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Sample records for full k-space visualization

  1. Full k-space visualization of photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denlinger, J.D.; Rotenberg, E.; Kevan, S.D.; Tonner, B.P.

    1997-01-01

    The development of photoelectron holography has promoted the need for larger photoelectron diffraction data sets in order to improve the quality of real-space reconstructed images (by suppressing transformational artifacts and distortions). The two main experimental and theoretical approaches to holography, the transform of angular distribution patterns for a coarse selection of energies or the transform of energy-scanned profiles for several directions, represent two limits to k-space sampling. The high brightness of third-generation soft x-ray synchrotron sources provides the opportunity to rapidly measure large high-density x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) data sets with approximately uniform k-space sampling. In this abstract, the authors present such a photoelectron data set acquired for Cu 3p emission from Cu(001). Cu(001) is one of the most well-studied systems for understanding photoelectron diffraction structure and for testing photoelectron holography methods. Cu(001) was chosen for this study in part due to the relatively inert and unreconstructed clean surface, and it served to calibrate and fine-tune the operation of a new synchrotron beamline, electron spectrometer and sample goniometer. In addition to Cu, similar open-quotes volumeclose quotes XPD data sets have been acquired for bulk and surface core-level emission from W(110), from reconstructed Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces, and from the adsorbate system of c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100)

  2. Complete k-space visualization of x-ray photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denlinger, J.D.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; Rotenberg, E.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; Kevan, S.D.; Tonner, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    A highly detailed x-ray photoelectron diffraction data set has been acquired for crystalline Cu(001). The data set for bulk Cu 3p emission encompasses a large k-space volume (k = 3--10 angstrom -1 ) with sufficient energy and angular sampling to monitor the continuous variation of diffraction intensities. The evolution of back-scattered intensity oscillations is visualized by energy and angular slices of this volume data set. Large diffraction data sets such as this will provide rigorous experimental tests of real-space reconstruction algorithms and multiple-scattering simulations

  3. Parallax visualization of full motion video using the Pursuer GUI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Christopher A.; Forgues, Mark B.

    2014-06-01

    In 2013, the Authors reported to the SPIE on the Phase 1 development of a Parallax Visualization (PV) plug-in toolset for Wide Area Motion Imaging (WAMI) data using the Pursuer Graphical User Interface (GUI).1 In addition to the ability to PV WAMI data, the Phase 1 plug-in toolset also featured a limited ability to visualize Full Motion video (FMV) data. The ability to visualize both WAMI and FMV data is highly advantageous capability for an Electric Light Table (ELT) toolset. This paper reports on the Phase 2 development and addition of a full featured FMV capability to the Pursuer WAMI PV Plug-in.

  4. Contributions of an adiabatic initial inversion pulse and K-space Re-ordered by inversion-time at each slice position (KRISP) to control of CSF artifacts and visualization of the brain in FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curati, Walter L.; Oatridge, Angela; Herlihy, Amy H.; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Puri, Basant K.; Bydder, Graeme M.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) pulse sequences for control of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood flow artifacts in imaging of the brain. The first of these sequences had an initial sinc inversion pulse which was followed by conventional k-space mapping. The second had an initial sinc inversion pulse followed by k-space re-ordered by inversion time at each slice position (KRISP) and the third had an adiabatic initial inversion pulse followed by KRISP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with established disease were studied with all three pulse sequences. Seven were also studied with the adiabatic KRISP sequence after contrast enhancement. Their images were evaluated for patient motion artifact, CSF and blood flow artifact as well as conspicuity of the cortex, meninges, ventricular system, brainstem and cerebellum. The conspicuity of lesions and the degree of enhancement were also evaluated. RESULTS: Both the sinc and adiabatic KRISP FLAIR sequences showed better control of CSF and blood flow artifacts than the conventional FLAIR sequence. In addition the adiabatic KRISP FLAIR sequence showed better control of CSF artifact at the inferior aspect of the posterior fossa. The lesion conspicuity was similar for each of the FLAIR sequences as was the degree of contrast enhancement to that shown with a T 1 weighted spin echo sequence. CONCLUSION: The KRISP FLAIR sequence controls high signal artifacts from CSF flow and blood flow and the adiabatic pulse controls high signal artifacts due to inadequate inversion of the CSF magnetization at the periphery of the head transmitter coil. The KRISP FLAIR sequence also improves cortical and meningeal definition as a result of an edge enhancement effect. The effects are synergistic and can be usefully combined in a single pulse sequence. Curati, W.L. et al. (2001)

  5. Interactive visualization of APT data at full fidelity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryden, Aaron; Broderick, Scott; Suram, Santosh K.; Kaluskar, Kaustubh; LeSar, Richard; Rajan, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of noise and incomplete data is a critical need for using atom probe tomography effectively. Although many tools and techniques have been developed to address this problem, visualization of the raw data remains an important part of this process. In this paper, we present two contributions to the visualization of data acquired through atom probe tomography. First, we describe the application of a rendering technique, ray-cast spherical impostors, that enables the interactive rendering of large numbers (as large as 10 million plus) of pixel perfect, lit spheres representing individual atoms. This technique is made possible by the use of a consumer-level graphics processing unit (GPU), and it yields an order of magnitude improvement both in render quality and speed over techniques previously used to render spherical glyphs in this domain. Second, we present an interactive tool that allows the user to mask, filter, and colorize the data in real time to help them understand and visualize a precise subset and properties of the raw data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our tool through benchmarks and an example that shows how the ability to interactively render large numbers of spheres, combined with the use of filters and masks, leads to improved understanding of the three-dimensional (3D) and incomplete nature of atom probe data. This improvement arises from the ability of lit spheres to more effectively show the 3D position and the local spatial distribution of individual atoms than what is possible with point or isosurface renderings. The techniques described in this paper serve to introduce new rendering and interaction techniques that have only recently become practical as well as new ways of interactively exploring the raw data. - Highlights: ► Application of spherical impostor rendering to atom probe data visualization. ► Presented an interactive tool for visualizing atom probe tomography data. ► Presented a comparison of

  6. Intuitive Visualization of Transient Flow: Towards a Full 3D Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Isabel; Schröder, Simon; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Visualization of geoscientific data is a challenging task especially when targeting a non-professional audience. In particular, the graphical presentation of transient vector data can be a significant problem. With STRING Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) in collaboration with delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany) developed a commercial software for intuitive 2D visualization of 3D flow problems. Through the intuitive character of the visualization experts can more easily transport their findings to non-professional audiences. In STRING pathlets moving with the flow provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flow fields. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow which means that the pathlets' movement is along the direction given by pathlines. In order to capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding of the pathlets is implemented based on ideas of the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) originally conceived at and continuously developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Furthermore, by the same method pathlets are removed during the visualization to avoid visual cluttering. Additional scalar flow attributes, for example concentration or potential, can either be mapped directly to the pathlets or displayed in the background of the pathlets on the 2D visualization plane. The extensive capabilities of STRING are demonstrated with the help of different applications in groundwater modeling. We will discuss the strengths and current restrictions of STRING which have surfaced during daily use of the software, for example by delta h. Although the software focusses on the graphical presentation of flow data for non-professional audiences its intuitive visualization has also proven useful to experts when investigating details of flow fields. Due to the popular reception of STRING and its limitation to 2D, the need arises for the extension to a full 3D tool

  7. Correlation between k-space sampling pattern and MTF in compressed sensing MRSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikal, A A; Wachowicz, K; Fallone, B G

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the k-space sampling patterns used for compressed sensing MR spectroscopic imaging (CS-MRSI) and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the metabolite maps. This relationship may allow the desired frequency content of the metabolite maps to be quantitatively tailored when designing an undersampling pattern. Simulations of a phantom were used to calculate the MTF of Nyquist sampled (NS) 32 × 32 MRSI, and four-times undersampled CS-MRSI reconstructions. The dependence of the CS-MTF on the k-space sampling pattern was evaluated for three sets of k-space sampling patterns generated using different probability distribution functions (PDFs). CS-MTFs were also evaluated for three more sets of patterns generated using a modified algorithm where the sampling ratios are constrained to adhere to PDFs. Strong visual correlation as well as high R 2 was found between the MTF of CS-MRSI and the product of the frequency-dependant sampling ratio and the NS 32 × 32 MTF. Also, PDF-constrained sampling patterns led to higher reproducibility of the CS-MTF, and stronger correlations to the above-mentioned product. The relationship established in this work provides the user with a theoretical solution for the MTF of CS MRSI that is both predictable and customizable to the user's needs.

  8. Long T2 suppression in native lung 3-D imaging using k-space reordered inversion recovery dual-echo ultrashort echo time MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Neville D; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Bluemke, David A

    2017-08-01

    Long T2 species can interfere with visualization of short T2 tissue imaging. For example, visualization of lung parenchyma can be hindered by breathing artifacts primarily from fat in the chest wall. The purpose of this work was to design and evaluate a scheme for long T2 species suppression in lung parenchyma imaging using 3-D inversion recovery double-echo ultrashort echo time imaging with a k-space reordering scheme for artifact suppression. A hyperbolic secant (HS) pulse was evaluated for different tissues (T1/T2). Bloch simulations were performed with the inversion pulse followed by segmented UTE acquisition. Point spread function (PSF) was simulated for a standard interleaved acquisition order and a modulo 2 forward-reverse acquisition order. Phantom and in vivo images (eight volunteers) were acquired with both acquisition orders. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated in in vivo images prior to and after introduction of the long T2 suppression scheme. The PSF as well as phantom and in vivo images demonstrated reduction in artifacts arising from k-space modulation after using the reordering scheme. CNR measured between lung and fat and lung and muscle increased from -114 and -148.5 to +12.5 and 2.8 after use of the IR-DUTE sequence. Paired t test between the CNRs obtained from UTE and IR-DUTE showed significant positive change (p lung-fat CNR and p = 0.03 for lung-muscle CNR). Full 3-D lung parenchyma imaging with improved positive contrast between lung and other long T2 tissue types can be achieved robustly in a clinically feasible time using IR-DUTE with image subtraction when segmented radial acquisition with k-space reordering is employed.

  9. Visual Thinking, Algebraic Thinking, and a Full Unit-Circle Diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Jonathan

    1985-01-01

    The study of trigonometric functions in terms of the unit circle offer an example of how students can learn algebraic relations and operations while using visually oriented thinking. Illustrations are included. (MNS)

  10. Visual performance in cataract patients with low levels of postoperative astigmatism: full correction versus spherical equivalent correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann RP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Lehmann1, Diane M Houtman21Lehmann Eye Center, Nacogdoches, TX, 2Alcon Research Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: To evaluate whether visual performance could be improved in pseudophakic subjects by correcting low levels of postoperative astigmatism.Methods: An exploratory, noninterventional study was conducted using subjects who had been implanted with an aspheric intraocular lens and had 0.5–0.75 diopter postoperative astigmatism. Monocular visual performance using full correction was compared with visual performance using spherical equivalent correction. Testing consisted of high- and low-contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reading acuity and speed using the Radner Reading Charts.Results: Thirty-eight of 40 subjects completed testing. Visual acuities at three contrast levels (100%, 25%, and 9% were significantly better using full correction than when using spherical equivalent correction (all P < 0.001. For contrast sensitivity testing under photopic, mesopic, and mesopic with glare conditions, only one out of twelve outcomes demonstrated a significant improvement with full correction compared with spherical equivalent correction (at six cycles per degree under mesopic without glare conditions, P = 0.046. Mean reading speed was numerically faster with full correction across all print sizes, reaching statistical significance at logarithm of the reading acuity determination (logRAD 0.2, 0.7, and 1.1 (P , 0.05. Statistically significant differences also favored full correction in logRAD score (P = 0.0376, corrected maximum reading speed (P < 0.001, and logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution/logRAD ratio (P < 0.001.Conclusions: In this study of pseudophakic subjects with low levels of postoperative astigmatism, full correction yielded significantly better reading performance and high- and low-contrast visual acuity than spherical equivalent correction, suggesting that cataractous patients may benefit from surgical

  11. Recursion method in the k-space representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anlage, S.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    We show that by using a unitary transformation to k space and the special-k-point method for evaluating Brillouin-zone sums, the recursion method can be very effectively applied to translationally invariant systems. We use this approach to perform recursion calculations for realistic tight-binding Hamiltonians which describe diamond- and zinc-blende-structure semiconductors. Projected densities of states for these Hamiltonians have band gaps and internal van Hove singularities. We calculate coefficients for 63 recursion levels exactly and for about 200 recursion levels to a good approximation. Comparisons are made for materials with different magnitude band gaps (diamond, Si, α-Sn). Comparison is also made between materials with one (e.g., diamond) and two (e.g., GaAs) band gaps. The asymptotic behavior of the recursion coefficients is studied by Fourier analysis. Band gaps in the projected density of states dominate the asymptotic behavior. Perturbation analysis describes the asymptotic behavior rather well. Projected densities of states are calculated using a very simple termination scheme. These densities of states compare favorably with the results of Gilat-Raubenheimer integration

  12. A singular K-space model for fast reconstruction of magnetic resonance images from undersampled data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianhua; Mou, Zhiying; Qin, Binjie; Li, Wanqing; Ogunbona, Philip; Robini, Marc C; Zhu, Yuemin

    2017-12-09

    Reconstructing magnetic resonance images from undersampled k-space data is a challenging problem. This paper introduces a novel method of image reconstruction from undersampled k-space data based on the concept of singularizing operators and a novel singular k-space model. Exploring the sparsity of an image in the k-space, the singular k-space model (SKM) is proposed in terms of the k-space functions of a singularizing operator. The singularizing operator is constructed by combining basic difference operators. An algorithm is developed to reliably estimate the model parameters from undersampled k-space data. The estimated parameters are then used to recover the missing k-space data through the model, subsequently achieving high-quality reconstruction of the image using inverse Fourier transform. Experiments on physical phantom and real brain MR images have shown that the proposed SKM method constantly outperforms the popular total variation (TV) and the classical zero-filling (ZF) methods regardless of the undersampling rates, the noise levels, and the image structures. For the same objective quality of the reconstructed images, the proposed method requires much less k-space data than the TV method. The SKM method is an effective method for fast MRI reconstruction from the undersampled k-space data. Graphical abstract Two Real Images and their sparsified images by singularizing operator.

  13. Visual acuity and full-field electroretinography in patients with Usher's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mendieta, Luana; Berezovsky, Adriana; Salomão, Solange Rios; Sacai, Paula Yuri; Pereira, Josenilson Martins; Fantini, Sérgio Costa

    2005-01-01

    A síndrome de Usher (SU) é doença autossômica recessiva caracterizada por perda auditiva neuro-sensorial acompanhada de retinose pigmentária (RP). OBJETIVO: Analisar a eletrorretinografia de campo total (ERG) e a acuidade visual (AV) em pacientes com síndrome de Usher tipos I e II. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas as respostas da eletrorretinografia de campo total e a acuidade visual de 22 pacientes (idade média = 26,8±16,8 anos). Destes, 17 tinham síndrome de Usher tipo I e 5 tinham síndrome ...

  14. Effect of occlusion amblyopia after prescribed full-time occlusion on long-term visual acuity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmuir, Susannah; Pfeifer, Wanda; Scott, William; Olson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the incidence and characteristics of occlusion amblyopia with prescribed full-time patching and determine its effect on long-term visual acuity outcomes. The records of patients younger than 10 years diagnosed as having amblyopia between 1970 and 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were prescribed full-time occlusion and observed until completion of therapy. Of 597 patients treated for amblyopia by full-time patching, 115 were diagnosed as having occlusion amblyopia (19.3%). Seventy-five percent (86 of 115) developed occlusion amblyopia during the first episode of full-time patching. Occlusion amblyopia occurred more frequently in children prescribed full-time patching at an earlier age (P = .0002), with an odds ratio of 8.56 (95% confidence interval: 2.73, 26.84) in children younger than 36 months and 2.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.96, 7.37) in children between 36 and 59 months old. Seven of the patients with occlusion amblyopia did not reverse fixation and continued to fixate with the initially amblyopic eye after treatment. Final visual acuity in these eyes with occlusion amblyopia was 20/30 or better. After cessation of treatment, the final interocular difference in visual acuity was less in patients with a history of occlusion amblyopia (P = .003). Occlusion amblyopia occurred at all ages, but the incidence decreased with increasing age. Patients who developed occlusion amblyopia with prescribed full-time occlusion had less interocular visual acuity difference than patients who did not, suggesting that development of occlusion amblyopia can indicate the potential for the development of better vision in the originally amblyopic eye. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. An empirical investigation into the changing visual identity of full service and low cost carriers, 2000 vs. 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a semiotic content analysis of the visual branding of over 630 airline tail fins as they appeared in 2000 and 2012. Unlike existing studies of airlines’ visual identities that rely on a snap shot in time and examine all airlines, this paper focuses on changes that have occurred in the visual branding of full-service carriers (FSCs and low cost carriers (LCCs between 2000 and 2012. The results confirm that there have been significant changes in the visual content of FSC and LCC tail fins and the way in which these airlines portray non-price competitive characteristics. The research shows that while an increasing number of LCCs now use aircraft tail fins to display their corporate name, FSCs are increasingly employing icons of nationhood. This suggests that while LCCs are trying to appeal to a wide passenger demographic who value low fares over service, FSCs are responding to the competitive threat by explicitly drawing on the cultural rhetoric of symbols of sovereign national identity to differentiate themselves in an increasingly competitive market.

  16. Self-navigated 4D cartesian imaging of periodic motion in the body trunk using partial k-space compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küstner, Thomas; Würslin, Christian; Schwartz, Martin; Martirosian, Petros; Gatidis, Sergios; Brendle, Cornelia; Seith, Ferdinand; Schick, Fritz; Schwenzer, Nina F; Yang, Bin; Schmidt, Holger

    2017-08-01

    To enable fast and flexible high-resolution four-dimensional (4D) MRI of periodic thoracic/abdominal motion for motion visualization or motion-corrected imaging. We proposed a Cartesian three-dimensional k-space sampling scheme that acquires a random combination of k-space lines in the ky/kz plane. A partial Fourier-like constraint compacts the sampling space to one half of k-space. The central k-space line is periodically acquired to allow an extraction of a self-navigated respiration signal used to populate a k-space of multiple breathing positions. The randomness of the acquisition (induced by periodic breathing pattern) yields a subsampled k-space that is reconstructed using compressed sensing. Local image evaluations (coefficient of variation and slope steepness through organs) reveal information about motion resolvability. Image quality is inspected by a blinded reading. Sequence and reconstruction method are made publicly available. The method is able to capture and reconstruct 4D images with high image quality and motion resolution within a short scan time of less than 2 min. These findings are supported by restricted-isometry-property analysis, local image evaluation, and blinded reading. The proposed method provides a clinical feasible setup to capture periodic respiratory motion with a fast acquisition protocol and can be extended by further surrogate signals to capture additional periodic motions. Retrospective parametrization allows for flexible tuning toward the targeted applications. Magn Reson Med 78:632-644, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Image reconstruction in k-space from MR data encoded with ambiguous gradient fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Gerrit; Gallichan, Daniel; Weber, Hans; Witschey, Walter R T; Honal, Matthias; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the limits of image reconstruction in k-space are explored when non-bijective gradient fields are used for spatial encoding. The image space analogy between parallel imaging and imaging with non-bijective encoding fields is partially broken in k-space. As a consequence, it is hypothesized and proven that ambiguities can only be resolved partially in k-space, and not completely as is the case in image space. Image-space and k-space based reconstruction algorithms for multi-channel radiofrequency data acquisitions are programmed and tested using numerical simulations as well as in vivo measurement data. The hypothesis is verified based on an analysis of reconstructed images. It is found that non-bijective gradient fields have the effect that densely sampled autocalibration data, used for k-space reconstruction, provide less information than a separate scan of the receiver coil sensitivity maps, used for image space reconstruction. Consequently, in k-space only the undersampling artifact can be unfolded, whereas in image space, it is also possible to resolve aliasing that is caused by the non-bijectivity of the gradient fields. For standard imaging, reconstruction in image space and in k-space is nearly equivalent, whereas there is a fundamental difference with practical consequences for the selection of image reconstruction algorithms when non-bijective encoding fields are involved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Self-calibrated correlation imaging with k-space variant correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Edalati, Masoud; Du, Xingfu; Wang, Hui; Cao, Jie J

    2018-03-01

    Correlation imaging is a previously developed high-speed MRI framework that converts parallel imaging reconstruction into the estimate of correlation functions. The presented work aims to demonstrate this framework can provide a speed gain over parallel imaging by estimating k-space variant correlation functions. Because of Fourier encoding with gradients, outer k-space data contain higher spatial-frequency image components arising primarily from tissue boundaries. As a result of tissue-boundary sparsity in the human anatomy, neighboring k-space data correlation varies from the central to the outer k-space. By estimating k-space variant correlation functions with an iterative self-calibration method, correlation imaging can benefit from neighboring k-space data correlation associated with both coil sensitivity encoding and tissue-boundary sparsity, thereby providing a speed gain over parallel imaging that relies only on coil sensitivity encoding. This new approach is investigated in brain imaging and free-breathing neonatal cardiac imaging. Correlation imaging performs better than existing parallel imaging techniques in simulated brain imaging acceleration experiments. The higher speed enables real-time data acquisition for neonatal cardiac imaging in which physiological motion is fast and non-periodic. With k-space variant correlation functions, correlation imaging gives a higher speed than parallel imaging and offers the potential to image physiological motion in real-time. Magn Reson Med 79:1483-1494, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. K-space polarimetry of bullseye plasmon antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Clara I; Mohtashami, Abbas; Koenderink, A Femius

    2015-04-30

    Surface plasmon resonators can drastically redistribute incident light over different output wave vectors and polarizations. This can lead for instance to sub-diffraction sized nanoapertures in metal films that beam and to nanoparticle antennas that enable efficient conversion of photons between spatial modes, or helicity channels. We present a polarimetric Fourier microscope as a new experimental tool to completely characterize the angle-dependent polarization-resolved scattering of single nanostructures. Polarimetry allows determining the full Stokes parameters from just six Fourier images. The degree of polarization and the polarization ellipse are measured for each scattering direction collected by a high NA objective. We showcase the method on plasmonic bullseye antennas in a metal film, which are known to beam light efficiently. We find rich results for the polarization state of the beamed light, including complete conversion of input polarization from linear to circular and from one helicity to another. In addition to uncovering new physics for plasmonic groove antennas, the described technique projects to have a large impact in nanophotonics, in particular towards the investigation of a broad range of phenomena ranging from photon spin Hall effects, polarization to orbital angular momentum transfer and design of plasmon antennas.

  20. A contralateral eye study comparing apodized diffrative and full diffrative lenses: wavefront analysis and distance and near uncorrected visual acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcony Rodrigues de Santhiago

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate intraindividual visual acuity, wavefront errors and modulation transfer functions in patients implanted with two diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses. METHODS: This prospective study examined 40 eyes of 20 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a spherical multifocal ReSTOR intraocular lens in one eye and an aspheric Tecnis ZM900 multifocal intraocular lens in the other eye. The main outcome measures, over a 3-month follow-up period, were the uncorrected photopic distance and near visual acuity and the defocus curve. The visual acuity was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis and is presented in decimal scale. The wavefront error and modulation transfer function were also evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: At the 3-month postoperative visit, the mean photopic distance uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 0.74 ± 0.20 in the ReSTOR group and 0.76 ± 0.22 in the Tecnis group (p=0.286. The mean near UCVA was 0.96 ± 0.10 in the ReSTOR group and 0.93 ± 0.14 in the Tecnis group (p=0.963. The binocular defocus curve showed measurements between the peaks better than 0.2 logMAR. The total aberration, higher-order aberration and coma aberration were not significantly different between the groups. The spherical aberration was significantly lower in the Tecnis group than in the ReSTOR group. (p=0.004. Both groups performed similarly for the modulation transfer function. CONCLUSION: The ReSTOR SN60D3 and Tecnis ZM 900 intraocular lenses provided similar photopic visual acuity at distance and near. The diffractive intraocular lenses studied provided a low value of coma and spherical aberrations, with the Tecnis intraocular lens having a statistically lower spherical aberration compared to the ReSTOR intraocular lens. In the 5 mm pupil diameter analyses, both intraocular lens groups showed similar modulation transfer functions.

  1. Prediction of flexible/rigid regions from protein sequences using k-spaced amino acid pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Jishou

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, it is believed that the native structure of a protein corresponds to a global minimum of its free energy. However, with the growing number of known tertiary (3D protein structures, researchers have discovered that some proteins can alter their structures in response to a change in their surroundings or with the help of other proteins or ligands. Such structural shifts play a crucial role with respect to the protein function. To this end, we propose a machine learning method for the prediction of the flexible/rigid regions of proteins (referred to as FlexRP; the method is based on a novel sequence representation and feature selection. Knowledge of the flexible/rigid regions may provide insights into the protein folding process and the 3D structure prediction. Results The flexible/rigid regions were defined based on a dataset, which includes protein sequences that have multiple experimental structures, and which was previously used to study the structural conservation of proteins. Sequences drawn from this dataset were represented based on feature sets that were proposed in prior research, such as PSI-BLAST profiles, composition vector and binary sequence encoding, and a newly proposed representation based on frequencies of k-spaced amino acid pairs. These representations were processed by feature selection to reduce the dimensionality. Several machine learning methods for the prediction of flexible/rigid regions and two recently proposed methods for the prediction of conformational changes and unstructured regions were compared with the proposed method. The FlexRP method, which applies Logistic Regression and collocation-based representation with 95 features, obtained 79.5% accuracy. The two runner-up methods, which apply the same sequence representation and Support Vector Machines (SVM and Naïve Bayes classifiers, obtained 79.2% and 78.4% accuracy, respectively. The remaining considered methods are

  2. Acuidade visual e eletrorretinografia de campo total em pacientes com síndrome de Usher Visual acuity and full-field electroretinography in patients with Usher's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Mendieta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Usher (SU é doença autossômica recessiva caracterizada por perda auditiva neuro-sensorial acompanhada de retinose pigmentária (RP. OBJETIVO: Analisar a eletrorretinografia de campo total (ERG e a acuidade visual (AV em pacientes com síndrome de Usher tipos I e II. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas as respostas da eletrorretinografia de campo total e a acuidade visual de 22 pacientes (idade média = 26,8±16,8 anos. Destes, 17 tinham síndrome de Usher tipo I e 5 tinham síndrome de Usher tipo II. RESULTADOS: A acuidade visual média do grupo síndrome de Usher I foi de 0,9 logMAR (20/160, equivalente de Snellen e do grupo síndrome de Usher II de 0,4 logMAR (20/50, equivalente de Snellen. As respostas dos bastonetes e as máximas respostas mostraram-se não detectáveis nos dois grupos. A amplitude média dos potenciais oscilatórios foi de 14,5 µV±6,1 na síndrome de Usher I e na síndrome de Usher II de 12,6 µV±5,2. As respostas de cones foram não detectáveis em 95% dos pacientes com síndrome de Usher I e em 100% dos pacientes com síndrome de Usher II. A amplitude média do flicker a 30 Hz nos pacientes com síndrome de Usher I foi de 3,1 µV±4,1 e do tempo de culminação de 34,0ms±6,2; nos pacientes com síndrome de Usher II a média de amplitude foi de 1,0 mV±0,6 e do tempo de culminação de 35,8 ms±3,1. CONCLUSÃO: A acuidade visual mostrou-se relativamente preservada nos dois grupos, porém com melhores resultados no grupo de síndrome de Usher II. Os achados eletrorretinográficos mostraram-se grandemente reduzidos em ambos os grupos, com a maioria dos pacientes apresentando respostas não detectáveis de bastonetes e cones.PURPOSE: Usher's syndrome (US is a group of genetically distinct autossomal conditions, characterized by sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by a retinal dystrophy indistinguishable from retinitis pigmentosa (RP. The purpose of this study was to analyze full-field electroretinography (ERG

  3. SU-F-J-158: Respiratory Motion Resolved, Self-Gated 4D-MRI Using Rotating Cartesian K-Space Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, F; Zhou, Z; Yang, Y; Sheng, K; Hu, P [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic MRI has been used to quantify respiratory motion of abdominal organs in radiation treatment planning. Many existing 4D-MRI methods based on 2D acquisitions suffer from limited slice resolution and additional stitching artifacts when evaluated in 3D{sup 1}. To address these issues, we developed a 4D-MRI (3D dynamic) technique with true 3D k-space encoding and respiratory motion self-gating. Methods: The 3D k-space was acquired using a Rotating Cartesian K-space (ROCK) pattern, where the Cartesian grid was reordered in a quasi-spiral fashion with each spiral arm rotated using golden angle{sup 2}. Each quasi-spiral arm started with the k-space center-line, which were used as self-gating{sup 3} signal for respiratory motion estimation. The acquired k-space data was then binned into 8 respiratory phases and the golden angle ensures a near-uniform k-space sampling in each phase. Finally, dynamic 3D images were reconstructed using the ESPIRiT technique{sup 4}. 4D-MRI was performed on 6 healthy volunteers, using the following parameters (bSSFP, Fat-Sat, TE/TR=2ms/4ms, matrix size=500×350×120, resolution=1×1×1.2mm, TA=5min, 8 respiratory phases). Supplemental 2D real-time images were acquired in 9 different planes. Dynamic locations of the diaphragm dome and left kidney were measured from both 4D and 2D images. The same protocol was also performed on a MRI-compatible motion phantom where the motion was programmed with different amplitude (10–30mm) and frequency (3–10/min). Results: High resolution 4D-MRI were obtained successfully in 5 minutes. Quantitative motion measurements from 4D-MRI agree with the ones from 2D CINE (<5% error). The 4D images are free of the stitching artifacts and their near-isotropic resolution facilitates 3D visualization and segmentation of abdominal organs such as the liver, kidney and pancreas. Conclusion: Our preliminary studies demonstrated a novel ROCK 4D-MRI technique with true 3D k-space encoding and respiratory

  4. Reduced aliasing artifacts using shaking projection k-space sampling trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-Chun; Du, Jiang; Yang, Wen-Chao; Duan, Chai-Jie; Wang, Hao-Yu; Gao, Song; Bao, Shang-Lian

    2014-03-01

    Radial imaging techniques, such as projection-reconstruction (PR), are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for dynamic imaging, angiography, and short-T2 imaging. They are less sensitive to flow and motion artifacts, and support fast imaging with short echo times. However, aliasing and streaking artifacts are two main sources which degrade radial imaging quality. For a given fixed number of k-space projections, data distributions along radial and angular directions will influence the level of aliasing and streaking artifacts. Conventional radial k-space sampling trajectory introduces an aliasing artifact at the first principal ring of point spread function (PSF). In this paper, a shaking projection (SP) k-space sampling trajectory was proposed to reduce aliasing artifacts in MR images. SP sampling trajectory shifts the projection alternately along the k-space center, which separates k-space data in the azimuthal direction. Simulations based on conventional and SP sampling trajectories were compared with the same number projections. A significant reduction of aliasing artifacts was observed using the SP sampling trajectory. These two trajectories were also compared with different sampling frequencies. A SP trajectory has the same aliasing character when using half sampling frequency (or half data) for reconstruction. SNR comparisons with different white noise levels show that these two trajectories have the same SNR character. In conclusion, the SP trajectory can reduce the aliasing artifact without decreasing SNR and also provide a way for undersampling reconstruction. Furthermore, this method can be applied to three-dimensional (3D) hybrid or spherical radial k-space sampling for a more efficient reduction of aliasing artifacts.

  5. Reduced aliasing artifacts using shaking projection k-space sampling trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yan-Chun; Yang Wen-Chao; Wang Hao-Yu; Gao Song; Bao Shang-Lian; Du Jiang; Duan Chai-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Radial imaging techniques, such as projection-reconstruction (PR), are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for dynamic imaging, angiography, and short-T2 imaging. They are less sensitive to flow and motion artifacts, and support fast imaging with short echo times. However, aliasing and streaking artifacts are two main sources which degrade radial imaging quality. For a given fixed number of k-space projections, data distributions along radial and angular directions will influence the level of aliasing and streaking artifacts. Conventional radial k-space sampling trajectory introduces an aliasing artifact at the first principal ring of point spread function (PSF). In this paper, a shaking projection (SP) k-space sampling trajectory was proposed to reduce aliasing artifacts in MR images. SP sampling trajectory shifts the projection alternately along the k-space center, which separates k-space data in the azimuthal direction. Simulations based on conventional and SP sampling trajectories were compared with the same number projections. A significant reduction of aliasing artifacts was observed using the SP sampling trajectory. These two trajectories were also compared with different sampling frequencies. A SP trajectory has the same aliasing character when using half sampling frequency (or half data) for reconstruction. SNR comparisons with different white noise levels show that these two trajectories have the same SNR character. In conclusion, the SP trajectory can reduce the aliasing artifact without decreasing SNR and also provide a way for undersampling reconstruction. Furthermore, this method can be applied to three-dimensional (3D) hybrid or spherical radial k-space sampling for a more efficient reduction of aliasing artifacts

  6. VRF ("Visual RobFit") — nuclear spectral analysis with non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasche, George; Coldwell, Robert; Metzger, Robert

    2017-09-01

    A new application (known as "VRF", or "Visual RobFit") for analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra has been developed using non-linear fitting techniques to fit full-spectrum nuclide shapes. In contrast to conventional methods based on the results of an initial peak-search, the VRF analysis method forms, at each of many automated iterations, a spectrum-wide shape for each nuclide and, also at each iteration, it adjusts the activities of each nuclide, as well as user-enabled parameters of energy calibration, attenuation by up to three intervening or self-absorbing materials, peak width as a function of energy, full-energy peak efficiency, and coincidence summing until no better fit to the data can be obtained. This approach, which employs a new and significantly advanced underlying fitting engine especially adapted to nuclear spectra, allows identification of minor peaks that are masked by larger, overlapping peaks that would not otherwise be possible. The application and method are briefly described and two examples are presented.

  7. K-space trajectory mapping and its application for ultrashort Echo time imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latta, P.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Gruwel, M. L. H.; Weber, M.H.; Tomanek, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, February (2017), s. 68-76 ISSN 0730-725X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12607S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : gradient imperfections * K-space deviation * trajectrory estaimation * ultrashort echo time Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical engineering Impact factor: 2.225, year: 2016

  8. Off-resonance artifacts correction with convolution in k-space (ORACLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Huang, Feng; Simonotto, Enrico; Duensing, George R; Reykowski, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Off-resonance artifacts hinder the wider applicability of echo-planar imaging and non-Cartesian MRI methods such as radial and spiral. In this work, a general and rapid method is proposed for off-resonance artifacts correction based on data convolution in k-space. The acquired k-space is divided into multiple segments based on their acquisition times. Off-resonance-induced artifact within each segment is removed by applying a convolution kernel, which is the Fourier transform of an off-resonance correcting spatial phase modulation term. The field map is determined from the inverse Fourier transform of a basis kernel, which is calibrated from data fitting in k-space. The technique was demonstrated in phantom and in vivo studies for radial, spiral and echo-planar imaging datasets. For radial acquisitions, the proposed method allows the self-calibration of the field map from the imaging data, when an alternating view-angle ordering scheme is used. An additional advantage for off-resonance artifacts correction based on data convolution in k-space is the reusability of convolution kernels to images acquired with the same sequence but different contrasts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. A new design and rationale for 3D orthogonally oversampled k-space trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipe, James G; Zwart, Nicholas R; Aboussouan, Eric A; Robison, Ryan K; Devaraj, Ajit; Johnson, Kenneth O

    2011-11-01

    A novel center-out 3D trajectory for sampling magnetic resonance data is presented. The trajectory set is based on a single Fermat spiral waveform, which is substantially undersampled in the center of k-space. Multiple trajectories are combined in a "stacked cone" configuration to give very uniform sampling throughout a "hub," which is very efficient in terms of gradient performance and uniform trajectory spacing. The fermat looped, orthogonally encoded trajectories (FLORET) design produces less gradient-efficient trajectories near the poles, so multiple orthogonal hub designs are shown. These multihub designs oversample k-space twice with orthogonal trajectories, which gives unique properties but also doubles the minimum scan time for critical sampling of k-space. The trajectory is shown to be much more efficient than the conventional stack of cones trajectory, and has nearly the same signal-to-noise ratio efficiency (but twice the minimum scan time) as a stack of spirals trajectory. As a center-out trajectory, it provides a shorter minimum echo time than stack of spirals, and its spherical k-space coverage can dramatically reduce Gibbs ringing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Full spatial-field visualization of gas temperature in an air micro-glow discharge by calibrated Schlieren photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Xiong, Lin; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Jingang; Peng, Wenxiong; Li, Jiarui

    2018-03-01

    Gas temperature is an important basic parameter for both fundamental research and applications of plasmas. In this work, efforts were made to visualize the full spatial field of gas temperature (T g) in a microdischarge with sharp T g gradients by a method of calibrated Schlieren (CS) photography. Compared to other two typical diagnostic approaches, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and Rayleigh scattering, the proposed CS method exhibits the ability to capture the whole field of gas temperature using a single Schlieren image, even the discharge is of non-luminous zones like Faraday dark space (FDS). The image shows that the T g field in the studied micro-glow air discharge expands quickly with the increase of discharge currents, especially in the cathode region. The two-dimensional maps of gas temperature display a ‘W-shape’ with sharp gradients in both areas of negative and positive glows, slightly arched distributions in the positive column, and cooling zones in the FDS. The obtained T g fields show similar patterns to that of the discharge luminance. With an increase in discharge currents, more electric energy is dissipated by heating air gas and inducing constriction of the low-temperature FDS. Except in the vicinities of electrode boundaries, due to the interference from optical diffraction, the estimated gas temperature distributions are of acceptable accuracy, confirmed by the approaches of OES and UV Rayleigh scattering.

