warmer take-off temperatures to reduce community noise and another during the cooler cruise state for more efficient engine operation, i.e. reduced specific fuel consumption. For the flight tests a powered mode was added where internal heaters were used to individually control the VGC temperatures. This enabled us to vary the immersions and test a variety of chevron configurations. The flight test demonstrated the value of SMA actuators to solve a real world aerospace problem, validated that the technology could be safely integrated into the airplane's structure and flight system, and represented a large step forward in the realization of SMA actuators for production applications. In this paper the authors describe the development of the actuator system, the steps required to integrate the morphing structure into the thrust reverser, and the analysis and testing that was required to gain approval for flight. Issues related to material strength, thermal environment, vibration

  16. Evaluation of the First Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 1) Full-Scale Crash Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Bark, Lindley W.; DeWeese, Rick L.; McEntire, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the NASA Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Program initiated the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program by obtaining two CH-46E helicopters from the Navy CH-46E Program Office (PMA-226) at the Navy Flight Readiness Center in Cherry Point, North Carolina. Full-scale crash tests were planned to assess dynamic responses of transport-category rotorcraft under combined horizontal and vertical impact loading. The first crash test (TRACT 1) was performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR), which enables the study of critical interactions between the airframe, seat, and occupant during a controlled crash environment. The CH-46E fuselage is categorized as a medium-lift rotorcraft with fuselage dimensions comparable to a regional jet or business jet. The first TRACT test (TRACT 1) was conducted in August 2013. The primary objectives for TRACT 1 were to: (1) assess improvements to occupant loads and displacement with the use of crashworthy features such as pre-tensioning active restraints and energy absorbing seats, (2) develop novel techniques for photogrammetric data acquisition to measure occupant and airframe kinematics, and (3) provide baseline data for future comparison with a retrofitted airframe configuration. Crash test conditions for TRACT 1 were 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocity onto soft soil, which represent a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. The extraordinary value of the TRACT 1 test was reflected by the breadth of meaningful experiments. A total of 8 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate ATD responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and photogrammetric techniques. A combination of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. Loads from ATDs in energy

  17. Metabolic modelling of full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Ana B; Oehmen, Adrian; Saunders, Aaron M; Carvalho, Gilda; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the application of metabolic models incorporating polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) towards describing the biochemical transformations of full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activated sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For this purpose, it was required to modify previous metabolic models applied to lab-scale systems by incorporating the anaerobic utilisation of the TCA cycle and the aerobic maintenance processes based on sequential utilisation of polyhydroxyalkanoates, followed by glycogen and polyphosphate. The abundance of the PAO and GAO populations quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridisation served as the initial conditions of each biomass fraction, whereby the models were able to describe accurately the experimental data. The kinetic rates were found to change among the four different WWTPs studied or even in the same plant during different seasons, either suggesting the presence of additional PAO or GAO organisms, or varying microbial activities for the same organisms. Nevertheless, these variations in kinetic rates were largely found to be proportional to the difference in acetate uptake rate, suggesting a viable means of calibrating the metabolic model. The application of the metabolic model to full-scale sludge also revealed that different Accumulibacter clades likely possess different acetate uptake mechanisms, as a correlation was observed between the energetic requirement for acetate transport across the cell membrane with the diversity of Accumulibacter present. Using the model as a predictive tool, it was shown that lower acetate concentrations in the feed as well as longer aerobic retention times favour the dominance of the TCA metabolism over glycolysis, which could explain why the anaerobic TCA pathway seems to be more relevant in full-scale WWTPs than in lab-scale systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6

  19. Full-scale testing of pipework systems and flexible risers subject to noise and vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Every, M.J.; Goyder, G.D.; Jee, T.; Swindell, R.

    2005-07-01

    The occurrence of potentially damaging noise and vibration levels in pipework has required the development of a full-scale testing facility. This facility can expose pipework to high static pressures and flow and can generate the large dynamic pressures that constitute noise. A consortium was formed that assembled the various specialist knowledge needed for the test facility. The outcome of the test work enables production flow through a flexible riser system throughout a range of flow rates and most significantly to be substantially increased. The benefits are an increased profitability of the asset, greater confidence in fatigue life prediction and an improved understanding for use in design. Flexible risers are increasingly being used offshore and most recently for the export of dry gas. This has given rise to the phenomenon of the 'singing riser', which generates sufficiently large noise levels to cause fatigue damage to the riser system. This phenomenon is currently limiting production rates offshore. As gas flows within the riser it passes over internal corrugation, which gives rise to vortex shedding from corrugated edges. The frequency of the vortex shedding is described by the Strouhal relationship so that it depends upon the flow velocity and the riser geometry. It appears from measurements on several offshore risers that this is fairly constant for a range of export pressures and flow rates. The shedding of the vortices is not necessarily correlated along the length of the riser. However, if there is small-bore pipework attached to the riser system which has a similar acoustic frequency to the Strouhal frequency then 'lock-on' can occur which may cause full correlation of vortex shedding. The lock-on mechanism is not totally understood but when the small-bore pipework's acoustic frequency is excited it provides a positive feed back to enhance the vortex shedding within the riser. The consequence is that the shedding within the

  20. Full-Scale Accelerated Testing of Multi-axial Geogrid Stabilized Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The inclusion of geosynthetics in pavement structures has been utilized as a means of reducing costs and/or extending pavement service life. These... labor and equipment requirements. As new geosynthetic products are developed, full-scale performance data are needed to provide quantifiable benefits to

  1. Testing of Full Scale Flight Qualified Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Yoder, Tommy; Forsyth, Brad; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    Many decades ago NASA identified a need for low-mass pressure vessels for carrying various fluids aboard rockets, spacecraft, and satellites. A pressure vessel design known as the composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) was identified to provide a weight savings over traditional single-material pressure vessels typically made of metal and this technology has been in use for space flight applications since the 1970's. A typical vessel design consisted of a thin liner material, typically a metal, overwrapped with a continuous fiber yarn impregnated with epoxy. Most designs were such that the overwrapped fiber would carry a majority of load at normal operating pressures. The weight advantage for a COPV versus a traditional singlematerial pressure vessel contributed to widespread use of COPVs by NASA, the military, and industry. This technology is currently used for personal breathing supply storage, fuel storage for auto and mass transport vehicles and for various space flight and aircraft applications. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was recently asked to review the operation of Kevlar 2 and carbon COPVs to ensure they are safely operated on NASA space flight vehicles. A request was made to evaluate the life remaining on the Kevlar COPVs used on the Space Shuttle for helium and nitrogen storage. This paper provides a review of Kevlar COPV testing relevant to the NESC assessment. Also discussed are some key findings, observations, and recommendations that may be applicable to the COPV user community. Questions raised during the investigations have revealed the need for testing to better understand the stress rupture life and age life of COPVs. The focus of this paper is to describe burst testing of Kevlar COPVs that has been completed as a part of an the effort to evaluate the effects of ageing and shelf life on full scale COPVs. The test articles evaluated in this discussion had a diameter of 22 inches for S/N 014 and 40 inches for S/N 011. The

  2. Toward a full-scale computational model of the rat dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Calvin J; Bezaire, Marianne; Soltesz, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in parallel computing, including the creation of the parallel version of the NEURON simulation environment, have allowed for a previously unattainable level of complexity and detail in neural network models. Previously, we published a functional NEURON model of the rat dentate gyrus with over 50,000 biophysically realistic, multicompartmental neurons, but network simulations could only utilize a single processor. By converting the model to take advantage of parallel NEURON, we are now able to utilize greater computational resources and are able to simulate the full-scale dentate gyrus, containing over a million neurons. This has eliminated the previous necessity for scaling adjustments and allowed for a more direct comparison to experimental techniques and results. The translation to parallel computing has provided a superlinear speedup of computation time and dramatically increased the overall computer memory available to the model. The incorporation of additional computational resources has allowed for more detail and elements to be included in the model, bringing the model closer to a more complete and accurate representation of the biological dentate gyrus. As an example of a major step toward an increasingly accurate representation of the biological dentate gyrus, we discuss the incorporation of realistic granule cell dendrites into the model. Our previous model contained simplified, two-dimensional dendritic morphologies that were identical for neurons of the same class. Using the software tools L-Neuron and L-Measure, we are able to introduce cell-to-cell variability by generating detailed, three-dimensional granule cell morphologies that are based on biological reconstructions. Through these and other improvements, we aim to construct a more complete full-scale model of the rat dentate gyrus, to provide a better tool to delineate the functional role of cell types within the dentate gyrus and their pathological changes observed in epilepsy.

  3. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan - Final.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  4. Full-Scale Approximations of Spatio-Temporal Covariance Models for Large Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bohai

    2014-01-01

    Various continuously-indexed spatio-temporal process models have been constructed to characterize spatio-temporal dependence structures, but the computational complexity for model fitting and predictions grows in a cubic order with the size of dataset and application of such models is not feasible for large datasets. This article extends the full-scale approximation (FSA) approach by Sang and Huang (2012) to the spatio-temporal context to reduce computational complexity. A reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) algorithm is proposed to select knots automatically from a discrete set of spatio-temporal points. Our approach is applicable to nonseparable and nonstationary spatio-temporal covariance models. We illustrate the effectiveness of our method through simulation experiments and application to an ozone measurement dataset.

  5. Putting in operation a full-scale ultracold-neutron source model with superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Prudnikov, D. V.; Keshishev, K. O.; Boldarev, S. T.; Vasil'ev, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    A project of the source of ultracold neutrons for the WWR-M reactor based on superfluid helium for ultracold-neutron production has been developed. The full-scale source model, including all required cryogenic and vacuum equipment, the cryostat, and the ultracold-neutron source model has been created. The superfluid helium temperature T = 1.08 K without a heat load and T = 1.371 K with a heat load on the simulator of P = 60 W has been achieved in experiments at a technological complex of the ultracold-neutron source. The result proves the feasibility of implementing the ultracold-neutron source at the WWR-M reactor and the possibility of applying superfluid helium in nuclear engineering.

  6. Experimental study on CO2/CO of typical lining materials in full-scale fire test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; ZHANG HePing; WAN YuTian

    2007-01-01

    Lining materials are widely used in buildings to cover walls and ceilings. Combustible linings may produce a potential high fire hazard in buildings. Once ignited, it propagates fire and accelerates the enclosure fire growth. Two types of lining materials were studied during the tests: blook board and plywood. The test was conducted in an ISO 9705 room, where linings were mounted on walls without the ceiling. By changing the heat output of the burner, the ventilation, etc., the concentrations of CO2/CO of different lining materials were researched. The effect of test conditions on the production of CO2/CO of different lining materials was investigated, and useful experimental data were provided for the further development of numerical modeling to simulate enclosure fire growth lined with combustible materials.

  7. SRM Internal Flow Tests and Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis. Volume 2; RSRM Full Scale Motor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the RSRM Nozzle Slag Ejection Precursor Test is to investigate the effect that slag ejection from the RSRM nozzle has on the chamber pressure and trust of the SRB's. In past firings of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) both static test and flight motors have shown small pressure perturbations occurring primarily between 65 and 80 seconds. A joint NASA/Thiokol team investigation concluded that the cause of the pressure perturbations was the periodic ingestion and ejection of molten aluminum oxide slag from the cavity around the submerged nozzle nose which tends to trap and collect individual aluminum oxide droplets from the approach flow. The conclusions of the team were supported by numerous data and observations from special tests including high speed photographic films, real time radiography, plume calorimeters, accelerometers, strain gauges, nozzle TVC system force gauges, and motor pressure and thrust data. A simplistic slag ballistics model was formulated to relate a given pressure perturbation to a required slag quantity. Also, a cold flow model using air and water was developed to provide data on the relationship between the slag flow rate and the chamber pressure increase. Both the motor and the cold flow model exhibited low frequency oscillations in conjunction with periods of slag ejection. Motor and model frequencies were related to scaling parameters. The data indicate that there is a periodicity to the slag entrainment and ejection phenomena which is possibly related to organized oscillations from instabilities in the dividing streamline shear layer which impinges on the underneath surface of the nozzle.

  8. Initiation of trailing edge failure in full-scale wind turbine blade test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich; Branner, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of a numerical shell model simulation and its predictive capabilities with existing failure criteria are compared to experiments of a 34 m long blade tested to ultimate failure. Strengths and weaknesses of in-plane failure criteria are highlighted and the geometrical...... non-linear buckling effect of the trailing edge under combined loading, and how it affects the ultimate strength of a blade in a trailing-edge failure dominated load direction were investigated. The study details the interaction between trailing edge buckling on damage onset and sandwich panel failure...

  9. Full scale wind turbine test of vortex generators mounted on the entire blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac;

    2016-01-01

    are compared to the predictions carried out by a developed design tool, where the effect of vortex generators and leading edge roughness is simulated using engineering models. The measurements showed that if vortex generators are mounted there is an increase in flapwise blade moments if the blades are clean......Measurements on a heavily instrumented pitch regulated variable speed Vestas V52 850 kW wind turbine situated at the DTU Risø Campus are carried out, where the effect of vortex generators mounted on almost the entire blade is tested with and without leading edge roughness. The measurements...

  10. Aerodynamic study of different cyclist positions: CFD analysis and full-scale wind-tunnel tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2010-05-07

    Three different cyclist positions were evaluated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind-tunnel experiments were used to provide reliable data to evaluate the accuracy of the CFD simulations. Specific features of this study are: (1) both steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and unsteady flow modelling, with more advanced turbulence modelling techniques (Large-Eddy Simulation - LES), were evaluated; (2) the boundary layer on the cyclist's surface was resolved entirely with low-Reynolds number modelling, instead of modelling it with wall functions; (3) apart from drag measurements, also surface pressure measurements on the cyclist's body were performed in the wind-tunnel experiment, which provided the basis for a more detailed evaluation of the predicted flow field by CFD. The results show that the simulated and measured drag areas differed about 11% (RANS) and 7% (LES), which is considered to be a close agreement in CFD studies. A fair agreement with wind-tunnel data was obtained for the predicted surface pressures, especially with LES. Despite the higher accuracy of LES, its much higher computational cost could make RANS more attractive for practical use in some situations. CFD is found to be a valuable tool to evaluate the drag of different cyclist positions and to investigate the influence of small adjustments in the cyclist's position. A strong advantage of CFD is that detailed flow field information is obtained, which cannot easily be obtained from wind-tunnel tests. This detailed information allows more insight in the causes of the drag force and provides better guidance for position improvements.

  11. Full scale wind turbine test of vortex generators mounted on the entire blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Christian; Skrzypiński, Witold; Gaunaa, Mac; Villanueva, Hector; Brønnum, Niels F.; Kruse, Emil K.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements on a heavily instrumented pitch regulated variable speed Vestas V52 850 kW wind turbine situated at the DTU Risø Campus are carried out, where the effect of vortex generators mounted on almost the entire blade is tested with and without leading edge roughness. The measurements are compared to the predictions carried out by a developed design tool, where the effect of vortex generators and leading edge roughness is simulated using engineering models. The measurements showed that if vortex generators are mounted there is an increase in flapwise blade moments if the blades are clean, but also that the loads are almost neutral when vortex generators are installed if there is leading edge roughness on the blades. Finally, it was shown that there was a good agreement between the measurements and the predictions from the design tool.

  12. Full-scale simulation and reduced-order modeling of a thermoacoustic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalo, Carlo; Lin, Jeff; Lele, Sanjiva; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2013-11-01

    We have carried out the first three-dimensional numerical simulation of a thermoacoustic Stirling heat-engine. The goal is to lay the groundwork for full-scale Navier-Stokes simulations to advance the state-of-the-art low-order modeling and design of such devices. The model adopted is a long resonator with a heat-exchanger/regenerator (HX/REG) unit on one end - the only component not directly resolved. A temperature difference across the HX/REG unit of 200 K is sufficient to initiate the thermoacoustic instability. The latter is a Lagrangian process that only intensifies acoustic waves traveling in the direction of the imposed temperature gradient. An acoustic network of traveling waves is thus obtained and compared against low-order prediction tools such as DeltaEC. Non-linear effects such as system-wide streaming flow patterns are rapidly established. These are responsible for the mean advection of hot fluid away from the HX/REG (i.e. thermal leakage). This unwanted effect is contained by the introduction of a second ambient heat-exchanger allowing for the establishment of a dynamical thermal equilibrium in the system. A limit cycle is obtained at +178 dB.

  13. Heat transfer tests conducted on full-scale model, to investigate cooling conditions of EL.3 experimental reactor; Essais de transmission de chaleur sur maquette pour l'etude du refroidissement de la pile EL 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Butzbach, M.; Domenjoud, M. [Alsthom, 75 - Paris (France); Bousquet, M. [Chantiers de l' Atlantique (France); Braudeau, M.; Milliat, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    For such high heat flux density as is released in the channels of EL3 reactor (2.10{sup 6} kcal/m{sup 2}h on the hottest point) cooling conditions have proved to be satisfactory, that is free from nucleate boiling. The arrangements provided for these tests and the technique used for measurements (of temperature particularly) are specified. Two fields have been investigated: in the former (forced convection without nucleate boiling) a good agreement is found with Colburn's formula. The influence of the ratio L/D is pointed out. The latter field is of forced convection with beginning of nucleate boiling; there the observed raise of the transfer coefficient has been shown occurring with some delay. (author)Fren. [French] A la valeur elevee prevue pour la densite de flux de chaleur (2.10{sup 6} kcal/m{sup 2}h au point le plus chaud) il est verifie que le refroidissement de la pile s'effectue normalement (sans ebullition de paroi). Les essais sont menes sur la maquette grandeur nature d'un canal d'EL3. Les dispositions relatives a la conduite des essais et a la technique des mesures (de temperature en particulier) sont precisees. Deux domaines sont etudies; pour t{sub p} < T{sub sat} (convection forcee sans ebullition de paroi) on constate un bon accord avec la formule de Colburn, avec toutefois l'influence du rapport L/D. Pour t{sub p} < T{sub sat} (debut d'ebullition) l'augmentation prevue du coefficient de transmission presente un certain retard. (auteur)

  14. Development of a full scale remote steerable ECRH mm-wave launching system test set-up for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzendoorn, B.S.Q. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands)], E-mail: ben@rijnh.nl; Bongers, W.A.; Graswinckel, M.F. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jamar, J. [TNO Science and Industry, Business Unit Design and Manufacturing, Eindhoven, P.O. Box 6235, 5600 HE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kruijt, O.G.; Lamers, B.; Ronden, D.M.S. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Verhoeven, A.G.A

    2007-10-15

    FOM is developing a full-scale mock-up of the mm-wave upper-port launching system for electron cyclotron resonance heating in ITER. The test set-up foresees in most of the typical ITER operation conditions, e.g. primary vacuum and the secondary vacuum, blanket cooling and component cooling conditions. All relevant operational ITER conditions except neutron radiation can be simulated, including baking conditions. The fabrication of the launching system mock-up will be the last step in the development phase, which will be characterized by the fabrication of test samples and mm-wave tests and calculations. The parameterized modeling of mm-wave beam propagation in CATIA [D.M.S. Ronden, et al., Parameterized modeling of mm-wave beam propagation of the ITER ECRH remote steering upper port launcher in CATIA, this conference] (8th figure in this article) the test and calculation results will be used for the built to print design of the remote steering ECRH launcher for the ITER upper ports [A.G.A. Verhoeven, et al., Design of the Remote Steering ITER ECRH Upper Port Launcher, this conference].

  15. Novel shear capacity testing of ASR damaged full scale concrete bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Søren Gustenhoff; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A large number of concrete bridges in Denmark have to undergo wide-ranging maintenance work to prevent deterioration due to aggressive Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR). This destructive mechanism results in extensive cracking which is believed to affect the load carrying capacity of the structure...... be moved between the slab test specimens, was constructed and the test areas were made in a way which enabled simple repair of the damaged areas after testing. In general, the novel test method worked very well since it provided an on site test method, which efficiently provides an evaluation of the load...

  16. Validation of a surge model by full scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, H.J.; Meulendijks, D.; Smeulers, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Surge of turbo compressors can cause large stepwise changes in flow and pressure, which can potentially damage the compressor and any equipment that is in direct connection with the compressor. Surge is usually avoided by an anti surge controller (ASC). However, in spite of the ASC surge cycles may

  17. Validation of a surge model by full scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeulers, J.P.M.; Slot, H.J.; Meulendijks, D.

    2011-01-01

    Surge of turbo compressors can cause large stepwise changes in flow and pressure, which can potentially damage the compressor and any equipment that is in direct connection with the compressor. Surge is usually avoided by an anti surge controller (ASC). However, in spite of the ASC surge cycles may

  18. Validation of a surge model by full scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeulers, J.P.M.; Gonzalez Díez, N.; Slot, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Surge of turbo compressors can cause large almost step like changes in flow and pressure, which can potentially damage the compressor and any equipment that is in direct connection with the compressor. In spite of an anti-surge controller (ASC), at extreme events surge cycles may occur. In order to

  19. Advanced topics on rotor blade full-scale structural fatigue testing and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Peter; Fedorov, Vladimir; Belloni, Federico

    further developed since then. Structures in composite materials are generally difficult and time consuming to test for fatigue resistance. Therefore, several methods for testing of blades have been developed and exist today. Those methods are presented in [1]. This report deals with more advanced topics...... for fatigue testing of wind turbine blades. One challenge is how to fatigue test blades under realistic conditions. In order to study this topic a finite element based multibody formulation using the floating frame of reference approach is used to study fatigue loading under different external conditions...

  20. Development and pilot testing of full-scale membrane distillation modules for deployment of waste heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; Assink, J.W.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Medevoort, J. van; Sonsbeek, E. van

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for extracting fresh water from seawater. Newly developed modules have been used in pilot tests and bench scale tests to demonstrate the potential of producing excellent product water quality in a single step, little need for water pretreatment and a

  1. Full scale testing of wind turbine blade to failure - flapwise loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, E.R.; Borum, Kaj Kvisgaard; McGugan, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    A 25m wind turbine blade was tested to failure when subjected to a flapwise load. With the test setup, it was possible to test the blade to failure at three different locations. The objective of these tests is to learn about how a wind turbine bladefails when exposed to a large flapwise load...... and how failures propagate. The report shows also results from ultrasonic scan of the surface of the blade and it is seen to be very useful for the detection of defects, especially in the layer between the skinlaminate and the load carrying main spar. Acoustic emission was successfully used as sensor...... for the detection of damages in the blade during the test. The report contains measurements of the total deflection of the blade, the local deflection of the skinand the load carrying main spar and also measurement of strain all as a function of the applied load and up to failure of the blade. The “post mortem...

  2. Calibration of full-scale accelerated pavement testing data using long-term pavement performance data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    VdM Steyn, WJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) has always been conducted with the objective of improving the understanding of real pavements under real traffic and environmental conditions. While APT provides an accelerated view of some of the major structural...

  3. Characterisation and full-scale production testing of multifunctional surfaces for deep drawing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    assisted polishing. Advanced methods are employed to characterise the tools' surface topographies, detecting the surface features and analysing them separately according to their specific function. Four different multifunctional dies as well as two un-textured references are selected for testing. The tests...... are run using a non-hazardous, environmentally friendly lubricant, and the forming forces are constantly recorded. Multifunctional dies exhibit very good performances, with no galling occurrence and punch forces generally lower than the two references....

  4. Full Scale Test of SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Data Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2010-01-15

    This report is a part of a research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The applied load is 60% of an unrealistic extreme event, corresponding to 75% of a certificated extreme load. This report describes the background, the test set up, the tests and the results. For this project, a new solution has been used for the load application and the solution for the load application is described in this report as well. The blade has been submitted to thorough examination. More areas have been examined with DIC, both global and local deflections have been measured, and also 378 strain gauge measurements have been performed. Furthermore Acoustic Emission has been used in order to detect damage while testing new load areas. The global deflection is compared with results from a previous test and results from FEM analyses in order to validate the solution as to how the gravity load on the blade was handled. Furthermore, the DIC measurement and the displacement sensors measurements are compared in order to validate the results from the DIC measurements. The report includes the results from the test and a description of the measurement equipment and the data acquisition. (author)

  5. Modeling basin- and plume-scale processes of CO2 storage for full-scale deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Mehnert, E.; Lin, Y.-F.; Zhang, K.

    2009-08-15

    Integrated modeling of basin- and plume-scale processes induced by full-scale deployment of CO{sub 2} storage was applied to the Mt. Simon Aquifer in the Illinois Basin. A three-dimensional mesh was generated with local refinement around 20 injection sites, with approximately 30 km spacing. A total annual injection rate of 100 Mt CO{sub 2} over 50 years was used. The CO{sub 2}-brine flow at the plume scale and the single-phase flow at the basin scale were simulated. Simulation results show the overall shape of a CO{sub 2} plume consisting of a typical gravity-override subplume in the bottom injection zone of high injectivity and a pyramid-shaped subplume in the overlying multilayered Mt. Simon, indicating the important role of a secondary seal with relatively low-permeability and high-entry capillary pressure. The secondary-seal effect is manifested by retarded upward CO{sub 2} migration as a result of multiple secondary seals, coupled with lateral preferential CO{sub 2} viscous fingering through high-permeability layers. The plume width varies from 9.0 to 13.5 km at 200 years, indicating the slow CO{sub 2} migration and no plume interference between storage sites. On the basin scale, pressure perturbations propagate quickly away from injection centers, interfere after less than 1 year, and eventually reach basin margins. The simulated pressure buildup of 35 bar in the injection area is not expected to affect caprock geomechanical integrity. Moderate pressure buildup is observed in Mt. Simon in northern Illinois. However, its impact on groundwater resources is less than the hydraulic drawdown induced by long-term extensive pumping from overlying freshwater aquifers.

  6. Full Scale Tests on a Thin Metal Propeller at Various Tip Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, Fred E

    1929-01-01

    This report describes an investigation made in order to determine the effect of tip speed on the characteristics of a thin-bladed metal propeller. The propeller was mounted on a VE-7 airplane with a 180-HP E-2 engine, and tested in the 20-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. It was found that the effect of tip speed on the propulsive efficiency was negligible within the range of the tests, which was from 600 to 1,000 feet per second (about 0.5 to 0.9 the velocity of sound in air). (author)

  7. Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program: Full-scale testing and demonstration final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarles, Stephen, L.; Sindelar, Melissa

    2011-12-13

    The primary goal of the Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program was to develop a home evaluation tool that could assess the ignition potential of a structure subjected to wildfire exposures. This report describes the tests that were conducted, summarizes the results, and discusses the implications of these results with regard to the vulnerabilities to homes and buildings.

  8. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, Combined load. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt;

    This report is part of the research project entitled “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last” where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of...

  9. Full-scale performance testing and evaluation of unitized curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ilter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unitized curtain wall systems have been widely seen on high-rise buildings’ facades by bringing benefits with regard to ease of construction, lightness, etc. However, some design and application problems related to structural and infiltration performance of a facade system might arise during its life cycle, which is difficult for the building to compensate. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the structural and infiltration performance of the two identically detailed and produced unitized curtain wall system mock-ups. In order to understand long-term environmental effects on the curtain wall system, a fatigue process was applied on one system in addition to the standard test procedures, while the standard test procedure was applied on the other reference specimen. The tests on the two identical specimens were conducted in accordance with TS EN 13830 and AAMA 501.4 Standards. As a result of air infiltration and wind load resistance tests, air infiltration and frontal deflection values on the facade surface were obtained. Hence, experimental performance of the systems was compared and the effect of the fatigue procedure on the facade performance was evaluated.  

  10. Full Scale Test of SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk;

    as well. The blade has been submitted to thorough examination. More areas have been examined with DIC, both global and local deflections have been measured, and also 378 strain gauge measurements have been performed. Furthermore Acoustic Emission has been used in order to detect damage while testing new...

  11. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, combined load. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-11-15

    This report is part of the research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of an imaginary extreme event based on the certification load of the blade. This report describes the reason for choosing the loads and the load direction and the method of applying the loads to the blade. A novel load introduction allows the blade to deform in a more realistic manner, allowing the observation of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades' respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed. (Author)

  12. Full-scale Blast Test Response of Partially Grouted Masonry Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    collaborative research program among the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Portland Cement Association (PCA), and the National Concrete Masonry... veneer with 2-inch thick extruded polystyrene rigid board insulation and a 1-inch air gap between the structural wythe and the veneer . The test program...collaborative research program between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Portland Cement Association (PCA), and the National Concrete

  13. Damping Estimation of a Prototype Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Identified by Full Scale Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    -wind direction. Therefore, in order to assess the fatigue damage accumulation during the lifetime of the offshore wind turbine structure, a correct estimation of the cross-wind modal damping is necessary. This paper describes the cross-wind modal damping of the lowest eigenmode of a fully operational Vestas V90......-3.0 MW offshore wind turbine installed on a prototype bucket foundation. The foundation and the turbine tower are equipped with a monitoring system with 15 Kinemetrics force balance accelerometers and a Digitexx acquisition system. Using free vibration decays from “rotor-stop” tests and operational modal...

  14. In Situ Soil Venting - Full Scale Test, Hill AFB. Volume 3. Guidance Document, Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    s ý GCE Form A•pproved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE CMBNO 070401’ihs a EERORT C ,RI Y C•.ASSFCA ,ON ’t .• ESTR !CTiVE MARKINGS .a SECURT’Y CLASSiFICAT...extremely useful, however, for a tesi of the applicability of venting to qucstionahlc situations (--frcrcncc 14) or for providing a site-specific correlation...consideration of the results ot this tesi : (I) the temperatures achieved in this test were shown to have the potential for si-,incant increases in

  15. Digital Load Control Applied to Full-Scale Airframe Fatigue Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    77 ’ iELT A19 AFFDL-TR-79-3011 The zero steady-state error is consistent with the model even with the bias, i.e.: REF KpS + Ki K C The response of...TASK COMMUNICATIONS BCS ERR3 IF ERROR LEAVE .GTJB #AREA,#JOE:BLK ;GET JOE: PARAMS .DEYICE #AREA,#DEYE-LK PREPARE "C RETURN: MOY ERRCNT, R@ UPDATE ISTAT

  16. Study and full-scale test of a high-velocity grade-crossing simulated accident of a locomotive and a nuclear-spent-fuel shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1983-02-01

    This report described structural analyses of a high-speed impact between a locomotive and a tractor-trailer system carrying a nuclear-spent-fuel shipping cask. The analyses included both mathematical and physical scale-modeling of the system. The report then describes the full-scale test conducted as part of the program. The system response is described in detail, and a comparison is made between the analyses and the actual hardware response as observed in the full-scale test. 34 figures.

  17. Source emission and model evaluation of formaldehyde from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Mason, Mark A.; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A.; Roache, Nancy F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the measurement and model evaluation of formaldehyde source emissions from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber at different ventilation rates for up to 4000 h using ASTM D 6670-01 (2007). Tests were performed on four types of furniture constructed of different materials and from different manufacturers. The data were used to evaluate two empirical emission models, i.e., a first-order and power-law decay model. The experimental results showed that some furniture tested in this study, made only of solid wood and with less surface area, had low formaldehyde source emissions. The effect of ventilation rate on formaldehyde emissions was also examined. Model simulation results indicated that the power-law decay model showed better agreement than the first-order decay model for the data collected from the tests, especially for long-term emissions. This research was limited to a laboratory study with only four types of furniture products tested. It was not intended to comprehensively test or compare the large number of furniture products available in the market place. Therefore, care should be taken when applying the test results to real-world scenarios. Also, it was beyond the scope of this study to link the emissions to human exposure and potential health risks.

  18. Aging tests of full-scale CMS muon cathode strip chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, D; Arisaka, K; Bondar, N; Breedon, R; Bujak, A; Bylsma, B; Chester, N; Clare, R; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Cox, T; Dolinski, S I; Durkin, S; Eartly, D; Ivanov, Yu; Ferguson, T; Gavrilov, G; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Gutay, L; Hann, F; Hartmut, R; Hauser, J; He, K; Ignatenko, M A; Ilie, S; Jiang, C; Ko, W; Korytov, A; Krivshich, A G; Kuznetsova, K; Layter, J; Lee, R; Levchenko, P M; Ling, T Y; Loveless, D; Lusin, S; Maeshima, K; Madorsky, A; Matthey, C; Matveev, M; Von der Mey, M; Mitselmakher, G; Otwinowski, S; Padley, P; Pal, I; Pischalnikov, Y; Prokofiev, O E; Razmyslovich, B V; Reeder, D; Roberts, J; Schipunov, L; Smirnov, I; Souvorov, V; Stasko, J T; Sun, H; Sytnik, V V; Terentyev, N K; Tripathi, M; Vavilov, S; Volkov, S; Vorobyov, A; Vorobyov, I A; Wang, L; Yarba, V A; Zhou, L; Zhu, Z

    2003-01-01

    Two CMS production Cathode Strip Chambers were tested for aging effects in a high-radiation environment at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The chambers were irradiated over a large area: in total, about 2.1m**2 or 700m of wire in each chamber. The 40% Ar+50% CO//2+10% CF//4 gas mixture was provided by an open-loop gas system for one of the chambers and by a closed-loop re-circulating gas system for the other. After an accumulation of 0.3-0.4C/cm of a wire, equivalent to about 30-50 years of operation at peak LHC luminosity, no significant changes in gas gain, chamber efficiency and wire signal noise were observed for either of the two chambers. The only consistent signs of aging were a small increase in dark current from 2 to 10nA per plane of 600 wires and a decrease of strip-to-strip resistance from 1000 to 10-100GOmega. Disassembly of the chambers revealed deposits on the cathode planes, while the anode wires remained fairly clean.

  19. Prediction model of gas explosion overpressure in full-scale coal mine blind roadway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun-Feng Liang; Xin-Quan Zhou; Jiu-Ling Zhang; Shao Shao [China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining

    2009-01-15

    On the basis of the TNT equivalency method and by analysing data from gas explosion experiments, a new prediction method was put forward to estimate the attenuation of explosion overpressure in a full-scale coal mine blind roadway and its validity was testified in three cases. The results show that there is good agreement between the calculated and experimental data. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Validation of Simulation Model for Full Scale Wave Simulator and Discrete Fuild Power PTO System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2014-01-01

    In controller development for large scale machinery a good simulation model may serve as a time and money saving factor as well as a safety precaution. Having good models enables the developer to design and test control strategies in a safe and possibly less time consuming environment...

  1. Chemically enhancing primary clarifiers: model-based development of a dosing controller and full-scale implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tik, Sovanna; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2017-03-01

    Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) can be used to mitigate the adverse effect of wet weather flow on wastewater treatment processes. In particular, it can reduce the particulate pollution load to subsequent secondary unit processes, such as biofiltration, which may suffer from clogging by an overload of particulate matter. In this paper, a simple primary clarifier model able to take into account the effect of the addition of chemicals on particle settling is presented. Control strategies that optimize the treatment process by chemical addition were designed and tested by running simulations with this CEPT model. The most adequate control strategy in terms of treatment performance, chemicals saving, and maintenance effort was selected. Full-scale implementation of the controller was performed during the autumn of 2015, and the results obtained confirmed the behaviour of the controlled system. Practical issues related to the implementation are presented.

  2. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center Dispersion Modeling of the Full-scale Radiological Dispersal Device (FSRDD) Field Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie; Yu, Kristen

    2016-05-01

    The results of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) model simulations are compared to measured data from the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device (FSRDD) field trials. The series of explosive radiological dispersal device (RDD) experiments was conducted in 2012 by Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and collaborating organizations. During the trials, a wealth of data was collected, including a variety of deposition and air concentration measurements. The experiments were conducted with one of the stated goals being to provide measurements to atmospheric dispersion modelers. These measurements can be used to facilitate important model validation studies. For this study, meteorological observations recorded during the tests are input to the diagnostic meteorological model, ADAPT, which provides 3-D, time-varying mean wind and turbulence fields to the LODI dispersion model. LODI concentration and deposition results are compared to the measured data, and the sensitivity of the model results to changes in input conditions (such as the particle activity size distribution of the source) and model physics (such as the rise of the buoyant cloud of explosive products) is explored. The NARAC simulations predicted the experimentally measured deposition results reasonably well considering the complexity of the release. Changes to the activity size distribution of the modeled particles can improve the agreement of the model results to measurement.

  3. Male and female WorldSID and post mortem human subject responses in full-scale vehicle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank; Rhule, Heather; Moorhouse, Kevin; Suntay, Brian; Stricklin, Jim; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2017-05-29

    This study compares the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the U.S. Side Impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats. Pole tests were performed with the male surrogate in the left front seat. Three-point belt restraints were used. Sedan-type vehicles were used from the same manufacturer with side airbags. The PMHS head was instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-axis accelerometer package, with angular velocity transducers on the head. Accelerometers and angular velocity transducers were secured to T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes and sacrum. Three chest bands were secured around the upper, middle, and lower thoraces. Dummy instrumentation included five infrared telescoping rods for assessment of chest compression (IR-TRACC) and a chest band at the first abdomen rib, head angular velocity transducer, and head, T1, T4, T12, and pelvis accelerometers. Morphological responses of the kinematics of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis matched in both surrogates for each pair. The peak magnitudes of the torso accelerations were lower for the dummy than for the biological surrogate. The brain rotational injury criterion (BrIC) response was the highest in the male dummy for the MDB test and PMHS. The probability of AIS3+ injuries, based on the head injury criterion, ranged from 3% to 13% for the PMHS and from 3% to 21% for the dummy from all tests. The BrIC-based metrics ranged from 0 to 21% for the biological and 0 to 48% for the dummy surrogates. The deflection profiles from the IR-TRACC sensors were unimodal. The maximum deflections from the chest band placed on the first abdominal rib were 31.7 mm and 25.4 mm for the male and female

  4. Model-based control structure design of a full-scale WWTP under the retrofitting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V C; Lafuente, J; Baeza, J A

    2015-01-01

    The anoxic-oxic (A/O) municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Manresa (Catalonia, Spain) was studied for a possible conversion to an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2/O) configuration to promote enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The control structure had to be redesigned to satisfy the new necessity to control phosphorus concentration, besides ammonium and nitrate concentrations (main pollutant concentrations). Thereby, decentralized control structures with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and centralized control structures with model-predictive controllers (MPC) were designed and tested. All the designed control structures had their performance systematically tested regarding effluent quality and operating costs. The centralized control structure, A2/O-3-MPC, achieved the lowest operating costs with the best effluent quality using the A2/O plant configuration for the Manresa WWTP. The controlled variables used in this control structure were ammonium in the effluent, nitrate at the end of the anoxic zone and phosphate at the end of the anaerobic zone, while the manipulated variables were the internal and external recycle flow rates and the dissolved oxygen setpoint in the aerobic reactors.

  5. Monitoring of Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition through Oil and Wear Debris Analysis: A Full-Scale Testing Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-01

    Despite the wind industry's dramatic development during the past decade, it is still challenged by premature turbine subsystem/component failures, especially for turbines rated above 1 MW. Because a crane is needed for each replacement, gearboxes have been a focal point for improvement in reliability and availability. Condition monitoring (CM) is a technique that can help improve these factors, leading to reduced turbine operation and maintenance costs and, subsequently, lower cost of energy for wind power. Although technical benefits of CM for the wind industry are normally recognized, there is a lack of published information on the advantages and limitations of each CM technique confirmed by objective data from full-scale tests. This article presents first-hand oil and wear debris analysis results obtained through tests that were based on full-scale wind turbine gearboxes rated at 750 kW. The tests were conducted at the 2.5-MW dynamometer test facility at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The gearboxes were tested in three conditions: run-in, healthy, and damaged. The investigated CM techniques include real-time oil condition and wear debris monitoring, both inline and online sensors, and offline oil sample and wear debris analysis, both onsite and offsite laboratories. The reported results and observations help increase wind industry awareness of the benefits and limitations of oil and debris analysis technologies and highlight the challenges in these technologies and other tribological fields for the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers and other organizations to help address, leading to extended gearbox service life.