  11. A radial sampling strategy for uniform k-space coverage with retrospective respiratory gating in 3D ultrashort-echo-time lung imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinil; Shin, Taehoon; Yoon, Soon Ho; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Jang-Yeon

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a 3D radial-sampling strategy which maintains uniform k-space sample density after retrospective respiratory gating, and demonstrate its feasibility in free-breathing ultrashort-echo-time lung MRI. A multi-shot, interleaved 3D radial sampling function was designed by segmenting a single-shot trajectory of projection views such that each interleaf samples k-space in an incoherent fashion. An optimal segmentation factor for the interleaved acquisition was derived based on an approximate model of respiratory patterns such that radial interleaves are evenly accepted during the retrospective gating. The optimality of the proposed sampling scheme was tested by numerical simulations and phantom experiments using human respiratory waveforms. Retrospectively, respiratory-gated, free-breathing lung MRI with the proposed sampling strategy was performed in healthy subjects. The simulation yielded the most uniform k-space sample density with the optimal segmentation factor, as evidenced by the smallest standard deviation of the number of neighboring samples as well as minimal side-lobe energy in the point spread function. The optimality of the proposed scheme was also confirmed by minimal image artifacts in phantom images. Human lung images showed that the proposed sampling scheme significantly reduced streak and ring artifacts compared with the conventional retrospective respiratory gating while suppressing motion-related blurring compared with full sampling without respiratory gating. In conclusion, the proposed 3D radial-sampling scheme can effectively suppress the image artifacts due to non-uniform k-space sample density in retrospectively respiratory-gated lung MRI by uniformly distributing gated radial views across the k-space. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. STEP: Self-supporting tailored k-space estimation for parallel imaging reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zechen; Wang, Jinnan; Balu, Niranjan; Li, Rui; Yuan, Chun

    2016-02-01

    A new subspace-based iterative reconstruction method, termed Self-supporting Tailored k-space Estimation for Parallel imaging reconstruction (STEP), is presented and evaluated in comparison to the existing autocalibrating method SPIRiT and calibrationless method SAKE. In STEP, two tailored schemes including k-space partition and basis selection are proposed to promote spatially variant signal subspace and incorporated into a self-supporting structured low rank model to enforce properties of locality, sparsity, and rank deficiency, which can be formulated into a constrained optimization problem and solved by an iterative algorithm. Simulated and in vivo datasets were used to investigate the performance of STEP in terms of overall image quality and detail structure preservation. The advantage of STEP on image quality is demonstrated by retrospectively undersampled multichannel Cartesian data with various patterns. Compared with SPIRiT and SAKE, STEP can provide more accurate reconstruction images with less residual aliasing artifacts and reduced noise amplification in simulation and in vivo experiments. In addition, STEP has the capability of combining compressed sensing with arbitrary sampling trajectory. Using k-space partition and basis selection can further improve the performance of parallel imaging reconstruction with or without calibration signals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Real-time modulation of visual feedback on human full-body movements in a virtual mirror: development and proof-of-concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosink, M.; Robitaille, N.; McFadyen, B.J.; Hebert, L.J.; Jackson, P.L.; Bouyer, L.J.; Mercier, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) provides interactive multimodal sensory stimuli and biofeedback, and can be a powerful tool for physical and cognitive rehabilitation. However, existing systems have generally not implemented realistic full-body avatars and/or a scaling of visual movement feedback.

  14. Four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging with retrospective k-space reordering: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing; Chen, Nan-kuei; Chu, Mei-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Current four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) techniques lack sufficient temporal/spatial resolution and consistent tumor contrast. To overcome these limitations, this study presents the development and initial evaluation of a new strategy for 4D-MRI which is based on retrospective k-space reordering. Methods: We simulated a k-space reordered 4D-MRI on a 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom. A 2D echo planar imaging MRI sequence [frame rate (F) = 0.448 Hz; image resolution (R) = 256 × 256; number of k-space segments (N KS ) = 4] with sequential image acquisition mode was assumed for the simulation. Image quality of the simulated “4D-MRI” acquired from the XCAT phantom was qualitatively evaluated, and tumor motion trajectories were compared to input signals. In particular, mean absolute amplitude differences (D) and cross correlation coefficients (CC) were calculated. Furthermore, to evaluate the data sufficient condition for the new 4D-MRI technique, a comprehensive simulation study was performed using 30 cancer patients’ respiratory profiles to study the relationships between data completeness (C p ) and a number of impacting factors: the number of repeated scans (N R ), number of slices (N S ), number of respiratory phase bins (N P ), N KS , F, R, and initial respiratory phase at image acquisition (P 0 ). As a proof-of-concept, we implemented the proposed k-space reordering 4D-MRI technique on a T2-weighted fast spin echo MR sequence and tested it on a healthy volunteer. Results: The simulated 4D-MRI acquired from the XCAT phantom matched closely to the original XCAT images. Tumor motion trajectories measured from the simulated 4D-MRI matched well with input signals (D = 0.83 and 0.83 mm, and CC = 0.998 and 0.992 in superior–inferior and anterior–posterior directions, respectively). The relationship between C p and N R was found best represented by an exponential function (C P =100(1−e −0.18N R ), when N S

  15. Time-resolved 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI: comparison of different k-space acquisition strategies at 1.5 and 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenberger, Ulrike I; Ingrisch, Michael; Dietrich, Olaf; Herrmann, Karin; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F; Schönberg, Stefan O; Fink, Christian

    2009-09-01

    Time-resolved pulmonary perfusion MRI requires both high temporal and spatial resolution, which can be achieved by using several nonconventional k-space acquisition techniques. The aim of this study is to compare the image quality of time-resolved 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI with different k-space acquisition techniques in healthy volunteers at 1.5 and 3 T. Ten healthy volunteers underwent contrast-enhanced time-resolved 3D pulmonary MRI on 1.5 and 3 T using the following k-space acquisition techniques: (a) generalized autocalibrating partial parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) with an internal acquisition of reference lines (IRS), (b) GRAPPA with a single "external" acquisition of reference lines (ERS) before the measurement, and (c) a combination of GRAPPA with an internal acquisition of reference lines and view sharing (VS). The spatial resolution was kept constant at both field strengths to exclusively evaluate the influences of the temporal resolution achieved with the different k-space sampling techniques on image quality. The temporal resolutions were 2.11 seconds IRS, 1.31 seconds ERS, and 1.07 VS at 1.5 T and 2.04 seconds IRS, 1.30 seconds ERS, and 1.19 seconds VS at 3 T.Image quality was rated by 2 independent radiologists with regard to signal intensity, perfusion homogeneity, artifacts (eg, wrap around, noise), and visualization of pulmonary vessels using a 3 point scale (1 = nondiagnostic, 2 = moderate, 3 = good). Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio in the lungs was assessed. At 1.5 T the lowest image quality (sum score: 154) was observed for the ERS technique and the highest quality for the VS technique (sum score: 201). In contrast, at 3 T images acquired with VS were hampered by strong artifacts and image quality was rated significantly inferior (sum score: 137) compared with IRS (sum score: 180) and ERS (sum score: 174). Comparing 1.5 and 3 T, in particular the overall rating of the IRS technique (sum score: 180) was very similar at both field

  16. Fast MR image reconstruction for partially parallel imaging with arbitrary k-space trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Chen, Yunmei; Lin, Wei; Huang, Feng

    2011-03-01

    Both acquisition and reconstruction speed are crucial for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in clinical applications. In this paper, we present a fast reconstruction algorithm for SENSE in partially parallel MR imaging with arbitrary k-space trajectories. The proposed method is a combination of variable splitting, the classical penalty technique and the optimal gradient method. Variable splitting and the penalty technique reformulate the SENSE model with sparsity regularization as an unconstrained minimization problem, which can be solved by alternating two simple minimizations: One is the total variation and wavelet based denoising that can be quickly solved by several recent numerical methods, whereas the other one involves a linear inversion which is solved by the optimal first order gradient method in our algorithm to significantly improve the performance. Comparisons with several recent parallel imaging algorithms indicate that the proposed method significantly improves the computation efficiency and achieves state-of-the-art reconstruction quality.

  17. Forward Modeling of Reduced Power Spectra from Three-dimensional k-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Papen, Michael; Saur, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    We present results from a numerical forward model to evaluate one-dimensional reduced power spectral densities (PSDs) from arbitrary energy distributions in {\\boldsymbol{k}} -space. In this model, we can separately calculate the diagonal elements of the spectral tensor for incompressible axisymmetric turbulence with vanishing helicity. Given a critically balanced turbulent cascade with {{k}\\parallel }∼ k\\bot α and α \\lt 1, we explore the implications on the reduced PSD as a function of frequency. The spectra are obtained under the assumption of Taylor’s hypothesis. We further investigate the functional dependence of the spectral index κ on the field-to-flow angle θ between plasma flow and background magnetic field from MHD to electron kinetic scales. We show that critically balanced turbulence asymptotically develops toward θ-independent spectra with a slope corresponding to the perpendicular cascade. This occurs at a transition frequency {{f}2D}(L,α ,θ ), which is analytically estimated and depends on outer scale L, critical balance exponent α, and field-to-flow angle θ. We discuss anisotropic damping terms acting on the {\\boldsymbol{k}} -space distribution of energy and their effects on the PSD. Further, we show that the spectral anisotropies κ (θ ) as found by Horbury et al. and Chen et al. in the solar wind are in accordance with a damped critically balanced cascade of kinetic Alfvén waves. We also model power spectra obtained by Papen et al. in Saturn’s plasma sheet and find that the change of spectral indices inside 9 {{R}s} can be explained by damping on electron scales.

  18. Photoelectron diffraction k-space volumes of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Traditionally, x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) studies have either been done by scanning the diffraction angle for fixed kinetic energy (ADPD), or scanning the kinetic energy at fixed exit angle (EDPD). Both of these methods collect subsets of the full diffraction pattern, or volume, which is the intensity of photoemission as a function of momentum direction and magnitude. With the high density available at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (BL 7.0) {open_quotes}ultraESCA{close_quotes} station, the authors are able to completely characterize the photoelectron diffraction patterns of surface structures, up to several hundred electron volts kinetic energy. This large diffraction `volume` can then be analyzed in many ways. The k-space volume contains as a subset the energy dependent photoelectron diffraction spectra along all emission angles. It also contains individual, hemispherical, diffraction patterns at specific kinetic energies. Other `cuts` through the data set are also possible, revealing new ways of viewing photoelectron diffraction data, and potentially new information about the surface structure being studied. In this article the authors report a brief summary of a structural study being done on the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy. This system is interesting for both structural and magnetic reasons. Magnetically, the Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy exhibits parallel coupling of the Mn and Ni moments, which is opposite to the reported coupling for the bulk, disordered, alloy. Structurally, the Mn atoms are believed to lie well above the surface plane.

  19. Computational Identification of Protein Pupylation Sites by Using Profile-Based Composition of k-Spaced Amino Acid Pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mehedi Hasan

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic proteins are regulated by pupylation, a type of post-translational modification that contributes to cellular function in bacterial organisms. In pupylation process, the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup tagging is functionally analogous to ubiquitination in order to tag target proteins for proteasomal degradation. To date, several experimental methods have been developed to identify pupylated proteins and their pupylation sites, but these experimental methods are generally laborious and costly. Therefore, computational methods that can accurately predict potential pupylation sites based on protein sequence information are highly desirable. In this paper, a novel predictor termed as pbPUP has been developed for accurate prediction of pupylation sites. In particular, a sophisticated sequence encoding scheme [i.e. the profile-based composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs (pbCKSAAP] is used to represent the sequence patterns and evolutionary information of the sequence fragments surrounding pupylation sites. Then, a Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier is trained using the pbCKSAAP encoding scheme. The final pbPUP predictor achieves an AUC value of 0.849 in 10-fold cross-validation tests and outperforms other existing predictors on a comprehensive independent test dataset. The proposed method is anticipated to be a helpful computational resource for the prediction of pupylation sites. The web server and curated datasets in this study are freely available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/pbPUP/.

  20. Comparing the visualization of microcalcifications with direct magnification in digital full-field mammography vs. film-screen mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, F.; Diekmann, S.; Rogalla, P.; Hamm, B.; Bick, U.; Blohmer, J.U.; Winzer, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the conspicuity of microcalcifications in magnified mammographic views of preparations obtained with full field digital mammography (FFDM), film-screen mammography (FSM), and the DIMA technique. Material and Methods: Twelve preparations were examined by FFDM and FSM using 1.8 x magnification and DIMA using 7 x magnification. Parameter settings were identical for all three techniques. The number of visible microcalcifications was then determined for each modality by three radiologists. As far as possible, all preparations were X-rayed at 22 kV and 10 mAS. Results: Altogether 9705 calcifications were counted (DIMA: 1609/1542/1534; FFDM: 1020/753/881; FSM: 901/643/822). The total number of microcalcifications identified with the DIMA technique was 4685 as compared to 2654 with FFDM and 2366 with FSM. The calcifications counted with FFDM and FSM thus corresponded to 56.6% and 50.5%, respectively, of those identified with DIMA. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (F-Test, p [de

  1. Owning the body in the mirror: The effect of visual perspective and mirror view on the full-body illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Catherine; Kuper-Smith, Benjamin J; Ehrsson, Henrik H

    2015-12-17

    Mirrors allow us to view our own body from a third-person (observer) perspective. However, how viewing ourselves through a mirror affects central body representations compared with true third-person perspective is not fully understood. Across a series of experiments, multisensory full-body illusions were used to modulate feelings of ownership over a mannequin body that was viewed from a third-person perspective through a mirror, from a third-person perspective without a mirror, and from a first-person perspective. In contrast to non-mirror third-person perspective, synchronously touching the participant's actual body and the mannequin body viewed in the mirror elicited strong feelings of ownership over the mannequin and increased physiological responses to the mannequin being threatened compared to the equivalent asynchronous (non-ownership) control condition. Subjective reports of ownership viewing the mannequin through a mirror were also statistically equivalent to those following the first-person perspective illusion. These findings suggest that mirrors have a special role for viewing the self. The results also support the importance of egocentric reference frames for body ownership and suggest that mirror reflections of one's own body are related to peripersonal space, which enables updating of central body representations.

  2. Two-dimensional T2 distribution mapping in rock core plugs with optimal k-space sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2012-07-01

    Spin-echo single point imaging has been employed for 1D T(2) distribution mapping, but a simple extension to 2D is challenging since the time increase is n fold, where n is the number of pixels in the second dimension. Nevertheless 2D T(2) mapping in fluid saturated rock core plugs is highly desirable because the bedding plane structure in rocks often results in different pore properties within the sample. The acquisition time can be improved by undersampling k-space. The cylindrical shape of rock core plugs yields well defined intensity distributions in k-space that may be efficiently determined by new k-space sampling patterns that are developed in this work. These patterns acquire 22.2% and 11.7% of the k-space data points. Companion density images may be employed, in a keyhole imaging sense, to improve image quality. T(2) weighted images are fit to extract T(2) distributions, pixel by pixel, employing an inverse Laplace transform. Images reconstructed with compressed sensing, with similar acceleration factors, are also presented. The results show that restricted k-space sampling, in this application, provides high quality results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The k-space origins of scattering in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, Jacob W; Calleja, Eduardo M; Dai, Jixia; Eisaki, H; Uchida, S; McElroy, Kyle

    2013-08-21

    We demonstrate a general, computer automated procedure that inverts the reciprocal space scattering data (q-space) that are measured by spectroscopic imaging scanning tunnelling microscopy (SI-STM) in order to determine the momentum space (k-space) scattering structure. This allows a detailed examination of the k-space origins of the quasiparticle interference (QPI) pattern in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x within the theoretical constraints of the joint density of states (JDOS). Our new method allows measurement of the differences between the positive and negative energy dispersions, the gap structure and an energy dependent scattering length scale. Furthermore, it resolves the transition between the dispersive QPI and the checkerboard ([Formula: see text] excitation). We have measured the k-space scattering structure over a wide range of doping (p ∼ 0.22-0.08), including regions where the octet model is not applicable. Our technique allows the complete mapping of the k-space scattering origins of the spatial excitations in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x, which allows for better comparisons between SI-STM and other experimental probes of the band structure. By applying our new technique to such a heavily studied compound, we can validate our new general approach for determining the k-space scattering origins from SI-STM data.

  4. Sonographic Visualization of the Rotator Cable in Patients With Symptomatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Correlation With Tear Size, Muscular Fatty Infiltration and Atrophy, and Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Nathalie J; Blain-Paré, Etienne; Tétreault, Patrice; Rouleau, Dominique M; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of sonographic visualization of the rotator cable in patients with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears and asymptomatic controls and to correlate rotator cable visualization with tear size, muscular fatty infiltration and atrophy, and the functional outcome in the patients with rotator cuff tears. Fifty-seven patients with rotator cuff tears and 30 asymptomatic volunteers underwent shoulder sonography for prospective assessment of the rotator cable and rotator cuff tear and responded to 2 functional outcome questionnaires (shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [QuickDASH] and Constant). In the patients with rotator cuff tears, appropriate tests were used to correlate rotator cable visualization with the tear size, functional outcome, muscular fatty infiltration, and atrophy. The patients with rotator cuff tears included 25 women and 32 men (mean age,57 years; range, 39-67 years), and the volunteers included 13 women and 17 men (mean age, 56 years; range, 35-64 years). The rotator cable was identified in 77% (23 of 30) of controls and 23% (13 of 57) of patients with rotator cuff tears. In the patients, nonvisualization of the rotator cable correlated with larger tears (P tears than asymptomatic controls and was associated with a larger tear size and greater supraspinatus fatty infiltration and atrophy. Diligent assessment of the supraspinatus muscle should be done in patients with rotator cuff tears without a visible rotator cable, as the integrity of these anatomic structures may be interdependent.

  5. Real-time modulation of visual feedback on human full-body movements in a virtual mirror: development and proof-of-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosink, Meyke; Robitaille, Nicolas; McFadyen, Bradford J; Hébert, Luc J; Jackson, Philip L; Bouyer, Laurent J; Mercier, Catherine

    2015-01-05

    Virtual reality (VR) provides interactive multimodal sensory stimuli and biofeedback, and can be a powerful tool for physical and cognitive rehabilitation. However, existing systems have generally not implemented realistic full-body avatars and/or a scaling of visual movement feedback. We developed a "virtual mirror" that displays a realistic full-body avatar that responds to full-body movements in all movement planes in real-time, and that allows for the scaling of visual feedback on movements in real-time. The primary objective of this proof-of-concept study was to assess the ability of healthy subjects to detect scaled feedback on trunk flexion movements. The "virtual mirror" was developed by integrating motion capture, virtual reality and projection systems. A protocol was developed to provide both augmented and reduced feedback on trunk flexion movements while sitting and standing. The task required reliance on both visual and proprioceptive feedback. The ability to detect scaled feedback was assessed in healthy subjects (n = 10) using a two-alternative forced choice paradigm. Additionally, immersion in the VR environment and task adherence (flexion angles, velocity, and fluency) were assessed. The ability to detect scaled feedback could be modelled using a sigmoid curve with a high goodness of fit (R2 range 89-98%). The point of subjective equivalence was not significantly different from 0 (i.e. not shifted), indicating an unbiased perception. The just noticeable difference was 0.035 ± 0.007, indicating that subjects were able to discriminate different scaling levels consistently. VR immersion was reported to be good, despite some perceived delays between movements and VR projections. Movement kinematic analysis confirmed task adherence. The new "virtual mirror" extends existing VR systems for motor and pain rehabilitation by enabling the use of realistic full-body avatars and scaled feedback. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated for the assessment of

  6. A k-space method for acoustic propagation using coupled first-order equations in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Jason C; Daoud, Mohammad I; Lacefield, James C; Waag, Robert C

    2009-09-01

    A previously described two-dimensional k-space method for large-scale calculation of acoustic wave propagation in tissues is extended to three dimensions. The three-dimensional method contains all of the two-dimensional method features that allow accurate and stable calculation of propagation. These features are spectral calculation of spatial derivatives, temporal correction that produces exact propagation in a homogeneous medium, staggered spatial and temporal grids, and a perfectly matched boundary layer. Spectral evaluation of spatial derivatives is accomplished using a fast Fourier transform in three dimensions. This computational bottleneck requires all-to-all communication; execution time in a parallel implementation is therefore sensitive to node interconnect latency and bandwidth. Accuracy of the three-dimensional method is evaluated through comparisons with exact solutions for media having spherical inhomogeneities. Large-scale calculations in three dimensions were performed by distributing the nearly 50 variables per voxel that are used to implement the method over a cluster of computers. Two computer clusters used to evaluate method accuracy are compared. Comparisons of k-space calculations with exact methods including absorption highlight the need to model accurately the medium dispersion relationships, especially in large-scale media. Accurately modeled media allow the k-space method to calculate acoustic propagation in tissues over hundreds of wavelengths.

  7. Experimental MR-guided cryotherapy of the brain with almost real-time imaging by radial k-space scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, J.; Schorn, R.; Glowinski, A.; Grosskortenhaus, S.; Adam, G.; Guenther, R.W.; Rasche, V.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To test radial k-space scanning by MR fluoroscopy to guide and control MR-guided interstitial cryotherapy of the healthy pig brain. Methods: After MR tomographic planning of the approach, an MR-compatible experimental cryotherapy probe of 2.7 mm diameter was introduced through a 5 mm burr hole into the right frontal brain of five healthy pigs. The freeze-thaw cycles were imaged using a T 1 -weighted gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning in coronal, sagittal, and axial directions. Results: The high temporal resolution of the chosen sequence permits a continuous representation of the freezing process with good image quality and high contrast between ice and unfrozen brain parenchyma. Because of the interactive conception of the sequence the layer plane could be chosen as desired during the measurement. Ice formation was sharply demarcated, spherically configurated, and was free of signals. Its maximum diameter was 13 mm. Conclusions: With use of the novel, interactively controllable gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning, guidance of the intervention under fluoroscopic conditions with the advantages of MRT is possible. MR-guided cryotherapy allows a minimally-invasive, precisely dosable focal tissue ablation. (orig.) [de

  8. Improved abdominal MRI in non-breath-holding children using a radial k-space sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Hyun Hae; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Su Mi [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Radial k-space sampling techniques have been shown to reduce motion artifacts in adult abdominal MRI. To compare a T2-weighted radial k-space sampling MRI pulse sequence (BLADE) with standard respiratory-triggered T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) in pediatric abdominal imaging. Axial BLADE and respiratory-triggered turbo spin echo sequences were performed without fat suppression in 32 abdominal MR examinations in children. We retrospectively assessed overall image quality, the presence of respiratory, peristaltic and radial artifact, and lesion conspicuity. We evaluated signal uniformity of each sequence. BLADE showed improved overall image quality (3.35 ± 0.85 vs. 2.59 ± 0.59, P < 0.001), reduced respiratory motion artifact (0.51 ± 0.56 vs. 1.89 ± 0.68, P < 0.001), and improved lesion conspicuity (3.54 ± 0.88 vs. 2.92 ± 0.77, P = 0.006) compared to respiratory triggering turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. The bowel motion artifact scores were similar for both sequences (1.65 ± 0.77 vs. 1.79 ± 0.74, P = 0.691). BLADE introduced a radial artifact that was not observed on the respiratory triggering-TSE images (1.10 ± 0.85 vs. 0, P < 0.001). BLADE was associated with diminished signal variation compared with respiratory triggering-TSE in the liver, spleen and air (P < 0.001). The radial k-space sampling technique improved the quality and reduced respiratory motion artifacts in young children compared with conventional respiratory-triggered turbo spin-echo sequences. (orig.)

  9. Reduction of respiratory ghosting motion artifacts in conventional two-dimensional multi-slice Cartesian turbo spin-echo: which k-space filling order is the best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuuji; Yoneyama, Masami; Nakamura, Masanobu; Takemura, Atsushi

    2018-06-01

    The two-dimensional Cartesian turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence is widely used in routine clinical studies, but it is sensitive to respiratory motion. We investigated the k-space orders in Cartesian TSE that can effectively reduce motion artifacts. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between k-space order and degree of motion artifacts using a moving phantom. We compared the degree of motion artifacts between linear and asymmetric k-space orders. The actual spacing of ghost artifacts in the asymmetric order was doubled compared with that in the linear order in the free-breathing situation. The asymmetric order clearly showed less sensitivity to incomplete breath-hold at the latter half of the imaging period. Because of the actual number of partitions of the k-space and the temporal filling order, the asymmetric k-space order of Cartesian TSE was superior to the linear k-space order for reduction of ghosting motion artifacts.

  10. Validation of highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI with radial k-space sampling and compressed sensing in patients at 1.5T and 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Valizadeh, Hassan; Rahsepar, Amir A; Collins, Jeremy D; Bassett, Elwin; Isakova, Tamara; Block, Tobias; Adluru, Ganesh; DiBella, Edward V R; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C; Kim, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    To validate an optimal 12-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI pulse sequence with radial k-space sampling and compressed sensing (CS) in patients at 1.5T and 3T. We used two strategies to reduce image artifacts arising from gradient delays and eddy currents in radial k-space sampling with balanced steady-state free precession readout. We validated this pulse sequence against a standard breath-hold cine sequence in two patient cohorts: a myocardial infarction (n = 16) group at 1.5T and chronic kidney disease group (n = 18) at 3T. Two readers independently performed visual analysis of 68 cine sets in four categories (myocardial definition, temporal fidelity, artifact, noise) on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = nondiagnostic, 2 = poor, 3 = adequate or moderate, 4 = good, 5 = excellent). Another reader calculated left ventricular (LV) functional parameters, including ejection fraction. Compared with standard cine, real-time cine produced nonsignificantly different visually assessed scores, except for the following categories: 1) temporal fidelity scores were significantly lower (P = 0.013) for real-time cine at both field strengths, 2) artifacts scores were significantly higher (P = 0.013) for real-time cine at both field strengths, and 3) noise scores were significantly (P = 0.013) higher for real-time cine at 1.5T. Standard and real-time cine pulse sequences produced LV functional parameters that were in good agreement (e.g., absolute mean difference in ejection fraction cine MRI pulse sequence using radial k-space sampling and CS produces good to excellent visual scores and relatively accurate LV functional parameters in patients at 1.5T and 3T. Magn Reson Med 79:2745-2751, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Easy measurement of diffusion coefficients of EGFP-tagged plasma membrane proteins using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Marlar, Saw

    2014-01-01

    Lateral diffusion and compartmentalization of plasma membrane proteins are tightly regulated in cells and thus, studying these processes will reveal new insights to plasma membrane protein function and regulation. Recently, k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS)1 was developed to enable...... routine measurements of diffusion coefficients directly from images of fluorescently tagged plasma membrane proteins, that avoided systematic biases introduced by probe photophysics. Although the theoretical basis for the analysis is complex, the method can be implemented by nonexperts using a freely...... to the correlation function yields the diffusion coefficient. This paper provides a step-by-step guide to the image analysis and measurement of diffusion coefficients via kICS. First, a high frame rate image sequence of a fluorescently labeled plasma membrane protein is acquired using a fluorescence microscope Then...

  12. Increasing signal-to-noise ratio of swept-source optical coherence tomography by oversampling in k-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagib, Karim; Mezgebo, Biniyam; Thakur, Rahul; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography systems suffer from noise that could reduce ability to interpret reconstructed images correctly. We describe a method to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) using oversampling in k-space. Due to this oversampling, information redundancy would be introduced in the measured interferogram that could be used to reduce white noise in the reconstructed A-scan. We applied our novel scaled nonuniform discrete Fourier transform to oversampled SS-OCT interferograms to reconstruct images of a salamander egg. The peak-signal-to-noise (PSNR) between the reconstructed images using interferograms sampled at 250MS/s andz50MS/s demonstrate that this oversampling increased the signal-to-noise ratio by 25.22 dB.

  13. Prediction of citrullination sites by incorporating k-spaced amino acid pairs into Chou's general pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhe; Wang, Shi-Yun

    2018-04-22

    As one of the most important and common protein post-translational modifications, citrullination plays a key role in regulating various biological processes and is associated with several human diseases. The accurate identification of citrullination sites is crucial for elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms of citrullination and designing drugs for related human diseases. In this study, a novel bioinformatics tool named CKSAAP_CitrSite is developed for the prediction of citrullination sites. With the assistance of support vector machine algorithm, the highlight of CKSAAP_CitrSite is to adopt the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs surrounding a query site as input. As illustrated by 10-fold cross-validation, CKSAAP_CitrSite achieves a satisfactory performance with a Sensitivity of 77.59%, a Specificity of 95.26%, an Accuracy of 89.37% and a Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.7566, which is much better than those of the existing prediction method. Feature analysis shows that the N-terminal space containing pairs may play an important role in the prediction of citrullination sites, and the arginines close to N-terminus tend to be citrullinated. The conclusions derived from this study could offer useful information for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of citrullination and related experimental validations. A user-friendly web-server for CKSAAP_CitrSite is available at 123.206.31.171/CKSAAP_CitrSite/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Self-gated 4D multiphase, steady-state imaging with contrast enhancement (MUSIC) using rotating cartesian K-space (ROCK): Validation in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhou, Ziwu; Han, Eric; Gao, Yu; Nguyen, Kim-Lien; Finn, J Paul; Hu, Peng

    2017-08-01

    To develop and validate a cardiac-respiratory self-gating strategy for the recently proposed multiphase steady-state imaging with contrast enhancement (MUSIC) technique. The proposed SG strategy uses the ROtating Cartesian K-space (ROCK) sampling, which allows for retrospective k-space binning based on motion surrogates derived from k-space center line. The k-space bins are reconstructed using a compressed sensing algorithm. Ten pediatric patients underwent cardiac MRI for clinical reasons. The original MUSIC and 2D-CINE images were acquired as a part of the clinical protocol, followed by the ROCK-MUSIC acquisition, all under steady-state intravascular distribution of ferumoxytol. Subjective scores and image sharpness were used to compare the images of ROCK-MUSIC and original MUSIC. All scans were completed successfully without complications. The ROCK-MUSIC acquisition took 5 ± 1 min, compared to 8 ± 2 min for the original MUSIC. Image scores of ROCK-MUSIC were significantly better than original MUSIC at the ventricular outflow tracts (3.9 ± 0.3 vs. 3.3 ± 0.6, P ROCK-MUSIC in the other anatomic locations. ROCK-MUSIC provided images of equal or superior image quality compared to original MUSIC, and this was achievable with 40% savings in scan time and without the need for physiologic signal. Magn Reson Med 78:472-483, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Prediction of mucin-type O-glycosylation sites in mammalian proteins using the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhi-Ya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As one of the most common protein post-translational modifications, glycosylation is involved in a variety of important biological processes. Computational identification of glycosylation sites in protein sequences becomes increasingly important in the post-genomic era. A new encoding scheme was employed to improve the prediction of mucin-type O-glycosylation sites in mammalian proteins. Results A new protein bioinformatics tool, CKSAAP_OGlySite, was developed to predict mucin-type O-glycosylation serine/threonine (S/T sites in mammalian proteins. Using the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs (CKSAAP based encoding scheme, the proposed method was trained and tested in a new and stringent O-glycosylation dataset with the assistance of Support Vector Machine (SVM. When the ratio of O-glycosylation to non-glycosylation sites in training datasets was set as 1:1, 10-fold cross-validation tests showed that the proposed method yielded a high accuracy of 83.1% and 81.4% in predicting O-glycosylated S and T sites, respectively. Based on the same datasets, CKSAAP_OGlySite resulted in a higher accuracy than the conventional binary encoding based method (about +5.0%. When trained and tested in 1:5 datasets, the CKSAAP encoding showed a more significant improvement than the binary encoding. We also merged the training datasets of S and T sites and integrated the prediction of S and T sites into one single predictor (i.e. S+T predictor. Either in 1:1 or 1:5 datasets, the performance of this S+T predictor was always slightly better than those predictors where S and T sites were independently predicted, suggesting that the molecular recognition of O-glycosylated S/T sites seems to be similar and the increase of the S+T predictor's accuracy may be a result of expanded training datasets. Moreover, CKSAAP_OGlySite was also shown to have better performance when benchmarked against two existing predictors. Conclusion Because of CKSAAP

  16. k-space sampling optimization for ultrashort TE imaging of cortical bone: Applications in radiation therapy planning and MR-based PET attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Lingzhi; Traughber, Melanie; Su, Kuan-Hao; Pereira, Gisele C.; Grover, Anu; Traughber, Bryan; Muzic, Raymond F. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The ultrashort echo-time (UTE) sequence is a promising MR pulse sequence for imaging cortical bone which is otherwise difficult to image using conventional MR sequences and also poses strong attenuation for photons in radiation therapy and PET imaging. The authors report here a systematic characterization of cortical bone signal decay and a scanning time optimization strategy for the UTE sequence through k-space undersampling, which can result in up to a 75% reduction in acquisition time. Using the undersampled UTE imaging sequence, the authors also attempted to quantitatively investigate the MR properties of cortical bone in healthy volunteers, thus demonstrating the feasibility of using such a technique for generating bone-enhanced images which can be used for radiation therapy planning and attenuation correction with PET/MR. Methods: An angularly undersampled, radially encoded UTE sequence was used for scanning the brains of healthy volunteers. Quantitative MR characterization of tissue properties, including water fraction and R2 ∗ = 1/T2 ∗ , was performed by analyzing the UTE images acquired at multiple echo times. The impact of different sampling rates was evaluated through systematic comparison of the MR image quality, bone-enhanced image quality, image noise, water fraction, and R2 ∗ of cortical bone. Results: A reduced angular sampling rate of the UTE trajectory achieves acquisition durations in proportion to the sampling rate and in as short as 25% of the time required for full sampling using a standard Cartesian acquisition, while preserving unique MR contrast within the skull at the cost of a minimal increase in noise level. The R2 ∗ of human skull was measured as 0.2–0.3 ms −1 depending on the specific region, which is more than ten times greater than the R2 ∗ of soft tissue. The water fraction in human skull was measured to be 60%–80%, which is significantly less than the >90% water fraction in brain. High-quality, bone

  17. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP2-01: 4D-MRI with 3D Radial Sampling and Self-Gating-Based K-Space Sorting: Image Quality Improvement by Slab-Selective Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z; Pang, J; Tuli, R; Fraass, B; Fan, Z [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yang, W [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bi, X [Siemens Healthcare, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hakimian, B [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles CA (United States); Li, D [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A recent 4D MRI technique based on 3D radial sampling and self-gating-based K-space sorting has shown promising results in characterizing respiratory motion. However due to continuous acquisition and potentially drastic k-space undersampling resultant images could suffer from low blood-to-tissue contrast and streaking artifacts. In this study 3D radial sampling with slab-selective excitation (SS) was proposed in attempt to enhance blood-to-tissue contrast by exploiting the in-flow effect and to suppress the excess signal from the peripheral structures particularly in the superior-inferior direction. The feasibility of improving image quality by using this approach was investigated through a comparison with the previously developed non-selective excitation (NS) approach. Methods: Two excitation approaches SS and NS were compared in 5 cancer patients (1 lung 1 liver 2 pancreas and 1 esophagus) at 3Tesla. Image artifact was assessed in all patients on a 4-point scale (0: poor; 3: excellent). Signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) of the blood vessel (aorta) at the center of field-of-view and its nearby tissue were measured in 3 of the 5 patients (1 liver 2 pancreas) and blood-to-tissue contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were then determined. Results: Compared with NS the image quality of SS was visually improved with overall higher signal in all patients (2.6±0.55 vs. 3.4±0.55). SS showed an approximately 2-fold increase of SNR in the blood (aorta: 16.39±1.95 vs. 32.19±7.93) and slight increase in the surrounding tissue (liver/pancreas: 16.91±1.82 vs. 22.31±3.03). As a result the blood-totissue CNR was dramatically higher in the SS method (1.20±1.20 vs. 9.87±6.67). Conclusion: The proposed 3D radial sampling with slabselective excitation allows for reduced image artifact and improved blood SNR and blood-to-tissue CNR. The success of this technique could potentially benefit patients with cancerous tumors that have invaded the surrounding blood vessels where radiation

  18. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP2-01: 4D-MRI with 3D Radial Sampling and Self-Gating-Based K-Space Sorting: Image Quality Improvement by Slab-Selective Excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z; Pang, J; Tuli, R; Fraass, B; Fan, Z; Yang, W; Bi, X; Hakimian, B; Li, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A recent 4D MRI technique based on 3D radial sampling and self-gating-based K-space sorting has shown promising results in characterizing respiratory motion. However due to continuous acquisition and potentially drastic k-space undersampling resultant images could suffer from low blood-to-tissue contrast and streaking artifacts. In this study 3D radial sampling with slab-selective excitation (SS) was proposed in attempt to enhance blood-to-tissue contrast by exploiting the in-flow effect and to suppress the excess signal from the peripheral structures particularly in the superior-inferior direction. The feasibility of improving image quality by using this approach was investigated through a comparison with the previously developed non-selective excitation (NS) approach. Methods: Two excitation approaches SS and NS were compared in 5 cancer patients (1 lung 1 liver 2 pancreas and 1 esophagus) at 3Tesla. Image artifact was assessed in all patients on a 4-point scale (0: poor; 3: excellent). Signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) of the blood vessel (aorta) at the center of field-of-view and its nearby tissue were measured in 3 of the 5 patients (1 liver 2 pancreas) and blood-to-tissue contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were then determined. Results: Compared with NS the image quality of SS was visually improved with overall higher signal in all patients (2.6±0.55 vs. 3.4±0.55). SS showed an approximately 2-fold increase of SNR in the blood (aorta: 16.39±1.95 vs. 32.19±7.93) and slight increase in the surrounding tissue (liver/pancreas: 16.91±1.82 vs. 22.31±3.03). As a result the blood-totissue CNR was dramatically higher in the SS method (1.20±1.20 vs. 9.87±6.67). Conclusion: The proposed 3D radial sampling with slabselective excitation allows for reduced image artifact and improved blood SNR and blood-to-tissue CNR. The success of this technique could potentially benefit patients with cancerous tumors that have invaded the surrounding blood vessels where radiation

  19. Technical innovation in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal tumors: an MR angiographic sequence using a sparse k-space sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Laura M; Mugera, Charles; Soldatos, Theodoros; Flammang, Aaron; del Grande, Filippo

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate the clinical use of an MR angiography sequence performed with sparse k-space sampling (MRA), as a method for dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and apply it to the assessment of sarcomas for treatment response. Three subjects with sarcomas (2 with osteosarcoma, 1 with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas) underwent MRI after neoadjuvant therapy/prior to surgery, with conventional MRI (T1-weighted, fluid-sensitive, static post-contrast T1-weighted sequences) and DCE-MRI (MRA, time resolution = 7-10 s, TR/TE 2.4/0.9 ms, FOV 40 cm(2)). Images were reviewed by two observers in consensus who recorded image quality (1 = diagnostic, no significant artifacts, 2 = diagnostic, 75 % with good response, >75 % with poor response). DCE-MRI findings were concordant with histological response (arterial enhancement with poor response, no arterial enhancement with good response). Unlike conventional DCE-MRI sequences, an MRA sequence with sparse k-space sampling is easily integrated into a routine musculoskeletal tumor MRI protocol, with high diagnostic quality. In this preliminary work, tumor enhancement characteristics by DCE-MRI were used to assess treatment response.

  20. Controlling T2 blurring in 3D RARE arterial spin labeling acquisition through optimal combination of variable flip angles and k-space filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Chang, Ching-Di; Alsop, David C

    2018-02-09

    To improve the SNR efficiency and reduce the T 2 blurring of 3D rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement stack-of-spiral arterial spin labeling imaging by using variable refocusing flip angles and k-space filtering. An algorithm for determining the optimal combination of variable flip angles and filtering correction is proposed. The flip angles are designed using extended phase graph physical simulations in an analytical and global optimization framework, with an optional constraint on deposited power. Optimal designs for correcting to Hann and Fermi window functions were compared with conventional constant amplitude or variable flip angle only designs on 6 volunteers. With the Fermi window correction, the proposed optimal designs provided 39.8 and 27.3% higher SNR (P variable flip angle designs. Even when power deposition was limited to 50% of the constant amplitude design, the proposed method outperformed the SNR (P variable flip angles can be derived as the output of an optimization problem. The combined design of variable flip angle and k-space filtering provided superior SNR to designs primarily emphasizing either approach singly. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Technical innovation in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal tumors: an MR angiographic sequence using a sparse k-space sampling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Laura M.; Mugera, Charles; Grande, Filippo del; Soldatos, Theodoros; Flammang, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the clinical use of an MR angiography sequence performed with sparse k-space sampling (MRA), as a method for dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and apply it to the assessment of sarcomas for treatment response. Three subjects with sarcomas (2 with osteosarcoma, 1 with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas) underwent MRI after neoadjuvant therapy/prior to surgery, with conventional MRI (T1-weighted, fluid-sensitive, static post-contrast T1-weighted sequences) and DCE-MRI (MRA, time resolution = 7-10 s, TR/TE 2.4/0.9 ms, FOV 40 cm 2 ). Images were reviewed by two observers in consensus who recorded image quality (1 = diagnostic, no significant artifacts, 2 = diagnostic, 75 % with good response, >75 % with poor response). DCE-MRI findings were concordant with histological response (arterial enhancement with poor response, no arterial enhancement with good response). Unlike conventional DCE-MRI sequences, an MRA sequence with sparse k-space sampling is easily integrated into a routine musculoskeletal tumor MRI protocol, with high diagnostic quality. In this preliminary work, tumor enhancement characteristics by DCE-MRI were used to assess treatment response. (orig.)

  2. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Development of a 3D radial acquisition technique with optimized k-space sampling density and high SNR-efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Armin Michael

    2009-01-01

    A 3D radial k-space acquisition technique with homogenous distribution of the sampling density (DA-3D-RAD) is presented. This technique enables short echo times (TE 23 Na-MRI, and provides a high SNR-efficiency. The gradients of the DA-3D-RAD-sequence are designed such that the average sampling density in each spherical shell of k-space is constant. The DA-3D-RAD-sequence provides 34% more SNR than a conventional 3D radial sequence (3D-RAD) if T 2 * -decay is neglected. This SNR-gain is enhanced if T 2 * -decay is present, so a 1.5 to 1.8 fold higher SNR is measured in brain tissue with the DA-3D-RAD-sequence. Simulations and experimental measurements show that the DA-3D-RAD sequence yields a better resolution in the presence of T 2 * -decay and less image artefacts when B 0 -inhomogeneities exist. Using the developed sequence, T 1 -, T 2 * - and Inversion-Recovery- 23 Na-image contrasts were acquired for several organs and 23 Na-relaxation times were measured (brain tissue: T 1 =29.0±0.3 ms; T 2s * ∼4 ms; T 2l * ∼31 ms; cerebrospinal fluid: T 1 =58.1±0.6 ms; T 2 * =55±3 ms (B 0 =3 T)). T 1 - und T 2 * -relaxation times of cerebrospinal fluid are independent of the selected magnetic field strength (B0 = 3T/7 T), whereas the relaxation times of brain tissue increase with field strength. Furthermore, 23 Na-signals of oedemata were suppressed in patients and thus signals from different tissue compartments were selectively measured. (orig.)

  3. Introduction: Critical Visual Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ludes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies selected for publication in this special issue on Critical Visual Theory can be divided into three thematic groups: (1 image making as power making, (2 commodification and recanonization, and (3 approaches to critical visual theory. The approaches to critical visual theory adopted by the authors of this issue may be subsumed under the following headings (3.1 critical visual discourse and visual memes in general and Anonymous visual discourse in particular, (3.2 collective memory and gendered gaze, and (3.3 visual capitalism, global north and south.

  4. Metabolite-cycled density-weighted concentric rings k-space trajectory (DW-CRT) enables high-resolution 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 3-Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Adam; Chiew, Mark; Jezzard, Peter; Voets, Natalie L; Plaha, Puneet; Thomas, Michael Albert; Stagg, Charlotte J; Emir, Uzay E

    2018-05-17

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a promising technique in both experimental and clinical settings. However, to date, MRSI has been hampered by prohibitively long acquisition times and artifacts caused by subject motion and hardware-related frequency drift. In the present study, we demonstrate that density weighted concentric ring trajectory (DW-CRT) k-space sampling in combination with semi-LASER excitation and metabolite-cycling enables high-resolution MRSI data to be rapidly acquired at 3 Tesla. Single-slice full-intensity MRSI data (short echo time (TE) semi-LASER TE = 32 ms) were acquired from 6 healthy volunteers with an in-plane resolution of 5 × 5 mm in 13 min 30 sec using this approach. Using LCModel analysis, we found that the acquired spectra allowed for the mapping of total N-acetylaspartate (median Cramer-Rao Lower Bound [CRLB] = 3%), glutamate+glutamine (8%), and glutathione (13%). In addition, we demonstrate potential clinical utility of this technique by optimizing the TE to detect 2-hydroxyglutarate (long TE semi-LASER, TE = 110 ms), to produce relevant high-resolution metabolite maps of grade III IDH-mutant oligodendroglioma in a single patient. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MRSI in the clinical setting at 3 Tesla.

  5. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  6. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  7. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  8. Energy-filtered real- and k-space secondary and energy-loss electron imaging with Dual Emission Electron spectro-Microscope: Cs/Mo(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzelakowski, Krzysztof P., E-mail: k.grzelakowski@opticon-nanotechnology.com

    2016-05-15

    Since its introduction the importance of complementary k{sub ||}-space (LEED) and real space (LEEM) information in the investigation of surface science phenomena has been widely demonstrated over the last five decades. In this paper we report the application of a novel kind of electron spectromicroscope Dual Emission Electron spectroMicroscope (DEEM) with two independent electron optical channels for reciprocal and real space quasi-simultaneous imaging in investigation of a Cs covered Mo(110) single crystal by using the 800 eV electron beam from an “in-lens” electron gun system developed for the sample illumination. With the DEEM spectromicroscope it is possible to observe dynamic, irreversible processes at surfaces in the energy-filtered real space and in the corresponding energy-filtered k{sub ǁ}-space quasi-simultaneously in two independent imaging columns. The novel concept of the high energy electron beam sample illumination in the cathode lens based microscopes allows chemically selective imaging and analysis under laboratory conditions. - Highlights: • A novel concept of the electron sample illumination with “in-lens” e- gun is realized. • Quasi-simultaneous energy selective observation of the real- and k-space in EELS mode. • Observation of the energy filtered Auger electron diffraction at Cs atoms on Mo(110). • Energy-loss, Auger and secondary electron momentum microscopy is realized.

  9. Free-breathing contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with radial k-space sampling for paediatric abdominopelvic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandarana, Hersh; Block, Kai T.; Winfeld, Matthew J.; Lala, Shailee V.; Mazori, Daniel; Giuffrida, Emalyn; Babb, James S.; Milla, Sarah S. [New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-02-15

    To compare the image quality of contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic 3D fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with radial and conventional Cartesian k-space acquisition schemes in paediatric patients. Seventy-three consecutive paediatric patients were imaged at 1.5 T with sequential contrast-enhanced T1-weighted Cartesian (VIBE) and radial gradient echo (GRE) acquisition schemes with matching parameters when possible. Cartesian VIBE was acquired as a breath-hold or as free breathing in patients who could not suspend respiration, followed by free-breathing radial GRE in all patients. Two paediatric radiologists blinded to the acquisition schemes evaluated multiple parameters of image quality on a five-point scale, with higher score indicating a more optimal examination. Lesion presence or absence, conspicuity and edge sharpness were also evaluated. Mixed-model analysis of variance was performed to compare radial GRE and Cartesian VIBE. Radial GRE had significantly (all P < 0.001) higher scores for overall image quality, hepatic edge sharpness, hepatic vessel clarity and respiratory motion robustness than Cartesian VIBE. More lesions were detected on radial GRE by both readers than on Cartesian VIBE, with significantly higher scores for lesion conspicuity and edge sharpness (all P < 0.001). Radial GRE has better image quality and lesion conspicuity than conventional Cartesian VIBE in paediatric patients undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic MRI. (orig.)

  10. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R., E-mail: Dariusch.Hadizadeh@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, Juergen [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Beck, Gabriele; Geerts, Liesbeth [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Kukuk, Guido M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Bostroem, Azize [Department of Neurosurgery, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn, Deutschland (Germany); Urbach, Horst; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Introduction: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CEMRA) of the intracranial vasculature has proved its clinical value for the evaluation of cerebral vascular disease in cases where both flow hemodynamics and morphology are important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combination of view-sharing with keyhole imaging to increase spatial and temporal resolution of time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T. Methods: Alternating view-sharing was combined with randomly segmented k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, partial Fourier and parallel imaging (4DkvsMRA). 4DkvsMRA was evaluated using varying compression factors (80-100) resulting in spatial resolutions ranging from (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.4) to (0.96 x 0.96 x 0.95) mm{sup 3} and temporal resolutions ranging from 586 ms/dynamic scan - 288 ms/dynamic scan in three protocols in 10 healthy volunteers and seven patients (17 subjects). DSA correlation was available in four patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) and one patient with cerebral teleangiectasia. Results: 4DkvsMRA was successfully performed in all subjects and showed clear depiction of arterial and venous phases with diagnostic image quality. At the maximum view-sharing compression factor (=100), a 'flickering' artefact was observed. Conclusion: View-sharing in keyhole imaging allows for increased spatial and temporal resolution in time-resolved MRA.

  11. Comprehensive quantification of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor for image-based and k-space-based parallel imaging reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Philip M; Grant, Aaron K; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Sodickson, Daniel K; McKenzie, Charles A

    2008-10-01

    Parallel imaging reconstructions result in spatially varying noise amplification characterized by the g-factor, precluding conventional measurements of noise from the final image. A simple Monte Carlo based method is proposed for all linear image reconstruction algorithms, which allows measurement of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor and is demonstrated for SENSE and GRAPPA reconstructions for accelerated acquisitions that have not previously been amenable to such assessment. Only a simple "prescan" measurement of noise amplitude and correlation in the phased-array receiver, and a single accelerated image acquisition are required, allowing robust assessment of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor. The "pseudo multiple replica" method has been rigorously validated in phantoms and in vivo, showing excellent agreement with true multiple replica and analytical methods. This method is universally applicable to the parallel imaging reconstruction techniques used in clinical applications and will allow pixel-by-pixel image noise measurements for all parallel imaging strategies, allowing quantitative comparison between arbitrary k-space trajectories, image reconstruction, or noise conditioning techniques. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Gieseke, Juergen; Beck, Gabriele; Geerts, Liesbeth; Kukuk, Guido M.; Bostroem, Azize; Urbach, Horst; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CEMRA) of the intracranial vasculature has proved its clinical value for the evaluation of cerebral vascular disease in cases where both flow hemodynamics and morphology are important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combination of view-sharing with keyhole imaging to increase spatial and temporal resolution of time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T. Methods: Alternating view-sharing was combined with randomly segmented k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, partial Fourier and parallel imaging (4DkvsMRA). 4DkvsMRA was evaluated using varying compression factors (80-100) resulting in spatial resolutions ranging from (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.4) to (0.96 x 0.96 x 0.95) mm 3 and temporal resolutions ranging from 586 ms/dynamic scan - 288 ms/dynamic scan in three protocols in 10 healthy volunteers and seven patients (17 subjects). DSA correlation was available in four patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) and one patient with cerebral teleangiectasia. Results: 4DkvsMRA was successfully performed in all subjects and showed clear depiction of arterial and venous phases with diagnostic image quality. At the maximum view-sharing compression factor (=100), a 'flickering' artefact was observed. Conclusion: View-sharing in keyhole imaging allows for increased spatial and temporal resolution in time-resolved MRA.

  13. Relativity of Visual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is connected to the compositionality of the (pictorial languages. In the paper Charles Sanders Peirce’s theory of signs will be used in characterizing visual languages. This allows us to relate visual languages to natural languages. The foundation of information presentation methods for visual languages is the logic of perception, but only if perception is understood as propositional perception. This allows us to understand better the relativity of information presentation methods, and hence to evaluate the cultural relativity of visual communication.

  14. Flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities. 8 refs

  15. Respiratory motion-resolved, self-gated 4D-MRI using Rotating Cartesian K-space (ROCK): Initial clinical experience on an MRI-guided radiotherapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhou, Ziwu; Du, Dongsu; Gao, Yu; Rashid, Shams; Cao, Minsong; Shaverdian, Narek; Hegde, John V; Steinberg, Michael; Lee, Percy; Raldow, Ann; Low, Daniel A; Sheng, Ke; Yang, Yingli; Hu, Peng

    2018-06-01

    To optimize and evaluate the respiratory motion-resolved, self-gated 4D-MRI using Rotating Cartesian K-space (ROCK-4D-MRI) method in a 0.35 T MRI-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) system. The study included seven patients with abdominal tumors treated on the MRgRT system. ROCK-4D-MRI and 2D-CINE, was performed immediately after one of the treatment fractions. Motion quantification based on 4D-MRI was compared with those based on 2D-CINE. The image quality of 4D-MRI was evaluated against 4D-CT. The gross tumor volumes (GTV) were defined based on individual respiratory phases of both 4D-MRI and 4D-CT and compared for their variability over the respiratory cycle. The motion measurements based on 4D-MRI matched well with 2D-CINE, with differences of 1.04 ± 0.52 mm in the superior-inferior and 0.54 ± 0.21 mm in the anterior-posterior directions. The image quality scores of 4D-MRI were significantly higher than 4D-CT, with better tumor contrast (3.29 ± 0.76 vs. 1.86 ± 0.90) and less motion artifacts (3.57 ± 0.53 vs. 2.29 ± 0.95). The GTVs were more consistent in 4D-MRI than in 4D-CT, with significantly smaller GTV variability (9.31 ± 4.58% vs. 34.27 ± 23.33%). Our study demonstrated the clinical feasibility of using the ROCK-4D-MRI to acquire high quality, respiratory motion-resolved 4D-MRI in a low-field MRgRT system. The 4D-MRI image could provide accurate dynamic information for radiotherapy treatment planning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Visual intelligence Microsoft tools and techniques for visualizing data

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Mark; Jorgensen, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Go beyond design concepts and learn to build state-of-the-art visualizations The visualization experts at Microsoft's Pragmatic Works have created a full-color, step-by-step guide to building specific types of visualizations. The book thoroughly covers the Microsoft toolset for data analysis and visualization, including Excel, and explores best practices for choosing a data visualization design, selecting tools from the Microsoft stack, and building a dynamic data visualization from start to finish. You'll examine different types of visualizations, their strengths and weaknesses, a

  17. Designing the visualization of information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of an artifact to visually represent information is usually required by Information Visualization research projects. The end product of design science research is also an artifact and therefore it can be argued that design science...

  18. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ... Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  19. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...

  20. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...

  1. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ( ...

  2. Math for visualization, visualizing math

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; Hart, G.; Sarhangi, R.

    2013-01-01

    I present an overview of our work in visualization, and reflect on the role of mathematics therein. First, mathematics can be used as a tool to produce visualizations, which is illustrated with examples from information visualization, flow visualization, and cartography. Second, mathematics itself

  3. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their

  4. Understanding Visual Novel As Artwork of Visual Communication Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dendi Pratama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual Novel is a kind of audiovisual game that offers visual strength through the narrative and visual characters. The developer community of Visual Novel (VN Project Indonesia indicated a limited local game developer that produces Visual Novel of Indonesia. In addition, Indonesian Visual Novel production was also more influenced by the style of anime or manga from Japan. Actually, Visual Novel is part of the potential of  creative industries products. The study is to formulate the problem, how to understand Visual Novel as artwork of visual communication design, especially among students? This research is a case study conducted on visual communication design student at the University Indraprasta PGRI Jakarta. The results showed low levels of knowledge, understanding, and experience of  the Visual Novel game, which is below 50%. Qualitative and quantitative methods combined with structural semiotic approach is used to describe the elements of the design and the signs structure at the Visual Novel. This research can be a scientific reference for further introduce and encourage an understanding of Visual Novel as artwork of Visual Communication Design. In addition, the results may add to the knowledge of  society, and encourage the development of Visual Novel artwork that  reflect the culture of Indonesia. Visual Novel adalah sejenis permainan audiovisual yang menawarkan kekuatan visual melalui narasi dan karakter visual. Data dari komunitas pengembang Visual Novel (VN Project Indonesia menunjukkan masih terbatasnya pengembang game lokal yang memproduksi Visual Novel Indonesia. Selain itu, produksi Visual Novel Indonesia juga lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh gaya anime dan manga dari Jepang. Padahal Visual Novel adalah bagian dari produk industri kreatif yang potensial. Studi ini merumuskan masalah, bagaimana memahami Visual Novel sebagai karya seni desain komunikasi visual, khususnya di kalangan mahasiswa? Penelitian ini merupakan studi kasus

  5. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  6. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More ...

  7. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  8. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » NEI for Kids » The Visual System Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... learn how you’re able to see the world around you. Did You Know? On average, you ...

  9. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> The Visual System Listen All ... up to 28,800 times a day! NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  10. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> The Visual System Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  11. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  12. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your visual field. How the Test is Performed Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  13. Full closure strategic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The full closure strategic analysis was conducted to create a decision process whereby full roadway : closures for construction and maintenance activities can be evaluated and approved or denied by CDOT : Traffic personnel. The study reviewed current...

  14. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  15. Visual Literacy and Visual Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortin, John A.

    It is proposed that visual literacy be defined as the ability to understand (read) and use (write) images and to think and learn in terms of images. This definition includes three basic principles: (1) visuals are a language and thus analogous to verbal language; (2) a visually literate person should be able to understand (read) images and use…

  16. Visual Literacy and Visual Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Paul

    Familiarity with specific images or sets of images plays a role in a culture's visual heritage. Two questions can be asked about this type of visual literacy: Is this a type of knowledge that is worth building into the formal educational curriculum of our schools? What are the educational implications of visual literacy? There is a three-part…

  17. Full page insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Rikke Platz

    2014-01-01

    Alan Moore and his collaborating artists often manipulate time and space by drawing upon the formal elements of comics and making alternative constellations. This article looks at an element that is used frequently in comics of all kinds – the full page – and discusses how it helps shape spatio......, something that it shares with the full page in comics. Through an analysis of several full pages from Moore titles like Swamp Thing, From Hell, Watchmen and Promethea, it is made clear why the full page provides an apt vehicle for an apocalypse in comics....

  18. Marketing engagement through visual content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels. The decreasing costs and huge variety of types are premises for an easy and effective marketing investment, with strong benefits for any company and its brands. Loyal customers are achieved and kept through visual content; the lack of it in the general marketing

  19. Full Service Leasing

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Ján

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this master thesis is to describe the service of Full Service Leasing, as a modern form of financing and management of assets, primarily automobile fleet. Description of full service leasing is designed as a comprehensive and complete guide to support reader's position when deciding to finance and manage a fleet by this service. Whether the reader is an entrepreneur, CFO, fleet manager, new employee of leasing company, or anyone who is interested in this service, this master thesis wil...

  20. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  1. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  2. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  3. Two Types of Visual Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypulec Błażej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While it is widely accepted that human vision represents objects, it is less clear which of the various philosophical notions of ‘object’ adequately characterizes visual objects. In this paper, I show that within contemporary cognitive psychology visual objects are characterized in two distinct, incompatible ways. On the one hand, models of visual organization describe visual objects in terms of combinations of features, in accordance with the philosophical bundle theories of objects. However, models of visual persistence apply a notion of visual objects that is more similar to that endorsed in philosophical substratum theories. Here I discuss arguments that might show either that only one of the above notions of visual objects is adequate in the context of human vision, or that the category of visual objects is not uniform and contains entities properly characterized by different philosophical conceptions.

  4. Compressive full waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  5. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ...

  6. Visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, K.K.; Horowitz, T.S.; Howe, P.; Pedersini, R.; Reijnen, E.; Pinto, Y.; Wolfe, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, ‘visual attention’ describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act

  7. Full faith in myself

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    Full faith in myself. Meenakshi Banerjee. 12. Ihad my schooling at the Irish Convent, Loreto, in Asansol,. West Bengal. Perhaps the earliest memories I have are of myself as a very determined child with a deep appreciation of and inquisitiveness regarding nature although not understanding most of it at that tender age.

  8. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  9. Experimental MR-guided cryotherapy of the brain with almost real-time imaging by radial k-space scanning; Experimentelle MR-gesteuerte Kryotherapie des Gehirns mit nahezu Echtzeitdarstellung durch radiale k-Raum-Abtastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J.; Schorn, R.; Glowinski, A.; Grosskortenhaus, S.; Adam, G.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Speetzen, R.; Rau, G. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Biomedizinische Technik, Aachen (Germany); Rasche, V. [Philips GmbH Forschungslaboratorium, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Purpose: To test radial k-space scanning by MR fluoroscopy to guide and control MR-guided interstitial cryotherapy of the healthy pig brain. Methods: After MR tomographic planning of the approach, an MR-compatible experimental cryotherapy probe of 2.7 mm diameter was introduced through a 5 mm burr hole into the right frontal brain of five healthy pigs. The freeze-thaw cycles were imaged using a T{sub 1}-weighted gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning in coronal, sagittal, and axial directions. Results: The high temporal resolution of the chosen sequence permits a continuous representation of the freezing process with good image quality and high contrast between ice and unfrozen brain parenchyma. Because of the interactive conception of the sequence the layer plane could be chosen as desired during the measurement. Ice formation was sharply demarcated, spherically configurated, and was free of signals. Its maximum diameter was 13 mm. Conclusions: With use of the novel, interactively controllable gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning, guidance of the intervention under fluoroscopic conditions with the advantages of MRT is possible. MR-guided cryotherapy allows a minimally-invasive, precisely dosable focal tissue ablation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Erprobung der radialen k-Raum-Abtastung bei der MR-Fluoroskopie zur Steuerung und Kontrolle MR-gesteuerter interstitieller Kryotherapie des gesunden Schweinegehirns. Methoden: Nach MR-tomographischer Planung des Zugangsweges wurde eine MR-kompatible experimentelle Kryotherapiesonde von 2,7 mm Durchmesser ueber ein 5 mm Bohrloch in das rechte Frontalhirn von fuenf gesunden Schweinen eingebracht. Die Frier-/Tauzyklen wurden anhand einer T{sub 1}-gewichteten Gradientenechosequenz mit radialer k-Raum-Abtastung in koronarer, sagittaler und axialer Schichtfuehrung dargestellt. Ergebnisse: Die hohe zeitliche Aufloesung der gewaehlten Sequenz erlaubte eine kontinuierliche Darstellung des Friervorgangs bei

  10. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  11. Visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  12. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  14. Do Visual Aids Really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Fish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials. Thus, research pertaining to factors enhancing the effectiveness of video lectures, such as number of visual aids, is critical. This study compared student evaluations before and after embedding additional visual aids throughout video lectures in an online course. Slide transitions occurred on average every 40 seconds for the pre-treatment group with approximately 600 visuals total, compared to slide transitions every 10 seconds for the post-treatment group with approximately 2,000 visuals total. All students received the same audio recordings. Research questions addressed are: (1 Are student perceptions of the effectiveness of examples used to illustrate concepts affected by number of visual aids? (2 Is the extent to which students feel engaged during the lectures affected by number of visual aids? (3 Are students’ perceived overall learning experiences affected by number of visual aids? Surprisingly, results indicate that for questions #1 and #3, student ratings of those who viewed videos with fewer visuals rated their experiences higher than students who viewed more visuals. There was no significant difference found for question #2. Conclusion: Although some visuals have been shown to enhance learning, too many visuals may be a deterrent to learning.

  15. Emptiness and Fullness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne; Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    As critical voices question the quality, authenticity, and value of people, goods, and words in post-Mao China, accusations of emptiness render things open to new investments of meaning, substance, and value. Exploring the production of lack and desire through fine-grained ethnography, this volume...... examines how diagnoses of emptiness operate in a range of very different domains in contemporary China: In the ostensibly meritocratic exam system and the rhetoric of officials, in underground churches, housing bubbles, and nationalist fantasies, in bodies possessed by spirits and evaluations of jade......, there is a pervasive concern with states of lack and emptiness and the contributions suggest that this play of emptiness and fullness is crucial to ongoing constructions of quality, value, and subjectivity in China....

  16. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  17. Visual search, visual streams, and visual architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M

    1991-10-01

    Most psychological, physiological, and computational models of early vision suggest that retinal information is divided into a parallel set of feature modules. The dominant theories of visual search assume that these modules form a "blackboard" architecture: a set of independent representations that communicate only through a central processor. A review of research shows that blackboard-based theories, such as feature-integration theory, cannot easily explain the existing data. The experimental evidence is more consistent with a "network" architecture, which stresses that: (1) feature modules are directly connected to one another, (2) features and their locations are represented together, (3) feature detection and integration are not distinct processing stages, and (4) no executive control process, such as focal attention, is needed to integrate features. Attention is not a spotlight that synthesizes objects from raw features. Instead, it is better to conceptualize attention as an aperture which masks irrelevant visual information.

  18. Full metal jacket!

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Ten years ago, standard issue clothing only gave CERN firemen partial protection but today our fire-fighters are equipped with state-of-the-art, full personal protective equipment.   CERN's Fire Brigade team. For many years, the members of CERN's Fire Brigade went on call-outs clad in their work trousers and fire-rescue coats, which only afforded them partial protection. Today, textile manufacturing techniques have moved on a long way and CERN's firemen are now kitted out with state-of-the-art personal protective equipment. The coat and trousers are three-layered, comprising fire-resistant aramide, a protective membrane and a thermal lining. The CERN Fire Brigade' new state-of-the-art personal protection equipment. "This equipment is fully compliant with the standards in force and is therefore resistant to cuts, abrasion, electrical arcs with thermal effects and, of course, fire," explains Patrick Berlinghi, the CERN Fire Brigade's Logistics Officer. You might think that su...

  19. Policies for full employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64...... per cent to at least 70 per cent. And for older workers between 55 and 64 the employment rate should rise from 38 per cent to at least one half. These are ambitious targets. They will require two big changes: more people must seek work, and among those seeking work a higher proportion must get a job....... So we need higher participation, and (for full employment) we need a much lower unemployment rate. Can it be done? A mere glance at the experience of different European countries shows that it can. As Table 1 shows, four E.U. countries already exceed the overall target for 2010 (Britain, Denmark...

  20. An Empirical Study on Using Visual Embellishments in Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, R; Abdul-Rahman, A; Mohamed, F; Grant, P W; Reppa, I; Floridi, L; Chen, Min

    2012-12-01

    In written and spoken communications, figures of speech (e.g., metaphors and synecdoche) are often used as an aid to help convey abstract or less tangible concepts. However, the benefits of using rhetorical illustrations or embellishments in visualization have so far been inconclusive. In this work, we report an empirical study to evaluate hypotheses that visual embellishments may aid memorization, visual search and concept comprehension. One major departure from related experiments in the literature is that we make use of a dual-task methodology in our experiment. This design offers an abstraction of typical situations where viewers do not have their full attention focused on visualization (e.g., in meetings and lectures). The secondary task introduces "divided attention", and makes the effects of visual embellishments more observable. In addition, it also serves as additional masking in memory-based trials. The results of this study show that visual embellishments can help participants better remember the information depicted in visualization. On the other hand, visual embellishments can have a negative impact on the speed of visual search. The results show a complex pattern as to the benefits of visual embellishments in helping participants grasp key concepts from visualization.

  1. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  2. Journal of Health and Visual Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocular Dynamics of Bolus Ingestion of Eleis guineensis Sap (Palm Wine) among visually Active Volunteers · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SA Igwe, N Nwobodo, CA Agbata, IC Obioha, 29-36 ...

  3. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.; Albers, D.; Walker, R.; Jusufi, I.; Hansen, C. D.; Roberts, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  4. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  5. Visual electrophysiology in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Brecelj

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrophysiological assessment of vision in children helps to recognise abnormal development of the visual system when it is still susceptible to medication and eventual correction. Visual electrophysiology provides information about the function of the retina (retinal pigment epithelium, cone and rod receptors, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells, optic nerve, chiasmal and postchiasmal visual pathway, and visual cortex.Methods: Electroretinograms (ERG and visual evoked potentials (VEP are recorded non-invasively; in infants are recorded simultaneously ERG with skin electrodes, while in older children separately ERG with HK loop electrode in accordance with ISCEV (International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision recommendations.Results: Clinical and electrophysiological changes in children with nystagmus, Leber’s congenital amaurosis, achromatopsia, congenital stationary night blindness, progressive retinal dystrophies, optic nerve hypoplasia, albinism, achiasmia, optic neuritis and visual pathway tumours are presented.Conclusions: Electrophysiological tests can help to indicate the nature and the location of dysfunction in unclear ophthalmological and/or neurological cases.

  6. Quantized Visual Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alexander Escobar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom.

  7. Visual and Haptic Mental Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Shioiri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that visual information can be retained in several types of memory systems. Haptic information can also be retained in a memory because we can repeat a hand movement. There may be a common memory system for vision and action. On the one hand, it may be convenient to have a common system for acting with visual information. On the other hand, different modalities may have their own memory and use retained information without transforming specific to the modality. We compared memory properties of visual and haptic information. There is a phenomenon known as mental rotation, which is possibly unique to visual representation. The mental rotation is a phenomenon where reaction time increases with the angle of visual target (eg,, a letter to identify. The phenomenon is explained by the difference in time to rotate the representation of the target in the visual sytem. In this study, we compared the effect of stimulus angle on visual and haptic shape identification (two-line shapes were used. We found that a typical effect of mental rotation for the visual stimulus. However, no such effect was found for the haptic stimulus. This difference cannot be explained by the modality differences in response because similar difference was found even when haptical response was used for visual representation and visual response was used for haptic representation. These results indicate that there are independent systems for visual and haptic representations.

  8. Renormings of C(K) spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Richard James; Troyanski, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 2 (2010), s. 375-412 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/07/0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : uniformly rotund norms * Frechet * Gateaux Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/430027876375w58x/

  9. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? Watch this video to learn how you’re able ...

  10. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events ... maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. ... of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  11. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? Watch this video to learn how you’re able to see the world around you. Did You Know? On average, you blink about 15 to 20 times every minute. That’s up to 28,800 times a day! NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  12. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? Watch this ... Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information NEI ... | USA.gov NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  13. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » The Visual System Listen All ... up to 28,800 times a day! NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  14. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? Watch this video to learn how you’re able to see the world around you. Did You Know? On ... on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media ...

  15. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? Watch this video to learn how you’re able to see the world around you. Did ... on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media ...

  16. Visual perception skills testing: preliminary results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Good visual perception skills are important in the effective manipulation of Tangible User Interfaces. This paper reports on the application of a test set researchers have developed specifically to quantify the visual perception skills of children...

  17. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  18. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  19. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  20. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  1. Visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karla K; Horowitz, Todd S; Howe, Piers; Pedersini, Roccardo; Reijnen, Ester; Pinto, Yair; Kuzmova, Yoana; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-09-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, 'visual attention' describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act upon. They allow for concurrent selection of some (preferably, relevant) information and inhibition of other information. This selection permits the reduction of complexity and informational overload. Selection can be determined both by the 'bottom-up' saliency of information from the environment and by the 'top-down' state and goals of the perceiver. Attentional effects can take the form of modulating or enhancing the selected information. A central role for selective attention is to enable the 'binding' of selected information into unified and coherent representations of objects in the outside world. In the overview on visual attention presented here we review the mechanisms and consequences of selection and inhibition over space and time. We examine theoretical, behavioral and neurophysiologic work done on visual attention. We also discuss the relations between attention and other cognitive processes such as automaticity and awareness. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 503-514 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.127 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Visualizing Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The importance of visualisation and multiple representations in mathematics has been stressed, especially in a context of problem solving. Hanna and Sidoli comment that "Diagrams and other visual representations have long been welcomed as heuristic accompaniments to proof, where they not only facilitate the understanding of theorems and their…

  3. TIPOGRAFI DALAM DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilia Yunita Wijaya

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Visual Communication Design is needed especially in today s information era. Just as its sound%2C the function and goal of visual communication design is to communicate to its mass audience with the right perception. One of its elements that determine the effectiveness of a design is typography. This paper is going to talk about the role of typography and how it effects a design in visual communication design. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Di dalam era informasi saat ini kehadiran desain komunikasi visual sangatlah dibutuhkan. Sesuai dengan namanya%2C desain komunikasi visual mempunyai tujuan untuk mengkomunikasikan pesan yang dapat ditangkap oleh massa dengan benar. Salah satu elemen desain yang sangat penting dalam menunjang keberhasilan suatu desain dalam berkomunikasi dengan masyarakatnya adalah tipografi. Tulisan ini membahas bagaimana dan apa peran tipografi tersebut dalam desain komunikasi visual.

  4. Visual identity and rebranding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wrona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to highlight the essence of visual identification and rebranding, as well as to discuss elements of corporate identity, which are subject to revitalization in the process of refreshing the image of a brand. In the first part the article the analysis of the term visual identification is conducted. In the analysis special attention is drawn to the role of visual identification in creating a coherent identity of an organization. In the subsequent chapters further components of corporate identity are presented in detail – starting with logotype, through business forms, advertisements, accompanying materials and Internet websites to signs on buildings. Moreover, corporate identity book as a collection of standards and guidelines for application of corporate identity rules is discussed. The deliberations are based on the study of literature. The last chapter presented the transformation of the brand of Institute of Aviation.

  5. Visual Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ting-Hao; Huang; Ferraro, Francis; Mostafazadeh, Nasrin; Misra, Ishan; Agrawal, Aishwarya; Devlin, Jacob; Girshick, Ross; He, Xiaodong; Kohli, Pushmeet; Batra, Dhruv; Zitnick, C. Lawrence; Parikh, Devi; Vanderwende, Lucy; Galley, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the first dataset for sequential vision-to-language, and explore how this data may be used for the task of visual storytelling. The first release of this dataset, SIND v.1, includes 81,743 unique photos in 20,211 sequences, aligned to both descriptive (caption) and story language. We establish several strong baselines for the storytelling task, and motivate an automatic metric to benchmark progress. Modelling concrete description as well as figurative and social language, as prov...

  6. The importance of visualization in cartographic communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonović Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is a field of computer graphics which explores the analytical and communication possibilities of visual presentation. Visualization explores the possibilities of using images, similar to three-dimensional world, as models so that analysis and communication can be improved. Visualization depends on new computer techniques of data analysis and presentation, as well as on the accuracy, exactness and form of said data. Visualization is a scientific tool, but its application demands art, imagination and intuition. Visualization demands the use of the latest and the best computer technology.

  7. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  8. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  9. Are Visual Peripheries Forever Young?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Burnat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of lifelong plasticity of peripheral vision. Central vision processing is accepted as critical and irreplaceable for normal perception in humans. While peripheral processing chiefly carries information about motion stimuli features and redirects foveal attention to new objects, it can also take over functions typical for central vision. Here I review the data showing the plasticity of peripheral vision found in functional, developmental, and comparative studies. Even though it is well established that afferent projections from central and peripheral retinal regions are not established simultaneously during early postnatal life, central vision is commonly used as a general model of development of the visual system. Based on clinical studies and visually deprived animal models, I describe how central and peripheral visual field representations separately rely on early visual experience. Peripheral visual processing (motion is more affected by binocular visual deprivation than central visual processing (spatial resolution. In addition, our own experimental findings show the possible recruitment of coarse peripheral vision for fine spatial analysis. Accordingly, I hypothesize that the balance between central and peripheral visual processing, established in the course of development, is susceptible to plastic adaptations during the entire life span, with peripheral vision capable of taking over central processing.

  10. VisComposer: A Visual Programmable Composition Environment for Information Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the amount of data being collected has increased, the need for tools that can enable the visual exploration of data has also grown. This has led to the development of a variety of widely used programming frameworks for information visualization. Unfortunately, such frameworks demand comprehensive visualization and coding skills and require users to develop visualization from scratch. An alternative is to create interactive visualization design environments that require little to no programming. However, these tools only supports a small portion of visual forms.We present a programmable integrated development environment (IDE, VisComposer, that supports the development of expressive visualization using a drag-and-drop visual interface. VisComposer exposes the programmability by customizing desired components within a modularized visualization composition pipeline, effectively balancing the capability gap between expert coders and visualization artists. The implemented system empowers users to compose comprehensive visualizations with real-time preview and optimization features, and supports prototyping, sharing and reuse of the effects by means of an intuitive visual composer. Visual programming and textual programming integrated in our system allow users to compose more complex visual effects while retaining the simplicity of use. We demonstrate the performance of VisComposer with a variety of examples and an informal user evaluation. Keywords: Information Visualization, Visualization authoring, Interactive development environment

  11. Teach yourself visually Mac Mini

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The perfect how-to guide for visual learners Apple?s Mac Mini packs a powerful punch is in a small package, including both HDMI and Thunderbolt ports plus the acclaimed OS X. But if you want to get the very most from all this power and versatility, be sure to get this practical visual guide. With full-color, step-by-step instructions as well as screenshots and illustrations on every page, it clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks rather than burying you in pages of text. Discover helpful visuals and how-tos on the OS, hardware specs, Launchpad, the App Store, multimedia capabilities (such

  12. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  13. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  14. Full-scope training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugedo, E.

    1986-01-01

    The following topics to be covered in this report are: Reasons justifying the use of full-scope simulators for operator qualification. Full-scope simulator description: the control room, the physical models, the computer complex, the instructor's console. Main features of full-scope simulators. Merits of simulator training. The role of full-scope simulators in the training programs. The process of ordering and acquiring a full-scope simulator. Maintaining and updating simulator capabilities. (orig./GL)

  15. Visualizing Data Patterns with Micromaps

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    After more than 15 years of development drawing on research in cognitive psychology, statistical graphics, computer science, and cartography, micromap designs are becoming part of mainstream statistical visualizations. Bringing together the research of two leaders in this field, "Visualizing Data Patterns with Micromaps" presents the many design variations and applications of micromaps, which link statistical information to an organized set of small maps. This full-color book helps readers simultaneously explore the statistical and geographic patterns in their data. After illustratin

  16. HIPER-REALITAS VISUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martadi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available At the last of twentieth century%2C the tecnology growth has changed the world display which is formed by the electronic images every where (television%2C film%2C game%2C virtual reality%2C digital photo%2C internet. The digital technology growth has brought the human fantasia throughout the limit%2C created the three dimensioan rooms with the object inside%2C until the stage of the visual reality has been passed throuhg by the visual image manipulation%2C hence%2C it is like the human being step from the real to the fantastic world%2C an imagination which seems like the truth. The problem becomes more complex when we have to face the reality that the technology growth brings the negative impacts. While the tecnology could be satisfy the human desire%2C giving an esctasy fantasia%2C then the moral values is nullified one by one. Criminals%2C pornography%2C come up freely wear the newest formats. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi pada akhir abad ke-20 telah merubah wajah dunia yang dibentuk oleh riuh rendah citraan elektronik (televisi%2C film%2C game%2C virtual reality%2C foto digital%2C internet. Perkembangan teknologi digital telah membawa fantasi manusia menembus batas%2C menciptakan ruang-ruang tiga dimensi berikut obyek-obyek di dalamnya%2C sampai pada tahap di mana realitas visual telah dilampaui dengan manipulasi pencitraan visual%2C sehingga seolah manusia melangkah dari dunia nyata menuju dunia fantasi%2C dunia maya yang tampak nyata. Permasalahannya menjadi semakin rumit ketika kita dihadapkan pada realita bahwa perkembangan teknologi tersebut membawa pula dampak negatif. Pada saat teknologi memuaskan hasrat/nafsu manusia%2C memberikan pesona ekstasi%2C maka nilai-nilai moral seakan rontok satu per satu. Hyper-reality%2C Visual.