  6. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Extreme load and PoC_InvE Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Magda; Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Jensen, Find Mølholt

    stresses in the adhesive joints. Test results from measurements with the reinforcement have been compared to results without the coupling. The report presents only the relevant results for the 80% Risø load and the results applicable for the investigation of the influence of the invention on the profile...... in edgewise direction (LTT). The blade has been submitted to thorough examination by means of strain gauges, displacement transducers and a 3D optical measuring system. This data report presents results obtained during full scale testing of the blade up to 80% Risø load, where 80% Risø load corresponds to 100......% certification load. These pulls at 80% Risø load were repeated and the results from these pulls were compared. The blade was reinforced according to a Risø DTU invention, where the trailing edge panels are coupled. The coupling is implemented to prevent the out of plane deformations and to reduce peeling...

  7. EMG-to-force estimation with full-scale physiology based muscle model

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Guiraud, David; Poignet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; EMG-to-force estimation for voluntary muscle contraction has many applications in human-machine interaction, motion analysis, and rehabilitation robotics for prosthetic limbs or exoskeletons. EMG-based model can account for a subject's individual activation patterns to estimate muscle force. For the estimation, so-called Hill-type model has been used in most of the cases. It already has shown its promising performance, but it is still known as a phenomenological model ...

  8. Dynamic Modelling and Identification of Precipitation Reactions in Full-Scale WWTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbamba, Christian Kazadi; Tait, Stephan; Flores-Alsina, Xavier

    Current process models used across the wastewater industry have inherent limitations due to limited description of physicochemical processes such as precipitation. As part of the overall effort towards more general and robust physicochemical models applicable to the broad range of problems, this ...

  9. The model chain and the full scale spectrum of the boundary layer wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    and high frequency sonic anemometer data from the 100m meteorological mast at Danish test station Høvsøre. Datasets from the offshore wind farm Horns Rev were also analyzed. The conclusions from the analysis are given below. In the present study we complement and extend the analysis using a new dataset...

  10. Airframe Noise Prediction of a Full Aircraft in Model and Full Scale Using a Lattice Boltzmann Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Ehab; Duda, Benjamin; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2016-01-01

    Unsteady flow computations are presented for a Gulfstream aircraft model in landing configuration, i.e., flap deflected 39deg and main landing gear deployed. The simulations employ the lattice Boltzmann solver PowerFLOW(Trademark) to simultaneously capture the flow physics and acoustics in the near field. Sound propagation to the far field is obtained using a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. Two geometry representations of the same aircraft are analyzed: an 18% scale, high-fidelity, semi-span model at wind tunnel Reynolds number and a full-scale, full-span model at half-flight Reynolds number. Previously published and newly generated model-scale results are presented; all full-scale data are disclosed here for the first time. Reynolds number and geometrical fidelity effects are carefully examined to discern aerodynamic and aeroacoustic trends with a special focus on the scaling of surface pressure fluctuations and farfield noise. An additional study of the effects of geometrical detail on farfield noise is also documented. The present investigation reveals that, overall, the model-scale and full-scale aeroacoustic results compare rather well. Nevertheless, the study also highlights that finer geometrical details that are typically not captured at model scales can have a non-negligible contribution to the farfield noise signature.

  11. Analysis of a bending test on a full-scale PWR hot leg elbow containing a surface crack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delliou, P. le [Electricite de France, EDF, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Dept. MTC; Julisch, P.; Hippelein, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Bezdikian, G. [Electricite de France, EDF, 92 - Paris la Defense (France). Direction Production Transport

    1998-11-01

    EDF, in co-operation with Framatome, has conducted a large research programme on the mechanical behaviour of thermally aged cast duplex stainless steel elbows, which are part of the main primary circuit of French PWR. One important task of this programme consisted of testing a full-scale PWR hot leg elbow. The elbow contained a semi-elliptical circumferential notch machined on the outer surface of the intrados as well as casting defects located on the flanks. To simulate the end-of-life condition of the component regarding material toughness, it had undergone a 2400 hours ageing heat treatment at 400 C. The test preparation and execution, as well as the material characterization programme, were committed to MPA. The test was conducted under constant internal pressure and in-plane bending (opening mode) at 200 C. For safety reasons, it took place on an open air-site: the Meppen military test ground. At the maximum applied moment (6000 kN.m), the notch did not initiate. This paper presents the experimental results and the fracture mechanics analysis of the test, based on finite element calculations. (orig.)

  12. Mathematical modelling of full scale combustion in front wall fired boiler of EDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, J.L.T.; Coelho, L.M.R.; Carvalho, M.G. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    1998-12-31

    Numerical modelling of pulverised coal combustion is applied to simulate front wall fired utility boilers to analyse the influence of air staging (using rows of burners out of service BOOS) or combined fuel and air staging (reburning). The NO{sub x} post processor of an existing numerical model is modified to consider these conditions and calculations are applied to two utility boilers. For the case of using BOOS the model indicates NO{sub x} reductions from 5 to 12% while for reburning the NO{sub x} emissions resulting from coal are reduced by 28%. The analysis of the results address besides the NO{sub x} emissions the amount of carbon in ash and the heat flux distribution in the boiler walls and superheater panels. 22 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Modelling of coal combustion enhanced through plasma-fuel systems in full-scale boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Askarova; Z. Jankoski; E.I. Karpenko; E.I. Lavrischeva; F.C. Lockwood; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Department of Physics

    2005-07-01

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmental friendly low-rank coal combustion. This work presents numerical modelling results of plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air-fuel mixture plasma activation, ignition and combustion. A 1D kinetic code, PLASMA-COAL, calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures and velocities of treated coal-air mixtures in a burner incorporating a plasma source. It gives initial data for 3D-modeling of power boilers furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of pulverised coal fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. High frequency magnetic field technique: mathematical modelling and development of a full scale water fraction meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimpan, Emil

    2004-09-15

    This work is concerned with the development of a new on-line measuring technique to be used in measurements of the water concentration in a two component oil/water or three component (i.e. multiphase) oil/water/gas flow. The technique is based on using non-intrusive coil detectors and experiments were performed both statically (medium at rest) and dynamically (medium flowing through a flow rig). The various coil detectors were constructed with either one or two coils and specially designed electronics were used. The medium was composed by air, machine oil, and water having different conductivity values, i.e. seawater and salt water with various conductivities (salt concentrations) such as 1 S/m, 4.9 S/m and 9.3 S/m. The experimental measurements done with the different mixtures were further used to mathematically model the physical principle used in the technique. This new technique is based on measuring the coil impedance and signal frequency at the self-resonance frequency of the coil to determine the water concentration in the mix. By using numerous coils it was found, experimentally, that generally both the coil impedance and the self-resonance frequency of the coil decreased as the medium conductivity increased. Both the impedance and the self-resonance frequency of the coil depended on the medium loss due to the induced eddy currents within the conductive media in the mixture, i.e. water. In order to detect relatively low values of the medium loss, the self-resonance frequency of the coil and also of the magnetic field penetrating the media should be relatively high (within the MHz range and higher). Therefore, the technique was called and referred to throughout the entire work as the high frequency magnetic field technique (HFMFT). To practically use the HFMFT, it was necessary to circumscribe an analytical frame to this technique. This was done by working out a mathematical model that relates the impedance and the self-resonance frequency of the coil to the

  15. FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

    2012-01-26

    Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

  16. Wet oxidation of sewage sludge: full-scale experience and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Galessi, Raniero; Menoni, Laura; Salvetti, Roberta; Slavik, Edoardo; Zanaboni, Sabrina

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, sewage sludge management represents one of the most important issues in wastewater treatment. Within the European project "ROUTES," wet oxidation (WO) was proposed for sludge minimization. Four different types of sludge were treated in an industrial WO plant: (1) municipal primary sludge (chemical oxygen demand COD: 73.0 g/L; volatile suspended solid VSS: 44.1 g/L); (2) secondary sludge from an industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without primary sedimentation (COD: 71.8 g/L; VSS: 34.2 g/L); (3) secondary sludge from a mixed municipal and industrial WWTP without primary sedimentation (COD: 61.9 g/L; VSS: 38.7 g/L); and (4) mixed primary (70%) and secondary (30%) municipal sludge (COD: 81.2 g/L; VSS: 40.6 g/L). The effect of process parameters (temperature, reaction time, oxygen dosage) on WO performance was investigated. Depending on operating conditions, VSS and COD removal efficiency varied in the range 80-97% and 43-71%, respectively. A correlation between process efficiency and the initial VSS/TSS (total suspended solids) ratio was highlighted. Furthermore, a mathematical model of WO process for simulating VSS and COD profiles was developed.

  17. Calculations of 3D full-scale VVER fuel assembly and core models using MCU and BIPR-7A codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Bikeev, Artem S.; Bolshagin, Sergey N.; Kalugin, Mikhail A.; Kosourov, Evgeniy K.; Pavlovichev, Aleksandr M.; Pryanichnikov, Aleksandr V.; Sukhino-Khomenko, Evgenia A.; Shcherenko, Anna I.; Shcherenko, Anastasia I.; Shkarovskiy, Denis A. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Two types of calculations were made to compare BIPR-7A and MCU results for 3D full-scale models. First EPS (emergency protection system) efficiency and in-core power distributions were analyzed for an equilibrium fuel load of VVER-1000 assuming its operation within an 18-month cycle. Computations were performed without feedbacks and with fuel burnup distributed over the core. After 3D infinite lattices of full-scale VVER-1000 fuel assemblies (A's) with uranium fuel 4.4% enrichment and uranium-erbium fuel 4.4% enrichment and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} 1 % wt were considered. Computations were performed with feedbacks and fuel burnup at the constant power level. For different time moments effective multiplication factor and power distribution were obtained. EPS efficiency and reactivity effects at chosen time moments were analyzed.

  18. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Boogaard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  19. Full-scale testing of leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room exposed to external air blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.

    2017-06-01

    For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.

  20. Full-scale structural testing for severe wind, 1995. Proceedings of the INEL severe windstorm testing workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, C.C.

    1996-05-01

    This document provides brief background information and reports the discussions and findings of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Severe Windstorm Testing Workshop held November 29-30, 1995, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Section 1 presents a historical perspective on wind engineering and testing in the U.S. Section 2 discusses INEL`s and the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) interest in a new testing facility, and the efforts that led to the organization of the work-shop. The workshop discussions are then described in Sections 3 through 8. These sections focus on the interaction of the participants and are not intended to be exhaustive discussion of the subjects. A summary of the findings, along with the INEL`s recommendations, are presented in Section 9. A list of the workshop participants, a glossary, and additional technical information provided by selected participants are included in the Appendices.

  1. Validation of a plant-wide phosphorus modelling approach with minerals precipitation in a full-scale WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; John Batstone, Damien; Tait, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    The focus of modelling in wastewater treatment is shifting from single unit to plant-wide scale. Plant-wide modelling approaches provide opportunities to study the dynamics and interactions of different transformations in water and sludge streams. Towards developing more general and robust simulation tools applicable to a broad range of wastewater engineering problems, this paper evaluates a plant-wide model built with sub-models from the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2-P (BSM2-P) with an improved/expanded physico-chemical framework (PCF). The PCF includes a simple and validated equilibrium approach describing ion speciation and ion pairing with kinetic multiple minerals precipitation. Model performance is evaluated against data sets from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant, assessing capability to describe water and sludge lines across the treatment process under steady-state operation. With default rate kinetic and stoichiometric parameters, a good general agreement is observed between the full-scale datasets and the simulated results under steady-state conditions. Simulation results show differences between measured and modelled phosphorus as little as 4-15% (relative) throughout the entire plant. Dynamic influent profiles were generated using a calibrated influent generator and were used to study the effect of long-term influent dynamics on plant performance. Model-based analysis shows that minerals precipitation strongly influences composition in the anaerobic digesters, but also impacts on nutrient loading across the entire plant. A forecasted implementation of nutrient recovery by struvite crystallization (model scenario only), reduced the phosphorus content in the treatment plant influent (via centrate recycling) considerably and thus decreased phosphorus in the treated outflow by up to 43%. Overall, the evaluated plant-wide model is able to jointly describe the physico-chemical and biological processes, and is advocated for future use as a tool for

  2. Sequential dynamic artificial neural network modeling of a full-scale coking wastewater treatment plant with fluidized bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Mo, Ce-Hui; He, Bao-Yan

    2015-10-01

    This study proposed a sequential modeling approach using an artificial neural network (ANN) to develop four independent models which were able to predict biotreatment effluent variables of a full-scale coking wastewater treatment plant (CWWTP). Suitable structure and transfer function of ANN were optimized by genetic algorithm. The sequential approach, which included two parts, an influent estimator and an effluent predictor, was used to develop dynamic models. The former parts of models estimated the variations of influent COD, volatile phenol, cyanide, and NH4 (+)-N. The later parts of models predicted effluent COD, volatile phenol, cyanide, and NH4 (+)-N using the estimated values and other parameters. The performance of these models was evaluated by statistical parameters (such as coefficient of determination (R (2) ), etc.). Obtained results indicated that the estimator developed dynamic models for influent COD (R (2)  = 0.871), volatile phenol (R (2)  = 0.904), cyanide (R (2)  = 0.846), and NH4 (+)-N (R (2)  = 0.777), while the predictor developed feasible models for effluent COD (R (2)  = 0.852) and cyanide (R (2)  = 0.844), with slightly worse models for effluent volatile phenol (R (2)  = 0.752) and NH4 (+)-N (R (2)  = 0.764). Thus, the proposed modeling processes can be used as a tool for the prediction of CWWTP performance.

  3. Numerical investigation of full scale coal combustion model of tangentially fired boiler with the effect of mill ducting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achim, Daniela [Monash University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Naser, J.; Morsi, Y.S. [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Hawthorn, VIC (Australia); Pascoe, S. [Yallourn Energy, Moe, VIC (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper a full scale combustion model incorporating upstream mill ducting of a large tangentially fired boiler with flue gas recirculation was examined numerically. Lagrangian particle tracking was used to determine the coal particle paths and the Eddy Dissipation Model for the analysis of the gas phase combustion. Moreover volatiles and gaseous char products, given off by the coal particles were modelled by Arrhenius single phase reactions and a transport equation was solved for each material given off by the particles. Thermal, prompt, fuel and reburn NO{sub x} models with presumed probability density functions were used to model NO{sub x} production and the discrete transfer radiation model was used to model radiation heat transfer. Generally, the findings indicated reasonable agreement with observed qualitative and quantitative data of incident heat flux on the walls. The model developed here could be used for a range of applications in furnace design and optimisation of gas emissions of coal fired boiler plants. (orig.)

  4. Extended temperature-accelerated dynamics: enabling long-time full-scale modeling of large rare-event systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenkov, Vladimir; Suetin, Nikolay; Shankar, Sadasivan

    2014-09-07

    A new method, the Extended Temperature-Accelerated Dynamics (XTAD), is introduced for modeling long-timescale evolution of large rare-event systems. The method is based on the Temperature-Accelerated Dynamics approach [M. Sørensen and A. Voter, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 9599 (2000)], but uses full-scale parallel molecular dynamics simulations to probe a potential energy surface of an entire system, combined with the adaptive on-the-fly system decomposition for analyzing the energetics of rare events. The method removes limitations on a feasible system size and enables to handle simultaneous diffusion events, including both large-scale concerted and local transitions. Due to the intrinsically parallel algorithm, XTAD not only allows studies of various diffusion mechanisms in solid state physics, but also opens the avenue for atomistic simulations of a range of technologically relevant processes in material science, such as thin film growth on nano- and microstructured surfaces.

  5. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-01-01

    Modified propeller and spinner in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel. 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project

  6. Full-scale testing, production and cost analysis data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parsons, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    The full scale ground test, ground vibration test, and flight tests conducted to demonstrate a composite structure stabilizer for the Boeing 737 aircraft and obtain FAA certification are described. Detail tools, assembly tools, and overall production are discussed. Cost analyses aspects covered include production costs, composite material usage factors, and cost comparisons.

  7. Evaluating hydraulic and disinfection efficiencies of a full-scale ozone contactor using a RANS-based modeling framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martínez, Andrés E; Zhang, Qiong; Lei, Hongxia

    2014-04-01

    The capability of predicting hydraulic and disinfection efficiencies of ozone disinfection contactors is essential for evaluating existing contactors and improving future designs. Previous attempts based on ideal and non-ideal models for the hydraulics and simplified mechanisms for chemical reaction modeling have resulted in low accuracy and are restricted to contactors with simple geometries. This manuscript develops a modeling framework for the ozonation process by combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a kinetics-based reaction modeling for the first time. This computational framework has been applied to the full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department. Flow fields, residence time distribution, ozone concentration distribution, and concentration-contact time (CT) distribution within the contactor have been predicted via the computational framework. The predictions of ozone and bromate concentrations at sample points agree well with physical experimental data measured in the contactor. The predicted CT values at the contactor outlet demonstrate that the disinfection performance of the ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department is sufficient to meet regulation requirements. The impact of seasonal flow rate change on disinfection performance is found to be significant and deserves attention during the management and operation of a water treatment plant.

  8. Full-scale tests of reflective noise-reducing devices for balconies on high-rise buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Kyoji

    2013-08-01

    In the present report, the noise-shielding efficiency of balconies with ceiling-mounted reflectors on the façades of high-rise buildings is examined through full-scale field measurements. The reflectors are designed to reflect direct and diffracted waves incident on the balcony ceiling outside the balcony. Field measurements are conducted to investigate the performance of the reflectors on intermediate floors of a high-rise dwelling adjacent to a railway. The reflectors reduce railway noise by approximately 5 dB, in A-weighted sound pressure level, compared to an ordinary balcony. The noise-shielding efficiency of a balcony equipped with reflectors is greater than that of an absorbing balcony.

  9. Reduction of methane emission from landfills using bio-mitigation systems – from lab tests to full scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    , or open or closed bed biofilter systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the relationship between research on process understanding of the oxidation of landfill gas contained methane and the up-scale to full bio-mitigation systems implemented at landfills. The oxidation of methane is controlled...... due to self-heating processes. Bio-mitigation can be used as a stand-alone technology or combined with active or passive gas collection. When implementing bio-mitigation systems focus should be on additional fugitive methane emissions or the presence of uncontrolled point releases. A protocol...... for implementing a bio-mitigation system is presented, and the reported landfill-implemented bio-mitigation systems either established as full-scale or pilot-scale systems are reviewed. It is concluded that bio-mitigation systems have a large potential for providing cost-efficient mitigation options for reducing...

  10. Cost-performance analysis of nutrient removal in a full-scale oxidation ditch process based on kinetic modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Rong Qi; Bo Wang; Zhe Zou; Guohong Wei; Min Yang

    2013-01-01

    A full-scale oxidation ditch process for treating sewage was simulated with the ASM2d model and optimized for minimal cost with acceptable performance in terms of ammonium and phosphorus removal.A unified index was introduced by integrating operational costs (aeration energy and sludge production) with effluent violations for performance evaluation.Scenario analysis showed that,in comparison with the baseline (all of the 9 aerators activated),the strategy of activating 5 aerators could save aeration energy significantly with an ammonium violation below 10%.Sludge discharge scenario analysis showed that a sludge discharge flow of 250-300 m3/day (solid retention time (SRT),13-15 days) was appropriate for the enhancement of phosphorus removal without excessive sludge production.The proposed optimal control strategy was:activating 5 rotating disks operated with a mode of "111100100" ("1"represents activation and "0" represents inactivation) for aeration and sludge discharge flow of 200 m3/day (SRT,19 days).Compared with the baseline,this strategy could achieve ammonium violation below 10% and TP violation below 30% with substantial reduction of aeration energy cost (46%) and minimal increment of sludge production (< 2%).This study provides a useful approach for the optimization of process operation and control.

  11. Comparison of in-furnace dry sorbent injection full-scale tests with laboratory-scale sulfation correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.J. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to limit SO{sub 2} emissions to the current EU air pollutant regulations, flue gas desulfurization tests were performed with in-furnace dry sorbent, Ca(OH){sub 2}, injection technology in the Spanish coal power station 'Litoral.' The measured SO{sub 2} removals 19.5% using a CaS ratio of 3 for a coal containing 0.53% of sulfur, and 26.4% with Ca/S=1.75 for a coal with 0.73% of sulfur were lower than predicted through a 1-D model. Hence, it was thought that a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the injection of sorbent particles would assist in understanding this complex process. After the turbulent velocity and temperature fields in the furnace were modeled, representative sorbent particles were injected, obtaining the temperature and SO{sub 2} concentrations encountered by the particles as a function of time. These data were the input to the global sulfur capture model used to simultaneously analyze calcination, sintering and sulfation. The simulation compared well with the data measured in the power station, thus verifying laboratory-scale correlations. The main conclusion is that the first temperatures encountered by the particles (in addition to the mean diameter, the sulfur content and the Ca/S ratio) control the sulfur retention. Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to accurately predict these temperatures without a CFD simulation. Low retentions were due to low sulfur concentration, the high mean diameter of the particles, and the position of the injection nozzles.

  12. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Kooijman, P.

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion

  13. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J. J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Bethoux, N.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Bigi, A.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; de Botton, N.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Cafagna, F.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceechini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, P.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coail, J. Y.; Colnard, C.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Cussatlegras, A. -S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; DeBonis, G.; De Marzo, C.; De Vita, R.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Denans, D.; Deschamps, A.; Dessa, J. -X.; Destelle, J. -J.; Dinkespieler, B.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Drogou, J-F.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Florello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galeotti, S.; Gallone, J. -M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Gojak, C.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guilloux, F.; Hallewell, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hoessl, J.; Hoffman, C.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kneib, J. P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J. C.; Laschinsky, H.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Van Suu, A. Le; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loaec, G.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Megna, R.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Niess, V.; Noble, A.; Olivetto, C.; Ostasch, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Peek, H. Z.; Perez, A.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pillet, R.; Pineau, J. -P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Regnier, M.; van Rens, B.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca, V.; Roda, C.; Rolin, J. F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Roux, J.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Rusydi, Febdian; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Shanidze, R.; Sokalski, I.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Stolarczyk, T.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Vaudaine, G.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yao, A. -F.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.

    2007-01-01

    full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion

  14. Fatigue in high speed aluminium craft: Evaluating a design methodology for estimating the fatigue life using large scale tests and full scale trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drummen, I.; Schiere, M.; Tuitman, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Within the VOMAS project, a methodology has been developed to estimate the fatigue life of high-speed aluminium crafts. This paper presents the large scale test and full scale trials which were done to acquire data for evaluating the developed methodology and presents results of this evaluation. Dur

  15. Performance evaluation of full-scale tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) for vibration control of large wind turbines using real-time hybrid testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Performance evaluation of full-scale tuned liquid dampers carried out for wind turbines. •Coupled blade-tower model considered in the numerical sub-structure. •Stochastic turbulence due to rotationally sampled spectra considered. •Effect of damping screens experimentally investigated...

  16. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, L.C.; Steers, L.L.

    1974-12-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  17. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) located at Hampton, Virginia became operational in early summer of 1976. This facility is a joint effort by NASA-Lewis and NASA-Langley to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test performance of complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is given here, along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance and some preliminary results.

  18. Interzonal air and moisture transport through large horizontal openings in a full-scale two-story test-hut: Part 2 - CFD study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, S. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Construction Engineering and Management, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, San Agustin building, 3rd floor, Campus San Joaquin, Macul, Santiago 6904411 (Chile); Fazio, P.; Rao, J. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the air and moisture transport through a large horizontal opening in a full-scale two-story test-hut with mixed ventilation by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. CFD allows extending the experimental study presented in the companion paper and overcoming some limitations of experimental data. More than 80 cases were simulated for conditions similar to those tested experimentally and for additional ventilation rates and temperature difference between the two rooms. CFD simulations were performed in Airpak and the indoor zero-equation turbulence model was used. The CFD model was extensively validated with the distributions of air speed, temperature and humidity ratio measured across the two rooms, as well as with the measured interzonal mass airflows through the horizontal opening. CFD simulation results show that temperature difference between the two rooms and ventilation rate strongly influence the interzonal mass airflows through the opening when the upper room is colder than the lower room, while warm convective air currents from the baseboard heater and from the moisture source placed in the lower room cause upward mass airflows when the upper room is warmer than the lower room. Finally, empirical relationships between the upward mass airflow and the temperature difference between the two rooms are developed. (author)

  19. Exploratory study to induce fan noise in the test section of the NASA Langley full-scale wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver, I. L.; Hayden, R. E.; Myles, M. M.; Murray, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    Measures to reduce the intensity of fan noise in the NASA Langley 30 ft x 60 ft subsonic wind tunnel were sought. Measurements were first performed to document existing aerodynamic and acoustic conditions. The purpose of these experiments was to (1) obtain the transfer function between the sound power output of the fan and the sound pressure on the test platform, (2) evaluate the sound attenuation around the tunnel circuit, (3) measure simultaneously the flow profile and the turbulence spectrum of the inflow to the fan and the noise on the test platform, and (4) perform flow observations and identify secondary noise sources. Subsequently, these data were used to predict (1) the relative contribution of the major aerodynamic parameters to total fan noise and (2) the effect of placing a dissipative silencer in the collector duct upstream of the fan. Promising noise control measures were identified and recommendations were made on how to evaluate them.

  20. 民用飞机结构的全尺寸疲劳试验%Full-Scale Fatigue Test of Commercial Airplane Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯而健

    2012-01-01

    Full-Scale fatigue test must be conducted for new type certificate of commercial airplane. It would also provide the verification of fatigue and damage tolerance design criteria and evaluation technology. Based on the new airworthiness regulation, this paper gives an overview on the full-scale fatigue test of commercial airplane structure. The 777 full-scale fatigue test is used in this paper as an example to describe various technical issues on the test methods, especially the test loading spectrum.%进行全尺寸疲劳试验是新型民用飞机取得型号合格证的必要前提,也是对疲劳和损伤容限设计准则和评定技术的考核验证。从适航条例的最新要求出发,对民机结构的全尺寸疲劳试验作综述,并以波音777飞机的全尺寸疲劳试验为例,对试验相关的各项技术要点,特别是试验载荷谱予以阐述。

  1. Assessment of Damage Containment Features of a Full-Scale PRSEUS Fuselage Panel Through Test and Teardown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Awerbuch, Jonathan; Tan, Tein-Min

    2012-01-01

    An area that shows promise in enhancing structural integrity of aircraft and aerospace structures is the integrally stitched composite technology. The most recent generation of this technology is the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept developed by Boeing Research and Technology and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A joint test program on the assessment of damage containment capabilities of the PRSEUS concept for curved fuselage structures was conducted recently at the Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center. The panel was subjected to axial tension, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure load conditions up to fracture, with a through-the-thickness, two-bay notch severing the central stiffener. For the purpose of future progressive failure analysis development and verification, extensive post failure nondestructive and teardown inspections were conducted. Detailed inspections were performed directly ahead of the notch tip where stable damage progression was observed. These examinations showed: 1) extensive delaminations developed ahead of the notch tip, 2) the extent and location of damage, 3) the typical damage mechanisms observed in composites, and 4) the role of stitching and warp-knitting in the failure mechanisms. The objective of this paper is to provide a summary of results from these posttest inspections.

  2. Full Scale Tests of Short-Term Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash Weathering Before Landfill Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Marchese

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Natural weathering is the most economic method of treatment in order to reduce the release of heavy metals present in the residue. Approach: The aim of the study was to optimize the minimum weathering times that were useful to reduce the lead release to within the Italian limits for landfill disposal. The mechanism of short-term weathering of MSWI bottom ash had been studied and its effect on the leaching of lead had been evaluated. Two bottom ash heaps had been realized for the experimental assessment: In one case an open-air situation was used, in the other, a heap placed under shelter was not exposed to rain. Results: The weathering course was monitored through the results of a leaching test that was carried out at different ageing times (EN 12457-2:2002. The total carbonates were also measured, at the same time, on the fine fraction of the weathered bottom ash (2 was fixed by air. The pH value was controlled by Portlandite dissolution only at the beginning, after the pH control seems to be due to aluminum hydroxides. Conclusion: The most significant changes in the bottom ash were found to occur in the first 60 days. It had been possible to verify the limited influence of washing phenomena while it was confirmed that carbonation was the most important process in short-term weathering and that it had an important rule on limiting lead release.

  3. Full scale test of a SSP 34m box girder 2. Data report; Reinforced glass fiber/epoxy used in wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Find M.; Branner, K.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2008-05-15

    This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test was part of a proof of concept investigation for a patent. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2007. The tests are an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risoe National Laboratory for sustainable energy--Technical university of Denmark, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Moelholt Jensen's PhD thesis. This report is the second data report containing the complete test data for the three full-scale tests. This report deals only with the test methods and the obtained results, no conclusions are drawn. These can be found in papers and patent referenced in the data report. Various kinds of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, force transducers, strain gauges and optical deformation measuring system (DIC). The experimental investigation consisted of the following tests: 1) Flapwise bending with no reinforcement 2) Flapwise bending with wire reinforcements 3) Flapwise bending with rib reinforcements. (au)

  4. Pathogen cross-transmission via building sanitary plumbing systems in a full scale pilot test-rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspray, Thomas J.; Kelly, David A.; Rodriguez-Gil, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The WHO Consensus Document on the epidemiology of the SARS epidemic in 2003, included a report on a concentrated outbreak in one Hong Kong housing block which was considered a ‘super-spreading event’. The WHO report conjectured that the sanitary plumbing system was one transmission route for the virus. Empty U-traps allowed the aerosolised virus to enter households from the sewerage system. No biological evidence was presented. This research reports evidence that pathogens can be aerosolised and transported on airstreams within sanitary plumbing systems and enter buildings via empty U-traps. A sanitary plumbing system was built, representing two floors of a building, with simulated toilet flushes on the lower floor and a sterile chamber with extractor fan on the floor above. Cultures of a model organism, Pseudomonas putida at 106–109 cfu ml-1 in 0·85% NaCl were flushed into the system in volumes of 6 to 20 litres to represent single or multiple toilet flushes. Air and surface samples were cultured on agar plates and assessed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. Flushing from a toilet into a sanitary plumbing system generated enough turbulence to aerosolise pathogens. Typical sanitary plumbing system airflows (between 20–30 ls-1) were sufficient to carry aerosolised pathogens between different floors of a building. Empty U-traps allowed aerosolised pathogens to enter the chamber, encouraging cross-transmission. All parts of the system were found to be contaminated post-flush. Empty U-traps have been observed in many buildings and a risk assessment indicates the potential for high risk cross-transmission under defect conditions in buildings with high pathogen loading such as hospitals. Under defective conditions (which are not uncommon) aerosolised pathogens can be carried on the airflows within sanitary plumbing systems. Our findings show that greater consideration should be given to this mode of pathogen transmission. PMID:28187135

  5. Performance test results of helium gas circulator of mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Akira; Kato, Michio; Hayashi, Koji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane will be connected to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) against development of nuclear heat utilization system. To obtain design and safety database of the HTTR hydrogen production system, mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction was constructed in FY 2001 and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}N{sub /}h was successfully produced in overall performance test. This report describes performance test results of a helium gas circulator in this facility. The circulator performance curves regarding to pressure-rise, input power and adiabatic thermal efficiency at standard revolution number were made based on the measured flow-rate, temperature and pressure data in overall performance test. The circulator performance prediction code was made based on these performance curves. The code can calculate revolution number, electric power and temperature-rise of the circulator using flow-rate, inlet temperature, inlet pressure and pressure-rise data. The verification of the code was carried out with the test data in FY 2002. Total pressure loss of the helium gas circulation loop was also evaluated. The circulator should be operated in conditions such as pressure from 2.7MPa to 4.0MPa and flow-rate from 250g/s to 400g/s and at maximum pressure-rise of 250 kPa in test operation. It was confirmed in above verification and evaluations that the circulator had performance to satisfy above conditions within operation limitation of the circulator such as maximum input-power of 150 kW and maximum revolution number of 12,000 rpm. (author)

  6. Design and preliminary tests of a blade tip air mass injection system for vortex modification and possible noise reduction on a full-scale helicopter rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hosier, R. N.; Balcerak, J. C.; Johnson, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    Full-scale tests were conducted on the Langley helicopter rotor test facility as part of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a turbulent blade tip air mass injection system in alleviating the impulsive noise (blade slap) caused by blade-vortex interaction. Although blade-slap conditions could not be induced during these tests, qualitative results from flow visualization studies using smoke showed that the differential velocity between the jet velocity and the rotor tip speed was a primary parameter controlling the vortex modification.

  7. Validation of the DIFFAL, HPAC and HotSpot Dispersion Models Using the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device (FSRDD) Field Trials Witness Plate Deposition Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Murray; Parkes, David

    2016-05-01

    Three atmospheric dispersion models--DIFFAL, HPAC, and HotSpot--of differing complexities have been validated against the witness plate deposition dataset taken during the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device (FSRDD) Field Trials. The small-scale nature of these trials in comparison to many other historical radiological dispersion trials provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the near-field performance of the models considered. This paper performs validation of these models using two graphical methods of comparison: deposition contour plots and hotline profile graphs. All of the models tested are assessed to perform well, especially considering that previous model developments and validations have been focused on larger-scale scenarios. Of the models, HPAC generally produced the most accurate results, especially at locations within ∼100 m of GZ. Features present within the observed data, such as hot spots, were not well modeled by any of the codes considered. Additionally, it was found that an increase in the complexity of the meteorological data input to the models did not necessarily lead to an improvement in model accuracy; this is potentially due to the small-scale nature of the trials.

  8. Expression of Interest for a Full-Scale Detector Engineering Test and Test Beam Calibration of a Single-Phase LAr TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Leigui de Oliveira, M A

    2014-01-01

    Following the recommendation of the U.S. Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel[1], Fermilab is working with the world neutrino community, CERN, and others to establish “a new international collaboration to design and execute a highly capable Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) hosted by the U.S.” This new collaboration, which is expected to be formed during the next several months, will combine, among others, groups that have been developing both single-phase and dual-phase LAr TPC detectors for long-baseline physics, mainly from the LBNE and LBNO collaborations respectively. This Expression of Interest regards a proposed full-scale prototype and beam test of the LBNE-design single-phase detector, utilizing the CERN Neutrino Platform[2] that was recently approved as part of the Medium-Term Plan (MTP) [3]. Once the LBNF collaboration is formed, it is expected that development of both single- and dual-phase detectors will come under the umbrella of the new collaboration.

  9. Application of fuzzy neural networks for modeling of biodegradation and biogas production in a full-scale internal circulation anaerobic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Chen, Xiaohong; Huang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Tao

    2017-01-02

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of three fuzzy neural network (FNN) models for a full-scale anaerobic digestion system treating paper-mill wastewater. The aim was the investigation of feasibility of the approach-based control system for the prediction of effluent quality and biogas production from an internal circulation (IC) anaerobic reactor system. To improve FNN performance, fuzzy subtractive clustering was used to identify model's architecture and optimize fuzzy rule, and a total of 5 rules were extracted in the IF-THEN format. Findings of this study clearly indicated that, compared to NN models, FNN models had smaller RMSE and MAPE as well as bigger R for the testing datasets than NN models. The proposed FNN model produced smaller deviations and exhibited a superior predictive performance on forecasting of both effluent quality and biogas (methane) production rates with satisfactory determination coefficients greater than 0.90. From the results, it was concluded that FNN modeling could be applied in IC anaerobic reactor for predicting the biodegradation and biogas production using paper-mill wastewater.

  10. Sequential modeling of fecal coliform removals in a full-scale activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant using an evolutionary process model induction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Won; Lee, Joong-Won; Hong, Yoon-Seok Timothy; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2009-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary process model induction system that is based on the grammar-based genetic programming to automatically discover multivariate dynamic inference models that are able to predict fecal coliform bacteria removals using common process variables instead of directly measuring fecal coliform bacteria concentration in a full-scale municipal activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant. A sequential modeling paradigm is also proposed to derive multivariate dynamic models of fecal coliform removals in the evolutionary process model induction system. It is composed of two parts, the process estimator and the process predictor. The process estimator acts as an intelligent software sensor to achieve a good estimation of fecal coliform bacteria concentration in the influent. Then the process predictor yields sequential prediction of the effluent fecal coliform bacteria concentration based on the estimated fecal coliform bacteria concentration in the influent from the process estimator with other process variables. The results show that the evolutionary process model induction system with a sequential modeling paradigm has successfully evolved multivariate dynamic models of fecal coliform removals in the form of explicit mathematical formulas with high levels of accuracy and good generalization. The evolutionary process model induction system with sequential modeling paradigm proposed here provides a good alternative to develop cost-effective dynamic process models for a full-scale wastewater treatment plant and is readily applicable to a variety of other complex treatment processes.

  11. Full-Scale Incineration System Demonstration Verification Test Burns at the Naval Battalion Construction Center, Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 3. Treatability Tests. Part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    DATEREPCR-TED January 19, 1987 ATTN: Alan Propp PROJECTCODE. EGG 23549 1955 Fremont Avenue ORIDER NUMBER: 5036.2.2 Idaho Falls, ID 83415 PAGE__ OF ____ RE...ATTN: Alan Propp PROJECTCCIE. EGG 23549 1955 Fremont Avenue O[RDER.NtTMBEI 5036.2.2 Idaho Falls, ID 83415 PAGE__ OF __ RE: USAF NCBC Full Scale Demo... Propp PWJC= ^CZE GG 23612 1955 Fremont Avenue CEI?.;B•.M 5036.2.2 Idaho Falls, 10 83415 PAGE-. CF __ RE: USAF NCBC Full Scale Demo - 12/86 Sample

  12. Scale effect of anaerobic digestion tests in fed-batch and semi-continuous mode for the technical and economic feasibility of a full scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Fiore, Silvia; Roati, Chiara; Campo, Giuseppe; Novarino, Daniel; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-04-01

    Methane production capacity in mesophilic conditions of waste from two food industry plants was assessed in a semi-pilot (6L, fed-batch) and pilot (300 L, semi-continuous) scale. This was carried out in order to evaluate the convenience of producing heat and electricity in a full scale anaerobic digester. The pilot test was performed in order to obtain more reliable results for the design of the digester. Methane yield, returned from the pilot scale test, was approximately 80% of that from the smaller scale test. This outcome was in line with those from other studies performed in different scales and modes and indicates the success of the pilot scale test. The net electricity produced from the digester accounted for 30-50% of the food industry plants' consumption. The available thermal energy could cover from 10% to 100% of the plant requirements, depending on the energy demand of the processes performed.

  13. Comparison of the efficacy of free residual chlorine and monochloramine against biofilms in model and full scale cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türetgen, Irfan

    2004-04-01

    The presence of microbial cells on surfaces results in the formation of biofilms, which may also give rise to microbiologically influenced corrosion. Biofilms accumulate on all submerged industrial and environmental surfaces. The efficacy of disinfectants is usually evaluated using planktonic cultures, which often leads to an underestimate of the concentration required to control a biofilm. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of monochloramine on biofilms developed in a cooling tower. The disinfectants selected for the study were commercial formulations recommended for controlling microbial growth in cooling towers. A cooling tower and a laboratory model recirculating water system were used as biofilm reactors. Although previous studies have evaluated the efficacy of free chlorine and monochloramine for controlling biofilm growth, there is a lack of published data concerning the use monochloramine in cooling towers. Stainless steel coupons were inserted in each tower basin for a period of 30 d before removal. Monochloramine and free chlorine were tested under identical conditions on mixed biofilms which had been allowed to grow on coupons. Monochloramine was found to be significantly more effective than free chlorine against cooling tower biofilms.