  17. Visual function of cataract with high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Tao Ren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cataract with high myopia is research priority associated with the large amount of high myopia patients. The unaided visual acuity and the best-corrected visual acuity are partial for the visual acuity of the patients with cataract. The mechanism and clinical significance of modern visual function measurements associated with cataract and high myopia, including accommodation and convergence, stereoscopic vision, contrast sensitivity, have been introduced. These measurements could be of great value in early diagnosis of cataract, assessment of surgical indication, customized intraocular lens(IOLselection and evaluation of visual performance after IOL implantation. They could also be helpful to the analysis of postoperative impaired visual function and its management. Having an adequate understanding of the contents and significance of visual function was helpful to the improvement of cataract surgery techniques and postoperative visual acuity.

  18. Garis dan Titik Berdasarkan Riset Visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Kurniawati Homan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A design may not be created instantly, without going through a process of creation. At the beginning it all starts from nothing, blank. It requires a visual research to make a visual communication. Without a visual research, the design will not have a strong meaning to be communicated. When an idea is created, the next step is to generate the idea to become a design. The first thing a designer to do is drawing a line. Line is one of the design basic elements. In the journey to make a good design, a designer requires a visual record to assist her/him in remembering what is important. A visual record contains not only visual things seen by eyes, but also the perceived things. What is felt at the moment is important because it is easier to forget than visual memory. Sense is an important element in design. A good work will easily be communicated not only by visuals but also from senses. The study was conducted as an insight into the process of making a visual record of nirmana using visual recording method in the exploration of dots and dashes. This method was used to sharpen the sensitivity of students to dots and lines. Initially, the students visited a traditional market to do the visual research. After that, they created a visual record in the form of the composition of dots and lines in nirmana to remember the taste, smell, and visual experiences. 

  19. Full Employment in Industrialized Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Argues that full employment must be acceptable on both social and economic grounds. Examines profound changes in industrialized economies since the 1970s and the diversity of employment contracts. Suggests that difficult policy decisions surround full employment. (SK)

  20. Optimization of Visual Information Presentation for Visual Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual prosthesis applying electrical stimulation to restore visual function for the blind has promising prospects. However, due to the low resolution, limited visual field, and the low dynamic range of the visual perception, huge loss of information occurred when presenting daily scenes. The ability of object recognition in real-life scenarios is severely restricted for prosthetic users. To overcome the limitations, optimizing the visual information in the simulated prosthetic vision has been the focus of research. This paper proposes two image processing strategies based on a salient object detection technique. The two processing strategies enable the prosthetic implants to focus on the object of interest and suppress the background clutter. Psychophysical experiments show that techniques such as foreground zooming with background clutter removal and foreground edge detection with background reduction have positive impacts on the task of object recognition in simulated prosthetic vision. By using edge detection and zooming technique, the two processing strategies significantly improve the recognition accuracy of objects. We can conclude that the visual prosthesis using our proposed strategy can assist the blind to improve their ability to recognize objects. The results will provide effective solutions for the further development of visual prosthesis.

  1. Enhancing learning and comprehension through strengthening visual literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Roux, Cheryl

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Living in an image-rich world, as we currently do, does not mean that individuals naturally possess visual literacy skills. This article explores the concept of ‘visual literacy’, and the skills needed to develop visual literacy and visual intelligence. Developing visual literacy in educational environments is important because it can contribute to individual empowerment, and it is therefore necessary to take pedagogical advantage of visual literacy’s place across the disciplines. Doing this means tapping into experiences, expertise and interest in visual communication and building a new paradigm that takes visual education seriously.

  2. Visual literacy in HCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overton, K.; Sosa-Tzec, O.; Smith, N.; Blevis, E.; Odom, W.; Hauser, S.; Wakkary, R.L.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this workshop is to develop ideas about and expand a research agenda for visual literacy in HCI. By visual literacy, we mean the competency (i) to understand visual materials, (ii) to create visuals materials, and (iii) to think visually [2]. There are three primary motivations for this

  3. Designing Visual Character Of Raden Wijaya As Historical Figure In Visual Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dendi Pratama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual character in Visual Novel games have the power to carry messages. Creation of visual characters in historical narratives can also bring cultural meaning. This study examines the creation of Raden Wijaya visual character as a case example in Visual Novel Twist Majapahit which is set in Majapahit kingdom but with manga-style visualization. On the contrary the creation of Raden Wijaya visual character in this study is more trying to accentuate the characteristic of Indonesia. The choice of Raden Wijaya character is based on consideration because it has historically included a major influence in expanding the royal power. The study discussions are elaborated qualitatively with the Social Semiotic approach that analyzes informative functions interactive functions and imaginative functions in visual character design elements. The results of this study show that design elements can build a comprehensive association of meanings so that the creation of visual characters tailored to historical figures has the potential to bring cultural messages.

  4. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne E Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1 The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2 A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS. (3 Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA.

  5. Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eBruce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

  6. How Full is Full Employment? : How Tools and Not Theory Explained Full Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.

    2016-01-01

    The post-war debate on full employment policy was blurred and unclear since the concept of full employment itself was theoretically unclear and un-operational. Unable to theoretically determine the unemployment level of full employment, economists tried to find more empirically based ways to

  7. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  8. Learning Visualizations by Analogy: Promoting Visual Literacy through Visualization Morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchikachorn, Puripant; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    We propose the concept of teaching (and learning) unfamiliar visualizations by analogy, that is, demonstrating an unfamiliar visualization method by linking it to another more familiar one, where the in-betweens are designed to bridge the gap of these two visualizations and explain the difference in a gradual manner. As opposed to a textual description, our morphing explains an unfamiliar visualization through purely visual means. We demonstrate our idea by ways of four visualization pair examples: data table and parallel coordinates, scatterplot matrix and hyperbox, linear chart and spiral chart, and hierarchical pie chart and treemap. The analogy is commutative i.e. any member of the pair can be the unfamiliar visualization. A series of studies showed that this new paradigm can be an effective teaching tool. The participants could understand the unfamiliar visualization methods in all of the four pairs either fully or at least significantly better after they observed or interacted with the transitions from the familiar counterpart. The four examples suggest how helpful visualization pairings be identified and they will hopefully inspire other visualization morphings and associated transition strategies to be identified.

  9. MELAHIRKAN IMPERATIF MORALITAS DALAM KARYA VISUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Bima Wicandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual aesthetics in visual arts are more and more questioned in the context of open global culture. Works that lead to violence%2C pornography%2C lies%2C and other things far from morality and ethics%2C are faced with public s identity to follow their desire to fulfill their consumtive needs. The blossoming of visual works and their media stimulates the visual creators in expressing ideas and imagination. Created visual works must support a better cultural direction for human life. Faith in its relation to God plays a role in achieveing space for interaction%2C so that visual works can reflect codes or symbols in the cycle of ideology or cultural values that respect the essence of faith. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Estetika visual dalam seni rupa semakin dipertanyakan dalam konteks budaya global yang terbuka. Karya yang menjurus kekerasan%2C pornografi%2C kebohongan dan hal lain yang jauh dari moral dan etika diperhadapkan dengan identitas masyarakat yang mengikuti hasrat dalam memenuhi kebutuhan konsumtifnya. Karya-karya visual yang semakin berkembang beserta dengan medianya merangsang kreator visual dalam menuangkan gagasan dan imajinasi. Bagi peradaban kehidupan manusia%2C karya-karya visual yang dibuat harus mendukung arah peradaban yang lebih baik. Di sini peran iman dalam hubungannya dengan Tuhan mendapat ruang berinteraksi%2C sehingga karya visual yang dihasilkan mencerminkan kode-kode maupun simbol dalam perputaran ideologi atau nilai-nilai budaya yang menjunjung tinggi hakikat keimanan. visual aesthetics%2C moral imperative%2C faith.

  10. Making Memories: The Development of Long-Term Visual Knowledge in Children with Visual Agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Metitieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports about the effects of perinatal acquired brain lesions on the development of visual perception. These studies demonstrate nonseverely impaired visual-spatial abilities and preserved visual memory. Longitudinal data analyzing the effects of compromised perceptions on long-term visual knowledge in agnosics are limited to lesions having occurred in adulthood. The study of children with focal lesions of the visual pathways provides a unique opportunity to assess the development of visual memory when perceptual input is degraded. We assessed visual recognition and visual memory in three children with lesions to the visual cortex having occurred in early infancy. We then explored the time course of visual memory impairment in two of them at 2 years and 3.7 years from the initial assessment. All children exhibited apperceptive visual agnosia and visual memory impairment. We observed a longitudinal improvement of visual memory modulated by the structural properties of objects. Our findings indicate that processing of degraded perceptions from birth results in impoverished memories. The dynamic interaction between perception and memory during development might modulate the long-term construction of visual representations, resulting in less severe impairment.

  11. Interactive data visualization foundations, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Matthew; Keim, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Visualization is the process of representing data, information, and knowledge in a visual form to support the tasks of exploration, confirmation, presentation, and understanding. This book is designed as a textbook for students, researchers, analysts, professionals, and designers of visualization techniques, tools, and systems. It covers the full spectrum of the field, including mathematical and analytical aspects, ranging from its foundations to human visual perception; from coded algorithms for different types of data, information and tasks to the design and evaluation of new visualization techniques. Sample programs are provided as starting points for building one's own visualization tools. Numerous data sets have been made available that highlight different application areas and allow readers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different visualization methods. Exercises, programming projects, and related readings are given for each chapter. The book concludes with an examination of several existin...

  12. Visual rehabilitation: visual scanning, multisensory stimulation and vision restoration trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. Dundon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological training methods of visual rehabilitation for homonymous vision loss caused by postchiasmatic damage fall into two fundamental paradigms: compensation and restoration. Existing methods can be classified into three groups: Visual Scanning Training (VST, Audio-Visual Scanning Training (AViST and Vision Restoration Training (VRT. VST and AViST aim at compensating vision loss by training eye scanning movements, whereas VRT aims at improving lost vision by activating residual visual functions by training light detection and discrimination of visual stimuli. This review discusses the rationale underlying these paradigms and summarizes the available evidence with respect to treatment efficacy. The issues raised in our review should help guide clinical care and stimulate new ideas for future research uncovering the underlying neural correlates of the different treatment paradigms. We propose that both local within-system interactions (i.e., relying on plasticity within peri-lesional spared tissue and changes in more global between-system networks (i.e., recruiting alternative visual pathways contribute to both vision restoration and compensatory rehabilitation that ultimately have implications for the rehabilitation of cognitive functions.

  13. Vision In Stroke cohort: Profile overview of visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J

    2017-11-01

    To profile the full range of visual disorders from a large prospective observation study of stroke survivors referred by stroke multidisciplinary teams to orthoptic services with suspected visual problems. Multicenter prospective study undertaken in 20 acute Trust hospitals. Standardized screening/referral forms and investigation forms documented data on referral signs and symptoms plus type and extent of visual impairment. Of 1,345 patients referred with suspected visual impairment, 915 were recruited (59% men; mean age at stroke onset 69 years [SD 14]). Initial visual assessment was at median 22 days post stroke onset. Eight percent had normal visual assessment. Of 92% with confirmed visual impairment, 24% had reduced central visual acuity visual field loss was present in 52%, most commonly homonymous hemianopia. Fifteen percent had visual inattention and 4.6% had other visual perceptual disorders. Overall 84% were visually symptomatic with visual field loss the most common complaint followed by blurred vision, reading difficulty, and diplopia. Treatment options were provided to all with confirmed visual impairment. Targeted advice was most commonly provided along with refraction, prisms, and occlusion. There are a wide range of visual disorders that occur following stroke and, frequently, with visual symptoms. There are equally a wide variety of treatment options available for these individuals. All stroke survivors require screening for visual impairment and warrant referral for specialist assessment and targeted treatment specific to the type of visual impairment.

  14. Developed Turbulence: From Full Simulations to Full Mode Reductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Reeh, Achim

    1996-01-01

    Developed Navier-Stokes turbulence is simulated with varying wave-vector mode reductions. The flatness and the skewness of the velocity derivative depend on the degree of mode reduction. They show a crossover towards the value of the full numerical simulation when the viscous subrange starts to be

  15. MEMBRAIN NEURAL NETWORK FOR VISUAL PATTERN RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Popko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of visual patterns is one of significant applications of Artificial Neural Networks, which partially emulate human thinking in the domain of artificial intelligence. In the paper, a simplified neural approach to recognition of visual patterns is portrayed and discussed. This paper is dedicated for investigators in visual patterns recognition, Artificial Neural Networking and related disciplines. The document describes also MemBrain application environment as a powerful and easy to use neural networks’ editor and simulator supporting ANN.

  16. Analysis of relationship among visual evoked potential, oscillatory potential and visual acuity under stimulated weightlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the influence of head-down tilt simulated weightlessness on visual evoked potential(VEP, oscillatory potentials(OPsand visual acuity, and analyse the relationship among them. METHODS: Head-down tilt for -6° was adopted in 14 healthy volunteers. Distant visual acuity, near visual acuity, VEP and OPs were recorded before, two days and five days after trial. The record procedure of OPs followed the ISCEV standard for full-field clinical electroretinography(2008 update. RESULTS: Significant differences were detected in the amplitude of P100 waves and ∑OPs among various time points(P<0.05. But no relationship was observed among VEP, OPs and visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Head-down tilt simulated weightlessness induce the rearrange of blood of the whole body including eyes, which can make the change of visual electrophysiology but not visual acuity.

  17. Full-F gyrofluid model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    variables. The fluid moment hierarchy is closed by approximating the gyrokinetic distribution function as a finite order Hermite-Laguerre polynomial and by determining closure approximations for terms involving the gyrokinetic gyro-averaging operator. The model exactly conserves the gyrokinetic full......A global electromagnetic gyrofluid model based on the full-F gyrokinetic model is derived. The gyrofluid moment variables are not split into fluctuating and equilibrium parts. Profiles are evolved freely, and gyro-averaging operators are not parametrized, but are functions of the gyrofluid moment...

  18. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  19. Relativity of Visual Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-01-01

    Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is conn...

  20. The Fiction of Full BEKK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of the paper is to show that univariate GARCH is not a special case of multivariate GARCH, specifically the Full BEKK model, except under parametric restrictions on the off-diagonal elements of the random coefficient autoregressive coefficient matrix, provides the regularity

  1. Empty calories and phantom fullness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; Graaf, de Kees; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stomach fullness is a determinant of satiety. Although both the viscosity and energy content have been shown to delay gastric emptying, their relative importance is not well understood. Objective: We compared the relative effects of and interactions between the viscosity and energy

  2. Toward full MOX core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouviere, G.; Guillet, J.L.; Bruna, G.B.; Pelet, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a selection of the main preliminary results of a study program sponsored by COGEMA and currently carried out by FRAMATOME. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of full MOX core loading in a French 1300 MWe PWR, a recent and widespread standard nuclear power plant. The investigation includes core nuclear design, thermal hydraulic and systems aspects. (authors)

  3. Rectilinear Full Steiner Tree Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The fastest exact algorithm (in practice) for the rectilinear Steiner tree problem in the plane uses a two-phase scheme: First, a small but sufficient set of full Steiner trees (FSTs) is generated and then a Steiner minimum tree is constructed from this set by using simple backtrack search, dynamic...

  4. Full autonomy; Autarkie im Komplettpaket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2011-05-31

    Normally, those who talk of full solar autonomy refer to the annual balance of a house. Now, architect Timo Leukefeld and Helma Eigenheimbau AG presented a really autonomous solar house which is available on a turnkey basis for 363,000 Euros.

  5. [Endoscopic full-thickness resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K

    2016-08-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.

  6. Visual Arts as a Tool for Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. CohenMiller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explain the process and benefits of using visual arts as a tool within a transcendental phenomenological study. I present and discuss drawings created and described by four participants over the course of twelve interviews. Findings suggest the utility of visual arts methods within the phenomenological toolset to encourage participant voice through easing communication and facilitating understanding.

  7. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (http://salvus.io), a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  8. Do gender differences in audio-visual benefit and visual influence in audio-visual speech perception emerge with age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus eAlm

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender and age have been found to affect adults’ audio-visual (AV speech perception. However, research on adult aging focuses on adults over 60 years, who have an increasing likelihood for cognitive and sensory decline, which may confound positive effects of age-related AV-experience and its interaction with gender. Observed age and gender differences in AV speech perception may also depend on measurement sensitivity and AV task difficulty. Consequently both AV benefit and visual influence were used to measure visual contribution for gender-balanced groups of young (20-30 years and middle-aged adults (50-60 years with task difficulty varied using AV syllables from different talkers in alternative auditory backgrounds. Females had better speech-reading performance than males. Whereas no gender differences in AV benefit or visual influence were observed for young adults, visually influenced responses were significantly greater for middle-aged females than middle-aged males. That speech-reading performance did not influence AV benefit may be explained by visual speech extraction and AV integration constituting independent abilities. Contrastingly, the gender difference in visually influenced responses in middle adulthood may reflect an experience-related shift in females’ general AV perceptual strategy. Although young females’ speech-reading proficiency may not readily contribute to greater visual influence, between young and middle-adulthood recurrent confirmation of the contribution of visual cues induced by speech-reading proficiency may gradually shift females AV perceptual strategy towards more visually dominated responses.

  9. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  10. Teach yourself visually Access 2013

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The easy, visual way to learn this popular database program Part of the Office 2013 productivity suite, Access enables you to organize, present, analyze, and share data on a network or over the web. With this Visual guide to show you how, you'll master the fundamentals of this robust database application in no time. Clear, step-by-step instructions are illustrated with full-color screen shots that show exactly what you should see on your screen. Learn to enter new records; create, edit, and design tables and forms; develop queries that generate specific reports; add smart tags to y

  11. Teach yourself visually Office 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Learn the new Microsoft Office suite the easy, visual way Microsoft Office 2013 is a power-packed suite of office productivity tools including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, Access, and Publisher. This easy-to-use visual guide covers the basics of all six programs, with step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots showing what you should see at each step. You'll also learn about using Office Internet and graphics tools, while the additional examples and advice scattered through the book give you tips on maximizing the Office suite. If you learn best when you can see how

  12. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  13. Full system decontamination feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denault, R.P.; LeSurf, J.E.; Walschot, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Many chemical decontaminations have been performed on subsystems in light water reactors (BWRs and PWRs) but none on the full system (including the fuel) of large, (>500 MWe) investor owned reactors. Full system decontaminations on pressure-tubed reactors have been shown to facilitate maintenance, inspection, repair and replacement of reactor components. Further advantages are increased reactor availability and plant life extension. A conceptual study has been performed for EPRI (for PWRs) and Commonwealth Edison Co (for BWRs) into the applicability and cost benefit of full system decontaminations (FSD). The joint study showed that FSDs in both PWRs and BWRs, with or without the fuel included in the decontamination, are feasible and cost beneficial provided a large amount of work is to be done following the decontamination. The large amounts of radioactive waste generated can be managed using current technologies. Considerable improvements in waste handling, and consequent cost savings, can be obtained if new techniques which are now reaching commercial application are used. (author)

  14. LHCb : Full Experiment System Test

    CERN Multimedia

    Cattaneo, M

    2009-01-01

    LHCb had been planning to commission its High Level Trigger software and Data Quality monitoring procedures using real collisions data from the LHC pilot run. Following the LHC incident on 19th September 2008, it was decided to commission the system using simulated data. This “Full Experiment System Test” consists of: - Injection of simulated minimum bias events into the full HLT farm, after selection by a simulated Level 0 trigger. - Processing in the HLT farm to achieve the output rate expected for nominal LHC luminosity running, sustained over the typical duration of an LHC fill. - Real time Data Quality validation of the HLT output, validation of calibration and alignment parameters for use in the reconstruction. - Transmission of the event data, calibration data and book-keeping information to Tier1 sites and full reconstruction of the event data. - Data Quality validation of the reconstruction output. We will report on the preparations and results of FEST09, and on the status of commissioning for no...

  15. Body image, visual working memory and visual mental imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Darling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction (BD is a highly prevalent feature amongst females in society, with the majority of individuals regarding themselves to be overweight compared to their personal ideal, and very few self-describing as underweight. To date, explanations of this dramatic pattern have centred on extrinsic social and media factors, or intrinsic factors connected to individuals’ knowledge and belief structures regarding eating and body shape, with little research examining links between BD and basic cognitive mechanisms. This paper reports a correlational study in which visual and executive cognitive processes that could potentially impact on BD were assessed. Visual memory span and self-rated visual imagery were found to be predictive of BD, alongside a measure of inhibition derived from the Stroop task. In contrast, spatial memory and global precedence were not related to BD. Results are interpreted with reference to the influential multi-component model of working memory.

  16. Visualization analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Munzner, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form. The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case stu...

  17. Visual search elicits the electrophysiological marker of visual working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Emrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although limited in capacity, visual working memory (VWM plays an important role in many aspects of visually-guided behavior. Recent experiments have demonstrated an electrophysiological marker of VWM encoding and maintenance, the contralateral delay activity (CDA, which has been shown in multiple tasks that have both explicit and implicit memory demands. Here, we investigate whether the CDA is evident during visual search, a thoroughly-researched task that is a hallmark of visual attention but has no explicit memory requirements. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results demonstrate that the CDA is present during a lateralized search task, and that it is similar in amplitude to the CDA observed in a change-detection task, but peaks slightly later. The changes in CDA amplitude during search were strongly correlated with VWM capacity, as well as with search efficiency. These results were paralleled by behavioral findings showing a strong correlation between VWM capacity and search efficiency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the activity observed during visual search was generated by the same neural resources that subserve VWM, and that this activity reflects the maintenance of previously searched distractors.

  18. Storytelling and Visualization: An Extended Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, storytelling has been an effective way of conveying information and knowledge. In the field of visualization, storytelling is rapidly gaining momentum and evolving cutting-edge techniques that enhance understanding. Many communities have commented on the importance of storytelling in data visualization. Storytellers tend to be integrating complex visualizations into their narratives in growing numbers. In this paper, we present a survey of storytelling literature in visualization and present an overview of the common and important elements in storytelling visualization. We also describe the challenges in this field as well as a novel classification of the literature on storytelling in visualization. Our classification scheme highlights the open and unsolved problems in this field as well as the more mature storytelling sub-fields. The benefits offer a concise overview and a starting point into this rapidly evolving research trend and provide a deeper understanding of this topic.

  19. Visualizing the Verbal and Verbalizing the Visual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Roberts A.

    This paper explores relationships of visual images to verbal elements, beginning with a discussion of visible language as represented by words printed on the page. The visual flexibility inherent in typography is discussed in terms of the appearance of the letters and the denotative and connotative meanings represented by type, typographical…

  20. A Visual Test for Visual "Literacy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Paul

    Four different principles of visual manipulation constitute a minimal list of what a visually "literate" viewer should know about, but certain problems exist which are inherent in measuring viewers' awareness of each of them. The four principles are: (1) paraproxemics, or camera work which derives its effectiveness from an analogy to the…

  1. A full quantum network scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hai-Qiang; Wei Ke-Jin; Yang Jian-Hui; Li Rui-Xue; Zhu Wu

    2014-01-01

    We present a full quantum network scheme using a modified BB84 protocol. Unlike other quantum network schemes, it allows quantum keys to be distributed between two arbitrary users with the help of an intermediary detecting user. Moreover, it has good expansibility and prevents all potential attacks using loopholes in a detector, so it is more practical to apply. Because the fiber birefringence effects are automatically compensated, the scheme is distinctly stable in principle and in experiment. The simple components for every user make our scheme easier for many applications. The experimental results demonstrate the stability and feasibility of this scheme. (general)

  2. Cusiana Cupiagua. Towards full production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    When production facilities at Cupiagua are ready around mid-year, the Cusiana Cupiagua complex will start full production, this is the largest oil project in Colombia to date. The Cupiagua CPF covers over 60 hectares on the tableland of the same name in the jurisdiction of Aguazul, a town in Casanare province in northeast Colombia, and currently considered the country's oil cradle. Work is being carried out in a sort of niche that appears to be protected by a natural wall made up of the folds of the Casanare foothills

  3. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  4. Visual memory and visual perception: when memory improves visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Benoit; Lesourd, Mathieu; Brunel, Lionel; Versace, Rémy

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between memory and perception in order to identify the influence of a memory dimension in perceptual processing. Our aim was to determine whether the variation of typical size between items (i.e., the size in real life) affects visual search. In two experiments, the congruency between typical size difference and perceptual size difference was manipulated in a visual search task. We observed that congruency between the typical and perceptual size differences decreased reaction times in the visual search (Exp. 1), and noncongruency between these two differences increased reaction times in the visual search (Exp. 2). We argue that these results highlight that memory and perception share some resources and reveal the intervention of typical size difference on the computation of the perceptual size difference.

  5. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of population, the rapid adoption of labor-saving technologies, the manifold expansion of world trade, and the dramatic shift from manual labor to white collar work. In an increasingly globalized labor market, current nation-centric theories and models of employment need to be replaced with a human-centered global perspective complemented by new indicators that recognize the central and essential contribution of employment to human economic welfare. Employment and economy are subsets of society and their growth is driven by the more fundamental process of social development. A vast array of unmet social needs combined with an enormous reservoir of underutilized social resources – technological, scientific, educational, organizational, cultural and psychological – can be harnessed to dramatically expand employment opportunities and achieve full employment on a global basis. This paper examines the theoretical basis, policy issues and strategies required to eradicate unemployment nationally and globally.

  6. Achieving and sustaining full employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, S M

    1995-01-01

    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy.

  7. Quantum production. Visual Media Services at Fermilab

    CERN Multimedia

    Klapow, S

    2003-01-01

    Visual Media Services, a department of eight full-time employees at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, is responsible for translating the laboratories research into accessible and engaging media (1 page)

  8. Imaging the Visual Pathway in Neuromyelitis Optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar F. Pfueller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to summarize the current knowledge on visual pathway damage in neuromyelitis optica (NMO assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and optical coherence tomography (OCT.

  9. Visual Artist or Visual Designer? Visual Communication Design Education

    OpenAIRE

    Arsoy, Aysu

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Design tools and contents have been digitalized, forming the contemporary fields of the visual arts and design. Corporate culture demands techno-social experts who understand the arts, design, culture and society, while also having a high level of technological proficiency. New departments have opened offering alternatives in art and design education such as Visual Communication Design (VCD) and are dedicated to educating students in the practical aspect of using digital technologi...

  10. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Lobier

    Full Text Available A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span, predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  11. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1 or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment. The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation. The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2. Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  12. Engagement sensitive visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance.

  13. Visual acuity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  14. Topological Methods for Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United Stat

    2016-04-07

    This slide presentation describes basic topological concepts, including topological spaces, homeomorphisms, homotopy, betti numbers. Scalar field topology explores finding topological features and scalar field visualization, and vector field topology explores finding topological features and vector field visualization.

  15. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations......The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...

  16. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  17. Visual Control of Locomotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loomis, Jack M; Beall, Andrew C

    2005-01-01

    The accomplishments were threefold. First, a software tool for rendering virtual environments was developed, a tool useful for other researchers interested in visual perception and visual control of action...

  18. [Are Visual Field Defects Reversible? - Visual Rehabilitation with Brains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, B A

    2017-02-01

    Visual field defects are considered irreversible because the retina and optic nerve do not regenerate. Nevertheless, there is some potential for recovery of the visual fields. This can be accomplished by the brain, which analyses and interprets visual information and is able to amplify residual signals through neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to change its own functional architecture by modulating synaptic efficacy. This is actually the neurobiological basis of normal learning. Plasticity is maintained throughout life and can be induced by repetitively stimulating (training) brain circuits. The question now arises as to how plasticity can be utilised to activate residual vision for the treatment of visual field loss. Just as in neurorehabilitation, visual field defects can be modulated by post-lesion plasticity to improve vision in glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy or optic neuropathy. Because almost all patients have some residual vision, the goal is to strengthen residual capacities by enhancing synaptic efficacy. New treatment paradigms have been tested in clinical studies, including vision restoration training and non-invasive alternating current stimulation. While vision training is a behavioural task to selectively stimulate "relative defects" with daily vision exercises for the duration of 6 months, treatment with alternating current stimulation (30 min. daily for 10 days) activates and synchronises the entire retina and brain. Though full restoration of vision is not possible, such treatments improve vision, both subjectively and objectively. This includes visual field enlargements, improved acuity and reaction time, improved orientation and vision related quality of life. About 70 % of the patients respond to the therapies and there are no serious adverse events. Physiological studies of the effect of alternating current stimulation using EEG and fMRI reveal massive local and global changes in the brain. These include

  19. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  20. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as

  2. Visualizing Matrix Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugulis, Peteris; Sondore, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Efficient visualizations of computational algorithms are important tools for students, educators, and researchers. In this article, we point out an innovative visualization technique for matrix multiplication. This method differs from the standard, formal approach by using block matrices to make computations more visual. We find this method a…

  3. Big Data Visualization Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Bikakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Data visualization is the presentation of data in a pictorial or graphical format, and a data visualization tool is the software that generates this presentation. Data visualization provides users with intuitive means to interactively explore and analyze data, enabling them to effectively identify interesting patterns, infer correlations and causalities, and supports sense-making activities.

  4. Review Document: Full Software Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. This document serves as input for the internal review towards the "DAQ, online and trigger TDR". The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. In this document we show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic $pp$-collision rate, without prior event selections implemented in custom hardware and without relying upon a partial event reconstruction. A track nding eciency of 98.8 % relative to oine can be achieved for tracks with $p_T >$ 500 MeV/$c$. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is about 40 % of the available budget. Proof-of-principle selections are presented which demonstrate that excellent performance is achievable using an inclusive beauty trigger, in addition to exclusive beauty and charm triggers. Finally, it is shown that exclusive beauty and charm selections that do not intr...

  5. Automated full matrix capture for industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roy H.; Pierce, S. Gareth; Collison, Ian; Dutton, Ben; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Jackson, Joseph; Lardner, Timothy; MacLeod, Charles; Morozov, Maxim

    2015-03-01

    Full matrix capture (FMC) ultrasound can be used to generate a permanent re-focusable record of data describing the geometry of a part; a valuable asset for an inspection process. FMC is a desirable acquisition mode for automated scanning of complex geometries, as it allows compensation for surface shape in post processing and application of the total focusing method. However, automating the delivery of such FMC inspection remains a significant challenge for real industrial processes due to the high data overhead associated with the ultrasonic acquisition. The benefits of NDE delivery using six-axis industrial robots are well versed when considering complex inspection geometries, but such an approach brings additional challenges to scanning speed and positional accuracy when combined with FMC inspection. This study outlines steps taken to optimize the scanning speed and data management of a process to scan the diffusion bonded membrane of a titanium test plate. A system combining a KUKA robotic arm and a reconfigurable FMC phased array controller is presented. The speed and data implications of different scanning methods are compared, and the impacts on data visualization quality are discussed with reference to this study. For the 0.5 m2 sample considered, typical acquisitions of 18 TB/m2 were measured for a triple back wall FMC acquisition, illustrating the challenge of combining high data throughput with acceptable scanning speeds.

  6. Full STEAM Ahead: From Earth to Ploonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, C. R.; Hall, C.; Blackman, C. L.; Royle, M.; Williams, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    What the heck is a plunoid, you ask? The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute's Education/Public Engagement (EPE) program,from two SSERVI teams (SEEED at Brown/MIT and CLASS at University of Central Florida), is moving full STEAM ahead, engaging the public in the exciting discoveries being made around small bodies, including PLanetary mOONs and asterOIDS (i.e ploonoids). The team has incorporated the arts, from visual representations, storytelling, and music into every facet of the program, to stimulate an affective and personal connection to the content. This past year, the SSERVI STEAM team has participated in numerous public science events, including International Observe the Moon Night, two Astronomy Nights at a local baseball venue, Dark Skies at the US and Canadian National Parks, and Space Day at Camp Happy Days, a camp for children with cancer. Through these events, the team reached over 10000 members of the general public, showcasing current NASA SSERVI research, dispelling myths about our landing and exploring the moon, demonstrating the excitement of STEM through hands-on interactive displays, and providing an outlet for creativity by having multiple ways of representing and explaining scientific information through the arts. Join us on our "ed"venture through the solar system ploonoids.

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human primary visual cortex during visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi; Abe, Haruki; Nakajima, Takashi; Fujita, Motoi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Takeo; Naruse, Shoji; Takagi, Mineo.

    1995-01-01

    Signal changes in the human primary visual cortex during visual stimulation were evaluated using non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The experiments were performed on 10 normal human volunteers and 2 patients with homonymous hemianopsia, including one who was recovering from the exacerbation of multiple sclerosis. The visual stimuli were provided by a pattern generator using the checkerboard pattern for determining the visual evoked potential of full-field and hemifield stimulation. In normal volunteers, a signal increase was observed on the bilateral primary visual cortex during the full-field stimulation and on the contra-lateral cortex during hemifield stimulation. In the patient with homonymous hemianopsia after cerebral infarction, the signal change was clearly decreased on the affected side. In the other patient, the one recovering from multiple sclerosis with an almost normal visual field, the fMRI was within normal limits. These results suggest that it is possible to visualize the activation of the visual cortex during visual stimulation, and that there is a possibility of using this test as an objective method of visual field examination. (author)

  8. Full MOX core for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puill, A.; Aniel-Buchheit, S.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium management is a major problem of the back end of the fuel cycle. Fabrication costs must be reduced and plant operation simplified. The design of a full MOX PWR core would enable the number of reactors devoted to plutonium recycling to be reduced and fuel zoning to be eliminated. This paper is a contribution to the feasibility studies for achieving such a core without fundamental modification of the current design. In view of the differences observed between uranium and plutonium characteristics it seems necessary to reconsider the safety of a MOX-fuelled PWR. Reduction of the control worth and modification of the moderator density coefficient are the main consequences of using MOX fuel in a PWR. The core reactivity change during a draining or a cooling is thus of prime interest. The study of core global draining leads to the following conclusion: only plutonium fuels of very poor quality (i.e. with low fissile content) cannot be used in a 900 MWe PWR because of a positive global voiding reactivity effect. During a cooling accident, like an spurious opening of a secondary-side valve, the hypothetical return to criticality of a 100% MOX core controlled by means of 57 control rod clusters (made of hafnium-clad B 4 C rods with a 90% 10 B content) depends on the isotopic plutonium composition. But safety criteria can be complied with for all isotopic compositions provided the 10 B content of the soluble boron is increased to a value of 40%. Core global draining and cooling accidents do not present any major obstacle to the feasibility of a 100% MOX PWR, only minor hardware modifications will be required. (author)

  9. Scottish Literature and Visual Art: A Caledonian Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdo Macdonald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 Andrew Tannahill Lecture This lecture explores the rich relationship between Scottish writing and visual art. This extends from visual responses to Macpherson, Burns and Scott to artists working with Gaelic poetry in our own time. While the focus is on Scottish art the effect of Scottish literature on visual art internationally is also to be noted.

  10. Visual Ecology and the Development of Visually Guided Behavior in the Cuttlefish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain. Adults detect their prey visually, navigate using visual cues such as landmarks or the e-vector of polarized light and display intense visual patterns during mating and agonistic encounters. Although much is known about the visual system in adult cuttlefish, few studies have investigated its development and that of visually-guided behavior in juveniles. This review summarizes the results of studies of visual development in embryos and young juveniles. The visual system is the last to develop, as in vertebrates, and is functional before hatching. Indeed, embryonic exposure to prey, shelters or complex background alters postembryonic behavior. Visual acuity and lateralization, and polarization sensitivity improve throughout the first months after hatching. The production of body patterning in juveniles is not the simple stimulus-response process commonly presented in the literature. Rather, it likely requires the complex integration of visual information, and is subject to inter-individual differences. Though the focus of this review is vision in cuttlefish, it is important to note that other senses, particularly sensitivity to vibration and to waterborne chemical signals, also play a role in behavior. Considering the multimodal sensory dimensions of natural stimuli and their integration and processing by individuals offer new exciting avenues of future inquiry.

  11. Python data visualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Milovanovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style targeted towards an advanced audience. It covers the advanced topics of data visualization in Python.Python Data Visualization Cookbook is for developers that already know about Python programming in general. If you have heard about data visualization but you don't know where to start, then this book will guide you from the start and help you understand data, data formats, data visualization, and how to use Python to visualize data.You will need to know some general programming concepts, and any kind of programming experience will be helpful, but the co

  12. Visualization system on ITBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    Visualization systems PATRAS/ITBL and AVS/ITBL, which are based on visualization software PATRAS and AVS/Express respectively, have been developed on a global, heterogeneous computing environment, Information Technology Based Laboratory (ITBL). PATRAS/ITBL allows for real-time visualization of the numerical results acquired from coupled multi-physics numerical simulations, executed on different hosts situated in remote locations. AVS/ITBL allow for post processing visualization. The scientific data located in remote sites may be selected and visualized on a web browser installed in a user terminal. The global structure and main functions of these systems are presented. (author)

  13. Visual Semiotics & Uncertainty Visualization: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.

  14. A Wider Look at Visual Discomfort

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    L O'Hare

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual discomfort is the adverse effects reported by some on viewing certain stimuli, such as stripes and certain filtered noise patterns. Stimuli that deviate from natural image statistics might be encoded inefficiently, which could cause discomfort (Juricevic, Land, Wilkins and Webster, 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899, possibly through excessive cortical responses (Wilkins, 1995, Visual Stress, Oxford, Oxford University Press. A less efficient visual system might exacerbate the effects of difficult stimuli. Extreme examples are seen in epilepsy and migraines (Wilkins, Bonnanni, Prociatti, Guerrini, 2004, Epilepsia, 45, 1–7; Aurora and Wilkinson, 2007, Cephalalgia, 27(12, 1422–1435. However, similar stimuli are also seen as uncomfortable by non-clinical populations, eg, striped patterns (Wilkins et al, 1984, Brain, 107(4. We propose that oversensitivity of clinical populations may represent extreme examples of visual discomfort in the general population. To study the prevalence and impact of visual discomfort in a wider context than typically studied, an Internet-based survey was conducted, including standardised questionnaires measuring visual discomfort susceptibility (Conlon, Lovegrove, Chekaluk and Pattison, 1999, Visual Cognition, 6(6, 637–663; Evans and Stevenson, 2008, Ophthal Physiol Opt 28(4 295–309 and judgments of visual stimuli, such as striped patterns (Wilkins et al, 1984 and filtered noise patterns (Fernandez and Wilkins, 2008, Perception, 37(7 1098–1013. Results show few individuals reporting high visual discomfort, contrary to other researchers (eg, Conlon et al, 1999.

  15. Visual Motion Perception and Visual Attentive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    88-0551 Visual Motion Perception and Visual Attentive Processes George Spering , New YorkUnivesity A -cesson For DTIC TAB rant AFOSR 85-0364... Spering . HIPSt: A Unix-based image processing syslem. Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, 1984,25. 331-347. ’HIPS is the Human Information...Processing Laboratory’s Image Processing System. 1985 van Santen, Jan P. It, and George Spering . Elaborated Reichardt detectors. Journal of the Optical

  16. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  17. Halftone visual cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Arce, Gonzalo R; Di Crescenzo, Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    Visual cryptography encodes a secret binary image (SI) into n shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are xeroxed onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the n shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. Extended visual cryptography [1] was proposed recently to construct meaningful binary images as shares using hypergraph colourings, but the visual quality is poor. In this paper, a novel technique named halftone visual cryptography is proposed to achieve visual cryptography via halftoning. Based on the blue-noise dithering principles, the proposed method utilizes the void and cluster algorithm [2] to encode a secret binary image into n halftone shares (images) carrying significant visual information. The simulation shows that the visual quality of the obtained halftone shares are observably better than that attained by any available visual cryptography method known to date.