  14. Asteroid Impact Deflection and Assessment (AIDA) mission - Full-Scale Modeling and Simulation of Ejecta Evolution and Fates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Eugene G.; Yu, Yang; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Schwartz, Stephen; Stickle, Angela; Miller, Paul L.; Cheng, Andy F.; Michel, Patrick; AIDA Impact Simulation Working Group

    2016-10-01

    The proposed Asteroid Impact Deflection and Assessment (AIDA) mission includes NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), whose impact with the secondary of near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos is expected to liberate large amounts of ejecta. We present efforts within the AIDA Impact Simulation Working Group to comprehensively simulate the behavior of this impact ejecta as it moves through and exits the system. Group members at JPL, OCA, and UMD have been working largely independently, developing their own strategies and methodologies. Ejecta initial conditions may be imported from output of hydrocode impact simulations or generated from crater scaling laws derived from point-source explosion models. We started with the latter approach, using reasonable assumptions for the secondary's density, porosity, surface cohesive strength, and vanishingly small net gravitational/rotational surface acceleration. We adopted DART's planned size, mass, closing velocity, and impact geometry for the cratering event. Using independent N-Body codes, we performed Monte Carlo integration of ejecta particles sampled over reasonable particle size ranges, and over launch locations within the crater footprint. In some cases we scaled the number of integrated particles in various size bins to the estimated number of particles consistent with a realistic size-frequency distribution. Dynamical models used for the particle integration varied, but all included full gravity potential of both primary and secondary, the solar tide, and solar radiation pressure (accounting for shadowing). We present results for the proportions of ejecta reaching ultimate fates of escape, return impact on the secondary, and transfer impact onto the primary. We also present the time history of reaching those outcomes, i.e., ejecta clearing timescales, and the size-frequency distribution of remaining ejecta at given post-impact durations. We find large numbers of particles remain in the system for several

  15. Validation of a plant-wide phosphorus modelling approach with minerals precipitation in a full-scale WWTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbamba, Christian Kazadi; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Batstone, Damien John

    2016-01-01

    The focus of modelling in wastewater treatment is shifting from single unit to plant-wide scale. Plant wide modelling approaches provide opportunities to study the dynamics and interactions of different transformations in water and sludge streams. Towards developing more general and robust simula...

  16. High Performance Reduced Order Models for Wind Turbines with Full-Scale Converters Applied on Grid Interconnection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Heverton A.; F. Cupertino, Allan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    Wind power has achieved technological evolution, and Grid Code (GC) requirements forced wind industry consolidation in the last three decades. However, more studies are necessary to understand how the dynamics inherent in this energy source interact with the power system. Traditional energy...... in interconnection studies of synchronous machines with full converter technology. The performance of all models is evaluated based on time domain simulations in the Simulink/MATLAB environment. A detailed model is described, and four reduced order models are compared using the performance index, Normalized Integral...... of Absolute Error (NIAE). Models are analyzed during wind speed variations and balanced voltage dip. During faults, WPPs must be able to supply reactive power to the grid, and this characteristic is analyzed. Using the proposed performance index, it is possible to conclude if a reduced order model is suitable...

  17. High Performance Reduced Order Models for Wind Turbines with Full-Scale Converters Applied on Grid Interconnection Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton A. Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has achieved technological evolution, and Grid Code (GC requirements forced wind industry consolidation in the last three decades. However, more studies are necessary to understand how the dynamics inherent in this energy source interact with the power system. Traditional energy production usually contains few high power unit generators; however, Wind Power Plants (WPPs consist of dozens or hundreds of low-power units. Time domain simulations of WPPs may take too much time if detailed models are considered in such studies. This work discusses reduced order models used in interconnection studies of synchronous machines with full converter technology. The performance of all models is evaluated based on time domain simulations in the Simulink/MATLAB environment. A detailed model is described, and four reduced order models are compared using the performance index, Normalized Integral of Absolute Error (NIAE. Models are analyzed during wind speed variations and balanced voltage dip. During faults, WPPs must be able to supply reactive power to the grid, and this characteristic is analyzed. Using the proposed performance index, it is possible to conclude if a reduced order model is suitable to represent the WPPs dynamics on grid studies.

  18. Performance and model of a full-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) to treat the pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hongcheng; Chen, Zhaobo; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Shi, Yue; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-30

    A full-scale test was conducted with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pre-treating pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and amoxicillin. The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of UASB in the condition of a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate from 12.57 to 21.02 kgm(-3)d(-1) and a wide pH from 5.57 to 8.26, in order to provide a reference for treating the similar chemical synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin. The results demonstrated that the UASB average percentage reduction in COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin were 52.2%, 26.3% and 21.6%, respectively. In addition, three models, built on the back propagation neural network (BPNN) theory and linear regression techniques were developed for the simulation of the UASB system performance in the biodegradation of pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin. The average error of COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin were -0.63%, 2.19% and 5.40%, respectively. The results indicated that these models built on the BPNN theory were well-fitted to the detected data, and were able to simulate and predict the removal of COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin by UASB. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Empirical modeling of single-wake advection and expansion using full-scale pulsed lidar-based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    fairly well in the far wake but lacks accuracy in the outer region of the near wake. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction and wake advection velocity, is derived and linked to the characteristics of a spherical vortex structure. Furthermore, a new empirical model for single-wake......In the present paper, single-wake dynamics have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The use of pulsed lidar measurements allows for validation of basic dynamic wake meandering modeling assumptions. Wake center tracking is used to estimate the wake advection velocity experimentally...... and to obtain an estimate of the wake expansion in a fixed frame of reference. A comparison shows good agreement between the measured average expansion and the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) large eddy simulation–actuator line computations. Frandsen’s expansion model seems to predict the wake expansion...

  20. Development of Simplified and Dynamic Model for Double Glazing Unit Validated with Full-Scale Facade Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The project aims at developing simplified calculation methods for the different features that influence energy demand and indoor environment behind “intelligent” glazed façades. This paper describes how to set up simplified model to calculate the thermal and solar properties (U and g value) toget...

  1. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Albert, A. [GRPHE-Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 Rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Ameli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' e Sezione INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Anghinolfi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. [DSM/DAPNIA-Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Laboratoire de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Auer, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barbarito, E. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica e Sezione INFN, Via E. Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Basa, S. [LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS/INSU et Universite de Provence, Traverse du Siphon-Les Trois Lucs, BP 8, 13012 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Battaglieri, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-11-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion study, line parameter data were taken using miniature autonomous data loggers and shore-based optical time domain reflectometry. Details of the mechanical prototype line, the electromechanical cable and data acquisition are presented. Data taken during the immersion study revealed deficiencies in the pressure resistance of the electromechanical cable terminations at the entry points to the electronics containers. The improvements to the termination, which have been integrated into subsequent detection lines, are discussed. The line also allowed deep-sea acoustic measurements with a prototype hydrophone system. The technical setup of this system is described, and the first results of the data analysis are presented.

  2. Development of Simplified and Dynamic Model for Double Glazing Unit Validated with Full-Scale Facade Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The project aims at developing simplified calculation methods for the different features that influence energy demand and indoor environment behind “intelligent” glazed façades. This paper describes how to set up simplified model to calculate the thermal and solar properties (U and g value) toget...... year performance with different time steps, e.g. in simple energy and comfort compliance checking tools....

  3. Sub-Scale Orion Parachute Test Results from the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- By 120-ft Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian P.; Greathouse, James S.; Powell, Jessica M.; Ross, James C.; Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura; Porter, Barry J.; Goulding, Patrick W., II; Zwicker, Matthew L.; Mollmann, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    A two-week test campaign was conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80 x 120-ft Wind Tunnel in support of Orion parachute pendulum mitigation activities. The test gathered static aerodynamic data using an instrumented, 3-tether system attached to the parachute vent in combination with an instrumented parachute riser. Dynamic data was also gathered by releasing the tether system and measuring canopy performance using photogrammetry. Several canopy configurations were tested and compared against the current Orion parachute design to understand changes in drag performance and aerodynamic stability. These configurations included canopies with varying levels and locations of geometric porosity as well as sails with increased levels of fullness. In total, 37 runs were completed for a total of 392 data points. Immediately after the end of the testing campaign a down-select decision was made based on preliminary data to support follow-on sub-scale air drop testing. A summary of a more rigorous analysis of the test data is also presented.

  4. Full scale test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report; Reinforced glass fiber/expoxy used in wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Find M.; Branner, K.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risoe DTU, the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark -, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Moelholt Jensen's PhD study. This report contains the complete test data for the final test, in which the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, 330 strain gauges, 24 mechanical displacement devices and two optical deformation measuring systems. The mechanical displacement devices measured both global (absolute) and local (relative) deflection and the optical systems measured surface deformation. A prediction was made on the location of the failure of the girder. At this location the majority of the measuring equipment was concentrated. The prediction was proved to be correct and valuable information of the behaviour of the box girder prior to failure was obtained. The experimental investigation consisted of the following load configurations: -Flapwise bending -Torsion Ultrasonic scanning of the box girder was performed before, during and after the test the box girder. This was done to investigate whether the girder was damaged by the load or imperfection (productions defects) growth. (au)

  5. FEBEX-DP. Dismantling the ''full-scale engineered barrier experiment'' after 18 years of operation at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Florian; Gaus, Irina [Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The FEBEX experiment at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) consists of an in-situ full-scale engineered barrier system (EBS) test for the disposal of high-level waste (HLW). It is performed under natural conditions in crystalline rock in which the canisters are placed horizontally in drifts and are surrounded by a clay barrier constructed of highly compacted bentonite blocks. A partial dismantling and sampling of the EBS was carried out during 2002. Heating of the FEBEX started in 1997 and since then a constant temperature of 100 deg C has been maintained, while the bentonite buffer has been slowly hydrating in a natural way. A total of 632 sensors in the bentonite barrier, the rock mass, the heaters and the service zone record temperature, water saturation, humidity, total pressure, displacement, and water pressure. The hydration pattern is relatively symmetric, with no major differences along the axis. Although the host rock is characterized by heterogeneities with zones of higher permeability, the resaturation process is driven by the suction of the bentonite rather than by the availability of water in the rock, especially in the early phase. After 17 years, the water content in the buffer close to the heater still continues to increase slowly. The hydraulic pore pressures in the buffer and the geosphere have practically stabilized. The total pressure in general continues to increase in most points into the buffer, where in some parts pressures of over 6 MPa are registered. The long monitoring phase and the partial dismantling in 2002 indicate that the EBS has largely performed as expected and the major processes and couplings affecting the buffer saturation during the initial thermal period identified prior to the start of the experiment have been confirmed. A comprehensive report documents and reviews the state of the FEBEX (Lanyon and Gaus, 2013). After 18 years of operation the experiment will be excavated and dismantled in 2015. The main objectives of the FEBEX

  6. Assessing the applicability of the 1D flux theory to full-scale secondary settling tank design with a 2D hydrodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A; Marais, P

    2004-02-01

    The applicability of the one-dimensional idealized flux theory (1DFT) for the design of secondary settling tanks (SSTs) is evaluated by comparing its predicted maximum surface overflow (SOR) and solids loading (SLR) rates with that calculated with the two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model SettlerCAD using as a basis 35 full-scale SST stress tests conducted on different SSTs with diameters from 30 to 45m and 2.25-4.1m side water depth (SWD), with and without Stamford baffles. From the simulations, a relatively consistent pattern appeared, i.e. that the 1DFT can be used for design but its predicted maximum SLR needs to be reduced by an appropriate flux rating, the magnitude of which depends mainly on SST depth and hydraulic loading rate (HLR). Simulations of the Watts et al. (Water Res. 30(9)(1996)2112) SST, with doubled SWDs and the Darvill new (4.1m) and old (2.5m) SSTs with interchanged depths, were run to confirm the sensitivity of the flux rating to depth and HLR. Simulations with and without a Stamford baffle were also performed. While the design of the internal features of the SST, such as baffling, has a marked influence on the effluent SS concentration while the SST is underloaded, these features appeared to have only a small influence on the flux rating, i.e. capacity, of the SST. Until more information is obtained, it would appear from the simulations that the flux rating of 0.80 of the 1DFT maximum SLR recommended by Ekama and Marais (Water Pollut. Control 85(1)(1986)101) remains a reasonable value to apply in the design of full-scale SSTs-for deep SSTs (4m SWD) the flux rating could be increased to 0.85 and for shallow SSTs (2.5m SWD) decreased to 0.75. It is recommended that (i) while the apparent interrelationship between SST flux rating and depth suggests some optimization of the volume of the SST, this be avoided and (ii) the depth of the SST be designed independently of the surface area as is usually the practice and once selected, the

  7. Calibration of the hydraulic model of a full-scale activated sludge plant; Calibracion hidraulica a escala real de un reactor de lodos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Cheikh [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Loaiza-Navia, Jimmy [Servicios de Agua y Drenaje de Monterrey (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    When planning to simulate a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with the activated sludge model number 1 (ASM1), one of the first requirements is to determine the hydraulic model of the reactor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hydrodynamic regime of the aeration tank of a municipal WWTP by using a rhodamine tracer test and the Aquasim simulation software. A pre-simulation was performed in order to quantify the appropriate colorant mass, set up a sampling plan and evaluate the anticipated visual impact of the tracer test in the river receiving the treated effluents. A tracer test and dynamic flow measurements were carried out, the results of which served to establish and calibrate the hydraulic model. The evaluated tank was physically built as a plug-flow reactor subdivided in 7 compartments, but the study revealed that it is best represented by a model with 5 virtual mixed reactors in series. Through the study, the approach of using a WWTP simulator for hydraulics calibration was shown to be a powerful and flexible tool for designing a tracer test and for identifying adequate tank-in-series models of full-scale activated sludge aeration tanks. [Spanish] Cuando se planea simular una planta de tratamiento con base en el modelo numero 1 de lodos activados (ASM1), uno de los primeros requisitos es determinar el modelo hidraulico del reactor. En este trabajo se estudio el regimen hidrodinamico del tanque de accion de una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales municipales (PTAR), utilizando una prueba de trazador con rodamina y un programa de simulacion (Aquasim). Se realizo una prueba de trazador con el experimento, lo que permitio determinar la cantidad requerida de trazador, fijar los intervalos de muestreo y limitar el impacto visual anticipado del colorante sobre el rio que recibe el efluente tratado. Se llevaron a cabo la prueba de trazador y la medicion de los perfiles dinamicos de caudales, cuyos resultados sirvieron para establecer y calibrar el

  8. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Extreme load and PoC{sub I}nvE Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Magda; Roczek-Sieradzan, A.; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-09-15

    This report is the second report covering the research and demonstration project 'Experimental blade research: Structural mechanisms in current and future large blades under combined loading', supported by the EUDP program. A 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The blade has been submitted to thorough examination by means of strain gauges, displacement transducers and a 3D optical measuring system. This data report presents results obtained during full scale testing of the blade up to 80% Risoe load, where 80% Risoe load corresponds to 100% certification load. These pulls at 80% Risoe load were repeated and the results from these pulls were compared. The blade was reinforced according to a Risoe DTU invention, where the trailing edge panels are coupled. The coupling is implemented to prevent the out of plane deformations and to reduce peeling stresses in the adhesive joints. Test results from measurements with the reinforcement have been compared to results without the coupling. The report presents only the relevant results for the 80% Risoe load and the results applicable for the investigation of the influence of the invention on the profile deformation. (Author)

  9. Model updating of a full-scale FE model with nonlinear constraint equations and sensitivity-based cluster analysis for updating parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinwoo; Smyth, Andrew W.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of structural model updating is to reduce inherent modeling errors in Finite Element (FE) models due to simplifications, idealized connections, and uncertainties of material properties. Updated FE models, which have less discrepancies with real structures, give more precise predictions of dynamic behaviors for future analyses. However, model updating becomes more difficult when applied to civil structures with a large number of structural components and complicated connections. In this paper, a full-scale FE model of a major long-span bridge has been updated for improved consistency with real measured data. Two methods are applied to improve the model updating process. The first method focuses on improving the agreement of the updated mode shapes with the measured data. A nonlinear inequality constraint equation is used to an optimization procedure, providing the capability to regulate updated mode shapes to remain within reasonable agreements with those observed. An interior point algorithm deals with nonlinearity in the objective function and constraints. The second method finds very efficient updating parameters in a more systematic way. The selection of updating parameters in FE models is essential to have a successful updating result because the parameters are directly related to the modal properties of dynamic systems. An in-depth sensitivity analysis is carried out in an effort to precisely understand the effects of physical parameters in the FE model on natural frequencies. Based on the sensitivity analysis, cluster analysis is conducted to find a very efficient set of updating parameters.

  10. Activated sludge model 2d calibration with full-scale WWTP data: comparing model parameter identifiability with influent and operational uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vinicius Cunha; Lafuente, Javier; Baeza, Juan Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The present work developed a model for the description of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Manresa, Catalonia, Spain) for further plant upgrades based on the systematic parameter calibration of the activated sludge model 2d (ASM2d) using a methodology based on the Fisher information matrix. The influent was characterized for the application of the ASM2d and the confidence interval of the calibrated parameters was also assessed. No expert knowledge was necessary for model calibration and a huge available plant database was converted into more useful information. The effect of the influent and operating variables on the model fit was also studied using these variables as calibrating parameters and keeping the ASM2d kinetic and stoichiometric parameters, which traditionally are the calibration parameters, at their default values. Such an "inversion" of the traditional way of model fitting allowed evaluating the sensitivity of the main model outputs regarding the influent and the operating variables changes. This new approach is able to evaluate the capacity of the operational variables used by the WWTP feedback control loops to overcome external disturbances in the influent and kinetic/stoichiometric model parameters uncertainties. In addition, the study of the influence of operating variables on the model outputs provides useful information to select input and output variables in decentralized control structures.

  11. Proposal for a Full-Scale Prototype Single-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber and Detector Beam Test at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kutter, T

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will use a large liquid argon (LAr) detector to measure the CP violating phase, determine the neutrino mass hier- archy and perform precision tests of the three-flavor paradigm in long-baseline neutrino oscillations. The detector will consist of four modules each with a fiducial mass of 10 kt of LAr and due to its unprecedented size will allow sensitive searches for proton decay and the detection and measurement of electron neutrinos from core collapse supernovae [1]. The first 10 kt module will use single-phase LAr detection technique and be itself modular in design. The successful manufacturing, installation and operation of several full-scale detector components in a suitable configuration represents a critical engineering milestone prior to the construction and operation of the first full 10 kt DUNE detector module at the SURF underground site. A charged particle beam test of a prototype detector will provide critical calibration measurements as well as inva...

  12. Co-digestion of food waste in a municipal wastewater treatment plant: Comparison of batch tests and full-scale experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Konrad; Plabst, Markus; Schmidt, Andreas; Helmreich, Brigitte; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    The effects of co-digestion of food waste in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were studied in batch tests. The results obtained were compared with the mass balance of a digester at a full-scale WWTP for a one-year period without and with the addition of co-substrate. The specific methane yield calculated from the balance was 18% higher than the one in the batch tests, suggesting a stimulation of methane generation by co-digestion. It was hypothesized that this increase was caused by shifting the C/N ratio of raw sludge (8.8) to a more favourable ratio of the added food waste (17.7). In addition, potential benefits by adding food waste for energy autarky was investigated. While just 25% of the total energy demand of the plant could be recovered by biogas generation when no co-substrate was fed, this percentage has more than doubled when food waste was added at a ratio of 10% (w/w).

  13. Modelling growth performance and feeding behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in commercial-size aquaculture net pens: Model details and validation through full-scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Føre, Martin; Alver, Morten; Alfredsen, Jo Arve; Marafioti, Giancarlo; Senneset, Gunnar; Birkevold, Jens; Willumsen, Finn Victor; Lange, Guttorm; Espmark, Åsa; Terjesen, Bendik Fyhn

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a mathematical model which estimates the growth performance of Atlantic salmon in aquaculture production units. The model consists of sub-models estimating the behaviour and energetics of the fish, the distribution of feed pellets, and the abiotic conditions in the water column. A field experiment where three full-scale cages stocked with 120,000 salmon each (initial mean weight 72.1  ± SD 2.8 g) were monitored over six months was used to validate the model. The model was set up to simulate fish growth for all the three cages using the feeding regimes and observed environmental data as input, and simulation results were compared with the experimental data. Experimental fish achieved end weights of 878, 849 and 739 g in the three cages respectively. However, the fish contracted Pancreas Disease (PD) midway through the experiment, a factor which is expected to impair growth and increase mortality rate. The model was found able to predict growth rates for the initial period when the fish appeared to be healthy. Since the effects of PD on fish performance are not modelled, growth rates were overestimated during the most severe disease period. This work illustrates how models can be powerful tools for predicting the performance of salmon in commercial production, and also imply their potential for predicting differences between commercial scale and smaller experimental scales. Furthermore, such models could be tools for early detection of disease outbreaks, as seen in the deviations between model and observations caused by the PD outbreak. A model could potentially also give indications on how the growth performance of the fish will suffer during such outbreaks.

  14. Full-Scale Testing of the Ambient Pressure, Acid-Dissolution Front-End Process for the Current 99Mo Recovery Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Science and Engineering Division; Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Science and Engineering Division; Hafenrichter, Lohman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Science and Engineering Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Science and Engineering Division

    2013-01-31

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Conversion Program is actively developing technologies for converting civilian facilities that use high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and targets. The conversion of conventional HEU targets to LEU for the production of 99Mo production requires approximately five times the uranium in a target to maintain the 99Mo yield on a per-target basis. Under GTRI, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is developing two frontend options for current 99Mo production processes to allow the use of LEU-foil targets. In both processes, the aim is to produce a frontend product that is compatible with current 99Mo purification operations and will provide the same or a higher yield of 99Mo for the same number of irradiated targets. The two frontend processes under development as part of this project are (1) the dissolution of irradiated LEU foil (up to 250 g in a single batch) and nickel fission recoil barrier in nitric acid at ambient pressure; and (2) the electrochemical dissolution of LEU foil in series of steps that produces an alkaline (basic) solution feed for 99Mo purification. This report describes results from performance tests and design optimization of the ambient pressure, nitric-acid-dissolver system. The design, fabrication, and performance test planning for this system are described in more detail in previous reports (Jerden et al. 2011a,b, 2012). Full-scale demonstrations of both of the frontend processes using irradiated uranium foils are planned to be performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory this fiscal year.

  15. A dynamic model for calculating methane emissions from digestate based on co-digestion of animal manure and biogas crops in full scale German biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muha, Ivo; Linke, Bernd; Wittum, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this work is the development of a model for the estimation of methane emissions for storage tanks of biogas plants. Those can be estimated depending on (i) hydraulic retention time in the digester, (ii) an arbitrary removal rate of the digestate from the storage tank and (iii) arbitrary temperature conditions in the storage tank. Furthermore, the model is capable of considering an arbitrary mixture of manure and crops in the input material. The model was validated by data from 21 full scale biogas plants in Germany digesting cow manure and crops. A realistic scenario for the removal rate and temperature conditions in the storage tank was then investigated and special emphasis was given to the effect of hydraulic retention time and proportion of crops in the mixture on the input VS methane yield from the digester and the storage tank.

  16. Parameter Identification of an Ultrafiltration Model for Organics Removal in a Full-Scale Wastewater Reclamation Plant with Sparse and Incomplete Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu; Zeng, Siyu; Huang, Yunqing; He, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) has become one of the dominant treatment processes for wastewater reclamation in China. Modeling is an effective instrument to understand and optimize UF systems. To this end, a previously developed UF model for organics removal was applied to the UF process in a typical, full-scale wastewater reclamation plant (WRP) in China. However, the sparse and incomplete field monitoring data from the studied WRP made the traditional model analysis approaches hardly work in this case. Therefore, two strategies, namely Strategy 1 and Strategy 2, were proposed, following a regional sensitivity analysis approach, for model parameter identification. Strategy 1 aimed to identify the model parameters and the missing model input, i.e. sampling times, simultaneously, while Strategy 2 tried to separate these two processes to reduce the dimension of the identification problem through an iteration procedure. With these two strategies, the model performed well in the Qinghe WRP with the absolute relative errors between the simulated and observed total organic carbon (TOC) generally below 10%. The four model parameters were all sensitive and identifiable, and even the sampling times could be roughly identified. Given the incomplete model input, these results were encouraging and added to the trustworthiness of model when it was applied to the Qinghe WRP.

  17. Component Testing for Modular Pier Replacement at McMurdo Station, Antarctica: Inflatable Pontoons, Gelbo Flex and Full-Scale Cold Storage/Fold Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    40 4 0 10,000 No leaks Welded -4 Vulcanized −40 4 0 10,000 No leaks ERDC/CRREL TR-14-14 8 The LMCS pontoon fabric (samples Pontoon-1 to 3...cracking or leaks in the fabric or fabric joint welds . Upon receiving the pontoon, we inflated it and determined that there were 5 leaks caused from prior...durability and strength of the pontoon fabric when tested at Antarctic temperatures by using a cold-modified Gelbo flex (ASTM F392) test. The

  18. Efficiency and kinetic modeling of removal of nutrients and organic matter from a full-scale constructed wetland in Qasre-Shirin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Gholizadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study assessed the removal of organic material and nutrients from full-scale subsurface flow (SSF constructed wetlands (CWs followed by anaerobic stabilization ponds under environmental conditions. Methods: The effluents were distributed evenly in 12 reed beds. Samples were taken twice monthly for a total of 6 months from several points in the wetland. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, and nutrient removal from the system and the longitudinal effect of the reed beds for removal of pollutions were determined. A full-scale model of flow, BOD, and nutrients in SSF in the CWs is presented. Results: The flow rate and concentrations of parameters indicated that removal of organic matter and nutrients in the cold months decreased rather than in the hot months, as expected. The removal efficiency for BOD, COD, and TSS and the strongest biological interactions showed no uniform trends. The beds showed the highest removal rates in the first few meters of bed. The hybrid Monod-Plug flow regime and the Stover-Kincannon models showed the best fit for the kinetics of the processes. Umax in the Stover-Kincannon model was 3.64 mg/l.d for nitrogen and 0.24 mg/l.d for phosphorus. These values are very low, which indicates lower consumption and inefficiency of the system for removing nitrogen and phosphorus. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the SSF in CWs are able to treat average wastewater as effectively as common mechanical systems at lower cost.

  19. Kinetic assessment and modeling of an ozonation step for full-scale municipal wastewater treatment: micropollutant oxidation, by-product formation and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Saskia G; Wittenwiler, Mathias; Hollender, Juliane; Krauss, Martin; Ort, Christoph; Siegrist, Hansruedi; von Gunten, Urs

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation and disinfection processes during ozonation in a full-scale reactor treating secondary wastewater effluent were investigated for seven ozone doses ranging from 0.21 to 1.24 g O(3) g(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Substances reacting fast with ozone, such as diclofenac or carbamazepine (k(P, O3) > 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), were eliminated within the gas bubble column, except for the lowest ozone dose of 0.21 g O(3) g(-1) DOC. For this low dose, this could be attributed to short-circuiting within the reactor. Substances with lower ozone reactivity (k(P, O3) scale measurements. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the observed differences were higher than model uncertainties. The overestimation of micropollutant oxidation was attributed to a protection of micropollutants from ozone attack by the interaction with aquatic colloids. Laboratory-scale batch experiments using wastewater from the same full-scale treatment plant could predict the oxidation of slowly-reacting micropollutants on the full-scale level within a factor of 1.5. The Rct value, the experimentally determined ratio of the concentrations of hydroxyl radicals and ozone, was identified as a major contribution to this difference. An increase in the formation of bromate, a potential human carcinogen, was observed with increasing ozone doses. The final concentration for the highest ozone dose of 1.24 g O(3) g(-1) DOC was 7.5 μg L(-1), which is below the drinking water standard of 10 μg L(-1). N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation of up to 15 ng L(-1) was observed in the first compartment of the reactor, followed by a slight elimination during sand filtration. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) increased up to 740 μg AOC L(-1), with no clear trend when correlated to the ozone dose, and decreased by up to 50% during post-sand filtration. The disinfection capacity of the ozone reactor was assessed to be 1-4.5 log units in terms of total cell counts (TCC) and 0.5 to 2.5 log units for

  20. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel: Comparison of In- and Out-of-Autoclave Facesheet Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kellas, Sotiris; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration and the NASA Constellation Ares V programs. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.0 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3 ft. by 5 ft. panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections and tested under compressive loading. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3 ft. by 5 ft. panel. To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yielded good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  1. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 2; 6-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Meyers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Dixon, Genevieve D.

    2013-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panel types, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3- by 5-ft panel. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panels composed of 6-ply, IM7/977-3 facesheets (referred to as Panels B-1 and B-2). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional (3-D) effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  2. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 3; 8-ply Out-of-Autoclave Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10 m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800B/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of the 3- by 5-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, T40-800B/5320-1 facesheets (referred to as Panel C). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D), models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength.

  3. Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 μg L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 μg L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater.

  4. Full-scale demonstration of in situ cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater 2. Comprehensive analysis of field data using reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rahul K.; Hopkins, Gary D.; Goltz, Mark N.; Gorelick, Steven M.; McCarty, Perry L.

    2002-04-01

    We present an analysis of an extensively monitored full-scale field demonstration of in situ treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination by aerobic cometabolic biodegradation. The demonstration was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California. There are two TCE-contaminated aquifers at the site, separated from one another by a clay aquitard. The treatment system consisted of two recirculating wells located 10 m apart. Each well was screened in both of the contaminated aquifers. Toluene, oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide were added to the water in both wells. At one well, water was pumped from the upper aquifer to the lower aquifer. In the other well, pumping was from the lower to the upper aquifer. This resulted in a ``conveyor belt'' flow system with recirculation between the two aquifers. The treatment system was successfully operated for a 410 day period. We explore how well a finite element reactive transport model can describe the key processes in an engineered field system. Our model simulates TCE, toluene, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and microbial growth/death. Simulated processes include advective-dispersive transport, biodegradation, the inhibitory effect of hydrogen peroxide on biomass growth, and oxygen degassing. Several parameter values were fixed to laboratory values or values from previous modeling studies. The remaining six parameter values were obtained by calibrating the model to 7213 TCE concentration data and 6997 dissolved oxygen concentration data collected during the demonstration using a simulation-regression procedure. In this complex flow field involving reactive transport, TCE and dissolved oxygen concentration histories are matched very well by the calibrated model. Both simulated and observed toluene concentrations display similar high-frequency oscillations due to pulsed toluene injection approximately one half hour during each 8 hour period. Simulation results indicate that over the course of the demonstration, 6.9 kg

  5. Full-scale test of trailing edge flaps on a Vestas V27 wind turbine: active load reduction and system identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien; Barlas, Thanasis K.; Buhl, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    predictive control was tested successfully on this demonstrator turbine. An average flapwise blade root load reduction of 14% was achieved during a 38 minute test, and a reduction of 20% of the amplitude of the 1P loads was measured. A system identification test was also performed, and an identified linear...

  6. Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades - a preproject. Annex E. Full-scale test of wind turbine blade, using sensors and NDT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, O.J.D.; McGugan, Malcolm; Sendrup, P.

    2002-01-01

    A 19.1 metre wind turbine blade was subjected to static tests. The purpose of the test series was to verify the abilities of different types of sensors to detect damage in wind turbine blades. Prior to each of the static test-series an artificial damagewas made on the blade. The damage made...

  7. W4E HYDROPOWER DIRECT DRIVE IN-LINE HYDROTURBINE GENERATOR FULL SCALE PROTOTYPE VALIDATION TESTING REPORT MAY 2013 ALDEN LABORATORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Chad W [GZA GeoEnvironmental,Inc.

    2013-09-24

    The W4E is a patent-pending, direct-drive, variable force turbine/generator. The equipment generates electricity through the water dependent engagement of a ring of rotating magnets with coils mounted on a stator ring. Validation testing of the W4e was performed at Alden Laboratories in the Spring of 2013. The testing was independently observed and validated by GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. The observations made during testing and the results of the testing are included in the Test Summary Report

  8. Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades - a pre-project. Annex D - Full-scale test of wind turbine blade, using sensors and NDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, O.J.D.; McGugan, M.; Sendrup, P.; Rheinlaender, J.; Rusborg, J.; Hansen, A.M.; Debel, C.P.; Soerensen, B.F.

    2002-05-01

    A 19.1 metre wind turbine blade was subjected to static tests. The purpose of the test series was to verify the abilities of different types of sensors to detect damage in wind turbine blades. Prior to each of the static test-series an artificial damage was made on the blade. The damage made for each test-series was surveyed during each series by acoustic emission, fiber optic micro bend displacement transducers and strain gauges. The propagation of the damage was determined by use of ultra sonic and X-ray surveillance during stops in the test series. By use of acoustic emission it was possible to measure damage propagation before the propagation was of visible size. By use of fiber optic micro bend displacement transducers and strain gauges it was possible to measure minor damage propagation. By use of both ultra sonic, and X-ray NDT-equipment it were possible to determine the size of propagated damage. (au)

  9. Design and Calibration of a Full-Scale Active Magnetic Bearing-Based Test Facility for Investigating Rotordynamic Properties of Turbomachinery Seals in Multiphase Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Andreas Jauernik; Mandrup-Poulsen, Christian; Nielsen, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    The recent move towards subsea oil and gas production brings about a requirement to locate process equipment in deepwater installations. Furthermore, there is a drive towards omitting well stream separation functionality, as this adds complexity and cost to the subsea installation. This in turn...... University of Denmark and Lloyd's Register Consulting are currently establishing a purpose built state of the art multiphase seal test facility. This paper provides details on the design of the novel test facility and the calibration of the Hall sensor system employed to measure AMB forces. Calibration...

  10. Design and Calibration of a Full Scale Active Magnetic Bearing Based Test Facility for Investigating Rotordynamic Properties of Turbomachinery Seals in Multiphase Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Andreas Jauernik; Mandrup-Poulsen, Christian; Nielsen, Kenny Krogh

    2016-01-01

    AMBs are equipped with an embedded Hall sensor system enabling high precision non-contact seal force quantification. Module II is a fully automatised calibration facility for the Hall sensor based force quantification system. Module III consists of the test seal housing assembly. This paper provides...... details on the design of the novel test facility and the calibration of the Hall sensor system employed to measure AMB forces. Calibration and validation results are presented, along with an uncertainty analysis on the force quantification capabilities....

  11. Full-Scale Fatigue Testing of a Wind Turbine Blade in Flapwise Direction and Examining the Effect of Crack Propagation on the Blade Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khudairi, Othman; Hadavinia, Homayoun; Little, Christian; Gillmore, Gavin; Greaves, Peter; Dyer, Kirsten

    2017-10-03

    In this paper, the sensitivity of the structural integrity of wind turbine blades to debonding of the shear web from the spar cap was investigated. In this regard, modal analysis, static and fatigue testing were performed on a 45.7 m blade for three states of the blade: (i) as received blade (ii) when a crack of 200 mm was introduced between the web and the spar cap and (iii) when the crack was extended to 1000 mm. Calibration pull-tests for all three states of the blade were performed to obtain the strain-bending moment relationship of the blade according to the estimated target bending moment (BM) which the blade is expected to experience in its service life. The resultant data was used to apply appropriate load in the fatigue tests. The blade natural frequencies in flapwise and edgewise directions over a range of frequency domain were found by modal testing for all three states of the blade. The blade first natural frequency for each state was used for the flapwise fatigue tests. These were performed in accordance with technical specification IEC TS 61400-23. The fatigue results showed that, for a 200 mm crack between the web and spar cap at 9 m from the blade root, the crack did not propagate at 50% of the target BM up to 62,110 cycles. However, when the load was increased to 70% of target BM, some damages were detected on the pressure side of the blade. When the 200 mm crack was extended to 1000 mm, the crack began to propagate when the applied load exceeded 100% of target BM and the blade experienced delaminations, adhesive joint failure, compression failure and sandwich core failure.

  12. A link of full-scale accelerated pavement testing to long-term pavement performance study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available this paper, it is envisaged that the LTPP and APT data will provide the basis for the calibration of cracking and rutting models for the SAPDM. This would require in some cases, an introduction of shift factors to adjust APT data to LTPP (real life) data....

  13. Dynamic modelling of solids in a full-scale activated sludge plant preceded by CEPT as a preliminary step for micropollutant removal modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalbaki, Zeina; Torfs, Elena; Maere, Thomas; Yargeau, Viviane; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2017-04-01

    The presence of micropollutants in the environment has triggered research on quantifying and predicting their fate in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Since the removal of micropollutants is highly related to conventional pollutant removal and affected by hydraulics, aeration, biomass composition and solids concentration, the fate of these conventional pollutants and characteristics must be well predicted before tackling models to predict the fate of micropollutants. In light of this, the current paper presents the dynamic modelling of conventional pollutants undergoing activated sludge treatment using a limited set of additional daily composite data besides the routine data collected at a WWTP over one year. Results showed that as a basis for modelling, the removal of micropollutants, the Bürger-Diehl settler model was found to capture the actual effluent total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations more efficiently than the Takács model by explicitly modelling the overflow boundary. Results also demonstrated that particular attention must be given to characterizing incoming TSS to obtain a representative solids balance in the presence of a chemically enhanced primary treatment, which is key to predict the fate of micropollutants.

  14. Full scale model experiment of fair- faced concrete construction for Hongkong- Zhuhai- Macao Bridge%港珠澳大桥清水混凝土施工足尺模型试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令磊; 杨润来; 江宪权

    2016-01-01

    为提升整体景观效果,港珠澳大桥岛上段隧道敞开段墙身、挡浪墙及岛上房建采用清水混凝土工艺。由于清水混凝土在国内应用不多,缺乏施工经验,为确保施工品质及工程目标实现,针对清水混凝土施工技术及影响观感的各环节,在现场开展系统的足尺模型试验。通过系统试验,掌握了施工过程中的各项参数,并形成量化指标,以指导现场施工。%In order to enhance the overall landscape effect, fair-faced concrete was used on tunnel walls, wave walls and the buildings on the artificial islands of Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge. As fair-faced concrete was not much used in China, the builders had no much experience in construction of the fair-faced concrete.In order to ensure the quality of concrete construction and the project goals, systematic full-scale model testing was carried out on site to assess and ascertain the technology for fair faced concrete construction and various links affecting the external appearance. Through the systematic full scale model tests, various parameters in the process of construction were achieved and transformed into quantitative indicators to guide the construction on site.

  15. "Full-Scale Testing of Pavement Response"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ekdahl, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Three pavement sections in southern Sweden were instrumented in late 1991. Each section have instruments for measuring the strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer, vertical stress and strains in the subgrade and temperatures at different depths. The purpose was to evaluate different theoretical...

  16. Characterisation of the physical composition and microbial community structure of biofilms within a model full-scale drinking water distribution system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Fish

    Full Text Available Within drinking water distribution systems (DWDS, microorganisms form multi-species biofilms on internal pipe surfaces. A matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS is produced by the attached community and provides structure and stability for the biofilm. If the EPS adhesive strength deteriorates or is overcome by external shear forces, biofilm is mobilised into the water potentially leading to degradation of water quality. However, little is known about the EPS within DWDS biofilms or how this is influenced by community composition or environmental parameters, because of the complications in obtaining biofilm samples and the difficulties in analysing EPS. Additionally, although biofilms may contain various microbial groups, research commonly focuses solely upon bacteria. This research applies an EPS analysis method based upon fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM in combination with digital image analysis (DIA, to concurrently characterize cells and EPS (carbohydrates and proteins within drinking water biofilms from a full-scale DWDS experimental pipe loop facility with representative hydraulic conditions. Application of the EPS analysis method, alongside DNA fingerprinting of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities, was demonstrated for biofilms sampled from different positions around the pipeline, after 28 days growth within the DWDS experimental facility. The volume of EPS was 4.9 times greater than that of the cells within biofilms, with carbohydrates present as the dominant component. Additionally, the greatest proportion of EPS was located above that of the cells. Fungi and archaea were established as important components of the biofilm community, although bacteria were more diverse. Moreover, biofilms from different positions were similar with respect to community structure and the quantity, composition and three-dimensional distribution of cells and EPS, indicating that active colonisation of the pipe wall is

  17. Characterisation of the physical composition and microbial community structure of biofilms within a model full-scale drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Katherine E; Collins, Richard; Green, Nicola H; Sharpe, Rebecca L; Douterelo, Isabel; Osborn, A Mark; Boxall, Joby B

    2015-01-01

    Within drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), microorganisms form multi-species biofilms on internal pipe surfaces. A matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is produced by the attached community and provides structure and stability for the biofilm. If the EPS adhesive strength deteriorates or is overcome by external shear forces, biofilm is mobilised into the water potentially leading to degradation of water quality. However, little is known about the EPS within DWDS biofilms or how this is influenced by community composition or environmental parameters, because of the complications in obtaining biofilm samples and the difficulties in analysing EPS. Additionally, although biofilms may contain various microbial groups, research commonly focuses solely upon bacteria. This research applies an EPS analysis method based upon fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with digital image analysis (DIA), to concurrently characterize cells and EPS (carbohydrates and proteins) within drinking water biofilms from a full-scale DWDS experimental pipe loop facility with representative hydraulic conditions. Application of the EPS analysis method, alongside DNA fingerprinting of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities, was demonstrated for biofilms sampled from different positions around the pipeline, after 28 days growth within the DWDS experimental facility. The volume of EPS was 4.9 times greater than that of the cells within biofilms, with carbohydrates present as the dominant component. Additionally, the greatest proportion of EPS was located above that of the cells. Fungi and archaea were established as important components of the biofilm community, although bacteria were more diverse. Moreover, biofilms from different positions were similar with respect to community structure and the quantity, composition and three-dimensional distribution of cells and EPS, indicating that active colonisation of the pipe wall is an important

  18. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  19. An estimation method of full scale performance for pulling type podded propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Gil Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new estimation method of full scale propulsive performance for the pulling type podded propeller. In order to estimate the drag of pod housing, a drag velocity ratio, which includes the effects of podded propeller loading and Reynolds number, is presented and evaluated through the comparison of model test and numerical analysis. By separating the thrust of propeller blade and the drag of pod housing, extrapolation method of pod housing drag to full scale is deduced, and correction method of propeller blade thrust and torque to full scale is presented. This study utilized the drag coefficient ratio of the pod housing as a measure for expanding it to full scale, but in order to increase the accuracy of performance evaluation, additional study is necessary on the method for the full scale expansion via separating the drag of pod body, strut and fin which consist the pod housing.