  18. Artificial Vision, New Visual Modalities and Neuroadaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi Or

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the descriptions from which artificial vision derives, to explore the new visual modalities resulting from eye surgeries and diseases, and to gain awareness of the use of machine vision systems for both enhancement of visual perception and better understanding of neuroadaptation. Science could not define until today what vision is. However, some optical-based systems and definitions have been established considering some factors for the formation of seeing. The best known system includes Gabor filter and Gabor patch which work on edge perception, describing the visual perception in the best known way. These systems are used today in industry and technology of machines, robots and computers to provide their "seeing". These definitions are used beyond the machinery in humans for neuroadaptation in new visual modalities after some eye surgeries or to improve the quality of some already known visual modalities. Beside this, “the blindsight” -which was not known to exist until 35 years ago - can be stimulated with visual exercises. Gabor system is a description of visual perception definable in machine vision as well as in human visual perception. This system is used today in robotic vision. There are new visual modalities which arise after some eye surgeries or with the use of some visual optical devices. Also, blindsight is a different visual modality starting to be defined even though the exact etiology is not known. In all the new visual modalities, new vision stimulating therapies using the Gabor systems can be applied. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 61-5

  19. Visual search of Mooney faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Emeline Goold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Faces spontaneously capture attention. However, which special attributes of a face underlie this effect are unclear. To address this question, we investigate how gist information, specific visual properties and differing amounts of experience with faces affect the time required to detect a face. Three visual search experiments were conducted investigating the rapidness of human observers to detect Mooney face images. Mooney images are two-toned, ambiguous images. They were used in order to have stimuli that maintain gist information but limit low-level image properties. Results from the experiments show: 1 although upright Mooney faces were searched inefficiently, they were detected more rapidly than inverted Mooney face targets, demonstrating the important role of gist information in guiding attention towards a face. 2 Several specific Mooney face identities were searched efficiently while others were not, suggesting the involvement of specific visual properties in face detection. 3 By providing participants with unambiguous gray-scale versions of the Mooney face targets prior to the visual search task, the targets were detected significantly more efficiently, suggesting that prior experience with Mooney faces improves the ability to extract gist information for rapid face detection. However, a week of training with Mooney face categorization did not lead to even more efficient visual search of Mooney face targets. In summary, these results reveal that specific local image properties cannot account for how faces capture attention. On the other hand, gist information alone cannot account for how faces capture attention either. Prior experience facilitates the effect of gist on visual search of faces, making faces a special object category for guiding attention.

  20. Influence of visual angle on pattern reversal visual evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to find whether the visual evoked potential (VEP latencies and amplitude are altered with different visual angles in healthy adult volunteers or not and to determine the visual angle which is the optimum and most appropriate among a wide range of check sizes for the reliable interpretation of pattern reversal VEPs (PRVEPs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 healthy volunteers. The subjects were divided into two groups. One group consisted of 20 individuals (nine males and 11 females in the age range of 25-57 years and they were exposed to checks subtending a visual angle of 90, 120, and 180 minutes of arc. Another group comprised of 20 individuals (10 males and 10 females in the age range of 36-60 years and they were subjected to checks subtending a visual angle of 15, 30, and 120 minutes of arc. The stimulus configuration comprised of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board is generated (full field on a VEP Monitor by an Evoked Potential Recorder (RMS EMG. EPMARK II. The statistical analysis was done by One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA using EPI INFO 6. Results: In Group I, the maximum (max. P100 latency of 98.8 ± 4.7 and the max. P100 amplitude of 10.05 ± 3.1 μV was obtained with checks of 90 minutes. In Group II, the max. P100 latency of 105.19 ± 4.75 msec as well as the max. P100 amplitude of 8.23 ± 3.30 μV was obtained with 15 minutes. The min. P100 latency in both the groups was obtained with checks of 120 minutes while the min. P100 amplitude was obtained with 180 minutes. A statistically significant difference was derived between means of P100 latency for 15 and 30 minutes with reference to its value for 120 minutes and between the mean value of P100 amplitude for 120 minutes and that of 90 and 180 minutes. Conclusion: Altering the size of stimulus (visual angle has an effect on the PRVEP parameters. Our study found that the 120

  1. Sensitivity to the visual field origin of natural image patches in human low-level visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien J. Mannion

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetries in the response to visual patterns in the upper and lower visual fields (above and below the centre of gaze have been associated with ecological factors relating to the structure of typical visual environments. Here, we investigated whether the content of the upper and lower visual field representations in low-level regions of human visual cortex are specialised for visual patterns that arise from the upper and lower visual fields in natural images. We presented image patches, drawn from above or below the centre of gaze of an observer navigating a natural environment, to either the upper or lower visual fields of human participants (n = 7 while we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure the magnitude of evoked activity in the visual areas V1, V2, and V3. We found a significant interaction between the presentation location (upper or lower visual field and the image patch source location (above or below fixation; the responses to lower visual field presentation were significantly greater for image patches sourced from below than above fixation, while the responses in the upper visual field were not significantly different for image patches sourced from above and below fixation. This finding demonstrates an association between the representation of the lower visual field in human visual cortex and the structure of the visual input that is likely to be encountered below the centre of gaze.

  2. Impact of visual repetition rate on intrinsic properties of low frequency fluctuations in the visual network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual processing network is one of the functional networks which have been reliably identified to consistently exist in human resting brains. In our work, we focused on this network and investigated the intrinsic properties of low frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz fluctuations (LFFs during changes of visual stimuli. There were two main questions to be discussed in this study: intrinsic properties of LFFs regarding (1 interactions between visual stimuli and resting-state; (2 impact of repetition rate of visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed scanning sessions that contained rest and visual stimuli in various repetition rates with a novel method. The method included three numerical approaches involving ICA (Independent Component Analyses, fALFF (fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation, and Coherence, to respectively investigate the modulations of visual network pattern, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity during changes of visual stimuli. We discovered when resting-state was replaced by visual stimuli, more areas were involved in visual processing, and both stronger low frequency fluctuations and higher interregional functional connectivity occurred in visual network. With changes of visual repetition rate, the number of areas which were involved in visual processing, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity in this network were also modulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To combine the results of prior literatures and our discoveries, intrinsic properties of LFFs in visual network are altered not only by modulations of endogenous factors (eye-open or eye-closed condition; alcohol administration and disordered behaviors (early blind, but also exogenous sensory stimuli (visual stimuli with various repetition rates. It demonstrates that the intrinsic properties of LFFs are valuable to represent physiological states of human brains.

  3. Evolutionary Relevance Facilitates Visual Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell E. Jackson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  4. Peranan Komunikasi Visual bagi Identitas Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christina Luzar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current era of globalization, along with expanding the market, many companies are competing to attract the attention of consumers to buy their products. One way to compete and survive in this growing market is by creating an image and visual identity. Strong characters could position the image of a company, visual identity is so necessary in showing the image which wants to be introduced to the public. The vigorous competition between firms creates visual identity, become a prominent feature of each companies. Therefore, it is needed a visual communication designer who can create and develop the concept of corporate identity systems. Visual communication designer also have responsibility to create identity into a system that does not sell directly, but provides identity, information, persuasive and ultimately serves as an effective marketing media. 

  5. DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL DAN PANGGILAN KRISTIANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlianto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual Communication Design is one of the arts movements. Being one aspect of the culture%2C it shows a holistic development and develops a great influence on human life including the way of thinking and attitude. To the Christian point of view%2C there are some visual media presentations that need special and precautious treatment. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Disain Komunikasi Visual merupakan perkembangan yang makin maju dari seni sebagai aspek kebudayaan yang berkembang makin holistik dan punya daya pengaruh empat dimensional terhadap kehidupan manusia%2C yaitu pandangan dan pola perilaku dan kehidupan seseorang. Ditinjau dari Iman Kristiani%2C setidaknya ada berbagai bentuk pengaruh penyajian media visual yang perlu dihadapi dengan kewaspadaan. Visual Communication Design%2C Christian values.

  6. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  7. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  8. Conditioned sounds enhance visual processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Leo

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study investigated whether prior auditory conditioning influences how a sound interacts with visual perception. In the conditioning phase, subjects were presented with three pure tones ( =  conditioned stimuli, CS that were paired with positive, negative or neutral unconditioned stimuli. As unconditioned reinforcers we employed pictures (highly pleasant, unpleasant and neutral or monetary outcomes (+50 euro cents, -50 cents, 0 cents. In the subsequent visual selective attention paradigm, subjects were presented with near-threshold Gabors displayed in their left or right hemifield. Critically, the Gabors were presented in synchrony with one of the conditioned sounds. Subjects discriminated whether the Gabors were presented in their left or right hemifields. Participants determined the location more accurately when the Gabors were presented in synchrony with positive relative to neutral sounds irrespective of reinforcer type. Thus, previously rewarded relative to neutral sounds increased the bottom-up salience of the visual Gabors. Our results are the first demonstration that prior auditory conditioning is a potent mechanism to modulate the effect of sounds on visual perception.

  9. Advances in visual correction and postoperative visual treatment of congenital cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Mei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is one of the important diseases that cause irreversible visual impairment on children. Compared with adult cataract, the surgery of congenital cataract is more complicated and the complications are more severer, especially the postoperative amblyopia often leads to bad prognosis. Therefore, the postoperative treatment is necessary to obtain the better visual outcome. The traditional visual correction methods after surgery include the combined use of spectacles, contact lens, and intraocular lens(IOL, but some problems such as IOL power calculation and IOL implantation time are still controversial. Besides, occlusion therapy and visual training are also essential for preventing amblyopia after cataract surgery. Occlusion in an appropriate dose and course must be mastered, accompanied by visual training. Both of the operative eyes and normal eyes will be able to achieve much better visual acuity and color sensitivity, so that the binocular vision can recover and develop as normal function.

  10. Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchimura Motoaki

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. Results A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. Conclusion These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium.

  11. Teach yourself visually Word 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Get up to speed on the newest version of Word with visual instruction Microsoft Word is the standard for word processing programs, and the newest version offers additional functionality you'll want to use. Get up to speed quickly and easily with the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots in this popular guide! You'll see how to perform dozens of tasks, including how to set up and format documents and text; work with diagrams, charts, and pictures; use Mail Merge; post documents online; and much more. Easy-to-follow, two-page lessons make learning a snap.Full-

  12. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  13. Attention and visual memory in visualization and computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Christopher G; Enns, James T

    2012-07-01

    A fundamental goal of visualization is to produce images of data that support visual analysis, exploration, and discovery of novel insights. An important consideration during visualization design is the role of human visual perception. How we "see" details in an image can directly impact a viewer's efficiency and effectiveness. This paper surveys research on attention and visual perception, with a specific focus on results that have direct relevance to visualization and visual analytics. We discuss theories of low-level visual perception, then show how these findings form a foundation for more recent work on visual memory and visual attention. We conclude with a brief overview of how knowledge of visual attention and visual memory is being applied in visualization and graphics. We also discuss how challenges in visualization are motivating research in psychophysics.

  14. Causes of visual loss in uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Zora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Epidemiological studies of blindness in a working age population require a precise definition of the true connection of uveitis and visual damage. Since most patients with more severe types of uveitis are hospitalized in tertiary referral uveitis service, our aim was to determine whether age, sex and age of onset of uveitis, as well as duration of visual loss and its causes influence the degree of visual damage in patients with different types of uveitis. Methods. The data were collected from medical records of 237 patients at the Department for Uveitis of the Institute for Eye Diseases in Belgrade over a three-year period (March 2005 to March 2008. Results. Visual acuity reduction (≤ 0.3 was found in 161/237 (67.9% patients, 85 of whom had visual acuity of ≤ 0.1 later. Working age patients (up to 60 years of age most often suffered from uveitis (173/237; 73%. The highest number of patients with visual loss was in the group suffering from panuveitis (77/94; 81.91%. The age of onset of uveitis and sex have no statistically significant influence on visual loss. The most common causes of visual loss (34/161; 21.1% were cystoid macular oedema (CMO (43/161; 26.7%, cataract (28/161; 17.39% and combination of CMO and cataract. Conclusion. The risk factors for severe visual loss (≤ 0.1 are panuveitis, bilateral inflammation, prolonged visual reduction and a significant number of relapses. The main causes of visual loss in 65.2% of our patients were CMO and cataract.

  15. Business Model Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Zagorsek, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Business model describes the company’s most important activities, proposed value, and the compensation for the value. Business model visualization enables to simply and systematically capture and describe the most important components of the business model while the standardization of the concept allows the comparison between companies. There are several possibilities how to visualize the model. The aim of this paper is to describe the options for business model visualization and business mod...

  16. Visual computing scientific visualization and imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and ot...

  17. Cortical visual impairment: Characteristics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest studies, Cortical visual impairment – CVI is one of the most common causes of problems and difficulties in visual functioning. It results from the impairment of the central part of visual system, i.e. visual cortex, posterior visual pathway, or both. The diagnosis is usually made in the first three years of life. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of children with CVI, and the strategies used for treatment. CVI has a negative impact on almost all developmental domains, visual-perceptive skills, motor skills, cognitive skills, and social skills. In children with CVI, vision ranges from the total inability to see to minimal visual perceptive difficulties, while more than 50% have multiple disabilities. Due to the progress in understanding the patterns of neuron activity and neuroplasticity, as well as the intensive studies of strengths and weaknesses of children with CVI, special treatment has been designed and performed in the last few decades, which provides optimal visual functioning in everyday life for these children.

  18. ELEMEN-ELEMEN DALAM DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Suharto Cenadi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent information and technology globalization era%2C the role of Visual Communication Design has become important and it has become a hot topic which is inescapable from our daily lives. Almost every day%2C everwhere we go%2C we will encounter different forms of Visual Communication Design. Unfortunately%2C most of us have not yet realized the objectives and purposes of the Visual Communication Design. This paper will discuss about what the functions%2C purposes%2C elements and fields of the Visual Communication Design are. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam era globalisasi informasi dan teknologi seperti sekarang ini%2C Desain Komunikasi Visual berperan penting dan menjadi topik hangat yang tidak dapat terlepas dari kehidupan kita sehari-hari. Hampir setiap hari%2C kemanapun kita pergi%2C kita akan menjumpai bentuk-bentuk dari Desain Komunikasi Visual. Sayangnya%2C banyak diantara kita yang belum sadar akan tujuan dan manfaat dari Desain Komunikasi Visual itu sendiri. Tulisan ini akan membahas mengenai apa tujuan%2C manfaat%2C elemen dan lapangan kerja dari Desain Komunikasi Visual

  19. TINJAUAN VISUAL GAMBAR UANG KERTAS INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskoro Suryo Banindro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Images depicted on currency bills are works of art containing aesthetic value. They involve elements of letters, pictures, colors, and specialized printing techniques. Moreover, the images indicate information and even visual codes. Understanding art is attempt to interpret symbols used in a certain culture. One can express and implement one’s experience in forms or images. In images of currency bills, their visual expressions can reflect ideas, concepts, or political legitimation and ideology. Thus, this article investigates symbolic meanings through visual semiotic descriptions of images in Indonesian currency bills. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Gambar pada uang kertas adalah salah satu hasil karya seni rupa, di dalam uang kertas terkandung nilai estetika yang berhubungan dengan masalah keindahan visual, antara lain tersusun atas elemen huruf, gambar, warna serta teknik cetak yang khas. Selain itu gambar pada uang kertas sarat dengan muatan informasi, atau bahkan kode visual. Memahami seni adalah usaha membaca simbol yang digunakan dalam budaya masyarakat tertentu, manusia dapat mengekspresikan dan memancarkan pengalamannya dalam bentuk ujud atau rupa. Dalam gambar uang kertas, ekspresi visual yang dituangkan dapat mencerminkan gagasan, ide, konsep atau muatan politik terkait legitimasi dan ideologi. Melalui uraian semiotika visual gambar uang kertas yang pernah beredar di Indonesia, akan dikaji makna-makna simbolik bahasa rupa di dalamnya. Kata kunci: bahasa rupa, semiotika visual, Uang Kertas Indonesia.

  20. Auditory attention activates peripheral visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D Cate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that putatively unimodal regions of visual cortex can be activated during auditory tasks in sighted as well as in blind subjects. However, the task determinants and functional significance of auditory occipital activations (AOAs remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined AOAs in an intermodal selective attention task to distinguish whether they were stimulus-bound or recruited by higher-level cognitive operations associated with auditory attention. Cortical surface mapping showed that auditory occipital activations were localized to retinotopic visual cortex subserving the far peripheral visual field. AOAs depended strictly on the sustained engagement of auditory attention and were enhanced in more difficult listening conditions. In contrast, unattended sounds produced no AOAs regardless of their intensity, spatial location, or frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Auditory attention, but not passive exposure to sounds, routinely activated peripheral regions of visual cortex when subjects attended to sound sources outside the visual field. Functional connections between auditory cortex and visual cortex subserving the peripheral visual field appear to underlie the generation of AOAs, which may reflect the priming of visual regions to process soon-to-appear objects associated with unseen sound sources.

  1. Mental imagery and visual working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Keogh

    Full Text Available Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory--but not iconic visual memory--can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage.

  2. Social Set Visualizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    -edge open source visual analytics libraries from D3.js and creation of new visualizations (ac-tor mobility across time, conversational comets etc). Evaluation of the dashboard consisting of technical testing, usability testing, and domain-specific testing with CSR students and yielded positive results.......This paper presents a state-of-the art visual analytics dash-board, Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi), of approximately 90 million Facebook actions from 11 different companies that have been mentioned in the traditional media in relation to garment factory accidents in Bangladesh. The enterprise...

  3. Visualization in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    MacEachren, AM

    1994-01-01

    Visualization in Modern Cartography explores links between the centuries-old discipline of cartography and today's revolutionary developments in scientific visualization. The book has three main goals: (1) to pass on design and symbolization expertise to the scientific visualization community - information that comes from centuries of pre-computer visualization by cartographers, and their more recent experiences with computerizing the discipline; (2) to help cartographers cope with the dramatic shift from print cartography to a dynamic virtual cartography for which their role is changing from

  4. Visual languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Visual languages have long been a pursuit of effective communication between human and machine. With rapid advances of the Internet and Web technology, human-human communication through the Web or electronic mobile devices is becoming more and more prevalent. Visual Languages and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to diagrammatical visual languages. This book discusses what visual programming languages are, and how such languages and their underlying foundations can be usefully applied to other fields in computer science. It also covers a broad range of contents from the underlying t

  5. Understanding Visual Novel As Artwork of Visual Communication Design

    OpenAIRE

    Dendi Pratama; Winny Gunarti; Taufiq Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Visual Novel is a kind of audiovisual game that offers visual strength through the narrative and visual characters. The developer community of Visual Novel (VN) Project Indonesia indicated a limited local game developer that produces Visual Novel of Indonesia. In addition, Indonesian Visual Novel production was also more influenced by the style of anime or manga from Japan. Actually, Visual Novel is part of the potential of  creative industries products. The study is to formulate the problem,...

  6. Understanding Visual Novel as Artwork of Visual Communication Design

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Dendi

    2017-01-01

    Visual Novel is a kind of audiovisual game that offers visual strength through the narrative and visual characters. The developer community of Visual Novel (VN) Project Indonesia indicated a limited local game developer that produces Visual Novel of Indonesia. In addition, Indonesian Visual Novel production was also more influenced by the style of anime or manga from Japan. Actually, Visual Novel is part of the potential of creative industries products. The study is to formulate the problem,...

  7. Sexualities, Visual Arts and Power: Visual Pedagogies of the Feminine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gruppelli Luciana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is about the relations between sexualities, visual arts and power, taking in consideration the theorizations of Michel Foucault, mainly in respect to conceits like power and dissertation. Analyses like the feminine sexuality is put in dissertation through the images produced by occidental art, starting by a very particular masculine eye. In affirming that these images produce a pedagogy of the feminine, I pretend to contribute to the amplification of the analysis that take place in the teaching field of visual arts (and consequently, for the teaching formation on the area that in the last years, through more recent methodological and theoretical tendencies, has been distinguishing the role of the images in education without, however, giving the proper attention to conceits like gender, sexuality and power.

  8. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Charnallet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive episodic models of memory [4].

  9. Space-Time Disarray and Visual Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koenderink

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Local space-time scrambling of optical data leads to violent jerks and dislocations. On masking these, visual awareness of the scene becomes cohesive, with dislocations discounted as amodally occluding foreground. Such cohesive space-time of awareness is technically illusory because ground truth is jumbled whereas awareness is coherent. Apparently the visual field is a construction rather than a (veridical perception.

  10. Novelty enhances visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Schomaker

    Full Text Available The effects of novelty on low-level visual perception were investigated in two experiments using a two-alternative forced-choice tilt detection task. A target, consisting of a Gabor patch, was preceded by a cue that was either a novel or a familiar fractal image. Participants had to indicate whether the Gabor stimulus was vertically oriented or slightly tilted. In the first experiment tilt angle was manipulated; in the second contrast of the Gabor patch was varied. In the first, we found that sensitivity was enhanced after a novel compared to a familiar cue, and in the second we found sensitivity to be enhanced for novel cues in later experimental blocks when participants became more and more familiarized with the familiar cue. These effects were not caused by a shift in the response criterion. This shows for the first time that novel stimuli affect low-level characteristics of perception. We suggest that novelty can elicit a transient attentional response, thereby enhancing perception.

  11. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  12. Visual culture: Threshold of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Goyes Narváez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the image as the basis of visual culture and its most important characteristics in the social context and the field of knowledge that make up his studies and practices. Culture as battlefield and structuring of production processes, distribution and reception and its relationship with the media or broadcast, the concept of culture that manages education, art, ways of social behavior as a handbook, and especially as refinement, as if it only depended on the economics and hide the confrontation with diverse and succulent meals of social and cultural reality. The visual and the order of the gaze. The gaze that submits the eye to an invasion of culturally agreed meanings or in process of transformation, from production, circulation, reception and media consumption of the image and the implications in the educational process.

  13. Teach yourself visually Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more. The tried-and-true format

  14. Creativity, Visualization Abilities, and Visual Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. Aims: The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and…

  15. Exploring Visual Bookmarks and Layered Visualizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Teuben (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCultural heritage experts are confronted with a difficult information gathering task while conducting comparison searches. Saving searches and re-examining previous work could help them to do their work. In this paper we propose a solution in which we combine visual bookmarks for saving

  16. Interactions between visual working memory and visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivers, C.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Visual attention is the collection of mechanisms by which relevant visual information is selected, and irrelevant visual information is ignored. Visual working memory is the mechanism by which relevant visual information is retained, and irrelevant information is suppressed. In addition to this

  17. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  18. Design for Visual Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeries, Larry

    Experiences suggested within this visual arts packet provide high school students with awareness of visual expression in graphic design, product design, architecture, and crafts. The unit may be used in whole or in part and includes information about art careers and art-related jobs found in major occupational fields. Specific lesson topics…

  19. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the

  20. VISUAL DISTRACTION WHILE DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime ITO

    2001-01-01

    The article provides background information and summarizes worldwide trends in research on accident rates, the special characteristics of visual behavior and the effects of visual distraction on drivers and vehicle behavior. It also reports on the state of ISO standardization efforts and related technological trends. Finally, it defines a number of topics for future research in the field of human engineering.

  1. Visual patient records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luu, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Patient information is often complex and fragmented; visualization can help to obtain and communicate insights. To move from paper medical records to interactive and visual patient records is a big challenge. This project aims to move towards this ultimate goal by providing an interactive prototype

  2. Disorders of visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ffytche, Dominic H.; Blom, J. D.; Catani, M.

    Visual perceptual disorders are often presented as a disparate group of neurological deficits with little consideration given to the wide range of visual symptoms found in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disease. Here, the authors attempt a functional anatomical classification of all disorders

  3. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  4. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  5. Mathematica data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Saquib, Nazmus

    2014-01-01

    If you are planning to create data analysis and visualization tools in the context of science, engineering, economics, or social science, then this book is for you. With this book, you will become a visualization expert, in a short time, using Mathematica.

  6. Visual thinking and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U M

    2008-01-01

    After a consideration of visual thinking in science the role of such thinking in neuroscience is discussed. Three instances are examined - cortical column, retina, impulse - and it is argued that visual thinking is employed, though in different ways, in each. It lies at the core of neurobiological thought.

  7. Disorders of visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ffytche, Dominic H.; Blom, J. D.; Catani, M.

    2010-01-01

    Visual perceptual disorders are often presented as a disparate group of neurological deficits with little consideration given to the wide range of visual symptoms found in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disease. Here, the authors attempt a functional anatomical classification of all disorders

  8. Visualizing the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, William T.; Shirah, Greg W.; Mitchell, Horace G.

    2008-01-01

    Today, scientific data and models can combine with modern animation tools to produce compelling visualizations to inform and educate. The Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center merges these techniques from the very different worlds of entertainment and science to enable scientists and the general public to 'see the unseeable' in new ways.

  9. Visualization and mathematics III

    CERN Document Server

    Polthier, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    This research book on Mathematical Visualization contains state of the art presentations on visualization problems in mathematics, on fundamental mathematical research in computer graphics, and on software frameworks for the application of visualization to real-world problems. All contributions were written by leading experts in the field and peer-refereed by an international editorial team. The book grew out of the third international workshop "Visualization and Mathematics", which was held from May 22-25, 2002 in Berlin. The themes of the book cover important recent developments on - Geometry and Combinatorics of Meshes - Discrete Vector Fields and Topology - Geometric Modelling - Image Based Visualization - Software Environments and Applications - Education and Communication The variety of topics makes the book a suitable resource for researchers, lecturers, and practitioners; http://www-sfb288.math.tu-berlin.de/vismath/

  10. NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Horace G.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1988, the Scientific Visualization Studio(SVS) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has produced scientific visualizations of NASA s scientific research and remote sensing data for public outreach. These visualizations take the form of images, animations, and end-to-end systems and have been used in many venues: from the network news to science programs such as NOVA, from museum exhibits at the Smithsonian to White House briefings. This presentation will give an overview of the major activities and accomplishments of the SVS, and some of the most interesting projects and systems developed at the SVS will be described. Particular emphasis will be given to the practices and procedures by which the SVS creates visualizations, from the hardware and software used to the structures and collaborations by which products are designed, developed, and delivered to customers. The web-based archival and delivery system for SVS visualizations at svs.gsfc.nasa.gov will also be described.

  11. PWR plant operator training used full scope simulator incorporated MAAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Tabuchi, T.; Yamashita, T.; Komatsu, Y.; Tsubouchi, K.; Banka, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Nishimura, K.; Iizuka, H.

    2015-01-01

    NTC makes an effort with the understanding of plant behavior of core damage accident as part of our advanced training. For the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, we introduced the MAAP model into PWR operator training full scope simulator and also made the Severe Accident Visual Display unit. From 2014, we will introduce new training program for a core damage accident with PWR operator training full scope simulator incorporated the MAAP model and the Severe Accident Visual Display unit. (author)

  12. The Tradition of Marketing Nigeria Politicians through Visual Media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tradition of Marketing Nigeria Politicians through Visual Media. ... Before Nigerian independence in 1960, all political campaigns and debates were limited by the colonial masters to ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Contrast and strength of visual memory and imagery differentially affect visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyana Saad

    Full Text Available Visual short-term memory (VSTM and visual imagery have been shown to modulate visual perception. However, how the subjective experience of VSTM/imagery and its contrast modulate this process has not been investigated. We addressed this issue by asking participants to detect brief masked targets while they were engaged either in VSTM or visual imagery. Subjective experience of memory/imagery (strength scale, and the visual contrast of the memory/mental image (contrast scale were assessed on a trial-by-trial basis. For both VSTM and imagery, contrast of the memory/mental image was positively associated with reporting target presence. Consequently, at the sensory level, both VSTM and imagery facilitated visual perception. However, subjective strength of VSTM was positively associated with visual detection whereas the opposite pattern was found for imagery. Thus the relationship between subjective strength of memory/imagery and visual detection are qualitatively different for VSTM and visual imagery, although their impact at the sensory level appears similar. Our results furthermore demonstrate that imagery and VSTM are partly dissociable processes.

  14. Is theta burst stimulation applied to visual cortex able to modulate peripheral visual acuity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Brückner

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is usually applied to visual cortex to explore the effects on cortical excitability. Most researchers therefore concentrate on changes of phosphene threshold, rarely on consequences for visual performance. Thus, we investigated peripheral visual acuity in the four quadrants of the visual field using Landolt C optotypes before and after repetitive stimulation of the visual cortex. We applied continuous and intermittend theta burst stimulation with various stimulation intensities (60%, 80%, 100%, 120% of individual phosphene threshold as well as monophasic and biphasic 1 Hz stimulation, respectively. As an important result, no serious adverse effects were observed. In particular, no seizure was induced, even with theta burst stimulation applied with 120% of individual phosphene threshold. In only one case stimulation was ceased because the subject reported intolerable pain. Baseline visual acuity decreased over sessions, indicating a continuous training effect. Unexpectedly, none of the applied transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols had an effect on performance: no change in visual acuity was found in any of the four quadrants of the visual field. Binocular viewing as well as the use of peripheral instead of foveal presentation of the stimuli might have contributed to this result. Furthermore, intraindividual variability could have masked the TMS- induced effects on visual acuity.

  15. A Full-Color, High-Resolution Laser Projector for a Flight Simulator Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Optical Engineering, 31 (11), 2300-2311. Welford, W.T., & Winston , R. (1989). High collection nonimaging optics . San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 17 ... optically combines the output from red, green, and blue LCD panels to produce color. A light valve extracts the three primaries from a single xenon... concentrated than the noncoherent light sources used in light valve, CRT, LCD, and other displays. An obvious benefit of this is the ability to

  16. Priming and the guidance by visual and categorical templates in visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eWilschut

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual search is thought to be guided by top-down templates that are held in visual working memory. Previous studies have shown that a search-guiding template can be rapidly and strongly implemented from a visual cue, whereas templates are less effective when based on categorical cues. Direct visual priming from cue to target may underlie this difference. In two experiments we first asked observers to remember two possible target colors. A postcue then indicated which of the two would be the relevant color. The task was to locate a briefly presented and masked target of the cued color among irrelevant distractor items. Experiment 1 showed that overall search accuracy improved more rapidly on the basis of a direct visual postcue that carried the target color, compared to a neutral postcue that pointed to the memorized color. However, selectivity towards the target feature, i.e. the extent to which observers searched selectively among items of the cued versus uncued color, was found to be relatively unaffected by the presence of the visual signal. In Experiment 2 we compared search that was based on either visual or categorical information, but now controlled for direct visual priming. This resulted in no differences in overall performance nor selectivity. Altogether the results suggest that perceptual processing of visual search targets is facilitated by priming from visual cues, whereas attentional selectivity is enhanced by a working memory template that can formed from both visual and categorical input. Furthermore, if the priming is controlled for, categorical- and visual-based templates similarly enhance search guidance.

  17. Visual reinforcement shapes eye movements in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Céline; Schütz, Alexander C; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-08-01

    We use eye movements to gain information about our visual environment; this information can indirectly be used to affect the environment. Whereas eye movements are affected by explicit rewards such as points or money, it is not clear whether the information gained by finding a hidden target has a similar reward value. Here we tested whether finding a visual target can reinforce eye movements in visual search performed in a noise background, which conforms to natural scene statistics and contains a large number of possible target locations. First we tested whether presenting the target more often in one specific quadrant would modify eye movement search behavior. Surprisingly, participants did not learn to search for the target more often in high probability areas. Presumably, participants could not learn the reward structure of the environment. In two subsequent experiments we used a gaze-contingent display to gain full control over the reinforcement schedule. The target was presented more often after saccades into a specific quadrant or a specific direction. The proportions of saccades meeting the reinforcement criteria increased considerably, and participants matched their search behavior to the relative reinforcement rates of targets. Reinforcement learning seems to serve as the mechanism to optimize search behavior with respect to the statistics of the task.

  18. Studi Perancangan Identitas Visual Wilayah Karimunjawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Priyono Susilo Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication is a critical need in our lives. Communication that is not running properly will impede the flow and the system of social activity. Living in a world filled with information needs language as a right marker so that the meaning of a message can be conveyed properly. At such moments, a marker, which also functions as the identity for the people, demands to look unique, creative, communicative, and comprehensible globally, beyond the boundaries of culture and geography. Visual markers of an area are needed so that miscommunication can be reduced. Visual markers were developed in regard to communication strategies within the context of destination branding. Sharp communication strategy would manifest in the form of creative concept, a kind of platform on which to base and the main idea behind the overall design visualization. Manifestation the visual form of logo design, typography, tone color, shapes, graphic elements, mascot, pictograms, wayfinding, posters, merchandise, and so on. The visual identity of the region, in relation to destination branding program, specifically intended for a destination region, will raise the values of locality, the uniqueness, diversity, and distinctiveness of the region. Designing visual identity Karimunjawa region in this case study apply the principles of creativity and uniqueness that is processed into a visual appealing, distinctive, and attractive, yet understated and powerful in raising local elements.   

  19. Exclusively visual analysis of classroom group interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tucker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale audiovisual data that measure group learning are time consuming to collect and analyze. As an initial step towards scaling qualitative classroom observation, we qualitatively coded classroom video using an established coding scheme with and without its audio cues. We find that interrater reliability is as high when using visual data only—without audio—as when using both visual and audio data to code. Also, interrater reliability is high when comparing use of visual and audio data to visual-only data. We see a small bias to code interactions as group discussion when visual and audio data are used compared with video-only data. This work establishes that meaningful educational observation can be made through visual information alone. Further, it suggests that after initial work to create a coding scheme and validate it in each environment, computer-automated visual coding could drastically increase the breadth of qualitative studies and allow for meaningful educational analysis on a far greater scale.

  20. Universities’ visual image and Internet communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okushova Gulnafist

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Universities of the 21st century are built on digital walls and on the Internet foundation. Their “real virtuality” of M. Castells is represented by information and communication flows that reflect various areas: education, research, culture, leisure, and others. The visual image of a university is the bridge that connects its physical and digital reality and identifies it within the information flow on the Internet. Visual image identification on the Internet and the function that the visual image performs as an electronic communication tool lay the foundation for our research. The key focal point of a university’s visual image on the Internet is its official website. Our research shows that with the development of computer technology, the semantic heterogeneity of universities’ visual images has changed from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0. A university’s web portal both reflects and produces its digital life, which is broader and more informative than the physical life alone, as there are no temporal and spatial boundaries in electronic interactions. Polysemy and directed communication through university’s visual images are effective developments for both online and offline communication for the university. The Internet communication reach all spheres of university life and reflect its content. Visual images of universities, based on electronic communication tools, not only “open” them for digital natives and digital immigrants, but also create a cyberspace for scientific and educational discourse.

  1. VRML metabolic network visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdestvenski, Igor

    2003-03-01

    A successful date collection visualization should satisfy a set of many requirements: unification of diverse data formats, support for serendipity research, support of hierarchical structures, algorithmizability, vast information density, Internet-readiness, and other. Recently, virtual reality has made significant progress in engineering, architectural design, entertainment and communication. We experiment with the possibility of using the immersive abstract three-dimensional visualizations of the metabolic networks. We present the trial Metabolic Network Visualizer software, which produces graphical representation of a metabolic network as a VRML world from a formal description written in a simple SGML-type scripting language.

  2. Visualizing big energy data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyndman, Rob J.; Liu, Xueqin Amy; Pinson, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Visualization is a crucial component of data analysis. It is always a good idea to plot the data before fitting models, making predictions, or drawing conclusions. As sensors of the electric grid are collecting large volumes of data from various sources, power industry professionals are facing th...... the challenge of visualizing such data in a timely fashion. In this article, we demonstrate several data-visualization solutions for big energy data through three case studies involving smart-meter data, phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, and probabilistic forecasts, respectively....

  3. Master VISUALLY Excel 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The complete visual reference on Excel basics. Aimed at visual learners who are seeking an all-in-one reference that provides in-depth coveage of Excel from a visual viewpoint, this resource delves into all the newest features of Excel 2010. You'll explore Excel with helpful step-by-step instructions that show you, rather than tell you, how to navigate Excel, work with PivotTables and PivotCharts, use macros to streamline work, and collaborate with other users in one document.: This two-color guide features screen shots with specific, numbered instructions so you can learn the actions you need

  4. Scientific visualization and radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrance, D.P.; Hoyer, C.E.; Wrestler, F.A.; Kuhn, M.J.; Moore, W.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Scientific visualization is the visual presentation of numerical data. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) has developed methods for visualizing computerbased simulations of digital imaging data. The applicability of these various tools for unique and potentially medical beneficial display of MR images is investigated. Raw data are obtained from MR images of the brain, neck, spine, and brachial plexus obtained on a 1.5-T imager with multiple pulse sequences. A supercomputer and other mainframe resources run a variety of graphic and imaging programs using this data. An interdisciplinary team of imaging scientists, computer graphic programmers, an physicians works together to achieve useful information

  5. Electrophysiology in visually impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, Maria Michielde van

    2006-01-01

    Inherited retinal disorders and posterior visual pathway abnormalities are important causes of visual impairment in children. Visual electrophysiology often is indispensable in diagnosing these conditions. This thesis shows the wide range of use of pediatric electro-ophthalmology, and demonstrates

  6. Visual communication in lean organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuga Maria Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have studied the role and importance of communication and communication types for organizations and their work force. The topic of organizational communication is a constantly changing one. The thing that remains stable throughout this very wide topic is its purpose: communication is vital for the effectiveness and success of organizations of all sizes, types and cultures. In terms of type, one could split up topic by type as followed: verbal, visual and written. This research paper focuses on the visual component at shop floor within automotive organizations. It aims at giving the reader a structured overview on the most appropriate but also lean visual communication practices. In order to establish these methods at shop floor, a survey was conducted among nine big automotive companies in Romania. It was then followed up by a second survey dedicated to check the effectiveness of implementation of these methods in a big automotive organization. The paper presents the analyses, results and the conclusions of this surveys.

  7. Performance analysis of a full-field and full-range swept-source OCT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, J.; Boettcher, T.; Körner, K.; Gronle, M.; Osten, W.; Passilly, N.; Froehly, L.; Perrin, S.; Gorecki, C.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) became gained importance in medical disciplines like ophthalmology, due to its noninvasive optical imaging technique with micrometer resolution and short measurement time. It enables e. g. the measurement and visualization of the depth structure of the retina. In other medical disciplines like dermatology, histopathological analysis is still the gold standard for skin cancer diagnosis. The EU-funded project VIAMOS (Vertically Integrated Array-type Mirau-based OCT System) proposes a new type of OCT system combined with micro-technologies to provide a hand-held, low-cost and miniaturized OCT system. The concept is a combination of full-field and full-range swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) detection in a multi-channel sensor based on a micro-optical Mirau-interferometer array, which is fabricated by means of wafer fabrication. This paper presents the study of an experimental proof-of-concept OCT system as a one-channel sensor with bulk optics. This sensor is a Linnik-interferometer type with similar optical parameters as the Mirau-interferometer array. A commercial wavelength tunable light source with a center wavelength at 845nm and 50nm spectral bandwidth is used with a camera for parallel OCT A-Scan detection. In addition, the reference microscope objective lens of the Linnik-interferometer is mounted on a piezo-actuated phase-shifter. Phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) techniques are applied for resolving the conjugate complex artifact and consequently contribute to an increase of image quality and depth range. A suppression ratio of the complex conjugate term of 36 dB is shown and a system sensitivity greater than 96 dB could be measured.

  8. Knowledge scaffolding visualizations: A guiding framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a guiding framework for understanding and selecting visual representations in the knowledge management (KM practice. We build on an interdisciplinary analogy between two connotations of the notion of “scaffolding”: physical scaffolding from an architectural-engineering perspective and scaffolding of the “everyday knowing in practice” from a KM perspective. We classify visual structures for knowledge communication in teams into four types of scaffolds: grounded (corresponding e.g., to perspectives diagrams or dynamic facilitation diagrams, suspended (e.g., negotiation sketches, argument maps, panel (e.g., roadmaps or timelines and reinforcing (e.g., concept diagrams. The article concludes with a set of recommendations in the form of questions to ask whenever practitioners are choosing visualizations for specific KM needs. Our recommendations aim at providing a framework at a broad-brush level to aid choosing a suitable visualization template depending on the type of KM endeavour.

  9. Visual Navigation of Complex Information Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah North

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors lay the foundation for the introduction of visual navigation aid to assist computer users in direct manipulation of the complex information spaces. By exploring present research on scientific data visualisation and creating a case for improved information visualisation tools, they introduce the design of an improved information visualisation interface utilizing dynamic slider, called Visual-X, incorporating icons with bindable attributes (glyphs. Exploring the improvement that these data visualisations, make to a computing environment, the authors conduct an experiment to compare the performance of subjects who use traditional interfaces and Visual-X. Methodology is presented and conclusions reveal that the use of Visual-X appears to be a promising approach in providing users with a navigation tool that does not overload their cognitive processes.

  10. Visual Virtual MT: relato de una pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDMILA BRANDÃO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de contribuir a la discusión acerca de las artes visuales en la sociedad contemporánea y de los dispositivos que operan la colonialidad del arte, sus mecanismos y efectos, cuya urgente desactivación nos impone enormes retos, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación titulada: “Artes Visuales en Mato Grosso: recopilación, difusión y crítica” encargada de crear el sitio Visual Virtual MT (VVMT. El VVMT reúne producciones aestésicas visuales de artistas individuales y colectivos que operan en diferentes soportes y medios, trabajando con una variedad de materiales que configuran, actualmente, la mayor colección catalogada y digital disponible en el Estado de Mato Grosso, en Brasil.

  11. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  12. Visual Dysfunction in Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari N. Maia da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the visual dysfunction that defines the disorder, and the classical deficits, such as simultanagnosia and visual agnosia, as well as the more recently recognized visual field defects, are reviewed, along with the evidence on their neural correlates. The latest developments on the imaging of PCA are summarized, with special attention to its role on the differential diagnosis with related conditions.

  13. Lenguaje escrito y lenguaje visual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Urabayen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Debe considerarse como periodistas no solo a los redactores sino también a los fotógrafos, infografistas, diseñadores e ilustradores que trabajan para el periódico pues éstos son periodistas del lenguaje visual. Por eso se sugiere a las Facultades y Escuelas de Periodismo o Comunicación incluir en la malla curricular de la comunicación estudios sobre Cultura de la imagen periodística impresa.

  14. Teach Yourself VISUALLY HTML5

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Make mark-up language more manageable with this visual guide HTML5 is the next-generation of web standard mark-up language, and among other things, it offers amazing new avenues for incorporating multimedia into your sites. What easier way to master all of HTML5's new bells and whistles than with a guide that shows you, screenshot by screenshot, just what to do? Over a hundred tasks that web designers need to know most are explained using, full-color screenshots and how-to steps. From the easy stuff like revised new header and footer elements to complex updates such as canvas and audio, this

  15. Scientific visualization uncertainty, multifield, biomedical, and scalable visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Min; Johnson, Christopher; Kaufman, Arie; Hagen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Based on the seminar that took place in Dagstuhl, Germany in June 2011, this contributed volume studies the four important topics within the scientific visualization field: uncertainty visualization, multifield visualization, biomedical visualization and scalable visualization. • Uncertainty visualization deals with uncertain data from simulations or sampled data, uncertainty due to the mathematical processes operating on the data, and uncertainty in the visual representation, • Multifield visualization addresses the need to depict multiple data at individual locations and the combination of multiple datasets, • Biomedical is a vast field with select subtopics addressed from scanning methodologies to structural applications to biological applications, • Scalability in scientific visualization is critical as data grows and computational devices range from hand-held mobile devices to exascale computational platforms. Scientific Visualization will be useful to practitioners of scientific visualization, ...

  16. Visualizing guided tours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads; Hansen, Frank Allan

    This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation...

  17. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  18. [Intraoperative multidimensional visualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, J; Kauffels, A; Grade, M; Alves, F; Kühn, P; Ghadimi, B M

    2016-12-01

    Modern intraoperative techniques of visualization are increasingly being applied in general and visceral surgery. The combination of diverse techniques provides the possibility of multidimensional intraoperative visualization of specific anatomical structures. Thus, it is possible to differentiate between normal tissue and tumor tissue and therefore exactly define tumor margins. The aim of intraoperative visualization of tissue that is to be resected and tissue that should be spared is to lead to a rational balance between oncological and functional results. Moreover, these techniques help to analyze the physiology and integrity of tissues. Using these methods surgeons are able to analyze tissue perfusion and oxygenation. However, to date it is not clear to what extent these imaging techniques are relevant in the clinical routine. The present manuscript reviews the relevant modern visualization techniques focusing on intraoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as well as augmented reality, fluorescence imaging and optoacoustic imaging.

  19. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resolves by one year of life. Is “cortical blindness” the same thing as CVI? Cortical blindness is ... What visual characteristics are associated with CVI? • Distinct color preferences • Variable level of vision loss, often demonstrating ...

  20. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals/13 Need a glossary? |Becoming familiar with medical terminology relating to the visual system may also prove helpful, especially when talking to medical professionals and reading about ... Glossary of Eye Terminology , which lists common terms that eye doctors use ...

  1. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  2. Improving Visual Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gary

    2018-01-01

    A tool that creates realtime interactive color maps for scientific visualization helped enhance the dynamics of a major research project for the Climate, Ocean, and Sea Ice Modeling team at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  3. 10 Data Visualization Tips

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    Data visualizations are an effective tool to communicate ... The value axis should always start at ... more than five slices, and their total value ... They are effective with large datasets and to highlight ... word clouds can add emphasis to specific.

  4. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing......The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  5. Visualization in scientific computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielson, Gregory M; Shriver, Bruce D; Rosenblum, Lawrence J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide a reference source to scientists, engineers, and students who are new to scientific visualization or who are interested in expanding their knowledge in this subject...

  6. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  7. Visual Guided Navigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, Martin

    1999-01-01

    .... Similarly, the problem of visual navigation is the recovery of an observer's self-motion with respect to the environment from the moving pattern of light reaching the eyes and the complex of extra...

  8. GPU-based large-scale visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2013-11-19

    Recent advances in image and volume acquisition as well as computational advances in simulation have led to an explosion of the amount of data that must be visualized and analyzed. Modern techniques combine the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming to enable the interactive visualization of giga- and terabytes of image and volume data. A major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount of data that is actually visible on screen, decoupling it from the full data size. This leads to powerful display-aware multi-resolution techniques that enable the visualization of data of almost arbitrary size. The course consists of two major parts: An introductory part that progresses from fundamentals to modern techniques, and a more advanced part that discusses details of ray-guided volume rendering, novel data structures for display-aware visualization and processing, and the remote visualization of large online data collections. You will learn how to develop efficient GPU data structures and large-scale visualizations, implement out-of-core strategies and concepts such as virtual texturing that have only been employed recently, as well as how to use modern multi-resolution representations. These approaches reduce the GPU memory requirements of extremely large data to a working set size that fits into current GPUs. You will learn how to perform ray-casting of volume data of almost arbitrary size and how to render and process gigapixel images using scalable, display-aware techniques. We will describe custom virtual texturing architectures as well as recent hardware developments in this area. We will also describe client/server systems for distributed visualization, on-demand data processing and streaming, and remote visualization. We will describe implementations using OpenGL as well as CUDA, exploiting parallelism on GPUs combined with additional asynchronous

  9. Full surface inspection methods regarding reinforcement corrosion of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichling, K.; Raupach, M.; Broomfield, J.; Gulikers, J.; L'Hostis, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    For reinforced concrete structures a localisation of all significant critical areas can only be done by a full surface inspection. The economic advantages are obvious: uncritical areas have not to be repaired expensively.The first step of the assessment should always be a visual inspection. The range of deterioration causes can be limited and the degree of deterioration may be estimated roughly. The inspection program can be adjusted to the requirements. By means of a full surface potential mapping areas with a high risk for chloride induced reinforcement corrosion can be localised, although no deteriorations are visually detectable at the concrete surface. In combination with concrete cover depth and resistivity measurements areas with corrosion promoting exposure conditions can be localised even if the reinforcement is not yet de-passivated. The following publication gives an overview about the essential full surface investigation methods to localise critical areas regarding corrosion of steel in concrete. The selection of methods is based on the inspection procedure given in reference 2. (authors)

  10. Tools for Teaching Mathematical Functions and Geometric Figures to Tactile Visualization through a Braille Printer for Visual Impairment People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena León

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we showed the features and facilities offered by two new computer programs developed for the treatment and generation of geometric figures and math functions, through a Braille printer designed for visually impaired people. The programs have complete accessible features, in which users with full visual impairments can communicate with the systems via short-keys, and the speech synthesizer. The system sends sound messages that will accompanying the user during all the process to generate geometrical figures or to do a mathematical treatment. Finally, a tactile visualization displays as the results to the person with visual impairment, thus they will can complete their geometry and mathematical studies.

  11. Initial Tests on First Full-size Endcap Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Gavin; Lecoq, Paul; Marcos, Roger; Schneegans, Marc; Sempere-Roldan, P

    1999-01-01

    At the end of last year the first full size ECAL endcap crystals were delivered to CERN.Thirty in number, they were produced to the final geometrical specifications; 220mm long with a rear square face of 30mm and a front square face of 28.6mm. All were de livered polished. The visual inspection, dimension, transmission, light yield and light yield uniformity tests carried out since are discussed, with particular emphasis on the light yield uniformity. The results are very encouraging.

  12. Modulation of visually evoked postural responses by contextual visual, haptic and auditory information: a 'virtual reality check'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F Meyer

    Full Text Available Externally generated visual motion signals can cause the illusion of self-motion in space (vection and corresponding visually evoked postural responses (VEPR. These VEPRs are not simple responses to optokinetic stimulation, but are modulated by the configuration of the environment. The aim of this paper is to explore what factors modulate VEPRs in a high quality virtual reality (VR environment where real and virtual foreground objects served as static visual, auditory and haptic reference points. Data from four experiments on visually evoked postural responses show that: 1 visually evoked postural sway in the lateral direction is modulated by the presence of static anchor points that can be haptic, visual and auditory reference signals; 2 real objects and their matching virtual reality representations as visual anchors have different effects on postural sway; 3 visual motion in the anterior-posterior plane induces robust postural responses that are not modulated by the presence of reference signals or the reality of objects that can serve as visual anchors in the scene. We conclude that automatic postural responses for laterally moving visual stimuli are strongly influenced by the configuration and interpretation of the environment and draw on multisensory representations. Different postural responses were observed for real and virtual visual reference objects. On the basis that automatic visually evoked postural responses in high fidelity virtual environments should mimic those seen in real situations we propose to use the observed effect as a robust objective test for presence and fidelity in VR.

  13. Fontes visuais, cultura visual, história visual: balanço provisório, propostas cautelares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulpiano T. Bezerra de Meneses

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é deslocar o interesse dos historiadores, das fontes visuais (iconografia, iconologia para um tratamento mais abrangente da visualidade como uma dimensão importante da vida social e dos processos sociais. Após um rápido exame das contribuições trazidas para o estudo dos registros visuais e dos regimes visuais pela História da Arte, Antropologia Visual, Sociologia Visual e Estudos de Cultura Visual, o autor propõe algumas premissas para a consolidação de uma História Visual, concebida não como mais um feudo acadêmico, mas como uma conjunto de recursos operacionais para ampliar a consistência da pesquisa histórica em todos os seus domínios.The aim of this article is to displace the historian's focus on visual sources (iconography, iconology into a more rewarding treatment of visuality as an important dimension of social life and historical processes. After a survey of contributions brought in by Art History, Visual Anthropology, Visual Sociology and Visual Culture Studies, concerning visual records and visual regimes, the author introduces a few prerequisites for a Visual History - intended not as a new academic feud, but as a set of strategic operational means of enhancing historical research in all its domains.

  14. Direct Visual Editing of Node Attributes in Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eichner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many expressive visualization techniques for analyzing graphs. Yet, there is only little research on how existing visual representations can be employed to support data editing. An increasingly relevant task when working with graphs is the editing of node attributes. We propose an integrated visualize-and-edit approach to editing attribute values via direct interaction with the visual representation. The visualize part is based on node-link diagrams paired with attribute-dependent layouts. The edit part is as easy as moving nodes via drag-and-drop gestures. We present dedicated interaction techniques for editing quantitative as well as qualitative attribute data values. The benefit of our novel integrated approach is that one can directly edit the data while the visualization constantly provides feedback on the implications of the data modifications. Preliminary user feedback indicates that our integrated approach can be a useful complement to standard non-visual editing via external tools.

  15. Connectivity changes underlying neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Scharnowski

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a new approach that allows training of voluntary control over regionally specific brain activity. However, the neural basis of successful neurofeedback learning remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed changes in effective brain connectivity associated with neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM, we found that training participants to increase visual cortex activity was associated with increased effective connectivity between the visual cortex and the superior parietal lobe. Specifically, participants who learned to control activity in their visual cortex showed increased top-down control of the superior parietal lobe over the visual cortex, and at the same time reduced bottom-up processing. These results are consistent with efficient employment of top-down visual attention and imagery, which were the cognitive strategies used by participants to increase their visual cortex activity.

  16. Visual Multipoles And The Assessment Of Visual Sensitivity To Displayed Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley A.

    1989-08-01

    The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is widely used to specify the sensitivity of the visual system. Each point of the CSF specifies the amount of contrast needed to detect a sinusoidal grating of a given spatial frequency. This paper describes a set of five mathematically related visual patterns, called "multipoles," that should replace the CSF for measuring visual performance. The five patterns (ramp, edge, line, dipole and quadrupole) are localized in space rather than being spread out as sinusoidal gratings. The multipole sensitivity of the visual system provides an alternative characterization that complements the CSF in addition to offering several advantages. This paper provides an overview of the properties and uses of the multipole stimuli. This paper is largely a summary of several unpublished manuscripts with excerpts from them. Derivations and full references are omitted here. Please write me if you would like the full manuscripts.

  17. Visual target distance, but not visual cursor path length produces shifts in motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike eWendker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When using tools effects in body space and distant space often do not correspond. Findings so far demonstrated that in this case visual feedback has more impact on action control than proprioceptive feedback. The present study varies the dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects and investigates its impact on aftereffects in motor responses. In two experiments participants perform linear hand movements on a covered digitizer tablet to produce ∩-shaped cursor trajectories on the display. The shape of hand motion and cursor motion (linear vs. curved is dissimilar and therefore does not overlap. In one condition the length of hand amplitude and visual target distance is similar and constant while the length of the cursor path is dissimilar and varies. In another condition the length of the hand amplitude varies while the lengths of visual target distance (similar or dissimilar and cursor path (dissimilar are constant. First, we found that aftereffects depended on the relation between hand path length and visual target distance, and not on the relation between hand and cursor path length. Second, increasing contextual interference did not reveal larger aftereffects. Finally, data exploration demonstrated a considerable benefit from gain repetitions across trials when compared to gain switches. In conclusion, dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects modulates human information processing in visually controlled actions. However, adjustment of the internal model seems to occur very fast for this kind of simple linear transformation, so that the impact of prior visual feedback is fleeting.

  18. Eye structure, activity rhythms and visually-driven behavior are tuned to visual niche in ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eYilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insects have evolved physiological adaptations and behavioural strategies that allow them to cope with a broad spectrum of environmental challenges and contribute to their evolutionary success. Visual performance plays a key role in this success. Correlates between life style and eye organization have been reported in various insect species. Yet, if and how visual ecology translates effectively into different visual discrimination and learning capabilities has been less explored. Here we report results from optical and behavioural analyses performed in two sympatric ant species, Formica cunicularia and Camponotus aethiops. We show that the former are diurnal while the latter are cathemeral. Accordingly, F. cunicularia workers present compound eyes with higher resolution, while C. aethiops workers exhibit eyes with lower resolution but higher sensitivity. The discrimination and learning of visual stimuli differs significantly between these species in controlled dual-choice experiments: discrimination learning of small-field visual stimuli is achieved by F. cunicularia but not by C. aethiops, while both species master the discrimination of large-field visual stimuli. Our work thus provides a paradigmatic example about how timing of foraging activities and visual environment match the organization of compound eyes and visually-driven behaviour. This correspondence underlines the relevance of an ecological/evolutionary framework for analyses in behavioural neuroscience.

  19. Testing of Visual Field with Virtual Reality Goggles in Manual and Visual Grasp Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Wroblewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated perimetry is used for the assessment of visual function in a variety of ophthalmic and neurologic diseases. We report development and clinical testing of a compact, head-mounted, and eye-tracking perimeter (VirtualEye that provides a more comfortable test environment than the standard instrumentation. VirtualEye performs the equivalent of a full threshold 24-2 visual field in two modes: (1 manual, with patient response registered with a mouse click, and (2 visual grasp, where the eye tracker senses change in gaze direction as evidence of target acquisition. 59 patients successfully completed the test in manual mode and 40 in visual grasp mode, with 59 undergoing the standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA testing. Large visual field defects were reliably detected by VirtualEye. Point-by-point comparison between the results obtained with the different modalities indicates: (1 minimal systematic differences between measurements taken in visual grasp and manual modes, (2 the average standard deviation of the difference distributions of about 5 dB, and (3 a systematic shift (of 4–6 dB to lower sensitivities for VirtualEye device, observed mostly in high dB range. The usability survey suggested patients’ acceptance of the head-mounted device. The study appears to validate the concepts of a head-mounted perimeter and the visual grasp mode.

  20. Custom Visualization without Real Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas

    Information Visualization tools have simplified visualization development. Some tools help simple users construct standard visualizations; others help programmers develop custom visualizations. This thesis contributes to the field of Information Visualization and End-User Development. The first...... contribution of the thesis is a taxonomy for Information Visualization development tools. Existing taxonomies from the Information Visualization field are helpful, but none of them can properly categorize visualization tools from a user development perspective. The categorization of 20 Information...... Visualization tools proves the applicability of this taxonomy, and the result showed that there are no Dragand- Drop tools that allow end-user developers as well as programmers to create custom visualizations. The second contribution is a new visualization development approach, the Drag...

  1. Enhancing Visual Basic GUI Applications using VRML Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy

    2010-01-01

    Rapid Application Development (RAD) enables ever expanding needs for speedy development of computer application programs that are sophisticated, reliable, and full-featured. Visual Basic was the first RAD tool for the Windows operating system, and too many people say still it is the best. To provide very good attraction in visual basic 6 applications, this paper directing to use VRML scenes over the visual basic environment.

  2. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2011-02-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment.

  3. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Development of a 3D radial acquisition technique with optimized k-space sampling density and high SNR-efficiency; Natrium-Magnetresonanztomographie. Entwicklung einer 3D radialen Messtechnik mit optimierter k-Raum-Abtastdichte und hoher SNR-Effizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Armin Michael

    2009-04-01

    A 3D radial k-space acquisition technique with homogenous distribution of the sampling density (DA-3D-RAD) is presented. This technique enables short echo times (TE<0.5 ms), that are necessary for {sup 23}Na-MRI, and provides a high SNR-efficiency. The gradients of the DA-3D-RAD-sequence are designed such that the average sampling density in each spherical shell of k-space is constant. The DA-3D-RAD-sequence provides 34% more SNR than a conventional 3D radial sequence (3D-RAD) if T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay is neglected. This SNR-gain is enhanced if T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay is present, so a 1.5 to 1.8 fold higher SNR is measured in brain tissue with the DA-3D-RAD-sequence. Simulations and experimental measurements show that the DA-3D-RAD sequence yields a better resolution in the presence of T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay and less image artefacts when B{sub 0}-inhomogeneities exist. Using the developed sequence, T{sub 1}-, T{sub 2}{sup *}- and Inversion-Recovery-{sup 23}Na-image contrasts were acquired for several organs and {sup 23}Na-relaxation times were measured (brain tissue: T{sub 1}=29.0{+-}0.3 ms; T{sub 2s}{sup *}{approx}4 ms; T{sub 2l}{sup *}{approx}31 ms; cerebrospinal fluid: T{sub 1}=58.1{+-}0.6 ms; T{sub 2}{sup *}=55{+-}3 ms (B{sub 0}=3 T)). T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}{sup *}-relaxation times of cerebrospinal fluid are independent of the selected magnetic field strength (B0 = 3T/7 T), whereas the relaxation times of brain tissue increase with field strength. Furthermore, {sup 23}Na-signals of oedemata were suppressed in patients and thus signals from different tissue compartments were selectively measured. (orig.)

  4. Full Employment in a Green Society

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Dawe

    2012-01-01

    This article is an attempt to re-conceptualise Full Employment. The UK context is the main geographical focus. A normative route to the rehabilitation of Full Employment is offered - recast here as 'Green Full Employment' - utilising a variety of Green perspectives from sociology, politics and economics. This contribution to the debate about Full Employment is 'normative', because without ethical values we may lack a moral compass to motivate policies. Green Full Employment is presented here ...

  5. Visual working memory capacity and proactive interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K Hartshorne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals.

  6. An automated paradigm for Drosophila visual psychophysics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations that cause learning and memory defects in Drosophila melanogaster have been found to also compromise visual responsiveness and attention. A better understanding of attention-like defects in such Drosophila mutants therefore requires a more detailed characterization of visual responsiveness across a range of visual parameters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an automated behavioral paradigm for efficiently dissecting visual responsiveness in Drosophila. Populations of flies walk through multiplexed serial choice mazes while being exposed to moving visuals displayed on computer monitors, and infra-red fly counters at the end of each maze automatically score the responsiveness of a strain. To test our new design, we performed a detailed comparison between wild-type flies and a learning and memory mutant, dunce(1. We first confirmed that the learning mutant dunce(1 displays increased responsiveness to a black/green moving grating compared to wild type in this new design. We then extended this result to explore responses to a wide range of psychophysical parameters for moving gratings (e.g., luminosity, contrast, spatial frequency, velocity as well as to a different stimulus, moving dots. Finally, we combined these visuals (gratings versus dots in competition to investigate how dunce(1 and wild-type flies respond to more complex and conflicting motion effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that dunce(1 responds more strongly than wild type to high contrast and highly structured motion. This effect was found for simple gratings, dots, and combinations of both stimuli presented in competition.

  7. Chess Evolution Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Li; Wang, Yu-Shuen; Lin, Wen-Chieh

    2014-05-01

    We present a chess visualization to convey the changes in a game over successive generations. It contains a score chart, an evolution graph and a chess board, such that users can understand a game from global to local viewpoints. Unlike current graphical chess tools, which focus only on highlighting pieces that are under attack and require sequential investigation, our visualization shows potential outcomes after a piece is moved and indicates how much tactical advantage the player can have over the opponent. Users can first glance at the score chart to roughly obtain the growth and decline of advantages from both sides, and then examine the position relations and the piece placements, to know how the pieces are controlled and how the strategy works. To achieve this visualization, we compute the decision tree using artificial intelligence to analyze a game, in which each node represents a chess position and each edge connects two positions that are one-move different. We then merge nodes representing the same chess position, and shorten branches where nodes on them contain only two neighbors, in order to achieve readability. During the graph rendering, the nodes containing events such as draws, effective checks and checkmates, are highlighted because they show how a game is ended. As a result, our visualization helps players understand a chess game so that they can efficiently learn strategies and tactics. The presented results, evaluations, and the conducted user studies demonstrate the feasibility of our visualization design.

  8. Learning Science Through Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj

    2005-01-01

    In the context of an introductory physical science course for non-science majors, I have been trying to understand how scientific visualizations of natural phenomena can constructively impact student learning. I have also necessarily been concerned with the instructional and assessment approaches that need to be considered when focusing on learning science through visually rich information sources. The overall project can be broken down into three distinct segments : (i) comparing students' abilities to demonstrate proportional reasoning competency on visual and verbal tasks (ii) decoding and deconstructing visualizations of an object falling under gravity (iii) the role of directed instruction to elicit alternate, valid scientific visualizations of the structure of the solar system. Evidence of student learning was collected in multiple forms for this project - quantitative analysis of student performance on written, graded assessments (tests and quizzes); qualitative analysis of videos of student 'think aloud' sessions. The results indicate that there are significant barriers for non-science majors to succeed in mastering the content of science courses, but with informed approaches to instruction and assessment, these barriers can be overcome.

  9. Appraisals of Salient Visual Elements in Web Page Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Silvennoinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual elements in user interfaces elicit emotions in users and are, therefore, essential to users interacting with different software. Although there is research on the relationship between emotional experience and visual user interface design, the focus has been on the overall visual impression and not on visual elements. Additionally, often in a software development process, programming and general usability guidelines are considered as the most important parts of the process. Therefore, knowledge of programmers’ appraisals of visual elements can be utilized to understand the web page designs we interact with. In this study, appraisal theory of emotion is utilized to elaborate the relationship of emotional experience and visual elements from programmers’ perspective. Participants (N=50 used 3E-templates to express their visual and emotional experiences of web page designs. Content analysis of textual data illustrates how emotional experiences are elicited by salient visual elements. Eight hierarchical visual element categories were found and connected to various emotions, such as frustration, boredom, and calmness, via relational emotion themes. The emotional emphasis was on centered, symmetrical, and balanced composition, which was experienced as pleasant and calming. The results benefit user-centered visual interface design and researchers of visual aesthetics in human-computer interaction.

  10. How to measure distance visual acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Marsden

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual acuity (VA is a measure of the ability of the eye to distinguish shapes and the details of objects at a given distance. It is important to assess VA in a consistent way in order to detect any changes in vision. One eye is tested at a time.

  11. Visual effects and rehabilitation after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Rowe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Strokes, or cerebrovascular accidents (CVA are common, particularly in older people. The problems of motor function and speech are well known. This article explains the common visual problems which can occur with a stroke and gives information about diagnosis and management.

  12. 2-D and 3-D Visualization of Many-to-Many Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeungJin Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the unprecedented wave of Big Data, the importance of information visualization is catching greater momentum. Understanding the underlying relationships between constituent objects is becoming a common task in every branch of science, and visualization of such relationships is a critical part of data analysis. While the techniques for the visualization of binary relationships are widespread, visualization techniques for ternary or higher relationships are lacking. In this paper, we propose a 3-D visualization primitive which is suitable for such relationships. The design goals of the primitive are discussed, and the effectiveness of the proposed visual primitive with respect to information communication is demonstrated in a 3-D visualization environment.

  13. European training network on full-parallax imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Saavedra, Genaro

    2017-05-01

    Current displays are far from truly recreating visual reality. This requires a full-parallax display that can reproduce radiance field emanated from the real scenes. The develop-ment of such technology will require a new generation of researchers trained both in the physics, and in the biology of human vision. The European Training Network on Full-Parallax Imaging (ETN-FPI) aims at developing this new generation. Under H2020 funding ETN-FPI brings together 8 beneficiaries and 8 partner organizations from five EU countries with the aim of training 15 talented pre-doctoral students to become future research leaders in this area. In this contribution we will explain the main objectives of the network, and specifically the advances obtained at the University of Valencia.

  14. Architecture for Teraflop Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, A.R.; Haynes, R.A.

    1999-04-09

    Sandia Laboratories' computational scientists are addressing a very important question: How do we get insight from the human combined with the computer-generated information? The answer inevitably leads to using scientific visualization. Going one technology leap further is teraflop visualization, where the computing model and interactive graphics are an integral whole to provide computing for insight. In order to implement our teraflop visualization architecture, all hardware installed or software coded will be based on open modules and dynamic extensibility principles. We will illustrate these concepts with examples in our three main research areas: (1) authoring content (the computer), (2) enhancing precision and resolution (the human), and (3) adding behaviors (the physics).

  15. Visualization of construction engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Hisako; Miura, Jun

    2000-01-01

    It is required for nuclear power plant construction to reduce construction cost and shorten construction period. An early and accurate construction planning including schedule coordination among the companies has recently become more important and it is possible to obtain necessary information for construction planning in early stage. In this situation, we have been developing a visualization system for construction engineering for nuclear power plants. This system has an interface with the existing Plant Layout 3D-CAD system and consists of three sub systems: (1) Scheduling and simulation system, (2) Yard planning system and (3) Scaffolding planning system. This paper describes overview of this system. This visualization system is very helpful for construction engineers to easily understand situation and environment around installation area, to easily plan a work sequence and confirm the planned schedule, and it is also effective for customers and workers to understand the planning. As a result, this visualization system enables safety and high quality construction. (author)

  16. A feast of visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Strength through structure The visualization and assessment of inner human bone structures can provide better predictions of fracture risk due to osteoporosis. Using micro-computed tomography (µCT), Christoph Räth from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and colleagues based in Munich, Vienna and Salzburg have shown how complex lattice-shaped bone structures can be visualized. The structures were quantified by calculating certain "texture measures" that yield new information about the stability of the bone. A 3D visualization showing the variation with orientation of one of the texture measures for four different bone specimens (from left to right) is shown above. Such analyses may help us to improve our understanding of disease and drug-induced changes in bone structure (C Räth et al. 2008 New J. Phys. 10 125010).

  17. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  18. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  19. Social Set Visualizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2015-01-01

    approach to computational social science mentioned above. The development of the dashboard involved cutting-edge open source visual analytics libraries (D3.js) and creation of new visualizations such as of actor mobility across time and space, conversational comets, and more. Evaluation of the dashboard......Current state-of-the-art in big social data analytics is largely limited to graph theoretical approaches such as social network analysis (SNA) informed by the social philosophical approach of relational sociology. This paper proposes and illustrates an alternate holistic approach to big social data...

  20. CMS tracker visualization tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, G; Osborne, I; Regano, A

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  1. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  2. CMS tracker visualization tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennea, M.S. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Osborne, I. [Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Regano, A. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Zito, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppe.zito@ba.infn.it

    2005-08-21

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  3. Visualization of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.)

  4. Visualizations as Projection Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    The aim of this paper is to inquire into the role of project visualizations in shaping healthcare spaces and practices. The study draws upon an ethnographic field study from a large on-going hospital construction project in Denmark, and focuses on the early phases of on-boarding the design team...... into the project organization. During the on-boarding visualizations multiplies in form, content and purpose, ranging from paper and digitally based projections of clinical work spaces and practices for the future hospital building in use, to paper and digitally based projections of the cost budget and time...

  5. CMS tracker visualization tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennea, M.S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking

  6. Teach yourself visually laptops

    CERN Document Server

    Gunter, Sherry Kinkoph

    2012-01-01

    The fast and easy way to learn about buying, maintaining, and troubleshooting, a laptop How do I find the right laptop for me? Now that I have a laptop, how do I set it up and maintain it? What are some tips for getting the most out of software systems? How do I begin to troubleshoot my laptop? If you are a visual learner and have ever asked yourself any of those questions, then this is just the book you need. Visual, step-by-step guidance walks you through finding the right laptop to meet your needs, getting comfortable with the latest versions of Windows and the Microsoft Office Suite, and u

  7. Visual exploration of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaste-Gomez, Ernesto; Leybon, Jaime I.; Rodriguez, D.

    1998-07-01

    Visual scanpath has been an important work applied in neuro- ophthalmic and psychological studies. This is because it has been working like a tool to validate some pathologies such as visual perception in color or black/white images; color blindness; etc. On the other hand, this tool has reached a big field of applications such as marketing. The scanpath over a specific picture, shows the observer interest in color, shapes, letter size, etc.; even tough the picture be among a group of images, this tool has demonstrated to be helpful to catch people interest over a specific advertisement.

  8. An analysis of fusion algorithms for LWIR and visual images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of methods to fuse pre-registered colour visual and long wave infra-red images to create a new image containing both visual and thermal cues. Three methods of creating the artificially coloured fused images...

  9. Modeling the shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rezai, O

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monkey anterior intraparietal area (AIP) encodes visual information about three-dimensional object shape that is used to shape the hand for grasping. We modeled shape tuning in visual AIP neurons and its relationship with curvature and gradient...

  10. Dream recall and the full moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall.

  11. Academic Journal Embargoes and Full Text Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Documents the reasons for embargoes of academic journals in full text databases (i.e., publisher-imposed delays on the availability of full text content) and provides insight regarding common misconceptions. Tables present data on selected journals covering a cross-section of subjects and publishers and comparing two full text business databases.…

  12. Skin cancer full-grown from scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors investigate the peculiarities of skin cancer full-grown from scar, the theory of it's descent, quote some statistical data on skin cancer full-grown from scar and variety clinical forms of skin cancer full-grown from scar was shown, quote some methods of treatment

  13. Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Using MPEG-4 Compliant Visual Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar S. Aleksic

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe an audio-visual automatic continuous speech recognition system, which significantly improves speech recognition performance over a wide range of acoustic noise levels, as well as under clean audio conditions. The system utilizes facial animation parameters (FAPs supported by the MPEG-4 standard for the visual representation of speech. We also describe a robust and automatic algorithm we have developed to extract FAPs from visual data, which does not require hand labeling or extensive training procedures. The principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the FAPs in order to decrease the dimensionality of the visual feature vectors, and the derived projection weights were used as visual features in the audio-visual automatic speech recognition (ASR experiments. Both single-stream and multistream hidden Markov models (HMMs were used to model the ASR system, integrate audio and visual information, and perform a relatively large vocabulary (approximately 1000 words speech recognition experiments. The experiments performed use clean audio data and audio data corrupted by stationary white Gaussian noise at various SNRs. The proposed system reduces the word error rate (WER by 20% to 23% relatively to audio-only speech recognition WERs, at various SNRs (0–30 dB with additive white Gaussian noise, and by 19% relatively to audio-only speech recognition WER under clean audio conditions.

  14. Cholinergic pairing with visual activation results in long-term enhancement of visual evoked potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Il Kang

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh contributes to learning processes by modulating cortical plasticity in terms of intensity of neuronal activity and selectivity properties of cortical neurons. However, it is not known if ACh induces long term effects within the primary visual cortex (V1 that could sustain visual learning mechanisms. In the present study we analyzed visual evoked potentials (VEPs in V1 of rats during a 4-8 h period after coupling visual stimulation to an intracortical injection of ACh analog carbachol or stimulation of basal forebrain. To clarify the action of ACh on VEP activity in V1, we individually pre-injected muscarinic (scopolamine, nicotinic (mecamylamine, alpha7 (methyllycaconitine, and NMDA (CPP receptor antagonists before carbachol infusion. Stimulation of the cholinergic system paired with visual stimulation significantly increased VEP amplitude (56% during a 6 h period. Pre-treatment with scopolamine, mecamylamine and CPP completely abolished this long-term enhancement, while alpha7 inhibition induced an instant increase of VEP amplitude. This suggests a role of ACh in facilitating visual stimuli responsiveness through mechanisms comparable to LTP which involve nicotinic and muscarinic receptors with an interaction of NMDA transmission in the visual cortex.

  15. Conceptual and visual features contribute to visual memory for natural images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesche M Huebner

    Full Text Available We examined the role of conceptual and visual similarity in a memory task for natural images. The important novelty of our approach was that visual similarity was determined using an algorithm [1] instead of being judged subjectively. This similarity index takes colours and spatial frequencies into account. For each target, four distractors were selected that were (1 conceptually and visually similar, (2 only conceptually similar, (3 only visually similar, or (4 neither conceptually nor visually similar to the target image. Participants viewed 219 images with the instruction to memorize them. Memory for a subset of these images was tested subsequently. In Experiment 1, participants performed a two-alternative forced choice recognition task and in Experiment 2, a yes/no-recognition task. In Experiment 3, testing occurred after a delay of one week. We analyzed the distribution of errors depending on distractor type. Performance was lowest when the distractor image was conceptually and visually similar to the target image, indicating that both factors matter in such a memory task. After delayed testing, these differences disappeared. Overall performance was high, indicating a large-capacity, detailed visual long-term memory.

  16. Testing of visual field with virtual reality goggles in manual and visual grasp modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Dariusz; Francis, Brian A; Sadun, Alfredo; Vakili, Ghazal; Chopra, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Automated perimetry is used for the assessment of visual function in a variety of ophthalmic and neurologic diseases. We report development and clinical testing of a compact, head-mounted, and eye-tracking perimeter (VirtualEye) that provides a more comfortable test environment than the standard instrumentation. VirtualEye performs the equivalent of a full threshold 24-2 visual field in two modes: (1) manual, with patient response registered with a mouse click, and (2) visual grasp, where the eye tracker senses change in gaze direction as evidence of target acquisition. 59 patients successfully completed the test in manual mode and 40 in visual grasp mode, with 59 undergoing the standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) testing. Large visual field defects were reliably detected by VirtualEye. Point-by-point comparison between the results obtained with the different modalities indicates: (1) minimal systematic differences between measurements taken in visual grasp and manual modes, (2) the average standard deviation of the difference distributions of about 5 dB, and (3) a systematic shift (of 4-6 dB) to lower sensitivities for VirtualEye device, observed mostly in high dB range. The usability survey suggested patients' acceptance of the head-mounted device. The study appears to validate the concepts of a head-mounted perimeter and the visual grasp mode.

  17. Using the Visualization Software Evaluation Rubric to explore six freely available visualization applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea P. Atwood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As a variety of visualization tools become available to librarians and researchers, it can be challenging to select a tool that is robust and flexible enough to provide the desired visualization outcomes for work or personal use. In this article, the authors provide guidance on several freely available tools, and offer a rubric for use in evaluating visualization tools. Methods: A rubric was generated to assist the authors in assessing the selected six freely available visualization tools. Each author analyzed three tools, and discussed the differences, similarities, challenges, and successes of each. Results: Of the six visualization tools, two tools emerged with high marks. The authors found that the rubric was a successful evaluation tool, and facilitated discussion on the strengths and weaknesses of the six selected visualization pieces of software. Conclusions: Of the six different visualization tools analyzed, all had different functions and features available to best meet the needs of users. In a situation where there are many options available, and it is difficult at first glance to determine a clear winner, a rubric can be useful in providing a method to quickly assess and communicate the effectiveness of a tool.