  20. Dataset of Atmospheric Environment Publication in 2016, Source emission and model evaluation of formaldehyde from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data presented in this data file is a product of a journal publication. The dataset contains formaldehyde air concentrations in the emission test chamber and...

  1. The SAM software system for modeling severe accidents at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors on full-scale and analytic training simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchaya, D. Yu.; Fuks, R. L.

    2014-04-01

    The architecture of the SAM software package intended for modeling beyond-design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors evolving into a severe stage with core melting and failure of the reactor pressure vessel is presented. By using the SAM software package it is possible to perform comprehensive modeling of the entire emergency process from the failure initiating event to the stage of severe accident involving meltdown of nuclear fuel, failure of the reactor pressure vessel, and escape of corium onto the concrete basement or into the corium catcher with retention of molten products in it.

  2. Modelling ruptures of buried high-pressure dense-phase CO2 pipelines in carbon capture and storage applications - Part II. A full-scale rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Falle, SAEG; Woolley, RM

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere. National Grid initiated the COOLTRANS research programme to consider the CCS pipeline transportation of high-pressure dense-phase CO2, including the development and application of a mathematical model for predicting the sonic near-field dispersion of pure CO2 following pipeline venting or failure. In Part I (Wareing et al., 2015a) validation...

  3. Development of an on-line aqueous particle sensor to study the performance of inclusions in a 12 tonne, delta shaped full scale water model tundish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek

    Detection of particulate matter thinly dispersed in a fluid medium with the aid of the difference in electrical conductivity between the pure fluid and the particles has been practiced at least since the last 50 to 60 years. The first such instruments were employed to measure cell counts in samples of biological fluid. Following a detailed study of the physics and principles operating within the device, called the Electric Sensing Zone (ESZ) principle, a new device called the Liquid Metal Cleanliness Analyzer (LiMCA) was invented which could measure and count particles of inclusions in molten metal. It provided a fast and fairly accurate tool to make online measurement of the quality of steel during refining and casting operations. On similar lines of development as the LiMCA, a water analogue of the device called, the Aqueous Particle Sensor (APS) was developed for physical modeling experiments of metal refining operations involving water models. The APS can detect and measure simulated particles of inclusions added to the working fluid (water). The present study involves the designing, building and final application of a new and improved APS in water modeling experiments to study inclusion behavior in a tundish operation. The custom built instrument shows superior performance and applicability in experiments involving physical modeling of metal refining operations, compared to its commercial counterparts. In addition to higher accuracy and range of operating parameters, its capability to take real-time experimental data for extended periods of time helps to reduce the total number of experiments required to reach a result, and makes it suitable for analyzing temporal changes occurring in unsteady systems. With the modern impetus on the quality of the final product of metallurgical operations, the new APS can prove to be an indispensable research tool to study and put forward innovative design and parametric changes in industrially practised metallurgical

  4. Mathematical modeling of MSW combustion and SNCR in a full-scale municipal incinerator and effects of grate speed and oxygen-enriched atmospheres on operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zengying; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2010-12-01

    The rising popularity of incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) calls for detailed mathematical modeling and accurate prediction of pollutant emissions. In this paper, mathematical modeling methods for both solid and gaseous phases were employed to simulate the operation of a 450 t/d MSW-burning incinerator to obtain detailed information on the flow and combustion characteristics in the furnace and to predict the amount of pollutant emissions. The predicted data were compared to on-site measurements of gas temperature, gas composition and SNCR de-NO(X) system. The major operating conditions considered in this paper were grate speed and oxygen concentration. A suitable grate speed ensures complete waste combustion. The predictions are as follows: volatile release increases with increasing grate speed, and the maximal value is within the range of 700-800 kg/m(2)h; slow grate speeds result in incomplete combustion of fixed carbon; the gas temperature at slow grate speeds is higher due to adequate oxygenation for fixed carbon combustion, and the deviation reaches 200K; NO(X) emission decreases, but CO emission and O(2) concentrations increase, and the deviation is 63%, 34% and 35%, respectively. Oxygen-enriched atmospheres promote the destruction of most pollutants due to the high oxygen partial pressure and temperature. The furnace temperature, NO production and CO emission increase as the oxygen concentration increases, and the deviation of furnace exit temperature, NO and CO concentration is 38.26%, 58.43% and 86.67%, respectively. Finally, oxygen concentration is limited to below 35% to prevent excessive CO and NO(X) emission without compromising plant performance. The current work greatly helps to understand the operating characteristics of large-scale MSW-burning plants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Damage Monitoring for Full-Scale Aircraft Statics Test Based on Acoustic Emission%基于声发射的全尺寸飞机静强度损伤监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晖; 宁宁; 肖迎春; 刘国强; 李明

    2015-01-01

    More applications of Acoustic Emission (AE)have been implemented in structure health monitoring of aircraft.In this paper,the development and orientation principium of AE were introduced,then damage monitoring during static test of a full-scale aircraft was carried out.Through analyzing the parameters of AE,structural damage in some area was caught.The result shows that AE has advantages in damage monitoring for full-scale aircraft static test,it could avoid severe structural damages for expensive aircraft during statics test,and provide reference for damage tolerance design of airplanes.%声发射技术在飞机结构无损检测中的运用日益广泛,对声发射技术的发展现状、定位原理进行了介绍,并运用声发射技术完成了某型机全尺寸静强度试验的损伤监测。通过对采集的幅度、能量等信号参数进行分析,及时发现了飞机某部位结构的损伤。结果表明,声发射技术在飞机静强度试验损伤监测中可及时捕捉裂纹的形成和扩展过程,对发现金属结构损伤具有一定优势,可避免造价高昂的飞机在试验过程中发生大的结构性破坏,从而为飞机结构的损伤容限设计提供参考。

  6. Prediction of impact response of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to impact of aircraft engine missile. Verification by the results of full-scale impact tests using real jet engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Takashi; Ohno, Tomonori [National Defence Academy, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    It is of importance to investigate and predict the response of reinforced concrete structures to impact loading from the view point of disaster prevention at nuclear power plant facilities, and there is an urgent requirement for establishment of design methods against the impact of aircraft and/or its engine. The authors proposed a numerical approach for assessing local response characteristics by the high-velocity impact of deformable missiles, and the results of numerical analyses were verified by that of full-scale impact tests using real engine body (GE-J79) reported by Muto et.al. The relation between the crash strength of engine body and the limit thickness of perforation was calculated and illustrated in this paper. (author).

  7. Education, Wechler's Full Scale IQ and "g."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Abad, Francisco J.; Garcia, Luis F.; Juan-Espinosa, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether average Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) differences can be attributed to "g" using the Spanish standardization sample of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III) (n=703 females and 666 men). Results support the conclusion that WAIS III FSIQ does not directly or exclusively measure "g" across the full range…

  8. Study on Static Test Technology for High-Aspect Ratio Wing of Full Scale Aircraft%全尺寸飞机大展弦比机翼静力试验技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴科; 刘冰; 张建锋

    2014-01-01

    In the bearing capability static test of wing structure,because of the high-aspect ratio, the large deformation will arouse load direction changed.Taking the full scale aircraft structure as research obj ect,a test loading technology is proposed,which can realize the extractive wing loading.The static test of a certain type aircraft structure solves the problems of large deforma-tion loading,which has great realistic significance and application value.%在大展弦比飞机的机翼承载能力试验中,试验加载方向会因其大变形发生变化。本文以全尺寸结构机翼为研究对象,提出一种试验加载技术,最大程度实现机翼载荷的准确施加。通过此静强度试验,很好地解决了机翼试验大变形加载问题,具有较大的现实意义和应用价值。

  9. Design and Control of Full Scale Wave Energy Simulator System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2012-01-01

    For wave energy to become feasible it is a requirement that the efficiency and reliability of the power take-off (PTO) systems are significantly improved. The cost of installing and testing PTO-systems at sea are however very high, and the focus of the current paper is therefore on the design...... of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The main challenge is here to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system. The paper includes a description of the developed system, located at Aalborg University......, and the considerations behind the design. Based on the description a model of the system is presented, which, along with a description of the wave theory applied, makes the foundation for the control strategy. The objective of the control strategy is to emulate not only the wave behavior, but also the dynamic wave...

  10. Flow Induced segregation in full scale castings with SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Stang, Henrik; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2007-01-01

    Though promising, pioneering work has been carried out with rheological characterization and numerical modelling of form filling with SCC, the approach is far from standard in the concrete industry and clearly the approach does not yet hold all the answers to relevant questions. In particular flow...... induced segregation is a major risk during casting and it is not yet clear how this phenomenon should be modelled. In this paper testing and numerical simulations of full-scale wall castings are compared. Two different SCCs and three different filling methods were applied resulting in different flow...... patterns during form filling. Results show that the flow patterns have a major influence on the risk of flow induced segregation and the surface finish of the hardened concrete. A hypothesis for the mechanism of flow induced segregation is put forth....

  11. The design, construction and Heavy Vehicle Simulator testing results on Roller Compacted Concrete test sections at the CSIR Innovation Site and on a full-scale test road at Rayton

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, Louw

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanded Public Works Program (EPWP). The goals and objectives of the EPWP are to alleviate unemployment, targeting especially women, the youth and the disabled (Gauteng Provincial Government. 2007). This goal will be achieved by creating work... used for the compaction of all the layers (Du Plessis et al, 2013). The RCC was subjected to a range of loading conditions and moisture regimes while being tested with the HVS in channelized, bi-direction trafficking mode in the center of the slab...

  12. Blade Motion Correlation for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romander, Ethan A.; Meyn, Larry A.; Barrows, Danny; Burner, Alpheus

    2014-01-01

    Testing was successfully completed in May 2010 on a full-scale UH-60A rotor system in the USAF's National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel.[1] The primary objective of this NASA Army sponsored test program was to acquire a comprehensive set of validation-quality measurements ona full-scale pressure-instrumented rotor system at conditions that challenge the most sophisticated modeling andsimulation tools. The test hardware included the same rotor blades used during the UH-60A Airloads flight test.[2] Key measurements included rotor performance, blade loads, blade pressures, blade displacements, and rotorwake measurements using large-field Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Retro-reflective Background Oriented Schlieren (RBOS).

  13. Full Scale Experiment with Interactive Urban Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results of a full-scale interactive urban illumination experiment. The experiment investigates how human motion intensities can be used as input for controlling the illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. The trajectory, velocity...... changed according to their presence or actions, whereas people watching from the outside noticed to a larger degree the interaction between the illumination and the immersed persons. We seek to develop new knowledge about the experience of responsive environments and to explore technical, social...

  14. Full-scale test on drinking water disinfection by liquid chlorine and sodium hypochlorite%液氯和次氯酸钠对饮用水消毒效果的生产性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李述茂; 吴德礼

    2011-01-01

    Using sodium hypochlorite instead of liquid chlorine as disinfectant is an important development direction of drinking water disinfection in the future; however, there are only a few full-scale tests on the effect of sodium hypochlorite disinfection on water supply quality have been carried out and studied so far. The disinfection effect of liquid chlorine and sodium hypochlorite were investigated through the full-scale tests in two water supply plants of Shanghai, and the effects of the said two disinfectants on microorganism disinfection, disinfection by-products formation and nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matters removal were compared. The investigation results indicated that, the bactericidal efficiencies of the said two disinfectants for microorganisms were almost same, but the mass concentration of chloroform and haloacetic acids in the effluent water through the sodium hypochlorite disinfection were lower than that through the liquid chlorine disinfection; furthermore, the performance of sodium hypochlorite for NH3-N, TP and COD]*, removal was also better. The results of the test showed that, compared with liquid chlorine, sodium hypochlorite could reduce the content of disinfection byproducts in effluent water and gain a better effluent water quality under the condition of assuring the disinfection effect, which was a promising disinfectant.%以次氯酸钠代替液氯消毒是未来饮用水消毒的重要发展方向,但对于次氯酸钠消毒对供水水质的影响一直缺乏生产性试验研究.以上海2个净水厂实际生产工艺考察了液氯和次氯酸钠2种消毒剂的消毒效果,对于其在微生物消毒效果、消毒副产物生成和对氮磷及有机物去除方面进行了比较分析.研究发现,2种消毒方式对微生物的杀菌效率基本相同,但是次氯酸钠消毒出水中三氯甲烷和卤乙酸含量均比液氯消毒低,而且其在NH3-N、TP和CODMN的去除方面也具有更好的处理效果.结果表明,

  15. Full-Scale Theater Production and Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Scheutz, Colleen; Colangelo, Laura M.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a case study designed to explore the effectiveness of full-scale, authentic-text theater production for second language learning. Based on the results of preproduction and postproduction tests completed by cast and crew members, as well as the observations of all involved, the authors maintain that the diverse communication…

  16. Characterization of convective heating in full scale wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler

    2010-01-01

    Data collected in the International Crown Fire modeling Experiment during 1999 are evaluated to characterize the magnitude and duration of convective energy heating in full scale crown fires. To accomplish this objective data on total and radiant incident heat flux, air temperature, and horizontal and vertical gas velocities were evaluated. Total and radiant energy...

  17. Utility of a custom screw insertion guide and a full-scale, color-coded 3D plaster model for guiding safe surgical exposure and screw insertion during spine revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Bungo; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Kimura, Hiroaki; Masamoto, Kazutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-07-01

    Several articles have described the use of screw insertion guides during primary spine surgery; however, the use of such a guide during revision surgeries has not been described. The purpose of this study is to describe the utility of a custom screw insertion (CSI) guide assembled using a novel method and a full-scale, color-coded 3D plaster (FCTP) model for safe and accurate revision surgery. The authors applied the CSI guide and the FCTP model in 3 cases. In the first case, a patient with multiple failed cervical spine surgeries underwent occipitocervicothoracic fusion. After a successful result for this patient, the authors applied the CSI guide in 2 other patients who underwent revision lumbar fusion surgeries to confirm the accuracy and the efficacy of the CSI guides in such cases. The models and guides were fabricated using rapid prototyping technology. The effectiveness of these methods was examined. The FCTP model was designed using CT data. During model assembly, implants inserted during previous surgery were removed virtually, and for the cervical spine, vertebral arteries were colored red for planning. The CSI guide was designed with 5 or 6 arms to fit the bone surface precisely after removing artifacts. Surgery was performed by referring to the FCTP model. Because the actual structure of the bone surface was almost identical to that of the FCTP model, surgical exposure around the complex bone shape proceeded smoothly. The CSI guides were positioned accurately to aid the successful insertion of a pedicle screw into the C-2 vertebra in the case of cervical revision surgery, and 4 pedicle screws for lumbar vertebrae in the 2 other patients. Postoperative CT scans showed that all screw positions closely matched those predicted during the preoperative planning. In conclusion, the FCTP models and the novel CSI guides were effective for safe and accurate revision surgery of the spine.

  18. Numerical prediction of propulsion factors of propelled ship model and full scale ship%自航船模和实船推进因子的数值预报方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊鹰; 刘志华

    2013-01-01

      根据船体兴波作用对推进因子影响甚小的基本分析结论,提出了不考虑船体兴波的自航船模推进因子计算方法,并对KCS缩尺船模推进性能进行了预报,预报结果与试验吻合较好。在推进因子计算方法得到验证的基础上,进一步开展了实船推进因子的数值预报研究。%The numerical method to calculate the propulsion factors of self-propulsion ship model is pre-sented, in which the wave making is ignored because of the little influence of the wave making on the propulsion factors. The propulsion performance of scaled KCS ship model under experimental condition is numerically calculated by this method and the results are in good agreement with experiment data. After the validation of the propulsion factors prediction method, the numerical prediction of propulsion factors of full scale ship is carried out.

  19. From lab to full-scale ultrafiltration in microalgae harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenten, I. G.; Steven, S.; Dwiputra, A.; Khoiruddin; Hakim, A. N.

    2017-07-01

    Ponding system is generally used for microalgae cultivation. However, selection of appropriate technology for the harvesting process is challenging due to the low cell density of cultivated microalgae from the ponding system and the large volume of water to be handled. One of the promising technologies for microalgae harvesting is ultrafiltration (UF). In this study, the performance of UF during harvesting of microalgae in a lab- and a full-scale test is investigated. The performances of both scales are compared and analyzed to provide an understanding of several aspects which affect the yield produced from lab and actual conditions. Furthermore, a unique self-standing non-modular UF is introduced in the full-scale test. The non-modular UF exhibits several advantages, such as simple piping and connection, single pump for filtration and backwashing, and smaller footprint. With those advantages, the non-modular UF could be a promising technology for microalgae harvesting in industrial-scale.

  20. Characterisation of recycled mixed plastic solid wastes: Coupon and full-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Rohan Muni; Manalo, Allan C; Karunasena, Warna; Lau, Kin-Tak

    2016-02-01

    In Australia, the plastic solid waste (PSW) comprises 16% by weight of municipal solid waste but only about one-fourth are recycled. One of the best options to increase the recycling rate of mixed PSW is to convert them into products suitable for construction. However, a comprehensive understanding on the mechanical behaviour of mixed PSW under different loading conditions is important for their widespread use as a construction material. This study focuses on investigating the mechanical behaviour of recycled mixed PSW containing HDPE, LDPE and PP using coupon and full-scale specimens. From coupon test, the strength values were found to be 14.8, 19.8, 20, 5.6MPa in tension, compression, flexure and shear respectively, while the modulus of elasticity are 0.91, 1.03, 0.72GPa in tension, compression and flexure respectively. The coefficient of variance of the measured properties for coupon and fullscale specimens was less than 10% indicating that consistent material properties can be obtained for mixed PSW. More importantly, the strength properties of mixed PSW are comparable to softwood structural timber. The flexural behaviour of full-scale specimens was also predicted using fibre model analysis and finite element modelling. Comparison showed that using coupon specimen's properties, the flexural behaviour of the full-scale specimens can be predicted reliably which can eliminate the costly and time consuming arrangements for full-scale experimental tests.

  1. Field tests of fabric filters on full-scale coal-fired utility boilers. Volume 1. Martin Drake Unit 6, Ray D. Nixon Unit 1, Cherokee Unit 3, Cameo Unit 2, and Arapahoe Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, L.G.; Cushing, K.M.; Merritt, R.L.; Smith, W.B.

    1985-10-01

    This report discusses the results of a field investigation of full-scale baghouses collecting fly ash at five coal-fired power plants. All five plants burned western, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal and were equipped with baghouses cleaned by reverse gas. Since all of the baghouses operated with clear stacks, particulate collection efficiencies were not measured. Instead, attention was focused on parameters associated with pressure drop, which is important because it is directly related to operating and capital costs. Cleaning-cycle information was taken at the baghouses, and measurements were made of air-to-cloth ratio and tube sheet pressure drop. In addition, seasoned bags and bag samples cut from seasoned bags were weighed to determie dustcake areal loading. Average drag (presure drop/air-to-cloth ratio) and drag measured using these bag samples were recorded. Also, data on the chemical analysis of the coals and their resultant fly ash were gathered, and particle size distribution measurements were made on fly ash samples. Electrical resistivity was measured on fly ash from three locations. 8 refs., 33 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel Part 1: 8-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets. Part 1; 8-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David E.; Pineda, Evan J.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2013-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Space Launch Systems program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3.00- by 5.00-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to predict the compressive response of the 3.00- by 5.00-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, IM7/977-3 facesheets (referred to Panel A). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber misalignments, and three-dimensional (3 D) effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  3. Numerical simulation and scale effect of self-propulsion test of a full-scale ship%实船自航试验数值模拟及尺度效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 王超; 孙帅; 孙盛夏

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we adopt the Reynolds⁃averaged Navier⁃Stokes ( RANS ) method and volume of fluid ( VOF) model to carry out a numerical simulation of a self⁃propulsion test of a full⁃scale ship, considering a free surface on a KCS ship and KP505 propeller. First, we performed a numerical computation of a model⁃scale KCS under the conditions of a self⁃propulsion point and open⁃water propeller performance. The calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental data, thereby verifying the feasibility of the calculation method. Next, we an⁃alyzed the scale effect on the ship resistance, wave pattern, and velocity field, and obtained the propulsion factors of a full⁃scale ship. Based on the curves of the numerical self⁃propulsion test, we confirmed the self⁃propulsion point of the full⁃scale ship. Using the interpolation method, we identified the propulsion factors and found the scale effect of the rotational speed at the self⁃propulsion point and wake fraction to be obvious. The results show that the wake fraction of a full⁃scale ship is smaller than that of a model ship and its rotational speed at the self⁃propulsion point is greater.%以KCS船和KP505桨为计算对象,采用RANS方法和VOF模型,开展了考虑自由液面的实船自航试验数值模拟。首先进行KCS船模自航点工况下的流场计算和KP505桨的敞水性能计算,计算结果与试验值吻合较好,验证了计算方法的可行性。本文分析了船体阻力、波形和速度场的尺度效应,获得了实船的推进因子。根据数值自航试验曲线确定了自航点,进而插值计算得到实船推进因子,并分析发现自航点转速和伴流分数尺度效应明显。结果表明:实船伴流分数要小于船模,自航点转速要大于船模。

  4. Hybrid airfoil design methods for full-scale ice accretion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Farooq

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a design method together with a design philosophy that allows the design of "subscale" or "hybrid" airfoils that simulate fullscale ice accretions. These subscale or hybrid airfoils have full-scale leading edges and redesigned aft-sections. A preliminary study to help develop a design philosophy for the design of hybrid airfoils showed that hybrid airfoils could be designed to simulate full-scale airfoil droplet-impingement characteristics and, therefore, ice accretion. The study showed that the primary objective in such a design should be to determine the aft section profile that provides the circulation necessary for simulating full-scale airfoil droplet-impingement characteristics. The outcome of the study, therefore, reveals circulation control as the main design variable. To best utilize this fact, this thesis describes two innovative airfoil design methods for the design of hybrid airfoils. Of the two design methods, one uses a conventional flap system while the other only suggests the use of boundary-layer control through slot-suction on the airfoil upper surface as a possible alternative for circulation control. The formulation of each of the two design methods is described in detail, and the results from each method are validated using wind-tunnel test data. The thesis demonstrates the capabilities of each method with the help of specific design examples highlighting their application potential. In particular, the flap-system based hybrid airfoil design method is used to demonstrate the design of a half-scale hybrid model of a full-scale airfoil that simulates full-scale ice accretion at both the design and off-design conditions. The full-scale airfoil used is representative of a scaled modern business-jet main wing section. The study suggests some useful advantages of using hybrid airfoils as opposed to full-scale airfoils for a better understanding of the ice accretion process and the related issues. Results

  5. A History of Full-Scale Testing of Aircraft Structures at the National Aeronautical Establishment (L’Histoire de l’Evaluation en Laboratorie de Structures d’Aeronefs a l’Etablissement Aeronautique National)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    l’aeronautique jug~es importantes, completes et durables en termes de contribution aux connais- sances actuelles. " CAHIERS D’AkRONAUTIQUE (AN): Informations de...service including taxi time, with a nominal testing flight time of 3.5 minutes. Each flight consisted of one pre-flight ground load, 49 manoeuvre

  6. Full-scale Data Assessment in OWC Pico Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito-Melo, A.; Neumann, F. [Wave Energy Centre Lisbon (Portugal); Sarmento, A.J.N.A. [Wave Energy Centre, Lisbon (Portugal)]|[Instituto Superior Tecnico, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    After being idle for a period of several years after its first commissioning in 1999, the European OWC pilot plant on the island of Pico in the Azores has been reactivated by 2005 and initial tests have been performed since then. The refurbishment, co-ordinated by the Wave Energy Centre in Portugal, started in 2004, and was supported by National funding under a new Portuguese funding scheme for scientific pilot projects (PRIME/DEMTEC). The activities included the complete replacement of the degraded electrical equipment and refurbishments of the existing mechanical components. This paper describes the Pico plant monitoring during the full-scale demonstration from September 2005 to October 2006 and discusses the data and results obtained so far.

  7. Polyethylene encapsulation full-scale technology demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    A full-scale integrated technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD), was conducted at the Environmental & Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL.) in September 1994. As part of the Polymer Solidification National Effort, polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved, cost-effective treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. A fully equipped production-scale system, capable of processing 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control.

  8. Reed canary grass as an energy crop. Experiences from full-scale tests at BTC, Umeaa during the period 2000-2004; Roerflen som energigroeda. Erfarenheter fraan fullskalefoersoek vid Biobraensletekniskt Centrum (BTC) i Umeaa under aaren 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Sylvia; Oerberg, Haakan; Kalen, Gunnar; Thyrel, Mikael

    2006-07-01

    In the years 2000-2004, reed canary grass (RCG) has been cultivated, harvested, stored, upgraded, and combusted at Umeaa Biofuel Technology Center (BTC), SLU Roebaecksdalen, Umeaa. The entire chain from the field to hot water has been handled by personnel at BTC. Data and experiences from the different handling stages have been continuously collected. In this time period, RCG has been harvested each spring. The mean harvest level on SLU properties has been approximately 4 ton DM/ha and the dry matter content at harvest has been on average 11-12 %. Winter and harvest losses has been determined to approximately 44 %, by a comparison of harvest levels in spring and harvest levels in sample squares in late fall. An alternate method of cutting in late fall, where the crop is left in the field until spring, has been tested. With this method, the risk for cutting of green shoots is eliminated and the isolating effect of the cut ley is decreasing the frost depth in the field. Three different techniques of baling have been tested: large and small square baling, and round baling. Round baling is most suitable for the conditions at BTC, because of the low availability of large square baling equipment in the area. Otherwise large square baling is more time efficient. Thus, the low weight of round baling equipment is advantageous and gives rise to less ground damages. On BTC, the RCG bales are stored outside on an asphalt area, covered with ensilage plastic on a layer of pallets. This handling procedure is working satisfactory with relatively low material losses, but when larger quantities are stored inside storage is to prefer. The economy of RCG cultivation is, as for all agricultural crops, dependent of subsidies within EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Subsidies can be received for RCG cultivation on ordinary farmland and on fallow farmland. An extra energy crop subsidy can be received for RCG cultivation on ordinary farmland if the energy crop is utilised as

  9. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: III. The importance of strand surface roughness in long twist pitch conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Charlie; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-07-01

    As part of the ITER conductor qualification process, 3 m long cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) were tested at the SULTAN facility under conditions simulating ITER operation so as to establish the current-sharing temperature, T cs, as a function of multiple full Lorentz force loading cycles. After a comprehensive evaluation of both the toroidal field (TF) and the central solenoid (CS) conductors, it was found that T cs degradation was common in long twist pitch TF conductors while short twist pitch CS conductors showed some T cs increase. However, one kind of TF conductors containing superconducting strand fabricated by the Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) avoided T cs degradation despite having long twist pitch. In our earlier metallographic autopsies of long and short twist pitch CS conductors, we observed a substantially greater transverse strand movement under Lorentz force loading for long twist pitch conductors, while short twist pitch conductors had negligible transverse movement. With help from the literature, we concluded that the transverse movement was not the source of T cs degradation but rather an increase of the compressive strain in the Nb3Sn filaments possibly induced by longitudinal movement of the wires. Like all TF conductors this TF VNIINM conductor showed large transverse motions under Lorentz force loading, but T cs actually increased, as in all short twist pitch CS conductors. We here propose that the high surface roughness of the VNIINM strand may be responsible for the suppression of the compressive strain enhancement (characteristic of long twist pitch conductors). It appears that increasing strand surface roughness could improve the performance of long twist pitch CICCs.

  10. Supplying of sludge from the paper- and pulp industry to furnaces. Step 3 - design before full-scale tests; Tillfoersel av skogsindustriellt slam till eldstaeder. Etapp 3 - Projektering infoer fullskalefoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Njurell, Rolf; Eklund, Anders

    2003-07-01

    From the year 2005 it is no longer permitted to deposit organic waste in Sweden. The sludge which is generated in the Swedish pulp- and paper mills contains organic substance and is consequently included in the coming Swedish deposit prohibition. An alternative to deposit the sludge is combustion. In earlier stages 1 and 2 of this project, the combustion technique has been studied and full size tests of dewatering sludge have been performed. Within this stage 3 the design of a system, from sewage treatment to boiler has been studied and is presented in this report. The method can be described as a predesign study, which has been carried through for three Swedish mills - Froevi, Hallsta and Wargoen. The work has resulted in proposals for technical solutions and cost estimations for the complete systems. The two basic technical solutions are: Blowing of the dewatered bio-/fibersludge to the boiler with a blowing machine. Injection of biosludge with burners similar to oil burner lances. With the first technique the sludge is fed traditionally with a belt conveyer up to the boiler house and is then blown at a suitable place into the furnace freeboard. The other solution is to pump the sludge, with a small content of dry substance, to the boiler house for dewatering and injection in to the boiler. An alternative is to distribute the sludge through a 'blowtable' in the furnace back wall. Decisive for the technical choice is the available sludge quality and transportation distance. The complete investment and operational costs for the systems have been estimated. Looking at the alternatives to combustion and landfill they are: A separate drying system (This usually means a larger investment and the economic outcome must be analyzed from case to case); Production of building material; Alternative drying methods as Econova's (Sweden); Pellets production for use as fuel or sorbent; Combustion in the recovery boiler.

  11. N2O emissions from full-scale nitrifying biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollon, Julien; Filali, Ahlem; Fayolle, Yannick; Guerin, Sabrina; Rocher, Vincent; Gillot, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale nitrifying biofilter was continuously monitored during two measurement periods (September 2014; February 2015) during which both gaseous and liquid N2O fluxes were monitored on-line. The results showed diurnal and seasonal variations of N2O emissions. A statistical model was run to determine the main operational parameters governing N2O emissions. Modification of the distribution between the gas phase and the liquid phase was observed related to the effects of temperature and aeration flow on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa). With similar nitrification performance values, the N2O emission factor was twice as high during the winter campaign. The increase in N2O emissions in winter was correlated to higher effluent nitrite concentrations and suspected increased biofilm thickness.

  12. Instrumented Full Scale Tests of a Drifting Buoy and Drogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    of very high accuracy (better than 200 feet) owing to the phase-tracking system employed. Both an automatic Epsco and a Simrad/Internav Loran C system...from.the output of a Simrad/Internav LORAN C navi- gator. A similar Epsco system was also employed while coupled to a separate antenna. The Epsco unit gave

  13. Full scale tests of moisture buffer capacity of wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2005-01-01

    Moisture buffer capacity of hygroscopic materials can be used to moderate peaks in the relative humidity (RH) of indoor air as well as moisture content variations in building materials and furnishing. This can help to ensure healthier indoor environments by preventing many processes......, the buffer performance is investigated first for the untreated material, then after adding rendering on the surfaces, and finally with latex paint. Similarly for the walls of plasterboard construction, the buffer effects are investigated first for the insulation (cellulose or mineral wool), then after adding...... reduced even with the supposedly highly vapour permeable rendering finish, not to mention the case when the latex paint was used. In the same way, the experiments for the plaster board construction demonstrated how cellulose insulation, as a very hygroscopic material, is a good buffer compared...

  14. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate: Phase 3, Full-scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1996-07-16

    Technical problems (higher than target fired density, and poor intermediate strength after burnout but before sintering) were addressed and solved; solution involved use of large loading of CP-5 alumina (controlled pore, rehydratable), increased loading of one of the binders, and a steam aging step. Resistance of the lightweight aggregate in a brick formulation to steel slag penetration was assessed in a preliminary test and found to be almost as good as that of T-64. Pelletized process economic feasibility study was updated, based on production levels of 10,000 and 20,000 mt/year, the most up- to-date raw material costs, and the assumption of a retrofit into the Arkansas plant tabular production facility. For the 10,000 mt/y production level, the required selling price of 35% more than the T- 64 selling price exceeds the {le}25% objective. The market survey will determine whether to proceed with the full scale demonstration that will produce at least 54.4 mt (120,000 lb) of the aggregate for incorporation into products, followed by end-user testing and evaluation.

  15. Full-scale implementation of external nitrification biological nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    preliminary design of this full-scale plant and initial implementation. Introduction ... activated sludge (AS) system, the nitrification process is removed from the .... system. Design concept ... This latter mass fraction distribution is the one recom-.

  16. Full scale computer simulators in anesthesia training and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anne K

    2004-05-01

    With the advent of competency-based curriculum, technology such as full scale computer simulators have acquired an increasingly important role in anesthesia both in training and evaluation. This article reviews the current role of full scale computer simulators in teaching and evaluation in anesthesia. This review draws from existing anesthesia and medical education literature in order to examine and assess the current role of full scale computer simulators in anesthesia education today. The last decade has witnessed a major increase in the use of full scale computer simulators in anesthesia. Many applications have been found for these simulators including teaching and training, evaluation and research. Despite the increasing use and application of full scale computers in anesthesia in the area of teaching and training, definitive studies evaluating its cost effectiveness, its efficacy compared to traditional training methods or its impact on patient outcome are still pending. Although there is some preliminary evidence of reliability and validity in using the simulator to evaluate clinical competence, development in this area has not progressed enough to justify its use in formal, summative evaluation of competence in anesthesia at this time. As technology acquires an increasingly important role in medical education, full scale computer simulators represent an exciting potential in anesthesia. However, the full potential and role of simulators in anesthesia is still in development and will require a dovetailing of clinical theory and practice with current research in medical education.

  17. Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. II - Prediction of full scale characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical extrapolations are made from experimental subscale dynamics to predict full scale characteristics of dynamic stall. The method proceeds by establishing analytic relationships between dynamic and static aerodynamic characteristics induced by viscous flow effects. The method is then validated by predicting dynamic test results on the basis of corresponding static test data obtained at the same subscale flow conditions, and the effect of Reynolds number on the static aerodynamic characteristics are determined from subscale to full scale flow conditions.

  18. Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. II - Prediction of full scale characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical extrapolations are made from experimental subscale dynamics to predict full scale characteristics of dynamic stall. The method proceeds by establishing analytic relationships between dynamic and static aerodynamic characteristics induced by viscous flow effects. The method is then validated by predicting dynamic test results on the basis of corresponding static test data obtained at the same subscale flow conditions, and the effect of Reynolds number on the static aerodynamic characteristics are determined from subscale to full scale flow conditions.

  19. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangs, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1997-10-01

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO{sub 2}, CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  20. Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr−1 to10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used...... to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr−1 to 0.05 min−1; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day−1 to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various......,followed by a −2/3 slope, which can be described by f S( f ) = a1 f −2/3 + a2 f −2, ending in the frequency range for which the debate on the spectral gap is ongoing. It is shown here that the spectral gap exists and can be modelled. The linear composition of the horizontal wind variation from the mesoscale...

  1. Development of Full-Scale Ultrathin Shell Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Türkmen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed that a new ultrathin shell composite reflector is developed considering different design options to optimize the stiffness/mass ratio, cost, and manufacturing. The reflector is an offset parabolic reflector with a diameter of 6 m, a focal length of 4.8 m, and an offset of 0.3 m and has the ability of folding and self-deploying. For Ku-band missions a full-scale offset parabolic reflector antenna is designed by considering different concepts of stiffening: (i reflective surface and skirt, (ii reflective surface and radial ribs, and (iii reflective surface, skirt, and radial ribs. In a preliminary study, the options are modeled using ABAQUS finite element program and compared with respect to their mass, fundamental frequency, and thermal surface errors. It is found that the option of reflective surface and skirt is more advantageous. The option is further analyzed to optimize the stiffness/mass ratio considering the design parameters of material thickness, width of the skirt, and ply angles. Using the TOPSIS method is determined the best reflector concept among thirty different designs. Accordingly, new design can be said to have some advantages in terms of mass, natural frequency, number of parts, production, and assembly than both SSBR and AstroMesh reflectors.

  2. Density and Cavitating Flow Results from a Full-Scale Optical Multiphase Cryogenic Flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin

    2007-01-01

    Liquid propulsion systems are hampered by poor flow measurements. The measurement of flow directly impacts safe motor operations, performance parameters as well as providing feedback from ground testing and developmental work. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in an effort to improve propulsion sensor technology, has developed an all optical flow meter that directly measures the density of the fluid. The full-scale sensor was tested in a transient, multiphase liquid nitrogen fluid environment. Comparison with traditional density models shows excellent agreement with fluid density with an error of approximately 0.8%. Further evaluation shows the sensor is able to detect cavitation or bubbles in the flow stream and separate out their resulting effects in fluid density.

  3. Full-scale physical model of landslide triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, M.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Landslide triggering induced by high-intensity rainfall infiltration in hillslopes is a complex phenomenon that involves hydrological processes operating at different spatio-temporal scales. Empirical methods give rough information about landslide-prone areas, without investigating the theoretical framework needed to achieve an in-depth understanding of the involved physical processes. In this study, we tackle this issue through physical experiments developed in an artificial hillslope realized in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering of the University of Padua. The structure consists of a reinforced concrete box containing a soil prism with the following maximum dimensions: 3.5 m high, 6 m long, and 2 m wide. In order to analyze and examine the triggered failure state, the experiments are carried out with intensive monitoring of pore water pressure and moisture content response. Subsurface monitoring instruments are installed at several locations and depths to measure downward infiltration and/or a rising groundwater table. We measure the unsaturated soil water pressure as well as positive pore pressures preceding failure in each experiments with six tensiometers. The volumetric water content is determined through six Time Domain Reflectometry probes. Two pressure transducers are located in observation wells to determine the position of the water table in time. Two stream gauges are positioned at the toeslope, for measuring both runoff and subsurface outflow. All data are collected and recorded by an acquisition data system from Campbell Scientific. The artificial hillslope is characterized by well-known and controlled conditions, which are designed to reproduce an ideal set-up susceptible to heavy rainfall landslide. The hydrologic forcing is generated by a rainfall simulator realized with nozzles from Sprying System and. specifically designed to produce a spatially uniform rainfall of intensity ranging from 50 to 150 mm/h. The aim of our experiments is to reproduce the instability trigger that occurs in saturated or partially unsaturated conditions depending on the specific characteristics of the soil and its initial conditions; the retention curve of fine sand and the initial porosity are taken into account to highlight the hydrological condition of the surface layer during the trigger occurrence. Through our experimental setup we can investigate the succession of phases and their magnitude that cause the landslide trigger, in order to understand the instability mechanism that heavy rainfall can induce in fine sandy hillslopes. Particular attention is given on the role of water pressure head, not only with respect to the violation of Coulomb failure within a sloping soil, but also with respect to the subsequent deformation that involves the upper hillslope layers. In particular, we report here on the characterization of the sandy terrain used in the experiments and the preliminary results, together with a first discussion of the observed data.

  4. On the Uses of Full-Scale Schlieren Flow Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, G. S.; Miller, J. D.; Dodson-Dreibelbis, L. J.

    2000-11-01

    A lens-and-grid-type schlieren system using a very large grid as a light source was described at earlier APS/DFD meetings. With a field-of-view of 2.3x2.9 m (7.5x9.5 feet), it is the largest indoor schlieren system in the world. Still and video examples of several full-scale airflows and heat-transfer problems visualized thus far will be shown. These include: heating and ventilation airflows, flows due to appliances and equipment, the thermal plumes of people, the aerodynamics of an explosive trace detection portal, gas leak detection, shock wave motion associated with aviation security problems, and heat transfer from live crops. Planned future projects include visualizing fume-hood and grocery display freezer airflows and studying the dispersion of insect repellent plumes at full scale.

  5. Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsén, Xiaoli G.; Larsen, Søren E.; Petersen, Erik L.

    2016-05-01

    Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr^{-1} to 10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr^{-1} to 0.05 min^{-1}; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various spectral ranges, including the spectral gap, are revisited. Following the seasonal peak at 1 yr^{-1}, the frequency spectrum fS( f) increases with f^{+1} and gradually reaches a peak at about 0.2 day^{-1}. From this peak to about 1 hr^{-1}, the spectrum fS( f) decreases with frequency with a -2 slope, followed by a -2/3 slope, which can be described by fS(f)=a_1f^{-2/3}+a_2f^{-2}, ending in the frequency range for which the debate on the spectral gap is ongoing. It is shown here that the spectral gap exists and can be modelled. The linear composition of the horizontal wind variation from the mesoscale and microscale gives the observed spectrum in the gap range, leading to a suggestion that mesoscale and microscale processes are uncorrelated. Depending on the relative strength of the two processes, the gap may be deep or shallow, visible or invisible. Generally, the depth of the gap decreases with height. In the low frequency region of the gap, the mesoscale spectrum shows a two-dimensional isotropic nature; in the high frequency region, the classical three-dimensional boundary-layer turbulence is evident. We also provide the cospectrum of the horizontal and vertical components, and the power spectra of the three velocity components over a wide range from 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz, which is useful in determining the necessary sample duration when measuring turbulence

  6. Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-03-01

    Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale.

  7. Cylindrical acoustical holography applied to full-scale jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Alan T; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Krueger, David W; James, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Near-field acoustical holography methods are used to predict sound radiation from an engine installed on a high-performance military fighter aircraft. Cylindrical holography techniques are an efficient approach to measure the large and complex sound fields produced by full-scale jets. It is shown that a ground-based, one-dimensional array of microphones can be used in conjunction with a cylindrical wave function field representation to provide a holographic reconstruction of the radiated sound field at low frequencies. In the current work, partial field decomposition methods and numerical extrapolation of data beyond the boundaries of the hologram aperture are required prior to holographic projection. Predicted jet noise source distributions and directionality are shown for four frequencies between 63 and 250 Hz. It is shown that the source distribution narrows and moves upstream, and that radiation directionality shifts toward the forward direction, with increasing frequency. A double-lobe feature of full-scale jet radiation is also demonstrated.

  8. A study on the effect of flat plate friction resistance on speed performance prediction of full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat plate friction lines hare been used in the process to estimate speed performance of full-scale ships in model tests. The results of the previous studies showed considerable differences in determining form factors depending on changes in plate friction lines and Reynolds numbers. These differences had a great influence on estimation of speed performance of full-scale ships. This study- was conducted in two parts. In the first part, the scale effect of the form factor depending on change in the Reynolds number was studied based on CFD, in connection with three kinds of friction resistance curves: the ITTC-1957, the curve proposed by Grigson (1993; 1996, and the curve developed by Katsui et al (2005. In the second part, change in the form factor by three kinds of

  9. Evaluating 5 and 8 pH-point titrations for measuring VFA in full-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 24 February 2012; accepted in revised form 19 November 2012. ... applied to determine VFA in full-scale primary sludge hydrolysate and was shown to be equally efficient to the methods .... To test and measure the recovery of different VFA concentra- ..... bonate and SCFA weak acid bases in anaerobic systems.

  10. Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr−1 to10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used...... to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr−1 to 0.05 min−1; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day−1 to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various...... of the three velocity components over a wide range from 1 day−1 to 10 Hz, which is useful in determining the necessary sample duration when measuring turbulence statistics in the boundary layer....

  11. Fire spread simulation of a full scale cable tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    A fire simulation of a full scale tunnel was performed by using the commercial code EFFLUENT as the simulation platform. Estimation was made for fire spread on the stacked cable trays, possibility of fire spread to the cable trays on the opposite wall of the tunnel, detection time of smoke detectors in the smouldering phase and response of sprinkler heads in the flaming phase. According to the simulation, the rise of temperature in the smouldering phase is minimal, only of the order 1 deg C. The estimates of optical density of smoke show that normal smoke detectors should give an alarm within 2-4 minutes from the beginning of the smouldering phase, depending on the distance to the detector (in this case it was assumed that the thermal source connected to the smoke source was 50 W). The flow conditions at smoke detectors may be challenging, because the velocity magnitude is rather low at this phase. At 4 minutes the maximum velocity at the detectors is 0.12 m/s. During the flaming phase (beginning from 11 minutes) fire spreads on the stacked cable trays in an expected way, although the ignition criterion seems to perform poorly when ignition of new objects is considered. The Upper cable trays are forced to ignite by boundary condition definitions according to the experience found from ti full scale experiment and an earlier simulation. After 30 minutes the hot layer in the room becomes so hot that it speeds up the fire spread and the rate of heat release of burning objects. Further, the hot layer ignites the cable trays on the opposite wall of the tunnel after 45 minutes. It is estimated that the sprinkler heads would be activated at 20-22 minutes near the fire source and at 24-28 minutes little further from the fire source when fast sprinkler heads are used. The slow heads are activated between 26-32 minutes. (orig.)

  12. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, D.; Zandt, M.H. In 't; Guerrero-Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is use

  13. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, D.; Zandt, M.H. In 't; Guerrero-Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is

  14. Ancillary Frequency Control of Direct Drive Full-Scale Converter Based Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of a wind power plant based on a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter developed in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT Power Factory. Three different kinds of ancillary frequency control strategies, namely inertia ...

  15. Behavior of full-scale concrete segmented pipelines under permanent ground displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhee; O'Connor, Sean; Nadukuru, Srinivasa; Lynch, Jerome P.; Michalowski, Radoslaw; Green, Russell A.; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammed; Weiss, W. Jason; Bradshaw, Aaron

    2010-03-01

    Concrete pipelines are one of the most popular underground lifelines used for the transportation of water resources. Unfortunately, this critical infrastructure system remains vulnerable to ground displacements during seismic and landslide events. Ground displacements may induce significant bending, shear, and axial forces to concrete pipelines and eventually lead to joint failures. In order to understand and model the typical failure mechanisms of concrete segmented pipelines, large-scale experimentation is necessary to explore structural and soil-structure behavior during ground faulting. This paper reports on the experimentation of a reinforced concrete segmented concrete pipeline using the unique capabilities of the NEES Lifeline Experimental and Testing Facilities at Cornell University. Five segments of a full-scale commercial concrete pressure pipe (244 cm long and 37.5 cm diameter) are constructed as a segmented pipeline under a compacted granular soil in the facility test basin (13.4 m long and 3.6 m wide). Ground displacements are simulated through translation of half of the test basin. A dense array of sensors including LVDT's, strain gages, and load cells are installed along the length of the pipeline to measure the pipeline response while the ground is incrementally displaced. Accurate measures of pipeline displacements and strains are captured up to the compressive and flexural failure of the pipeline joints.

  16. Tracing disinfection byproducts in full-scale desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Le Roux, Julien

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the formation and the behavior of halogenated byproducts (regulated THMs and HAAs, as well as nitrogenous, brominated and iodinated DBPs including the emerging iodo-THMs) along the treatment train of full-scale desalination plants. One thermal multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) plant and two reverse osmosis (RO) plants located on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. DBPs formed during the prechlorination step were efficiently removed along the treatment processes (MSF or RO). Desalination plants fed with good seawater quality and using intermittent chlorine injection did not show high DBP formation and discharge. One RO plant with a lower raw water quality and using continuous chlorination at the intake formed more DBPs. In this plant, some non-regulated DBPs (e.g., dibromoacetonitrile and iodo-THMs) reached the product water in low concentrations (< 1.5 μg/L). Regulated THMs and HAAs were far below their maximum contamination levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Substantial amounts of DBPs are disposed to the sea; low concentrations of DBPs were indeed detected in the water on shore of the desalination plants.

  17. Characterization of AGIPD1.0: The full scale chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, D.; Allahgholi, A.; Arino-Estrada, G.; Bianco, L.; Delfs, A.; Dinapoli, R.; Goettlicher, P.; Graafsma, H.; Greiffenberg, D.; Hirsemann, H.; Jack, S.; Klanner, R.; Klyuev, A.; Krueger, H.; Marras, A.; Mozzanica, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schwandt, J.; Sheviakov, I.; Shi, X.; Trunk, U.; Xia, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zimmer, M.

    2016-12-01

    The AGIPD (adaptive gain integrating pixel detector) detector is a high frame rate (4.5 MHz) and high dynamic range (up to 104 ·12.4 keV photons) detector with single photon resolution (down to 4 keV taking 5σ as limit and lowest noise settings) developed for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU). This work is focused on the characterization of AGIPD1.0, which is the first full scale version of the chip. The chip is 64×64 pixels and each pixel has a size of 200×200 μm2. Each pixel can store up to 352 images at a rate of 4.5 MHz (corresponding to 220 ns). A detailed characterization of the AGIPD1.0 chip has been performed in order to assess the main performance of the ASIC in terms of gain, noise, speed and dynamic range. From the measurements presented in this paper a good uniformity of the gain, a noise around 320 e- (rms) in standard mode and around 240 e- (rms) in high gain mode has been measured. Furthermore a detailed discussion about the non-linear behavior after the gain switching is presented with both experimental results and simulations.

  18. Full-scale alkaline hydrolysis of organic explosives in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, R.; Nolin, J. [Tetra Tech Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the remediation of explosives at defence sites in North America. Organic explosives and residues are prevalent at ordinance, ammunition, and range sites, as well as at federal explosives manufacturing and storage facilities. The predominant explosives residues include trinitrotoluene (TNT), dinitrotoluenes (DNTs), and royal demolition explosive (RDX). Chemical oxidation treatments for the residues can require several applications and are costly. Biological treatments are feasible, but can be slow and difficult to apply. An alkaline hydrolysis process was used to destroy contaminants at an army ammunition site. Soil pan studies were conducted to characterize the nucleophilic substitution processes under varying quantities of chemical amendments. Effectiveness sampling included pH and moisture content; nitrates and nitrites; and explosives SW8330B. The study showed that high levels of explosives can be rapidly treated using the alkaline hydrolytic agent, which produced nitrites as the largest identifiable end product. Citric acid was then used to treat elevated nitrate and nitrite concentrations in soil samples resulting from the chemical destruction of TNT and DNT. An analysis of the treated samples showed a substantial decrease in nitroaromatic compounds. Details of full-scale ex situ treatments conducted to further assess the remediation processes were included. tabs., figs.

  19. Evaluation of full-scale biofilter media performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas-Gonzalez, B.; Ergas, S.J.; Switzenbaum, M.S.; Phillibert, N.

    1999-09-30

    The objective of this study was to characterize the key physical, chemical and biological properties of compost media from a full-scale biofiltration system used to control VOC emissions. Results of media characterization were used to assess the need for operational changes and media replacement. Biofilter media properties evaluated included: moisture content, pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen content in water extracts and solid matrix, oxygen uptake rates, and microbial plate counts including total heterotrophs, oligotrophs, actinomycetes and fungi. Samples were taken from various locations and depths in the biofilter after three and five years of system operation. Media moisture content was highly variable, with samples from deeper in the bed dryer than surface samples. Low moisture contents were associated with low pH values and low oxygen uptake rates. Total organic carbon contents in water extracts were higher than typical biosolids compost in samples near the inlet to the biofilter, possibly due to extracellular polysaccharides. After five years of use, total nitrogen and organic carbon contents in the solid matrix did not significantly differ from initial levels or those in typical biosolids compost.

  20. Performance of the LHC Final Design, Full-Scale Superconducting Dipole Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Siemko, A; Vlogaert, J; Wyss, C

    2001-01-01

    Within the LHC magnet program, a series of six, final design, full-scale superconducting dipole prototypes are presently being built in industry and tested at CERN. The main features of these magnets are: two-in-one structure, 56 mm aperture, six-block two layer coils wound from 15.1 mm wide graded NbTi cables, and all-polyimide insulation. This paper reviews the main test results of magnets tested to day at 4.2 K and 1.8 K. The results of the quench training, conductor performance, magnet protection, sensitivity to ramp rate and field quality are presented and discussed in terms of the design parameters and the aims of the full scale dipole prototype program.

  1. Blade Displacement Measurements of the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Abrego, Anita I.; Olson, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements were acquired during a wind tunnel test of the full-scale UH-60A Airloads rotor. The test was conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. Multi-camera photogrammetry was used to measure the blade displacements of the four-bladed rotor. These measurements encompass a range of test conditions that include advance ratios from 0.15 to unique slowed-rotor simulations as high as 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. The objective of these measurements is to provide a benchmark blade displacement database to be utilized in the development and validation of rotorcraft computational tools. The methodology, system development, measurement techniques, and preliminary sample blade displacement measurements are presented.

  2. Fault detection and isolation for a full-scale railway vehicle suspension with multiple Kalman filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesussek, Mathias; Ellermann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Reliability and dependability in complex mechanical systems can be improved by fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods. These techniques are key elements for maintenance on demand, which could decrease service cost and time significantly. This paper addresses FDI for a railway vehicle: the mechanical model is described as a multibody system, which is excited randomly due to track irregularities. Various parameters, like masses, spring- and damper-characteristics, influence the dynamics of the vehicle. Often, the exact values of the parameters are unknown and might even change over time. Some of these changes are considered critical with respect to the operation of the system and they require immediate maintenance. The aim of this work is to detect faults in the suspension system of the vehicle. A Kalman filter is used in order to estimate the states. To detect and isolate faults the detection error is minimised with multiple Kalman filters. A full-scale train model with nonlinear wheel/rail contact serves as an example for the described techniques. Numerical results for different test cases are presented. The analysis shows that for the given system it is possible not only to detect a failure of the suspension system from the system's dynamic response, but also to distinguish clearly between different possible causes for the changes in the dynamical behaviour.

  3. Reuse of microalgae grown in full-scale wastewater treatment ponds: Thermochemical pretreatment and biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Fabiana; Felix, Leonardo; Rocha, Hemyle; Pereira, Jackson de Oliveira; de Aquino, Sérgio

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed thermochemical pretreatment of microalgae harvested from a full-scale wastewater treatment pond prior to its anaerobic digestion using acid and alkaline chemical doses combined with thermal pretreatment at 80°C. Results indicated that alkaline and thermal pretreatment contributed mostly to glycoprotein and pectin solubilisation; whilst acid pretreatment solubilised mostly hemicellulose, with lower effectiveness for proteins. Regarding the anaerobic biodegradability, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that final methane yield was enhanced after almost all pretreatment conditions when compared to non-pretreated microalgae, with the highest increase for thermochemical pretreatment at the lowest dose (0.5%), i.e. 82% and 86% increase for alkaline and acid, respectively. At higher doses, salt toxicity was revealed by K(+) concentrations over 5000mg/L. All BMP data from pretreated biomass was successfully described by the modified Gompertz model and optimal condition (thermochemical 0.5% HCl) showed an increase in final methane yield and the process kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and full-scale test for steel tubular tower of UHV and EHV quadruple-circuit transmission line on the same tower%超/特高压交流同塔四回钢管塔设计及试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清华; 杨靖波; 韩军科; 董建尧

    2012-01-01

    双回1000kV与双回500kV同塔并架四回路SSZT2塔.是我国乃至世界上迄今为止应用于一般线路工程的单塔输送容量最大、高度最高、荷载最大的输电钢管塔.钢管最高材质为Q420,钢管全部采用插板和锻造法兰联接,首次应用强度级差高颈锻造法兰;在SSZT2杆塔结构设计中,对杆塔结构型式、风振系数、埃菲尔效应、钢管构件杆端弯矩等进行了专项研究,完善了超/特高压同塔多回钢管塔的设计,并通过了真型试验.试验表明我国超/特高压同塔多回钢管塔在设计、加工等环节有了可靠保障,可在特高压工程中进一步应用.%The SSZT2 lower,on which 1 000 kV AC double-circuit and 500 kV AC double-circuit are arranged,is the highest steel lubular tower with the biggest load and largest transmission capacity within conventional lines all over the world. The tube is made from Q420 high-strength steel and connected by plug-in boards and forging flanges. Trie strength classification technical is applied in forging flanges for the first lime. The design of multi-circuit steel lubular tower for UH V and EHV is improved through different aspects of studies including tower structure, wind vibration coefficient, Eiffel effect and bending moment. The success of full-scale test verified the reliability in design and manufacture of multi-circuit steel tubular tower for UHV and EHV which can be used in future projects.

  5. Correlation of finite-element structural dynamic analysis with measured free vibration characteristics for a full-scale helicopter fuselage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Dean, M. W.; Malatino, R.

    1974-01-01

    The correlation achieved with each program provides the material for a discussion of modeling techniques developed for general application to finite-element dynamic analyses of helicopter airframes. Included are the selection of static and dynamic degrees of freedom, cockpit structural modeling, and the extent of flexible-frame modeling in the transmission support region and in the vicinity of large cut-outs. The sensitivity of predicted results to these modeling assumptions are discussed. Both the Sikorsky Finite-Element Airframe Vibration analysis Program (FRAN/Vibration Analysis) and the NASA Structural Analysis Program (NASTRAN) have been correlated with data taken in full-scale vibration tests of a modified CH-53A helicopter.

  6. Full scale phosphoric acid fuel cell stack technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, L.; Faroque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cells is summarized. The preparation, heat treatment, and characterization of carbon composites used as bipolar separator plates are described. Characterization included resistivity, porosity, and electrochemical corrosion. High density glassy carbon/graphite composites performed well in long-term fuel cell endurance tests. Platinum alloy cathode catalysts and low-loaded platinum electrodes were evaluated in 25 sq cm cells. Although the alloys displayed an initial improvement, some of this improvement diminished after a few thousand hours of testing. Low platinum loading (0.12 mg/sq cm anodes and 0.3 mg/sq cm cathodes) performed nearly as well as twice this loading. A selectively wetproofed anode backing paper was tested in a 5 by 15 inch three-cell stack. This material may provide for acid volume expansion, acid storage, and acid lateral distribution.

  7. Enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    In some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the ever increasing production of sludge with the expanding population overloaded the anaerobic digestion which compromises the sludge reduction efficiency. Post anaerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been applied to enhance sludge reduction, however, to a very limited extent. This study verified the effectiveness of free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) pre-treatment on enhancing full-scale ADS degradation in post anaerobic digestion. The ADS collected from a full-scale WWTP was subject to FNA treatment at concentrations of 0.77, 1.54, 2.31, 3.08, and 3.85 mg N/L for 24 h followed by biochemical methane potential tests. The FNA treatment at all concentrations resulted in an increase (from 1.5-3.1 % compared to the control) in sludge reduction with the highest improvement achieved at 0.77 mg HNO2-N/L. The FNA treatment at this concentration also resulted in the highest increase in methane production (40 %) compared to the control. The economic analysis indicates that FNA treatment is economically attractive for enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale ADS.

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  9. HRP facility for fabrication of ITER vertical target divertor full scale plasma facing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visca, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseo.visca@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Roccella, S. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Candura, D.; Palermo, M. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Rossi, P.; Pizzuto, A. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Sanguinetti, G.P. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Mancini, A.; Verdini, L.; Cacciotti, E.; Cerri, V.; Mugnaini, G.; Reale, A.; Giacomi, G. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • R&D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • ENEA and ANSALDO NUCLEARE jointly participate to the European program for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) of first full-scale full-W armored IVT qualification prototype. - Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. (ANN) have being deeply involved in the European development activities for the manufacturing of the ITER Divertor Inner Vertical Target (IVT) plasma-facing components. During normal operation the heat flux deposited on the bottom segment of divertor is 5–10 MW/m{sup 2} but the capability to remove up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} during transient events of 10 s must also be demonstrated. In order to fulfill ITER requirements, ENEA has set up and widely tested a manufacturing process, named Hot Radial Pressing (HRP). The last challenge is now to fabricate full-scale prototypes of the IVT, aimed to be qualified for the next step, i.e. the series production. On the basis of the experience of manufacturing hundreds of small mock-ups, ENEA designed and installed a new suitable HRP facility. The objective of getting a final shaped plasma facing unit (PFU) that satisfies these requirements is an ambitious target because tolerances set by ITER/F4E are very tight. The setting-up of the equipment started with the fabrication of full scale and representative ‘dummies’ in which stainless steel instead of CFC or W was used for monoblocks. The results confirmed that dimensions were compliant with the required tolerances. The paper reports a brief description of the innovative HRP equipment and the dimensional check results after HRP of the first full-scale full-W PFU.

  10. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Knight, Vernie H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and DAS 2, were employed to obtain research data from various strain gage, accelerometer, and tensiometric sensors installed in the B-720 test aircraft. The CRDS successfully acquired 343 out of 352 measurements of dynamic crash data.

  11. Strength of Glued-in Bolts after Full Scale Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 after 9 years of use one of the blades of a windmill with wooden blades was struck by lightning. After demounting the damaged blade was handed over to the Technical University of Denmark for the investigation of potential fatigue damage. The paper presents an experimental determination...... of the residual strength of the glued-in bolts that served as the blade to rotor hub connection in the windmill. The load history of the bolts, the test method, the observed fracture modes and the force displacement curves are presented along with the recorded residual strength of the bolts. The bolts...

  12. Full-scale retrieval of simulated buried transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentich, D.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the results of a field test conducted to determine the effectiveness of using conventional type construction equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste. A cold (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) test pit (1,100 yd{sup 3} volume) was constructed with boxes and drums filled with simulated waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, concrete, and sludge. Large objects, including truck beds, tanks, vaults, pipes, and beams, were also placed in the pit. These materials were intended to simulate the type of wastes found in TRU buried waste pits and trenches. A series of commercially available equipment items, such as excavators and tracked loaders outfitted with different end effectors, were used to remove the simulated waste. Work was performed from both the abovegrade and belowgrade positions. During the demonstration, a number of observations, measurements, and analyses were performed to determine which equipment was the most effective in removing the waste. The retrieval rates for the various excavation techniques were recorded. The inherent dust control capabilities of the excavation methods used were observed. The feasibility of teleoperating reading equipment was also addressed.

  13. Hydrodynamic parameters estimation from self-potential data in a controlled full scale site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidichimo, Francesco; De Biase, Michele; Rizzo, Enzo; Masi, Salvatore; Straface, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    A multi-physical approach developed for the hydrodynamic characterization of porous media using hydrogeophysical information is presented. Several pumping tests were performed in the Hydrogeosite Laboratory, a controlled full-scale site designed and constructed at the CNR-IMAA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Metodologia per l'Analisi Ambientale), in Marsico Nuovo (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), in order to obtain an intermediate stage between laboratory experiments and field survey. The facility consists of a pool, used to study water infiltration processes, to simulate the space and time dynamics of subsurface contamination phenomena, to improve and to find new relationship between geophysical and hydrogeological parameters, to test and to calibrate new geophysical techniques and instruments. Therefore, the Hydrogeosite Laboratory has the advantage of carrying out controlled experiments, like in a flow cell or sandbox, but at field comparable scale. The data collected during the experiments have been used to estimate the saturated hydraulic conductivity ks [ms-1] using a coupled inversion model working in transient conditions, made up of the modified Richards equation describing the water flow in a variably saturated porous medium and the Poisson equation providing the self-potential ϕ [V], which naturally occurs at points of the soil surface owing to the presence of an electric field produced by the motion of underground electrolytic fluids through porous systems. The result obtained by this multi-physical numerical approach, which removes all the approximations adopted in previous works, makes a useful instrument for real heterogeneous aquifer characterization and for predictive analysis of its behavior.

  14. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and biogas crops in full scale German biogas plants: a model for calculating the effect of hydraulic retention time and VS crop proportion in the mixture on methane yield from digester and from digestate storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Bernd; Muha, Ivo; Wittum, Gabriel; Plogsties, Vincent

    2013-02-01

    Data from 24 full scale biogas plants in Germany digesting cow manure and crops were evaluated. Special emphasis was given to the effect of hydraulic retention time HRT and proportion of crops in the mixture (VS basis) p(VS,Crops)(Inp) on the methane yield from the digester [Formula: see text] and the storage tank [Formula: see text] at 37 and 22°C. The evaluation has shown model parameters for maximal methane yield of manure and crops [Formula: see text] at 270 and 420 Lkg(-1), respectively. For example, at HRT of 60days, maximum methane yield result to 249 and 388 Lkg(-1) for a crop proportion in the input of 0.0 and 1.0, respectively. The calculation of [Formula: see text] considers first order reaction rates and a temperature term f(T). Hence, at any arbitrary temperature in the range of 12°C

  15. Full-scale fire resistance tests on load-bearing C-shape cold-formed steel wall systems%C形冷弯薄壁型钢承重组合墙体足尺耐火试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶继红; 陈伟; 尹亮

    2013-01-01

    Fire performance of Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) load-bearing walls is the key problem encountered when popularizing and applying multi-storey CFS structures in China.This paper presents a detailed experimental investigation on ten full-scale load-bearing walls with C-shape CFS frame to efficiently improve their fire performance.The influences of the type of wall panels,insulation and load levels were also investigated.The results show that:① The disadvantage of calcium silicate board is its bursting feature at high temperatures,oriented strand boards (OSB) may burn in the fire resistance tests of CFS walls,bolivian magnesium board and autoclaved lightweight concrete (ALC) board,however,exhibit excellent fire performance ; ② When non-cavity insulated CFS walls with bolivian magnesium boards as base layer and gypsum plasterboards as face layer are exposed to a fire,different load levels may result in completely different failure modes and affect the fire resistance time of CFS walls; ③ By using aluminum silicate wool as external insulation in which the aluminum silicate wool was located outside the CFS frame and sandwiched between two layers of boards on the fire side,a noticeable reduction of heat transfer to the surface of steel stud and a considerable improvement of fire performance of CFS walls can be achieved.For the present specimens of CFS wall with aluminum silicate wool as external insulation on the fire side,the maximum fire resistance time was 165 minutes when the load ratio was 0.65,satisfying the fire resistance requirement of 120 minutes for load-bearing walls of multi-story structures in China.%冷弯薄壁型钢承重组合墙体抗火研究是多层冷弯薄壁型钢结构在我国推广应用的关键问题.文章共设计完成了十片C形冷弯薄壁型钢承重墙体足尺耐火试验,旨在经济高效地提高此类墙体耐火性能.试验同时考察了墙板类型、填充层情况、荷载水平等因素对墙体耐火性能的影响.

  16. Monitoring of biogas plants - experiences in laboratory and full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Habermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To control and regulate the biogas process there are online process parameters and offline process parameters, which basically don’t differ between pilot biogas plants and industrial biogas plants. Generally, temperature, pH-value, volume flow rate and sometimes redox potential are measured online. An online-measurement of the dissolved volatile fatty acids and an online-detection of dissolved hydrogen both directly in the liquid phase as well as near-infrared spectroscopy are under development. FOS/TAC-analysis is the most common offline-analysis of the biogas process and normally it is carried out by the plant operator directly at the biogas plant. For example dry matter, organic dry matter, nitrogen and fatty acids are other analyses, which are carried out but by a laboratory. Microbiological analyses of biogas plants are very expensive and time-consuming and are therefore in Germany very rare. Microbiological analyses are mainly for research purposes. For example the Fluorescence in situ Hybridiation (FISH is used for characterization of the populations. Electric-optical measurement should be established as a new method to investigate the vitality of the methane producing microorganisms. In a cooperation project, which is promoted by the German ministry for technology, between IASP and Chair of Bioprocess Engineering at TU Berlin, this method is proper investigated using a device from the firm EloSystems. The microorganisms are brought in an electrical field of different frequencies. In this field the microorganisms direct themselves differently according to their physiological state. At the end of this project an early detection of process disturbance will be possible with the help of this method. In this presentation the result of the first tests are presented.

  17. Case study of a full-scale evapotranspiration cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, P.E.; Andraski, B.J.; Archibald, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The design, construction, and performance analyses of a 6.1 ha evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover at the semiarid U.S. Army Fort Carson site, near Colorado Springs, Colo. are presented. Initial water-balance model simulations, using literature reported soil hydraulic data, aided selection of borrow-source soil type(s) that resulted in predictions of negligible annual drainage (???1 mm/year). Final construction design was based on refined water-balance simulations using laboratory determined soil hydraulic values from borrow area natural soil horizons that were described with USDA soil classification methods. Cover design components included a 122 cm thick clay loam (USDA), compaction ???80% of the standard Proctor maximum dry density (dry bulk density ???1.3 Mg/m3), erosion control measures, top soil amended with biosolids, and seeding with native grasses. Favorable hydrologic performance for a 5 year period was documented by lysimeter-measured and Richards'-based calculations of annual drainage that were all <0.4 mm/year. Water potential data suggest that ET removed water that infiltrated the cover and contributed to a persistent driving force for upward flow and removal of water from below the base of the cover. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  18. Ship manoeuvrability: full scale trials of colombian navy riverine support patrol vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Carreño Moreno, Jorge; Sierra Vanegas, Etty; Jimenez Gonzalez, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Methodology and results of full scale maneuvering trials for Riverine Support Patrol Vessel “RSPV”, built by COTECMAR for the Colombian Navy are presented. !is ship is equipped with a “Pump – Jet” propulsion system and the hull corresponds to a wide-hull with a high Beam – Draft ratio (B/T=9.5). Tests were based on the results of simulation of turning diameters obtained from TRIBON M3© design software, applying techniques of Design of Experiments “DOE”, to rationalize the number of runs...

  19. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Eleanor S. Lee; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windo...

  20. Dynamic Stability of Deep and Slender Wide-Flange Steel Columns – Full Scale Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Elkady, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Lignos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    In North America, a common design practice for steel frame buildings with perimeter steel special moment frames (SMFs) is to employ deep and slender wide-flange steel columns (i.e., range of column depth, d > 16 inches). Till recently, very little was known regarding the hysteretic behavior of such members because of lack of available experimental data. This paper discusses selective findings from a full-scale testing program that was conducted at École Polytechnique Montréal with the use o...

  1. The HyperV Full-Scale Contoured-Gap Coaxial Plasma Railgun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Elton, Raymond; Wu, Linchun; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2009-11-01

    HyperV has been developing pulsed plasma injected coaxial railguns with a contoured gap profile designed to mitigate the blowby instability. Previous work using half-scale guns has been successful in launching 150 μg plasmas at 90 km/s [1]. In order to meet the original goal of 200 μg at 200 km/s the full-scale coaxial plasma gun has been constructed, and initial testing is beginning. This new plasma gun consists of two machined aluminum electrodes and a UHMW polyethylene breech insulator. The gun is breech fed by 64 ablative polyethylene capillary discharge units identical to the half-scale gun units. Maximum accelerator energy storage has also been increased 50%. Refractory coatings may be necessary to allow full current (˜800 kA) operation. The outer electrode includes 24 small diagnostic ports for optical and magnetic probe access to the plasma inside the gun to allow direct measurement of the plasma armature dynamics. Initial test data from the full-scale coax gun will be presented along with plans for future testing. Work supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences.[4pt] [1] F. D. Witherspoon, A. Case, S. Messer, R. Bomgardner, M. Phillips, S. Brockington, R. Elton, ``Contoured Gap Coaxial Plasma Gun with Injected Plasma Armature'' Rev. Sci. Instr. submitted (2009)

  2. Full-scale measurements of aerodynamic induction in a rotor plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr; Hansen, Kurt S.

    2014-12-01

    Reliable modelling of aerodynamic induction is imperative for successful prediction of wind turbine loads and wind turbine dynamics when based on state-of- the-art aeroelastic tools. Full-scale LiDAR based wind speed measurements, with high temporal and spatial resolution, have been conducted in the rotor plane of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine to perform detailed analysis the aerodynamic induction. The experimental setup, analyses of the spatial structure of the aerodynamic induction and subsequent comparisons with numerical predictions, using the HAWC2 aerolastic code, are presented.

  3. Full-scale measurements of aerodynamic induction in a rotor plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2014-01-01

    in the rotor plane of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine to perform detailed analysis the aerodynamic induction. The experimental setup, analyses of the spatial structure of the aerodynamic induction and subsequent comparisons with numerical predictions, using the HAWC2 aerolastic code, are presented.......Reliable modelling of aerodynamic induction is imperative for successful prediction of wind turbine loads and wind turbine dynamics when based on state-of- the-art aeroelastic tools. Full-scale LiDAR based wind speed measurements, with high temporal and spatial resolution, have been conducted...

  4. Prediction of Full-Scale Propulsion Power using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature from four different loading conditions, together with hind cast data of wind and sea properties; and noon report data has been used to train an Artificial Neural Network for prediction...... of propulsion power. The model was optimized using a double cross validation procedure. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy between 0.8-1.7% using onboard measurement system data and 7% from manually acquired noon reports....

  5. Prediction of Full-Scale Propulsion Power using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature from four different loading conditions, together with hind cast data of wind and sea properties; and noon report data has been used to train an Artificial Neural Network for prediction...... of propulsion power. The model was optimized using a double cross validation procedure. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy between 0.8-1.7% using onboard measurement system data and 7% from manually acquired noon reports....

  6. Summary of Full-Scale Blade Displacement Measurements of the UH- 60A Airloads Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Meyn, Larry; Burner, Alpheus W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2016-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry techniques were acquired for a full-scale UH-60A rotor, tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex 40-Foot by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The measurements, acquired over the full rotor azimuth, encompass a range of test conditions that include advance ratios from 0.15 to 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. The objective was to measure the blade displacements and deformations of the four rotor blades and provide a benchmark blade displacement database to be utilized in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology, system development, and data analysis techniques are presented. Sample results based on the final set of camera calibrations, data reduction procedures and estimated corrections that account for registration errors due to blade elasticity are shown. Differences in blade root pitch, flap and lag between the previously reported results and the current results are small. However, even small changes in estimated root flap and pitch can lead to significant differences in the blade elasticity values.

  7. Seismic response of a full-scale wind turbine tower using experimental and numerical modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Kamel Sayed Ahmad; Saudi, Ghada N.; Eltaly, Boshra Aboul-Anen; El-khier, Mostafa Mahmoud Abo

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine technology has developed tremendously over the past years. In Egypt, the Zafarana wind farm is currently generating at a capacity of 517 MW, making it one of the largest onshore wind farms in the world. It is located in an active seismic zone along the west side of the Gulf of Suez. Accordingly, seismic risk assessment is demanded for studying the structural integrity of wind towers under expected seismic hazard events. In the context of ongoing joint Egypt-US research project "Seismic Risk Assessment of Wind Turbine Towers in Zafarana wind Farm Egypt" (Project ID: 4588), this paper describes the dynamic performance investigation of an existing Nordex N43 wind turbine tower. Both experimental and numerical work are illustrated explaining the methodology adopted to investigate the dynamic behavior of the tower under seismic load. Field dynamic testing of the full-scale tower was performed using ambient vibration techniques (AVT). Both frequency domain and time domain methods were utilized to identify the actual dynamic properties of the tower as built in the site. Mainly, the natural frequencies, their corresponding mode shapes and damping ratios of the tower were successfully identified using AVT. A vibration-based finite element model (FEM) was constructed using ANSYS V.12 software. The numerical and experimental results of modal analysis were both compared for matching purpose. Using different simulation considerations, the initial FEM was updated to finally match the experimental results with good agreement. Using the final updated FEM, the response of the tower under the AQABA earthquake excitation was investigated. Time history analysis was conducted to define the seismic response of the tower in terms of the structural stresses and displacements. This work is considered as one of the pioneer structural studies of the wind turbine towers in Egypt. Identification of the actual dynamic properties of the existing tower was successfully performed

  8. Seismic response of a full-scale wind turbine tower using experimental and numerical modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Kamel Sayed Ahmad; Saudi, Ghada N.; Eltaly, Boshra Aboul-Anen; El-khier, Mostafa Mahmoud Abo

    2016-12-01

    Wind turbine technology has developed tremendously over the past years. In Egypt, the Zafarana wind farm is currently generating at a capacity of 517 MW, making it one of the largest onshore wind farms in the world. It is located in an active seismic zone along the west side of the Gulf of Suez. Accordingly, seismic risk assessment is demanded for studying the structural integrity of wind towers under expected seismic hazard events. In the context of ongoing joint Egypt-US research project "Seismic Risk Assessment of Wind Turbine Towers in Zafarana wind Farm Egypt" (Project ID: 4588), this paper describes the dynamic performance investigation of an existing Nordex N43 wind turbine tower. Both experimental and numerical work are illustrated explaining the methodology adopted to investigate the dynamic behavior of the tower under seismic load. Field dynamic testing of the full-scale tower was performed using ambient vibration techniques (AVT). Both frequency domain and time domain methods were utilized to identify the actual dynamic properties of the tower as built in the site. Mainly, the natural frequencies, their corresponding mode shapes and damping ratios of the tower were successfully identified using AVT. A vibration-based finite element model (FEM) was constructed using ANSYS V.12 software. The numerical and experimental results of modal analysis were both compared for matching purpose. Using different simulation considerations, the initial FEM was updated to finally match the experimental results with good agreement. Using the final updated FEM, the response of the tower under the AQABA earthquake excitation was investigated. Time history analysis was conducted to define the seismic response of the tower in terms of the structural stresses and displacements. This work is considered as one of the pioneer structural studies of the wind turbine towers in Egypt. Identification of the actual dynamic properties of the existing tower was successfully performed

  9. The effect of primary sedimentation on full-scale WWTP nutrient removal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, S; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Flameling, A G; Colprim, J; Meijer, S C F

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, the performance of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is measured based on influent and/or effluent and waste sludge flows and concentrations. Full-scale WWTP data typically have a high variance which often contains (large) measurement errors. A good process engineering evaluation of the WWTP performance is therefore difficult. This also makes it usually difficult to evaluate effect of process changes in a plant or compare plants to each other. In this paper we used a case study of a full-scale nutrient removing WWTP. The plant normally uses presettled wastewater, as a means to increase the nutrient removal the plant was operated for a period by-passing raw wastewater (27% of the influent flow). The effect of raw wastewater addition has been evaluated by different approaches: (i) influent characteristics, (ii) design retrofit, (iii) effluent quality, (iv) removal efficiencies, (v) activated sludge characteristics, (vi) microbial activity tests and FISH analysis and, (vii) performance assessment based on mass balance evaluation. This paper demonstrates that mass balance evaluation approach helps the WWTP engineers to distinguish and quantify between different strategies, where others could not. In the studied case, by-passing raw wastewater (27% of the influent flow) directly to the biological reactor did not improve the effluent quality and the nutrient removal efficiency of the WWTP. The increase of the influent C/N and C/P ratios was associated to particulate compounds with low COD/VSS ratio and a high non-biodegradable COD fraction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Warren, B.

    2012-12-01

    We present results from the grant entitled, Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions. The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.

  11. Aerodynamic noise characterization of a full-scale wind turbine through high-frequency surface pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise...... wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush......-mounted relative to the blade surface. The measurements of surface pressure spectra are compared with the results of two engineering models for trailing edge noise and for turbulent inflow noise. The measured pressure fluctuations are related to the local inflow angle and are also compared to measurements...