  18. Arnhajm's 'visual thinking': Theoretical (nonfoundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, as in other sciences, surely there are concepts that are not theoretically based and are not consistently thought trough. One of these concepts that has found a significant place in the understanding of artistic creativity and psychology of art overall is Arnheim's term: 'visual perception'. It can be said, as Arnheim does, that any perception is thinking at the same time, all reasoning is also intuition, each observation invention, provided that this approach can be deduced from a psychological theory. Starting from Gestalt psychology that seems to be impossible. Understandably, Arnheim, as Gestalt psychologist, with this term wanted to point out that the whole is different than the sum of its parts. 'A visual thinking' was supposed to add something more to the perceptual experience, a property that the perception does not have. Since Gestalt psychology is not based on the psychic apparatus and deferred system, with different functions and especially those unconscious, it is difficult to talk about the theoretical grounding of this notion. Only after postulating these moments Arnheim could elaborate his view that the process of observing the world is interaction between the properties that certain object provides and observers nature. That 'nature of the observer' can only be viewed within the psychic apparatus. In the creativity (art and science, where it aims to be a basic explanatory principle, 'visual perception' is faced with difficulties such as statements from Goetea and Helmholtz, that what is important and new in their creation was given as a free forethought, and that their knowledge came as something almost complete.

  19. Between reality and deception: the anamorphosis in visual communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the use of anamorphosis in the context of the graphic and visual communication by presenting a brief evolution of anamorphosis in visual communication, from its origin to the present time, through the analysis of historical and contemporary examples of anamorphic representations used in art and design. This is a reflection on the potential of the mechanism of anamorphosis as a vehicle of visual communication based on perceptive game between reality and deception. Thus, we propose the possibility of this perceptual mechanism to fit in a more comprehensive history, the history of visuality.

  20. Multi-Layer Visualization of Mobile Mapping Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Eggert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available application various different visualization schemes are conceivable. This paper presents a multi-layer based visualization method, enabling fast data browsing of mobile mapping data. In contrast to systems like Google Street View the proposed visualization does not base on 360° panoramas, but on colored point clouds projected on partially translucent images. Those images are rendered as overlapping textures, preserving the depth of the recorded data and still enabling fast rendering on any kind of platform. Furthermore the proposed visualization allows the user to inspect the mobile mapping data in a panoramic fashion with an immersive depth illusion using the parallax scrolling technic.

  1. Virtual View Image over Wireless Visual Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamantyo Hendrantoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, visual sensors are applied to build virtual view images. When number of visual sensors increases then quantity and quality of the information improves. However, the view images generation is a challenging task in Wireless Visual Sensor Network environment due to energy restriction, computation complexity, and bandwidth limitation. Hence this paper presents a new method of virtual view images generation from selected cameras on Wireless Visual Sensor Network. The aim of the paper is to meet bandwidth and energy limitations without reducing information quality. The experiment results showed that this method could minimize number of transmitted imageries with sufficient information.

  2. Visual odometry for trailer off-tracking estimation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available utilises high precision RTK-GPS, an articulation angle sensor and a kinematic vehicle model. Helmick et al. (2004) proposed a visual odometry-based path-following system for a Mars rover in high-slip environments. Visual odometry data was merged...- dimensional scene. Advances in visual odometry algorithms have resulted in its widespread use in the areas of autonomous road vehicles and mobile robotics. Compared to other odometry systems such as wheel speed sensors and GPS, visual odometry offers high...

  3. Introduction to the special issue on visual aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual aesthetics encompasses the studies of the relationship between vision and various aesthetic phenomena - from the beauty ratings of simple visual patterns to the appreciation of visual art, from the preference for natural objects and scenes to the preference for products of human creativity, from the aesthetic effects of culture to the aesthetic effects of biology, from the universal aesthetic sensitivity to the individual differences in taste, and so on. In this special issue ten papers reported the most recent studies on very different subjects related to visual aesthetics.

  4. Bloom: A Relationship Visualization Tool for Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Horsfall

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Faced with an ever-increasing capacity to collect and store data, organizations must find a way to make sense of it to their advantage. Methods are required to simplify the data so that it can inform strategic decisions and help solve problems. Visualization tools are becoming increasingly popular since they can display complex relationships in a simple, visual format. This article describes Bloom, a project at Carleton University to develop an open source visualization tool for complex networks and business ecosystems. It provides an overview of the visualization technology used in the project and demonstrates its potential impact through a case study using real-world data.

  5. Teach yourself visually OS X Mavericks

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Clear, step-by-step instruction guides you through OS X Mavericks If you want to get quickly up to speed on the newest (and now cat-free) OS X operating system, OS X Mavericks, this easy-to-follow book is just the ticket. Designed for visual learners, Teach Yourself VISUALLY OS X Mavericks uses rich, full-color screenshots and illustrations to show rather than tell you how to use Mavericks. You'll learn how to customize your Mac, enjoy digital media, connect common peripherals, and get the most out of the very latest enhancements, including iBooks, Maps, iCloud, and Calendar. Shows you how t

  6. Teach yourself visually Adobe Dreamweaver CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Janine

    2012-01-01

    Learn to design and maintain content-rich websites the Visual way With more than 90 percent market share, Dreamweaver is the preferred tool for professional website design and production. For those who learn best visually, this colorful, step-by-step guide is the perfect way to learn the program and start building websites with "wow". Numbered steps and full-color screen shots show you just how to navigate the program, format and style text, create web-based forms and pages, build data-driven sites, and maintain a fully functioning website. All the enhancements of the newest version are cover

  7. SEISMIC RISK CARTOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina I. Frolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake loss estimations before future events and following strong earthquakesin emergency mode and their corresponding visualization are extremely important for properdecision on preventive measures and effective response in order to save lives and properties. The paper addresses the methodological issues of seismic risk and vulnerability assessment, mapping with GIS technology application. Requirements for simulation models,databases used at different levels, as well as ways of visualizations oriented for EmergencyManagement Agencies, as well federal and local authorities are discussed. Examples ofmapping at the different levels: global, country, region and urban one are given and theinfluence of input data uncertainties on the reliability of loss computations is analyzed.

  8. Conceptual Content and Unattended Visual Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pereira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available McDowell (1994 proposed a philosophical theory about perceptual content −call it “conceptualism”− that states that in every case the content of a visual experience necessarily involves concepts that fully specify every single feature consciously and simultaneously available during the experience. In this paper I will question conceptualism, arguing that some visual experiences carry information about so many objects, properties and relations at the same time that it is unlikely for subjects to possess and implement concepts for every feature represented simultaneously by the experience at that time. If this is the case, then McDowell’s conceptualism is insufficiently grounded.

  9. Pool boiling visualization on open microchannel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents visualization investigations into pool boiling heat transfer for open minichannel surfaces. The experiments were carried out wih saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Parallel microchannels fabricated by machining were about 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 to 0.4 mm deep. High-speed videos were used as an aid to understanding the heat transfer mechanism. The visualization study aimed at identifying nucleation sites of the departing bubbles and determining their diameters and frequency at various superheats.

  10. The Strucplot Framework: Visualizing Multi-way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meyer

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the “strucplot” framework for the visualization of multi-way contingency tables. Strucplot displays include hierarchical conditional plots such as mosaic, association, and sieve plots, and can be combined into more complex, specialized plots for visualizing conditional independence, GLMs, and the results of independence tests. The framework’s modular design allows flexible customization of the plots’ graphical appearance, including shading, labeling, spacing, and legend, by means of “graphical appearance control” functions. The framework is provided by the R package vcd.

  11. New ways of visualization in laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Grobelski

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific achievements enabled tremendous progress of surgical minimally invasive methods in the 20th century.Laparoscopy and endoscopy became everyday diagnostic and therapeutic tools of modern medicine. Despite itsirrefutable opportunities and advantages, classical minimally invasive surgery still has substantial limitations. Theseinclude: two-dimensional visualization without depth, a small field of view, and the necessity of precise hand-eyecoordination. That is why pressure is placed on manufacturers of endoscopic devices to surmount these technicalobstacles. To write this paper we searched databases for articles on new means of visualization in laparoscopicsurgery. We discuss augmented reality, three-dimensional vision and image-guided surgery.

  12. Teach yourself visually PowerPoint 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, William

    2013-01-01

    A straightforward, visual approach to learning the new PowerPoint 2013! PowerPoint 2013 boasts updated features and new possibilities; this highly visual tutorial provides step-by-step instructions to help you learn all the capabilities of PowerPoint 2013. It covers the basics, as well as all the exciting new changes and additions in a series of easy-to-follow, full-color, two-page tutorials. Learn how to create slides, dress them up using templates and graphics, add sound and animation, and more. This book is the ideal ""show me, don't tell me"" guide to PowerPoint 2013.De

  13. Teach yourself visually WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Majure, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Get your blog up and running with the latest version of WordPress WordPress is one of the most popular, easy-to-use blogging platforms and allows you to create a dynamic and engaging blog, even if you have no programming skills or experience. Ideal for the visual learner, Teach Yourself VISUALLY WordPress, Second Edition introduces you to the exciting possibilities of the newest version of WordPress and helps you get started, step by step, with creating and setting up a WordPress site. Author and experienced WordPress user Janet Majure shares advice, insight, and best practices for taking full

  14. Achieving single channel, full duplex wireless communication

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il; Jain, Mayank; Srinivasan, Kannan; Levis, Phil; Katti, Sachin

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a single channel full-duplex wireless transceiver. The design uses a combination of RF and baseband techniques to achieve full-duplexing with minimal effect on link reliability. Experiments on real nodes show the full-duplex prototype achieves median performance that is within 8% of an ideal full-duplexing system. This paper presents Antenna Cancellation, a novel technique for self-interference cancellation. In conjunction with existing RF interference cancellation and digital baseband interference cancellation, antenna cancellation achieves the amount of self-interference cancellation required for full-duplex operation. The paper also discusses potential MAC and network gains with full-duplexing. It suggests ways in which a full-duplex system can solve some important problems with existing wireless systems including hidden terminals, loss of throughput due to congestion, and large end-to-end delays. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  15. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Thinking Visually about Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Many introductions to algebra in high school begin with teaching students to generalise linear numerical patterns. This article argues that this approach needs to be changed so that students encounter variables in the context of modelling visual patterns so that the variables have a meaning. The article presents sample classroom activities,…

  17. Visualizing Probabilistic Proof

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-Pujol, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The author revisits the Blue Bus Problem, a famous thought-experiment in law involving probabilistic proof, and presents simple Bayesian solutions to different versions of the blue bus hypothetical. In addition, the author expresses his solutions in standard and visual formats, i.e. in terms of probabilities and natural frequencies.

  18. Automated visual attention manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in hich the system is used

  19. Visual management support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Anderson; Jerry Mosier; Geoffrey Chandler

    1979-01-01

    The Visual Management Support System (VMSS) is an extension of an existing computer program called VIEWIT, which has been extensively used by the U. S. Forest Service. The capabilities of this program lie in the rapid manipulation of large amounts of data, specifically opera-ting as a tool to overlay or merge one set of data with another. VMSS was conceived to...

  20. Staging Visual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg, Ingelise

    2009-01-01

    A visual methodological approach of exploring postures and movemenets in young childrens communication with art. How do we translate bodily postures and movements into methodological categories to access data of the interactive processes? These issues will be discussed through video matrials...

  1. NCI Visuals Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI Visuals Online contains images from the collections of the National Cancer Institute's Office of Communications and Public Liaison, including general biomedical and science-related images, cancer-specific scientific and patient care-related images, and portraits of directors and staff of the National Cancer Institute.

  2. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  3. Graph visualization (Invited talk)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; Kreveld, van M.J.; Speckmann, B.

    2012-01-01

    Black and white node link diagrams are the classic method to depict graphs, but these often fall short to give insight in large graphs or when attributes of nodes and edges play an important role. Graph visualization aims obtaining insight in such graphs using interactive graphical representations.

  4. Network Visualization Project (NVP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Application data flow .............................................................................2 Fig. 2 Sample JSON data...interface supporting improved network analysis and network communication visualization. 2. Application Design NVP consists of 2 parts: back-end data...notation ( JSON ) format. This JSON is provided as input to the front-end application of the project. This interaction of the user with the back-end

  5. Flow visualization using bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    Soap bubbles were used for visualizing flows. The tests effected allowed some characteristics of flows around models in blow tunnels to be precised at mean velocities V 0 5 . The velocity of a bubble is measured by chronophotography, the bulk envelope of the trajectories is also registered [fr

  6. The Visual Identity Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant-Gadd, Laurie; Sansone, Kristina Lamour

    2008-01-01

    Identity is the focus of the middle-school visual arts program at Cambridge Friends School (CFS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sixth graders enter the middle school and design a personal logo as their first major project in the art studio. The logo becomes a way for students to introduce themselves to their teachers and to represent who they are…

  7. Visualizing the Geometric Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Mathematical proofs often leave students unconvinced or without understanding of what has been proved, because they provide no visual-geometric representation. Presented are geometric models for the finite geometric series when r is a whole number, and the infinite geometric series when r is the reciprocal of a whole number. (MNS)

  8. Visually observing comets

    CERN Document Server

    Seargent, David A J

    2017-01-01

    In these days of computers and CCD cameras, visual comet observers can still contribute scientifically useful data with the help of this handy reference for use in the field. Comets are one of the principal areas for productive pro-amateur collaboration in astronomy, but finding comets requires a different approach than the observing of more predictable targets. Principally directed toward amateur astronomers who prefer visual observing or who are interested in discovering a new comet or visually monitoring the behavior of known comets, it includes all the advice needed to thrive as a comet observer. After presenting a brief overview of the nature of comets and how we came to the modern understanding of comets, this book details the various types of observations that can usefully be carried out at the eyepiece of a telescope. Subjects range from how to search for new comets to visually estimating the brightness of comets and the length and orientation of tails, in addition to what to look for in comet heads a...

  9. Visualization of hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Bijl, P.; Toet, A.

    2007-01-01

    We developed four new techniques to visualize hyper spectral image data for man-in-the-loop target detection. The methods respectively: (1) display the subsequent bands as a movie (“movie”), (2) map the data onto three channels and display these as a colour image (“colour”), (3) display the

  10. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  11. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  12. Visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) provides land users and environmental authorities with the tools to assess soil quality for crop performance. This book describes the assessment of the various structural conditions of soil, especially after quality degradation such as compaction, erosion or organic...... and nutrient leaching, and for diagnosing and rectifying erosion and compaction in soils....

  13. Visual Information Communications International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Zhang, Kang; VINCI'09

    2010-01-01

    Visual Information Communication is based on VINCI'09, The Visual Information Communications International Conference, September 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Topics covered include The Arts of Visual Layout, Presentation & Exploration, The Design of Visual Attributes, Symbols & Languages, Methods for Visual Analytics and Knowledge Discovery, Systems, Interfaces and Applications of Visualization, Methods for Multimedia Data Recognition & Processing. This cutting-edge book addresses the issues of knowledge discovery, end-user programming, modeling, rapid systems prototyping, education, and design activities. Visual Information Communications is an edited volume whose contributors include well-established researchers worldwide, from diverse disciplines including architects, artists, engineers, and scientists. Visual Information Communication is designed for a professional audience composed of practitioners and researchers working in the field of digital design and visual communications. This volume i...

  14. Formation of 17-18 yrs age girl students’ visual performance by means of visual training at stage of adaptation to learning loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko S.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of health related training influence of basketball and volleyball elements on functional state of 1 st year students’ visual analyzers in period of adaptation to learning loads with expressed visual component. Material: in experiment 29 students of 17-18 year age without visual pathologies participated. Indicators of visual performance were determined by correction table of Tagayeva and processed by Weston methodic. Accommodative function was tested by method of mechanical proximetry. Results: the authors worked out and tested two programs of visual training. Influence of visual trainings on visual performance’s main components (quickness, quality, integral indicators was studied as well as eye’s accommodative function (by dynamic of position of the nearest point of clear vision. Conclusions: Application of visual trainings at physical education classes permits to improve indicators of visual analyzer’s performance as well as minimize negative influence of intensive learning loads on eye’ accommodative function.

  15. Visualize This The FlowingData Guide to Design, Visualization, and Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Practical data design tips from a data visualization expert of the modern age Data doesn?t decrease; it is ever-increasing and can be overwhelming to organize in a way that makes sense to its intended audience. Wouldn?t it be wonderful if we could actually visualize data in such a way that we could maximize its potential and tell a story in a clear, concise manner? Thanks to the creative genius of Nathan Yau, we can. With this full-color book, data visualization guru and author Nathan Yau uses step-by-step tutorials to show you how to visualize and tell stories with data. He explains how to ga

  16. A Prospective Profile of Visual Field Loss following Stroke: Prevalence, Type, Rehabilitation, and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Rowe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To profile site of stroke/cerebrovascular accident, type and extent of field loss, treatment options, and outcome. Methods. Prospective multicentre cohort trial. Standardised referral and investigation protocol of visual parameters. Results. 915 patients were recruited with a mean age of 69 years (SD 14. 479 patients (52% had visual field loss. 51 patients (10% had no visual symptoms. Almost half of symptomatic patients (n=226 complained only of visual field loss: almost half (n=226 also had reading difficulty, blurred vision, diplopia, and perceptual difficulties. 31% (n=151 had visual field loss as their only visual impairment: 69% (n=328 had low vision, eye movement deficits, or visual perceptual difficulties. Occipital and parietal lobe strokes most commonly caused visual field loss. Treatment options included visual search training, visual awareness, typoscopes, substitutive prisms, low vision aids, refraction, and occlusive patches. At followup 15 patients (7.5% had full recovery, 78 (39% had improvement, and 104 (52% had no recovery. Two patients (1% had further decline of visual field. Patients with visual field loss had lower quality of life scores than stroke patients without visual impairment. Conclusions. Stroke survivors with visual field loss require assessment to accurately define type and extent of loss, diagnose coexistent visual impairments, and offer targeted treatment.

  17. The building blocks of the full body ownership illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella eMaselli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has reported that it is not difficult to give people the illusion of ownership over an artificial body, providing a powerful tool for the investigation of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying body perception and self consciousness. We present an experimental study that uses immersive virtual reality focused on identifying the perceptual building blocks of this illusion. We systematically manipulated visuotactile and visual sensorimotor contingencies, visual perspective, and the appearance of the virtual body in order to assess their relative role and mutual interaction. Consistent results from subjective reports and physiological measures showed that a first person perspective over a fake humanoid body is essential for eliciting a body ownership illusion. We found that the level of realism of the virtual body, in particular the realism of skin tone, plays a critical role: when high enough, the illusion can be triggered by the sole effect of the spatial overlap between the real and virtual bodies, providing congruent visuoproprioceptive information, with no need for the additional contribution of congruent visuotactile and/or visual sensorimotor cues. Additionally, we found that the processing of incongruent perceptual cues can be modulated by the level of the illusion: when the illusion is strong, incongruent cues are not experienced as incorrect. Participants exposed to asynchronous visuotactile stimulation can experience the ownership illusion and perceive touch as originating from an object seen to contact the virtual body. Analogously, when the level of realism of the virtual body and/or the spatial overlap of the two bodies is not high enough, the contribution of congruent multisensory and/or sensorimotor cues is required for evoking the illusion. On the basis of these results and inspired by findings from neurophysiological recordings in the monkey, we propose a model that accounts for many of the results reported

  18. Case Studies of Environmental Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Patlakas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance gap between simulation and reality has been identified as a major challenge to achieving sustainability in the Built Environment. While Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE surveys are an integral part of better understanding building performance, and thus addressing this issue, the importance of POE remains relatively unacknowledged within the wider Built Environment community. A possible reason that has been highlighted is that POE survey data is not easily understood and utilizable by non-expert stakeholders, including designers. A potential method by which to address this is the visualization method, which has well established benefits for communication of big datasets. This paper presents two case studies where EnViz (short for “Environmental Visualization”, a prototype software application developed for research purposes, was utilized and its effectiveness tested via a range of analysis tasks. The results are discussed and compared with those of previous work that utilized variations of the methods presented here. The paper concludes by presenting the lessons drawn from the five-year period of EnViz, emphasizing the potential of environmental visualization for decision support in environmental design and engineering for the built environment, and suggests directions for future development.

  19. Visual Processing Speeds in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Croker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate visual processing speeds in children. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task with schematic faces as stimuli was given to ninety-nine 6–10-year-old children as well as a short form of the WISC-III. Participants were asked to determine whether a happy face stimulus was embedded in a stream of distracter stimuli. Presentation time was gradually reduced from 500 ms per stimulus to 100 ms per stimulus, in 50 ms steps. The data revealed that (i RSVP speed increases with age, (ii children aged 8 years and over can discriminate stimuli presented every 100 ms—the speed typically used with RSVP procedures in adult and adolescent populations, and (iii RSVP speed is significantly correlated with digit span and object assembly. In consequence, the RSVP paradigm presented here is appropriate for use in further investigations of processes of temporal attention within this cohort.

  20. Visual pathways involvement in children with acute viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitenkov Vladislav Borisovich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate extent and nature of visual pathways involvement in children with acute viral encephalitis. METHODS: Thirty patients(age 5-12 yearswith acute viral encephalitis underwent visual evoked potentials(VEPinvestigation within 12 days from the appearance of the first signs of disease. Latency and amplitude of P100 peak were compared with normative data and between patients with varicella and tick-borne encephalitis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between children with these two forms of encephalitis. In the whole group in 40% of the cases signs of the visual cortex dysfunction(P100 amplitude loweringand mild slowing of the conductivity along the visual pathways(P100 latency lengtheningwere seen. In 3% of the cases retrobulbar optic neuritis was diagnosed. CONCLUSION:The results indicate that visual pathway have good endurance to the viral encephalitis anatomically, but functionally visual cortex is quite vulnerable towards general disturbances caused by this kind of illness.

  1. Non-retinotopic motor-visual recalibration to temporal lag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eTsujita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal order judgment between the voluntary motor action and its perceptual feedback is important in distinguishing between a sensory feedback which is caused by observer’s own action and other stimulus, which are irrelevant to that action. Prolonged exposure to fixed temporal lag between motor action and visual feedback recalibrates motor-visual temporal relationship, and consequently shifts the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS. Previous studies on the audio-visual temporal recalibration without voluntary action revealed that both low and high level processing are involved. However, it is not clear how the low and high level processings affect the recalibration to constant temporal lag between voluntary action and visual feedback. This study examined retinotopic specificity of the motor-visual temporal recalibration. During the adaptation phase, observers repeatedly pressed a key, and visual stimulus was presented in left or right visual field with a fixed temporal lag (0 or 200 ms. In the test phase, observers performed a temporal order judgment for observer’s voluntary keypress and test stimulus, which was presented in the same as or opposite to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented in the adaptation phase. We found that the PSS was shifted toward the exposed lag in both visual fields. These results suggest that the low visual processing, which is retinotopically specific, has minor contribution to the multimodal adaptation, and that the adaptation to shift the PSS mainly depends upon the high level processing such as attention to specific properties of the stimulus.

  2. Comprehensive visual impairment evaluation for cerebral palsy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the visual impairment in cerebral palsy children with series objective indicators, and conclude their clinical features of visual function.METHODS: Objective tests including following pursuing test, optokinetic nystagmus(OKNdrum test, refractive error examination, fundus examination, ocular deviation examination, pattern visual evoked potential(P-VEPtests and brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRIwere carried out in 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith ocular visual dysfunction; The visual impairment data of the cerebral palsy children were collected, and the clinical features and possible mechanism were analyzed.RESULTS: 1. Of the 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith the visual impairment presented diversified, 25(50 eyes, 58.1%of refractive error, 24(48 eyes, 55.8%of strabismus, 12(24 eyes, 27.9%with nystagmus, 19(38 eyes, 44.2%of optical nerve atrophy or hyperplasia, 35(70 eyes, 81.4%of VEP abnormality. Among children with spastic cerebral palsy, the incidence of visual impairment was statistically significant difference compared with other groups(PP>0.05, no nystagmus in patients with severe occipital cortex damage.CONCLUSION: Cerebral palsy children were usually with visual impairment, and presented with special clinical features; Comprehensive objective visual tests are accurate and reliable for evaluation of the visual function in cerebral palsy children.

  3. Monocular Visual Deprivation Suppresses Excitability in Adult Human Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Astrid Rosenstand; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... of visual deprivation has a substantial impact on experience-dependent plasticity of the human visual cortex.......The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... employed TMS to trace plastic changes in adult visual cortex before, during, and after 48 h of monocular deprivation (MD) of the right dominant eye. In healthy adult volunteers, MD-induced changes in visual cortex excitability were probed with paired-pulse TMS applied to the left and right occipital cortex...

  4. Data visualization a guide to visual storytelling for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Data Visualization: A Guide to Visual Storytelling for Libraries is a practical guide to the skills and tools needed to create beautiful and meaningful visual stories through data visualization. Learn how to sift through complex datasets to better understand a variety of metrics, such as trends in user behavior and electronic resource usage, return on investment (ROI) and impact metrics, and learning and reference analytics. Sections include: .Identifying and interpreting datasets for visualization .Tools and technologies for creating meaningful visualizations .Case studies in data visualization and dashboards Understanding and communicating trends from your organization s data is essential. Whether you are looking to make more informed decisions by visualizing organizational data, or to tell the story of your library s impact on your community, this book will give you the tools to make it happen."

  5. Visual thinking in action: visualizations as used on whiteboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walny, Jagoda; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Venolia, Gina; Fawcett, Philip

    2011-12-01

    While it is still most common for information visualization researchers to develop new visualizations from a data- or taskdriven perspective, there is growing interest in understanding the types of visualizations people create by themselves for personal use. As part of this recent direction, we have studied a large collection of whiteboards in a research institution, where people make active use of combinations of words, diagrams and various types of visuals to help them further their thought processes. Our goal is to arrive at a better understanding of the nature of visuals that are created spontaneously during brainstorming, thinking, communicating, and general problem solving on whiteboards. We use the qualitative approaches of open coding, interviewing, and affinity diagramming to explore the use of recognizable and novel visuals, and the interplay between visualization and diagrammatic elements with words, numbers and labels. We discuss the potential implications of our findings on information visualization design. © 2011 IEEE

  6. The Visual Effects of Intraocular Colored Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern life is associated with a myriad of visual problems, most notably refractive conditions such as myopia. Human ingenuity has addressed such problems using strategies such as spectacle lenses or surgical correction. There are other visual problems, however, that have been present throughout our evolutionary history and are not as easily solved by simply correcting refractive error. These problems include issues like glare disability and discomfort arising from intraocular scatter, photostress with the associated transient loss in vision that arises from short intense light exposures, or the ability to see objects in the distance through a veil of atmospheric haze. One likely biological solution to these more long-standing problems has been the use of colored intraocular filters. Many species, especially diurnal, incorporate chromophores from numerous sources (e.g., often plant pigments called carotenoids into ocular tissues to improve visual performance outdoors. This review summarizes information on the utility of such filters focusing on chromatic filtering by humans.

  7. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.

  8. Detection and Visualization of Android Malware Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Somarriba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malware analysts still need to manually inspect malware samples that are considered suspicious by heuristic rules. They dissect software pieces and look for malware evidence in the code. The increasing number of malicious applications targeting Android devices raises the demand for analyzing them to find where the malcode is triggered when user interacts with them. In this paper a framework to monitor and visualize Android applications’ anomalous function calls is described. Our approach includes platform-independent application instrumentation, introducing hooks in order to trace restricted API functions used at runtime of the application. These function calls are collected at a central server where the application behavior filtering and a visualization take place. This can help Android malware analysts in visually inspecting what the application under study does, easily identifying such malicious functions.

  9. NEGOSIASI PENERJEMAHAN VERBAL - VISUAL DESAIN GRAFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeljadi Pranata

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Design is commonly regarded as an act of individual creation to which both verbalization and logical analysis are only peripherally relevant. This article reviews a research study about talking design by Tomes et al (1998 which involving graphic designers and their clients. The conclusion is that talking design -- verbal and visual -- is the design itself. Comments from a design-major student give more light to the research s outputs. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Desain umumnya dipandang sebagai karya ekspresi diri. Analisis logis dan penerjemahan verbal hanya dianggap relevan di permukaan saja. Artikel ini mereview kajian riset Tomes dkk. (1998 mengenai bahasan desain yang melibatkan tim desainer grafis dan kliennya. Simpulannya%2C bahasan desain ¾ verbal dan visual ¾ adalah desain itu sendiri. Artikel ini dilengkapi tanggapan mahasiswa desain terhadap hasil riset tersebut. graphic design%2C design process%2C verbal/visual communication

  10. Conditional Probability Modulates Visual Search Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan eCort

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of probability on visual search. Previous work has shown that people can utilize spatial and sequential probability information to improve target detection. We hypothesized that performance improvements from probability information would extend to the efficiency of visual search. Our task was a simple visual search in which the target was always present among a field of distractors, and could take one of two colors. The absolute probability of the target being either color was 0.5; however, the conditional probability – the likelihood of a particular color given a particular combination of two cues – varied from 0.1 to 0.9. We found that participants searched more efficiently for high conditional probability targets and less efficiently for low conditional probability targets, but only when they were explicitly informed of the probability relationship between cues and target color.

  11. DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL DAN PERILAKU KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Limandoko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The word design is a word with different meanings. In the visual communication context it has became part of the team in the communication industry - the world of advertising%2C magazine and newspaper publishing%2C marketing and public relations%2C and%2C indeed%2C it has became one of the influential aspects to shape the behavior of a society and its economic development. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Desain merupakan sebuah kata dengan banyak makna. Dalam konteks komunikasi visual%2C desain sudah menjadi bagian dari tim dalam industri komunikasi. Dunia advertising%2C publikasi majalah dan suratkabar%2C pemasaran dan public relations%2C dan yang pasti desain juga sudah menjadi salah satu aspek yang berpengaruh dalam membentuk perilaku suatu masyarakat dan perkembangan ekonominya. design%2C designer%2C visual communication design%2C behavior%2C consumer

  12. Demands Set Upon Modern Cartographic Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Frangeš

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific cartography has the task to develop and research new methods of cartographic visualization. General demands are set upon modern cartographic visualization, which encompasses digital cartography and computer graphics: legibility, clearness, accuracy, plainness and aesthetics. In this paper, it is explained in detail what demands should be met in order to satisfy the general demands set. In order to satisfy the demand of legibility, one should respect conditions of minimal sizes, appropriate graphical density and better differentiation of known features. Demand of clearness needs to be met by fulfilling conditions of simplicity, contrasting quality and layer arrangement of cartographic representation. Accuracy, as the demand on cartographic visualization, can be divided into positioning accuracy and accuracy signs. For fulfilling the demand of plainness, the conditions of symbolism, traditionalism and hierarchic organization should be met. Demand of aesthetics will be met if the conditions of beauty and harmony are fulfilled.

  13. VISUAL ABILITY IN AMBLYOPIC CHILDREN COMPARED TO CHILDREN WITH NORMAL VISUAL ACUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Tončić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vision rehabilitation in adults with low vision, even in children, is achieved with special devices, called low vision aids, LVA. The aim of the study is to determine the degree of visual function in amblyopic children and daily activities that are best related to those of normally sighted peers with normal visual acuity. The subjects were divided into two groups, matched 1:1 by age and gender: the first group consisted of 19 amblyopic children, and the second one consisted of 19 children with normal visual acuity. The questionnaire used to assess visual ability was Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC, a reliable instrument for measuring visual ability in children with low vision. The study was conducted in the only rehabilitation center for amblyopic children in this region, so this is also a pioneer study. The overall result of CVAQC in amblyopic children was 1.287 log vs.-2.956, representing statistically significantly poorer visual ability in comparison to peers without vision deficit (p˂0.005. Amblyopic children function best in entertainment activities, especially in listening music (-2.31 log; as for sport, these children report swimming to be their favourite activity (-0.99 log. In the field of education they show best results in language acquisition (-0.79 log and the worst in mathematics (3.13 log. The greatest problem is reading small print texts books (2.61 log. Low vision children have poorer result of visual function in comparison to their peers with normal visual acuity. A precise deficit assessment in the most important spheres of life can be determined by using the questionnaires, so the rehabilitation can be rightly chosen.

  14. Assessment of visual disability using visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jihoon; Oh, Seiyul; Kyung, Sungeun

    2012-08-06

    The purpose of this study is to validate the use of visual evoked potential (VEP) to objectively quantify visual acuity in normal and amblyopic patients, and determine if it is possible to predict visual acuity in disability assessment to register visual pathway lesions. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with normal vision, unilateral amblyopia, optic neuritis, and visual disability who visited the university medical center for registration from March 2007 to October 2009. The study included 20 normal subjects (20 right eyes: 10 females, 10 males, ages 9-42 years), 18 unilateral amblyopic patients (18 amblyopic eyes, ages 19-36 years), 19 optic neuritis patients (19 eyes: ages 9-71 years), and 10 patients with visual disability having visual pathway lesions. Amplitude and latencies were analyzed and correlations with visual acuity (logMAR) were derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic subjects. Correlation of VEP amplitude and visual acuity (logMAR) of 19 optic neuritis patients confirmed relationships between visual acuity and amplitude. We calculated the objective visual acuity (logMAR) of 16 eyes from 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic eyes. Linear regression analyses between amplitude of pattern visual evoked potentials and visual acuity (logMAR) of 38 eyes from normal (right eyes) and amblyopic (amblyopic eyes) subjects were significant [y = -0.072x + 1.22, x: VEP amplitude, y: visual acuity (logMAR)]. There were no significant differences between visual acuity prediction values, which substituted amplitude values of 19 eyes with optic neuritis into function. We calculated the objective visual acuity of 16 eyes of 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations of y = -0.072x + 1.22 (-0.072). This resulted in a prediction reference of visual acuity associated with malingering vs. real

  15. Visual hallucinations caused by Charles Bonnet Syndrome: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had no cognitive impairment and was fully aware of the ... eration. Ms P's main complaint was visual hallucinations. ... brother in front of her eyes. She also displayed ... her would seem to develop a full beard. .... Beta blocking agents. 4.

  16. Characterizing visually objectionable and nonobjectionable medullated fibers in mohair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available medullated whole fibers overlapped significantly with that of visually nonobjectionable medullated fibers, confirming previous studies on fiber snippets, that Med Ratio on its own does not represent a reliable criterion for consistently and accurately...

  17. Scrapbook (a visual essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Carson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Working with a range of material (objects, ephemera, texts characteristic of a scrapbook, Carson & Miller will produce a visual essay that investigates the experience of reading such matter in this often underrated and undervalued form. In this context the notion of reading (and, subsequently re-reading and mis-reading will be utilised to explore the construction of narrative and the manner in which such narratives can present misleading, misinterpreted or inaccurate accounts of ‘things’. In doing so, such accounts can produce a multiplicity of new narratives.

                To develop this idea visually Carson & Miller will harness the tradition and format of a scrapbook. Scrapbooks imply the creative use of material which would be valued differently (or indeed undervalued in other contexts; the inclusion of scraps in the scrapbook claims that which is defined as ‘scrap’ as valuable and worthy of possession. In essence a scrapbook brings together disparate material and is often constructed according to its own internal ordering and logic; sometimes things are related by type, sometimes unlikely objects are combined or juxtaposed in fortuitous encounters. Such fortuitous encounters tell their own stories but also produce new narratives through generating new combinations of significance (Allmer iv.

  18. Full-Mouth Intraoral Radiographic Survey in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Adriana; Legendre, Loïc

    2017-09-01

    Dental pathologies are highly prevalent in pet rabbit populations, making oral radiography an essential tool in the evaluation of lagomorph dentitions. The unique anatomy of the rabbit's mouth limits the examination of the conscious animal to the rostral portion of it's mouth. In addition, the oral examination of an aradicular hypsodont tooth is restricted to the short coronal fraction of its crown. Erstwhile images obtained by the extraoral technique were once considered the most practical and informative tool in rabbit dentistry; however, limited visualization of the key structures of individual teeth became the major drawback of this technique. As new imaging technologies are becoming widely available and affordable for veterinarians, intraoral radiography offers the ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat oral pathologies in lagomorphs. This article describes a step-by-step procedure to obtain a full-mouth radiographic survey in rabbits. For this technique, a standard dental X-ray generator and intraoral storage phosphor plates are used while applying the bisecting angle technique. Among the advantages of this technique are detailed visualization of internal and external dental structures, identification of early lesions, and detection of occult pathologies. Furthermore, intraoral images offer superior resolution and higher diagnostic quality with minimal radiation exposure, making this method safer for the veterinarian, staff members, and their patients.

  19. Visualizing compositional data on the Lexis surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Schöley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Lexis surface plot is an established visualization tool in demography. Its presentutility, however, is limited to the domain of one-dimensional magnitudes such as ratesand counts. Visualizing proportions among three or more groups on a period-age grid isan unsolved problem. Objective: We seek to extend the Lexis surface plot to the domain of compositional data. Methods: We propose four techniques for visualizing group compositions on a period-age grid. Todemonstrate the techniques we use data on age-specific cause-of-death compositions inFrance from 1925 to 1999. We compare the visualizations for compliance with multipledesired criteria. Results: Compositional data can effectively be visualized on the Lexis surface. A key feature ofthe classical Lexis surface plot - to show age, period, and cohort patterns - is retainedin the domain of compositions. The optimal choice among the four proposed techniquesdepends primarily on the number of groups making up the composition and whether ornot the plot should be readable by people with impaired colour vision. Contribution: We introduce techniques for visualizing compositional data on a period-age grid to thefield of demography and demonstrate the usefulness of the techniques by performingan exploratory analysis of age-specific French cause-of-death patterns across the 20thcentury. We identify strengths and weaknesses of the four proposed techniques. We contribute a technique to construct the ternary-balance colour scheme from within a per-ceptually uniform colour space. Comments: A full-colour representation is key to understanding the paper. Therefore, we recommend that you read it on screen or print a colour version.

  20. Integration of Visual and Vestibular Information Used to Discriminate Rotational Self-Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Soyka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Do humans integrate visual and vestibular information in a statistically optimal fashion when discriminating rotational self-motion stimuli? Recent studies are inconclusive as to whether such integration occurs when discriminating heading direction. In the present study eight participants were consecutively rotated twice (2s sinusoidal acceleration on a chair about an earth-vertical axis in vestibular-only, visual-only and visual-vestibular trials. The visual stimulus was a video of a moving stripe pattern, synchronized with the inertial motion. Peak acceleration of the reference stimulus was varied and participants reported which rotation was perceived as faster. Just-noticeable differences (JND were estimated by fitting psychometric functions. The visual-vestibular JND measurements are too high compared to the predictions based on the unimodal JND estimates and there is no JND reduction between visual-vestibular and visual-alone estimates. These findings may be explained by visual capture. Alternatively, the visual precision may not be equal between visual-vestibular and visual-alone conditions, since it has been shown that visual motion sensitivity is reduced during inertial self-motion. Therefore, measuring visual-alone JNDs with an underlying uncorrelated inertial motion might yield higher visual-alone JNDs compared to the stationary measurement. Theoretical calculations show that higher visual-alone JNDs would result in predictions consistent with the JND measurements for the visual-vestibular condition.