  12. Metabolic versatility in full-scale wastewater treatment plants performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Ana B; Oehmen, Adrian; Saunders, Aaron M; Carvalho, Gilda; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2013-12-01

    This study analysed the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) microbial community and metabolic performance of five full-scale EBPR systems by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation combined with off-line batch tests fed with acetate under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) in all systems were stable and showed little variability between each plant, while glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were present in two of the plants. The metabolic activity of each sludge showed the frequent involvement of the anaerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) in PAO metabolism for the anaerobic generation of reducing equivalents, in addition to the more frequently reported glycolysis pathway. Metabolic variability in the use of the two pathways was also observed, between different systems and in the same system over time. The metabolic dynamics was linked to the availability of glycogen, where a higher utilisation of the glycolysis pathway was observed in the two systems employing side-stream hydrolysis, and the TCA cycle was more active in the A(2)O systems. Full-scale plants that showed higher glycolysis activity also exhibited superior P removal performance, suggesting that promotion of the glycolysis pathway over the TCA cycle could be beneficial towards the optimisation of EBPR systems.

  13. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  14. Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Bush, Harold G.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical and experimental results of the test for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Up-bending down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  15. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B. H.

    2016-05-01

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions.

  16. In-service Structural Health Monitoring of a Full-scale Composite Horizontal Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhanjun; GAO Dongyue; WANG Yishou; Gorgin RAHIM

    2015-01-01

    In-service structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies are critical for the utilization of composite aircraft structures. We developed a Lamb wave-based in-service SHM technology using built-in piezoelectric actuator/sensor networks to monitor delamination extension in a full-scale composite horizontal tail. The in-service SHM technology combine of damage rapid monitoring (DRM) stage and damage imaging diagnosis (DID) stage allows for real-time monitoring and long term tracking of the structural integrity of composite aircraft structures. DRM stage using spearman rank correlation coefifcient was introduced to generate a damage index which can be used to monitor the trend of damage extension. The DID stage based on canonical correlation analysis aimed at intuitively highlighting structural damage regions in two-dimensional images. The DRM and DID stages were trialed by an in-service SHM experiment of CFRP T-joint. Finally, the detection capability of the in-service SHM technology was verified in the SHM experiment of a full-scale composite horizontal tail. Experimental results show that the rapid monitoring method effectively monitors the damage occurrence and extension tendency in real time;damage imaging diagnosis results are consistent with those from the failure model of the composite horizontal tail structure.

  17. Aeroacoustic calculations of a full scale Nordtank 500kW wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debertshäuser, Harald; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2016-01-01

    The Actuator Line/ Navier-stokes technique is used to compute the incompressible flow around a full scale Nordtank 500kW wind turbine under different complex flow conditions such as atmospheric turbulence and wind shear. The flow field is used as an input to aeroacoustic calculations based on; a ...... resolution, and due to the simplification in the actuator line method using body forces to represent the blade. Noise levels are compared to field measurements of a Nordtank 500kW wind turbine at different wind speeds and in flow profiles.......The Actuator Line/ Navier-stokes technique is used to compute the incompressible flow around a full scale Nordtank 500kW wind turbine under different complex flow conditions such as atmospheric turbulence and wind shear. The flow field is used as an input to aeroacoustic calculations based on......; a semi empirical noise model; and a Navier-Stokes based computational aeroacoustic code (CAA). The Navier-Stokes based approach is solving acoustic perturbation equations and is capable of taking propagation and ground effects into account, but is limited to low frequency noise due to feasible mesh...

  18. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

    2008-06-19

    This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

  19. Full scale numerical analysis of high performance concrete columns designed to withstand severe blast impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin; Georgakis, Christos; Stang, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Composite, PCRC, is a Fiber reinforced Densified Small Particle system, FDSP, combined with a high strength longitudinal flexural rebar arrangement laced together with polymer lacing to avoid shock initiated disintegration of the structural element under blast...... load. Scaled experimental and numerical results of PCRC columns (200x200x1600mm) subjected to close-in detonation are presented in this paper. Based on these results and the use of geometrical scaling lows, a full scale column (800x800x6400mm) is designed and verified numerically to withstand 486.5 kg...... of PETN (85/15) High Explosives at stand off 1600 mm. Additionally, a LS-DYNA material model suitable for predicting the response of Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Concrete improved for close-in detonation and a description of the LS-DYNA multi-material Eulerian method for modeling the blast event...

  20. Calibration and validation of a phenomenological influent pollutant disturbance scenario generator using full-scale data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Saagi, Ramesh; Lindblom, Erik Ulfson

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the full-scale feasibility of the phenomenological dynamic influent pollutant disturbance scenario generator (DIPDSG) that was originally used to create the influent data of the International Water Association (IWA) Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM...... rate; 2) pollutants (carbon, nitrogen); 3) temperature; and, 4) transport. Simulation results show that the model successfully describes daily/weekly and seasonal variations and the effect of rainfall and snow melting on the influent flow rate, pollutant concentrations and temperature profiles...... rainfall patterns (climate change) or influent biodegradability (process uncertainty) on the generated time series; 2) a demonstration of how to reduce the cost/workload of measuring campaigns by filling the gaps due to missing data in the influent profiles; and, 3) a critical discussion of the presented...

  1. Combustion Aerosols from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Wood Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were to investigate the aerosol formation mechanisms during full-scale suspension firing of wood, and, to evaluate the effect of coal fly ash addition on the formation of aerosols under different ash load conditions. Tests with suspension firing of 100 % wood...... pellets, with and without injection of coal fly ash as additive, were carried out at the 800 MWth multifuel boiler at Avedøre Power Plant. An extractive sampling system consisting of a gas ejector-diluter connected to a 10-stage Berner type low pressure cascade impactor (aerodynamic diameter range of 0...... for the experiments with coal fly ash addition. This indicates that the coal fly ash is effective in capturing volatile alkalis released from the wood during combustion, thus suppressing the homogeneous nucleation of alkali-salts. SEM/EDS and TEM/EDS analysis revealed that the large condensation peak from pure wood...

  2. Full scale investigation on aerogel windows exposed to real climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Nielsen, Lars Thomsen

    The aim of the project “Full scale experiments with aerogel windows exposed to natural conditions” is to test the durability of aerogel windows exposed to real climatic conditions and to investigate the influence of aerogel windows compared to common low-energy windows with respect to heat balanc...... of the ambient air, and condensation on the outside surface will occur. This problem has been analysed theoretically by calculation of the number of hours per year where condensation will occur....... and indoor thermal comfort.The influence of temperature and wind load on the durability of sealed glazing units including aerogel windows has been investigated theoretically. The analyses show that evacuated aerogel glazings are significantly more robust to temperature changes and wind load than common...

  3. Aging biofilm from a full-scale moving bed biofilm reactor: characterization and enzymatic treatment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jinju; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Effective removal of aging biofilm deserves to receive more attention. This study aimed to characterized aging biofilm from a full-scale moving bed biofilm reactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater and evaluate the hydrolysis effects of biofilm by different enzymatic treatments. Results from FTIR and biochemical composition analyses showed that it was a predominately organic-based biofilm with the ratio of total protein (PN) to polysaccharide (PS) of 20.17. A reticular structure of extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) with filamentous bacteria as the skeleton was observed on the basal layer through SEM-EDS test. Among the four commercial proteases and amylases from Genencor®, proteases were shown to have better performances than amylases either on the removal of MLSS and PN/MLSS or on DOC (i.e., dissolved organic carbon)/MLSS raising of biofilm pellets. Difference of dynamic fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matters after treated by the two proteases indicated distinguishing mechanisms of the treating process.

  4. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    the design of delivery and mixing strategy for soil stabilization at field scale and present a cost-effective method of soil mixing by common contractor machinery. Soil contaminated by As, Cr, and Cu at an abandoned wood impregnation site was amended with 0.22% (dw) Fe-WTR. To evaluate the full scale...... amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...

  5. Bench and Full Scale Study of Removal Effect and Mutagenicity on Mesocyclops Leukarti with Chlorine Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Jin-long; YANG Wei; LIU Yan-an; LIN Tao

    2006-01-01

    Mesocyclops Leukarti of zooplankton propagates excessively in eutrophic water body and it can not be effectively inactivated by the conventional process in drinking waterworks for its special surface structure. In this paper, a study of removal efficiency on Mesocyclops Leukarti with chlorine dioxide in a drinking waterworks was performed.Bench scale results showed that chlorine dioxide is more effective against Mesocyclops Leukarti. And Mesocyclops Leukarti could be effectively removed from water by 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide preoxidation cooperated with the conventional process during the full scale study. The chlorite, by-preduct of prechlorine dioxide, was constant at 0.45 mg/L after filtration, which was lower than the critical value of the USEPA. GC-MS examination and Ames test showed that the quantity of organics and the mutagenicity in the water treated by chlorine dioxide is obviously less than that of prechlorination.

  6. Object-level change detection based on full-scale image segmentation and its application to Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at object fragmentation and poor detection results caused by discontinuous segmentation scale in object-level change detection,a new object-level change detection method based on the full-scale object tree is presented in this paper.The core idea of this new algorithm is to establish the full-scale object tree based on convexity model theory and integrate full-scale image segmentation techniques and change detection into the whole process.Some Wenchuan Earthquake images are taken as an example to discuss the new method for earthquake damage detection and evaluation in urban area,landslide detection,and extraction of barrier lake boundary.The application shows that the new method is robust and it provides an advanced tool for the quantitative detection and evaluation of earthquake damage.

  7. On the ASR and ASR thermal residues characterization of full scale treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, G; Viotti, P; Luciano, A; Fino, D

    2014-02-01

    In order to obtain 85% recycling, several procedures on Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) could be implemented, such as advanced metal and polymer recovery, mechanical recycling, pyrolysis, the direct use of ASR in the cement industry, and/or the direct use of ASR as a secondary raw material. However, many of these recovery options appear to be limited, due to the possible low acceptability of ASR based products on the market. The recovery of bottom ash and slag after an ASR thermal treatment is an option that is not usually considered in most countries (e.g. Italy) due to the excessive amount of contaminants, especially metals. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the characteristics of ASR and its full-scale incineration residues. Experiments have been carried out, in two different experimental campaigns, in a full-scale tyre incineration plant specifically modified to treat ASR waste. Detailed analysis of ASR samples and combustion residues were carried out and compared with literature data. On the basis of the analytical results, the slag and bottom ash from the combustion process have been classified as non-hazardous wastes, according to the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC), and therefore after further tests could be used in future in the construction industry. It has also been concluded that ASR bottom ash (EWC - European Waste Catalogue - code 19 01 12) could be landfilled in SNRHW (stabilized non-reactive hazardous waste) cells or used as raw material for road construction, with or without further treatment for the removal of heavy metals. In the case of fly ash from boiler or Air Pollution Control (APC) residues, it has been found that the Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded regulatory leaching test limits therefore their removal, or a stabilization process, would be essential prior to landfilling the use of these residues as construction material.

  8. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R; In 't Zandt, Michiel H; Guerrero-Cruz, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-03-31

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date.

  9. Development of an in-line process viscometer for the full-scale biogas process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönch-Tegeder, Matthias; Lemmer, Andreas; Hinrichs, Jörg; Oechsner, Hans

    2015-02-01

    An in-line viscometer was developed to determine the rheological properties of biogas slurries at a full-scale biogas plant. This type of viscometer allows the investigation of flow characteristics without additional pretreatment and has many advantageous aspects in contrast to the rotational viscometer. Various effects were studied: alterations in the feedstock structure, increasing total solid (TS) of the slurry and the disintegration of the feedstock on the rheological properties. The results indicate that the Power-Law model is sufficient for the description of the flow curve of biogas slurries. Furthermore, the use of more fibrous materials increases in viscosity. The increase in TS of 10.1-15.1% resulted in a sharp increase of the viscosity. The mechanical disintegration of the feedstock positively influenced the rheological properties, but the effects were more apparent at higher TS.

  10. Troubleshooting a Full-scale Wastewater Treatment Plant for Biological Nutrient Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleyiblo Oloche James

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Water Quality (IAWQ Activated Sludge Model No.2 (ASM2 was applied to troubleshoot an existing underperforming full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP built for biological nutrient removal. The WWTP is operated in a 3-stage pho-redox process configuration (A2O. This study was undertaken with the aim of finding optimal operating conditions that will meet TP and TN concentration requirements in the effluent of the WWTP under study without the use of either chemical or external carbon sources and also to verify the applicability, capability and predictability of ASM2 as implemented in STOAT software. ASM2 was successfully used to troubleshoot bottle neck areas and to define the operational schedule for optimal performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Consequently, the costs of chemical and external carbon sources were eliminated and the effect of residual chemicals on the environment reduced.

  11. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer

  12. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBerge, Kelsen; Handschuh, Robert; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite)configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp(2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Researchers continue to search for the cause of this orbit shift.

  13. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Kelsen E.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program, allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite) configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp (2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Further studies are planned to determine the cause of this behavior.

  14. Graphical Methods for Data Presentation: Full Scale Breaks, Dot Charts, and Multi-based Logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, William S.

    Experimentation with graphical methods for data presentation is important for improving graphical communication in science. Several graphical methods are discussed including full scale breaks, dot charts, and multibased logging. Full scale breaks are suggested as replacements for partial scale breaks since partial scale breaks can fail to provide…

  15. Evaluation of the airway of the SimMan full-scale patient simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, R; Kristensen, M S; Rasmussen, L S

    2005-01-01

    SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated.......SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated....

  16. Simulation in full-scale mock-ups: an ergonomics evaluation method?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents and exploratory study of four simulation sessions in full-scale mock-ups of future hospital facilities.......This paper presents and exploratory study of four simulation sessions in full-scale mock-ups of future hospital facilities....

  17. Design and performance of a full-scale spray calciner for nonradioactive high-level-waste-vitrification studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, F.A.

    1981-06-01

    In the spray calcination process, liquid waste is spray-dried in a heated-wall spray dryer (termed a spray calciner), and then it may be combined in solid form with a glass-forming frit. This mixture is then melted in a continuous ceramic melter or in an in-can melter. Several sizes of spray calciners have been tested at PNL- laboratory scale, pilot scale and full scale. Summarized here is the experience gained during the operation of PNL's full-scale spray calciner, which has solidified approx. 38,000 L of simulated acid wastes and approx. 352,000 L of simulated neutralized wastes in 1830 h of processing time. Operating principles, operating experience, design aspects, and system descriptions of a full-scale spray calciner are discussed. Individual test run summaries are given in Appendix A. Appendices B and C are studies made by Bechtel Inc., under contract by PNL. These studies concern, respectively, feed systems for the spray calciner process and a spray calciner vibration analysis. Appendix D is a detailed structural analysis made at PNL of the spray calciner. These appendices are included in the report to provide a complete description of the spray calciner and to include all major studies made concerning PNL's full-scale spray calciner.

  18. Blade Deflection Measurements of a Full-Scale UH-60A Rotor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lawrence E.; Abrego, Anita; Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2010-01-01

    Blade deflection (BD) measurements using stereo photogrammetry have been made during the individual blade control (IBC) testing of a UH-60A 4-bladed rotor system in the 40 by 80-foot test section of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC). Measurements were made in quadrants one and two, encompassing advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.40, thrust coefficient/solidities from 0.05 to 0.12 and rotor-system drive shaft angles from 0.0 to -9.6 deg. The experiment represents a significant step toward providing benchmark databases to be utilized by theoreticians in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. In addition to describing the stereo measurement technique and reporting on preliminary measurements made to date, the intent of this paper is to encourage feedback from the rotorcraft community concerning continued analysis of acquired data and to solicit suggestions for improved test technique and areas of emphasis for measurements in the upcoming UH-60A Airloads test at the NFAC.

  19. Real-time hybrid simulation technique for performance evaluation of full-scale sloshing dampers in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zili; Basu, Biswajit; Nielsen, Saren R. K.

    2016-09-01

    As a variation of the pseudodynamic testing technique, the real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) technique is executed in real time, thus allowing investigation of structural systems with rate-dependent components. In this paper, the RTHS is employed for performance evaluation of full-scale liquid sloshing dampers in multi-megawatt wind turbines, where the tuned liquid damper (TLD) is manufactured and tested as the physical substructure while the wind turbine is treated as the numerical substructure and modelled in the computer using a 13-degree-of-freedom (13-DOF) aeroelastic model. Wind turbines with 2 MW and 3 MW capacities have been considered under various turbulent wind conditions. Extensive parametric studies have been performed on the TLD, e.g., various tuning ratios by changing the water level, TLD without and with damping screens (various mesh sizes of the screen considered), and TLD with flat and sloped bottoms. The present study provides useful guidelines for employing sloshing dampers in large wind turbines, and indicates huge potentials of applying RTHS technique in the area of wind energy.

  20. Seismic Response of a Full-scale 5-story Steel Frame Building Isolated by Triple Pendulum Bearings under Three-Dimensional Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Nhan Dinh

    A full-scale shake table test of a 5-story steel moment frame building was carried out as part of a collaborative NEES/E-Defense research program. The building was tested in three configurations: isolated with triple pendulum bearings (TPB), isolated with lead rubber bearings combined with cross linear sliders (which is not discussed in this dissertation), and fixed base. The test provided full-scale response data of both the isolation system and the isolated structure and demonstrated the efficiency of the isolation system in reducing the demands in the isolated structure. A 3-dimensional TPB element with a general friction model that accounts for the variation of friction coefficients on both velocity and vertical force was developed to predict the response of individual TPB and the overall isolation system. The element accounts for both vertical-horizontal coupling behavior and bidirectional coupling of TPB. The horizontal behavior of the element is based on a series combination of bidirectional elastic-plastic springs and the circular gap elements. The new TPB element was verified by the full scale test data and has been implemented in OpenSees so that it is available for general use. The analytical model of the specimen building was also developed and validated by the test data from both the isolated base and fixed base tests. The following modeling assumption were shown to best present the response characteristics of the tested structure: (1) beam were modeled as nonlinear elements with resultant composite sections, (2) moment connection were modeled using a Krawinkler panel zone model, and (3) energy dissipation was represented by Rayleigh damping calibrated to include higher mode effects observed in the test data, along with additional interstory dampers. The vertical component of the excitation was shown to amplify the horizontal response of both the fixed base and isolated base structures. This coupling effect was small in the tested fixed base

  1. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills,this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  2. Experimental Investigation of a Hypersonic Glider Configuration at a Mach Number of 6 and at Full-Scale Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiff, Alvin; Wilkins, Max E.

    1961-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a hypersonic glider configuration, consisting of a slender ogive cylinder with three highly swept wings, spaced 120 apart, with the wing chord equal to the body length, were investigated experimentally at a Mach number of 6 and at Reynolds numbers from 6 to 16 million. The objectives were to evaluate the theoretical procedures which had been used to estimate the performance of the glider, and also to evaluate the characteristics of the glider itself. A principal question concerned the viscous drag at full-scale Reynolds number, there being a large difference between the total drags for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. It was found that the procedures which had been applied for estimating minimum drag, drag due to lift, lift curve slope, and center of pressure were generally accurate within 10 percent. An important exception was the non-linear contribution to the lift coefficient which had been represented by a Newtonian term. Experimentally, the lift curve was nearly linear within the angle-of-attack range up to 10 deg. This error affected the estimated lift-drag ratio. The minimum drag measurements indicated that substantial amounts of turbulent boundary layer were present on all models tested, over a range of surface roughness from 5 microinches maximum to 200 microinches maximum. In fact, the minimum drag coefficients were nearly independent of the surface smoothness and fell between the estimated values for turbulent and laminar boundary layers, but closer to the turbulent value. At the highest test Reynolds numbers and at large angles of attack, there was some indication that the skin friction of the rough models was being increased by the surface roughness. At full-scale Reynolds number, the maximum lift-drag ratio with a leading edge of practical diameter (from the standpoint of leading-edge heating) was 4.0. The configuration was statically and dynamically stable in pitch and yaw, and the center of pressure was less

  3. Full-Scale Turbofan Engine Noise-Source Separation Using a Four-Signal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Arechiga, Rene O.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions from the combustor to the overall propulsion noise of civilian transport aircraft are starting to become important due to turbofan design trends and expected advances in mitigation of other noise sources. During on-ground, static-engine acoustic tests, combustor noise is generally sub-dominant to other engine noise sources because of the absence of in-flight effects. Consequently, noise-source separation techniques are needed to extract combustor-noise information from the total noise signature in order to further progress. A novel four-signal source-separation method is applied to data from a static, full-scale engine test and compared to previous methods. The new method is, in a sense, a combination of two- and three-signal techniques and represents an attempt to alleviate some of the weaknesses of each of those approaches. This work is supported by the NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject and the NASA Glenn Faculty Fellowship Program.

  4. Twodimensional model testing of the Zeebrugge NW Breakwater

    OpenAIRE

    Wens, F.; De Rouck, J.; P. A. Troch; Eelen, B.

    1996-01-01

    Breakwater design at this moment is based on physical scale modelling combined with the use of experimental design formulae. These formulae are all derived from scale model tests together with simplifying the theoretical assumptions. Several breakwaters failures in the past indicate that the state of the art on this subject suffers from a significant lack of full scale data which could give rise to safer design standards. Within the MAST II framework of the EU (Marine Science and Technology),...

  5. Full-scale simulation of seawater reverse osmosis desalination processes for boron removal: Effect of membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pyung-Kyu; Lee, Sangho; Cho, Jae-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to further develop previously reported mechanistic predictive model that simulates boron removal in full-scale seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination processes to take into account the effect of membrane fouling. Decrease of boron removal and reduction in water production rate by membrane fouling due to enhanced concentration polarization were simulated as a decrease in solute mass transfer coefficient in boundary layer on membrane surface. Various design and operating options under fouling condition were examined including single- versus double-pass configurations, different number of RO elements per vessel, use of RO membranes with enhanced boron rejection, and pH adjustment. These options were quantitatively compared by normalizing the performance of the system in terms of E(min), the minimum energy costs per product water. Simulation results suggested that most viable options to enhance boron rejection among those tested in this study include: i) minimizing fouling, ii) exchanging the existing SWRO elements to boron-specific ones, and iii) increasing pH in the second pass. The model developed in this study is expected to help design and optimization of the RO processes to achieve the target boron removal at target water recovery under realistic conditions where membrane fouling occurs during operation.

  6. FUN3D Airload Predictions for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor in a Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    An unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver for unstructured grids, FUN3D, is used to compute the rotor performance and airloads of the UH-60A Airloads Rotor in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel. The flow solver is loosely coupled to a rotorcraft comprehensive code, CAMRAD-II, to account for trim and aeroelastic deflections. Computations are made for the 1-g level flight speed-sweep test conditions with the airloads rotor installed on the NFAC Large Rotor Test Apparatus (LRTA) and in the 40- by 80-ft wind tunnel to determine the influence of the test stand and wind-tunnel walls on the rotor performance and airloads. Detailed comparisons are made between the results of the CFD/CSD simulations and the wind tunnel measurements. The computed trends in solidity-weighted propulsive force and power coefficient match the experimental trends over the range of advance ratios and are comparable to previously published results. Rotor performance and sectional airloads show little sensitivity to the modeling of the wind-tunnel walls, which indicates that the rotor shaft-angle correction adequately compensates for the wall influence up to an advance ratio of 0.37. Sensitivity of the rotor performance and sectional airloads to the modeling of the rotor with the LRTA body/hub increases with advance ratio. The inclusion of the LRTA in the simulation slightly improves the comparison of rotor propulsive force between the computation and wind tunnel data but does not resolve the difference in the rotor power predictions at mu = 0.37. Despite a more precise knowledge of the rotor trim loads and flight condition, the level of comparison between the computed and measured sectional airloads/pressures at an advance ratio of 0.37 is comparable to the results previously published for the high-speed flight test condition.

  7. Performance of Four Full-Scale Artificially Aerated Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butterworth, Eleanor; Richards, Andrew; Jones, Mark; Mansi, Gabriella; Ranieri, Ezio; Dotro, Gabriela; Jefferson, Bruce

    2016-01-01

      A comparison of the performance of four full-scale aerated horizontal flow constructed wetlands was conducted to determine the efficacy of the technology on sites receiving high and variable ammonia...

  8. Composting trial with BioFoam® products in a full scale commercial composting facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the trial was to be able to judge whether BioFoam® material degrades at sufficient rate to be composted together with regular source separated municipal solid biowaste in a full scale industrial composting facility.

  9. Theoretical analysis of the kinetic performance of laboratory- and full-scale composting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Marco; Silveira, Ana; Antunes, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Composting research at laboratory-scale is critical for the development of optimized full-scale plants. Discrepancies between processes at laboratory-scale and full-scale systems have been investigated in terms of heat balances, but a kinetic analysis of this issue is still missing. In this study, the composting rate at laboratory-scale was, on average, between 1.9 and 5.7 times faster than in full-scale systems for a set of published studies using municipal solid waste, food waste or similar materials. Laboratory-scale performance and full-scale systems were limited to 71 and 46%, respectively, of their maximum potential due to poor management of environmental process conditions far from their optimum. The main limiting environmental factor was found to be moisture content, followed by temperature. Besides environmental factors, waste composition and particle size were identified as factors accounting for kinetic differences between laboratory- and full-scale systems. Overall, this study identifies those factors that affect the kinetics of the composting process most and revealed a significant margin for reducing process time in full-scale composting.

  10. [Full-scale simulation in German medical schools and anesthesia residency programs : Status quo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschnegger, H; Meyer, O; Zech, A; Urban, B; Rall, M; Breuer, G; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    Simulation has been increasingly used in medicine. In 2003 German university departments of anesthesiology were provided with a full-scale patient simulator, designated for use with medical students. Meanwhile simulation courses are also offered to physicians and nurses. Currently, the national model curriculum for residency programs in anesthesiology is being revised, possibly to include mandatory simulation training. To assess the status quo of full-scale simulation training for medical school, residency and continuing medical education in German anesthesiology. All 38 German university chairs for anesthesiology as well as five arbitrarily chosen non-university facilities were invited to complete an online questionnaire regarding their centers' infrastructure and courses held between 2010 and 2012. The overall return rate was 86 %. In university simulation centers seven non-student staff members, mainly physicians, were involved, adding up to a full-time equivalent of 1.2. All hours of work were paid by 61 % of the centers. The median center size was 100 m(2) (range 20-500 m(2)), equipped with three patient simulators (1-32). Simulators of high or very high fidelity are available at 80 % of the centers. Scripted scenarios were used by 91 %, video debriefing by 69 %. Of the participating university centers, 97 % offered courses for medical students, 81 % for the department's employees, 43 % for other departments of their hospital, and 61 % for external participants. In 2012 the median center reached 46 % of eligible students (0-100), 39 % of the department's physicians (8-96) and 16 % of its nurses (0-56) once. For physicians and nurses from these departments that equals one simulation-based training every 2.6 and 6 years, respectively. 31 % made simulation training mandatory for their residents, 29 % for their nurses and 24 % for their attending physicians. The overall rates of staff ever exposed to simulation were 45 % of

  11. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) is a 5% scale model test of the Ares I vehicle, launch pad and support structures conducted at MSFC to verify acoustic and ignition environments and evaluate water suppression systems Test design considerations 5% measurements must be scaled to full scale requiring high frequency measurements Users had different frequencies of interest Acoustics: 200 - 2,000 Hz full scale equals 4,000 - 40,000 Hz model scale Ignition Transient: 0 - 100 Hz full scale equals 0 - 2,000 Hz model scale Environment exposure Weather exposure: heat, humidity, thunderstorms, rain, cold and snow Test environments: Plume impingement heat and pressure, and water deluge impingement Several types of sensors were used to measure the environments Different instrument mounts were used according to the location and exposure to the environment This presentation addresses the observed effects of the selected sensors and mount design on the acoustic and pressure measurements

  12. Observations from using models to fit the gas production of varying volume test cells and landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Julia

    2012-12-01

    Landfill operators are looking for more accurate models to predict waste degradation and landfill gas production. The simple microbial growth and decay models, whilst being easy to use, have been shown to be inaccurate. Many of the newer and more complex (component) models are highly parameter hungry and many of the required parameters have not been collected or measured at full-scale landfills. This paper compares the results of using different models (LANDGEM, HBM, and two Monod models developed by the author) to fit the gas production of laboratory scale, field test cell and full-scale landfills and discusses some observations that can be made regarding the scalability of gas generation rates. The comparison of these results show that the fast degradation rate that occurs at laboratory scale is not replicated at field-test cell and full-scale landfills. At small scale, all the models predict a slower rate of gas generation than actually occurs. At field test cell and full-scale a number of models predict a faster gas generation than actually occurs. Areas for future work have been identified, which include investigations into the capture efficiency of gas extraction systems and into the parameter sensitivity and identification of the critical parameters for field-test cell and full-scale landfill predication.

  13. Full scale strain monitoring of a suspension bridge using high performance distributed fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlong; Dong, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Shunlong; He, Shaoyang; Li, Hui

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigated field monitoring of a 1108 m suspension bridge during an assessment load test, using integrated distributed fibre-optic sensors (DFOSs). In addition to the conventional Brillouin time domain analysis system, a high spatial resolution Brillouin system using the differential pulse-width pair (DPP) technique was adopted. Temperature compensation was achieved using a Raman distributed temperature sensing system. This is the first full scale field application of DFOSs using the Brillouin time domain analysis technique in a thousand-meter-scale suspension bridge. Measured strain distributions along the whole length of the bridge were presented. The interaction between the main cables and the steel-box-girder was highlighted. The Brillouin fibre-optic monitoring systems exhibited great facility for the purposes of long distance distributed strain monitoring, with up to 0.05 m spatial resolution, and 0.01 m/point sampling interval. The performance of the Brillouin system using DPP technique was discussed. The measured data was also employed for assessing bridge design and for the assessment of structural condition. The results show that the symmetrical design assumptions were consistent with the actual bridge, and that the strain values along the whole bridge were within the safety range. This trial field study serves as an example, demonstrating the feasibility of highly dense strain and temperature measurement for large scale civil infrastructures using integrated DFOSs.

  14. Influence of water quality on nitrifier regrowth in two full-scale drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel B; Van Dyke, Michele I; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    The potential for regrowth of nitrifying microorganisms was monitored in 2 full-scale chloraminated drinking water distribution systems in Ontario, Canada, over a 9-month period. Quantitative PCR was used to measure amoA genes from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and these values were compared with water quality parameters that can influence nitrifier survival and growth, including total chlorine, ammonia, temperature, pH, and organic carbon. Although there were no severe nitrification episodes, AOB and AOA were frequently detected at low concentrations in samples collected from both distribution systems. A culture-based presence-absence test confirmed the presence of viable nitrifiers. AOB were usually present in similar or greater numbers than AOA in both systems. As well, AOB showed higher regrowth potential compared with AOA in both systems. Statistically significant correlations were measured between several water quality parameters of relevance to nitrification. Total chlorine was negatively correlated with both nitrifiers and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, and ammonia levels were positively correlated with nitrifiers. Of particular importance was the strong correlation between HPC and AOB, which reinforced the usefulness of HPC as an operational parameter to measure general microbiological conditions in distribution systems.

  15. Full-scale field measurements of wave kinematics and vortex shedding induced vibrations in slender structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, J.R.; Pedersen, B. [LIC Engineering (Denmark); Nielsen, K.G.; Bryndum, M.B. [Dansk Hydraulisk Inst., (Denmark)

    1999-07-01

    Vortex induced vibrations of pipes generated by high and steep waves in the crest zone have been investigated by full-scale field testing, An instrumented cylinder has been suspended from a platform bridge in the North Sea. Adjacent to it a newly developed acoustic system capable of measuring the three dimensional wave kinematics was placed. The kinematics were measured all the way up to the instantaneous water surface elevation, i.e. it included the wave crest. The paper presents time series of measured water surface elevations and orbital velocities at the instantaneous water surface together with the response of the instrumented pipe in a storm. The sea state was measured to H{sub s} {approx_equal} 6.4 m and T{sub z} = 8.4 sec. It was clearly seen that vortex shedding locking-on takes place in some of the rather high modes at the passage of large waves. Intermittent cross flow vortex induced vibrations of between 0.3 diameters up to 0.8 diameters were found in the 8th and the 4th mode respectively. The Reynolds numbers and KC numbers were up to 5 . 10{sup 5} and KC {approx} 250 respectively. (au)

  16. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-03-22

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments.

  17. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  18. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  19. Experimental Study on Full-Scale Beams Made by Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete Undergoing Flexure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Monfardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alkali Activated Concrete (AAC is an alternative kind of concrete that uses fly ash as a total replacement of Portland cement. Fly ash combined with alkaline solution and cured at high temperature reacts to form a binder. Four point bending tests on two full scale beams made with AAC are described in this paper. Companion small material specimens were also casted with the aim of properly characterizing this new tailored material. The beam’s length was 5000 mm and the cross section was 200 mm × 300 mm. The AAC consisted of fly ash, water, sand 0–4 mm and coarse aggregate 6–10 mm; and the alkaline solution consisted of sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium silicate. No cement was utilized. The maximum aggregate size was 10 mm; fly ash was type F, containing a maximum calcium content of 2%. After a rest period of two days, the beam was cured at 60 °C for 24 h. Data collected and critically discussed included beam deflection, crack patterns, compressive and flexural strength and elastic modulus. Results show how AAC behavior is comparable with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC based materials. Nonlinear numerical analyses are finally reported, promoting a better understanding of the structural response.

  20. A full-scale prototype multisensor system for fire detection and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Christian P.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.; Wales, Stephen C.; Steinhurst, Daniel A.; Gottuk, Daniel T.

    2007-04-01

    A data fusion-based, multisensory detection system, called "Volume Sensor", was developed under the Advanced Damage Countermeasures (ADC) portion of the US Navy's Future Naval Capabilities program (FNC) to meet reduced manning goals. A diverse group of sensing modalities was chosen to provide an automated damage control monitoring capability that could be constructed at a relatively low cost and also easily integrated into existing ship infrastructure. Volume Sensor employs an efficient, scalable, and adaptable design framework that can serve as a template for heterogeneous sensor network integration for situational awareness. In the development of Volume Sensor, a number of challenges were addressed and met with solutions that are applicable to heterogeneous sensor networks of any type. These solutions include: 1) a uniform, but general format for encapsulating sensor data, 2) a communications protocol for the transfer of sensor data and command and control of networked sensor systems, 3) the development of event specific data fusion algorithms, and 4) the design and implementation of modular and scalable system architecture. In full-scale testing on a shipboard environment, two prototype Volume Sensor systems demonstrated the capability to provide highly accurate and timely situational awareness regarding damage control events while simultaneously imparting a negligible footprint on the ship's 100 Mbps Ethernet network and maintaining smooth and reliable operation in a real-time fashion.

  1. Full-scale study of removal effect on Cyclops of zooplankton with chlorine dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Tao; CUI Fu-yi; LIU Dong-mei; AN Dong

    2004-01-01

    Cyclops of zooplankton propagated excessively in eutrophic water body and could not be effectively inactivated by the conventional disinfections process like chlorination due to its stronger resistance to oxidation. In this paper, a full-scale study of chlorine dioxide preoxidation cooperating with routine clarification process for Cyclops removal was conducted in a waterworks. The experimental results were compared with that of the existing prechlorination process in several aspects: including the Cyclops removal efficiencies of water samples taken from the outlets of sedimentation tank and sand filter and the security of drinking water etc. The results showed that chlorine dioxide might be more effective to inactivate Cyclops than chlorine and Cyclops could be thoroughly removed from water by pre-dosing chlorine dioxide process. The GC-MS examination and Ames test further showed that the sort and amount of organic substance in the treated water by chlorine dioxide preoxidation were evidently less than that of prechlorination and the mutagenicity of drinking water treated by pre-dosing chlorine dioxide was substantially reduced compared with prechlorination.

  2. Optimization of Preprocessing and Densification of Sorghum Stover at Full-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Craig C. Conner; Christopher T. Wright

    2011-08-01

    Transportation costs can be a prohibitive step in bringing biomass to a preprocessing location or biofuel refinery. One alternative to transporting biomass in baled or loose format to a preprocessing location, is to utilize a mobile preprocessing system that can be relocated to various locations where biomass is stored, preprocess and densify the biomass, then ship it to the refinery as needed. The Idaho National Laboratory has a full scale 'Process Demonstration Unit' PDU which includes a stage 1 grinder, hammer mill, drier, pellet mill, and cooler with the associated conveyance system components. Testing at bench and pilot scale has been conducted to determine effects of moisture on preprocessing, crop varieties on preprocessing efficiency and product quality. The INLs PDU provides an opportunity to test the conclusions made at the bench and pilot scale on full industrial scale systems. Each component of the PDU is operated from a central operating station where data is collected to determine power consumption rates for each step in the process. The power for each electrical motor in the system is monitored from the control station to monitor for problems and determine optimal conditions for the system performance. The data can then be viewed to observe how changes in biomass input parameters (moisture and crop type for example), mechanical changes (screen size, biomass drying, pellet size, grinding speed, etc.,), or other variations effect the power consumption of the system. Sorgum in four foot round bales was tested in the system using a series of 6 different screen sizes including: 3/16 in., 1 in., 2 in., 3 in., 4 in., and 6 in. The effect on power consumption, product quality, and production rate were measured to determine optimal conditions.

  3. End-effects-regime in full scale and lab scale rocket nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Raymundo; Tinney, Charles; Baars, Woutijn; Ruf, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Modern rockets utilize a thrust-optimized parabolic-contour design for their nozzles for its high performance and reliability. However, the evolving internal flow structures within these high area ratio rocket nozzles during start up generate a powerful amount of vibro-acoustic loads that act on the launch vehicle. Modern rockets must be designed to accommodate for these heavy loads or else risk a catastrophic failure. This study quantifies a particular moment referred to as the ``end-effects regime,'' or the largest source of vibro-acoustic loading during start-up [Nave & Coffey, AIAA Paper 1973-1284]. Measurements from full scale ignitions are compared with aerodynamically scaled representations in a fully anechoic chamber. Laboratory scale data is then matched with both static and dynamic wall pressure measurements to capture the associating shock structures within the nozzle. The event generated during the ``end-effects regime'' was successfully reproduced in the both the lab-scale models, and was characterized in terms of its mean, variance and skewness, as well as the spectral properties of the signal obtained by way of time-frequency analyses.

  4. Full Scale 3D Preoperative Planning System of the Ankle Joint Replacement Surgery with Multimedia System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Ping Sun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to develop a computer-aided pre-surgical planning and simulating system in a multimedia environment for ankle joint replacement surgery. This system uses full-scale 3D reverse engineering techniques in design and development of the pre-surgical planning modules for ankle joint replacement surgery. This planning system not only develops the real-scale 3D image of the artificial ankle joint but also provides a detailed interior measurement of the ankle joint from various cutting planes. In this study, we apply the multimedia user interface to integrate different software functions into a surgical planning system with integrated functions. The functions include 3D model image acquisition, cutting, horizontal shifting and rotation of related bones (tibia and talus of the ankle joint in the predetermined time. For related bones of the ankle joint, it can also be used to design artificial ankle joints for adults in Taiwan. Those planning procedures can be recorded in this system for further research and investigation. Furthermore, since this system is a multimedia user interface, surgeons can use this system to plan and find a better and more efficient surgical approach before surgery. A database is available for this system to update and expand, which can provide different users with clinical cases as per their experience and learning.

  5. Heavy metals mobility in full-scale bioreactor landfill: initial stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xian; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Selected heavy metals (HMs) including Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn initially released from a full-scale bioreactor landfill were monitored over the first 20 months of operation. At the initial landfill stage, the leachate exhibited high HMs release, high organic matter content (27000-43000gl(-1) of TOC) and low pH (5-6). By the fifth month of landfilling, the methanogenic stage had been established, and HMs release was reduced below the Chinese National Standards. Total released HMs accounted for less than 1% of landfill deposited during the investigated period. Most landfill HMs were inorganic. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra data and model calculations using Visual MINTEQ indicated that humic substances strongly affected the mobility of organic fractions of HMs in the methanogenic landfill. The initial rates of HMs release could be enhanced by recycling the leachate back to bioreactor landfill, but the total quantity released may be reduced by early establishment of methanogenic stage in bioreactor landfill.

  6. Luxury uptake of phosphorus by microalgae in full-scale waste stabilisation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, N; Shilton, A; Pratt, S; Chisti, Y

    2011-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was studied in two full-scale waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). Luxury uptake by microalgae was confirmed to occur and in one pond the biomass contained almost four times the phosphorus required by microalgae for normal metabolism. However, the phosphorus content within the biomass was variable. This finding means that assumptions made in prior publications on modelling of phosphorus removal in WSP are questionable. While fluctuations in microalgal growth causes variation in many water quality parameters, this further variation in luxury uptake explains the high degree of variability in phosphorus removal commonly reported in the literature. To achieve effective biological phosphorus removal high levels of both luxury uptake and microalgal concentration are needed. The findings of this work show that while high levels of these parameters did occur at times in the WSP monitored, they did not occur simultaneously. This is explained because accumulated phosphorus is subsequently consumed during rapid growth of biomass resulting in a high biomass concentration with a low phosphorus content. Previous laboratory research has allowed a number of key considerations to be proposed to optimise both luxury uptake and biomass concentration. Now that is has been shown that high levels of biomass concentration and luxury uptake can occur in the field it may be possible to redesign WSP to optimise these parameters.

  7. A Study on the Propulsion Performance in the Actual Sea by means of Full-scale Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kayano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The IMO has adopted Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI, Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI in order to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping. And, the shipping industry is required to develop and improve the energy saving ship operation technologies to meet the above IMO guideline. The weather routing is one of the energy saving navigation technologies and widely adopted by oceangoing merchant ships. The effectiveness of the weather routing mainly depends on the accuracy of weather forecast data and the ship’s propulsion performance prediction. The propulsion performance in the actual sea is usually predicted using the Self Propulsion Factors obtained by model tests. It is necessary to understand the propulsion performance characteristics in the actual sea conditions for the improvement of propulsion performance prediction. From the above points of view, the authors performed full-scale experiments using a training ship in order to investigate the propulsion performance characteristics in the actual sea. This paper describes the analysis results on the characteristics of Power Curves and Self Propulsion Factors under various weather and sea conditions.

  8. Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance.

  9. Testing agile requirements models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BOTASCHANJAN Jewgenij; PISTER Markus; RUMPE Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a model-based approach to validate software requirements in agile development processes by simulation and in particular automated testing. The use of models as central development artifact needs to be added to the portfolio of software engineering techniques, to further increase efficiency and flexibility of the development beginning already early in the requirements definition phase. Testing requirements are some of the most important techniques to give feedback and to increase the quality of the result. Therefore testing of artifacts should be introduced as early as possible, even in the requirements definition phase.

  10. Cross-Wind Modal Properties of Offshore Wind Turbines Identified by Full Scale Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard;

    2013-01-01

    -2011, the paper evaluates the first natural frequency and modal damping of the structures. In addition, fitting of theoretical energy spectra to measured response spectra of operating turbines is presented as an alternative method of determining the system damping. Analyses show distinctly time-dependent cross...

  11. Full scale ambient water flow tests of a 10-inch emergency release coupling for LNG transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, L.J. van der; Webber, T.; Bokhorst, E. van; Revell, C.

    2016-01-01

    For LNG transfer in ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore configurations emergency release couplings (F.RC) in combination with loading arms and multi-composite hoses are applied In view of a demand for increasing transfer flow rates in offshore LNG applications a 10-inch ERC has been developed intended fo

  12. Geomaterial characterizations of full scale pavement test sections for mechanistic analysis and design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kwon, J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilient modulus is a key input property of pavement foundation geomaterials, i.e., subgrade soil and base/subbase unbound aggregate, for the mechanistic-empirical design of flexible pavements. Recent research at the University of Illinois has...

  13. Investigation of a Proposed Full-Scale Rock Penetration Test Site Near Los Lunas, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    l W O3Pc: . . oITo. Oi.ovsIoS-LETE Unclassified SgcUmty CLASulCt 4 IyON OF This PAG•E9 rW Dat* En*nne)I3K- fib Unclassified IRCUmTV CLAI•S&ICATIO" OW...November 1971; U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, MS. 6. R. A. Knott ; "Effect of Loading Rate on the Stress-Strain

  14. Damping Estimation of a Prototype Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Identified by Full Scale Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard;

    2013-01-01

    techniques, the cross-wind modal damping is estimated on a regular basis. Analyses show maximum cross-wind damping at rated wind speed. For higher wind speeds decreasing damping is observed, mainly due to blade pitch activation. In addition, a high structural acceleration level is needed to activate the soil...

  15. Full Scale Test on a 100km, 150kV AC Cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria da Silva, Filipe Farria; Wiechowski, W.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results obtained from the electrical measurements on a 99.7 km, 150 kV three-phase AC cable, connecting 215 MW offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2, located in Denmark west coast, to Denmark's 400 kV transmission network. The measurements were performed at nominal voltag...

  16. Full-scale physical testing of a buried reinforced concrete pipe under axle load

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lay, G.R; Brachman, R.W.I

    2014-01-01

    The structural response of a 600 mm inner diameter reinforced concrete pipe buried in a dense, well-graded sand and gravel soil and subjected to surface load from a single design truck axle with 0.3, 0.6...

  17. Cyclist kinematics in car impacts reconstructed in simulations and full scale testing with Polar dummy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Rodarius, C.; Fredriksson, R.

    2012-01-01

    For the development of effective vehicle-related safety solutions to improve cyclist and pedestrian protection, essential information on impact locations, impact situations and cyclist and pedestrian kinematics in impacts with passenger cars is fundamental. Accidentology research showed that cyclist

  18. In Situ Soil Venting - Full Scale Test Hill AFB, Guidance Document, Literature Review. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    high bulk density to reduce diffusive path length. AWARE, Inc., (now Eckenfelder , Inc.) has performed experimental and theoretical work on in situ soil...operating guidance. The Eckenfelder work has continued with a one-year field study (Reference 33), consisting of a single 4-inch vent 20-foot-deep

  19. Removing Full-scale Testing Barriers: Energetic Material Detonation Characterization at the Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    shock wave velocity U , particle velocity u, explosive impulse I , and more recently of interest, fireball temperatures T (9). Air shock wave...used for the present experiments. The explosive fireball and ionization of the surrounding air due to the shock wave provide self-illumination of the...plane to allow charge orientation and position to be determined between static and streak images. The explosive fireball illumination and air shock wave

  20. Full-Scale Field Test of a Blade-Integrated Dual-Telescope Wind Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas

    Introduction In recent years the use of wind lidars mounted directly on wind turbines has received increasing attention, and such systems are becoming commercially available. One aim of turbine-mounted wind lidars is to use them for prevision in connection with advanced feed-forward control systems...... for alleviating loads and also for active individual pitch control. Approach Two small telescope units with 1” optics were mounted on either side of one blade of a Vestas NM80 turbine, 15 m from the spinner and connected through fibre optical cables to a modified ZephIR 300 continuous-wave Doppler lidar from...... Natural Power, UK. The ZephIR was installed in the tip of the spinner of the turbine. The two telescopes’ line-of-sights were converging with 10 angle, resulting in an intersection at 5 m in front of the blade along the cord extension line. By using an optical switch, the line-of-sight wind speeds could...

  1. Fatigue Design Evaluation of Railway Bogie with Full-Scale Fatigue Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bogie frame of a railway is an important structural member for the support of vehicle loading. In general, more than 25 years’ durability is necessary. Much study has been carried out in experimental and theoretical domains on the prediction of the structural integrity of the bogie frame. The objective of this paper is to estimate the structural integrity of the bogie frame of an electric railcar. Strength analysis has been performed by finite element analysis. From this analysis, stress concentration areas were investigated. To evaluate the loading conditions, dynamic stress was measured by strain gauge. It has been found that the stress and strain due to the applied loads were multiaxial conditions according to the location of the strain gauge. Fatigue strength evaluations of the bogie frame were performed to investigate the effect of a multiaxial load through the employment of a critical plane approach.

  2. Concrete Flow in Diaphragm Wall Panels: A Full-Scale In-Situ Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, J.H.; Bosch, J.W.; Broere, W.

    2015-01-01

    Flow processes, taking place during the concreting of diaphragm wall panels (D-wall panels), are of great importance for the quality of the wall. During this phase, the bentonite, present in the excavated trench, should be completely replaced by concrete in a controlled way. In literature several ca

  3. Construction and Instrumentation of Full-Scale Geogrid Reinforced Pavement Test Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Improvement of Flexible Pavements Using Geosynthetics for Base Course Reinforcements ii ERDC/CRREL TR-08-6 Abstract: A study is being conducted on full...years of geosynthetic -reinforced base research provided by Perkins and Ismeik (1997), Vischer (2003), and Perkins and Cortez (2005). In one study...Administration (FHWA), pooled-fund study, TPF-5(010), entitled Structural Improvement of Flexible Pavements Using Geosynthetics for Base Course

  4. Investigation of the gypsum quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants and a pilot plant were examined and compared. Gypsum quality can be expressed in terms of moisture content (particle size and morphology dependent) and the concentration of residual...... or accumulation of fly ash and impurities from the sorbent. The crystal morphology obtained in the pilot plant was columnar with distinct crystal faces as opposed to the rounded shapes found at the full-scale plants. All the investigated full-scale plants consistently produced high quality gypsum (High purity......, low moisture content and low impurity content). An episode concerning a sudden deterioration in the gypsum dewatering properties was furthermore investigated, and a change in crystal morphology, as well as an increased impurity content (aluminium, iron and fluoride), was detected....

  5. Influence of SO{sub 3} on mercury removal with activated carbon: Full-scale results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Dillon, Martin; Donnelly, Brian; Bustard, Jean [ADA-ES, Inc., 8100 SouthPark Way, Unit B, Littleton, CO 80120-4525 (United States); Filippelli, Greg; Glesmann, Rob [ADA-ES, Inc., Emission Strategies, 10480 Little Patuxent Parkway, Suite 400, Baltimore, MD 21044 (United States); Orscheln, Tom [Ameren, 3700 South Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63127 (United States); Wahlert, Steve [Sargent and Lundy (Retired), 55 E. Monroe Street, Chicago, IL 60603 (United States); Chang, Ramsay [EPRI, P.O. Box 10412, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1395 (United States); O' Palko, Andrew [U.S. DOE/NETL, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Activated carbon injection is considered one of the most cost-effective options for mercury control at PRB-fired power plants. However, roughly 30% of sites firing PRB coal use SO{sub 3} for flue gas conditioning. The presence of SO{sub 3} in flue gas can decrease mercury capture by activated carbon, sometimes dramatically. Overcoming activated carbon performance limitations caused by SO{sub 3} conditioning for units with this configuration is essential to enable these plants to cost-effectively meet pending mercury emission regulations. Ameren's Labadie Unit 2 fires PRB coal and uses SO{sub 3} to enhance particulate capture in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Full-scale sorbent injection tests at Labadie were conducted from 2005-2007. Six sorbents were tested at SO{sub 3} injection concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.7 ppm. Sorbent performance was evaluated at two injection locations (the air preheater (APH) inlet and outlet). Native mercury capture on fly ash was typically less than 15%. When the mercury sorbents were injected downstream of the air preheater, the SO{sub 3} concentration resulted in a decrease in mercury capture from 85% (no SO{sub 3} injection) to 17% (SO{sub 3} injection set at 10.7 ppm). Mercury sorbents were more effective when injected upstream of the air preheater. With the SO{sub 3} system off, mercury removal increased from 75% when injecting 5.1 lb/MMacf of brominated carbon at the APH outlet, compared to 95% when injecting at the inlet. With the SO{sub 3} system on, test results indicated an increase from about 30% injecting at the outlet to 58% injecting at the inlet. Tests evaluating the ADA-ES patented onsite milling process showed that 85% mercury capture was achieved injecting 4 lb/MMacf of milled activated carbon compared to a requirement of 10 lb/MMacf to achieve the same removal using as-received carbon, representing a 60% reduction in activated carbon consumption. No changes in opacity, APH and ESP performance, or

  6. Improvements of model-test method for cavitation-induced pressure fluctuation in marine propeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Jeung-Hoon; HAN Jae-Moon; PARK Hyung-Gil; SEO Jong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Although the prediction of propeller cavitation-induced pressure fluctuation strongly depends on the model-scalemeasurement in a cavitation tunnel,there is still a lack of correlation with full-scale data.This paper deals with the enhancement of such a correlation deficiency by improving the conventional model-test technique,two majors of which are in the following.One is to take into account the boundary layer effect of wooden fairing plate at the ceiling of water cavitation tunnel.The other is to avoid the resonance frequency range of model-ship via adjusting the revolution speed of model propeller.Through a case study,for which both model and full-scale test data are available,the improved method in this study shows its validness,and furthermore a close correlation with full scale measurement.

  7. Full-scale prototyping of the Hitachi dual-purpose metal cask and verification of its heat transfer characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, N.; Ishida, N.; Ootsuka, M.; Kamoshida, M.; Hiranuma, T.; Doumori, S.; Hoshikawa, T.; Shimizu, M.; Kashiwakura, J.; Hayashi, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Hitachi has been developing dual-purpose metal casks for transport and storage of spent nuclear fuels. The Hitachi cask, HDP69B can store 69 BWR fuel assemblies. The cask features are as follows. 1) The fuel basket is assembled mainly with plates of borated stainless steel. The plates are not welded, but cross-inserted into each other like the dividers in an egg carton. Since the borated stainless steel has relatively low heat conductivity, aluminum alloy plates are inserted along with some stainless steel plates to enhance heat removal ability. 2) Cured resin blocks are fitted into the inner shell of the cask for neutron shielding of the cask body. The resin blocks are surrounded by an aluminum casing which transfers heat of stored fuel from the inner shell to the outer shell of the cask. The block type shield structure eliminates the need for welding the heat transfer fins to the inner and outer shells. The weldless structures of the HDP69B lead to its enhanced manufacturability, but they complicate the heat transfer characteristics because there are gaps between such components as the aluminum casing and inner/outer shells. We carried out full-scale prototyping of the HDP69B and ran a heat transfer test using the prototype. The purposes of the heat transfer test were to check the heat removal ability of the HDP69B and to verify the safety analysis model for heat removal. Results of the heat transfer test and optimized analysis model for heat transfer characteristics of the HDP69B are the focus of this paper. The heat transfer test is summarized as follows. Sixty nine heaters simulating the shape and heat power of spent fuel assemblies were inserted into the fuel basket. After replacing the inner atmosphere with 0.1 MPa of helium, the heat transfer test was started. About 7 days were required to equilibrate the temperature distribution. The temperature at the center of the basket was 194 C. The results confirmed the HDP69B had sufficient heat removal ability. The

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy for process and substrate supervision of a full-scale biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, Hans Fabian

    2012-07-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of near-infrared spectroscopy in the supervision of the biogas production process or parts thereof. It was examined, whether the surveillance of (a) the process and (b) substrate was feasible. The following tasks were accomplished to this end: 1. Development, construction and assembly of suitable NIRS-metrology, development of proper control-software as well as of strategies for data acquisition and data handling, 2. calculation and validation of regression models on the basis of acquired spectra and reference data for (a) suitable parameters of the biogas process, (b) composition and biogas potential of the substrate, 3. calculation of continuous time series of all parameters in order to prove the possibility of continuous surveillance, 4. integrated processing of continuously calculated biogas potentials together with plant data for the prediction of the biogas production behavior of the biogas plant. A near-infrared spectrometer was installed and equipped with NIR-measuring heads of own design and construction on a full-scale agricultural biogas plant. For 500 days spectra were continuously logged at (a) a pipe flowed through by fermenter slurry and (b) the feeding station, where silage passed. Based on regularly withdrawn reference samples and the corresponding spectra regression models were calibrated for the several constituents. Continuously logged spectra were used to calculate time series with the aid of the regression models for each constituent. Models and time series were established for the following parameters: (a) process parameters: volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, dry matter, volatile solids; (b) substrate parameters: dry matter, volatile solids, crude fiber, crude fat, crude protein, nitrogen-free extracts, experimentally assessed biogas potential, theoretically assessed biogas potential. Despite the partially low quality of the models it was possible to follow the course of

  9. Field application of a planted fixed bed reactor (PFR) for support media and rhizosphere investigation using undisturbed samples from full-scale constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, A B; Vasconcellos, G R; von Sperling, M; Kuschk, P; Kappelmeyer, U; Vasel, J L

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for investigations on undisturbed samples from full-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW). The planted fixed bed reactor (PFR), developed at the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ), is a universal test unit for planted soil filters that reproduces the operational conditions of a constructed wetland (CW) system in laboratory scale. The present research proposes modifications on the PFR original configuration in order to allow its operation in field conditions. A mobile device to obtain undisturbed samples from real-scale HSSFCW was also developed. The experimental setting is presented with two possible operational configurations. The first allows the removal and replacement of undisturbed samples in the CW bed for laboratory investigations, guaranteeing sample integrity with a mobile device. The second allows the continuous operation of the PFR and undisturbed samples as a fraction of the support media, reproducing the same environmental conditions outside the real-scale system. Investigations on the hydrodynamics of the adapted PFR were carried out with saline tracer tests, validating the proposed adaptation. Six adapted PFR units were installed next to full-scale HSSFCW beds and fed with interstitial liquid pumped from two regions of planted and unplanted support media. Fourteen points were monitored along the system, covering carbon fractions, nitrogen and sulfate. The results indicate the method as a promising tool for investigations on CW support media, rhizosphere and open space for studies on CW modeling, respirometry, kinetic parameters, microbial communities, redox potential and plant influence on HSSFCW.

  10. Correlation Tests of the Ditching Behavior of an Army B-24D Airplane and a 1/16-size Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, George A.; Fisher, Lloyd J.

    1946-01-01

    Behaviors of both model and full-scale airplanes were ascertained by making visual observations, by recording time histories of decelerations, and by taking motion picture records of ditchings. Results are presented in form of sequence photographs and time-history curves for attitudes, vertical and horizontal displacements, and longitudinal decelerations. Time-history curves for attitudes and horizontal and vertical displacements for model and full-scale tests were in agreement; maximum longitudinal decelerations for both ditchings did not occur at same part of run; full-scale maximum deceleration was 50 percent greater.

  11. Performance evaluation of a full-scale ABS resin manufacturing wastewater treatment plant: a case study in Tabriz Petrochemical Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The measurement data regarding the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP provides a general overview, demonstrating an overall performance of WWTP. Nevertheless, these data do not provide the suitable operational information for the optimization of individual units involved in a WWTP. A full-scale evolution of WWTP was carried out in this study via a reconciled data. Methods: A full-scale evolution of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene (ABS resin manufacturing WWTP was carried out. Data reconciliation technique was employed to fulfil the mass conservation law and also enhance the accuracy of the flow measurements. Daily average values from long-term measurements by the WWTP library along with the results of four sampling runs, were utilized for data reconciliation with further performance evaluation and characterization of WWTP. Results: The full-scale evaluation, based on balanced data showed that removal efficiency based on chemical oxygen demand (COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 through the WWTP were 80% and 90%, respectively, from which only 28% of COD and 20% of BOD5 removal had occurred in biological reactor. In addition, the removal efficiency of styrene and acrylonitrile, throughout the plant, was approximately 90%. Estimation results employing Toxchem model showed that 43% of acrylonitrile and 85% of styrene were emitted into the atmosphere above water surfaces. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the volatilization of styrene and acrylonitrile is the main mechanism for their removal along with corresponded COD elimination from the WWTP.

  12. Modeling a full scale oxidation ditch system, coupling hydrodynamics and biological kinetics using ASM1 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haouech, L.; Sperandio, M.; Cock, A.; Shayeb, H.

    2009-07-01

    Optimising the aeration in oxidation ditch aims on one hand, a better wastewater quality and on the other hand, a reduction of the energy expenses of the treatment. given that the energy expenses relative to the aeration represents 60 to 80% of the operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant and given that the biological activity is strictly dependent on dissolved oxygen, the transfer of oxygen is considered as one of the key parameters of the process. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Prototype repository: A full scale experiment at Äspö HRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Börgesson, Lennart; Goudarzi, Reza; Sandén, Torbjörn; Gunnarsson, David; Svemar, Christer

    At Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory a full scale test of the Swedish concept for disposal of nuclear waste (KBS-3V) is in progress. The Prototype Repository project consists of two sections. The installation of the first section was made during summer and autumn 2001 and the second section during spring and summer 2003. Section 1 consists of four full-scale deposition holes, copper canisters equipped with electrical heaters, bentonite buffer consisting of blocks and pellets and a deposition tunnel backfilled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock, ending with a concrete plug. Section 2 consists of two full-scale deposition holes with a backfilled tunnel section and ends also with a concrete plug. Altogether 84 large bentonite blocks, with a total weight of about 130 tons, were installed and more than 2000 tons of backfill material were mixed and compacted in situ. Earlier developed techniques for both manufacturing and installing the buffer and the backfill were used in the project. Measurements and data from the installation allow calculations of the expected density in the buffer and in different parts of the backfill. The bentonite buffer in deposition holes 1, 3, 5 and 6, the backfill and the surrounding rock are instrumented with gauges for measuring temperature, water pressure, total pressure, relative humidity, resistivity, canister displacement and rock stresses. The instruments are connected to data acquisition systems by cables protected by tubes. These tubes are led through the rock in watertight lead-throughs to a nearby tunnel where the data acquisition systems are situated. More than 1100 transducers have been installed in the rock, buffer and the backfill. The technique for protecting the transducers from high water and swelling pressure was developed in this and preceding projects and furthermore different designs of transducers are used for the same type of measurement in order to compare their behaviour. The deposition holes have different water

  14. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions.

  15. The dimensions of sand ripples in full-scale oscillatory flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, T.; Doucette, J.C.; Werf, van der J.J.; Ribberink, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    New large-scale experiments have been carried out in two oscillatory flow tunnels to study ripple regime sand suspension and net sand transport processes in full-scale oscillatory flows. The paper focuses on ripple dimensions and the new data are combined with existing data to make a large dataset o

  16. Relationship between microbial activity and microbial community structure in six full-scale anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regueiro, L.; Veiga, P.; Figueroa, M.; Alonso-Gutierrez, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lema, J.M.; Carballa, M.

    2012-01-01

    High activity levels and balanced anaerobic microbial communities are necessary to attain proper anaerobic digestion performance. Therefore, this work was focused on the kinetic performance and the microbial community structure of six full-scale anaerobic digesters and one lab-scale co-digester. Hyd

  17. Predictive Ability of the General Ability Index (GAI) versus the Full Scale IQ among Gifted Referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2010-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…

  18. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence...

  19. Full-Scale Continuous Mini-Reactor Setup for Heterogeneous Grignard Alkylation of a Pharmaceutical Intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Holm, Thomas; Rahbek, Jesper P.

    2013-01-01

    A reactor setup consisting of two reactors in series has been implemented for a full-scale, heterogeneous Grignard alkylation. Solutions pass from a small filter reactor into a static mixer reactor with multiple side entries, thus combining continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow rea...

  20. Mechanical Pretreatment to Increase the Bioenergy Yield for Full-scale Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    % compared to the untreated one. The digestion of meadow grass as an alternative co-substrate had positive impact on the energy yield of full-scale biogas reactors operating with cattle manure, pig manure or mixture of both. A preliminary analysis showed that the addition of meadow grass in a manure based...

  1. Bacterial community structure of a full-scale biofilter treating pig house exhaust air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Anja; Pedersen, Kristina Hadulla; Nielsen, Per Halkjær;

    2011-01-01

    Biological air filters represent a promising tool for treating emissions of ammonia and odor from pig facilities. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in a full-scale biofilter...

  2. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...

  3. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  4. Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by

  5. Fate of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in full-scale water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamyadi, Arash; Henderson, Rita; Stuetz, Richard; Hofmann, Ron; Ho, Lionel; Newcombe, Gayle

    2015-10-15

    The increasing frequency and intensity of taste and odour (T&O) producing cyanobacteria in water sources is a growing global issue. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are the main cyanobacterial T&O compounds and can cause complaints from consumers at levels as low as 10 ng/L. However, literature concerning the performance of full-scale treatment processes for geosmin and MIB removal is rare. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: 1) estimate the accumulation and breakthrough of geosmin and MIB inside full-scale water treatment plants; 2) verify the potential impact of sludge recycling practice on performance of plants; and, 3) assess the effectiveness of aged GAC for the removal of these compounds. Sampling after full-scale treatment processes and GAC pilot assays were conducted to achieve these goals. Geosmin and MIB monitoring in full-scale plants provided the opportunity to rank the performance of studied treatment processes with filtration and granular activated carbon providing the best barriers for removal of total and extracellular compounds, correspondingly. Geosmin was removed to a greater extent than MIB using GAC. Geosmin and MIB residuals in water post GAC contactors after two years of operation was 20% and 40% of initial concentrations, correspondingly. Biological activity on the GAC surface enhanced the removal of T&O compounds. These observations demonstrated that a multi-barrier treatment approach is required to ensure cyanobacteria and their T&O compounds are effectively removed from drinking water.

  6. Controlling Urban Lighting by Human Motion Patterns results from a full Scale Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a full-scale experiment investigating the use of human motion intensities as input for interactive illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. As illuminators sixteen 3.5 meter high RGB LED lamps were used. The activity on the square was monitored by three...

  7. URANIUM REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER USING A SMALL FULL-SCALE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents background and history of water quality, the basis for design and nine months of actual operating data for a small, full-scale strong-base ion exchange system that is used to remove uranium from a water supply serving a school in Jefferson County, CO. Informa...

  8. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  9. China's Onshore Oil Industry is in Full Scale Opening to the Outside World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xueming; Wei Fang

    1995-01-01

    @@ In 1994, China's onshore petroleum industry continuously emphasized on making use of domestic and foreign resources and funds as well as opening to the outside world in full scale, so that a great progress has been achieved in the cooperation with foreign companies, contracting overseas projects, introducing advanced technology, importing equipment from abroad etc. CNPC has developed constant ties with the world oil circles.

  10. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: A survey on causes and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; O-Thong, Sompong;

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times...

  11. LiDAR measurements of full scale wind turbine wake characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Mann, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Full scale wind speed measurements, recorded inside the wake of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine,has been performed during the spring 2009, as part of the EU-TOPFARM project. Longitudinal wind speeds in wake cross sections are measured with a LiDAR system mounted in the rear of the nacelle. The ...

  12. CALIBRATION OF FULL-SCALE OZONATION SYSTEMS WITH CONSERVATIVE AND REACTIVE TRACERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A full-scale ozonation reactor was characterized with respect to the overall oxidation budget by coupling laboratory kinetics with reactor hydraulics. The ozone decomposition kinetics and the ratio of the OH radical to the ozone concentration were determined in laboratory batch ...

  13. LiDAR measurements of full scale wind turbine wake characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Mann, Jakob;

    2009-01-01

    Full scale wind speed measurements, recorded inside the wake of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine,has been performed during the spring 2009, as part of the EU-TOPFARM project. Longitudinal wind speeds in wake cross sections are measured with a LiDAR system mounted in the rear of the nacelle...

  14. Preparation and fabrication of a full-scale, sagittal-sliced, 3D-printed, patient-specific radiotherapy phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Daniel F; Howell, Rebecca M

    2017-09-01

    Patient-specific 3D-printed phantoms have many potential applications, both research and clinical. However, they have been limited in size and complexity because of the small size of most commercially available 3D printers as well as material warping concerns. We aimed to overcome these limitations by developing and testing an effective 3D printing workflow to fabricate a large patient-specific radiotherapy phantom with minimal warping errors. In doing so, we produced a full-scale phantom of a real postmastectomy patient. We converted a patient's clinical CT DICOM data into a 3D model and then sliced the model into eleven 2.5-cm-thick sagittal slices. The slices were printed with a readily available thermoplastic material representing all body tissues at 100% infill, but with air cavities left open. Each slice was printed on an inexpensive and commercially available 3D printer. Once the printing was completed, the slices were placed together for imaging and verification. The original patient CT scan and the assembled phantom CT scan were registered together to assess overall accuracy. The materials for the completed phantom cost $524. The printed phantom agreed well with both its design and the actual patient. Individual slices differed from their designs by approximately 2%. Registered CT images of the assembled phantom and original patient showed excellent agreement. Three-dimensional printing the patient-specific phantom in sagittal slices allowed a large phantom to be fabricated with high accuracy. Our results demonstrate that our 3D printing workflow can be used to make large, accurate, patient-specific phantoms at 100% infill with minimal material warping error. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  16. Full Scale Investigation of the Dynamic Heat Storage of Concrete Decks with PCM and Enhanced Heat Transfer Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2013-01-01

    of hollow core decks with different surfaces on the bottom are investigated: reference deck made of standard concrete and flat surface, deck with special mortar grooved tiles, deck with flat mortar tiles, deck with grooved mortar and phase change material tiles, deck with flat mortar and phase change...... material tiles. The experimental investigation presented in the paper is performed in the specially designed modified hot box apparatus that allows maintaining periodic steady-state tests with the full-scale concrete deck elements. The presented research investigates if the extended surface area and PCM...

  17. Stochastic Models for Strength of Wind Turbine Blades using Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    The structural cost of wind turbine blades is dependent on the values of the partial safety factors which reflect the uncertainties in the design values, including statistical uncertainty from a limited number of tests. This paper presents a probabilistic model for ultimate and fatigue strength...... of wind turbine blades especially considering the influence of prior knowledge and test results and how partial safety factors can be updated when additional full-scale tests are performed. This updating is performed by adopting a probabilistic design basis based on Bayesian statistical methods....

  18. Sediment filtration can reduce the N load of the waste water discharge - a full-scale lake experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sanni L.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Karvinen, Anu; Rissanen, Antti J.; Ropponen, Janne; Juntunen, Janne; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    European commission has obliged Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which requires high investments on the nitrate removal processes and may increase emissions of greenhouse gases, e.g. N2O, in the waste water treatment plants. We used ecosystem-scale experimental approach to test a novel sediment filtration method for economical waste water N removal in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland between 2014 and 2015. By spatially optimizing the waste water discharge, the contact area and time of nitrified waste water with the reducing microbes of the sediment was increased. This was expected to enhance microbial-driven N transformation and to alter microbial community composition. We utilized 15N isotope pairing technique to follow changes in the actual and potential denitrification rates, nitrous oxide formation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the lake sediments receiving nitrate-rich waste water input and in the control site. In addition, we investigated the connections between observed process rates and microbial community composition and functioning by using next generation sequencing and quantitative PCR. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of sediment filtration method on waste water contact time with sediment using the 3D hydrodynamic model. We sampled one year before the full-scale experiment and observed strong seasonal patterns in the process rates, which reflects the seasonal variation in the temperature-related mixing patterns of the waste water within the lake. During the experiment, we found that spatial optimization enhanced both actual and potential denitrification rates of the sediment. Furthermore, it did not significantly promote N2O emissions, or N retention through DNRA. Overall, our results indicate that sediment filtration can be utilized as a supplemental or even alternative method for the waste water N removal.

  19. Biogas production from cheese whey wastewater: laboratory- and full-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatou, K; Giantsiou, N; Diamantis, V; Alexandridis, C; Alexandridis, A; Aivasidis, A

    2014-01-01

    A two-phase system for biogas production from cheese whey wastewater (CWW) was designed, set up and operated at laboratory and full scale for a whole cheese production season (8-9 months). The high efficiency and stability of the laboratory-scale system was demonstrated under various organic loading rates (OLRs) reaching 13 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)d(-1) and producing up to 9 L L(-1)d(-1) of biogas (approximately 55% in methane). The COD removal was above 95% and the pH was maintained above 6.3 without any chemical addition. The full-scale system was operated at lower OLRs than its normal capacity, following the good response and high stability in disturbances of the laboratory-scale unit.

  20. Septic tank combined with anaerobic filter and conventional UASB: results from full scale plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. A. da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for domestic wastewater treatment, especially in warm climate regions. Two full-scale anaerobic schemes were investigated: septic tank combined with anaerobic filter (S T A NF and conventional UASB reactors. Treated effluents from these systems were subjected to disinfection by chlorination. The operational performance of 56 full-scale plants (36 S T A NF and 20 UASB provided a realistic view. Findings showed that the plants operated with low OLR (< 2.0 kg COD/m³.day. Despite this, the removal of organic material was below values suggested by the literature (around 60% for COD. A removal of 4.0 Log10 units of total coliform and E. coli can be reached with residual chlorine (R CL of at least 2.0 Cl-Cl2/l. Although UASB plants have performed better, improvement of maintenance is needed in both treatment configurations.

  1. Evaluation of Response Prediction Procedures using Full Scale Measurements for a Container Ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2013-01-01

    on superposition of sinus-oidal components. The conditional processes do not need offline training and will be applied to measured time series in order to evaluate the accuracy of response predictions within the next 1-30 seconds. The number of measured points and the time distances between them are varied......This paper deals with the analysis of recent full-scale strain measurements in the hull of a large container carrier covering several months of operation. The focus is on the real-time prediction accuracy of responses 5-15 seconds ahead of the measurements. Such results are less applicable...... to determine the best solutions. A procedure based on 11 measured points spaced 1 sec, covering the last 10 sec of the instantaneous measured signal seems generally able to give fair predictions up to 5-10 sec ahead of the current time. The full-scale data is provided through the EU FP7 project Tools for Ultra...

  2. Evolution of the Total Sulphur Content in Full-Scale Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dewil, Raf; Baeyens, Jan; Roels, Joris; Van De Steene, Boudewijn

    2009-01-01

    The present research studies the evolution of sulphur concentrations during wastewater treatment for various full-scale treatment plants and reveals that a significant amount of S is released as highly soluble sulphates with the sludge water during sludge thickening when sludge is still in aerobic conditions. During digestion, sulphur concentrations in the sludge (expressed as mg S/kg of dry solids) generally increased due to destruction of organic material, and relatively low release of H2S....

  3. A concept for major incident triage: full-scaled simulation feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehn Marius

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient management of major incidents involves triage, treatment and transport. In the absence of a standardised interdisciplinary major incident management approach, the Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation developed Interdisciplinary Emergency Service Cooperation Course (TAS. The TAS-program was established in 1998 and by 2009, approximately 15 500 emergency service professionals have participated in one of more than 500 no-cost courses. The TAS-triage concept is based on the established triage Sieve and Paediatric Triage Tape models but modified with slap-wrap reflective triage tags and paediatric triage stretchers. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of the TAS-triage concept in full-scale simulated major incidents. Methods The learners participated in two standardised bus crash simulations: without and with competence of TAS-triage and access to TAS-triage equipment. The instructors calculated triage accuracy and measured time consumption while the learners participated in a self-reported before-after study. Each question was scored on a 7-point Likert scale with points labelled "Did not work" (1 through "Worked excellent" (7. Results Among the 93 (85% participating emergency service professionals, 48% confirmed the existence of a major incident triage system in their service, whereas 27% had access to triage tags. The simulations without TAS-triage resulted in a mean over- and undertriage of 12%. When TAS-Triage was used, no mistriage was found. The average time from "scene secured to all patients triaged" was 22 minutes (range 15-32 without TAS-triage vs. 10 minutes (range 5-21 with TAS-triage. The participants replied to "How did interdisciplinary cooperation of triage work?" with mean 4,9 (95% CI 4,7-5,2 before the course vs. mean 5,8 (95% CI 5,6-6,0 after the course, p Conclusions Our modified triage Sieve tool is feasible, time-efficient and accurate in allocating priority during simulated bus accidents and

  4. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town’s wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS. X-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  5. Autonomous smart sensor network for full-scale structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jennifer A.; Mechitov, Kirill A.; Spencer, B. F., Jr.; Agha, Gul A.

    2010-04-01

    The demands of aging infrastructure require effective methods for structural monitoring and maintenance. Wireless smart sensor networks offer the ability to enhance structural health monitoring (SHM) practices through the utilization of onboard computation to achieve distributed data management. Such an approach is scalable to the large number of sensor nodes required for high-fidelity modal analysis and damage detection. While smart sensor technology is not new, the number of full-scale SHM applications has been limited. This slow progress is due, in part, to the complex network management issues that arise when moving from a laboratory setting to a full-scale monitoring implementation. This paper presents flexible network management software that enables continuous and autonomous operation of wireless smart sensor networks for full-scale SHM applications. The software components combine sleep/wake cycling for enhanced power management with threshold detection for triggering network wide tasks, such as synchronized sensing or decentralized modal analysis, during periods of critical structural response.

  6. Aerobic sludge granulation in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m(3) d(-1) for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g(-1), diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h(-1) were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  7. Full scale demonstration plant for anaerobic digestion of sorted municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szikriszt, G.; Koehlin, S.-E.; Kaellersjoe, L. (BIOMET AB, Sundbyberg (SE)); Frostell, B. (Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (SE))

    1992-01-01

    A possible future alternative for the treatment of organic material inmunicipal solid waste is anaerobic digestion at a TS concentration of around 10%. The results from a successful pilot plant experiment were reported. An existing 900 m{sup 3} full scale anaerobic digester for municipal sludge was reconstructed for digestion of a mixture of sorted municipal solid waste and municipal sludge. The reconstruction of the anaerobic digester system involved the installation of a novel milling stage for size reduction of incoming waste, removal of unsuitable materials, such as glass, metals etc and preparation of a feedstock with a TS concentration of 10%. The anaerobic digester has been equipped with a mechanical mixing system. The system also comprises an internal water recirculation system, allowing a minimal production of waste water for further treatment. The retrofitted digester was started in September 1991 and the milling station and the separation system in April 1992. During the demonstration operation, the interest is focused on the following key areas: May the succesful results in a 20 m{sup 3} pilot plant be realised also on a full scale Is it possible to solve potential accumulation problems Is the reliability and durability of the milling equipment chosen In the paper, the full scale plant is presented as well as initial results of operation. (au).

  8. Report on the design and operation of a full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppinger, E.; Brautigam, J.; Lenart, J.; Baylon, D.

    1979-12-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester on the Monroe State Dairy Farm was operated and monitored for 24 months with funding provided by the United States Department of Energy, Fuels from Biomass Systems Branch. During the period of operation, operating parameters were varied and the impact of those changes is described. Operational experiences and system component performance are discussed. Internal digester mixing equipment was found to be unnecessary, and data supporting this conclusion are given. An influent/effluent heat exchanger was installed and tested, and results of the tests are included. Recommendations for digester design and operation are presented. Biological stability was monitored, and test results are given. Gas production rates and system net energy are analyzed. The economics of anaerobic digestion are evaluated based on various financing options, design scales, and expected benefits. Under many circumstances digesters are feasible today, and a means of analysis is given.

  9. Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST): Capabilities and Recent Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    At the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center research is being conducted into flight control technologies that will enable the next generation of air and space vehicles. The Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST) aircraft provides a laboratory for flight exploration of these technologies. In recent years novel but simple adaptive architectures for aircraft and rockets have been researched along with control technologies for improving aircraft fuel efficiency and control structural interaction. This presentation outlines the FAST capabilities and provides a snapshot of the research accomplishments to date. Flight experimentation allows a researcher to substantiate or invalidate their assumptions and intuition about a new technology or innovative approach Data early in a development cycle is invaluable for determining which technology barriers are real and which ones are imagined Data for a technology at a low TRL can be used to steer and focus the exploration and fuel rapid advances based on real world lessons learned It is important to identify technologies that are mature enough to benefit from flight research data and not be tempted to wait until we have solved all the potential issues prior to getting some data Sometimes a stagnated technology just needs a little real world data to get it going One trick to getting data for low TRL technologies is finding an environment where it is okay to take risks, where occasional failure is an expected outcome Learning how things fail is often as valuable as showing that they work FAST has been architected to facilitate this type of testing for control system technologies, specifically novel algorithms and sensors Rapid prototyping with a quick turnaround in a fly-fix-fly paradigm Sometimes it's easier and cheaper to just go fly it than to analyze the problem to death The goal is to find and test control technologies that would benefit from flight data and find solutions to the real barriers to innovation. The FAST

  10. Identification of aeroelastic forces and static drag coefficients of a twin cable bridge stay from full-scale ambient vibration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acampora, Antonio; Georgakis, Christos T.; Macdonald, J.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite much research in recent years, large amplitude vibrations of inclined cables continue to be of concern for cable-stayed bridges. Various excitation mechanisms have been suggested, including rain-wind excitation, dry inclined cable galloping, high reduced velocity vortex shedding...... rather than reduced velocity, indicating that Reynolds number governs the aeroelastic effects in these conditions. There is a significant drop in the aerodynamic damping in the critical Reynolds number range, which is believed to be related to the large amplitude cable vibrations observed on some bridges...... and excitation from the deck and/or towers. Although there have been many observations of large cable vibrations on bridges, there are relatively few cases of direct full-scale cable vibration and wind measurements, and most research has been based on wind tunnel tests and theoretical modelling.This paper...