  1. Irrelevant Auditory and Visual Events Induce a Visual Attentional Blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Theeuwes, Jan; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether a task-irrelevant distractor can induce a visual attentional blink pattern. Participants were asked to detect only a visual target letter (A, B, or C) and to ignore the preceding auditory, visual, or audiovisual distractor. An attentional blink was

  2. Perceptual Dependencies in Information Visualization Assessed by Complex Visual Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Ronald van den; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    A common approach for visualizing data sets is to map them to images in which distinct data dimensions are mapped to distinct visual features, such as color, size and orientation. Here, we consider visualizations in which different data dimensions should receive equal weight and attention. Many of

  3. THE RELEVANCE OF THE VISUAL ARTS CURRICULUM IN THE PREPARATION OF PRE-SERVICE VISUAL ARTS TEACHERS IN UGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Ssegantebuka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research examined the relevance of the visual arts curriculum content with the view of assessing the extent to which it equips pre-service visual arts teachers with the knowledge and skills required for effective teaching. The study adopted a descriptive case study design. Data were collected from three purposively selected National Teacher Colleges (NTCs, six tutors and 90 final year pre-service visual arts teachers participated in this study. The research findings showed that teacher education institutions are inadequately preparing pre-service visual arts teachers because of the gaps in the Visual Arts Curriculum (VAC used in NTCs. Some of these gaps are attributed to the structure of the visual arts curriculum tutors use in NTCs. The visual arts curriculum lacks explicit visual arts assessment strategies; it has wide and combined visual arts content to be covered within a short period of two years and the limited knowledge of the available art materials, tools and equipment. The research recommended the restructuring of the VAC to accommodate more practical; and the introduction of specialized knowledge in the visual arts education (VAE to enable tutors decipher practical knowledge from the theory studied so as to adopt an integrated approach in VAE curriculum.

  4. A Survey on Sensor Coverage and Visual Data Capturing/Processing/Transmission in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence G. H. Yap

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs where camera-equipped sensor nodes can capture, process and transmit image/video information have become an important new research area. As compared to the traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs that can only transmit scalar information (e.g., temperature, the visual data in WVSNs enable much wider applications, such as visual security surveillance and visual wildlife monitoring. However, as compared to the scalar data in WSNs, visual data is much bigger and more complicated so intelligent schemes are required to capture/process/ transmit visual data in limited resources (hardware capability and bandwidth WVSNs. WVSNs introduce new multi-disciplinary research opportunities of topics that include visual sensor hardware, image and multimedia capture and processing, wireless communication and networking. In this paper, we survey existing research efforts on the visual sensor hardware, visual sensor coverage/deployment, and visual data capture/ processing/transmission issues in WVSNs. We conclude that WVSN research is still in an early age and there are still many open issues that have not been fully addressed. More new novel multi-disciplinary, cross-layered, distributed and collaborative solutions should be devised to tackle these challenging issues in WVSNs.

  5. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  6. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eHuberle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty-five years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral (‘what' and a dorsal ('where' visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non-biological motion has been suggested: Perception of biological motion might be impaired when 'non-biological' motion perception is intact and vice versa. The impact of object recognition on the perception of biological motion remains unclear. We thus investigated this question in a patient with severe visual agnosia, who showed normal perception of non-biological motion. The data suggested that the patient's perception of biological motion remained largely intact. However, when tested with objects constructed of coherently moving dots (‘Shape-from-Motion’, recognition was severely impaired. The results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of biological motion perception.

  7. Eksplorasi Visual Diri dalam Desain Karakter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Kurniawati Homan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In a visual communication, the main thing is a communication which can solve the existing problems, not just as something beautiful to look at and considered. The most important part in designing visual communication when the communication is correct, attractive and persuasive. Semiotic understanding becomes important to study in the early stages of designing a visual communication that is intended to improve the effectiveness of communication. Semiotic itself is the study of the meaning of a sign in a particular context. To more easily understand the meaning of the sign, then the practice of visual meaning in the form of character design is made. This study was conducted to make students understanding of the meaning of a sign in a particular context through self-exploration. With the relation between the object being studied by each individual then a design experience will arise. This experience will create a more meaningful and in-depth exploration to students in the understanding of their studies about the meaning of a sign in a particular context. This study is used the method of visual exploration strategy that is commonly used by designers to convey the idea. 

  8. The hippocampus and visual perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy C. H. Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we will discuss the idea that the hippocampus may be involved in both memory and perception, contrary to theories that posit functional and neuroanatomical segregation of these processes. This suggestion is based on a number of recent neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies that have demonstrated that the hippocampus is involved in the visual discrimination of complex spatial scene stimuli. We argue that these findings cannot be explained by long-term memory or working memory processing or, in the case of patient findings, dysfunction beyond the medial temporal lobe. Instead, these studies point towards a role for the hippocampus in higher-order spatial perception. We suggest that the hippocampus processes complex conjunctions of spatial features, and that it may be more appropriate to consider the representations for which this structure is critical, rather than the cognitive processes that it mediates.

  9. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  10. The Weaknesses of Full-Text Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves…

  11. Generating potentially nilpotent full sign patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, I.J.; Olesky, D.D.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.; Vander Meulen, K.N.

    2009-01-01

    A sign pattern is a matrix with entries in {+,-, 0}. A full sign pattern has no zero entries. The refined inertia of a matrix pattern is defined and techniques are developed for constructing potentially nilpotent full sign patterns. Such patterns are spectrally arbitrary. These techniques can also

  12. Where Full-Text Is Viable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    Defines two types of online databases: source, referring to those intended to be complete in themselves, whether full-text or abstracts; and bibliographic, meaning those that are not complete. Predictions are made about the future growth rate of these two types of databases, as well as full-text versus abstract databases. (EM)

  13. The Medline/full-text research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinin, E J; Sievert, M; Johnson, E D; Mitchell, J A

    1991-05-01

    This project was designed to test the relative efficacy of index terms and full-text for the retrieval of documents in those MEDLINE journals for which full-text searching was also available. The full-text files used were MEDIS from Mead Data Central and CCML from BRS Information Technologies. One hundred clinical medical topics were searched in these two files as well as the MEDLINE file to accumulate the necessary data. It was found that full-text identified significantly more relevant articles than did the indexed file, MEDLINE. The full-text searches, however, lacked the precision of searches done in the indexed file. Most relevant items missed in the full-text files, but identified in MEDLINE, were missed because the searcher failed to account for some aspect of natural language, used a logical or positional operator that was too restrictive, or included a concept which was implied, but not expressed in the natural language. Very few of the unique relevant full-text citations would have been retrieved by title or abstract alone. Finally, as of July, 1990 the more current issue of a journal was just as likely to appear in MEDLINE as in one of the full-text files.

  14. Reflexive Learning through Visual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    What. This chapter concerns how visual methods and visual materials can support visually oriented, collaborative, and creative learning processes in education. The focus is on facilitation (guiding, teaching) with visual methods in learning processes that are designerly or involve design. Visual...... methods are exemplified through two university classroom cases about collaborative idea generation processes. The visual methods and materials in the cases are photo elicitation using photo cards, and modeling with LEGO Serious Play sets. Why. The goal is to encourage the reader, whether student...... or professional, to facilitate with visual methods in a critical, reflective, and experimental way. The chapter offers recommendations for facilitating with visual methods to support playful, emergent designerly processes. The chapter also has a critical, situated perspective. Where. This chapter offers case...

  15. The visual attention network untangled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Donner, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    Goals are represented in prefrontal cortex and modulate sensory processing in visual cortex. A new study combines TMS, fMRI and EEG to understand how feedback improves retention of behaviorally relevant visual information.

  16. Improving Design Communication: Advanced Visualization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adeoye, Blessing

    2001-01-01

    .... While design professionals may use similar visual modes (lines, text, graphic symbols, etc.) to represent and communicate concepts in complex drawing tasks, similar visual modes may be used ambiguously across disciplines...

  17. Advanced Visual Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Thaller, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Visual Quantum Mechanics is a systematic effort to investigate and to teach quantum mechanics with the aid of computer-generated animations. It is a self-contained textbook that combines selected topics from atomic physics (spherical symmetry, the hydrogen atom, and particles with spin) with an introduction to quantum information theory (qubits, EPR paradox, teleportation, quantum computers). It explores relativistic quantum mechanics and the strange behavior of Dirac equation solutions. A series of appendices covers important topics from perturbation and scattering theory. The book places an emphasis on ideas and concepts, with a fair to moderate amount of mathematical rigor. Though this book stands alone, it can also be paired with Thaller Visual Quantum Mechanics to form a comprehensive course in quantum mechanics. The software for the first book earned the European Academic Software Award 2000 for outstanding innovation in its field.

  18. Processing Visual Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litke, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The back of the eye is lined by an extraordinary biological pixel detector, the retina. This neural network is able to extract vital information about the external visual world, and transmit this information in a timely manner to the brain. In this talk, Professor Litke will describe a system that has been implemented to study how the retina processes and encodes dynamic visual images. Based on techniques and expertise acquired in the development of silicon microstrip detectors for high energy physics experiments, this system can simultaneously record the extracellular electrical activity of hundreds of retinal output neurons. After presenting first results obtained with this system, Professor Litke will describe additional applications of this incredible technology.

  19. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Martyniuk, Alex; Moyse, Edward; Thomas, Juergen; Waugh, Ben; Yallup, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  20. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  1. Large Scale Visual Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Miniature pinscher Figure 2.5: Visualization of the mammal hierarchy. 23 900 1000 1100 elephant okapi panda platypus Caltech101 Lossless JPG size in...limousine taxi Flat Ours Golden Retriever dog Chihuahua dog Husky domes c animal canine English Se er hyena canine polar bear carnivore...snow leopard feline o er living thing conch en y wheelbarrow carnivore orangutan mammal meerkat mammal carnivore polar bear lynx lion Flat

  2. Graphics and visualization principles & algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Theoharis, T; Platis, Nikolaos; Patrikalakis, Nicholas M

    2008-01-01

    Computer and engineering collections strong in applied graphics and analysis of visual data via computer will find Graphics & Visualization: Principles and Algorithms makes an excellent classroom text as well as supplemental reading. It integrates coverage of computer graphics and other visualization topics, from shadow geneeration and particle tracing to spatial subdivision and vector data visualization, and it provides a thorough review of literature from multiple experts, making for a comprehensive review essential to any advanced computer study.-California Bookw

  3. Intrathalamic mechanisms of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, J Patrick

    2009-03-01

    The classical model of visual processing emphasizes the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) as the major intermediary between the retina and visual cortex. Yet, anatomical findings inspired Francis Crick to suggest an alternative model in which the thalamic reticular nucleus, which envelops the LGN, acts as the "guardian" of visual cortex by modulating LGN activity. Recent work by McAlonan and colleagues supports Crick's hypothesis, thereby enhancing our understanding of the early stages of visual processing.

  4. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Mao

    Full Text Available To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated.Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951.The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye.

  5. Re-thinking visuals: Understanding discursive reformulation of visuals to inform Peace Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumava Mitra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Current definitions of 'peace journalism' are inadequate to take on the full implication of the 'open' nature of visual content because normative discussions are restricted to explicit content of visuals while not underlining the importance of their implicit meaning. Analyzing a photo feature showing empowered Afghan women called 'Liberated in the Hindukush' published in the Foreign Policy magazine as a case study, the article identifies how the particular media product in question fits existing descriptions of (if only, 'accidental' peace journalism but its contextual re-deployment of meaning is contrary to its content. The article argues that the norms of peace journalism need to be revised to account for the subtlety of discursive re-appropriation and re-assimilation of media content, especially visuals.

  6. Visually induced reorientation illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, I. P.; Hu, G.; Oman, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    It is known that rotation of a furnished room around the roll axis of erect subjects produces an illusion of 360 degrees self-rotation in many subjects. Exposure of erect subjects to stationary tilted visual frames or rooms produces only up to 20 degrees of illusory tilt. But, in studies using static tilted rooms, subjects remained erect and the body axis was not aligned with the room. We have revealed a new class of disorientation illusions that occur in many subjects when placed in a 90 degrees or 180 degrees tilted room containing polarised objects (familiar objects with tops and bottoms). For example, supine subjects looking up at a wall of the room feel upright in an upright room and their arms feel weightless when held out from the body. We call this the levitation illusion. We measured the incidence of 90 degrees or 180 degrees reorientation illusions in erect, supine, recumbent, and inverted subjects in a room tilted 90 degrees or 180 degrees. We report that reorientation illusions depend on the displacement of the visual scene rather than of the body. However, illusions are most likely to occur when the visual and body axes are congruent. When the axes are congruent, illusions are least likely to occur when subjects are prone rather than supine, recumbent, or inverted.

  7. Neural computation of visual imaging based on Kronecker product in the primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Yao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What kind of neural computation is actually performed by the primary visual cortex and how is this represented mathematically at the system level? It is an important problem in the visual information processing, but has not been well answered. In this paper, according to our understanding of retinal organization and parallel multi-channel topographical mapping between retina and primary visual cortex V1, we divide an image into orthogonal and orderly array of image primitives (or patches, in which each patch will evoke activities of simple cells in V1. From viewpoint of information processing, this activated process, essentially, involves optimal detection and optimal matching of receptive fields of simple cells with features contained in image patches. For the reconstruction of the visual image in the visual cortex V1 based on the principle of minimum mean squares error, it is natural to use the inner product expression in neural computation, which then is transformed into matrix form. Results The inner product is carried out by using Kronecker product between patches and function architecture (or functional column in localized and oriented neural computing. Compared with Fourier Transform, the mathematical description of Kronecker product is simple and intuitive, so is the algorithm more suitable for neural computation of visual cortex V1. Results of computer simulation based on two-dimensional Gabor pyramid wavelets show that the theoretical analysis and the proposed model are reasonable. Conclusions Our results are: 1. The neural computation of the retinal image in cortex V1 can be expressed to Kronecker product operation and its matrix form, this algorithm is implemented by the inner operation between retinal image primitives and primary visual cortex's column. It has simple, efficient and robust features, which is, therefore, such a neural algorithm, which can be completed by biological vision. 2. It is more suitable

  8. Interactive QR code beautification with full background image embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijian; Wu, Song; Liu, Sijiang; Jiang, Bo

    2017-06-01

    QR (Quick Response) code is a kind of two dimensional barcode that was first developed in automotive industry. Nowadays, QR code has been widely used in commercial applications like product promotion, mobile payment, product information management, etc. Traditional QR codes in accordance with the international standard are reliable and fast to decode, but are lack of aesthetic appearance to demonstrate visual information to customers. In this work, we present a novel interactive method to generate aesthetic QR code. By given information to be encoded and an image to be decorated as full QR code background, our method accepts interactive user's strokes as hints to remove undesired parts of QR code modules based on the support of QR code error correction mechanism and background color thresholds. Compared to previous approaches, our method follows the intention of the QR code designer, thus can achieve more user pleasant result, while keeping high machine readability.

  9. The Application of Visual Illusion in the Visual Communication Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tao; You Ye, Han

    2018-03-01

    With the development of our national reform, opening up and modernization, the science and technology has also been well developed and it has been applied in every wall of life, the development of visual illusion industry is represented in the widespread use of advanced technology in it. Ultimately, the visual illusion is a phenomenon, it should be analyzed from the angles of physics and philosophy. The widespread application of visual illusion not only can improve the picture quality, but also could maximize peoples’ sense degree through the visual communication design works, expand people’s horizons and promote the diversity of visual communication design works.

  10. Survey of Network Visualization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    programming language such as Java, C #, Delphi and Visual basic. AlgoCOMs Network also supports Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ). Hardware: Users...AlgoCOMs Network also supports Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ). Hardware: Users: Availability: • Commercially Available Cost $101...Application Monitoring - Constantly watch the health of your mission-critical applications: MS SQL , MS Exchange, MS IIS, Active Directory. Event

  11. Visualizing the Computational Intelligence Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Waltman (Ludo); J.H. van den Berg (Jan); U. Kaymak (Uzay); N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we visualize the structure and the evolution of the computational intelligence (CI) field. Based on our visualizations, we analyze the way in which the CI field is divided into several subfields. The visualizations provide insight into the characteristics of each subfield

  12. Full employment maintenance in the private sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operationally, full employment can be accomplished by applying modern computer capabilities, game and decision concepts, and communication feedback possibilities, rather than accepted economic tools, to the problem of assuring invariant full employment. The government must provide positive direction to individual firms concerning the net number of employees that each firm must hire or refrain from hiring to assure national full employment. To preserve free enterprise and the decision making power of the individual manager, this direction must be based on each private firm's own numerical employment projections.

  13. La Memoria Visual Como Predictor del Aprendizaje de la Lectura Visual Memory as Predictor of Reading Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Pino

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio longitudinal realizado en alumnos de escuelas municipales de Santiago de Chile, cuyo objetivo fue investigar la relación entre el reconocimiento visual-ortográfico, la percepción y la memoria visual con la lectura inicial. Especialmente se analizó la relación predictiva entre el reconocimiento perceptivo visual de la Figura Compleja de Rey, la memoria visual y el reconocimiento visual-ortográfico con el aprendizaje inicial de la lectura. La muestra estuvo conformada por 105 alumnos de primero básico. Los niños se evaluaron mediante nueve pruebas destinadas al reconocimiento perceptivo visual y visual-ortográfico y una prueba utilizada para evaluar el aprendizaje de la lectura. Los resultados mostraron que la prueba de la Figura Compleja de Rey, que evalúa capacidad de percepción visual, predice significativamente el aprendizaje lector en el nivel inicial.The aim of this article is to present the results of a longitudinal study of a group of public school pupils on their visualperception, visual memory and visual-orthographic recognizing of words and their predictivity on early reading. The sample was comprised of 105 first grade students. The children were assessed using nine tests to measure visual and visual-ortographic perceptual recognition, and a test to measure their reading ability. Results show that Rey's test, which assesses visual perception ability, has a predictive value on initial reading in Spanish speaking Chilean children.

  14. HI-VISUAL: A language supporting visual interaction in programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monden, N.; Yoshino, Y.; Hirakawa, M.; Tanaka, M.; Ichikawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a language named HI-VISUAL which supports visual interaction in programming. Following a brief description of the language concept, the icon semantics and language primitives characterizing HI-VISUAL are extensively discussed. HI-VISUAL also shows a system extensively discussed. HI-VISUAL also shows a system extendability providing the possibility of organizing a high level application system as an integration of several existing subsystems, and will serve to developing systems in various fields of applications supporting simple and efficient interactions between programmer and computer. In this paper, the authors have presented a language named HI-VISUAL. Following a brief description of the language concept, the icon semantics and language primitives characterizing HI-VISUAL were extensively discussed

  15. Dynamic visual noise interferes with storage in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Graham M; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Whittaker, Annalise

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that dynamic visual noise (DVN) does not interfere with memory for random matrices. This has led to suggestions that (a) visual working memory is distinct from imagery, and (b) visual working memory is not a gateway between sensory input and long-term storage. A comparison of the interference effects of DVN with memory for matrices and colored textures shows that DVN can interfere with visual working memory, probably at a level of visual detail not easily supported by long-term memory structures or the recoding of the visual pattern elements. The results support a gateway model of visuospatial working memory and raise questions about the most appropriate ways to measure and model the different levels of representation of information that can be held in visual working memory.

  16. Full MOX core design in ABWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Toshiteru; Mochida, Takaaki; Izutsu, Sadayuki; Fujimaki, Shingo

    2003-01-01

    Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. (EPDC) has been investigating an ABWR plant for construction at Oma-machi in Aomori Prefecture. The reactor, termed FULL MOX-ABWR will have its reactor core eventually loaded entirely with mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel. Extended use of MOX fuel in the plant is expected to play important roles in the country's nuclear fuel recycling policy. MOX fuel bundles will initially be loaded only to less than one-third of the reactor, but will be increased to cover its entire core eventually. The number of MOX fuel bundles in the core thus varies anywhere from 0 to 264 for the initial cycle and, 0 to 872 for equilibrium cycles. The safety design of the FULL MOX-ABWR briefly stated next considers any probable MOX loading combinations out of such MOX bundle usage scheme, starting from full UO 2 to full MOX cores. (author)

  17. Full traveltime inversion in source domain

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lu; Guo, Bowen; Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity

  18. Compact muon solenoid magnet reaches full field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Scientist of the U.S. Department of Energy in Fermilab and collaborators of the US/CMS project announced that the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full field in tests at CERN. (1 apge)

  19. Full Plant STWAVE: SMS Graphical Interface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKee Smith, Jane; Zundel, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is to describe the graphical interface for the full-plane version of the wave model STWAVE (Smith et al. 2001; Smith 2001...

  20. Ultra low power full adder topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Wisland, Dag T.; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    In this paper several low power full adder topologies are presented. The main idea of these circuits is based on the sense energy recovery full adder (SERF) design and the GDI (gate diffusion input) technique. These subthreshold circuits are employed for ultra low power applications. While the pr...... the proposed circuits have some area overhead that is negligible, they have at least 62% less power dissipation when compared with existing designs. In this paper, 65 nm standard models are used for simulations....

  1. Practical, real-time, full duplex wireless

    KAUST Repository

    Jain, Mayank; Choi, Jung Il; Kim, Taemin; Bharadia, Dinesh; Seth, Siddharth; Srinivasan, Kannan; Levis, Philip; Katti, Sachin; Sinha, Prasun

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a full duplex radio design using signal inversion and adaptive cancellation. Signal inversion uses a simple design based on a balanced/unbalanced (Balun) transformer. This new design, unlike prior work, supports wideband and high power systems. In theory, this new design has no limitation on bandwidth or power. In practice, we find that the signal inversion technique alone can cancel at least 45dB across a 40MHz bandwidth. Further, combining signal inversion cancellation with cancellation in the digital domain can reduce self-interference by up to 73dB for a 10MHz OFDM signal. This paper also presents a full duplex medium access control (MAC) design and evaluates it using a testbed of 5 prototype full duplex nodes. Full duplex reduces packet losses due to hidden terminals by up to 88%. Full duplex also mitigates unfair channel allocation in AP-based networks, increasing fairness from 0.85 to 0.98 while improving downlink throughput by 110% and uplink throughput by 15%. These experimental results show that a re- design of the wireless network stack to exploit full duplex capability can result in significant improvements in network performance. © 2011 ACM.

  2. A Ventral Visual Stream Reading Center Independent of Sensory Modality and Visual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Reich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Visual Word Form Area (VWFA is a ventral-temporal-visual area that develops expertise for visual reading. It encodes letter-strings irrespective of case, font, or location in the visual-field, with striking anatomical reproducibility across individuals. In the blind, reading can be achieved using Braille, with a comparable level-of-expertise to that of sighted readers. We investigated which area plays the role of the VWFA in the blind. One would expect it to be at either parietal or bilateral occipital cortex, reflecting the tactile nature of the task and crossmodal plasticity, respectively. However, according to the notion that brain areas are task specific rather than sensory-modality specific, we predicted recruitment of the left-hemispheric VWFA, identically to the sighted and independent of visual experience. Using fMRI we showed that activation during Braille reading in congenitally blind individuals peaked in the VWFA, with striking anatomical consistency within and between blind and sighted. The VWFA was reading-selective when contrasted to high-level language and low-level sensory controls. Further preliminary results show that the VWFA is selectively activated also when people learn to read in a new language or using a different modality. Thus, the VWFA is a mutlisensory area specialized for reading regardless of visual experience.

  3. FluxVisualizer, a Software to Visualize Fluxes through Metabolic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Daniel Rose

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available FluxVisualizer (Version 1.0, 2017, freely available at https://fluxvisualizer.ibgc.cnrs.fr is a software to visualize fluxes values on a scalable vector graphic (SVG representation of a metabolic network by colouring or increasing the width of reaction arrows of the SVG file. FluxVisualizer does not aim to draw metabolic networks but to use a customer’s SVG file allowing him to exploit his representation standards with a minimum of constraints. FluxVisualizer is especially suitable for small to medium size metabolic networks, where a visual representation of the fluxes makes sense. The flux distribution can either be an elementary flux mode (EFM, a flux balance analysis (FBA result or any other flux distribution. It allows the automatic visualization of a series of pathways of the same network as is needed for a set of EFMs. The software is coded in python3 and provides a graphical user interface (GUI and an application programming interface (API. All functionalities of the program can be used from the API and the GUI and allows advanced users to add their own functionalities. The software is able to work with various formats of flux distributions (Metatool, CellNetAnalyzer, COPASI and FAME export files as well as with Excel files. This simple software can save a lot of time when evaluating fluxes simulations on a metabolic network.

  4. Data Visualization and Infographics In Visual Communication Design Education at The Age of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Inanc Uyan Dur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technologic developments in the last century facilitate people’s lives while also causing them to face more information. Information design has become much more important as a result of the chaos created by the unprocessed heap of data and information traffic. Therefore, people need designed information like infographics and data visualisation today. Design of information, which is among the most significant requirements of our age, has become a subject which needs to be dealt with more systematically in the education of visual communication design. Visual design of information and data is important not only for increasing perceptibility but also revealing the patterns within complex information, and being educative, persuasive and guiding depending on the content and objective. In this sense, incorporating data visualization and infographics works into the education of visual communication design would have significant contributions to train designers with sufficient qualification to meet the requirements of today’s world. This study examines the current/potential expansion of data visualization and infographics in the education of visual communication design  at the age of information. With respect to students, it deals with its effects to the design method, process and perception and its contributions to the multidisciplinary design approach.

  5. Visual recovery and predictors of visual prognosis after managing traumatic cataracts in 555 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the visual recovery after managing traumatic cataracts and determine the predictors of a better visual prognosis. This was a prospective study. We enrolled patients with specific inclusion criteria, examined their eyes to review the comorbidities due to trauma, performed surgery for traumatic cataracts, and implanted lenses. The patients were reexamined 6 weeks postoperatively. We divided the cases of traumatic cataract into two groups, the "open globe" (Group 1 and "closed globe" (Group 2 groups, according to the ocular trauma based on the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and compared the determinants of visual acuity. Our cohort of 555 eyes with traumatic cataracts included 394 eyes in Group 1 and 161 in Group 2. Six weeks postoperatively, the visual acuity in the operated eye was >20/60 in 193 (48% and 49 (29% eyes in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.002, ANOVA. At follow-up, >20/60 vision was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (OR = 1.61; 95% CI, 0.85-3.02. Overall 242 (43.5% eyes gained a final visual acuity of >20/60. Open globe injury has a favorable prognosis for satisfactory (>20/60 visual recovery after the management of traumatic cataracts.

  6. Language as the visual: Exploring the intersection of linguistic and visual language in manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarla Unser-Schutz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In manga studies, a distinction is made between linguistic text (language and visual language. However, because linguistic text is mediated by visual structures, there is a a tendency to assume that it is a secondary element. I would argue, however, that examination of both languages might give a better idea of how manga functions, and start that process here by looking at two manga text types: handwritten lines, thoughts and authorial comments. Visually differentiated from other texts, and more common in series for girls (shōjo-manga, I compare them with Ōtsuka's (1994 highly-visual monologues from 1970s/1980s shōjo-manga, and demonstrate similarities to Takeuchi's (2005 mediator and spectator characters, and argue that these texts offer a sense of closeness to authors while also visually-coding data in terms of relevance. While non-essential secondary text, their visual-encoding offers a space of dynamic interpretation, with readerships able to ignore or read them as per their needs.

  7. A new visual stimulation program for improving visual acuity in children with visual impairment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting eTsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation for improving the visual acuity (VA of visually impaired (VI children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (3 females, 3 males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week of at least 8 sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards, visual evoked potential (VEP, and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training (VA=1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z=-2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed =0.028. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment (92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ± SD=15.4, Z=-1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed = 0.144. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  8. Information-Limited Parallel Processing in Difficult Heterogeneous Covert Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosher, Barbara Anne; Han, Songmei; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Difficult visual search is often attributed to time-limited serial attention operations, although neural computations in the early visual system are parallel. Using probabilistic search models (Dosher, Han, & Lu, 2004) and a full time-course analysis of the dynamics of covert visual search, we distinguish unlimited capacity parallel versus serial…

  9. Posterior cortical atrophy - a prototypical case of dementia beginning with visual symptoms: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Caixeta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia presenting with prominent higher order visual symptoms may be observed in a range of neurodegenerative conditions and is often challenging to diagnose. We describe a case of progressive dementia presenting with prominent visual cortical symptoms. A 55-year-old, right-handed, woman with early onset of visual impairment not associated with anterior visual pathology, presenting with dyslexia, visual agnosia, Balint's syndrome, and spatial disorientation. Ophthalmologists should consider this condition especially in presenile patients with slowly progressive higher-order visual symptoms. Although described in association with different conditions, it may also occur in Alzheimer disease.

  10. The Development of Visual Sociology: A view from the inside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Harper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflection by one of the founding members of the IVSA (International Visual Sociology Association about the events, ideas, social trends and revolutions within sociology that contributed to development of visual sociology. In 2016 the IVSA entered its 34th year and the author has been a participant in the organization for its full duration. The paper details the importance of documentary photography in the early era of visual sociology. During this era key papers by Howard Becker contributed to the intellectual movement’s original intellectual definition and created a pedagogical model that has served as a model for teaching visual sociology to this day. Moving from visual sociology as a method based on black and white photography, the discipline embraced and developed collaborative methods including photo elicitation and photovoice. A parallel track of visual sociology focused on the analysis of the visual dimension of society, drawing on semiotics and cultural studies. More recently visual sociology has begun to explore the rapidly changing meaning and social function of photographic imagery, as cameras and images have become ubiquitous in the cell phone era.

  11. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  12. Neuron analysis of visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The receptive fields of single cells in the visual system of cat and squirrel monkey were studied investigating the vestibular input affecting the cells, and the cell's responses during visual discrimination learning process. The receptive field characteristics of the rabbit visual system, its normal development, its abnormal development following visual deprivation, and on the structural and functional re-organization of the visual system following neo-natal and prenatal surgery were also studied. The results of each individual part of each investigation are detailed.

  13. Image quality evaluation of full reference algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nannan; Xie, Kai; Li, Tong; Ye, Yushan

    2018-03-01

    Image quality evaluation is a classic research topic, the goal is to design the algorithm, given the subjective feelings consistent with the evaluation value. This paper mainly introduces several typical reference methods of Mean Squared Error(MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Rate(PSNR), Structural Similarity Image Metric(SSIM) and feature similarity(FSIM) of objective evaluation methods. The different evaluation methods are tested by Matlab, and the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are obtained by analyzing and comparing them.MSE and PSNR are simple, but they are not considered to introduce HVS characteristics into image quality evaluation. The evaluation result is not ideal. SSIM has a good correlation and simple calculation ,because it is considered to the human visual effect into image quality evaluation,However the SSIM method is based on a hypothesis,The evaluation result is limited. The FSIM method can be used for test of gray image and color image test, and the result is better. Experimental results show that the new image quality evaluation algorithm based on FSIM is more accurate.

  14. Man-machine interface versus full automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, V.

    1984-01-01

    As accelerators grow in size and complexity of operation there is an increasing economical as well as an operational incentive for the controls and operations teams to use computers to help the man-machine interface. At first the computer network replaced the traditional controls racks filled with knobs, buttons and digital displays of voltages and potentiometer readings. The computer system provided the operator with the extension of his hands and eyes. It was quickly found that much more could be achieved. Where previously it was necessary for the human operator to decide the order of the actions to be executed by the computer as a result of a visual indication of malfunctioning of the accelerator, now the operation is becoming more and more under the direct control of the computer system. Expert knowledge is programmed into the system to help the non-specialist make decision and to safeguard the equipment. Machine physics concepts have been incorporated and critical machine parameters can be optimised easily by the physicists or operators without any detailed knowledge of the intervening medium or of the equipment being controlled. As confidence grows and reliability improves, more and more automation can be added. How far can this process of automation replace the skilled operator. Can the accelerators of tomorrow be run like the ever increasing robotic assembly plants of today. How is the role of the operator changing in this new environment

  15. Effects of visual priming on taste-odor interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of visual characteristics other than colour on flavor perception, and the complex interactions between more than two sensory modalities. This study focused on the effects of recognizability of visual (texture information on flavor perception of odorized sweet beverages. Participants rated the perceived sweetness of odorized sucrose solutions in the presence or absence of either a congruent or incongruent visual context. Odors were qualitatively reminiscent of sweet foods (strawberry and caramel or not (savoury. Visual context was either an image of the same sweet foods (figurative context or a visual texture derived from this product (non-figurative context. Textures were created using a texture synthesis method that preserved perceived food qualities while removing object information. Odor-taste combinations were rated sweeter within a figurative than a non-figurative context. This behaviour was exhibited for all odor-taste combinations, even in trials without images, indicating sustained priming by figurative visual context. A non-figurative context showed a transient sweetening effect. Sweetness was generally enhanced most by the strawberry odor. We conclude that the degree of recognizability of visual information (figurative versus non-figurative, influences flavor perception differently. Our results suggest that this visual context priming is mediated by separate sustained and transient processes that are differently evoked by figurative and non-figurative visual contexts. These components operate independent of the congruency of the image-odor-taste combinations.

  16. No counterpart of visual perceptual echoes in the auditory system.

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    Barkın İlhan

    Full Text Available It has been previously demonstrated by our group that a visual stimulus made of dynamically changing luminance evokes an echo or reverberation at ~10 Hz, lasting up to a second. In this study we aimed to reveal whether similar echoes also exist in the auditory modality. A dynamically changing auditory stimulus equivalent to the visual stimulus was designed and employed in two separate series of experiments, and the presence of reverberations was analyzed based on reverse correlations between stimulus sequences and EEG epochs. The first experiment directly compared visual and auditory stimuli: while previous findings of ~10 Hz visual echoes were verified, no similar echo was found in the auditory modality regardless of frequency. In the second experiment, we tested if auditory sequences would influence the visual echoes when they were congruent or incongruent with the visual sequences. However, the results in that case similarly did not reveal any auditory echoes, nor any change in the characteristics of visual echoes as a function of audio-visual congruence. The negative findings from these experiments suggest that brain oscillations do not equivalently affect early sensory processes in the visual and auditory modalities, and that alpha (8-13 Hz oscillations play a special role in vision.

  17. Enhancing Assisted Living Technology with Extended Visual Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hwee Lim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human vision and memory are powerful cognitive faculties by which we understand the world. However, they are imperfect and further, subject to deterioration with age. We propose a cognitive-inspired computational model, Extended Visual Memory (EVM, within the Computer-Aided Vision (CAV framework, to assist human in vision-related tasks. We exploit wearable sensors such as cameras, GPS and ambient computing facilities to complement a user's vision and memory functions by answering four types of queries central to visual activities, namely, Retrieval, Understanding, Navigation and Search. Learning of EVM relies on both frequency-based and attention-driven mechanisms to store view-based visual fragments (VF, which are abstracted into high-level visual schemas (VS, both in the visual long-term memory. During inference, the visual short-term memory plays a key role in visual similarity computation between input (or its schematic representation and VF, exemplified from VS when necessary. We present an assisted living scenario, termed EViMAL (Extended Visual Memory for Assisted Living, targeted at mild dementia patients to provide novel functions such as hazard-warning, visual reminder, object look-up and event review. We envisage EVM having the potential benefits in alleviating memory loss, improving recall precision and enhancing memory capacity through external support.

  18. Visual Saliency Models for Text Detection in Real World.

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    Renwu Gao

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the degree of saliency of texts in natural scenes using visual saliency models. A large scale scene image database with pixel level ground truth is created for this purpose. Using this scene image database and five state-of-the-art models, visual saliency maps that represent the degree of saliency of the objects are calculated. The receiver operating characteristic curve is employed in order to evaluate the saliency of scene texts, which is calculated by visual saliency models. A visualization of the distribution of scene texts and non-texts in the space constructed by three kinds of saliency maps, which are calculated using Itti's visual saliency model with intensity, color and orientation features, is given. This visualization of distribution indicates that text characters are more salient than their non-text neighbors, and can be captured from the background. Therefore, scene texts can be extracted from the scene images. With this in mind, a new visual saliency architecture, named hierarchical visual saliency model, is proposed. Hierarchical visual saliency model is based on Itti's model and consists of two stages. In the first stage, Itti's model is used to calculate the saliency map, and Otsu's global thresholding algorithm is applied to extract the salient region that we are interested in. In the second stage, Itti's model is applied to the salient region to calculate the final saliency map. An experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed model outperforms Itti's model in terms of captured scene texts.

  19. Differential effects of visual feedback on subjective visual vertical accuracy and precision.

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    Daniel Bjasch

    Full Text Available The brain constructs an internal estimate of the gravitational vertical by integrating multiple sensory signals. In darkness, systematic head-roll dependent errors in verticality estimates, as measured by the subjective visual vertical (SVV, occur. We hypothesized that visual feedback after each trial results in increased accuracy, as physiological adjustment errors (A-/E-effect are likely based on central computational mechanisms and investigated whether such improvements were related to adaptational shifts of perceived vertical or to a higher cognitive strategy. We asked 12 healthy human subjects to adjust a luminous arrow to vertical in various head-roll positions (0 to 120deg right-ear down, 15deg steps. After each adjustment visual feedback was provided (lights on, display of previous adjustment and of an earth-vertical cross. Control trials consisted of SVV adjustments without feedback. At head-roll angles with the largest A-effect (90, 105, and 120deg, errors were reduced significantly (p0.05 influenced. In seven subjects an additional session with two consecutive blocks (first with, then without visual feedback was completed at 90, 105 and 120deg head-roll. In these positions the error-reduction by the previous visual feedback block remained significant over the consecutive 18-24 min (post-feedback block, i.e., was still significantly (p<0.002 different from the control trials. Eleven out of 12 subjects reported having consciously added a bias to their perceived vertical based on visual feedback in order to minimize errors. We conclude that improvements of SVV accuracy by visual feedback, which remained effective after removal of feedback for ≥18 min, rather resulted from a cognitive strategy than by adapting the internal estimate of the gravitational vertical. The mechanisms behind the SVV therefore, remained stable, which is also supported by the fact that SVV precision - depending mostly on otolith input - was not affected by visual

  20. Audio-visual interactions uniquely contribute to resolution of visual conflict in people possessing absolute pitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch. During test trials lasting just over half a minute, participants dichoptically viewed a scrolling musical score presented to one eye and a drifting sinusoidal grating presented to the other eye; throughout the trial they pressed buttons to track the alternations in visual awareness produced by these dissimilar monocular stimuli. On "pitch-congruent" trials, participants heard an auditory melody that was congruent in pitch with the visual score, on "pitch-incongruent" trials they heard a transposed auditory melody that was congruent with the score in melody but not in pitch, and on "melody-incongruent" trials they heard an auditory melody completely different from the visual score. For both groups, the visual musical scores predominated over the gratings when the auditory melody was congruent compared to when it was incongruent. Moreover, the AP participants experienced greater predominance of the visual score when it was accompanied by the pitch-congruent melody compared to the same melody transposed in pitch; for non-AP musicians, pitch-congruent and pitch-incongruent trials yielded equivalent predominance. Analysis of individual durations of dominance revealed differential effects on dominance and suppression durations for AP and non-AP participants. These results reveal that AP is accompanied by a robust form of bisensory interaction between tonal frequencies and musical notation that boosts