  11. Recent tests of realistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Piacentini, Fabrizio; Schettini, Valentina; Traina, Paolo, E-mail: m.genovese@inrim.i [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    In this article we present recent activity of our laboratories on testing specific hidden variable models and in particular we discuss the realizations of Alicki - van Ryn test and tests of SED and of Santos' models.

  12. Final Report for Full-Scale Load Monitoring of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, Jacob

    As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) has participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project" . At an early stage AU has developed and tested an algorithm aiming at deducing incident waves at the prototype breakwater by reflection analysis. Secondly AU, has been engaged with the...... with the development of a numerical model able to predict the hydraulic response of the Zeebrugge breakwater. Finally, AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects....

  13. Full Scale Thermo-hydraulic Simulation of a Helium-Helium Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Injun; Hong, Sungyull; Bai, Cheolho; Shim, Jaesool [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chansoo; Hong, Sungdeok; Kim, Minhwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, the thermo-hydraulic full scale simulation is performed to study the temperature distributions, thermal stress, pressure drop and outlet temperature in a Helium-Helium printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) in a VHTR simulate helium loop. The entire PCHE is composed of 40 stacks of rectangular shaped micro-channels for helium gas [type A] (inlet temperature, 400 .deg. C) and 40 stacks of semi-ellipse shaped micro-channels for helium [type B] (inlet temperature, 300 .deg. C). The experimental result is compared to that of computer simulation, COMSOL multi-physics software. The Helium-Helium PCHE is considered a prototype of the newly developed PCHE by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The full scale thermo-hydraulic simulation was successfully performed to obtain temperature distribution, pressure drop and thermal stress in 40 sets of flow channel stacks in a helium-helium printed circuit heat exchanger in a VHTR simulate helium loop. We obtained a quite similar temperature distribution with the 3D measured infrared temperature distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first full scale numerical study on the PCHE, which considers all microchannels, that the convection effect on the outside surfaces of the PCHE is applied. The very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) or high-temperature gas-cooled reactor(HTGR) is a fourth-generation nuclear power reactor that uses the ceramic coated fuel, TRISO, in which the fission gas does not leak even at temperatures higher than 1600 .deg. C. The VHTR necessarily requires an intermediate loop composed of a hot gas duct (HGD), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a process heat exchanger (PHE). The IHX is one of the important components of VHTR system because the IHX transfers the 950 .deg. C of high temperature massive heat to a hydrogen production plant or power conversion unit at high system pressure.

  14. Introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART) - From laboratory to full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Julia; Wing, Alexandre D; Kautz, Jessica; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-07-01

    Previous lab-scale studies demonstrated that stimulating the indigenous soil microbial community of groundwater recharge systems by manipulating the availability of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC) and establishing sequential redox conditions in the subsurface resulted in enhanced removal of compounds with redox-dependent removal behavior such as trace organic chemicals. The aim of this study is to advance this concept from laboratory to full-scale application by introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART). To validate the concept of SMART, a full-scale managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facility in Colorado was studied for three years that featured the proposed sequential configuration: A short riverbank filtration passage followed by subsequent re-aeration and artificial recharge and recovery. Our findings demonstrate that sequential subsurface treatment zones characterized by carbon-rich (>3 mg/L BDOC) to carbon-depleted (≤1 mg/L BDOC) and predominant oxic redox conditions can be established at full-scale MAR facilities adopting the SMART concept. The sequential configuration resulted in substantially improved trace organic chemical removal (i.e. higher biodegradation rate coefficients) for moderately biodegradable compounds compared to conventional MAR systems with extended travel times in an anoxic aquifer. Furthermore, sorption batch experiments with clay materials dispersed in the subsurface implied that sorptive processes might also play a role in the attenuation and retardation of chlorinated flame retardants during MAR. Hence, understanding key factors controlling trace organic chemical removal performance during SMART allows for systems to be engineered for optimal efficiency, resulting in improved removal of constituents at shorter subsurface travel times and a potentially reduced physical footprint of MAR installations.

  15. Full Scale Experiences with Didactic Changes in Distance Education in Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten Haack; Borch, Ole M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper report the main results of didactic changes in the first year of an experiment in ICT-based distance learning. The results are based on a full scale experiment in the education, Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII). The experiment transforming the well functioning on......-campus engineering program based on project organized collaborative learning to the technology supported distance education program failed. Despite of many miner didactic changes we did not obtain the same self regulating learning effect in the group work among the off-campus students as is the case for oncampus....... Questionnaires, discussions and measurements of the internet activities show results which are contradictory compared to expectations....

  16. Development of a full-scale training simulator for an 800-MW power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, S. K.; Andreev, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Stages of work involving preparation of requirements specification, development, and subsequent implementation of a project for constructing a full-scale training simulator of an 800-MW power unit are considered. The training simulator is constructed using the Kosmotronika-Venets computerized automation system developed by PIK Progress (Moscow). The entire personnel training system, the arrangement of drills, and the concept of structuring the entire personnel education system at the Surgut GRES-2 district power station, a branch of E.ON Rossiya, had to be touched in drawing up the requirements specification for elaborating the training simulator. The article describes how these problems were solved.

  17. Controlling Urban Lighting by Human Motion Patterns results from a full Scale Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a full-scale experiment investigating the use of human motion intensities as input for interactive illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. As illuminators sixteen 3.5 meter high RGB LED lamps were used. The activity on the square was monitored by three...... and the immersed persons. The experiment also demonstrated that interactive can give significant power savings. In the current experiment there was a difference of 92% between the most and less energy consuming light scenario...

  18. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  19. A novel full scale experimental characterization of wind turbine aero-acoustic noise sources - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel full scale experiment on a 500 kW wind turbine with the main objective to characterize the aero-acoustic noise sources. The idea behind the instrumentation is to study the link and correlation between the surface pressure (SP) fluctuations in the boundary layer...... of the blade and the noise on the ground in a distance of about one rotor diameter. In total six surface microphones were used to measure the SP at the leading edge (LE) and trailing edge (TE) of the blade. In parallel noise was measured by eight microphones placed on plates on the ground around the turbine...

  20. Full-scale experimental research on fire fume refluence of sloped long and large curved tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A full-scale experimental research is conducted on the fire fume refluence of a sloped long and large curved tunnel in the underground plant of a hydraulic and hydropower engineering project under three different fire powers.As a result,the eddy effect and pattern of the fire fume flow in the tunnel in case of fire is discovered and the refluence of the fume layers in case of fire is observed.Through analysis of the temperature measurement resulted in the course of the experiment,the main characteristics and performance of the fire fume refluence are discussed under the three different fire powers.

  1. Effect of operating conditions and reactor configuration on efficiency of full-scale biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Boe, Kanokwan; Ellegaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    A study on 18 full-scale centralized biogas plants was carried out in order to find significant operational factors influencing productivity and stability of the plants. It was found that the most plants were operating relatively stable with volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration below 1.5 g....../l. VFA concentration increase was observed in occasions with dramatic overloading or other disturbances such as operational temperature changes. Ammonia was found to be a significant factor for stability. A correlation between increased residual biogas production and high ammonia was found. When ammonia...

  2. Full-Scale Measurements and System Identification on Sutong Cable-Stayed Bridge during Typhoon Fung-Wong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural health monitoring system (SHMS provides an effective tool to conduct full-scale measurements on existing bridges for essential research on bridge wind engineering. In July 2008, Typhoon Fung-Wong lashed China and hit Sutong cable-stayed bridge (SCB in China. During typhoon period, full-scale measurements were conducted to record the wind data and the structural vibration responses were collected by the SHMS installed on SCB. Based on the statistical method and the spectral analysis technique, the measured data are analyzed to obtain the typical parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the measured structural vibration responses and indicated the vibration characteristics of the stay cable and the deck, the relationship between structural vibrations and wind speed, the comparison of upstream and downstream cable vibrations, the effectiveness of cable dampers, and so forth. Considering the significance of damping ratio in vibration mitigation, the modal damping ratios of the SCB are identified based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT combined with the random decrement technique (RDT. The analysis results can be used to validate the current dynamic characteristic analysis methods, buffeting calculation methods, and wind tunnel test results of the long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  3. Submission of the first full scale prototype chip for upgraded ATLAS pixel detector at LHC, FE-I4A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, Marlon, E-mail: barbero@physik.uni-bonn.de [Physikalisches Institut Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Arutinov, David [Physikalisches Institut Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Beccherle, Roberto; Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Genova, via Dodecaseno 33, IT-16146 Genova (Italy); Dube, Sourabh; Elledge, David; Fleury, Julien [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA 94720 (United States); Fougeron, Denis [CPPM Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA 94720 (United States); Gensolen, Fabrice [CPPM Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Gnani, Dario [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA 94720 (United States); Gromov, Vladimir [NIKHEF, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jensen, Frank [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA 94720 (United States); Hemperek, Tomasz; Karagounis, Michael [Physikalisches Institut Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Kluit, Ruud [NIKHEF, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kruth, Andre [Physikalisches Institut Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Mekkaoui, Abderrezak [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA 94720 (United States); Menouni, Mohsine [CPPM Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Schipper, Jan David [NIKHEF, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2011-09-11

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 is being developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 0.25{mu}m CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. The FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80x336 pixels, each 50x250{mu}m{sup 2}, consisting of analog and digital sections. In the summer 2010, a first full scale prototype FE-I4A was submitted for an engineering run. This IC features the full scale pixel array as well as the complex periphery of the future full-size FE-I4. The FE-I4A contains also various extra test features which should prove very useful for the chip characterization, but deviate from the needs for standard operation of the final FE-I4 for IBL. In this paper, focus will be brought to the various features implemented in the FE-I4A submission, while also underlining the main differences between the FE-I4A IC and the final FE-I4 as envisioned for IBL.

  4. Full-scale measurements and system identification on Sutong cable-stayed bridge during Typhoon Fung-Wong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Tao, Tianyou; Guo, Tong; Li, Jian; Li, Aiqun

    2014-01-01

    The structural health monitoring system (SHMS) provides an effective tool to conduct full-scale measurements on existing bridges for essential research on bridge wind engineering. In July 2008, Typhoon Fung-Wong lashed China and hit Sutong cable-stayed bridge (SCB) in China. During typhoon period, full-scale measurements were conducted to record the wind data and the structural vibration responses were collected by the SHMS installed on SCB. Based on the statistical method and the spectral analysis technique, the measured data are analyzed to obtain the typical parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the measured structural vibration responses and indicated the vibration characteristics of the stay cable and the deck, the relationship between structural vibrations and wind speed, the comparison of upstream and downstream cable vibrations, the effectiveness of cable dampers, and so forth. Considering the significance of damping ratio in vibration mitigation, the modal damping ratios of the SCB are identified based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) combined with the random decrement technique (RDT). The analysis results can be used to validate the current dynamic characteristic analysis methods, buffeting calculation methods, and wind tunnel test results of the long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  5. A Coupled THMC model of FEBEX mock-up test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Samper, Javier

    2008-09-15

    FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) is a demonstration and research project for the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a radioactive waste repository in granite. It includes two full-scale heating and hydration tests: the in situ test performed at Grimsel (Switzerland) and a mock-up test operating at CIEMAT facilities in Madrid (Spain). The mock-up test provides valuable insight on thermal, hydrodynamic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) behavior of EBS because its hydration is controlled better than that of in situ test in which the buffer is saturated with water from the surrounding granitic rock. Here we present a coupled THMC model of the mock-up test which accounts for thermal and chemical osmosis and bentonite swelling with a state-surface approach. The THMC model reproduces measured temperature and cumulative water inflow data. It fits also relative humidity data at the outer part of the buffer, but underestimates relative humidities near the heater. Dilution due to hydration and evaporation near the heater are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species while surface complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation and cation exchanges affect significantly reactive species as well. Results of sensitivity analyses to chemical processes show that pH is mostly controlled by surface complexation while dissolved cations concentrations are controlled by cation exchange reactions.

  6. Design of Local Ventilation by Full-Scale and Scale Modelling Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will show the experiments with local ventilation of a filling machine from the paint industry, local ventilation of a film developing machine, experiments with a vortex exhaust opening and local heating of a checkout assistant's working place.

  7. Modelling and measurement of sand transport processes over full-scale ripples in oscillatory flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der Jebbe J.; Ribberink, Jan S.; O'Donoghue, Tom; Doucette, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    A new series of laboratory experiments was performed in the Aberdeen Oscillatory Flow Tunnel (AOFT) and the Large Oscillating Water Tunnel (LOWT) to investigate time-averaged suspended sand concentrations and transport rates over rippled beds in regular and irregular oscillatory flow. The wave-induc

  8. Plans and Specifications for a Full-Scale Towing Model Validation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    extreme tension statistics of towing hawsers. Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Ocean Engineering, Cambridge...ship’s speed, as read from the installed speed log, every ten minutes 135 TESI PLAN - NAVSEA TWO BODY TOWING EXPERIMENT 3. Environmental Data a. Log wind

  9. Full-scale monitoring system for structural prestress loss based on distributed brillouin sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunguang, Lan; Liguang, Zhou; Zhiyu, Huo

    2017-08-01

    Prestress loss is critical to impact the safety of prestressed structures. Unfortunately, up to date, there are no qualified techniques to handle this issue due to the fact that it is too hard for sensors to survive the harsh construction environments and the time-dependent service life of the large-span prestressed structures. This paper proposes a novel technique to monitor prestress loss in prestressed beams using Brillouin optical fiber sensors. A novel smart steel strand based on the sensing technique of full-scale Brillouin optical fiber sensors was introduced. Two kinds of prestressed structure were used to verify the concept of monitoring prestress loss using smart steel strands. The prestress loss data have been taken by Brillouin optical fiber sensors. And the monitoring results agree well with those from the conventional sensors. The monitoring data can reveal both the full-scale distribution and the time history of prestress loss during the construction stage and also in-service phrase.

  10. Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in dedicated full scale waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in full scale waste incinerators is studied by analysing input waste streams and boiler and fly ash of a grate furnace incinerator (GFI) incinerating MSW, of a Fluidised Bed Combustor (FBC) incinerating a mix of 50% sludge, 25% refuse derived fuel (RDF) and 25% automotive shredder residue (ASR) and of a rotary kiln incinerator (RKI) incinerating hazardous waste. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs show that PCB oils Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254 late are the major dioxin-like PCB contamination source of sludge, RDF and ASR. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs are clearly different from the fingerprints of the outputs, i.e. boiler and fly ash, indicating that in full scale waste incinerators dioxin-like PCBs in the input waste are destroyed and other dioxin-like PCBs are newly formed in the post combustion zone. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprint of boiler and fly ash of all three incinerators corresponds well to the fly ash fingerprint obtained in lab scale de novo synthesis experiments, indicating that dioxin-like PCBs are mainly formed through this mechanism. The high PCB concentration in the input waste mix of the RKI does not promote the formation of dioxin-like PCBs through precursor condensation.

  11. Full scale trials for qualification of the manufacture of the ITER TF coils in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Kunihiro, E-mail: matsui.kunihiro@jaea.go.jp; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Kajitani, Hideki; Yamane, Minoru; Mizutani, Takumi; Nakano, Toshihide; Takano, Katsutoshi; Ando, Shinji; Koizumi, Norikiyo

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High accuracy conductor winding of 0.1% was achieved in TF coil fabrication. • Conductor elongation due to heat treatment satisfied with the expected value of 0.06% ± 0.02%. • Commissioning of a transfer tooling without adding strain to conductor was completed. • Commissioning of a conductor insulation and CP welding was successfully completed. - Abstract: JAEA performed full-scale trials to qualify and optimize manufacturing procedure of TF coil fabrication prior to series production. In the full-scale trials, conductor winding, heat treatment, conductor transfer, conductor insulation and cover plate (CP) welding trials were performed to resolve some technical issues and to demonstrate the fabrication procedure. The followings are major achievement. (1) High accuracy conductor winding of 0.01%, (2) the evaluation of 0.06% conductor elongation due to heat treatment, (3) conductor transfer in a radial plate (RP) groove with addition strain under 0.1%, (4) conductor insulation without breakage of the insulation tape and (5) flatness of 2 mm of the double pancake (DP) by CP welding. Then JAEA started the 1st TF coil fabrication from March 2014, and has already completed ten conductor windings and heat treatment of nine windings.

  12. Microbial Community Composition and Ultrastructure of Granules from a Full-Scale Anammox Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela

    2014-12-11

    Granules in anammox reactors contain besides anammox bacteria other microbial communities whose identity and relationship with the anammox bacteria are not well understood. High calcium concentrations are often supplied to anammox reactors to obtain sufficient bacterial aggregation and biomass retention. The aim of this study was to provide the first characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities in anammox granules from a full-scale anammox reactor and to explore on the possible role of calcium in such aggregates. High magnification imaging using backscattered electrons revealed that anammox bacteria may be embedded in calcium phosphate precipitates. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed, besides anammox bacteria (Brocadiacea, 32 %), substantial numbers of heterotrophic bacteria Ignavibacteriacea (18 %) and Anaerolinea (7 %) along with heterotrophic denitrifiers Rhodocyclacea (9 %), Comamonadacea (3 %), and Shewanellacea (3 %) in the granules. It is hypothesized that these bacteria may form a network in which heterotrophic denitrifiers cooperate to achieve a well-functioning denitrification system as they can utilize the nitrate intrinsically produced by the anammox reaction. This network may provide a niche for the proliferation of archaea. Hydrogenotrophic methananogens, which scavenge the key fermentation product H2, were the most abundant archaea detected. Cells resembling the polygon-shaped denitrifying methanotroph Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera were observed by electron microscopy. It is hypothesized that the anammox process in a full-scale reactor triggers various reactions overall leading to efficient denitrification and a sink of carbon as biomass in anammox granules.

  13. Optimization of a full-scale Unitank wastewater treatment plant for biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Xing, Can; Wu, Zhichao; Tong, Fei; Wang, Junru

    2014-01-01

    The Unitank process combines the advantages of traditional continuous-flow activated sludge processes and sequencing batch reactors, and has been extensively employed in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. Biological phosphorus removal (BPR) of a full-scale Unitank WWTP was optimized by increasing anaerobic time from 80 to 120 min in an operation cycle of 360 min and reducing solid retention time (SRT) from 21.3 to 13.1 d. The BPR efficiency of the full-scale Unitank system increased from 63.8% (SRT of 21.3 d) to 83.2% for a SRT of 13.1 d. When the anaerobic time increased from 80 to 120 min, the net anaerobic phosphorus release amount increased from 0.25 to 1.06 mg L(-1), and sludge phosphorus content rose from 13.8 to 15.0 mgP x (gSS)(-1). During half an operation cycle, the average specific phosphorus release rate increased from 0.097mgP x (gVSS x h)(-1) in 0-40 min to 0.825 mgP x (gVSS x h)(-1) in 40-60 min. Reducing SRT and increasing anaerobic time account for 84.6% and 15.4% in the total increment of phosphorus removal of 1.15 mgL(-1).

  14. Considerations on the design and financial feasibility of full-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brepols, Ch; Schäfer, H; Engelhardt, N

    2010-01-01

    Based on the practical experience in design and operation of three full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment that were commissioned since 1999, an overview on the different design concepts that were applied to the three MBR plants is given. The investment costs and the energy consumption of the MBRs and conventional activated sludge (CAS) plants (with and without tertiary treatment) in the Erft river region are compared. It is found that the specific investment costs of the MBR plants are lower than those of comparable CAS with tertiary treatment. A comparison of the specific energy demand of MBRs and conventional WWTPs is given. The structure of the MBRs actual operational costs is analysed. It can be seen that energy consumption is only responsible for one quarter to one third of all operational expenses. Based on a rough design and empirical cost data, a cost comparison of a full-scale MBR and a CAS is carried out. In this example the CAS employs a sand filtration and a disinfection in order to achieve comparable effluent quality. The influence of membrane lifetime on life cycle cost is assessed.

  15. Full-scale computation for all the thermoelectric property parameters of half-Heusler compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, A J; Li, L; He, R; Gong, J J; Yan, Z B; Wang, K F; Liu, J-M; Ren, Z F

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric performance of materials relies substantially on the band structures that determine the electronic and phononic transports, while the transport behaviors compete and counter-act for the power factor PF and figure-of-merit ZT. These issues make a full-scale computation of the whole set of thermoelectric parameters particularly attractive, while a calculation scheme of the electronic and phononic contributions to thermal conductivity remains yet challenging. In this work, we present a full-scale computation scheme based on the first-principles calculations by choosing a set of doped half-Heusler compounds as examples for illustration. The electronic structure is computed using the WIEN2k code and the carrier relaxation times for electrons and holes are calculated using the Bardeen and Shockley's deformation potential (DP) theory. The finite-temperature electronic transport is evaluated within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In sequence, the density functional perturbation combined with the quasi-harmonic approximation and the Klemens' equation is implemented for calculating the lattice thermal conductivity of carrier-doped thermoelectric materials such as Ti-doped NbFeSb compounds without losing a generality. The calculated results show good agreement with experimental data. The present methodology represents an effective and powerful approach to calculate the whole set of thermoelectric properties for thermoelectric materials.

  16. Seasonal Variation of Nutrient Removal in a Full-Scale Artificial Aerated Hybrid Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve nutrient removal, a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland (CW consisting of pre-treatment units, vertical-baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs, and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSFWs was installed in August 2014 to treat sewage wastewater. Artificial aeration (AA was applied continuously in the VBFW stage to improve the aerobic condition in the hybrid CW. Water samples were collected and analyzed twice a month between the period of August 2015 and July 2016. The results suggest that this new hybrid CW can achieve a satisfactory reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP with average removal rates of 85% ± 10% (35% ± 19 g/m2 per day, 76% ± 18% (7% ± 2 g/m2 per day, 65% ± 13% (8% ± 2 g/m2 per day, and 65% ± 21% (1 g/m2 per day, respectively. AA significantly improved the aerobic condition throughout the experimental period, and the positive influence of AA on nitrogen removal was found to be higher during summer that during winter. A significant positive correlation between water temperature and nutrient removal (p < 0.01 was observed in the system. Overall, this study demonstrates the application of AA in a full-scale hybrid CW with satisfactory nutrient removal rates. The hybrid CW system with artificial aeration can serve as a reference for future applications areas where land availability is limited.

  17. Feasibility and Performance of Full-Scale In-Situ Remediation of TCE by ERD in Clay Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Damgaard, Ida; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia;

    The feasibility and performance of full-scale applications of ERD in clay tills were investigated in a research project including 2 sites in Denmark, which have been undergoing remediation since 2006. At both sites organic substrates and bioaugmentation cultures have been injected in TCE-contamin......The feasibility and performance of full-scale applications of ERD in clay tills were investigated in a research project including 2 sites in Denmark, which have been undergoing remediation since 2006. At both sites organic substrates and bioaugmentation cultures have been injected in TCE......-contaminated clay till. An integrated investigative approach consisting of water and clay core sample analysis, including stable isotopes and specific degraders, combined with modeling has been applied. The results showed that the chlorinated solvent TCE was converted into its daughter products but complete...... mass removal was associated with degradation being restricted to narrow bioactive zones. Bioactive zones may expand and in some cores TCE was depleted in zones up to 1.8 m thick – an extent which could not be explained by diffusive loss to narrow bioactive zones. Hence, biomass migration in the clay...

  18. Experimental Set-up and Full-scale measurements in the ‘Cube'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    devices etc. Moreover, the superior control of the thermal conditions in the room adjacent to the DSF and the opening control allow to investigate the DSF both as a part of complete ventilation system and as a separate element of building construction. The test facility is equipped to allow measurements......The Cube' is an outdoor test facility located at the main campus of Aalborg University. It has been built in the fall of 2005 with the purpose of detailed investigations of the DSF performance, development of the empirical test cases for validation and further improvements of various building...... simulation software for the modelling of buildings with double skin facades in the frame of IEA ECBCS ANNEX 43/SHC Task 34, Subtask EDouble Skin Facade. The test facility is designed to be flexible for a choice of the DSF operational modes, natural or mechanical flow conditions, different types of shading...

  19. Integrated outburst detector sensor-model tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DZIURZY(N)SKI Wac(I)aw; WASILEWSKI Stanis(I)aw

    2011-01-01

    Outbursts of methane and rocks are,similarly to rock bursts,the biggest hazards in deep mines and are equally difficult to predict.The violent process of the outburst itself,along with the scale and range of hazards following the rapid discharge of gas and rocks,requires solutions which would enable quick and unambiguous detection of the hazard,immediate power supply cut-off and evacuation of personnel from potentially hazardous areas.For this purpose,an integrated outburst detector was developed.Assumed functions of the sensor which was equipped with three measuring and detection elements:a chamber for constant measurement of methane concentration,pressure sensor and microphone.Tests of the sensor model were carried out to estimate the parameters which characterize the dynamic properties of the sensor.Given the impossibility of carrying out the full scale experimental outburst,the sensor was tested during the methane and coal dust explosions in the testing gallery at KD Barbara.The obtained results proved that the applied solutions have been appropriate.

  20. SCR in biofuel combustion - stage 3. Regeneration at full-scale; SCR vid biobraensleeldning - etapp 3. Regenerering i full skala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Kling, Aasa; Odenbrand, Ingemar; Khodayari, Raziyeh

    2002-04-01

    This is the third and last part of a project that started in 1996. The overall goal of the project was to increase the possibilities to use SCR at bio fuel combustion under reasonable technical and economical conditions. This part of the project has focused on full-scale applications of the reactivation methods that were developed during phase 1 and 2. There are quite large differences in deactivation rate between different types of catalysts. A high active Biocomb catalyst deactivates more slowly then a catalyst that contains less vanadium and is less active. A high active catalyst also catalysts the oxidation from SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. Practical consequences of this for low sulphur fuels should be investigated. Two new reactivation methods, sulphation and sulphation in combination with water wash, give an activity increase of 80 and 90% relative activity respectively for the evaluated catalyst (Biocomb Type B). The water washed and sulphated samples deactivate with approximately the same deactivation rate as not regenerated samples regardless of flue gas exposure temperatures. The samples that were regenerated with sulphation deactivates less fast than not regenerated samples when they are exposed to flue gas temperatures lower then 340 deg C. At higher temperatures they deactivates relatively fast. The plate-type catalyst has been regenerated with water wash in combination with sulphation as well as water and sulphuric acid wash up to a relative activity of 80%. The deactivation has been faster for the water washed and sulphated samples compared to the water and sulphuric acid washed samples (which deactivates with the same rate as fresh samples). At full-scale sulphation tests at the Brista Kraft plant, the catalytic activity was raised with 23% by sulphation with 260 ppm SO{sub 2} during 25 hours (dosage of 3 tons of elementary sulphur with the fuel). The sulphation led to a reduction on the NO{sub x}, emissions by half. The catalyst, which works in a flue

  1. S-2 stage 1/25 scale model base region thermal environment test. Volume 1: Test results, comparison with theory and flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadunas, J. A.; French, E. P.; Sexton, H.

    1973-01-01

    A 1/25 scale model S-2 stage base region thermal environment test is presented. Analytical results are included which reflect the effect of engine operating conditions, model scale, turbo-pump exhaust gas injection on base region thermal environment. Comparisons are made between full scale flight data, model test data, and analytical results. The report is prepared in two volumes. The description of analytical predictions and comparisons with flight data are presented. Tabulation of the test data is provided.

  2. Development and sensitivity study of a simplified and dynamic method for double glazing facade and verified by a full-scale façade element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    with experimental data collected in a full-scale façade element test facility at Aalborg University (DK). Comparison was conducted between the simplified method and WIS software on the accuracy of calculating internal surface temperature of double glazing facade. The method is based on standards EN410 and EN673...

  3. Characterization of the Boundary Layers on Full-Scale Bluefin Tuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The model was instrumented with 32 wall pressure sensors; experiments were performed in a tow tank. Results from flow visualization, drag, and...ACRONYMS DOF Degree of Freedom DPIV Digital Particle Image Velocimetry FY Fiscal Year HPV Human-Powered Vehicle NACA National Advisory...and instrumented for tests performed in a tow tank at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Division Newport, RI. As the project progresses

  4. Lightweight Grid Shell Pavilion - Design, Manufacture and Erection of Full Scale Grid Shell Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of author's research is to design and construct grid shell structures, which are subsequently realized as experimental structures in full scale. These structures should make the place suitable for various events and also a friendly, pleasant, relaxing and free time space. By thinking about how such structure should look like and what materials and structure types are suitable, there were many kinds of lightweight structures considered. The most logical solution is to create a grid shell structure combining with a single layer membrane that would fulfill all aspects of elegant remarkable lightweight structure using some original details and workflow advancements. These grid shell projects should demonstrate another possibility to build and think about unconventional structures and provoke a deeper interest in these unique structures. The goal of this project was to create a feasible design of a grid shell structure and to build up the structures while being capable to understand the core of such an interesting phenomenon.

  5. Quantifying measurement uncertainty in full-scale compost piles using organic micro-pollutant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Bester, Kai

    2014-05-01

    Reductions in measurement uncertainty for organic micro-pollutant concentrations in full scale compost piles using comprehensive sampling and allowing equilibration time before sampling were quantified. Results showed that both application of a comprehensive sampling procedure (involving sample crushing) and allowing one week of equilibration time before sampling reduces measurement uncertainty by about 50%. Results further showed that for measurements carried out on samples collected using a comprehensive procedure, measurement uncertainty was associated exclusively with the analytic methods applied. Application of statistical analyses confirmed that these results were significant at the 95% confidence level. Overall implications of these results are (1) that it is possible to eliminate uncertainty associated with material inhomogeneity and (2) that in order to reduce uncertainty, sampling procedure is very important early in the composting process but less so later in the process.

  6. A full-scale study of mixing and foaming in egg-shaped anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Bhargavi; Miot, Alexandre; Jones, Bonnie; Klibert, Corey; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal foaming in full-scale egg-shaped digesters (ESD) at the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant was investigated over a two-year period. The causes and contributors of anaerobic digestion (AD) foaming, namely, Gordonia amarae filaments and mixing effects were evaluated in these ESDs. The seasonal presence of high levels of G. amarae as a primary cause and excessive induced mixing as an important contributor of AD foaming has been established. The induced mixing frequency in the ESDs was gradually reduced and eventually shut off in a series of controlled experimental phases. Total solids and temperature profiles indicated that reducing mixing frequency did not significantly impact digester performance or disrupt the homogeneity of digester contents, although it did reduce the occurrence of foam in the digesters. Excessive induced mixing, a contributor to foaming, increased foam events at G. amarae thresholds above 10(6)intersections/mg VSS in the mixed liquor.

  7. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: a survey on causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; O-Thong, S; Kristensen, L A; Angelidaki, I

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times per year. Foaming incidents often lasted from one day to three weeks, causing 20-50% biogas production loss. One foaming case at Lemvig biogas plant has been investigated and the results indicated that the combination of feedstock composition and mixing pattern of the reactor was the main cause of foaming in this case. Moreover, no difference in bacterial communities between the foaming and non-foaming reactors was observed, showing that filamentous bacteria were not the main reason for foaming in this case.

  8. Overview of the Full-scale Radiological Dispersal Device Field Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anna Rae; Erhardt, Lorne; Lebel, Luke; Duke, M John M; Jones, Trevor; White, Dan; Quayle, Debora

    2016-05-01

    In 2012, Defence Research and Development Canada, in partnership with a number of other Canadian and International organizations, led a series of three field trials designed to simulate a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD). These trials, known as the Full-Scale RDD (FSRDD) Field Trials, involved the explosive dispersal of a short-lived radioactive tracer ((140)La, t1/2 = 40.293 h). The FSRDD Field Trials required a significant effort in their planning, preparation, and execution to ensure that they were carried out in a safe, efficient manner and that the scientific goals of the trials were met. The discussion presented here details the planning and execution of the trials, outlines the relevant radiation safety aspects, provides a summary of the source term and atmospheric conditions for the three dispersal events, and provides an overview of the measurements that were made to track the plumes and deposition patterns.

  9. Monitoring methanogenic population dynamics in a full-scale anaerobic digester to facilitate operational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julie; Williams, Haydn; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Esteves, Sandra

    2013-07-01

    Microbial populations in a full-scale anaerobic digester fed on food waste were monitored over an 18-month period using qPCR. The digester exhibited a highly dynamic environment in which methanogenic populations changed constantly in response to availability of substrates and inhibitors. The methanogenic population in the digester was dominated by Methanosaetaceae, suggesting that aceticlastic methanogenesis was the main route for the production of methane. Sudden losses (69%) in Methanosaetaceae were followed by a build-up of VFAs which were subsequently consumed when populations recovered. A build up of ammonium inhibited Methanosaetaceae and resulted in shifts from acetate to hydrogen utilization. Addition of trace elements and alkalinity when propionate levels were high stimulated microbial growth. Routine monitoring of microbial populations and VFAs provided valuable insights into the complex processes occurring within the digester and could be used to predict digester stability and facilitate digester optimization.

  10. Full-scale validation of an air scour control system for energy savings in membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclús, Hèctor; Dalmau, Montserrat; Gabarrón, Sara; Ferrero, Giuliana; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim

    2015-08-01

    Membrane aeration represents between 35 and 50% of the operational cost of membrane bioreactors (MBR). New automatic control systems and/or module configurations have been developed for aeration optimization. In this paper, we briefly describe an innovative MBR air scour control system based on permeability evolution and present the results of a full-scale validation that lasted over a 1-year period. An average reduction in the air scour flow rate of 13% was achieved, limiting the maximum reduction to 20%. This averaged reduction corresponded to a decrease in energy consumption for membrane aeration of 14% (0.025 kWh m(-3)) with maximum saving rates of 22% (0.04 kWh m(-3)). Permeability and fouling rate evolution were not affected by the air scour control system, as very similar behavior was observed for these variables for both filtration lines throughout the entire experimental evaluation period of 1 year.

  11. Molecular analysis of methanogens involved in methanogenic degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in full-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Liang-Ming; Hu, Tai-Ho; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Wu, Yi-Ju; Chang, Shao-Hsiung

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated methanogenic communities involved in degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in three full-scale bioreactors treating TMAH-containing wastewater. Based on the results of terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR analyses targeting the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes retrieved from three bioreactors, Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the dominant methanogens involved in the methanogenic degradation of TMAH in the bioreactors. Furthermore, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate mcrA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression during methanogenic TMAH degradation, and the results indicated that a higher level of TMAH favored mcrA mRNA expression by Methansarcina, while Methanomethylovorans could only express considerable amount of mcrA mRNA at a lower level of TMAH. These results suggest that Methansarcina is responsible for methanogenic TMAH degradation at higher TMAH concentrations, while Methanomethylovorans may be important at a lower TMAH condition.

  12. Parallel Computing of the Underwater Explosion Cavitation Effects on Full-scale Ship Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Zong; Yanjie Zhao; Fan Ye; Haitao Li; Gang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:As well as shock wave and bubble pulse loading,cavitation also has very significant influences on the dynamic response of surface ships and other near-surface marine structures to underwater explosive loadings.In this paper,the acoustic-structure coupling method embedded in ABAQUS is adopted to do numerical analysis of underwater explosion considering cavitation.Both the shape of bulk cavitation region and local cavitation region are obtained,and they are in good agreement with analytical results.The duration of reloading is several times longer than that of a shock wave.In the end,both the single computation and parallel computation of the cavitation effect on the dynamic responses of a full-scale ship are presented,which proved that reloading caused by cavitation is non-ignorable.All these results are helpful in understanding underwater explosion cavitation effects.

  13. Study on the Contra-Rotating Propeller system design and full-scale performance prediction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keh-Sik Min

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A ship's screw-propeller produces thrust by rotation and, at the same time, generates rotational flow behind the propeller. This rotational flow has no contribution to the generation of thrust, but instead produces energy loss. By recovering part of the lost energy in the rotational flow, therefore, it is possible to improve the propulsion efficiency. The contra-rotating propeller (CRP system is the representing example of such devices. Unfortunately, however, neither a design method nor a full-scale performance prediction procedure for the CRP system has been well established yet. The authors have long performed studies on the CRP system, and some of the results from the authors’ studies shall be presented and discussed.

  14. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  15. Identifying the abundant and active microorganisms common to full scale anaerobic digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kristensen, Jannie Munk

    2017-01-01

    two full scale digesters over a six year period using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Sampling of the sludge fed into these systems revealed that several of the most abundant populations were likely inactive and immigrating with the influent. This observation indicates that a failure to consider...... in anaerobic digestion, this study paves the way for targeted characterisation of the process important organisms towards an in depth understanding of the microbial ecology of these biotechnologically important systems.......Anaerobic digestion is widely applied to treat organic waste at wastewater treatment plants. Characterisation of the underlying microbiology represents a source of information to develop strategies for improved operation. To this end, we investigated the microbial community composition of thirty...

  16. Evaluation of the Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical and experimental results for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Upbending, down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  17. Process of Levee Breach by Overflow at the Full Scale Chiyoda Experimental Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, T.; Yokoyama, H.

    2011-12-01

    The increased occurrence of storm disasters caused by typhoons and local downpours in recent years has given rise to concerns over the possibility of large-scale floods resulting from river overflow. Levee breaches cause particularly severe damage, and in Japan, more than 80% of such accidents in the past have been attributed to overflow. Previous studies on overflow-induced levee breaches have not revealed the mechanisms of these issues on a full-scale 3D basis (i.e., side-overflow taking river flow on the riverside land into consideration). It is important to clarify these mechanisms in terms of disaster prevention and for the purpose of bringing progress in future studies on overflow-induced failure. Levees (levee crown width is 3m in 2010 and 6m in 2011, levee height is 3m, levee length is 80m) were built in the Chiyoda Experimental Channel (full-scale experimental channel; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, maximum discharge is 170t/s) in Hokkaido Japan, and a three-dimensional experiment on levee breach by overflow. The findings of the experiment are as follows: After the beginning of overflow, levee breach widening did not begin until after most of the levee section had collapsed. And in case of 6m of the levee crown width, that time in becomes long. It was also considered that, even if overflow occurred, extremely serious damage (e.g., sudden increase in levee breach width and overflow discharge) was unlikely unless the majority of the levee section collapsed.

  18. N-nitrosamine rejection by reverse osmosis membranes: a full-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takahiro; Khan, Stuart J; McDonald, James A; Roux, Annalie; Poussade, Yvan; Drewes, Jörg E; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-10-15

    This study aims to provide longitudinal and spatial insights to the rejection of N-nitrosamines by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes during sampling campaigns at three full-scale water recycling plants. Samples were collected at all individual filtration stages as well as at a cool and a warm weather period to elucidate the impact of recovery and feed temperature on the rejection of N-nitrosamines. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in all RO feed samples varying between 7 and 32 ng/L. Concentrations of most other N-nitrosamines in the feed solutions were determined to be lower than their detection limits (3-5 ng/L) but higher concentrations were detected in the feed after each filtration stage. As a notable exception, in one plant, N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) was observed at high concentrations in RO feed (177-475 ng/L) and permeate (34-76 ng/L). Overall rejection of NDMA among the three RO systems varied widely from 4 to 47%. Data presented here suggest that the feed temperature can influence rejection of NDMA. A considerable variation in NDMA rejection across the three RO stages (14-78%) was also observed. Overall NMOR rejections were consistently high ranging from 81 to 84%. On the other hand, overall rejection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) varied from negligible to 53%, which was considerably lower than values reported in previous laboratory-scale studies. A comparison between results reported here and the literature indicates that there can be some discrepancy in N-nitrosamine rejection data between laboratory- and full-scale studies probably due to differences in water recoveries and operating conditions (e.g. temperature, membrane fouling, and hydraulic conditions). Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity. PMID:22170425

  20. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of 'Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity.